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Sample records for early maternal separation

  1. Prolonged maternal separation disturbs the serotonergic system during early brain development.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Ken-Ichi; Miki, Takanori; Warita, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Kusaka, Takashi; Yakura, Tomiko; Liu, Jun-Qian; Tamai, Motoki; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2014-04-01

    Early life stress interrupts brain development through the disturbance of various neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factor activities, but the details remain unclear. In the current study, we focused on the serotonergic system, which plays a critical role in brain development, and examined the time-dependent influence of prolonged maternal separation on male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were separated from their dams for 3h twice-daily during postnatal days (PDs) 2-20. The influence of prolonged maternal separation was analyzed on PDs 7, 14, 21, and 28 using HPLC to assess concentrations of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and using real-time RT-PCR to measure mRNA expression of the serotonin 1A and 2A receptors in various brain regions. HPLC revealed imbalance between serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in midbrain raphe nuclei, the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on PDs 7 and 14. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR showed attenuation of mRNA expression of the serotonin 1A receptor in the hippocampus and the mPFC and of the serotonin 2A receptor only in the mPFC on PDs 7 and 14. The observed alterations returned to control levels after maternal separation ended. These findings suggest that the early life stress of prolonged maternal separation disturbs the serotonergic system during a crucial period of brain development, which might in part be responsible for emotional abnormalities later in life. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early maternal separation induces preference for sucrose and aspartame associated with increased blood glucose and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Aya-Ramos, L; Contreras-Vargas, C; Rico, J L; Dueñas, Z

    2017-07-19

    Early life stress and exposure to sweeteners lead to physiological and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Nevertheless, many genetic and environmental factors as well as the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of these disorders are not fully understood. Similarly, evidence about the long-term metabolic effects of exposure to sweeteners in early life is limited and inconsistent. This study used an animal model of maternal separation during breastfeeding (MS) to analyze the effects of early life stress on consumption of sweeteners, weight gain, blood glucose and locomotion. Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7:00 h) with ad libitum access to water and food. In the MS protocol, MS pups were separated from the dam for 6 h per day in two periods of 180 minutes (7:00-10:00 and 13:00-16:00 h) during the dark phase of postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 21. Non-separated (NS) pups served as controls. On PND 22 rats were grouped by sex and treatment. From PND 26 to PND 50 sucrose and aspartame were provided to rats, and sweetener intake, body weight and blood glucose-related measures were scored. On PND 50, both male and female rats were exposed to the open field test to obtain locomotion and anxiety-related measures. Results showed that both early maternal separation and sweetener intake during adolescence resulted in increased blood glucose and hyperactivity in male rats but not in female rats. Data suggest that the combination of early stress and exposure to sucrose and aspartame could be a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, as well as for behavioral alterations.

  3. Maternal separation with early weaning: A rodent model providing novel insights into neglect associated developmental deficits

    PubMed Central

    CARLYLE, BECKY C.; DUQUE, ALVARO; KITCHEN, ROBERT R.; BORDNER, KELLY A.; COMAN, DANIEL; DOOLITTLE, ELIZA; PAPADEMETRIS, XENOPHONIOS; HYDER, FAHMEED; TAYLOR, JANE R.; SIMEN, ARTHUR A.

    2013-01-01

    Child neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment in the United States, and poses a serious public health concern. Children who survive such episodes go on to experience long-lasting psychological and behavioral problems, including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression, alcohol and drug abuse, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and cognitive deficits. To date, most research into the causes of these life-long problems has focused on well-established targets such as stress responsive systems, including the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis. Using the maternal separation and early weaning model, we have attempted to provide comprehensive molecular profiling of a model of early-life neglect in an organism amenable to genomic manipulation: the mouse. In this article, we report new findings generated with this model using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, diffuse tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral analyses. We also review the validity of the maternal separation and early weaning model, which reflects behavioral deficits observed in neglected humans including hyperactivity, anxiety, and attentional deficits. Finally, we summarize the molecular characterization of these animals, including RNA profiling and label-free proteomics, which highlight protein translation and myelination as novel pathways of interest. PMID:23062306

  4. Effects of maternal separation, early handling, and gonadal sex on regional metabolic capacity of the preweanling rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Spivey, Jaclyn M.; Padilla, Eimeira; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the effects of mother-infant separation on regional metabolic capacity in the preweanling rat brain. Mother-infant separation is generally known to be stressful for rat pups. Holtzman adolescent rats show a depressive-like behavioral phenotype after maternal separation during the preweanling period. However, information is lacking on the effects of maternal separation on the brains of rat pups. We addressed this issue by mapping the brains of preweanling Holtzman rat pups using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, which reflects long-term changes in brain metabolic capacity, following two weeks of repeated, prolonged maternal separation, and compared this to both early handled and non-handled pups. Quantitative image analysis revealed that maternal separation reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell. Maternal separation reduced prefrontal cytochrome oxidase to a greater degree in female pups than in males. Early handling reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the posterior parietal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and subiculum, but increased cytochrome oxidase activity in the lateral frontal cortex. The sex-dependent effects of early handling on cytochrome oxidase activity were limited to the medial prefrontal cortex. Regardless of separation group, females had greater cytochrome oxidase activity in the habenula and ventral tegmental area compared to males. These findings suggest that early life mother-infant separation results in dysfunction of prefrontal and mesolimbic regions in the preweanling rat brain that may contribute to behavioral changes later in life. PMID:20969837

  5. Early handling, but not maternal separation, decreases emotional responses in two paradigms of fear without changes in mesolimbic dopamine.

    PubMed

    Madruga, Clarice; Xavier, Léder L; Achaval, Matilde; Sanvitto, Gilberto L; Lucion, Aldo B

    2006-01-30

    This study aimed at identifying the effects of neonatal handling (H) and maternal separation (MS) on two paradigms of fear, learned and innate, and on the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive cells in adult life. Wistar rats were daily handled with a brief maternal separation, maternal separated for 3 h or left undisturbed during the first 10 days of life. Behavioural responses in the open-field (innate fear) and conditioned fear (learned fear) were evaluated. Moreover, a semi-quantitative analysis of TH immunoreactivity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) was performed using optical densitometry and confirmed by planar measurements of neuronal density. Early handling decreased behaviour responses of innate and learned fear in adult life, while maternal separation had no significant long-lasting effect on these responses compared to the non-handled group. The behavioural effects of early handling could not be explained by changes in the density of midbrain dopaminergic cells, which were not affected by handling or maternal separation.

  6. Prolonged maternal separation attenuates BDNF-ERK signaling correlated with spine formation in the hippocampus during early brain development.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Shingo; Warita, Katsuhiko; Kaji, Tomohiro; Kusaka, Takashi; Miki, Takanori

    2017-04-01

    Maternal separation (MS) is known to affect hippocampal function such as learning and memory, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that these impairments are attributed to abnormities of neural circuit formation by MS, and focused on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as key factor because BDNF signaling has an essential role in synapse formation during early brain development. Using rat offspring exposed to MS for 6 h/day during postnatal days (PD) 2-20, we estimated BDNF signaling in the hippocampus during brain development. Our results show that MS attenuated BDNF expression and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) around PD 7. Moreover, plasticity-related immediate early genes, which are transcriptionally regulated by BDNF-ERK signaling, were also reduced by MS around PD 7. Interestingly, detailed analysis revealed that MS particularly reduced expression of BDNF gene and immediate early genes in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of hippocampus at PD 7. Considering that BDNF-ERK signaling is involved in spine formation, we next evaluated spine formation in the hippocampus during the weaning period. Our results show that MS particularly reduced mature spine density in proximal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons at PD 21. These results suggest that MS could attenuate BDNF-ERK signaling during primary synaptogenesis with a region-specific manner, which is likely to lead to decreased spine formation and maturation observed in the hippocampal CA1 region. It is speculated that this incomplete spine formation during early brain development has an influence on learning capabilities throughout adulthood. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp; Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved bymore » separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.« less

  8. How does early maternal separation and chronic stress in adult rats affect the immunoreactivity of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus?

    PubMed

    Pollano, Antonella; Trujillo, Verónica; Suárez, Marta M

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h between postnatal days (PND) 1-21, or to animal facility rearing (AFR). Between (PND) days 50-74, rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress and were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. We found an interaction between the effects of MS and chronic unpredictable stress on Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells at mid-caudal level of the DR. MS-chronically stressed rats showed an increase of Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells compared with AFR-chronically stressed rats. The ventrolateral (DRL/VLPAG) and dorsal (DRD) subdivisions of the DR were significantly more active than the ventral part (DRV). At the rostral level of the DR, tianeptine decreased the number of Fos-5HT cells in DR in the AFR groups, both unstressed and stressed. Overall, our results support the idea of a match in phenotype exhibited when the early and the adult environment correspond.

  9. Why Recruits Separate Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  10. Early maternal separation followed by later stressors leads to dysregulation of the HPA-axis and increases in hippocampal NGF and NT-3 levels in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Faure, Jacqueline; Uys, Joachim D K; Marais, Lelanie; Stein, Dan J; Daniels, Willie M U

    2006-09-01

    Early adverse life events, followed by subsequent stressors, appear to increase susceptibility for subsequent onset of psychiatric disorders in humans. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon remain unclear, but dysregulation of the HPA axis and alterations in neurotrophic factors have been implicated. The present study investigated the effects in rodents of early maternal separation, followed by stress in adolescence and adulthood on later HPA-axis activity and hippocampal neurotrophin levels (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin-3). Animals subjected to repeated stressors showed a significant decrease in basal ACTH (p < 0.05) and CORT (p < 0.05) levels when compared to controls, as well as significantly increased levels of NGF in the dorsal (p < 0.001) and ventral hippocampus (p < 0.01), and of NT-3 in the dorsal hippocampus (p < 0.01). Dysregulation of the HPA axis after multiple stressors is consistent with previous preclinical and clinical work. Given that neurotrophins are important in neuronal survival and plasticity, it is possible to speculate that their elevation reflects a compensatory mechanism.

  11. Maternal separation in early life modifies anxious behavior and Fos and glucocorticoid receptor expression in limbic neurons after chronic stress in rats: effects of tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Verónica; Durando, Patricia E; Suárez, Marta M

    2016-01-01

    Early-life adversity can lead to long-term consequence persisting into adulthood. Here, we assess the implications of an adverse early environment on vulnerability to stress during adulthood. We hypothesized that the interplay between early and late stress would result in a differential phenotype regarding the number of neurons immunoreactive for glucocorticoid receptor (GR-ir) and neuronal activity as assessed by Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in brain areas related to stress responses and anxiety-like behavior. We also expected that the antidepressant tianeptine could correct some of the alterations induced in our model. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h during the first 3 weeks of life. As adults, the rats were exposed to chronic stress for 24 d and they were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or vehicle (isotonic saline). Fos-ir was increased by MS in all structures analyzed. Chronic stress reduced Fos-ir in the hippocampus, but increased it in the paraventricular nucleus. Furthermore, chronic stress increased GR-ir in hippocampus (CA1) and amygdala in control non-MS rats. By contrast, when MS and chronic stress were combined, GR-ir was decreased in these structures. Additionally, whereas tianeptine did not affect Fos-ir, it regulated GR-ir in a region-dependent manner, in hippocampus and amygdala opposing in some cases the stress or MS effects. Furthermore, tianeptine reversed the MS- or stress-induced anxious behavior. The interplay between MS and chronic stress observed indicates that MS rats have a modified phenotype, which is expressed when they are challenged by stress in later life.

  12. Immunological Consequences of Maternal Separation in Infant Primates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Christopher L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports recent studies which establish that maternal separation and early rearing conditions can influence the development and expression of immune responses of the primate infant. Current findings extend an earlier finding on alterations in lymphocyte proliferation responses to a number of other immune parameters. (NH)

  13. Maternal separation and early stress cause long-lasting effects on dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and alters dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Romano-López, Antonio; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; García, Fabio García; Regalado-Santiago, Citlalli; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    A considerable amount experimental studies have shown that maternal separation (MS) is associated with adult offspring abnormal behavior and cognition disorder. Accordingly, this experimental procedure has been proposed as a predictor for alcohol and drug dependence based on the neurodevelopmental soon after birth. Endocannabinoid system (eCBs) has been implicated in reward processes, including drug abuse and dependence. MS and associated stress causes changes in the eCBs that seem to facilitate alcohol consumption. In this study, we seek to evaluate potential morphological changes in neurons of the frontal cortex (FCx) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in the expression of receptors and enzymes of the endocannabinoid and dopamine systems and in second messengers, such as Akt, in adult rats subjected to MS and early stress (MS + ES; 2 × 180 min daily) vs. nonseparated rats (NMS). Results showed that MS + ES induces higher D2R expression and lower D3R, FAAH, and MAGL expression compared with NMS rats. Alterations in total dendritic length were also detected and were characterized by increases in the NAcc while there were decreases in the FCx. We believe MS + ES-induced changes in the dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and in the neuronal microstructure might be contributing to alcohol seeking behavior and, potential vulnerability to other drugs in rats. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 819-831, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of neonatal allopregnanolone manipulations and early maternal separation on adult alcohol intake and monoamine levels in ventral striatum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Changes in endogenous neonatal levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AlloP) as well as a single 24h period of early maternal separation (EMS) on postnatal day (PND) 9 affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS), causing adolescent/adult alterations including systems and behavioural traits that could be related to vulnerability to drug abuse. In rats, some behavioural alterations caused by EMS can be neutralised by previous administration of AlloP. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP could increase adult alcohol consumption, and if EMS could change these effects. We administered AlloP or finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, from PND5 to PND9, followed by 24h of EMS at PND9. At PND70 we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 15days. Ventral striatum samples were obtained to determine monoamine levels. Results revealed that neonatal finasteride increased both ethanol and glucose consumption, and AlloP increased alcohol intake compared with neonatal vehicle-injected animals. The differences between neonatal groups in alcohol consumption were not found in EMS animals. In accordance, both finasteride and AlloP animals that did not suffer EMS showed lower levels of dopamine and serotonin in ventral striatum. Taken together, these results reveal that neonatal neurosteroids alterations affect alcohol intake; an effect which can be modified by subsequent EMS. Thus, these data corroborate the importance of the relationship between neonatal neurosteroids and neonatal stress for the correct CNS development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal concerns during early parenthood.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, M

    2007-11-01

    Most research on maternal concerns has focused on their assessment during pregnancy and the early post-partum period. The aim of this study was to identify primary concerns of mothers later in the first post-partum year, changes over time, and factors that were associated with relatively intense concerns, including infant (difficult) temperament, hours employed out of the home and obstetrical complications during pregnancy or childbirth. Data were obtained from 366 first-time (Israeli) mothers at 3 and 6 months post-partum by employing a new tool, the Mothers' Concern Questionnaire, along with standardized questionnaires, administered by phone. Analyses revealed six dimensions of concerns (Family Health, Return to Work, Mother's Well-being, Relationships/Support, Infant Care, and Spouse). Of these, issues related to returning to work and family health were of most concern, and ratings were higher at 3 months than at 6 months post-partum. Women with higher-than-average total concern scores perceived their infant as more difficult, were more likely to have experienced an obstetric complication, and worked more hours out of the house than women with lower-than-average scores. The findings afford a first look at the profile of normative maternal concerns outside of the immediate post-partum period and identify factors that predict more intense concerns. These findings extend what we know about the issues of new mothers and can guide birth educators and help couples prepare themselves for parenthood.

  16. Why are maternally separated females inflexible? Brain activity pattern of COx and c-Fos.

    PubMed

    Banqueri, María; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2018-06-15

    Subjects' early life events will affect them later in life. When these events are stressful, such as child abuse in humans or repeated maternal separation in rodents, subjects can show some behavioral and brain alterations. This study used young adult female Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), in order to assess the effects of maternal separation (MS) on spatial learning and memory, as well as cognitive flexibility, using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). We performed quantitative cytochrome oxidase (COx) histochemistry on selected brain areas in order to identify whether maternal separation affects brain energy metabolism. We also performed c-Fos immunohistochemistry on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), thalamus, and hippocampus to explore whether this immediate early gene activity was altered in stressed subjects. We obtained a similar spatial learning pattern in maternally raised and maternally separated subjects on the reference memory task, but only the controls were flexible enough to solve the reversal learning successfully. Separated groups showed less c-Fos activity in the mPFC and less complex neural networks on COx. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels?

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, E; Barrett, E; Grenham, S; Fitzgerald, P; Stanton, C; Ross, R P; Quigley, E M M; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G

    2011-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is of interest because of its putative role in stress and psychiatric disorders. Maternal separation is used as an animal model of early-life stress and of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Animals exposed to the paradigm show altered gut function together with heightened levels of arousal and corticosterone. Some probiotic organisms have been shown to be of benefit in IBS and influence the brain-gut axis. Our objective was to investigate the effects of maternal separation on BDNF under basal conditions and in response to the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve 6330. The study implemented the maternal separation model which we have previously described. Polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation were performed to measure the effect of maternal separation on both BDNF total variants and BDNF splice variant (exon) IV in the hippocampus. Maternally separated and non-separated rats were treated with B. breve 6330, to investigate the effect of this probiotic on BDNF total variant and BDNF exon IV expression. Maternal separation increased BDNF total variants (P<0.01), whilst having no effect on BDNF exon IV. B. breve 6330 increased BDNF total variants (P<0.01), and decreased BDNF splice variant IV, in non-separated rats (P<0.01). B. breve 6330 did not alter BDNF levels in the maternally separated rats. Maternal separation caused a marked increase in BDNF in the hippocampus. While B. breve 6330 influenced BDNF in normal animals, it had no significant effect on BDNF in those which were maternally separated. We have demonstrated that an orally administered probiotic can influence hippocampal BDNF.

  18. Early-pregnancy maternal vitamin D status and maternal hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Tomedi, L E; Simhan, H N; Bodnar, L M

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and maternal hyperglycaemia (post-load glucose concentration ≥ 7.5 mmol/l). Pregnant women (n = 429; 61% black, 36% obese, 45% smokers) enrolled in a cohort study at <16 weeks gestation. Non-fasting blood samples were assayed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at enrolment. At 24-28 weeks gestation, maternal hyperglycaemia was determined using a 50-g 1-h oral glucose challenge test. A total of 67% of women had 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations < 50 nmol/l and 11% had maternal hyperglycaemia. Among smokers, each 23-nmol/l increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was associated with a reduction in the odds of maternal hyperglycaemia [odds ratio: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.68)] after adjustment for parity, race/ethnicity, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, marital status, income, family history of diabetes, and gestational age of gestational diabetes mellitus screening. Among non-smokers, we found no association between early pregnancy vitamin D status and maternal hyperglycaemia. Smoking status may modify the relationship between poor maternal vitamin D status and maternal hyperglycaemia. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  19. Effects of maternal separation on the neurobehavioral development of newborn Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Jozsef; Reglodi, Dora; Gaszner, Balazs; Szogyi, Donat; Horvath, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Tamas, Andrea; Frank, Falko; Besirevic, Dario; Kiss, Peter

    2009-05-29

    Animal models of neonatal stress, like maternal separation, may provide important correlation with human stress-related disorders. Early maternal deprivation has been shown to cause several short- and long-term neurochemical and behavioral deficits. Little is known about the early neurobehavioral development after postnatal stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of reflexes and motor coordination in male and female pups subjected to maternal deprivation. Pups were removed from their mothers from postnatal day 1-14, for 3h daily. Somatic development (weight gain, eye opening, ear unfolding, incisor eruption) and reflex development was tested during the first 3 weeks. The appearance of the following reflexes was investigated: crossed extensor, grasping, placing, gait, righting and sensory reflexes, and negative geotaxis. Timely performance of negative geotaxis, righting and gait were also tested daily during the first 3 weeks. Motor coordination and open-field tests were performed on postnatal weeks 3-5 (rotarod, elevated grid-walk, footfault, rope suspension, inclined board and walk initiation tests). The results revealed that a 3-h-long daily maternal separation did not lead to a marked delay or enhancement in reflex development and motor coordination. A subtle enhancement was observed in the appearance of hindlimb grasp and gait reflexes, and a better performance in footfault test in male rats suffering from maternal deprivation. In contrast, female maternally deprived (MD) rats displayed a slight delay in forelimb grasp and air righting reflex appearance, and surface righting performance. Open-field activity was not changed in maternally deprived rats. In summary, our present observations indicate that maternal deprivation does not induce drastic changes in early neurodevelopment, therefore, further research is needed to determine the onset of behavioral alterations in subject with maternal deprivation history. Gender differences

  20. Parent-Child Separation: A Comparison of Maternally and Paternally Separated Children in Military Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite, Larry W.; Mays, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that children of parents in the military services have adapted to parental separation as parents balance the demands of family and job responsibility. Compares the psychosocial functioning of children who have experienced extended maternal separation with that exhibited by children who have separated from their fathers. Addresses…

  1. Maternal Separation Does Not Produce a Significant Behavioral Change in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shawn; Ho, Hin San; Song, Anna Yoonsu; Low, Joey

    2017-01-01

    Early life adversities together with genetic predispositions have been associated with elevated risks of neuropsychiatric disorders during later life. In order to investigate the underlying mechanisms, many chronic, early-life stress paradigms in multiple animal models have been developed. Previously, studies reported that maternal separation (MS) in the early postnatal stages triggers depression-and/or anxiety-like behaviors in rats. However, similar studies using mice have reported inconsistent behavioral outcomes. In this study, we sought to assess behavioral outcomes from two different early-life stress paradigms; a conventional 3-hour MS and a maternal separation with early weaning (MSEW) paradigm using C57BL/6J male mice with independent cohorts. Our data demonstrated that both MS and MSEW paradigms did not produce reported behavioral anomalies. Therefore, MS paradigms in mice require further validation and modification. PMID:29302206

  2. Early Mother-Child Separation, Parenting, and Child Well-Being in Early Head Start Families

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Kimberly; Martin, Anne; Berlin, Lisa J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on theories of attachment and family instability, this study examined associations between early mother-child separation and subsequent maternal parenting behaviors and children’s outcomes in a sample of 2080 families who participated in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, the vast majority of whom were poor. Multiple regression models revealed that, controlling for baseline family and maternal characteristics and indicators of family instability, the occurrence of a mother-child separation of a week or longer within the first two years of life was related to higher levels of child negativity (at age 3) and aggression (at ages 3 and 5). The effect of separation on child aggression at age 5 was mediated by aggression at age 3, suggesting that the effects of separation on children’s aggressive behavior are early and persistent. PMID:21240692

  3. Maternal bacteremia and the Irish maternity early warning system.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Patrick J; O'Higgins, Amy C; Power, Karen A; Daly, Niamh; McKeating, Aoife; Turner, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    To assess whether introduction of the Irish maternity early warning system (IMEWS) in 2013 has improved the recording of vital signs among women with proven maternal bacteremia. In a mixed retrospective and prospective study at a single center in Dublin, Ireland, the patient records of all cases of maternal bacteremia between January 1, 2009, and March 31, 2014, were reviewed. The IMEWS chart was applied retrospectively to records of vital signs from January 2009 to March 2013, and prospectively from April 2013 to March 2014. For the 61 cases from the period before IMEWS introduction, vital signs were recorded inconsistently on multiple pages. The frequency of recordings was not standardized. Respiratory rate, in particular, was under-recorded. Among the 17 cases between April 2013 and March 2014 that were eligible for IMEWS chart use, 14 women had vital signs recorded on an IMEWS chart. As compared with the period before IMEWS introduction, there was an improvement in respiratory rate recording as part of the first set of observations. Among pregnant women with proven bacteremia, introduction of IMEWS has been associated with an improvement in the recording of vital signs, particularly respiratory rate. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: an in vivo electrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Womersley, Jacqueline S; Hsieh, Jennifer H; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Gerhardt, Greg A; Russell, Vivienne A

    2011-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT) in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1) in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100) was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of maternal separation impaired the function of striatal

  5. An overview of maternal separation effects on behavioural outcomes in mice: Evidence from a four-stage methodological systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tractenberg, Saulo G; Levandowski, Mateus L; de Azeredo, Lucas Araújo; Orso, Rodrigo; Roithmann, Laura G; Hoffmann, Emerson S; Brenhouse, Heather; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    Early life stress (ELS) developmental effects have been widely studied by preclinical researchers. Despite the growing body of evidence from ELS models, such as the maternal separation paradigm, the reported results have marked inconsistencies. The maternal separation model has several methodological pitfalls that could influence the reliability of its results. Here, we critically review 94 mice studies that addressed the effects of maternal separation on behavioural outcomes. We also discuss methodological issues related to the heterogeneity of separation protocols and the quality of reporting methods. Our findings indicate a lack of consistency in maternal separation effects: major studies of behavioural and biological phenotypes failed to find significant deleterious effects. Furthermore, we identified several specific variations in separation methodological procedures. These methodological variations could contribute to the inconsistency of maternal separation effects by producing different degrees of stress exposure in maternal separation-reared pups. These methodological problems, together with insufficient reporting, might lead to inaccurate and unreliable effect estimates in maternal separation studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Naproxen Attenuates Sensitization of Depressive-Like Behavior and Fever during Maternal Separation

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael B.; Stafford, Nathan P.; Yusko-Osborne, Brittany; Schiml, Patricia A.; Xanthos, Evan D.; Deak, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress can increase susceptibility for later development of depressive illness though a process thought to involve inflammatory mediators. Isolated guinea pig pups exhibit a passive, depressive-like behavioral response and fever that appear mediated by proinflammatory activity, and which sensitize with repeated separations. Treatment with an anti-inflammatory can attenuate the behavioral response during the initial separation and separation the following day. Here we used the cyclooxygenase inhibitor naproxen to examine the role of prostaglandins in mediating the depressive-like behavior and core body temperature of young guinea pigs during an initial separation, separation the next day, and separation 10 days after the first. The passive, depressive-like behavior as well as fever sensitized with repeated separation. Three days of injection with 14 mg/kg of naproxen prior to the initial separation reduced depressive-like behavior during all three separations. A 28 mg/kg dose of naproxen, however, had minimal effect on behavior. Fever during the early separations was moderated by naproxen, but only at the higher dose. These results suggest a role of prostaglandins in the behavioral and febrile response to maternal separation, and particularly in the sensitization of depressive-like behavior following repeated separation. PMID:25449392

  7. Postpartum maternal separation anxiety, overprotective parenting, and children's social-emotional well-being: longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Crawford, Sharinne; Nicholson, Jan M

    2013-08-01

    Postpartum maternal separation anxiety refers to a mothers' experience of worry and concern about leaving her child for short-term separations. The long-term effects of high maternal separation anxiety on maternal parenting behaviors and child outcomes have been not been established empirically. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prospective relationships between maternal separation anxiety during the child's first year of life, and overprotective parenting and children's social and emotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Structural equation modeling with a large representative cohort of Australian mother-child dyads (N = 3,103) indicated that high maternal separation anxiety was associated with more overprotective parenting behaviors and poorer child socioemotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Findings suggest women with high postpartum maternal separation anxiety may sustain this vigilance across the first years following birth, promoting overprotective behaviors, and resulting in increased behavior problems in their children. Support for women around negotiating separation from their children early in parenthood may prevent the establishment of a repertoire of parenting behaviors that includes unnecessarily high vigilance, monitoring, and anxiety about separation. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  8. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  9. Feasibility of maternity protection in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Von Busch, Tammy A; Frazier, Linda M; Sigler, Samantha J; Molgaard, Craig A

    2002-01-01

    Many countries have maternity protection laws for women who need job modification or medical leave during pregnancy. This approach will prevent birth defects only if maternal job changes can be made before the critical period of organogenesis, which begins at three weeks' gestation. The authors studied the gestational ages at which pregnant women working with chemicals, radiation, and noise presented for occupational safety and health consultations. The work setting promoted early presentation because the consultation was free, convenient, mandatory, and would not result in job loss. Among the 213 pregnant women evaluated between 1996 and 2000, most (89.5%) had their occupational safety evaluations in the first trimester. Although this sounds ideal, the mean gestational age at presentation was 7.5 weeks, and only 3.3% of occupational health evaluations were initiated by three weeks' gestation. Environmental and biological monitoring showed that none of the women was exposed over occupational limits. These data suggest that a workplace free from reproductive hazards needs to be provided before conception.

  10. Early zebrafish development: It’s in the maternal genes

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Elliott W.; Mullins, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The earliest stages of embryonic development in all animals examined rely on maternal gene products that are generated during oogenesis and supplied to the egg. The period of maternal control of embryonic development varies among animals according to the onset of zygotic transcription and the persistence of maternal gene products. This maternal regulation has been little studied in vertebrates, due to the difficulty in manipulating maternal gene function and lack of basic molecular information. However, recent maternal-effect screens in the zebrafish have generated more than 40 unique mutants that are providing new molecular entry points to the maternal control of early vertebrate development. Here we discuss recent studies of 12 zebrafish mutant genes that illuminate the maternal molecular controls on embryonic development, including advances in the regulation of animal-vegetal polarity, egg activation, cleavage development, body plan formation, tissue morphogenesis, microRNA function and germ cell development. PMID:19608405

  11. Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall health. However, maternal employment is not associated with quality of parenting at 6 months, based on trained assessors’ observations of maternal sensitivity. PMID:23645972

  12. Few long-term consequences after prolonged maternal separation in female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Klas S. P.; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors during the early-life period are known to have long-term consequences for the adult phenotype. An intimate interplay between genes and environment shape the individual and may affect vulnerability for psychopathology in a sex-dependent manner. A rodent maternal separation model was here used to study the long-term effects of different early-life rearing conditions on adult behavior, HPA axis activity and long-term voluntary alcohol intake in female rats. Litters were subjected to 15 min (MS15) or 360 min (MS360) of daily maternal separation during postnatal day 1–21. In adulthood, the behavioral profiles were investigated using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test or examined for HPA axis reactivity by cat-odor exposure with subsequent characterization of voluntary alcohol intake and associated changes in HPA axis activity. Adult female MS360 offspring showed mostly no, or only minor, effects on behavior, HPA axis reactivity and long-term alcohol intake relative to MS15. Instead, more pronounced effects were found dependent on changes in the natural hormonal cycle or by the choice of animal supplier. However, changes were revealed in corticosterone load after long-term alcohol access, as females subjected to MS360 had higher concentrations of fecal corticosterone. The present findings are in line with and expand on previous studies on the long-term effects of maternal separation in female rats with regard to behavior, HPA axis activity and voluntary alcohol intake. It can also be a window into further studies detailing how early-life experiences interact with other risk and protective factors to impact the adult phenotype and how possible sex differences play a role. PMID:29267376

  13. Maternal Employment and Early Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of maternal employment on use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs by ninth graders (n=48). Comparison of maternal employment patterns (full-time versus part-time versus not employed outside the home) indicated no significant differences in substance use behavior among adolescents. Findings support literature on…

  14. Fluoxetine treatment reverses the intergenerational impact of maternal separation on fear and anxiety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Cao, Jun; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Early life stress increases risks of fear and anxiety related disorders in adulthood, which may be alleviated by fluoxetine treatment. However, the intergenerational impacts of maternal separation (MS) on fear and anxiety behaviors from father to their offspring are little known. And the potential effects of fluoxetine treatment on the intergenerational transmission have not been well tested. Here, we investigated whether fluoxetine can reverse the intergenerational effects of MS on fear and anxiety behaviors. The first generation (F1) male rats were exposed to MS 3 h daily from postnatal day 2-14 and then treated with fluoxetine for four weeks during adulthood before fear conditioning. We found that maternal separation significantly impaired contextual fear extinction in F1 adult male rats but not in their second generation (F2). Although no obvious effects of MS on anxiety were observed in F1 male rats, the F2 offspring displayed a phenotype of low anxiety-like behaviors despite they were reared in normal condition. Fluoxetine treatment in F1 males not only reversed the impairment of fear extinction in F1 males but also the low anxiety-like behaviors in their F2 offspring. These findings highlight the intergenerational impacts of early life stress on fear and anxiety behaviors, and provide a new sight of the intergenerational effect of fluoxetine therapy for early life stress related mental problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal Separation Enhances Neuronal Activation and Cardiovascular Responses to Acute Stress in Borderline Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Brian J.; Anticevic, Alan

    2007-01-01

    There is much evidence suggesting early life events, such has handling or repeated separations from the nest, can have a long term effect on the biological and behavioral development of rats. The current study examined the effect of repeated maternal separation (MS) on the behavioral, cardiovascular, and neurobiological responses to stress in subjects vulnerable to environmental stressors as adults. Borderline hypertensive rats (BHR), which are the first generation offspring of spontaneously hyperternsive and Wistar-Kyoto rats, were separated from the dams for 3 hours per day from post-natal day 1 through 14. Non-separated controls remained in the home cage. When allowed to explore the open field chamber for 60 minutes as adults, MS subjects had significantly greater locomotor activity compared to controls. All subjects were exposed to 30 minutes of restraint stress during which time mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured. Although both groups had comparable increases in MAP, MS animals displayed significantly higher HR throughout the stress period. Finally, MS subjects had significantly more stress-induced Fos positive cells, an estimate of neuronal activation, in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), each of which plays an important role in organizing the biobehavioral response to stress. These results suggest that maternal separation can further enhance stress reactivity in this model and may represent a useful approach for studying the relationship between early life events and future vulnerability to stressful situations. PMID:17604851

  16. Early maternal employment and children's school readiness in contemporary families.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among children generalized to modern families. Using a representative sample of children born in the United States in 2001 (N = 10,100), ordinary least squares regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between maternal employment in the 2 years after childbearing and children's school readiness skills at kindergarten. There were neutral associations between maternal employment and children's school readiness, which were not differentiated by maternal time, stress, or wages. However, as nonmaternal household income decreased, maternal employment begun prior to 9 months was linked with higher cognitive skills, while employment begun between 9 and 24 months was linked with lower conduct problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Early hospital discharge in maternal and newborn care.

    PubMed

    Fink, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the historic precedence of early discharge practices and the debate regarding length of stay for new mothers and newborns in the United States. Although the documented effects of early discharge on maternal and newborn health are inconsistent, research findings universally support follow-up care for mothers and infants within 1 week of hospital discharge. Research is needed to identify the components and timing of follow-up care to optimize maternal and newborn outcomes. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. Early Attachment-Figure Separation and Increased Risk for Later Depression: Potential Mediation by Proinflammatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael B.; Deak, Terrence; Schiml-Webb, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Early maternal separation and other disruptions of attachment relations are known to increase risk for the later onset of depressive illness in vulnerable individuals. It is suggested here that sensitization involving proinflammatory processes may contribute to this effect. This argument is based on: (1) current notions of the role of proinflammatory cytokines in depressive illness; (2) evidence that proinflammatory cytokines mediate depressive-like behavior during separation in a rodent model of infant attachment; and (3) comparisons of the effects of early proinflammatory activation versus maternal separation on later proinflammatory activity and biobehavioral processes related to depression. The possible interaction of proinflammatory processes and corticotropin-releasing factor in the sensitization process is discussed. PMID:20359585

  19. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother's history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children's probability to display high and rising physical aggression. The interaction indicated that the effects of heavy smoking during pregnancy (> or =10 cigarettes/day) were greater when the mother also had a serious history of antisocial behavior. The effects remained significant after the introduction of control variables (e.g., hostile-reactive parenting, family functioning, parental separation/divorce, family income, and maternal education). Another significant interaction not accounted for by control variables was observed for maternal prenatal smoking and family income, indicating more serious effects of maternal prenatal smoking under relatively low-income, conditions. Both interactions indicate critical adversities that, in combination with maternal prenatal smoking, have supra-additive effects on (the development of) physical aggression during early childhood. These findings may have implications for the selection of intervention targets and strategies.

  20. Maternal Separation Anxiety as a Determinant of Role Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Douglas K.

    One of the dramatic changes in the North American family over the past 25 years has been the increase in women with young children working outside the home. This paper addresses cognitive factors related to maternal employment during the transitions to parenthood, factors related to different post-partum occupational profiles and the degree to…

  1. Early Maternal Depression and Children's Adjustment to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cheryl A.; George, Thomas P.; Burke, Renee; Gelfand, Donna M.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationship between mother's history of depression when their children were 0-3 years old and the child's subsequent early school adaptation, using teacher ratings of problem behaviors, peer relations, and academic performance of 5- to 8-year-olds. Found that maternal depression was related to more adjustment and behavior problems,…

  2. Early Maternal Employment and Children's School Readiness in Contemporary Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among children generalized to modern families. Using a representative sample of children born in the United States in 2001 (N = 10,100), ordinary least squares regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links…

  3. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  4. Maternal Oral Bacterial Levels Predict Early Childhood Caries Development

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, B.W.; Gansky, S.A.; Weintraub, J.A.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Ramos-Gomez, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the association of maternal salivary bacterial challenge (mutans streptococci [MS] and lactobacilli [LB]) from pregnancy through 24 months’ postpartum with child caries incidence (≥1 cavitated or restored teeth) at 36 months. Materials & Methods: Dental, salivary bacterial, sociodemographic, and behavioral measures were collected at three- to six-month intervals from a birth cohort of low-income Hispanic mother-child dyads (N = 243). We calculated the relative child caries incidence, adjusted for confounding, following higher maternal challenge of MS (>4500 colony-forming units per milliliter of saliva [CFU/mL]) and LB (>50 CFU/mL) based on multivariable models. Results: Salivary MS and LB levels were greater among mothers of caries-affected children versus caries-free children. Mothers with higher salivary MS challenge were more likely to have MS-positive children (>0 CFU/mL), but maternal LB challenge was not a statistically significant predictor of child LB-positive status. Adjusting for sociodemographics, feeding and care practices, and maternal dental status, higher maternal salivary challenge of both MS and LB over the study period predicted nearly double the child caries incidence versus lower MS and LB (cumulative incidence ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 3.8). Conclusion: Maternal salivary bacterial challenge not only is associated with oral infection among children but also predicts increased early childhood caries occurrence. PMID:24356441

  5. Early Intervention, Maternal Development and Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    The purposes of this longitudinal study of early intervention with 83 black mother-child dyads were (a) to test the thesis that sociocultural transmission influences childhood development in educationally significant ways, and (b) to describe the process through which such transmission can occur. Two social intervention programs were contrasted;…

  6. Enhanced sensitivity to naltrexone-induced drinking suppression of fluid intake and sucrose consumption in maternally separated rats.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Clifford C; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2007-04-01

    Early-life stress has been identified as a risk factor in the development of a host of disorders, including substance abuse; however the link between early postnatal stress and changes in measures of reward has not been thoroughly researched. The current study had two main objectives: 1) to determine the impact of maternal separation (an animal model of early-life stress) on the consumption of 10% and 2.5% sucrose solutions by Long-Evans rat dams and male and female offspring, and 2) to determine the effect of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) on drinking by each of those groups. Dam-pup separations occurred for varying lengths of time during the first two postnatal weeks. In Experiment 1, a two-bottle choice test (sucrose solution vs. water) was administered across five days to both nonhandled (NH) and maternally-separated (MS) offspring as adults and to dams 2-4 weeks post-weaning. In Experiment 2, naltrexone was administered prior to two-bottle choice tests. MS males and the dams of MS litters exhibited increased intake of total fluid and sucrose solutions, whereas results from females were less consistent. Naltrexone elicited a greater decrease in fluid intake and sucrose intake in male MS offspring compared to male NH offspring. These results indicate that early postnatal stress alters both sucrose consumption, a non-drug measure of reward, and apparently the brain opioid systems that mediate naltrexone-induced drinking suppression.

  7. Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692

  8. 76 FR 71979 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... and Services Administration Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Name: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation..., DC 20005. (202) 289-7600. The Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...

  9. 78 FR 53150 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... and Services Administration Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home... Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIECHVE). Authority: Section 10(a)(2... meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program...

  10. A study on fear memory retrieval and REM sleep in maternal separation and isolation stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Dayalan; Sabitha, K R; Hegde, Preethi; Jayakrishnan, H R; Kutty, Bindu M; Chattarji, Sumantra; Rangarajan, Govindan; Laxmi, T R

    2014-10-15

    As rapid brain development occurs during the neonatal period, environmental manipulation during this period may have a significant impact on sleep and memory functions. Moreover, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep plays an important role in integrating new information with the previously stored emotional experience. Hence, the impact of early maternal separation and isolation stress (MS) during the stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP) on fear memory retention and sleep in rats were studied. The neonatal rats were subjected to maternal separation and isolation stress during postnatal days 5-7 (6h daily/3d). Polysomnographic recordings and differential fear conditioning was carried out in two different sets of rats aged 2 months. The neuronal replay during REM sleep was analyzed using different parameters. MS rats showed increased time in REM stage and total sleep period also increased. MS rats showed fear generalization with increased fear memory retention than normal control (NC). The detailed analysis of the local field potentials across different time periods of REM sleep showed increased theta oscillations in the hippocampus, amygdala and cortical circuits. Our findings suggest that stress during SHRP has sensitized the hippocampus-amygdala-cortical loops which could be due to increased release of corticosterone that generally occurs during REM sleep. These rats when subjected to fear conditioning exhibit increased fear memory and increased fear generalization. The development of helplessness, anxiety and sleep changes in human patients, thus, could be related to the reduced thermal, tactile and social stimulation during SHRP on brain plasticity and fear memory functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered locomotor and stereotyped responses to acute methamphetamine in adolescent, maternally separated rats

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Laurel M.; Hensleigh, Emily; Lynch, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Neonatal maternal separation (MS) has been used to model the effects of early life stress in rodents. MS alters behavioral responses to a variety of abused drugs, but few studies have examined its effects on methamphetamine sensitivity. Objectives We sought to determine the effects of MS on locomotor and stereotyped responses to low-to-moderate doses of methamphetamine in male and female adolescent rats. Methods Male and female rat pups were subjected to three hours per day of MS on postnatal days (PN) 2–14, or a brief handling control procedure during the same period. During adolescence (approximately PN 40), all rats were tested for locomotor activity and stereotyped behavior in response to acute methamphetamine administration (0, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.). Results MS rats of both sexes exhibited increased locomotor activity in a novel environment, relative to handled controls. MS increased the locomotor response to METH, and this effect occurred at different doses for male (3.0 mg/kg) and female (1.0 mg/kg) rats. MS also increased stereotyped behavior in response to METH (1.0 mg/kg) in both sexes. Conclusions MS enhances the locomotor response to METH in a dose- and sex-dependent manner. These results suggest that individuals with a history of early life stress may be particularly vulnerable to the psychostimulant effects of METH, even at relatively low doses. PMID:22414962

  12. Separateness Representations in a Sculpting Task: Revealing Maternal Subjective Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bat Or, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study explored mothers' separateness representations via a clay sculpting task assigned to 24 mothers of preschool children aged 21 months to 4 years. Each participant created a clay sculpture of herself and her child, followed by a semi-structured interview about the sculpting experience and the meaning of the sculpture. Qualitative analyses…

  13. [The relationship between early neo-maternal exposure, and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression in the mothers of NICU infants].

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young-Mee; Kim, Mi-Ran

    2005-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the quantities of three neo-maternal exposures; visiting frequency, auditory contact and physical contact, and to examine the relationship between the quantities of each exposure and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression in 40 mothers of NICU babies during the first week in the NICU. Each neo-maternal exposure was counted at every mother's visit to the newborn and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression were measured using the maternal attachment inventory, the maternal self-report inventory and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) on the first and seventh day in the NICU. The Mean of each neo-maternal exposure was 8.77(2.81) for the visiting frequency, 5.82(3.66) for the auditory contact and 5.60(2.89) for the physical contact during 7 days in the NICU. No significant changes were found in the scores of maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression between the first and the seventh day in the NICU. The quantities of neo-maternal exposures were positively related to the scores of maternal attachment and maternal self-esteem but not related to postpartum depression. The results of the study suggest the lack of early neo-maternal exposure in cases of NICU hospitalization negate its beneficial effects on maternal psychological well-being in increasing maternal attachment and self-esteem. More efforts are needed for the neo-maternal interaction and the reevaluation of NICU visitation hours in order to promote maternal-infant interaction.

  14. OS087. Maternal characteristics, mean arterial pressure and PLGF in early prediction of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kuc, S; Koster, M P; Franx, A; Schielen, P C; Visser, G H

    2012-07-01

    In a previous study, we described the predictive value of first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (fb-hCG), Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and A Desintegrin And Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) for early onset preeclampsia (delivery <34 weeks) [1]. The objective of the current study was to obtain the predictive value of these serum makers, for both early onset PE (EOPE) and late onset PE (LOPE), combined with maternal characteristics and first-trimester maternal mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). This was a nested case-control study, using stored first-trimester maternal serum from 167 women who subsequently developed PE, and 500 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies which resulted in a live birth =>37 weeks. Maternal characteristics (i.e. medical records, parity, weight, length) MAP and pregnancy outcome (i.e. gestational age at delivery, birthweight, fetal sex) were collected for each individual and used to calculate prior risks for PE in a multiple logistic regression model. MAP values and marker levels of PAPP-A, fb-hCG, PlGF and ADAM12 were expressed as multiples of the gestation-specific normal median (MoMs). Subsequently, MoMs were log-transformed and compared between PE and controls using Student's t-tests. Posterior risks were calculated using different combinations of variables;(1) maternal characteristics, serum markers, and MAP separately (2) maternal characteristics combined with serum markers or MAP (3) maternal characteristics combined with serum markers and MAP. The model-predicted detection rates (DR) for fixed 10% false-positive rates were obtained for EOPE and LOPE with or without intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR,birth weight <10th centile). The maternal characteristics: maternal age, weight, length, smoking status and nulliparity were discriminative between PE and control groups and therefore incorporated in the multiple logistic regression model. MoM MAP was

  15. Maternal Obesity: Risks for Developmental Delays in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Duffany, Kathleen O'Connor; McVeigh, Katharine H; Kershaw, Trace S; Lipkind, Heather S; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-02-01

    To assess the risk for neurodevelopmental delays for children of mothers who were obese (≥200 pounds) prior to pregnancy, and to characterize delays associated with maternal obesity among children referred to and found eligible to receive Early Intervention Program services. We conducted a retrospective cohort study (N = 541,816) using a population-based New York City data warehouse with linked birth and Early Intervention data. Risks for children suspected of a delay and 'significantly delayed', with two moderate or one severe delay, were calculated. Among the group of children eligible by delay for Early Intervention, analyses assessed risk for being identified with a moderate-to-severe delay across each of five functional domains as well as risks for multiple delays. Children of mothers who were obese were more likely to be suspected of a delay (adjusted RR 1.19 [CI 1.15-1.22]) and borderline association for 'significantly delayed' (adjusted RR 1.01 [CI 1.00-1.02). Among children eligible by delay, children of mothers who were obese evidenced an increased risk for moderate-to-severe cognitive (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.02-1.07]) and physical (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.08]) delays and for global developmental delay (adjusted RR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.08]). Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developmental delay in offspring. Among children with moderate or severe delays, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of cognitive and physical delays as well as with increased risk for global developmental delay. While causation remains uncertain, this adds to the growing body of research reporting an association between maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental delays in offspring.

  16. Neonatal maternal separation up-regulates protein signalling for cell survival in rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Irles, Claudine; Nava-Kopp, Alicia T; Morán, Julio; Zhang, Limei

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported that in response to early life stress, such as maternal hyperthyroidism and maternal separation (MS), the rat hypothalamic vasopressinergic system becomes up-regulated, showing enlarged nuclear volume and cell number, with stress hyperresponsivity and high anxiety during adulthood. The detailed signaling pathways involving cell death/survival, modified by adverse experiences in this developmental window remains unknown. Here, we report the effects of MS on cellular density and time-dependent fluctuations of the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors during the development of the hypothalamus. Neonatal male rats were exposed to 3 h-daily MS from postnatal days 2 to 15 (PND 2-15). Cellular density was assessed in the hypothalamus at PND 21 using methylene blue staining, and neuronal nuclear specific protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining at PND 36. Expression of factors related to apoptosis and cell survival in the hypothalamus was examined at PND 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 43 by Western blot. Rats subjected to MS exhibited greater cell-density and increased neuronal density in all hypothalamic regions assessed. The time course of protein expression in the postnatal brain showed: (1) decreased expression of active caspase 3; (2) increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio; (3) increased activation of ERK1/2, Akt and inactivation of Bad; PND 15 and PND 20 were the most prominent time-points. These data indicate that MS can induce hypothalamic structural reorganization by promoting survival, suppressing cell death pathways, increasing cellular density which may alter the contribution of these modified regions to homeostasis.

  17. Effects of Early and Recent Maternal Employment on Children from Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Ramanan, Janaki

    1992-01-01

    Early (during the child's first three years) and recent (during the previous three years) maternal employment were associated with less family poverty and higher scores on measures of home environment. Early maternal employment predicted second grade children's math achievement, and recent maternal employment predicted their reading achievement.…

  18. Dietary choline during periadolescence attenuates cognitive damage caused by neonatal maternal separation in male rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno Gudiño, Hayarelis; Carías Picón, Diamela; de Brugada Sauras, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Choline (Ch) is an essential nutrient that acts as a cognitive facilitator when administered during perinatal periods, and it has been recognised as a 'pharmacological' agent that can ease cognitive dysfunctions provoked by exposure to damaging stimuli during early developmental stages. The aim of the present work is to determine whether providing a diet rich in Ch would reduce the severity of the memory deficit provoked by a neonatal stress episode in male adult rats. The effect of Ch on memory was measured using memory tasks such as object and place recognition. Ontogenetic manipulations were conducted during two sensitive developmental periods. During the first post-natal (PN) 14 days, only the male rat pups were selected and half of them were separated from the mother, group maternal separation (MS). Subsequently, during periadolescence (PN 21-60), the rats were exposed to a deficient (DEF = 0 g/kg Ch chloride), sufficient (CON = 1.1 g/kg Ch chloride), or supplemented (SUP = 5 g/kg Ch chloride) diets for this nutrient. The results indicated that for group MS, only rats fed with the SUP diet were able to recognise the familiar object and place that had been experienced 24 hours before, unlike groups DEF and CON. In addition, whereas rats in the non-separated group (No-MS) recognised the object independently of the diet, only rats that received a DEF diet failed to recognise the place, showing that a Ch deficit affects spatial memory tasks. These results show that Ch supplementation during periadolescence can attenuate the memory deficit provoked by extended neonatal stress.

  19. Maternal Attitudes toward Mother-Child Separation: Working and Nonworking Mothers of School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplik, Elissa K.; Fisher, Celia B.

    Exploring possible similarities and differences between mothers who work outside the home and mothers who do not, this study provides a preliminary investigation of maternal reactions to mother-child separation when children have reached school age. A total of 41 women working outside the home and 48 mothers staying at home responded to a…

  20. REPEATED MATERNAL SEPARATION IN THE NEONATAL RAT: CELLULAR MECHANISMS CONTRIBUTING TO BRAIN GROWTH SPARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Separation of rat neonates from their dam has been shown to evoke acutely a variety of biochemical and physiological responses. n the current study, we examined whether these responses were extended to pups who were subject to daily episodes of maternal deprivation, and whether t...

  1. Oleamide restores sleep in adult rats that were subjected to maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Reyes Prieto, Nidia M; Romano López, Antonio; Pérez Morales, Marcel; Pech, Olivia; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Ruiz Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    Maternal separation (MS) induces a series of changes in rats' behavior; among them a reduction in spontaneous sleep. One potentially impaired system is the endocannabinoid system (eCBs), since it contributes to generate sleep. To investigate if there are situations early in life that affect the eCBs, which would contribute to make rats vulnerable to suffering insomnia, we studied the rodent model of MS. Rats were separated from their mothers for 3h-periods daily, from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 16. Once they gained 250g of body weight (adult rats), they were implanted with electrodes to record the sleep-waking cycle (SWC). MS rats and non-MS (NMS) siblings were assigned to one of the following groups: vehicle, oleamide (OLE, an agonist of the cannabinoid receptor 1, CB1R), OLE+AM251 (an antagonist of the CB1R) and AM251 alone. Expression of the CBR1 receptor was also analyzed in the frontal cortex (FCx) and in the hippocampus (HIP) of both NMS and MS rats. Results indicated that MS induced a reduction in both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep with the consequent increase in waking (W) as compared to NMS siblings. OLE normalized the SWC, and AM251 blocked such an effect. CB1R expression was reduced in the FCx and in the HIP of MS rats. Our results indicate that MS reduces sleep and CB1R expression and OLE improves sleep in adult rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  3. Prenatal Maternal Depressive Symptoms Predict Early Infant Health Concerns.

    PubMed

    Coburn, S S; Luecken, L J; Rystad, I A; Lin, B; Crnic, K A; Gonzales, N A

    2018-06-01

    Recent research suggests that health disparities among low-SES and ethnic minority populations may originate from prenatal and early life exposures. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms have been linked to poorer infant physical health, yet prenatal depressive symptoms not been thoroughly examined in relation to infant health. In a prospective study of low-income Mexican American mothers and their infants, women (N = 322, median age 27.23, IQR = 22.01-32.54) completed surveys during pregnancy (median gestation 39.50, IQR = 38.71-40.14 weeks) and 12 weeks after birth. We investigated (1) if prenatal depressive symptoms predicted infant physical health concerns at 12 weeks of age, (2) whether these associations occurred above and beyond concurrent depressive symptoms, and (3) if birth weight, gestational age, and breastfeeding were mediators of prenatal depression predicting subsequent infant health. Higher prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with more infant physical health concerns at 12 weeks (p < .001), after accounting for 12-week maternal depressive symptoms, breastfeeding, gestational age, and birth weight. Twelve-week maternal depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with more infant health concerns (p < .01). Birth weight, gestational age, and breastfeeding were not associated with maternal depression or infant health concerns. Results establish a link between prenatal depressive symptoms and an elevated risk of poor health evident shortly after birth. These findings underscore the importance of the prenatal period as a possible sensitive period for infants' health, and the need for effective interventions for depression during pregnancy to mitigate potentially teratogenic effects on the developing fetus and reduce risks for later health concerns.

  4. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Tees, Michael T; Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-07-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n = 288) in 2006-2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother's experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, 2 months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and "difficult temperament" was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with three or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15-2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at 1 year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22-8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81-5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother's mental health.

  5. 76 FR 12978 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and... and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation will meet for its first session on Wednesday...

  6. Breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity predict early infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wibke; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J; Wazana, Ashley; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-07-01

    Research findings are inconclusive when it comes to whether breastfeeding is associated with the mother-infant relationship or infant temperament. We examined the association between breastfeeding at three months postpartum and infant temperament at 18 months postpartum and whether this link was affected by the mothers' anxiety and mediated by her sensitivity. We assessed 170 mothers for breastfeeding and anxiety using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at three months postpartum, maternal sensitivity using the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale at six months postpartum and infant temperament using the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire at 18 months postpartum. Mothers who breastfed at three months postpartum were more sensitive in their interactions with their infants at six months postpartum, and elevated sensitivity, in turn, predicted reduced levels of negative affectivity in infant temperament at 18 months postpartum. This indirect mediation persisted after controlling for confounders (effect ab = -0.0312 [0.0208], 95% CI = -0.0884 to -0.0031). A subsequent analysis showed that the mediation through sensitivity only occurred in women experiencing higher anxiety, with a STAI score ≥33.56 at three months (ab = -0.0250 [0.0179], 95% CI = -0.0759 to -0.0013). Our results suggest that breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity may have a positive impact on the early development of infant temperament. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  8. The early infant gut microbiome varies in association with a maternal high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chu, Derrick M; Antony, Kathleen M; Ma, Jun; Prince, Amanda L; Showalter, Lori; Moller, Michelle; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-08-09

    Emerging evidence suggests that the in utero environment is not sterile as once presumed. Work in the mouse demonstrated transmission of commensal bacteria from mother to fetus during gestation, though it is unclear what modulates this process. We have previously shown in the nonhuman primate that, independent of obesity, a maternal high-fat diet during gestation and lactation persistently shapes the juvenile gut microbiome. We therefore sought to interrogate in a population-based human longitudinal cohort whether a maternal high-fat diet similarly alters the neonatal and infant gut microbiome in early life. A representative cohort was prospectively enrolled either in the early third trimester or intrapartum (n = 163), with a subset consented to longitudinal sampling through the postpartum interval (n = 81). Multiple body site samples, including stool and meconium, were collected from neonates at delivery and by 6 weeks of age. A rapid dietary questionnaire was administered to estimate intake of fat, added sugars, and fiber over the past month (National Health and Examination Survey). DNA was extracted from each infant meconium/stool sample (MoBio) and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. On average, the maternal dietary intake of fat ranged from 14.0 to 55.2 %, with an average intake of 33.1 % (σ = 6.1 %). Mothers whose diets significantly differed from the mean (±1 standard deviation) were separated into two distinct groups, a control group (n = 13, μ = 24.4 %) and a high-fat group (n = 13, μ = 43.1 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the microbiome of the neonatal stool at birth (meconium) clustered differently by virtue of maternal gestational diet (PERMANOVA p = 0.001). LEfSe feature selection identified several taxa that discriminated the groups, with a notable relative depletion of Bacteroides in the neonates exposed to a maternal high-fat gestational diet (Student's t-test, p < 0

  9. WINDOWS OF VULNERABILITY: MATERNAL SEPARATION, AGE, AND FLUOXETINE ON ADOLESCENT DEPRESSIVE-LIKE BEHAVIOR IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Freund, N.; Thompson, B. S.; Denormandie, J.; Vaccarro, K.

    2017-01-01

    Early exposure to stressful life events plays a significant role in adolescent depression. Clinical studies have identified a number of factors that increase the risk of depression, including sex of the subject, duration of the stressor, and genetic polymorphisms that elevate serotonin levels. In this study we used the maternal separation (MS) model to investigate to what extent these factors interacted during development to manifest in depressive-like behavior in male and female rats. The triadic model of learned helplessness parses depressive-like behavior into aspects of controllable, uncontrollable, and motivational behaviors. This model was used to investigate how the timing of MS between the ages of postnatal day (P) 2–9 and P9–16 interacted with either simultaneous vehicle (saline; 1 ml/kg; i.p.) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) exposure, which was used to enhance serotonin levels; these experiments also compared the effect of a vehicle injection during these developmental periods to a no injection control. Vehicle injections alone increased helplessness in the controllable condition in male rats when injected between P9–16 only, and did not interact further with MS. MS at both ages decreased controllability in male adolescents; females demonstrated an increase in controllability after MS. Elevated serotonin at P2–9 increased escape latencies in male and female control and MS subjects. Fluoxetine exposure at P9–16 increased helplessness in controls. Fluoxetine decreased helplessness in MS males independent of age, but increases helplessness in MS females. This study highlights the importance of age of MS (MS between P2–9 increases helplessness in males more than females), the duration of the stressor (previous results show females are effected by longer MS [P2–20], but not shorter [this study]), and that elevated serotonin increases escape latencies to a greater extent in females. PMID:23850503

  10. Clinical, psychological and maternal characteristics in early functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Abali, Osman; Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoc; Bilici, Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the clinical features of functional constipation (FC) at preschool age, as well as emotional and behavioral characteristics of the children, psychological symptom level and parental attitudes of the mothers, and compared these with that of non-referred typically developing controls with normal intestinal habits. Participants included 65 children with FC (mean age, 43.6 ± 15.4 months; range, 25-72 months), 59 healthy controls (mean age, 46.9 ± 14.5 months; range, 25-72 months) and the mothers of the children. The Childhood Behavior Checklist, Symptom Checklist 90 and Parental Attitude Research Instrument were filled in by the mothers. Participants with FC had higher problem scores than the comparison children in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. Approximately half exhibited internalizing and one-third had externalizing problems in the clinical range. The mothers of the patient group had higher levels of psychological distress, overprotective parenting and strict discipline. On multiple logistic regression analysis child psychopathology, maternal education level and maternal distress were independently associated with FC. Behavior problems are common in children with FC from an early age. Low level of education and high psychological distress of the mothers seem to be important risk factors for constipation and should be assessed carefully in the management of these cases. © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Maternal Separations During the Reentry Years for 100 Infants Raised in a Prison Nursery

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Mary W.; Goshin, Lorie; Blanchard-Lewis, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Prison nurseries prevent maternal separations related to incarceration for the small subset of children whose pregnant mothers are incarcerated in states with such programs. For a cohort of 100 children accepted by corrections into one prison nursery, subsequent separation patterns are analyzed. The largest numbers are caused by corrections’ removal of infants from the nursery and infants reaching a one-year age limit. Criminal recidivism and substance abuse relapse threaten continued mothering during reentry. Focused and coordinated services are needed during prison stay and reentry years to sustain mothering for women and children accepted into prison nursery programs. PMID:22328865

  12. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament

    PubMed Central

    Tees, Michael T.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n=288) in 2006–2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother’s experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, two months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and “difficult temperament” was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with 3 or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15–2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at one year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61–5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22–8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81–5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother’s mental health. PMID:19554438

  13. 76 FR 12977 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home... for Children and Families (ACF), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice to announce the establishment of the Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...

  14. Maternal Thinking and Beyond: Towards a Care-Full Pedagogy for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luff, Paulette; Kanyal, Mallika

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores feminist philosopher Sara Ruddick's concept of "maternal thinking" and considers the applicability and use of her ideas for early childhood pedagogy. This is illustrated through a small-scale case study, undertaken in early years settings in England, in which three dimensions of maternal thinking are evidenced in the…

  15. Comfort with motherhood in late pregnancy facilitates maternal role attainment in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuka; Takeishi, Yoko; Ito, Naoko; Ito, Mizuki; Atogami, Fumi; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life, comfort, and wellbeing during pregnancy are essential for every country in the world. Pregnancy is considered a preparation period for becoming a mother. Maternal role development, including confidence and satisfaction as a mother, is important in the transition to motherhood. Negative psychosocial affect, such as increased anxiety and distress, during pregnancy adversely influences the childbirth experience and childcare, which contributes to postpartum depression. However, the impact of positive feelings on the maternal role development remains unclear. Therefore, the study purpose was to clarify the relationship between comfort in late pregnancy and maternal role attainment and childcare during early postpartum. We designed a descriptive, longitudinal, correlational study by using the Prenatal Comfort Scale, the Postpartum Maternal Role Confidence Scale, and the Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Among 339 participants who had received care at a university hospital located in Sendai city in Japan, 215 subjects completed the longitudinal study by answering a questionnaire for the respective Scale late in their pregnancy or during early postpartum. The subjects consisted of 114 primipara (32.0 ± 5.4 years) and 101 multipara (33.4 ± 4.9 years). In primipara, comfort with motherhood was significantly correlated with maternal confidence regarding knowledge and childcare skills and maternal satisfaction. In multipara, comfort in late pregnancy was related to maternal confidence and satisfaction. Positive affect was related to maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction in early postpartum. Therefore, a prenatal nursing intervention helps women become more comfortable with impending motherhood, thereby promoting maternal role attainment after delivery.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Paraventricular Nucleus Mediates Visceral Hypersensitivity Induced by Maternal Separation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hui-Li; Zhang, Gongliang; Ji, Ning-Ning; Du, Lei; Chen, Bin-Bin; Hua, Rong; Zhang, Yong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal maternal separation (MS) is a major early life stress that increases the risk of emotional disorders, visceral pain perception and other brain dysfunction. Elevation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) precipitates early life colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral hypersensitivity and pain in adulthood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of TLR4 signaling in the pathogenesis of postnatal MS-induced visceral hypersensitivity and pain during adulthood. The TLR4 gene was selectively knocked out in C57BL/10ScSn mice (Tlr4-/-). MS was developed by housing the offspring alone for 6 h daily from postnatal day 2 to day 15. Visceral hypersensitivity and pain were assessed in adulthood. Tlr4+/+, but not Tlr4-/-, mice that had experienced neonatal MS showed chronic visceral hypersensitivity and pain. TLR4 immunoreactivity was observed predominately in microglia in the PVN, and MS was associated with an increase in the expression of protein and/or mRNA levels of TLR4, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β in Tlr4+/+ mice. These alterations were not observed in Tlr4-/- mice. Local administration of lipopolysaccharide, a TLR4 agonist, into the lateral cerebral ventricle elicited visceral hypersensitivity and TLR4 mRNA expression in the PVN, which could be prevented by NBI-35965, an antagonist to CRFR1. The present results indicate that neonatal MS induces a sensitization and upregulation of microglial TLR4 signaling activity, which facilitates the neighboring CRF neuronal activity and, eventually, precipitates visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood. Highlights (1)Neonatal MS does not induce chronic visceral hypersensitivity and pain in Tlr4-/- mice.(2)Neonatal MS increases the expression of TLR4 mRNA, CRF protein and mRNA, CRFR1 protein, TNF-α protein, and IL-1β protein in Tlr4+/+ mice.(3)TLR4 agonist LPS (i.c.v.) elicits visceral

  17. Association of early maternal hypertriglyceridemia with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chandi, Anadeep; Sirohiwal, Daya; Malik, Roopa

    2015-11-01

    Hypertensive diseases are directly responsible for 24 % of maternal deaths in India. A screening method is yet to be discovered to reduce the morbidity and mortality related to it. Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are reported to increase in hypertensive pregnant women. To predict pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) by serum triglyceride values. This study is a prospective cohort study that was conducted over three hundred normotensive, primigravida women with singleton pregnancy at 14-20 weeks of gestation. These were divided into two groups on the basis of their TG concentration estimated at 14-20 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was then followed till delivery and, signs and symptoms of PIH were noted in both the groups. Out of 300 women, 210 women completed the study. Fifty-nine women developed PIH and 151 women remained normotensive. Among 59 women, 45 women had raised TG values i.e., ≥160 mg/dL and 14 women were with normal TG levels i.e., <160 mg/dL. A significant positive correlation was found between serum TG concentration and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It was observed that a cutoff of 162.50 mg/dL for TG could reliably predict PIH with sensitivity of 76 % and specificity of 85 %. Also, the mothers with hypertriglyceridemia were found to be at higher risk of developing early-onset PIH. Our study supports the evidence that early pregnancy hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of PIH.

  18. Maternal Anxiety and Separation Anxiety in Children Aged Between 3 and 6 Years: The Mediating Role of Parenting Style.

    PubMed

    Orgilés, Mireia; Penosa, Patricia; Morales, Alexandra; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Espada, José P

    2018-06-04

    Maternal anxiety is known to be associated with childhood separation anxiety. However, there is little research on the mediating factors of this relationship, despite the possible consequences separation anxiety might have for children's development and autonomy. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible mediating effects of 4 parenting styles (overprotective, assertive, punitive, and inhibited) on the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety. Participants were 235 mothers with children aged 3 to 6 years, recruited from 6 preschools in the southeast of Spain. Maternal trait anxiety, maternal parenting style, and child separation anxiety were evaluated. A parallel multiple-mediation analysis revealed that the overprotective parenting style was a significant mediator of the relationship between maternal trait anxiety and child separation anxiety. In addition, mothers with higher trait anxiety scores exhibited a greater likelihood of using an overprotective, punitive, or less assertive parenting style. Younger mothers were more likely to use an overprotective parenting style, and compared with girls, boys were more exposed to the assertive style. This study provides initial evidence that parenting style acts as a mediator of the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety.

  19. Trans-generational Effects of Early Life Stress: The Role of Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Claudia; Lee-McDermott, Zoe; Medina, Liorimar Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Using a rodent paradigm of early life stress, infant maternal separation (IMS), we examined whether IMS-triggered behavioral and epigenetic phenotypes of the stress-susceptible mouse strain Balb/c are propagated across generations. These phenotypes include impaired emotional behavior and deficits in executive cognitive functions in adulthood, and they are associated with increased acetylation of histone H4K12 protein (acH4K12) in the forebrain neocortex. These behavioral and epigenetic phenotypes are transmitted to the first progeny of IMS Balb/c mothers, but not fathers, and cross-fostering experiments revealed that this transmission is triggered by maternal behavior and modulated by the genetic background of the pups. In the continued absence of the original stressor, this transmission fades in later progenies. An adolescent treatment that lowers the levels of acH4K12 in IMS Balb/c mice augments their emotional abnormality but abolishes their cognitive deficits. Conversely, a treatment that further elevates the levels of acH4K12 improved the emotional phenotype but had no effects on the cognitive deficits. Moreover, treatments that prevent the emergence of either emotional or cognitive deficits in the mother also prevent the establishment of such deficits in her offspring, indicating that trans-generational effects of early life stress can be prevented. PMID:24786242

  20. Early maternal language use during book sharing in families from low-income environments.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Linzy M; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-02-01

    The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a prospective longitudinal study. The authors analyzed transcripts for maternal language strategies and maternal language productivity. Analyses indicated variability across mothers in their language use and revealed some stability within mothers, as maternal language use at the 6-month time point significantly predicted later maternal language. Mothers who used more language strategies at the 6-month time point were likely to use more of these language strategies at the 15-month time point, even after accounting for maternal education, family income, maternal language productivity, and children's communicative attempts. Mothers' language use with their children was highly predictive of later maternal language use, as early as age 6 months. Children's communication also influenced concurrent maternal language productivity. Thus, programs to enhance maternal language use would need to begin in infancy, promoting varied and increased maternal language use and also encouraging children's communication.

  1. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal morbidity in early pregnancy in rural northern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julia M; Labrique, Alain; West, Keith P; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu A; Ali, Hasmot; Ullah, Barkat; Wu, Lee; Massie, Allan; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf; Christian, Parul

    2012-12-01

    To determine the burden of maternal morbidity in early pregnancy in rural northern Bangladesh. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline morbidity data from 42 896 pregnant women enrolled in a vitamin A supplementation trial. One-week histories for 31 defined symptoms were collected at 5-12 weeks of gestation. Ten illnesses were defined, compatible with ICD-10 diagnoses and WHO definitions. Prevalence, duration, and treatment-seeking behaviors were determined for each symptom and illness. Risk of wasting malnutrition was compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic women. In total, 93.1% of women reported at least 1 symptom. The most frequent symptoms were poor appetite (53.3%), vaginal discharge (48.7%), and nausea (48.1%), each of which lasted 22-27 days. The most prevalent illnesses were anemia (36.4%), morning sickness (17.2%), excessive vomiting (7.0%), and reproductive tract infections (6.7%). Symptoms that prompted treatment seeking included jaundice, high-grade fever, and swelling of hands and face. Odds ratios for malnutrition were higher among women with symptoms of anemia (1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.36), vaginal discharge (1.37; 95% CI, 1.31-1.43), and high-grade fever (1.23; 95% CI, 1.10-1.37) than among those without symptoms. Women in rural Bangladesh report substantial morbidity in the first trimester. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Later Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2001-01-01

    This study longitudinally followed Non-Hispanic White and African American children to see whether the impact of early maternal employment on cognitive and behavioral outcomes reported at age three and four persisted into school-age years. Results indicated that maternal employment in the first year of a child's life had significant negative…

  5. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kühhirt, Michael; Klein, Markus

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of…

  6. Getting behind Discourses of Love, Care and Maternalism in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanian, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of love, care and maternalism affect the everyday lives of children enrolled in early childhood education. These discourses bear witness to the ontological transformation that has occurred since the Romantic era that birthed the kindergarten movement to today. Reflecting on historical discourses of love, care and maternalism from the…

  7. Sibling Pretend Play in Early and Middle Childhood: The Role of Creativity and Maternal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Bruno, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling pretend play, collaboration, and creativity during maternal presence and absence were investigated in 24 dyads in early and middle childhood (younger siblings' M age = 5.3 years; older siblings' M age = 8.2 years). Associations between sibling behavior and maternal interaction (e.g., guidance, positive responses) were…

  8. Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

    2013-11-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years of age. Maternal warmth and child aggressive behavior were measured at 3 years and 5 years of age. Models controlled for demographic characteristics (measured at the child's birth), child emotionality (measured at age 1), and maternal psychosocial risk factors (measured when children were 3 years old). Cross-lagged path models examined the within-time and longitudinal associations between spanking and child aggression. Results indicated that maternal spanking at age 1 was associated with higher levels of child aggression at age 3; similarly, maternal spanking at age 3 predicted increases in child aggression by age 5. Maternal warmth when children were 3 years old did not predict changes in child aggression between 3 and 5 years old. Furthermore, maternal warmth did not moderate the association between spanking and increased child aggression over time. Beginning as early as age 1, maternal spanking is predictive of child behavior problems, and maternal warmth does not counteract the negative consequences of the use of spanking.

  9. Death Awareness, Maternal Separation Anxiety, and Attachment Style among First-Time Mothers--A Terror Management Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the interplay between death awareness, attachment style, and maternal separation anxiety among first-time mothers of infants aged 3-12 months. In Study 1 (N = 60), a higher accessibility of death-related thoughts was found following induction of thoughts about separation from the infant. In Study 2 (N = 100), a mortality…

  10. Impact of chronic maternal stress during early gestation on maternal-fetal stress transfer and fetal stress sensitivity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Dreiling, Michelle; Schiffner, Rene; Bischoff, Sabine; Rupprecht, Sven; Kroegel, Nasim; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias; Rakers, Florian

    2018-01-01

    Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development. Six pregnant ewes underwent repeated isolation stress (CMS) between 30 and 100 days of gestation (dGA, term: 150 dGA) and seven pregnant ewes served as controls. At 110 dGA, ewes were chronically instrumented and underwent acute isolation stress. The acute stress decreased UBF by 19% in both the CMS and control groups (p < .05), but this was prolonged in CMS versus control ewes (74 vs. 30 min, p < .05). CMS increased fetal circulating baseline and stress-induced cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations indicating a hyperactive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Increased fetal norepinephrine is endogenous as maternal catecholamines do not cross the placenta. Cortisol in the control but not in the CMS fetuses was correlated with maternal cortisol blood concentrations; these findings indicate: (1) no increased maternal-fetal cortisol transfer with CMS, (2) cortisol production in CMS fetuses when the HPA-axis is normally inactive, due to early maturation of the fetal HPA-axis. CMS fetuses were better oxygenated, without shift towards acidosis compared to the controls, potentially reflecting adaptation to repeated stress. Hence, CMS enhances maternal-fetal stress transfer by prolonged reduction in UBF and increased fetal HPA responsiveness.

  11. Differential neuroendocrine responses to chronic variable stress in adult Long Evans rats exposed to handling-maternal separation as neonates.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Charlotte O; Thrivikraman, K V; Huot, Rebecca L; Plotsky, Paul M

    2005-07-01

    Burgeoning evidence supports a preeminent role for early- and late-life stressors in the development of physio- and psychopathology. Handling-maternal separation (HMS) in neonatal Long Evans hooded rats leads to stable phenotypes ranging from resilient to vulnerable to later stressor exposure. Handling with 180 min of maternal separation yields a phenotype of stress hyper-responsiveness associated with facilitation of regional CRF neurocircuits and glucocorticoid resistance. This study assessed whether or not prolonged HMS (180 min/day, HMS180) on post-natal days 2-14 sensitizes the adult limbic hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis to chronic variable stress (CS) compared to brief HMS (15 min/day, HMS15). We examined regional mRNA densities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), its receptor CRF1, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR); regional CRF1 and CRF2alpha binding, and pituitary-adrenal responses to an acute air-puff startle (APS) stressor in four groups: HMS15, nonstressed; HMS15, stressed; HMS180, nonstressed; HMS180, stressed. As expected we observed exaggerated pituitary-adrenal responses to APS, increased regional CRF mRNA density, decreased regional CRF1 binding, and decreased cortical GR mRNA density in nonstressed HMS180 vs. HMS15 animals. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, CS decreased pituitary-adrenal reactivity and central amygdala CRF mRNA density in HMS180 rats, while increasing cortical GR mRNA density and CRF1 binding. CS had no effect on the pituitary-adrenal response to APS in HMS15 rats, despite tripling hypothalamic paraventricular CRF mRNA density. The data suggest that many effects of prolonged HMS are reversible in adulthood by CS, while the neuroendocrine adaptations imbued by brief HMS are sufficiently stable to restrain pituitary-adrenal stress responses even following CS.

  12. Characterizing Early Maternal Style in a Population of Guide Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Emily E.; Sammel, Mary D.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Serpell, James A.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    In both humans and non-humans, differences in maternal style during the first few weeks of life can be reliably characterized, and these differences affect offspring's temperament and cognition in later life. Drawing on the breeding population of dogs at The Seeing Eye, a guide dog school in Morristown, New Jersey, we conducted videotaped focal follows on 21 mothers and their litters (n = 138 puppies) over the first 3 weeks of the puppies' lives in an effort to characterize maternal style. We found that a mother's attitude and actions toward her offspring varied naturally between individuals, and that these variations could be summarized by a single principal component, which we described as Maternal behavior. This component was stable across weeks, associated with breed, litter size, and parity, but not redundant with these attributes. Furthermore, this component was significantly associated with an independent experimental measure of maternal behavior, and with maternal stress as measured by salivary cortisol. In summary, Maternal behavior captured a significant proportion of the variation in maternal style; was stable over time; and had both discriminant and predictive validity. PMID:28239365

  13. Partner relationship satisfaction and maternal emotional distress in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy and the identification of risk factors for this distress are of considerable clinical- and public health importance. The mental health of the mother is important both for herself, and for the physical and psychological health of her children and the welfare of the family. The first aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for maternal emotional distress during pregnancy with special focus on partner relationship satisfaction. The second aim was to assess interaction effects between relationship satisfaction and the main predictors. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 51,558) completed a questionnaire with questions about maternal emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Associations between 37 predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results Relationship dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress (β = 0.25). Other predictors were dissatisfaction at work (β = 0.11), somatic disease (β = 0.11), work related stress (β = 0.10) and maternal alcohol problems in the preceding year (β = 0.09). Relationship satisfaction appeared to buffer the effects of frequent moving, somatic disease, maternal smoking, family income, irregular working hours, dissatisfaction at work, work stress, and mother's sick leave (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dissatisfaction with the partner relationship is a significant predictor of maternal emotional distress in pregnancy. A good partner relationship can have a protective effect against some stressors. PMID:21401914

  14. Early Childhood Anxious Solitude and Subsequent Peer Relationships: Maternal and Cognitive Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Spangler, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the relation between early anxious solitude and subsequent peer relations would be moderated by early relational (maternal sensitivity) and individual factors (child school readiness). Participants were 1364 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  15. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach.

    PubMed

    Kühhirt, Michael; Klein, Markus

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of time-variant confounding. The present study proposes various measures to capture duration, timing, and stability of early maternal employment and uses inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for time-variant confounders that may partially mediate the effect of maternal employment on cognitive scores. The findings suggest only modest differences in the above ability measures between children who have been exposed to very different patterns of eary maternal employment, but with similar observed covariate history. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size: Implications for growth plasticity in early life as adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Figueiroa, José N; Alves, Joao G

    2017-01-01

    Patterns of fetal growth predict non-communicable disease risk in adult life, but fetal growth variability appears to have a relatively weak association with maternal nutritional dynamics during pregnancy. This challenges the interpretation of fetal growth variability as 'adaptation'. We hypothesized that associations of maternal size and nutritional status with neonatal size are mediated by the dimensions of the maternal pelvis. We analysed data on maternal height, body mass index (BMI) and pelvic dimensions (conjugate, inter-spinous and inter-cristal diameters) and neonatal gestational age, weight, length, thorax girth and head girth ( n = 224). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent maternal predictors of neonatal size, and the mediating role of neonatal head girth in these associations. Pelvic dimensions displaced maternal BMI as a predictor of birth weight, explaining 11.6% of the variance. Maternal conjugate and inter-spinous diameters predicted neonatal length, thorax girth and head girth, whereas inter-cristal diameter only predicted neonatal length. Associations of pelvic dimensions with birth length, but not birth weight, were mediated by neonatal head girth. Pelvic dimensions predicted neonatal size better than maternal BMI, and these associations were mostly independent of maternal height. Sensitivity of fetal growth to pelvic dimensions reduces the risk of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, potentially a strong selective pressure during secular trends in height. Selection on fetal adaptation to relatively inflexible components of maternal phenotype, rather than directly to external ecological conditions, may help explain high levels of growth plasticity during late fetal life and early infancy.

  17. Quality of early maternal-child relationship and risk of adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah E; Gooze, Rachel A; Lemeshow, Stanley; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity in adolescence is related to the quality of the early maternal-child relationship. We analyzed data from 977 of 1364 participants in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Child attachment security and maternal sensitivity were assessed by observing mother-child interaction at 15, 24, and 36 months of age. A maternal-child relationship quality score was constructed as the number of times across the 3 ages that the child was either insecurely attached or experienced low maternal sensitivity. Adolescent obesity was defined as a measured BMI ≥95th percentile at age 15 years. Poor-quality maternal-child relationships (score: ≥3) were experienced by 24.7% of children compared with 22.0% who, at all 3 ages, were neither insecurely attached nor exposed to low maternal sensitivity (score: 0). The prevalence of adolescent obesity was 26.1%, 15.5%, 12.1%, and 13.0% for those with risk scores of ≥3, 2, 1, and 0, respectively. After adjustment for gender and birth weight, the odds (95% confidence interval) of adolescent obesity was 2.45 (1.49-4.04) times higher in those with the poorest quality early maternal-child relationships (score: ≥3) compared with those with the highest quality (score: 0). Low maternal sensitivity was more strongly associated with obesity than insecure attachment. Poor quality of the early maternal-child relationship was associated with a higher prevalence of adolescent obesity. Interventions aimed at improving the quality of maternal-child interactions should consider assessing effects on children's weight and examining potential mechanisms involving stress response and emotion regulation.

  18. Effects of maternal separation on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference and subsequent learning and memory in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Dalaveri, Fatemeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Mahani, Saeed Esmaeili; Sheibani, Vahid

    2017-02-03

    Adverse early life experiences can potentially increase risk for drug abuse later in life. However, little research has been conducted studying the effects of maternal separation (MS), an experimental model for early life stress, on the rewarding effects of nicotine. Cognitive function may be affected by MS. So, we also investigated whether nicotine administration affect spatial learning and memory in MS adolescent female rats. Rat pups were subjected to daily MS for 15min (MS15) or 180min (MS180) during the first 2 weeks of life or reared under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions. The place preference test was performed with nicotine (0.6mg/kg,s.c.) or vehicle over a period of 6 conditioning trials during adolescence. Spatial learning and memory performance was evaluated by using Morris water maze (MWM). In our study, adolescent female rats exposed to MS180 shown a significantly greater preference for a nicotine-paired compartment during the testing phase than the MS15 group. Nicotine altered the MS-induced spatial learning defects in the MS180 group. These findings suggest that MS may increase sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine and also it is possible to suggest that nicotine administration may influence learning dysfunction induced by MS in adolescent female rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal Argonaute 2 Is Essential for Early Mouse Development at the Maternal-Zygotic Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lykke-Andersen, Karin; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Grabarek, Joanna B.; Das, Partha; Miska, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Activation of zygotic gene expression in the two-cell mouse embryo is associated with destruction of maternally inherited transcripts, an important process for embryogenesis about which little is understood. We asked whether the Argonaute (Ago)/RNA-induced silencing complex, providing the mRNA “slicer” activity in gene silencing, might contribute to this process. Here we show that Ago2, 3, and 4 transcripts are contributed to the embryo maternally. By systematic knockdown of maternal Ago2, 3, and 4, individually and in combination, we find that only Ago2 is required for development beyond the two-cell stage. Knockdown of Ago2 stabilizes one set of maternal mRNAs and reduces zygotic transcripts of another set of genes. Ago2 is localized in mRNA-degradation P-bodies analogous to those that function in RNAi-like mechanisms in other systems. Profiling the expression of microRNAs throughout preimplantation development identified several candidates that could potentially work with Ago2 to mediate degradation of specific mRNAs. However, their low abundance raises the possibility that other endogenous siRNAs may also participate. Together, our results demonstrate that maternal expression of Ago2 is essential for the earliest stages of mouse embryogenesis and are compatible with the notion that degradation of a proportion of maternal messages involves the RNAi-machinery. PMID:18701707

  20. Daily maternal separations during stress hyporesponsive period decrease the thresholds of panic-like behaviors to electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray of the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Borges-Aguiar, Ana Cristina; Schauffer, Luana Zanoni; de Kloet, Edo Ronald; Schenberg, Luiz Carlos

    2018-05-15

    The present study examined whether early life maternal separation (MS), a model of childhood separation anxiety, predisposes to panic at adulthood. For this purpose, male pups were submitted to 3-h daily maternal separations along postnatal (PN) days of either the 'stress hyporesponsive period' (SHRP) from PN4 to PN14 (MS11) or throughout lactation from PN2 to PN21 (MS20). Pups were further reunited to conscious (CM) or anesthetized (AM) mothers to assess the effect of mother-pup interaction upon reunion. Controls were subjected to brief handling (15 s) once a day throughout lactation (BH20). As adults (PN60), rats were tested for the thresholds to evoke panic-like behaviors upon electrical stimulation of dorsal periaqueductal gray matter and exposed to an elevated plus-maze, an open-field, a forced swim and a sucrose preference test. A factor analysis was also performed to gain insight into the meaning of behavioral tests. MS11-CM rather than MS20-CM rats showed enhanced panic responses and reductions in both swimming and sucrose preference. Panic facilitations were less intense in mother-neglected rats. Although MS did not affect anxiety, MS11-AM showed robust reductions of defecation in an open-field. Factor analysis singled out anxiety, hedonia, exploration, coping and gut activity. Although sucrose preference and coping loaded on separate factors, appetite (adult weight) correlated with active coping in both forced swim and open-field (central area exploration). Concluding, whereas 3h-daily maternal separations during SHRP increased rat's susceptibility to experimental panic attacks, separations throughout lactation had no effects on panic and enhanced active coping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the association between maternal prenatal multivitamin use and early infant growth: The Healthy Start Study.

    PubMed

    Sauder, K A; Starling, A P; Shapiro, A L; Kaar, J L; Ringham, B M; Glueck, D H; Dabelea, D

    2016-10-01

    Prenatal multivitamin supplementation is recommended to improve offspring outcomes, but effects on early infant growth are unknown. We examined whether multivitamin supplementation in the year before delivery predicts offspring mass, body composition and early infant growth. Multivitamin use was assessed longitudinally in 626 women from the Healthy Start Study. Offspring body size and composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography at birth (<3 days) and postnatally (median 5.2 months). Separate multiple linear regressions assessed the relationship of weeks of daily multivitamin use with offspring mass, body composition and postnatal growth, after adjustment for potential confounders (maternal age, race, pre-pregnant body mass index; offspring gestational age at birth, sex; breastfeeding exclusivity). Maternal multivitamin use was not related to offspring mass or body composition at birth, or rate of change in total or fat-free mass in the first 5 months. Multivitamin use was inversely associated with average monthly growth in offspring percent fat mass (β = -0.009, p = 0.049) between birth and postnatal exam. Offspring of non-users had a monthly increase in percent fat mass of 3.45%, while offspring at the top quartile of multivitamin users had a monthly increase in percent fat mass of 3.06%. This association was not modified by exclusive breastfeeding. Increased multivitamin use in the pre-conception and prenatal periods was associated with a slower rate of growth in offspring percent fat mass in the first 5 months of life. This study provides further evidence that in utero nutrient exposures may affect offspring adiposity beyond birth. © 2015 World Obesity.

  2. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C

    2010-11-01

    In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group.

  3. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I.; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. Methods In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Limitations Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. Conclusion We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group. PMID:20964960

  4. Probiotic treatment of rat pups normalises corticosterone release and ameliorates colonic dysfunction induced by maternal separation

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Mélanie G; Jury, Jennifer; MacQueen, Glenda; Sherman, Philip M; Perdue, Mary H

    2007-01-01

    Background We previously showed that neonatal maternal separation (MS) of rat pups causes immediate and long‐term changes in intestinal physiology. Aim To examine if administration of probiotics affects MS‐induced gut dysfunction. Methods MS pups were separated from the dam for 3 h/day from days 4 to 19; non‐separated (NS) pups served as controls. Twice per day during the separation period, 108 probiotic organisms (two strains of Lactobacillus species) were administered to MS and NS pups; vehicle‐treated pups received saline. Studies were conducted on day 20, when blood was collected for corticosterone measurement as an indication of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and colonic function was studied in tissues mounted in Ussing chambers. Ion transport was indicated by baseline and stimulated short‐circuit current (Isc); macromolecular permeability was measured by flux of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) across colonic tissues; and bacterial adherence/penetration into the mucosa was quantified by culturing tissues in selective media. Colonic function and host defence were also evaluated at day 60. Results Isc and HRP flux were significantly higher in the colon of MS versus NS pups. There was increased adhesion/penetration of total bacteria in MS pups, but a significant reduction in Lactobacillus species. Probiotic administration ameliorated the MS‐induced gut functional abnormalities and bacterial adhesion/penetration at both day 20 and 60, and reduced the elevated corticosterone levels at day 20. Conclusions The results indicate that altered enteric flora are responsible for colonic pathophysiology. Probiotics improve gut dysfunction induced by MS, at least in part by normalisation of HPA axis activity. PMID:17339238

  5. Early maternal depressive symptom trajectories: Associations with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior.

    PubMed

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2017-06-01

    This study examines potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms over 2 years postpartum with child behavior problems at school-age in a sample of adolescent mothers and their first-born child. Potential mechanisms include: mother-reported caregiving engagement at 6 months; observed parental nurturance and control, and child competence and affect at 24 months; and mother-reported resilience at 7 years based on achievement of adult developmental tasks. One hundred eighteen low-income African American adolescent mothers were recruited at delivery and followed through child age 7 years. Maternal depressive symptom trajectories over 24 months were estimated (low, medium, and high) based on mother-reported depressive symptoms. Direct and indirect associations between depressive symptom trajectories with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems were examined. The high maternal depressive symptom trajectory was associated with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms (b = 5.52, SE = 1.65, p < .01) and child internalizing problems (b = 7.60, SE = 3.12, p = .02) and externalizing problems (b = 6.23, SE = 3.22, p = .05). Caregiving engagement among high depressive symptom trajectory mothers was significantly associated with observed child affect (b = -0.21, SE = 0.11, p = 0.05). Parental nurturance in toddlerhood mediated the association between high maternal depressive symptom trajectory and child internalizing problems at 7 years (indirect effect b = 2.33, 95% CI: 0.32-5.88). Findings suggest that family based interventions to promote parenting and adolescent resiliency strengthening may be beneficial in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Maternal separation as a risk factor for aggravation of neuropathic pain in later life in mice.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Gaku; Jin, Shijie; Toyama, Asako; Wang, Tian; Suzumura, Akio; Sato, Jun

    2018-06-20

    Psychological stresses such as social loss and separation during childhood induce hardship, referred to as emotional pain. These experiences are well-documented risk factors for the development of physical pain in adulthood. However, the underlying neuronal mechanisms of this exacerbation of pain are largely unknown, and consequently there is no effective pharmacotherapy. In this study, we sought to determine whether infant maternal separation (MS) contributes to aggravation of neuropathic pain in adult mice. MS increased anxiety- and depression-like behavioral responses to adult stress. In MS animals, chronic constriction injury (CCI) heightened the sensory dimension of chronic pain relative to that of control mice. However, MS mice treated with fluoxetine for 4 weeks after MS did not exhibit augmentation of allodynia, and their emotional response was attenuated. Microglia were more abundant in the spinal cord in MS/CCI mice than in control/CCI mice. These results suggest that emotional impairment is related to augmentation of neuropathic pain, and that dysfunction of microglial activation contributes to heightened pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Maternal Mental State Talk and Infants' Early Gestural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…

  8. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  9. The Role of Maternal Depression in Accessing Early Intervention Services for Children with Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgan, Siobhan Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between maternal depression and children's access to early intervention services among a sample of children with developmental delay at age two who were determined to be eligible for early intervention services, were full term and of normal birth weight, and were not previously identified with any special…

  10. Maternal-foetal attachment during early pregnancy in Taiwanese women pregnant by in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Pi-Chao; Bowers, Beverly; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Chen, Chung-Hey; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Lee, Maw-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate maternal-foetal attachment at 9, 12 and 20 weeks gestation and to identify factors that influenced maternal-foetal attachment in Taiwanese women who conceived by in vitro fertilization. Development of maternal-foetal attachment is an important part of taking on the maternal role. However, evidence about maternal-foetal attachment after assisted conception is inconclusive. A longitudinal design with repeated measures. A prospective, longitudinal design with repeated measures was used. Over an 18-month period in 2006-2008, a convenience sample of 160 women who conceived after undergoing successful in vitro fertilization were recruited from a major infertility care centre in Taiwan. Data were collected by self-reported measures, including: (1) Maternal-Foetal Attachment Scale; (2) Symptoms Checklist; (3) Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale; (4) Social Support Apgar; (5) Chinese childbearing attitude Questionnaire; and (6) Awareness of Foetus Scale. The selected instruments to measure each variable were administered to participants at 9, 12 and 20 weeks gestation. Maternal-foetal attachment increased as pregnancy progressed from 9 to 20 weeks gestation. General linear mixed model showed predictors of maternal-foetal attachment included Chinese childbearing attitude, awareness of the foetus, and social support. Health provider awareness of cultural influences on the development of early maternal-foetal attachment of women pregnant by in vitro fertilization is needed. Prenatal education in early pregnancy might incorporate more information about foetal development to allow the mother to visualize her unborn child. Providing social support for women who were conceived by in vitro fertilization is beneficial to the development of maternal-foetal attachment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  12. Nonstandard maternal work schedules during infancy: Implications for children's early behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Leerkes, Esther; Tucker, Jenna; Han, Wen-Jui

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between maternal nonstandard work schedules during infancy and children's early behavior problems, and the extent to which infant temperament may moderate these associations. Hypothesized associations were tested using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care (Phase I). Analyses focused on mothers who returned to work by the time the child was 6 months of age, and who worked an average of at least 35 h per week from 6 through 36 months. At 24 and 36 months, children whose mothers worked a nonstandard schedule had higher internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Modest, albeit inconsistent, evidence suggests that temperamentally reactive children may be more vulnerable to maternal work schedules. Maternal depressive symptoms partially mediated associations between nonstandard maternal work schedules and child behavior outcomes. PMID:19233479

  13. Maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and its association with anxiety and early infant regulatory problems.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Lina Maria; Wallwiener, Stephanie; Müller, Mitho; Doster, Anne; Plewniok, Katharina; Feller, Sandra; Sohn, Christof; Wallwiener, Markus; Reck, Corinna

    2017-11-01

    Maternal self-confidence has become an essential concept in understanding early disturbances in the mother-child relationship. Recent research suggests that maternal self-confidence may be associated with maternal mental health and infant development. The current study investigated the dynamics of maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and the predictive ability of maternal symptoms of depression, anxiety, and early regulatory problems in infants. Questionnaires assessing symptoms of depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and early regulatory problems (Questionnaire for crying, sleeping and feeding) were completed in a sample of 130 women at three different time points (third trimester (T1), first week postpartum (T2), and 4 months postpartum (T3). Maternal self-confidence increased significantly over time. High maternal trait anxiety and early infant regulatory problems negatively contributed to the prediction of maternal self-confidence, explaining 31.8% of the variance (R=.583, F 3,96 =15.950, p<.001). Our results emphasize the transactional association between maternal self-confidence, regulatory problems in infants, and maternal mental distress. There is an urgent need for appropriate programs to reduce maternal anxiety and to promote maternal self-confidence in order to prevent early regulatory problems in infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal Metabolic Health Parameters During Pregnancy in Relation to Early Childhood BMI Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Parisa; Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Basterrechea, Mikel; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Monica; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Murcia, Mario; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Valvi, Damaskini

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal and Child Internalizing Symptoms Predicting Early Adolescent Emotional Eating.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    To examine maternal and child internalizing symptoms as predictors of early adolescent emotional eating in a longitudinal framework spanning three critical developmental periods (preschool, elementary school, and early adolescence). Participants were 170 children recruited at preschool age for a longitudinal study. When children were 5.25 years, their mothers completed ratings of their own internalizing symptoms. During the spring of 4th grade, children completed measures of internalizing symptoms. In early adolescence, youth completed a measure of emotional eating. Maternal and child internalizing symptoms predicted adolescent emotional eating. The results indicated that child psychopathology moderated the association between maternal psychopathology (except for maternal anxiety) and early adolescent emotional eating. There was no evidence of mediation. Pediatric psychologists are encouraged to provide early screening of, and interventions for, maternal and child internalizing symptoms to prevent children's emotional eating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Adolescent adrenocortical activity and adiposity: differences by sex and exposure to early maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-09-01

    Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-lasting changes in stress-induced corticosterone response and anxiety-like behaviors as a consequence of neonatal maternal separation in Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Easterling, Keith W; Plotsky, Paul M; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2002-08-01

    Early neonatal environmental factors appear to have powerful and long-lasting influences on an organism's physiology and behavior. Long-Evans male rats separated from their dam for 3 h daily over the first 2 weeks of life (maternally separated, MS rats) when tested as adults exhibit exaggerated behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress compared to 15-min separated (handled, H) animals. The purpose of this study was to compare male and female adult rats that were MS, H or were undisturbed (nonhandled, NH) as neonates in anxiety-like behaviors, in the elevated plus-maze, and in response to startle-inducing auditory stimuli. We confirmed that MS males oversecrete corticosterone (CORT; 2.5-5 times) in response to mild handling stress. MS males and females were less likely to explore open arms of the plus-maze. MS males exhibited 35% higher startle amplitudes compared to controls. Furthermore, MS males were more likely to emit ultrasonic vocalizations in response to startle than were H controls. However, MS and control females did not differ in auditory startle response or in startle-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. Therefore, experiencing maternal separation results in a long-lasting increase in anxiety-like behaviors that occurs in a sex-dependent manner.

  18. Preventing maternal and early childhood obesity: the fetal flaw in Australian perinatal care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Margaret; Hearn, Lydia; van der Pligt, Paige; Wilcox, Jane; Campbell, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of Australian women of child-bearing age are overweight or obese, with a rate of 30-50% reported in early pregnancy. Maternal adiposity is a costly challenge for Australian obstetric care, with associated serious maternal and neonatal complications. Excess gestational weight gain is an important predictor of offspring adiposity into adulthood and higher maternal weight later in life. Current public health and perinatal care approaches in Australia do not adequately address excess perinatal maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This paper argues that the failure of primary health-care providers to offer systematic advice and support regarding women's weight and related lifestyle behaviours in child-bearing years is an outstanding 'missed opportunity' for prevention of inter-generational overweight and obesity. Barriers to action could be addressed through greater attention to: clinical guidelines for maternal weight management for the perinatal period, training and support of maternal health-care providers to develop skills and confidence in raising weight issues with women, a variety of weight management programs provided by state maternal health services, and clear referral pathways to them. Attention is also required to service systems that clearly define roles in maternal weight management and ensure consistency and continuity of support across the perinatal period.

  19. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Prematurity and Recurrent Wheezing in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Rachel G; Kumar, Rajesh; Arguelles, Lester M; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Apollon, Stephanie; Bonzagni, Anthony; Ortiz, Kathryn; Pearson, Colleen; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Prenatal maternal smoking and prematurity independently affect wheezing and asthma in childhood. Objective We sought to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal smoking and prematurity upon the development of early childhood wheezing. Methods We evaluated 1448 children with smoke exposure data from a prospective urban birth cohort in Boston. Maternal antenatal and postnatal exposure was determined from standardized questionnaires. Gestational age was assessed by the first day of the last menstrual period and early prenatal ultrasound (preterm<37 weeks gestation). Wheezing episodes were determined from medical record extraction of well and ill/unscheduled visits. The primary outcome was recurrent wheezing, defined as ≥ 4 episodes of physician documented wheezing. Logistic regression models and zero inflated negative binomial regression (for number of episodes of wheeze) assessed the independent and joint association of prematurity and maternal antenatal smoking on recurrent wheeze, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In the cohort, 90 (6%) children had recurrent wheezing, 147 (10%) were exposed to in utero maternal smoke and 419 (29%) were premature. Prematurity (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1) was associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing, but in utero maternal smoking was not (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.4). Jointly, maternal smoke exposure and prematurity caused an increased risk of recurrent wheezing (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). There was an interaction between prematurity and maternal smoking upon episodes of wheezing (p=0.049). Conclusions We demonstrated an interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prematurity on childhood wheezing in this urban, multiethnic birth cohort. PMID:22290763

  20. Maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes as potential moderators of the relation between maternal history of care and maternal cortisol secretion in the context of mother-infant separation.

    PubMed

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Jamieson, Brittany; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie

    2017-10-01

    A mother's cortisol secretion is importantly associated with her own mental health and her infant's cortisol secretion. This study investigated the influences of maternal history of care and maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes on maternal cortisol in the context of infant stress. A community sample of 296 mother-infant dyads completed a maternal separation at infant age 17 months. Maternal salivary cortisol, buccal cells, and self-reported history of care were collected. Multilevel models revealed that history of care had a greater influence on maternal baseline cortisol (but not cortisol trajectory) for mothers with more plasticity alleles of SLC6A3 (10R) and OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer or no plasticity alleles. Findings indicate that a mother's history of care is related to her cortisol secretion in anticipation of infant stress, but that this relation depends on her genetic characteristics. Findings are discussed in relation to the maternal protective system and anticipatory cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of Maternal Cytomegalovirus Serostatus in Early Pregnancy: A Retrospective Analysis in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kuessel, Lorenz; Husslein, Heinrich; Marschalek, Julian; Brunner, Julia; Ristl, Robin; Popow-Kraupp, Theresia; Kiss, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent congenital viral infection and thus places an enormous disease burden on newborn infants. Seroprevalence of maternal antibodies to CMV due to CMV exposure prior to pregnancy is currently the most important protective factor against congenital CMV disease. The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors, and to develop and evaluate a risk-predicting model for the maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy. Methods Maternal and paternal background information, as well as maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy from 882 pregnant women were analyzed. Women were divided into two groups based on their CMV serostatus, and were compared using univariate analysis. To predict serostatus based on epidemiological baseline characteristics, a multiple logistic regression model was calculated using stepwise model selection. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using ROC curves. A nomogram based on the model was developed. Results 646 women were CMV seropositive (73.2%), and 236 were seronegative (26.8%). The groups differed significantly with respect to maternal age (p = 0.006), gravidity (p<0.001), parity (p<0.001), use of assisted reproduction techniques (p = 0.018), maternal and paternal migration background (p<0.001), and maternal and paternal education level (p<0.001). ROC evaluation of the selected prediction model revealed an area under the curve of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.8–0.86), yielding sensitivity and specificity values of 0.69 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion We identified predictors of maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy and developed a risk-predicting model based on baseline epidemiological characteristics. Our findings provide easy accessible information that can influence the counseling of pregnant woman in terms of their CMV-associated risk. PMID:26693714

  2. Cardiac oxidative stress following maternal separation stress was mitigated following adolescent voluntary exercise in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Sahafi, Ehtramolsadat; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Azarbyjani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known as a risk factor for the development of depression and its associated comorbidities, such as cardiomyopathy in depressed patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of depression and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence indicates that regular physical activity has therapeutic effects on both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, the voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) during adolescence may be able to attenuate the negative impact of maternal separation stress (MS) as a valid animal model of depression on the behavior and cardiac mitochondrial function of adult rats. To do this, we applied MS to rat pups by separating them from their mothers for 180min during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 14. Next, the animals were randomly divided into different treatment groups (fluoxetine [FLX] and RW) and received the treatments during adolescence, between PND 28 to PND 60. Then, we evaluated the effects of MS on the rat behaviors test, and finally, we assessed reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial glutathione, ATP and cytochrome c release in the cardiac tissue of animals. Our results showed that depressive-like behaviors following MS in adult male rats were associated with oxidative stress in cardiac tissue. Further, we found that treating animals with chronic FLX or RW during adolescence improved animal's behavior as well as cardiac mitochondrial function. The results of this study highlight the importance of adolescence as a period during which treating animals with non-pharmacological agents has significant protective effects against the negative influence of ELS on mood and cardiac energy hemostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early working memory and maternal communication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Jean; Erickson, Sarah J; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne W

    2010-01-01

    Aim Early working memory is emerging as an important indicator of developmental outcome predicting later cognitive, behavioural and academic competencies. The current study compared early working memory in a sample of toddlers (18–22 months) born very low birth weight (VLBW; n = 40) and full term (n = 51) and the relationship between early working memory, mental developmental index (MDI), and maternal communication in both samples. Methods Early working memory, measured by object permanence; Bayley mental developmental index; and maternal communication, coded during mother-toddler play interaction, were examined in 39 toddlers born VLBW and 41 toddlers born full term. Results Toddlers born VLBW were found to be 6.4 times less likely to demonstrate attainment of object permanence than were toddlers born full term, adjusting for age at testing. MDI and maternal communication were found to be positively associated with attainment of object permanence in the VLBW group only. Conclusion The difference found in the early working memory performance of toddlers born VLBW, compared with those born full term, emphasizes the importance of assessing early working memory in at-risk populations, while the maternal communication finding highlights potential targets of intervention for improving working memory in toddlers born VLBW. PMID:19154525

  4. Early working memory and maternal communication in toddlers born very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jean; Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne W

    2009-04-01

    Early working memory is emerging as an important indicator of developmental outcome predicting later cognitive, behavioural and academic competencies. The current study compared early working memory in a sample of toddlers (18-22 months) born very low birth weight (VLBW; n = 40) and full term (n = 51) and the relationship between early working memory, mental developmental index (MDI), and maternal communication in both samples. Early working memory, measured by object permanence; Bayley mental developmental index; and maternal communication, coded during mother-toddler play interaction, were examined in 39 toddlers born VLBW and 41 toddlers born full term. Toddlers born VLBW were found to be 6.4 times less likely to demonstrate attainment of object permanence than were toddlers born full term, adjusting for age at testing. MDI and maternal communication were found to be positively associated with attainment of object permanence in the VLBW group only. The difference found in the early working memory performance of toddlers born VLBW, compared with those born full term, emphasizes the importance of assessing early working memory in at-risk populations, while the maternal communication finding highlights potential targets of intervention for improving working memory in toddlers born VLBW.

  5. Impairment of decision making and disruption of synchrony between basolateral amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex in the maternally separated rat.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Xiangwei; Poon, David Chun-Hei; Jelfs, Beth; Chan, Rosa H M; Wu, Justin Che-Yuen; Li, Ying

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable evidence to suggest early life experiences, such as maternal separation (MS), play a role in the prevalence of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairment. At the same time, optimal decision making requires functional integrity between the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and any dysfunction of this system is believed to induce decision-making deficits. However, the impact of MS on decision-making behavior and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied. As such, we consider the impact of MS on the emotional and cognitive functions of rats by employing the open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and rat gambling task (RGT). Using multi-channel recordings from freely behaving rats, we assessed the effects of MS on the large scale synchrony between the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ACC; while also characterizing the relationship between neural spiking activity and the ongoing oscillations in theta frequency band across the BLA and ACC. The results indicated that the MS rats demonstrated anxiety-like behavior. While the RGT showed a decrease in the percentage of good decision-makers, and an increase in the percentage of poor decision-makers. Electrophysiological data revealed an increase in the total power in the theta band of the LFP in the BLA and a decrease in theta power in the ACC in MS rats. MS was also found to disrupt the spike-field coherence of the ACC single unit spiking activity to the ongoing theta oscillations in the BLA and interrupt the synchrony in the BLA-ACC pathway. We provide specific evidence that MS leads to decision-making deficits that are accompanied by alteration of the theta band LFP in the BLA-ACC circuitries and disruption of the neural network integrity. These observations may help revise fundamental notions regarding neurophysiological biomarkers to treat cognitive impairment induced by early life stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Inside stories: maternal representations of first time mothers from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Julia; Clarke, David; Cross, Wendy

    2014-03-01

    According to the psychoanalytical literature, it is during pregnancy that maternal representations of the mother-infant relationship become activated. Midwives who are engaged with the mother and the baby have not drawn upon this concept in their practice. In order for this to happen, it is important to understand better the nature of maternal representations and when they are activated from empirical studies. The research question is: what are the maternal representations of a group of first time mothers from pre-pregnancy, early pregnancy and to the first ultrasound. A narrative approach was used to gain insight into the maternal representations of first time pregnant womens' account of their representations. The analysis method was based on thematic approach. Fifteen women aged between 23 and 38 years. A midwives clinic attached to a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia. First-time pregnant women's maternal representations were activated when a woman begins to plan her pregnancy ('the time is right'), again at the onset of physical changes to her body as a result of conception ('my body is changing'), and at the first early ultrasound at around twelve weeks ('it' is a real baby). Maternal representations are important for the midwife and pregnant women because this concept provides another understanding in relation to the psychological dimension of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal depressive symptoms and early childhood cognitive development: a review of putative environmental mediators.

    PubMed

    Ahun, Marilyn N; Côté, Sylvana M

    2018-06-06

    Despite the abundance of research investigating the associations between maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) and children's cognitive development, little is known about the putative mechanisms through which depressive symptoms are associated with children's cognitive development. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on family mediators (i.e., maternal parenting behaviors, mother-child interactions, and family stress) involved in this association in early childhood. The review includes seven studies, five longitudinal and two cross-sectional, which tested putative mediators of the association between MDS and children's cognitive development. Studies were selected from online databases (PubMed, PsycNet) and manual searches. Only studies which quantitatively assessed associations between MDS in the postnatal period and child cognitive development in early childhood (i.e., 0-5 years) and included mediator variables were included in the review. Six out of seven studies identified mediating variables. The mediators included maternal responsiveness, parenting style, family dysfunction, the quality of the home environment, and maternal caregiving practices. Different mediators were identified across the reviewed studies. Maternal depressive symptoms are partly associated with child cognitive development via family processes and parenting practices. Various mediating processes are at play. Further research is needed on the role of maternal and paternal mental health and gene-environment correlations in this association. A better understanding of the mediating pathways is needed for the design of preventative intervention targeting specific family processes.

  8. Predictors of early survival in Soay sheep: cohort-, maternal- and individual-level variation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Owen R; Crawley, Michael J; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2005-01-01

    A demographic understanding of population dynamics requires an appreciation of the processes influencing survival—a demographic rate influenced by parameters varying at the individual, maternal and cohort level. There have been few attempts to partition the variance in demography contributed by each of these parameter types. Here, we use data from a feral population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries), from the island of St Kilda, to explore the relative importance of these parameter types on early survival. We demonstrate that the importance of variation occurring at the level of the individual, and maternally, far outweighs that occurring at the cohort level. The most important variables within the individual and maternal levels were birth weight and maternal age class, respectively. This work underlines the importance of using individual based models in ecological demography and we, therefore, caution against studies that focus solely on population processes. PMID:16321784

  9. Profiles of disruptive behavior across early childhood: Contributions of frustration reactivity, physiological regulation, and maternal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Kathryn A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior, including aggression, defiance, and temper tantrums, typically peaks in early toddlerhood and decreases by school entry; however, some children do not show this normative decline. The current study examined disruptive behavior in 318 boys and girls at 2, 4, and 5 years of age and frustration reactivity, physiological regulation, and maternal behavior in the laboratory at 2 years of age. A latent profile analysis (LPA) resulted in 4 longitudinal profiles of disruptive behavior, which were differentiated by interactions between reactivity, regulation, and maternal behavior. A high profile was associated with high reactivity combined with high maternal control or low regulation combined with low maternal control. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective. PMID:18826530

  10. Maternal Education, Early Child Care and the Reproduction of Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crosnoe, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The social and human capital that educational attainment provides women enables them to better navigate their children's passages through school. In this study, we examine a key mechanism in this intergenerational process: mothers' selection of early child care. Analyses of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that…

  11. Early postnatal maternal deprivation in rats induces memory deficits in adult life that can be reversed by donepezil and galantamine.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; Mello, Pâmela Billig; Bonini, Juliana Sartori; Monteiro, Siomara; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2009-02-01

    Early postnatal maternal deprivation is known to cause long-lasting neurobiological effects. Here, we investigated whether some of the cognitive aspects of these deficits might be related to a disruption of the cholinergic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were individually housed and maintained on a 12:12h light/dark cycle with food and water freely available. The mothers were separated from their pups for 3h per day from postnatal day 1 (PND-1) to PND-10. To do that, the dams were moved to a different cage and the pups maintained in the original home cage, which was transferred to a different room kept at 32 degrees C. After they reached 120-150 days of age, maternal-deprived and non-deprived animals were either sacrificed for brain acetylcholinesterase measurement, or trained and tested in an object recognition task and in a social recognition task as described by Rossato et al. (2007) [Rossato, J.I., Bevilaqua, L. R.M., Myskiw, J.C., Medina, J.H., Izquierdo, I., Cammarota, M. 2007. On the role hippocampal synthesis in the consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Learn. Mem. 14, 36-46] and Lévy et al. (2003) [Lévy, F., Melo. A.I., Galef. B.G. Jr., Madden, M., Fleming. A.S. 2003. Complete maternal deprivation affects social, but not spatial, learning in adult rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 43, 177-191], respectively. There was increased acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex of the deprived animals. In addition, they showed a clear impairment in memory of the two recognition tasks measured 24h after training. Oral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil or galantamine (1mg/kg) 30min before training reversed the memory impairments caused by maternal deprivation. The findings suggest that maternal deprivation affects memory processing at adulthood through a change in brain cholinergic systems.

  12. Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, M; Comasco, E; Nylander, I; Nilsson, K W

    2015-01-01

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption affect Maoa expression in stress- and reward-related brain regions in the rat. Outbred Wistar rats were exposed to rearing conditions associated with stress (prolonged maternal separation) or no stress during early life, and given free choice between alcohol and/or water in adulthood. Transcript levels of Maoa were assessed in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala and dorsal striatum (DS). Blood was collected to assess corticosterone levels. After alcohol consumption, lower blood corticosterone and Maoa expression in the NAc and DS were found in rats exposed to early life stress compared with control rats. An interaction between early life stress and voluntary alcohol intake was found in the NAc. Alcohol intake before death correlated negatively with Maoa expression in DS in high alcohol-drinking rats exposed to early life stress. Maoa expression is sensitive to adulthood voluntary alcohol consumption in the presence of early life stress in outbred rats. These findings add knowledge of the molecular basis of the previously reported associations between early life stress, MAOA and susceptibility to alcohol misuse. PMID:26645625

  13. Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Bendre, M; Comasco, E; Nylander, I; Nilsson, K W

    2015-12-08

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption affect Maoa expression in stress- and reward-related brain regions in the rat. Outbred Wistar rats were exposed to rearing conditions associated with stress (prolonged maternal separation) or no stress during early life, and given free choice between alcohol and/or water in adulthood. Transcript levels of Maoa were assessed in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala and dorsal striatum (DS). Blood was collected to assess corticosterone levels. After alcohol consumption, lower blood corticosterone and Maoa expression in the NAc and DS were found in rats exposed to early life stress compared with control rats. An interaction between early life stress and voluntary alcohol intake was found in the NAc. Alcohol intake before death correlated negatively with Maoa expression in DS in high alcohol-drinking rats exposed to early life stress. Maoa expression is sensitive to adulthood voluntary alcohol consumption in the presence of early life stress in outbred rats. These findings add knowledge of the molecular basis of the previously reported associations between early life stress, MAOA and susceptibility to alcohol misuse.

  14. Improvements in maternal depression as a mediator of intervention effects on early childhood problem behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Connell, Arin; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been consistently linked to the development of child problem behavior, particularly in early childhood, but few studies have examined whether reductions in maternal depression serve as a mediator in relation to changes associated with a family-based intervention. The current study addressed this issue with a sample of 731 families receiving services from a national food supplement and nutrition program. Families with toddlers between ages 2 and 3 were sereened and then randomized to a brief family intervention, the Family Check-Up, which included linked interventions that were tailored and adapted to the families needs. Follow-up intervention services were provided at age 3 and follow-up of child outcomes oecurred at ages 3 and 4. Latent growth models revealed intervention effects for early externalizing and internalizing problems from 2 to 4, and reductions in maternal depression from ages 2 to 3. In addition, reductions in maternal depression mediated improvements in both child externalizing and internalizing problem behavior after accounting for the potential mediating effects of improvements in positive parenting. The results are discussed with respect to targeting maternal depression in future intervention studies aimed at improving early child problem behavior. PMID:19338691

  15. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.

  16. To Separate or Not to Separate? Parental Decision-Making regarding the Separation of Twins in the Early Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Sally; Thorpe, Karen; Thompson, Catherine; Danby, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In recent times concerns about possible adverse effects of early separation and advocacy for individual rights have resulted in a movement away from organizational level policies about the separation of twin children as they enter school. Instead, individualized approaches that focus on the twin children's characteristics and family perspectives…

  17. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  18. First-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Giulia; Nespoli, Antonella; Fumagalli, Simona; Borrelli, Sara E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore first-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services when admitted to hospital or advised to return home after maternity triage assessment. The study was conducted in a second-level maternity hospital in northern Italy with an obstetric unit for both low- and high-risk women. The participants included 15 first-time mothers in good general health with spontaneous labour at term of a low-risk pregnancy who accessed maternity triage during early labour, and were either admitted to hospital or advised to return home. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. A face-to-face recorded semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant 48-72h after birth. Four key themes emerged from the interviews: (a) recognising signs of early labour; (b) coping with pain at home; (c) seeking reassurance from healthcare professionals; and (d) being admitted to hospital versus returning home. Uncertainty about the progression of labour and the need for reassurance were cited by women as the main reasons for hospital visit in early labour. An ambivalent feeling was reported by the participants when admitted to hospital in early labour. In fact, while the women felt reassured in the first instance, some women subsequently felt dissatisfied due to the absence of one-to-one dedicated care during early labour. When advised to return home, a number of women reported feelings of disappointment, anger, fear, discouragement and anxiety about not being admitted to hospital; however, some of these women reported a subsequent feeling of comfort due to being at home and putting in place the suggestions made by the midwives during the maternity triage assessment. The guidance provided by midwives during triage assessment seemed to be the key factor influencing women׳s satisfaction when advised either to return home or to stay at the hospital during early labour. During antenatal classes and clinics

  19. Maternal separation and proclivity for ethanol intake: a potential role of the endocannabinoid system in rats.

    PubMed

    Romano-López, A; Méndez-Díaz, M; Ruiz-Contreras, A E; Carrisoza, R; Prospéro-García, O

    2012-10-25

    Maternal separation (MS) during the first postnatal weeks induces alcohol intake and a reduction in the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Adults' alcohol consumption may depend on changes in the endocannabinoid system (eCBs). Our goal was to evaluate the status of the eCBs before the exposition to alcohol to support the notion that eCBs' alterations prompt rats to drink alcohol. To reach this goal we subjected rats to MS for the first 2 postnatal weeks. Then, we allowed rats to grow with no further manipulation until they reached adulthood. Thereafter, rats were exposed to an alcohol solution (10% of alcohol in water) as the only source of drinking liquid (forced alcohol ingestion). At the end of this period, tap water was added as an option for drinking liquid (voluntary alcohol ingestion) for another 10 days. Different groups of rats (non-MS, and MS) were sacrificed when adult but with no exposition to alcohol whatsoever, to dissect frontal cortex (FCx), ventral striatum (VS) and hippocampus (HIP) to analyze the following: The expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R), CB2R, GR and methylated CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Levels of GABA and glutamate were quantified in the same brain structures. We found CB1 receptor expression increased in the VS while it was decreased in the FCx in MS subjects. No changes in the CB2R or in the MeCP2 were detected. We found GABA levels increased in FCx and HIP but decreased in VS in MS. Likewise, glutamate levels increased in the FCx but decreased in the HIP in MS subjects. These findings suggest that MS induces changes in the CB1R expression, which might contribute to induce a proclivity to ingest alcohol and, potentially, other drugs. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reminiscing in the Early Years: Patterns of Maternal Elaborativeness and Children's Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haden, Catherine A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Rudek, David J.; Cameron, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on individual differences in maternal style and children's developing recall abilities in early memory conversations. Within a longitudinal design, a sample of 56 mother-child dyads was observed while reminiscing, and the children's language skills were assessed when they were 18, 24, and 30 months old. In contrast to mothers…

  1. The Long-Term Effects of Early and Recent Maternal Employment on a Child's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    More children today are being raised in households with mothers who work for pay compared to a generation ago, when most mothers did not engage in marketplace work. This demographic change is important because it could affect children. In this article, the effects of early and recent maternal employment on a child's academic development are…

  2. Maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation upregulates myogenic genes in cattle fetal muscle tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prenatal myogenesis is a critical factor in determining the muscle growth potential of cattle. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during early gestation would alter the transcriptome of fetal primordial muscle tissue in cattle. A total of 14 Angus-cross heifers were estrus synchroniz...

  3. Early and Later Maternal-Infant Interactions in Adolescent Mothers: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Judith M.; And Others

    This study examined differences between the positive mother-infant interactions of adolescents and those of young adult mothers, both before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and educational level. The study also investigated factors related to adolescents' early and later maternal-infant interaction patterns. Subjects were 100…

  4. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Maternal Perspectives on Transition Experiences in Early Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; Speirs, Katherine Elizabeth; Encinger, Amy Johnson; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Strong relationships among children, families, and early care and education (ECE) providers are key to quality infant-toddler care. These relationships are shaped during the initial transition period to group care. We used a mixed methods approach to (a) assess maternal perspectives on the transition to group care, (b) explore…

  5. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Secure Base Use in Early Childhood: Studies in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…

  6. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

  7. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  8. Maternal Warmth and Early Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms and Externalizing Behavior: Mediation via Emotional Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Albert; Benson, Mark J.; Pérez-Escoda, Núria

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relation between maternal warmth and the internalizing and externalizing problems of early adolescents, and the potential mediation of this relation by emotional insecurity. The hypotheses for the study derive from Cummings and Davies' theory of emotional security. The current study extends the theory to security processes…

  9. Impact of Low Maternal Education on Early Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Antipkin, Youriy; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Lioret, Sandrine; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iñiguez, Carmen; Larrañaga, Isabel; Bakoula, Chryssa; Veltsista, Alexandra; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Andrýsková, Lenka; Dušek, Ladislav; Barros, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjö, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek

    2016-05-01

    Comparable evidence on adiposity inequalities in early life is lacking across a range of European countries. This study investigates whether low maternal education is associated with overweight and obesity risk in children from distinct European settings during early childhood. Prospective data of 45 413 children from 11 European cohorts were used. Children's height and weight obtained at ages 4-7 years were used to assess prevalent overweight and obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force definition. The Relative/Slope Indices of Inequality (RII/SII) were estimated within each cohort and by gender to investigate adiposity risk among children born to mothers with low education as compared to counterparts born to mothers with high education. Individual-data meta-analyses were conducted to obtain aggregate estimates and to assess heterogeneity between cohorts. Low maternal education yielded a substantial risk of early childhood adiposity across 11 European countries. Low maternal education yielded a mean risk ratio of 1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 1.85) and a mean risk difference of 7.78% (5.34, 10.22) in early childhood overweight, respectively, measured by the RII and SII. Early childhood obesity risk by low maternal education was as substantial for all cohorts combined (RII = 2.61 (2.10, 3.23)) and (SII = 4.01% (3.14, 4.88)). Inequalities in early childhood adiposity were consistent among boys, but varied among girls in a few cohorts. Considerable inequalities in overweight and obesity are evident among European children in early life. Tackling early childhood adiposity is necessary to promote children's immediate health and well-being and throughout the life course. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Oxytocin Pathways in the Intergenerational Transmission of Maternal Early Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Toepfer, Philipp; Heim, Christine; Entringer, Sonja; Binder, Elisabeth; Wadhwa, Pathik; Buss, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Severe stress in early life, such as childhood abuse and neglect, constitutes a major risk factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders and somatic diseases. Importantly, these long-term effects may impact the next generation. The intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress (ELS) may occur via pre-and postnatal pathways, such as alterations in maternal-fetal-placental stress physiology, maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as impaired mother-offspring interactions. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has gained considerable attention for its role in modulating all of these assumed transmission pathways. Moreover, central and peripheral OT signaling pathways are highly sensitive to environmental exposures and may be compromised by ELS with implications for these putative transmission mechanisms. Together, these data suggest that OT pathways play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS in humans. By integrating recent studies on gene-environment interactions and epigenetic modifications in OT pathway genes, the present review aims to develop a conceptual framework of intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS that emphasizes the role of OT. PMID:28027955

  11. Maternal depression and suicide at immediate prenatal and early postpartum periods and psychosocial risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peixia; Ren, Hui; Li, Hong; Dai, Qin

    2018-03-01

    Maternal depression has been intensively explored; however, less attention has been paid to maternal suicide. No studies to date have observed maternal depression and suicide at immediate prenatal and early postpartum stages. In total, 213 Chinese women were recruited in hospitals after they were admitted for childbirth. All completed a short-term longitudinal survey at perinatal stages. Women reported lower depression scores (6.65) and higher suicidal ideation incidence (11.74%) after childbirth. Prenatal depression raised the possibility of prenatal suicidal ideation, while prenatal depression and suicidal ideation increased postpartum depression and suicidal ideation. At immediate prenatal stage, marital satisfaction protected women from depression, while miscarriage experiences and self-esteem increased the risk. At early postpartum stage, in contrast, being first-time mother, marital satisfaction, and harmony with mother-in-law prevented them from depression. Our study is among the first to confirm that women have decreased depression but increased suicidal ideation at early postpartum, and a causal relationship between them, which are worthy of public attention. Potential protective (marital satisfaction, being first-time mother, and harmony with mother-in-law) or risk factors (miscarriage experiences and self-esteem) of maternal depression and suicidal ideation are identified at perinatal stages. This offers reliable guidance for clinical practice of health care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of maternal smoking cessation before and during early pregnancy on fetal and childhood growth.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Zheng, Wei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2014-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction and childhood obesity, but only a few studies have examined the association of smoking cessation before and during pregnancy with fetal and childhood growth. We examined this association in a prospective cohort study in Japan. Our study included children born between 1991 and 2006 and their mothers. Using a questionnaire, maternal smoking status was recorded at pregnancy. The anthropometric data of the children were collected during a medical check-up at age 3 years. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for data analysis stratified by sex. In total, 2663 mothers reported their smoking status during early pregnancy, and data were collected from 2230 (83.7%) children at age 3 years. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in birth weight (approximately 120-150 g). Body mass index at age 3 years was significantly higher among boys born to smoking mothers than among boys born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with overweight at age 3 years among boys (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.03-5.4). However, among women who stopped smoking in early pregnancy, there was no increase in the risks of a small for gestational age birth or childhood overweight at age 3 years. Children born to mothers who stopped smoking before or during early pregnancy had appropriate fetal and childhood growth.

  13. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A; Serra-Majem, Luis

    2013-01-01

    To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52-2.98) and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01-4.04), gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27-3.19) and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13-7.32) and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12-8.91) and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46-22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25-3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03-2.99), tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14-1.63) and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11) and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35-2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56-2.56) and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12-3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62-8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50-8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41-8.54). Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those women who intend to get pregnant and to

  14. Testing maternal depression and attachment style as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on parenting.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Lisa J; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Roggman, Lori A; Green, Beth L; Robinson, JoAnn; Spieker, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal depression, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on four parenting outcomes assessed at age three. Participants (N = 947) were drawn from six sites of the Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation Project, a multi-site randomized trial. Findings suggest more positive program effects for mothers with less initial attachment avoidance or attachment anxiety. First, baseline attachment avoidance moderated Early Head Start program effects on observed maternal supportiveness, such that program mothers with lower baseline attachment avoidance were rated as more supportive of their three-year-olds than program mothers with higher baseline attachment avoidance. Second, program effects on spanking varied depending on mothers' baseline attachment anxiety.

  15. Non-equivalent contributions of maternal and paternal genomes to early plant embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Del Toro-De León, Gerardo; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Gillmor, C Stewart

    2014-10-30

    Zygotic genome activation in metazoans typically occurs several hours to a day after fertilization, and thus maternal RNAs and proteins drive early animal embryo development. In plants, despite several molecular studies of post-fertilization transcriptional activation, the timing of zygotic genome activation remains a matter of debate. For example, two recent reports that used different hybrid ecotype combinations for RNA sequence profiling of early Arabidopsis embryo transcriptomes came to divergent conclusions. One identified paternal contributions that varied by gene, but with overall maternal dominance, while the other found that the maternal and paternal genomes are transcriptionally equivalent. Here we assess paternal gene activation functionally in an isogenic background, by performing a large-scale genetic analysis of 49 EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes and testing the ability of wild-type paternal alleles to complement phenotypes conditioned by mutant maternal alleles. Our results demonstrate that wild-type paternal alleles for nine of these genes are completely functional 2 days after pollination, with the remaining 40 genes showing partial activity beginning at 2, 3 or 5 days after pollination. Using our functional assay, we also demonstrate that different hybrid combinations exhibit significant variation in paternal allele activation, reconciling the apparently contradictory results of previous transcriptional studies. The variation in timing of gene function that we observe confirms that paternal genome activation does not occur in one early discrete step, provides large-scale functional evidence that maternal and paternal genomes make non-equivalent contributions to early plant embryogenesis, and uncovers an unexpectedly profound effect of hybrid genetic backgrounds on paternal gene activity.

  16. Maternal buffering beyond glucocorticoids: impact of early life stress on corticolimbic circuits that control infant responses to novelty

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Brittany R.; McMurray, Matthew S.; Guzman, Dora B.; Nair, Govind; Shi, Yundi; McCormack, Kai M.; Hu, Xiaoping; Styner, Martin A.; Sanchez, Mar M.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal presence has a potent buffering effect on infant fear and stress responses in primates. We previously reported that maternal presence is not effective in buffering the endocrine stress response in infant rhesus monkeys reared by maltreating mothers. We have also reported that maltreating mothers show low maternal responsiveness and permissiveness/secure-base behavior. Although still not understood, it is possible that this maternal buffering effect is mediated, at least partially, through deactivation of amygdala response circuits when mothers are present. Here we studied rhesus monkey infants that differed in the quality of early maternal care to investigate how this early experience modulated maternal buffering effects on behavioral responses to novelty during the weaning period. We also examined the relationship between these behavioral responses and structural connectivity in one of the underlying regulatory neural circuits: amygdala-prefrontal pathways. Our findings suggest that infant exploration in a novel situation is predicted by maternal responsiveness and structural integrity of amygdala-prefrontal white matter depending on maternal presence (positive relationships when mother is absent). These results provide evidence that maternal buffering of infant behavioral inhibition is dependent on the quality of maternal care and structural connectivity of neural pathways that are sensitive to early life stress. PMID:27295326

  17. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between maternal employment in the 2 years after childbearing and children's skills in first grade. There were neutral associations between maternal employment and children's first-grade skills in both countries. However, there was a slight indication that more time away from parenting was negatively linked to children's behavioral functioning in Australia and employment begun between 9 and 24 months was positively linked to cognitive skills for U.K. children of low-wage mothers. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Maternal state of mind regarding attachment, maternal depression and children's family drawings in the early school years.

    PubMed

    Fihrer, Irene; McMahon, Cathy

    2009-11-01

    The current study explored how children's family drawings in the early school years might be related to their exposure to recurrent episodes of maternal depression. We also examined prospectively relations among maternal state of mind regarding attachment derived from the Adult Attachment Interview and earlier mother-child attachment from the Strange Situation Procedure (both measured when the child was 12-15 months old) and later family drawings. Seventy-five mothers were assessed for symptoms of depression periodically between birth and child age 6-8 years. At this age, children completed a family drawing rated using an attachment-based scoring system. Both mothers' state of mind regarding attachment and their overall depression were modestly, but significantly, correlated with a global rating of the child's drawings. When both predictors were considered together, however, neither was significant, reflecting collinearity between the two variables. In this study, women with a non-autonomous state of mind regarding attachment were significantly more likely to experience recurrent depression. The earlier classification of the child's attachment to the mother from the Strange Situation Procedure was not related to the family drawing.

  19. Maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in Japan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing concern that maternal employment could have adverse or beneficial effects on children's health. Although recent studies demonstrated that maternal employment was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight, the evidence remains sparse in Asian countries. We sought to examine the relationship between maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in a rural town in Okayama Prefecture. In February 2008, questionnaires were sent to parents of all preschool children aged ≥3 yr in the town to assess maternal working status (working hours and form of employment), children's body mass index, and potential confounders. Childhood overweight was defined following the age and sex-specific criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for childhood overweight were estimated in a logistic regression. We used generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation matrix, considering the correlation between siblings. We analyzed 364 preschool children. Adjusting for each child's characteristics (age, sex), mother's characteristics (age, obesity, educational attainment, smoking status, and social participation), and family's characteristics (number of siblings), children whose mothers work <8 h/day had a substantially lower risk for being overweight (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.93) compared with children of non-working mothers, whereas the relationship was less pronounced among children whose mothers work ≥8 h/day (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.19, 2.68). We observed similar patterns in a stratified analysis by the form of maternal employment. Short maternal working hours are associated with a lower odds of early childhood overweight.

  20. Maternal depression and early childhood growth in developing countries: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the relationship between maternal depression and child growth in developing countries through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Methods Six databases were searched for studies from developing countries on maternal depression and child growth published up until 2010. Standard meta-analytical methods were followed and pooled odds ratios (ORs) for underweight and stunting in the children of depressed mothers were calculated using random effects models for all studies and for subsets of studies that met strict criteria on study design, exposure to maternal depression and outcome variables. The population attributable risk (PAR) was estimated for selected studies. Findings Seventeen studies including a total of 13 923 mother and child pairs from 11 countries met inclusion criteria. The children of mothers with depression or depressive symptoms were more likely to be underweight (OR: 1.5; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.2–1.8) or stunted (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2–1.7). Subanalysis of three longitudinal studies showed a stronger effect: the OR for underweight was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5–3.2) and for stunting, 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0–3.9). The PAR for selected studies indicated that if the infant population were entirely unexposed to maternal depressive symptoms 23% to 29% fewer children would be underweight or stunted. Conclusion Maternal depression was associated with early childhood underweight and stunting. Rigorous prospective studies are needed to identify mechanisms and causes. Early identification, treatment and prevention of maternal depression may help reduce child stunting and underweight in developing countries. PMID:21836759

  1. Maternal depressive symptoms in childhood and risky behaviours in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Ioakeimidi, Sofia

    2018-03-01

    Longitudinal patterns of maternal depressive symptoms have yet to be linked to risky behaviours, such as substance use or violence, in early adolescence, when such behaviours may be particularly detrimental. This study was carried out to do this. Using data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, it modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms at child ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years on antisocial behaviour and delinquency at age 11 years (N = 12,494). It also explored their role in predicting moral judgement and attitudes to alcohol at age 11, important predictors of delinquent or antisocial behaviour and alcohol use, respectively. Latent class analysis showed four longitudinal types of maternal depressive symptoms (chronically high, consistently low, moderate-accelerating and moderate-decelerating). Maternal symptom typology predicted antisocial behaviour in males and attitudes to alcohol in females, even after adjusting for youth's age and pubertal status and after correcting for confounding. Specifically, compared to males growing up with never-depressed mothers, those exposed to chronically high or accelerating maternal depressive symptoms were more likely to report engaging in loud and rowdy behaviour, alcohol use and bullying. Females exposed to chronically high maternal depressive symptoms were more likely than those growing up with never-depressed mothers to support the view that alcohol use is harmless. While causal conclusions cannot be drawn, these findings suggest that preventing or treating maternal depressive symptoms in childhood may be a useful approach to reducing future externalising and health-risk behaviours in offspring.

  2. Separation and Loss: A Handbook for Early Childhood Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Cheryl; And Others

    Recognizing the importance of helping children develop coping skills to deal with daily separations and more serious losses, this handbook provides basic information and classroom support strategies for teachers and caregivers to use responsively with preschoolers. Parts 1 through 3 of the handbook provide a rationale for responding to the…

  3. Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira

    2016-12-12

    Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p < 0.001) at 3-4 months of age, whereas maternal parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p < 0.001). Maternal parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p < 0.001). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that paternal involvement reduced maternal parenting stress (

  4. Maternal Patterns of Marijuana Use and Early Sexual Behavior in Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage mothers use marijuana more frequently than older mothers, and marijuana use may predict HIV risk behavior in offspring. Our goals were to (1) describe trajectories of marijuana use in teenage mothers and (2) determine if these trajectories were associated with early sexual behavior in their offspring. Pregnant adolescents (12–18 years) were recruited at a prenatal clinic and interviewed during pregnancy, at delivery, and during follow-up visits when offspring were 6, 10, 14 and 16 years old. At 16 years, 332 women (71 % Black, 29 % White) and their offspring were assessed. Mothers were asked about their marijuana use at each time point. Offspring reported on their sexual behavior at age 14. Trajectory analyses using growth mixture models revealed four maternal patterns of marijuana use: no use, only at the 6 year follow-up, quit by the 16 year follow-up, and used across most of the time points. The children of chronic users were more likely to have early sex. The maternal marijuana trajectory group variable remained a statistically significant predictor in multivariate models controlling for race, gender, socioeconomic status, child pubertal timing, child externalizing behavior problems, and child marijuana use. These findings suggest that a minority of teenage mothers continue to use marijuana over time. Chronic maternal marijuana use across a decade was associated with early sex in offspring (oral or vaginal sex by age 14). Early sexual behavior places these children at significantly higher risk of teenage pregnancy and HIV risk behaviors. PMID:24942139

  5. Maternal Smoking and the Risk of Cancer in Early Life - A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rumrich, Isabell Katharina; Viluksela, Matti; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Gissler, Mika; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hänninen, Otto

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the well-known harmful effects on the fetus, many women continue smoking during pregnancy. Smoking as an important source of toxic chemicals may contribute to the developmental origin of diseases. The aim of this work was to pursue the possible association between maternal smoking and cancer in early life. Specifically, we wanted to identify the associated early life cancer types, and to quantify the associations. In a systematic literature search 825 articles were identified in PubMed and Web of Science, and 55 more through the reference lists. Of these 62 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in meta-analyses. Using Mantel-Haenszel or DerSimonian and Laird method, depending on heterogeneity of the studies, pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals for eight cancer types were calculated. Smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for for brain and central nervous system tumors (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02-1.17). Although the risk for lymphoma was also associated (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.05-1.34), it did not hold up in subgroup analyses. Leukemia was not found to be associated with maternal smoking. Five other cancer types (bone, soft tissue, renal, hepatic, and germ cell cancer) were also examined, but the number of studies was too limited to exclude the possibility of maternal smoking as a risk factor for cancer in offspring. According to our meta-analyses, maternal smoking is associated with nervous system cancers, but not with leukemia in early life. Confirming or rejecting associations of maternal smoking with lymphoma and the five other cancer types requires further studies.

  6. Associations between maternal mental health and early child wheezing in a South African birth cohort.

    PubMed

    MacGinty, Rae P; Lesosky, Maia; Barnett, Whitney; Stein, Dan J; Zar, Heather J

    2018-06-01

    Wheezing in early childhood is common and has been identified in high-income countries (HIC) as associated with maternal antenatal or postnatal psychosocial risk factors. However, the association between maternal mental health and childhood wheezing has not been well studied in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), such as South Africa. A total of 1137 pregnant women over 18 year old, between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation, and attending either of two catchment area clinics were enrolled in a South African parent study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Psychosocial risk factors including maternal depression, psychological distress, early adversity, and intimate partner violence (IPV), were measured antenatally and postnatally by validated questionnaires. Two outcomes were evaluated: Presence of wheeze (at least one episode of child wheeze during the first 2 years of life); and recurrent wheeze (two or more episodes of wheezing in a 12-month period). Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between antenatal or postnatal psychosocial risk factors and child wheeze, adjusting for clinical and socio-demographic covariates. Postnatal psychological distress and IPV were associated with both presence of wheeze (adjusted OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.16-3.77 and 1.63, 95%CI: 1.13-2.34, respectively), and recurrent child wheeze (adjusted OR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.06-4.81 and 2.20, 95%CI: 1.35-3.61, respectively). Maternal postnatal psychological distress and IPV were associated with wheezing in early childhood. Thus, screening and treatment programs to address maternal psychosocial risk factors may be potential strategies to reduce the burden of childhood wheeze in LMICs. © 2018 The Authors. Pediatric Pulmonology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and problem behavior in 5-year-old offspring.

    PubMed

    Oostenbroek, Maurits H W; Kersten, Remco H J; Tros, Benjamin; Kunst, Anton E; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence, though not consistent, that offspring born to mothers with subtle decreases in thyroid function early in their pregnancies may be at risk of cognitive impairments and attention problems. However, other types of problem behavior have not been addressed thus far. We tested whether maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy is associated with several types of problem behavior in offspring at age 5-6 years. This was a longitudinal study that included the data of 2000 mother-child pairs from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. At a median gestational age of 12.9 (interquartile range: 11.9-14.1) weeks, maternal blood was sampled for assessment of free T4 and TSH. Overall problem behavior, hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, emotional problems, peer relationship problems and prosocial behavior were measured at age 5-6 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which was filled out by both parents and teachers. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia <5th percentile was associated with a 1.70 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.86) increased odds of teacher-reported hyperactivity/inattention after adjustment for confounders. By increasing the cut-off level to <10th percentile, the odds ratio became 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99-2.20). There were no associations between maternal thyroid function parameters and hyperactivity/inattention as reported by parents, nor with teacher or parent reports of other types of problem behavior. Our results partially confirm previous observations, showing that early disruptions in the maternal thyroid hormone supply may be associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring. Our study adds that there is no evidence for an effect on other types of problem behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing maternal percentage body fat in early second trimester: a risk factor for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxia; Qiu, Jie; Zhou, Min; Wang, Youjie; Du, Yukai

    2015-02-01

    To determine if maternal percentage body fat (PBF) or fat free mass (FFM) in the early second trimester of pregnancy influenced the development of preeclampsia. A matched nested case-control study was conducted from a cohort study of 1668 women at Gansu provincial maternal and child care hospital from July 2007 to August 2011 in China. Maternal PBF and FFM were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis during 12th-16th gestational week. The demographic characteristics were all chart abstracted. After childbirth, 70 cases of preeclampsia were matched by race/age with 140 uncomplicated pregnancies women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associated risk factors. Pre-pregnancy body mass index were higher in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with controls (p < 0.001). During 12th-16th gestational week, there were nearly 7-fold increase in the odds of preeclampsia (adjusted OR: 6.84, 95% CI: 4.15-41.60) among women with PBF ≥ 40% versus women with PBF < 40%. But FFM were not at further increased risk of the development of preeclampsia (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.6-3.6). Maternal PBF but not FFM is a predictor of preeclampsia in the early second trimester. Excessive adipose tissue possibly played an important role in developing of preeclampsia.

  9. Maternal Sensitivity Predicts Fewer Sleep Problems at Early Adolescence for Toddlers with Negative Emotionality: A Case of Differential Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne; Modrek, Anahid; Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2018-02-01

    Theory underscores the importance of parenting in sleep development, but few studies have examined whether links vary by temperament. To address this gap, we tested whether potential links between early maternal sensitivity and early adolescent sleep problems varied by child negative emotionality and delay of gratification. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 820), we found that high maternal sensitivity predicted fewer bedtime problems and longer sleep duration at 6th grade for toddlers with high negative emotionality, whereas low maternal sensitivity predicted the reverse. No differences were observed for low negative emotionality. Moreover, delay of gratification predicted fewer bedtime problems at 6th grade, but did not moderate associations between maternal sensitivity, negative emotionality, and sleep. Findings demonstrate that high, but not low, negative emotionality renders toddlers differentially susceptible and receptive to maternal sensitivity in relation to sleep.

  10. Testing Maternal Depression and Attachment Style as Moderators of Early Head Start's Effects on Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth L.; Robinson, JoAnn; Spieker, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined maternal depression, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on four parenting outcomes assessed at age 3. Participants (N = 947) were drawn from six sites of the Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation Project, a multi-site randomized trial. Findings suggest more positive program effects for mothers with less initial attachment avoidance or attachment anxiety. First, baseline attachment avoidance moderated EHS program effects on observed maternal supportiveness, such that program mothers with lower baseline attachment avoidance were rated as more supportive of their 3-year-olds than program mothers with higher baseline attachment avoidance. Second, program effects on spanking varied depending on mothers’ baseline attachment anxiety. PMID:21240694

  11. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0

  12. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, S S; Cole, T J; Law, C

    2008-01-01

    In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Cohort study. A total of 13 113 singleton children aged 3 years in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002 in the United Kingdom, who had complete height/weight data and parental employment histories. Parents were interviewed when the child was aged 9 months and 3 years, and the child's height and weight were measured at 3 years. Overweight (including obesity) was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. A total of 23% (3085) of children were overweight at 3 years. Any maternal employment after the child's birth was associated with early childhood overweight (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]; 1.14 [1.00, 1.29]), after adjustment for potential confounding and mediating factors. Children were more likely to be overweight for every 10 h a mother worked per week (OR [95% CI]; 1.10 [1.04, 1.17]), after adjustment. An interaction with household income revealed that this relationship was only significant for children from households with an annual income of pound33 000 ($57 750) or higher. There was no evidence for an association between early childhood overweight and whether or for how many hours the partner worked, or with mothers' or partners' duration of employment. These relationships were also evident among mothers in employment. Independent risk factors for early childhood overweight were consistent with the published literature. Long hours of maternal employment, rather than lack of money may impede young children's access to healthy foods and physical activity. Policies

  13. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alison B.; Windham, Gayle C.; Croen, Lisa A.; Daniels, Julie L.; Lee, Brian K.; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one…

  14. Maternal Depression and Parenting in Early Childhood: Contextual Influence of Marital Quality and Social Support in Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S.; Leve, Leslie D.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David

    2017-01-01

    Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18--36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced…

  15. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  16. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  17. Interactions between Maternal Parenting and Children's Early Disruptive Behavior: Bidirectional Associations across the Transition from Preschool to School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…

  18. Self-Regulation in Early Adolescence: Relations with Mother-Son Relationship Quality and Maternal Regulatory Support and Antagonism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fitzpatrick, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine relations among maternal regulatory support, maternal antagonism, and mother-son relationship quality in relation to boys' self-regulation during early adolescence. As part of a larger longitudinal study on 263 low-income, ethnically diverse boys, multiple informants and methods were used to…

  19. Maternal Over-Control Moderates the Association between Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderon, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal over-control are early risk factors for later childhood internalizing problems, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD). Consistently high BI across childhood appears to confer risk for the onset of SAD by adolescence. However, no prior studies have prospectively examined observed maternal over-control as…

  20. Rank acquisition in rhesus macaque yearlings following permanent maternal separation: The importance of the social and physical environment.

    PubMed

    Wooddell, Lauren J; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Murphy, Ashley M; Suomi, Stephen J; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-11-01

    Rank acquisition is a developmental milestone for young primates, but the processes by which primate yearlings attain social rank in the absence of the mother remain unclear. We studied 18 maternally reared yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that differed in their social and physical rearing environments. We found that early social experience and maternal rank, but not individual traits (weight, sex, age), predicted dominance acquisition in the new peer-only social group. Yearlings also used coalitions to reinforce the hierarchy, and social affiliation (play and grooming) was likely a product, rather than a determinant, of rank acquisition. Following relocation to a familiar environment, significant rank changes occurred indicating that familiarity with a physical environment was salient in rank acquisition. Our results add to the growing body of literature emphasizing the role of the social and physical environment on behavioral development, namely social asymmetries among peers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Maternal Daily Diary Report in the Assessment of Childhood Separation Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD…

  2. Maternal postnatal psychiatric symptoms and infant temperament affect early mother-infant bonding.

    PubMed

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective study of maternal mid-pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and early childhood respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Maria C; Stene, Lars C; Håberg, Siri E; Nafstad, Per; Stigum, Hein; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche

    2013-11-01

    Studies suggest that prenatal vitamin D status may be inversely associated with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) early in life. Studies of prenatal vitamin D status and development of asthma have inconsistent findings. We examined the associations of maternal mid-pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level with the frequency of LRTIs by 36 months and with current asthma at 36 months using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Maternal plasma 25(OH)D level was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Respiratory disorders were evaluated by maternal report through questionnaires. LRTIs were analysed in a random sample of 1248 children. Asthma was analysed using a case-control design, including 489 cases and 1183 controls. Multivariable generalised linear models calculated adjusted measures of association. The median gestational week of sample collection was 18 weeks (range 9, 35). The mean 25(OH)D level was 73.7 nmol/L (standard deviation 23.7). Higher maternal mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D level was associated with a reduced risk of three or more LRTIs by 36 months vs. none, adjusted risk ratio 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58, 0.93] per 20 nmol/L increase. Associations were similar when examining the frequency of LRTIs by 18 months, and the frequency of LRTIs between 18 and 36 months. Maternal mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D level was not significantly associated with current asthma at 36 months, adjusted odds ratio 0.91 [95% CI 0.81, 1.02] per 20 nmol/L increase. Higher maternal mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D level was associated with a modestly reduced risk of recurrent LRTIs by 36 months, but was not associated with current asthma at 36 months. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Maternal sensitivity and the empathic brain: Influences of early life maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Emilia L; Neukel, Corinne; Bertsch, Katja; Reck, Corinna; Möhler, Eva; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2016-06-01

    One of the most striking characteristics of early life maltreatment (ELM) is the risk of transmission across generations, which could be linked to differences in maternal behavior. Maternal sensitivity includes appropriate and positive affective exchanges between mother and child. Mothers with a history of ELM have been found to show a lower sensitivity representing a significant risk factor for maltreating their own children. 25 mothers with and 28 mothers without sexual and/or physical childhood maltreatment (as assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview) and their children participated in a standardized mother-child interaction task. Videotaped interactions were rated by two independent trained raters based on the Emotional Availability Scales. In addition, empathic capabilities were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. High resolution structural magnetic resonance brain images of the mothers were analyzed with unbiased voxel-based morphometry and correlated with maternal sensitivity. Results indicate that mothers with ELM were less sensitive in the standardized interaction with their own child. In non-maltreated control mothers, maternal sensitivity was positively related to anterior insular grey matter volume, a region which is crucially involved in emotional empathy, while there was a positive association between maternal sensitivity and grey matter volume in parts of the cognitive empathy network such as the superior temporal sulcus and temporal pole region in mothers with ELM. These results implicate that neurostructural alterations associated with poor maternal sensitivity might be a sequelae of ELM and that mothers with ELM may try to compensate deficits in emotional empathy by recruiting brain regions involved in cognitive empathy when interacting with their child. Thus, findings suggest possible coping strategies of mother with ELM to prevent an intergenerational transmission of abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Oxytocin mitigated the depressive-like behaviors of maternal separation stress through modulating mitochondrial function and neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Amiri, Shayan; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Momeny, Majid; Hassanipour, Mahsa; Rastegar, Mojgan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Mirzaian, Arvin Haj-; Sanjarimoghaddam, Hossein; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2017-06-02

    Mother-infant contact has a critical role on brain development and behavior. Experiencing early-life adversities (such as maternal separation stress or MS in rodents) results in adaptations of neurotransmission systems, which may subsequently increase the risk of depression symptoms later in life. In this study, we show that Oxytocin (OT) exerted antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies indicate that neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with the pathophysiology of depression. To investigate the antidepressant-like effects of OT, we applied MS paradigm (as a valid animal model of depression) to male mice at postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 14 (3h daily, 9AM to 12AM) and investigated the depressive-like behaviors of these animals at PND 60 in different groups. Animals in this work were divided into 4 experimental groups: 1) saline-treated, 2) OT-treated, 3) atosiban (OT antagonist)-treated and, 4) OT+ atosiban-treated mice. We used forced swimming test (FST), splash test, sucrose preference test (SPT) and open field test (OFT) for behavioral assessment. Additionally, we used another set of animals to investigate the effects of MS and different treatments on mitochondrial function and the expression of the relevant genes for neuroinflammation. Our results showed that MS provoked depressive- like behaviors in the FST, SPT and splash test. In addition, our molecular findings revealed that MS is capable of inducing abnormal mitochondrial function and immune-inflammatory response in the hippocampus. Further, we observed that treating stressed animals with OT (intracerebroventricular, i.c.v. injection) attenuated the MS-induced depressive-like behaviors through improving mitochondrial function and decreasing the hippocampal expression of immune-inflammatory genes. In conclusion, we showed that MS-induced depressive-like behaviors in adult male mice are associated with abnormal mitochondrial function and immune

  6. Effects of maternal history of depression and early life maltreatment on children's health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Meyer, Justus; Führer, Daniel; Reichl, Corinna; Reck, Corinna; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Kaess, Michael; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Möhler, Eva; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Jaite, Charlotte; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bödeker, Katja; Resch, Franz

    2018-01-01

    There is a well-established link between maternal depression and child mental health. Similar effects have been found for maternal history of early life maltreatment (ELM). However, studies investigating the relationship of children's quality of life and maternal depression are scarce and none have been conducted for the association with maternal ELM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal history of ELM and depression on children's health-related quality of life and to identify mediating factors accounting for these effects. Our study involved 194 mothers with and without history of depression and/or ELM and their children between five and 12 years. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed by maternal proxy- and child self-ratings using the KIDSCREEN. We considered maternal sensitivity and maternal parenting stress as potential mediators. We found an effect of maternal history of depression but not of maternal history of ELM on health-related quality of life. Maternal stress and sensitivity mediated the effects of maternal depression on child global health-related quality of life, as well as on the dimensions Autonomy & Parent Relation, School Environment (maternal and child rating), and Physical Wellbeing (child rating). Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causal interpretations must be made with caution. Some scales yielded low internal consistency. Maternal impairments in areas of parenting which possibly developed during acute depression persist even after remission of acute affective symptoms. Interventions should target parenting stress and sensitivity in parents with prior depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal sensitivity and mental health: does an early childhood intervention programme have an impact?

    PubMed

    Brahm, Paulina; Cortázar, Alejandra; Fillol, María Paz; Mingo, María Verónica; Vielma, Constanza; Aránguiz, María Consuelo

    2016-06-01

    Maternal sensitivity (MS) and mental health influence mother-child attachment and the child's mental health. Early interventions may promote resilience and facilitate healthy development of the children through an impact on mothers' outcomes such as their sensitivity and mental health. Play with Our Children (POC) is an early intervention programme aiming to promote a positive mother-child interaction for children who attend three family health centres of deprived areas of Santiago de Chile. To estimate the effect of the programme POC on MS and mental health. A quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching estimations was employed. MS was measured with the Q-Sort of Maternal Sensitivity, and maternal mental health was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index. Mean-difference comparison and difference-in-difference method were used as statistical strategies. The sample included 102 children from 2 to 23 months of age, 54 of them participated in the intervention and 48 children were the comparison group. Estimates showed that participation in POC was positively associated with less stress in mothers of children younger than 12 months (P < 0.05) and positively associated with MS for mothers of children from 12 to 23 months (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in maternal depression scores. The dyadic early intervention POC may influence mother's mental health and indirectly impact children's well-being during critical stages of their development by strengthening their mother's sensitivity towards them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Emotion recognition in preschool children: associations with maternal depression and early parenting.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea; Durbin, C Emily; Laptook, Rebecca; Torpey, Dana; Klein, Daniel N

    2014-02-01

    Emotion knowledge in childhood has been shown to predict social functioning and psychological well-being, but relatively little is known about parental factors that influence its development in early childhood. There is some evidence that both parenting behavior and maternal depression are associated with emotion recognition, but previous research has only examined these factors independently. The current study assessed auditory and visual emotion recognition ability among a large sample of preschool children to examine typical emotion recognition skills in children of this age, as well as the independent and interactive effects of maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting (i.e., hostility and intrusiveness). Results indicated that children were most accurate at identifying happy emotional expressions. The lowest accuracy was observed for neutral expressions. A significant interaction was found between maternal depression and negative parenting behavior: children with a maternal history of depression were particularly sensitive to the negative effects of maladaptive parenting behavior on emotion recognition ability. No significant effects were found for paternal depression. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of multiple interacting factors on children's emotional development and provide suggestions for identifying children for targeted preventive interventions.

  9. Emotion Recognition in Preschool Children: Associations with Maternal Depression and Early Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea; Durbin, C. Emily; Laptook, Rebecca; Torpey, Dana; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Emotion knowledge in childhood has been shown to predict social functioning and psychological well-being, but relatively little is known about parental factors that influence its development in early childhood. There is some evidence that both parenting behavior and maternal depression are associated with emotion recognition, but previous research has only examined these factors independently. The current study assessed auditory and visual emotion recognition ability among a large sample of preschool children to examine typical emotion recognition skills in children of this age, as well as the independent and interactive effects of maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting (i.e., hostility and intrusiveness). Results indicated that children were most accurate at identifying happy emotional expressions, followed by other basic emotions. The lowest accuracy was observed for neutral expressions. A significant interaction was found between maternal depression and negative parenting behavior, such that children with a maternal history of depression were particularly sensitive to the negative effects of maladaptive parenting behavior on emotion recognition ability. No significant effects were found for paternal depression. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of multiple interacting factors on children’s emotional development, and provide suggestions for identifying children for targeted preventive interventions. PMID:24444174

  10. Lower levels of maternal capital in early life predict offspring obesity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Meghan T; Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K

    2017-05-01

    As of 2013, 65% of the world's population lived in countries where overweight/obesity kills more people than being underweight. Evolutionary perspectives provide a holistic understanding of both how and why obesity develops and its long-term implications. To test whether the maternal capital hypothesis, an evolutionary perspective, is viable for explaining the development of obesity in adulthood. Restricted-use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; n = 11 403) was analysed using logistic regressions. The sample included adolescents and their biological mothers. The odds of obesity in adulthood increased by 22% for every standard deviation increase in lack of maternal capital (Exp (B) = 1.22, p < .001). That is, individuals whose mothers were young, of an ethnic minority and had short breastfeeding durations were more likely to be obese in adulthood, even after controlling for other factors in infancy, adolescence and adulthood. The results showed that those whose mothers had lower capital were more prone to later life disease (specifically, obesity). The maternal capital perspective is useful for explaining how and why early life characteristics (including maternal resources) predict obesity in adulthood. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. The Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress on Early Temperament: The 2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Kildea, Sue; Cobham, Vanessa; Stapleton, Helen; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the effects of disaster-related prenatal maternal stress on infant temperament and whether the sex of the infant or the timing of the stressor in pregnancy would moderate the effects. Mothers' objective experiences of a sudden-onset flood in Queensland, Australia, their subjective emotional reactions, and cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed. At 6 months postpartum, 121 mothers reported their infant's temperament on the 5 dimensions of the Short Temperament Scale for Infants. When controlling for postnatal maternal factors, subjective prenatal maternal stress and cognitive appraisal of the disaster were associated with easier aspects of infant temperament. However, several interesting interactions emerged showing negative effects of the flood. With higher levels of objective hardship in pregnancy, boys (but not girls) received more irritable temperament ratings. When the flood occurred early in pregnancy, higher levels of objective hardship predicted more arrhythmic infant temperament. Finally, mothers whose emotional response to the flood exceeded the hardship they endured reported significantly more active-reactive infants. Prenatal maternal stress from a natural disaster predicted more difficult temperament ratings that were moderated by infant sex, timing of the flood in gestation, and mother's emotional response to the disaster.

  12. Effects of early maternal distress and parenting on the development of children's self-regulation and externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2013-05-01

    Emotional distress experienced by mothers increases young children's risk of externalizing problems through suboptimal parenting and child self-regulation. An integrative structural equation model tested hypotheses that mothers' parenting (i.e., low levels of inductive discipline and maternal warmth) would mediate adverse effects of early maternal distress on child effortful control, which in turn would mediate effects of maternal parenting on child externalizing behavior. This longitudinal study spanning ages 3, 6, and 10 included 241 children, mothers, and a subset of teachers. The hypothesized model was partially supported. Elevated maternal distress was associated with less inductive discipline and maternal warmth, which in turn were associated with less effortful control at age 3 but not at age 6. Inductive discipline and maternal warmth mediated adverse effects of maternal distress on children's effortful control. Less effortful control at ages 3 and 6 predicted smaller relative decreases in externalizing behavior at 6 and 10, respectively. Effortful control mediated effects of inductive discipline, but not maternal warmth, on externalizing behavior. Findings suggest elevated maternal distress increases children's risk of externalizing problems by compromising early parenting and child self-regulation.

  13. The Drosophila foraging gene human orthologue PRKG1 predicts individual differences in the effects of early adversity on maternal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, H Moriah; Vasquez, Oscar E; Unternaehrer, Eva; Sokolowski, Dustin J; Biergans, Stephanie D; Atkinson, Leslie; Gonzalez, Andrea; Silveira, Patricia P; Levitan, Robert; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James; Meaney, Michael J; Fleming, Alison S; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2017-04-01

    There is variation in the extent to which childhood adverse experience affects adult individual differences in maternal behavior. Genetic variation in the animal foraging gene, which encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, contributes to variation in the responses of adult fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster , to early life adversity and is also known to play a role in maternal behavior in social insects. Here we investigate genetic variation in the human foraging gene ( PRKG1 ) as a predictor of individual differences in the effects of early adversity on maternal behavior in two cohorts. We show that the PRKG1 genetic polymorphism rs2043556 associates with maternal sensitivity towards their infants. We also show that rs2043556 moderates the association between self-reported childhood adversity of the mother and her later maternal sensitivity. Mothers with the TT allele of rs2043556 appeared buffered from the effects of early adversity, whereas mothers with the presence of a C allele were not. Our study used the Toronto Longitudinal Cohort (N=288 mother-16 month old infant pairs) and the Maternal Adversity and Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment Cohort (N=281 mother-18 month old infant pairs). Our findings expand the literature on the contributions of both genetics and gene-environment interactions to maternal sensitivity, a salient feature of the early environment relevant for child neurodevelopment.

  14. Neonatal maternal separation delays the GABA excitatory-to-inhibitory functional switch by inhibiting KCC2 expression.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Minami; Tsukahara, Takao; Tomita, Kazuo; Iwai, Haruki; Sonomura, Takahiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Sato, Tomoaki

    2017-11-25

    The excitatory-to-inhibitory functional switch of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; GABA switch), which normally occurs in the first to the second postnatal week in the hippocampus, is necessary for the development of appropriate central nervous system function. A deficit in GABAergic inhibitory function could cause excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) neuron imbalance that is found in many neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we examined whether neonatal stress can affect the timing of the GABA functional switch and cause disorders during adolescence. Neonatal stress was induced in C57BL/6J male mouse pups by maternal separation (MS) on postnatal days (PND) 1-21. Histological quantification of K + -Cl - co-transporter (KCC2) and Ca 2+ imaging were performed to examine the timing of the GABA switch during the MS period. To evaluate the influence of neonatal MS on adolescent hippocampal function, we quantified KCC2 expression and evaluated hippocampal-related behavioral tasks at PND35-38. We showed that MS delayed the timing of the GABA switch in the hippocampus and inhibited the increase in membrane KCC2 expression, with KCC2 expression inhibition persisting until adolescence. Behavioral tests showed impaired cognition, declined attention, hyperlocomotion, and aggressive character in maternally separated mice. Taken together, our results show that neonatal stress delayed the timing of the GABA switch, which could change the E/I balance and cause neurodegenerative disorders in later life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Longitudinal Associations of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy and Maternal Corporal Punishment with Behavior Problems in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with the longitudinal patterns of early externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. The study sample consisted of 3,705 families from a nationally representative cohort study of urban families. Longitudinal multilevel models examined the associations of collective efficacy and corporal punishment with behavior problems at age 3, as well as with patterns of behavior problems between the ages 3 to 5. Interactions between the main predictors and child age tested whether neighborhood and parent relationships with child behavior varied over time. Mediation analysis examined whether neighborhood influences on child behavior were mediated by parenting. The models controlled for a comprehensive set of possible confounders at the child, parent, and neighborhood levels. Results indicate that both maternal corporal punishment and low neighborhood collective efficacy were significantly associated with increased behavior problems. The significant interaction between collective efficacy and child age with internalizing problems suggests that neighborhood influences on internalizing behavior were stronger for younger children. The indirect effect of low collective efficacy on behavior problems through corporal punishment was not significant. These findings highlight the importance of multilevel interventions that promote both neighborhood collective efficacy and non-physical discipline in early childhood. PMID:28425727

  16. Longitudinal associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with behavior problems in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with the longitudinal patterns of early externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. The study sample consisted of 3,705 families from a nationally representative cohort study of urban families. Longitudinal multilevel models examined the associations of collective efficacy and corporal punishment with behavior problems at age 3, as well as with patterns of behavior problems between the ages 3 to 5. Interactions between the main predictors and child age tested whether neighborhood and parent relationships with child behavior varied over time. Mediation analysis examined whether neighborhood influences on child behavior were mediated by parenting. The models controlled for a comprehensive set of possible confounders at the child, parent, and neighborhood levels. Results indicate that both maternal corporal punishment and low neighborhood collective efficacy were significantly associated with increased behavior problems. The significant interaction between collective efficacy and child age with internalizing problems suggests that neighborhood influences on internalizing behavior were stronger for younger children. The indirect effect of low collective efficacy on behavior problems through corporal punishment was not significant. These findings highlight the importance of multilevel interventions that promote both neighborhood collective efficacy and nonphysical discipline in early childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Maternally derived trypsin may have multiple functions in the early development of turbot (Scopthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Chi, Liang; Liu, Qinghua; Xu, Shihong; Xiao, Zhizhong; Ma, Daoyuan; Li, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Trypsin is an important serine protease that is considered to be involved in digestion of protein in teleost fish. Nevertheless, studies on trypsin/trypsinogen in fish embryos are very limited. In this study, the trypsinogen of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) (tTG) was identified and the expression patterns and activity of trypsinogen/trypsin were investigated. The results showed that the tTG mRNA was evenly distributed in the oocytes and was also expressed along the yolk periphery in early embryos. At later embryo stages and 1 days after hatching (dph), the tTG mRNA concentrated at the alimentary tract and head. Quantitative expression analysis showed that the tTG transcripts decreased after fertilization until the gastrula stage, then increased with the embryo and larvae development. This result was also confirmed by the specific activity analysis of trypsin and in-situ-hybridization (ISH). All of the results indicated that tTG in early embryo stages was maternally derived and expressed by itself after gastrula stages. Additionally, location of tTG mRNA in embryos and larvae was investigated; we considered that trypsin may have multiple functions during the embryo development process. Based on our results regarding trypsinogen in embryos and early development, we concluded that the trypsin/trypsinogen in turbot embryos was inherited from a maternal source and we suggested that trypsin in early development has multiple functions in the process of development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  19. Increased maternal plasma leptin in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A; Vadachkoria, Surab; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Luthy, David A

    2004-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, may have independent direct effects on both insulin secretion and action, in addition to its well documented effects on appetite and energy expenditure. Some, but not all, previously published studies suggest that maternal leptin concentrations may be increased in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We examined the association between plasma leptin concentration and GDM risk. Women were recruited before 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. Maternal plasma leptin concentrations (collected at 13 weeks of gestation) were measured by using immunoassay. We used generalized linear models to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. GDM developed in 5.7% of the cohort (47 of 823). Elevated leptin concentrations were positively associated with GDM risk (P for trend <.001). After adjusting for maternal prepregnancy adiposity and other confounders, women with leptin concentrations of 31.0 ng/mL or higher experienced a 4.7-fold increased risk of GDM (95% confidence interval 1.2, 18.0) as compared with women who had concentrations of 14.3 ng/mL or lower. We noted a strong linear component of trend in risk of GDM with increasing maternal plasma leptin concentration. Each 10-ng/mL increase in the leptin concentration was associated with a 20% increase in GDM risk (relative risk 1.2; 95% confidence interval 1.0, 1.3). Hyperleptinemia, independent of maternal adiposity, in early pregnancy appears to be predictive of an increased risk of GDM later in pregnancy. Additional larger prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm and more precisely assess the etiologic importance of hyperleptinemia in pregnancy. II-2

  20. Preterm children at early adolescence and continuity and discontinuity in maternal responsiveness from infancy.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, L; Rodning, C; Cohen, S

    1992-10-01

    Patterns in mother-child interaction from infancy to age 12 were investigated in a prospective, longitudinal study of 44 English-speaking mothers and their preterm children. Maternal responsiveness was assessed by home observations during infancy and the Family Interaction Q-Sort at age 12, derived from 2 structured laboratory situations requiring cooperation of mother and child. A cluster of maternal behaviors of critical control toward the toddler was assessed at age 2 years. Children of mothers who were consistently more responsive during both infancy and early adolescence, as well as children whose mothers became more responsive by age 12, achieved higher IQ and arithmetic scores, had more positive self-esteem, and their teachers reported fewer behavioral and emotional problems than children of mothers who were consistently less responsive both during infancy and at age 12. Continuity in parenting behaviors was related to control and criticism beginning in the toddler period and not to degree of responsiveness to the infant.

  1. Maternal hemodynamics early in labor: a possible link with obstetric risk?

    PubMed

    Valensise, H; Tiralongo, G M; Pisani, I; Farsetti, D; Lo Presti, D; Gagliardi, G; Basile, M R; Novelli, G P; Vasapollo, B

    2018-04-01

    To determine if hemodynamic assessment in 'low-risk' pregnant women at term with an appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) fetus can improve the identification of patients who will suffer maternal or fetal/neonatal complications during labor. This was a prospective observational study of 77 women with low-risk term pregnancy and AGA fetus, in the early stages of labor. Hemodynamic indices were obtained using the UltraSonic Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM ® ) system. Patients were followed until the end of labor to identify fetal/neonatal and maternal outcomes, and those which developed complications of labor were compared with those delivering without complications. Eleven (14.3%) patients had a complication during labor: in seven there was fetal distress and in four there were maternal complications (postpartum hemorrhage and/or uterine atony). Patients who developed complications during labor had lower cardiac output (5.6 ± 1.0 vs 6.7 ± 1.3 L/min, P = 0.01) and cardiac index (3.1 ± 0.6 vs 3.5 ± 0.7 L/min/m 2 , P = 0.04), and higher total vascular resistance (1195.3 ± 205.3 vs 1017.8 ± 225.6 dynes × s/cm 5 , P = 0.017) early in labor, compared with those who did not develop complications. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis to determine cut-offs showed cardiac output ≤ 5.8 L/min (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 69.7%), cardiac index ≤ 2.9 L/min/m 2 (sensitivity, 63.6%; specificity, 76.9%) and total vascular resistance > 1069 dynes × s/cm 5 (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 63.6%) to best predict maternal or fetal/neonatal complications. The study of maternal cardiovascular adaptation at the end of pregnancy could help to identify low-risk patients who may develop complications during labor. In particular, low cardiac output and high total vascular resistance are apparently associated with higher risk of fetal distress or maternal complications. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley

  2. Childhood developmental vulnerabilities associated with early life exposure to infectious and noninfectious diseases and maternal mental illness.

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa J; Kariuki, Maina; Dean, Kimberlie; Laurens, Kristin R; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Harris, Felicity; Carr, Vaughan J

    2017-12-26

    Fetal exposure to infectious and noninfectious diseases may influence early childhood developmental functioning, on the path to later mental illness. Here, we investigated the effects of in utero exposure to maternal infection and noninfectious diseases during pregnancy on offspring developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years, in the context of estimated effects for early childhood exposures to infectious and noninfectious diseases and maternal mental illness. We used population data for 66,045 children from an intergenerational record linkage study (the New South Wales Child Development Study), for whom a cross-sectional assessment of five developmental competencies (physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and communication) was obtained at school entry, using the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC). Child and maternal exposures to infectious or noninfectious diseases were determined from the NSW Ministry of Health Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC) and maternal mental illness exposure was derived from both APDC and Mental Health Ambulatory Data collections. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between these physical and mental health exposures and child developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years. Among the physical disease exposures, maternal infectious diseases during pregnancy and early childhood infection conferred the largest associations with developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years; maternal noninfectious illness during pregnancy also retained small but significant associations with developmental vulnerabilities even when adjusted for other physical and mental illness exposures and covariates known to be associated with early childhood development (e.g., child's sex, socioeconomic disadvantage, young maternal age, prenatal smoking). Among all exposures examined, maternal mental illness first diagnosed prior to childbirth conferred the greatest odds of developmental

  3. Maternal low intensity physical exercise prevents obesity in offspring rats exposed to early overnutrition.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Pavanello, Audrei; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Prates, Kelly Valério; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Alves, Vander Silva; de Almeida, Douglas Lopes; Moreira, Veridiana Mota; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Vieira, Elaine; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; da Silva Rodrigues, Marcos Ricardo; Rinaldi, Wilson; Malta, Ananda; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2017-08-09

    Low intensity exercise during pregnancy and lactation may create a protective effect against the development of obesity in offspring exposed to overnutrition in early life. To test these hypotheses, pregnant rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Sedentary and Exercised, low intensity, on a rodent treadmill at 30% VO 2Max /30-minute/session/3x/week throughout pregnancy and the lactation. Male offspring were raised in small litters (SL, 3 pups/dam) and normal litters (NL, 9 pups/dam) as models of early overnutrition and normal feed, respectively. Exercised mothers showed low mesenteric fat pad stores and fasting glucose and improved glucose-insulin tolerance, VO 2max during lactation and sympathetic activity. Moreover, the breast milk contained elevated levels of insulin. In addition, SL of sedentary mothers presented metabolic dysfunction and glucose and insulin intolerance and were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic in adulthood. SL of exercised mothers showed lower fat tissue accretion and improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, insulinemia and glycemia. The results suggest that maternal exercise during the perinatal period can have a possible reprogramming effect to prevent metabolic dysfunction in adult rat offspring exposed to early overnutrition, which may be associated with the improvement in maternal health caused by exercise.

  4. The long-term effects of maternal depression: early childhood physical health as a pathway to offspring depression.

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia; Najman, Jake

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional and retrospective studies have highlighted the long-term negative effects of maternal depression on offspring physical, social, and emotional development, but longitudinal research is needed to clarify the pathways by which maternal depression during pregnancy and early childhood affects offspring outcomes. The current study tested one developmental pathway by which maternal depression during pregnancy might negatively impact offspring mental health in young adulthood, via poor physical health in early childhood. The sample consisted of 815 Australian youth and their mothers who were followed for 20 years. Mothers reported on their own depressive symptoms during pregnancy and offspring early childhood. Youth completed interviews about health-related stress and social functioning at age 20 years, and completed a questionnaire about their own depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Path analysis indicated that prenatal maternal depressive symptoms predicted worse physical health during early childhood for offspring, and this effect was partially explained by ongoing maternal depression in early childhood. Offspring poor physical health during childhood predicted increased health-related stress and poor social functioning at age 20. Finally, increased health-related stress and poor social functioning predicted increased levels of depressive symptoms later in young adulthood. Maternal depression had a significant total indirect effect on youth depression via early childhood health and its psychosocial consequences. Poor physical health in early childhood and its effects on young adults' social functioning and levels of health related stress is one important pathway by which maternal depression has long-term consequences for offspring mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal, fetal, and placental conditions associated with medically indicated late preterm and early term delivery: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Brown, H K; Speechley, K N; Macnab, J; Natale, R; Campbell, M K

    2016-04-01

    Our objectives were: (1) to examine the association between maternal, fetal, and placental phenotypes of preterm delivery and medically indicated early delivery of singletons during the late preterm and early term periods; and (2) to identify the specific maternal, fetal, and placental conditions associated with these early deliveries. Retrospective study. City of London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Singleton live deliveries, at 34-41 weeks of gestation to women in London and Middlesex. We obtained data from a city-wide perinatal database (2002-2011; n = 25 699). We used multinomial logistic regression for multivariable analyses. The outcome was the occurrence of medically indicated late preterm (34-36 weeks of gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks of gestation) delivery, versus delivery at full term (39-41 weeks of gestation). After controlling for confounding factors, all phenotypes were associated with increased odds of medically indicated late preterm and early term delivery. Within the maternal phenotype, chronic maternal medical conditions were associated with increased odds of medically indicated early term delivery (e.g. for gastrointestinal disease, adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.47-2.00; for anaemia, aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.63), but not late preterm delivery. The aetiology of medically indicated early delivery close to full term is heterogeneous. Patterns of associations suggest slightly different conditions underlying the late preterm and early term phenotypes, with chronic maternal medical conditions being associated with early term delivery but not with late preterm delivery. These results have implications for the prevention of early delivery as well as the identification of high-risk groups among those born early. The aetiology of medically indicated late preterm and early term delivery is heterogeneous. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Maternal separation exacerbates Alzheimer's disease-like behavioral and pathological changes in adult APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jianjun; Feng, Gaifeng; Zheng, Caifeng; Jin, Hui; Jia, Ning

    2017-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder that gradually destroys memory and cognitive abilities in the elderly, makes a huge emotional and economic burden on the patients and their families. The presence of senile plaques and the loss of cholinergic neurons in the brain are two neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Maternal separation (MS) is an animal paradigm designed to make early life stress. Studies on wild type rodents showed that MS could induce AD-like cognitive deficit and pathological changes. However, the effects of MS on AD susceptible population or AD animal models are still unclear. In the present study, male APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were separated from dam and pups 3h per day from postnatal day 2 to day 21. After weaning, all animals were housed under normal conditions (4 mice per cage). At 9-month age, MWM tests were performed to evaluate the learning and memory abilities. Then the pathological changes in the brain were measured by histology staining. The results showed MS mice had more severe deficit of learning and memory. Compared to the control, there were more senile plaques in cortex and hippocampus, fewer cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis of Meynert in MS mice. These results indicate that MS exacerbates Alzheimer's disease-like behavioral and pathological changes in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes are associated with maternal mercury concentrations and early child neurodevelopment in a population with a fish-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Karin; Love, Tanzy M; Pineda, Daniela; Engström, Karin; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Yeates, Alison J; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; Smith, Tristram H; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Myers, G J; Rand, Matthew D; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Broberg, Karin

    2018-06-01

    Glutathione (GSH) pathways play a key role the metabolism and elimination of the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We hypothesized that maternal genetic variation linked to GSH pathways could influence MeHg concentrations in pregnant mothers and children and thereby also affect early life development. The GCLM (rs41303970, C/T), GCLC (rs761142, T/G) and GSTP1 (rs1695, A/G) polymorphisms were genotyped in 1449 mothers in a prospective study of the Seychellois population with a diet rich in fish. Genotypes were analyzed in association with maternal hair and blood Hg, fetal blood Hg (cord blood Hg), as well as children's mental (MDI) and motor development (PDI; MDI and PDI assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 20 months). We also examined whether genotypes modified the association between Hg exposure and developmental outcomes. GCLC rs761142 TT homozygotes showed statistically higher mean maternal hair Hg (4.12 ppm) than G carriers (AG 3.73 and GG 3.52 ppm) (p = 0.037). For the combination of GCLC rs761142 and GCLM rs41303970, double homozygotes TT + CC showed higher hair Hg (4.40 ppm) than G + T carriers (3.44 ppm; p = 0.018). No associations were observed between GSTP1 rs1695 and maternal hair Hg or between any genotypes and maternal blood Hg or cord blood Hg. The maternal GSTP1 rs1695 rare allele (G) was associated with a lower MDI among children (β = -1.48, p = 0.048). We also observed some interactions: increasing Hg in maternal and cord blood was associated with lower PDI among GCLC rs761142 TT carriers; and increasing Hg in hair was associated with lower MDI among GSTP1 rs1695 GG carriers. Maternal genetic variation in genes involved in GSH synthesis is statistically associated with Hg concentrations in maternal hair, but not in maternal or fetal blood. We observed interactions that suggest maternal GSH genetics may modify associations between MeHg exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The

  8. Early DNA vaccination of puppies against canine distemper in the presence of maternally derived immunity.

    PubMed

    Griot, Christian; Moser, Christian; Cherpillod, Pascal; Bruckner, Lukas; Wittek, Riccardo; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Zurbriggen, Rinaldo

    2004-01-26

    Canine distemper (CD) is a disease in carnivores caused by CD virus (CDV), a member of the morbillivirus genus. It still is a threat to the carnivore and ferret population. The currently used modified attenuated live vaccines have several drawbacks of which lack of appropriate protection from severe infection is the most outstanding one. In addition, puppies up to the age of 6-8 weeks cannot be immunized efficiently due to the presence of maternal antibodies. In this study, a DNA prime modified live vaccine boost strategy was investigated in puppies in order to determine if vaccinated neonatal dogs induce a neutralizing immune response which is supposed to protect animals from a CDV challenge. Furthermore, a single DNA vaccination of puppies, 14 days after birth and in the presence of high titers of CDV neutralizing maternal antibodies, induced a clear and significant priming effect observed as early as 3 days after the subsequent booster with a conventional CDV vaccine. It was shown that the priming effect develops faster and to higher titers in puppies preimmunized with DNA 14 days after birth than in those vaccinated 28 days after birth. Our results demonstrate that despite the presence of maternal antibodies puppies can be vaccinated using the CDV DNA vaccine, and that this vaccination has a clear priming effect leading to a solid immune response after a booster with a conventional CDV vaccine.

  9. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Emerenciano, Mariana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08-2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71-2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88-2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  10. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal serum amyloid A level as a novel marker of primary unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Moustafa I; Ramy, Ahmed R; Abdelhamid, Ahmed S; Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Omar, Amna; Harara, Rany M; Fathy, Hayam; Abolouz, Ashraf S

    2017-03-01

    To assess maternal serum amyloid A (SAA) levels among women with primary unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). A prospective study was conducted among women with missed spontaneous abortion in the first trimester at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, between January 21 and December 25, 2014. Women with at least two consecutive primary unexplained REPLs and no previous live births were enrolled. A control group was formed of women with no history of REPL who had at least one previous uneventful pregnancy with no adverse outcomes. Serum samples were collected to measure SAA levels. The main outcome was the association between SAA and primary unexplained REPL. Each group contained 96 participants. Median SAA level was significantly higher among women with REPL (50.0 μg/mL, interquartile range 26.0-69.0) than among women in the control group (11.6 μg/mL, interquartile range 6.2-15.5; P<0.001). The SAA level was an independent indicator of primary unexplained REPL, after adjusting for maternal age and gestational age (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.19; P<0.001). Elevated SAA levels found among women with primary unexplained REPL could represent a novel biomarker for this complication of pregnancy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Major Maternal Dietary Patterns during Early Pregnancy and Their Association with Neonatal Anthropometric Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Hajianfar, Hossein; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Shahshahan, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measurements of newborn infant are widely assessed as determinants of maternal nutrition. Although earlier studies have mostly examined the effects of particular nutrients or foods during gestational period on neonatal anthropometric measurements, there are few studies regarding the association of dietary patterns and mentioned measurements. So, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between major maternal dietary patterns and neonatal anthropometric measurements including body weight, head circumference, and height. Methods The current prospective observational study is based on the data collected from 812 pregnant women. Dietary data was collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Three identified major dietary patterns according to the results obtained from the factor loading matrix were (i) “western dietary pattern”; (ii) “traditional dietary pattern”; (iii) “healthy dietary pattern”. Overall, this study demonstrated a positive significant association between high adherences to western dietary pattern and chance of having low birth weight infant. However, such associations were not seen in women taking healthy and traditional dietary patterns. Conclusion We found that healthier maternal dietary patterns during early pregnancy might be associated with lower risk of low birth weight. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

  13. Differential Sensitization of Parenting on Early Adolescent Cortisol: Moderation by Profiles of Maternal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body’s stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on a) parenting in young children and b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M = 11.00 years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths’ diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents’ cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers’ stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths’ diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed. PMID:26859701

  14. Mediated Pathways from Maternal Depression and Early Parenting to Children's Executive Function and Externalizing Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire; Kuhn, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Structural equation models were used to examine pathways from maternal depression and early parenting to children's executive function (EF) and externalizing behaviours in the first nationally representative study to obtain direct assessments of children's kindergarten EF skills (i.e., the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of…

  15. Maternal depressive symptoms and early childhood cognitive development: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Kaaya, S; Chai, J; McCoy, D C; Surkan, P J; Black, M M; Sutter-Dallay, A-L; Verdoux, H; Smith-Fawzi, M C

    2017-03-01

    Previous findings have been mixed regarding the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child cognitive development. The objective of this study was to systematically review relevant literature and to perform a meta-analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO) were searched. Initial screening was conducted independently by two reviewers. Studies selected for detailed review were read in full and included based on a set of criteria. Data from selected studies were abstracted onto a standardized form. Meta-analysis using the inverse variance approach and random-effects models was conducted. The univariate analysis of 14 studies revealed that maternal depressive symptoms are related to lower cognitive scores among children aged ⩽56 months (Cohen's d = -0.25, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.12). The synthesis of studies controlling for confounding variables showed that the mean cognitive score for children 6-8 weeks post-partum whose mothers had high depressive symptoms during the first few weeks postpartum was approximately 4.2 units lower on the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) compared with children with non-symptomatic mothers (B̂ = -4.17, 95% CI -8.01 to -0.32). The results indicated that maternal depressive symptoms are related to lower cognitive scores in early infancy, after adjusting for confounding factors. An integrated approach for supporting child cognitive development may include program efforts that promote maternal mental health in addition to family economic wellbeing, responsive caregiving, and child nutrition.

  16. Effects of Essential Newborn Care Training on Fresh Stillbirths and Early Neonatal Deaths by Maternal Education.

    PubMed

    Chomba, Elwyn; Carlo, Wally A; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Jehan, Imtiaz; Tshefu, Antoinette; Garces, Ana; Parida, Sailajandan; Althabe, Fernando; McClure, Elizabeth M; Derman, Richard J; Goldenberg, Robert L; Bose, Carl; Krebs, Nancy F; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Buekens, Pierre; Wallace, Dennis; Moore, Janet; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Wright, Linda L

    2017-01-01

    Infants of women with lower education levels are at higher risk for perinatal mortality. We explored the impact of training birth attendants and pregnant women in the Essential Newborn Care (ENC) Program on fresh stillbirths (FSBs) and early (7-day) neonatal deaths (END) by maternal education level in developing countries. A train-the-trainer model was used with local instructors in rural communities in six countries (Argentina, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, India, Pakistan, and Zambia). Data were collected using a pre-/post-active baseline controlled study design. A total of 57,643 infants/mothers were enrolled. The follow-up rate at 7 days of age was 99.2%. The risk for FSB and END was higher for mothers with 0-7 years of education than for those with ≥8 years of education during both the pre- and post-ENC periods in unadjusted models and in models adjusted for confounding. The effect of ENC differed as a function of maternal education for FSB (interaction p = 0.041) without evidence that the effect of ENC differed as a function of maternal education for END. The model-based estimate of FSB risk was reduced among mothers with 0-7 years of education (19.7/1,000 live births pre-ENC, CI: 16.3, 23.0 vs. 12.2/1,000 live births post-ENC, CI: 16.3, 23.0, p < 0.001), but was not significantly different for mothers with ≥8 years of education, respectively. A low level of maternal education was associated with higher risk for FSB and END. ENC training was more effective in reducing FSB among mothers with low education levels. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Mid-childhood fruit and vegetable consumption: The roles of early liking, early consumption, and maternal consumption.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kai Ling; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that early liking, early consumption, and maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) each predict children's F&V consumption, but no one has examined the independent contributions of these three correlated factors. We aim to examine the extent to which each of these 3 factors is associated with F&V consumption in mid-childhood after accounting for the other 2 in the analysis. We analyzed data from 901 mother-child dyads from Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study. Mothers reported their child's early liking and consumption of F&V at age 2 years and later consumption at mid-childhood (median age 7.7 years). They also reported their own consumption of F&V at 6 months postpartum. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine the independent associations of these 3 factors with mid-childhood consumption, adjusting for socio-demographic, pregnancy, and child confounders. At 2 years, 53% of the mothers strongly agreed that their child liked fruit and 25% strongly agreed that their child liked vegetables. F&V consumption was 2.5 (1.3) and 1.8 (1.1) times/d at age 2 y and 1.5 (1.1) and 1.3 (0.8) times/d in mid-childhood. Maternal F&V consumption was 1.4 (1.1) and 1.5 (1.0) times/d, respectively. Children's early consumption played the most predominant role. For every 1 time/d increment in children's early consumption of F&V, mid-childhood consumption was higher by 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19, 0.30) times/d for fruits and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) times/d for vegetables, adjusted for confounders plus the other 2 exposures. In conclusion, children's early F&V consumption has the most significant influence on children's later consumption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Response to social challenge in young bonnet (Macaca radiata) and pigtail (Macaca nemestrina) macaques is related to early maternal experiences.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ann; Richardson, Rebecca; Worlein, Julie; De Waal, Frans; Laudenslager, Mark

    2004-04-01

    Previous experience affects how young primates respond to challenging social situations. The present retrospective study looked at one aspect of early experience, the quality of the mother-infant relationship, to determine its relationship to young bonnet and pigtail macaques' responses to two social challenges: temporary maternal separation at 5-6 months and permanent transfer to an unfamiliar peer group at 16-17 months. Relationship quality was measured quantitatively on 30 macaque mother-infant pairs with the Relationship Quality Index (RQI), the ratio of relative affiliation to relative agonism as previously applied to capuchin monkeys. Infants with high RQI values had amicable mother-infant relationships and infants with low RQI values had agonistic mother-infant relationships. Young monkeys with amicable and agonistic relationships showed consistent differences in behavior before, during, and after each social challenge, supporting the hypothesis that juveniles from amicable mother-infant relationships based on the RQI coped more effectively with social challenges than did juveniles from agonistic mother-infant relationships. Results suggest 1) characteristic amicability or agonism in early mother-offspring macaque relationships has the potential to influence offspring behavior in tense social contexts and 2) the RQI is useful as one of a coordinated suite of methods for studying the development of social skills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Longitudinal pathways from early maternal depression to children's dysregulated representations: a moderated mediation analysis of harsh parenting and gender.

    PubMed

    Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting.

  20. Maternal Depression and Parenting in Early Childhood: Contextual Influence of Marital Quality and Social Support in Two Samples

    PubMed Central

    Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S.; Leve, Leslie D.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David

    2016-01-01

    Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18-36 months) among two large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced parenting quality was strongest in the context of high marital quality and high social support, and largely non-significant in the context of low marital quality and low social support. Possible explanations for these surprising findings are discussed. Results point to the importance of accounting for factors in the broader family context in predicting the association between depressive symptoms and maternal parenting. PMID:28230401

  1. Identifying Continuous Quality Improvement Priorities in Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting.

    PubMed

    Preskitt, Julie; Fifolt, Matthew; Ginter, Peter M; Rucks, Andrew; Wingate, Martha S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe a methodology to identify continuous quality improvement (CQI) priorities for one state's Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting program from among the 40 required constructs associated with 6 program benchmarks. The authors discuss how the methodology provided consensus on system CQI quality measure priorities and describe variation among the 3 service delivery models used within the state. Q-sort methodology was used by home visiting (HV) service delivery providers (home visitors) to prioritize HV quality measures for the overall state HV system as well as their service delivery model. There was general consensus overall and among the service delivery models on CQI quality measure priorities, although some variation was observed. Measures associated with Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting benchmark 1, Improved Maternal and Newborn Health, and benchmark 3, Improvement in School Readiness and Achievement, were the highest ranked. The Q-sort exercise allowed home visitors an opportunity to examine priorities within their service delivery model as well as for the overall First Teacher HV system. Participants engaged in meaningful discussions regarding how and why they selected specific quality measures and developed a greater awareness and understanding of a systems approach to HV within the state. The Q-sort methodology presented in this article can easily be replicated by other states to identify CQI priorities at the local and state levels and can be used effectively in states that use a single HV service delivery model or those that implement multiple evidence-based models for HV service delivery.

  2. Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children's adjustment in first grade.

    PubMed

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, the current study found that temperament moderated associations between maternal parenting styles during early childhood and children's first-grade academic competence, social skills, and relationships with teachers and peers. Relations between parenting and first-grade outcomes were stronger for difficult than for less difficult infants. Infants with difficult temperaments had better adjustment than less difficult infants when parenting quality was high and poorer adjustment when parenting quality was lower.

  3. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children’s Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez, Gladys; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Rondet, Claire; Peyre, Hugo; Forhan, Anne; Kaminski, Monique; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10–20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children’s health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children’s early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children. Methods In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory at 2 years of age and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years of age. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling were used to examine links between depression, anxiety during pregnancy and child cognitive development. Results We found strong significant associations between maternal antenatal anxiety and poorer children’s cognitive development at 2 and 3 years. Antenatal maternal depression was not associated with child development, except when antenatal maternal anxiety was also present. Both postnatal maternal depression and parental stimulation appeared to play mediating roles in the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and children’s cognitive development. At 3 years, parental stimulation mediated 13.2% of the effect of antenatal maternal anxiety while postnatal maternal depression mediated 26.5%. Discussion The partial nature of these effects suggests that other mediators may play a role. Implications for theory and research on child development are discussed. PMID:26317609

  4. Maternal work hours in early to middle childhood link to later adolescent diet quality.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianghong; O'Sullivan, Therese; Johnson, Sarah; Stanley, Fiona; Oddy, Wendy

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies on maternal work hours and child diet quality have reported conflicting findings possibly due to differences in study design, lack of a comprehensive measure of diet quality and differing ages of the children under investigation. The present study aimed to prospectively examine the impact of parental work hours from age 1 year to age 14 years on adolescent diet quality. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine independent associations between parents' work hours at each follow-up and across 14 years and adolescent diet quality at age 14 years. A diet quality index was based on the international literature and Australian recommendations, consisting of six food groups and nine nutrients. Perth, Western Australia. Children (n 1629) participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Compared with children of mothers in full-time employment, children of mothers who were not employed in early childhood up to age 5 years had a higher average diet quality score at age 14 years, independent of maternal and family socio-economic status. Across 14 years the number of years the mother worked full time and increasing average weekly hours were associated with lower diet quality. Father's work hours had little association with adolescent diet quality. Having a mother stay at home in early to middle childhood is associated with better diet quality in adolescence. Support may be beneficial for families where the mother returns to full-time employment before the child reaches 8 years of age.

  5. Nuancing the role of social skills- a longitudinal study of early maternal psychological distress and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Kaasbøll, Jannike; Kjeldsen, Anne

    2018-04-10

    Social skills might play an important role for the relationship between maternal psychological distress and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. The majority perspective is that social skills is adaptive and protective, but there is a need to also highlight the potential maladaptive effect of social skills in some settings or for some sub groups. The current study examined the longitudinal interplay between maternal-reported psychological distress in early childhood (age 1.5), and offspring reports on social skills and depressive symptoms in early (age 12.5) and middle adolescence (age 14.5). We used data from the Tracking Opportunities and Problems Study (TOPP), a community-based longitudinal study following Norwegian families to examine direct links and interactions between early maternal distress (measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and early adolescent offspring social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and middle adolescent depressive symptoms (measured with the Moods and Feelings Questionnaire) in 370 families (in total 740 mothers and adolescents). Exposure to childhood maternal distress predicted offspring depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. Higher social skills in early adolescence predicted lower levels of depressive symptoms for girls, but not for boys, in middle adolescence. An interaction effect was found in which adolescents exposed to early maternal distress who reported high social skills in early adolescence had the highest level of depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. The findings highlight the nuances in the role of social skills for adolescent depressive symptoms - having the potential to be both adaptive as well as maladaptive for some subgroups (those experiencing maternal psychological distress). This has important implications for social skill programs.

  6. Toddlers with Early Behavioral Problems at Higher Family Demographic Risk Benefit the Most from Maternal Emotion Talk.

    PubMed

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Vallotton, Claire D; Stansbury, Kathy E; Senehi, Neda; Dalimonte-Merckling, Danielle; Lee, Young-Eun

    2015-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that toddlers at highest risk for behavioral problems from the most economically vulnerable families will benefit most from maternal talk about emotions. This study included 89 toddlers and mothers from low-income families. Behavioral problems were rated at 2 time points by masters-level trained Early Head Start home visiting specialists. Maternal emotion talk was coded from a wordless book-sharing task. Coding focused on mothers' emotion bridging, which included labeling emotions, explaining the context of emotions, noting the behavioral cues of emotions, and linking emotions to toddlers' own experiences. Maternal demographic risk reflected a composite score of 5 risk factors. A significant 3-way interaction between Time 1 toddler behavior problems, maternal emotion talk, and maternal demographic risk (p = .001) and examination of slope difference tests revealed that when maternal demographic risk was greater, more maternal emotion talk buffered associations between earlier and later behavior problems. Greater demographic risk and lower maternal emotion talk intensified Time 1 behavior problems as a predictor of Time 2 behavior problems. The model explained 54% of the variance in toddlers' Time 2 behavior problems. Analyses controlled for maternal warmth to better examine the unique contributions of emotion bridging to toddlers' behaviors. Toddlers at highest risk, those with more early behavioral problems from higher demographic-risk families, benefit the most from mothers' emotion talk. Informing parents about the use of emotion talk may be a cost-effective, simple strategy to support at-risk toddlers' social-emotional development and reduce behavioral problems.

  7. Maternal early pregnancy body mass index and risk of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Xinrong; Xi, Wei; Li, Zhu

    2011-10-01

    To determine the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in Chinese women. Data were obtained from a population-based perinatal care program in China during 1993-2005. Women whose height and weight information was recorded at the first prenatal visit in the first trimester of pregnancy and delivered a singleton live infant were selected. Women with multiple gestations, stillbirths, delivery before 28 weeks or after 44 weeks of gestation, and infants affected by major external birth defects were excluded. BMI was categorized as underweight (less than 18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (24-27.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (≥28 kg/m(2)) based on BMI classification criteria for Chinese. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for potential confounders, such as maternal age, education, occupation, city or county, gender of infant, and year of delivery. A total of 353,477 women were selected. The incidence of preterm birth in women who were underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese was 3.69% (3.61-3.76%), 3.59% (3.55-3.62%), 3.83% (3.71-3.96%), 4.90% (4.37-5.43%), respectively. The incidence of elective preterm birth, overweight, and obesity increased remarkably during 2000-2005 compared with that during 1993-1996. After having adjusted for potential confounders including maternal age, maternal occupation, education, city or county, gender of the infant and year of birth, the risk of PTB increased significantly with BMI (P < 0.05). Among nulliparae, the risk of elective preterm birth increased with increasing BMI. Nulliparae who were underweight were less likely to deliver elective preterm births (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98). Nulliparae who were overweight and obese in early pregnancy were at a greater risk of elective PTB than normal weight nulliparae (for the overweight OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.18-1.56, for the obese OR = 2.94, 95% CI 2.04-4.25). In this study, indigenous

  8. Maternal Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy and Neuropsychological Performance of the Child at 5 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Liew, Zeyan; Vestergaard, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Follow-up study. A cohort of 1153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured in stored biobank sera from early pregnancy. Child neuropsychological test results (Wechsler Intelligence Scale/Test of Everyday Attention), test of motor function (Movement Assessment Battery), and results of parent and teacher reports (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function/Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Altogether 145 children (12.6%) were born to mothers with abnormal thyroid function in the early pregnancy. High maternal TSH and low fT4 were associated with lower child verbal intelligence quotient (adjusted mean difference TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L vs 0.1 to 2.49 mIU/L, -8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), -15 to -2.4]; fT4 < 10 pmol/l vs 12.0 to 18.99 pmol/l, -13 [95% CI, -19 to -7.3]). Abnormal maternal thyroid function was also associated with adverse motor function and teacher-reported problems of executive function and behavior, and these associations were dominated by exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia. Maternal thyroid hormone abnormalities were associated with adverse neuropsychological function of the child at 5 years of age. For intelligence, marked hypothyroidism was important, whereas for motor function and executive and behavior problems, maternal hypothyroxinemia was predominant. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  9. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  10. Female-dependent impaired fear memory of adult rats induced by maternal separation, and screening of possible related genes in the hippocampal CA1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiu-Min; Tu, Wen-Qiang; Shi, Yan-Wei; Xue, Li; Zhao, Hu

    2014-07-01

    Early life stress is one of the major susceptible factors for stress-related pathologies like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies in rats suggest that rather than being overall unfavorable, early life stress may prepare the organism to perform optimally to stressful environments later in life. In this study, severely adverse early life stress was conducted by six consecutive hours of maternal separation (MS), from PND1 to PND21, and contextual fear conditioning model was used on PND90 to mimic the second stress in adulthood and the re-experiencing symptom of PTSD. It was observed that in this investigation pups experienced MS showed decreased sensibility to contextual fear conditioning in adulthood, and there sex plays an important role. For example, female rats suffered MS had much lower freezing than males and controls. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test indicated that MS did not impair rat's performance of spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to screen the related genes of fear memory, by examining the changes of mRNA expression in CA1 area between female MS and control rats after contextual fear conditioning. Finally, nine up-regulated and one down-regulated genes, including β2-MG, MAF, Nd1-L, TorsinA and MACF1 gene were found in this study. It is assumed that the TorsinA, MACF1 and Nd1-L gene may contribute to the decreased sensitivity of PTSD induced by MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal and Cord Blood Manganese Concentrations and Early Childhood Neurodevelopment among Residents near a Mining-Impacted Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Claus Henn, Birgit; Bellinger, David C; Hopkins, Marianne R; Coull, Brent A; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Jim, Rebecca; Hatley, Earl; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O

    2017-06-28

    Environmental manganese exposure has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes among school-aged children; yet, few studies have evaluated prenatal exposure. Our study examines associations between prenatal manganese concentrations and placental transfer of manganese with neurodevelopment in 224 2-y-old children residing near the Tar Creek Superfund Site. We collected maternal and cord blood at delivery, measured manganese using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and assessed neurodevelopment using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Associations between manganese and mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development indices were estimated in multivariable models. Placental transfer, approximated by cord/maternal manganese ratio, cord/total manganese ratio (total=maternal+cord), and by joint classification according to high or low (above or below median) maternal and cord manganese, was evaluated as a predictor of neurodevelopment. Median levels [interquartile ranges (IQR)] of manganese in maternal and cord blood, respectively, were 24.0 (19.5-29.7) and 43.1 (33.5-52.1) μg/L. Adjusting for lead, arsenic, and other potential confounders, an IQR increase in maternal manganese was associated with -3.0 (95% CI: -5.3, -0.7) points on MDI and -2.3 (95% CI: -4.1, -0.4) points on PDI. Cord manganese concentrations were not associated with neurodevelopment scores. Cord/maternal and cord/total manganese ratios were positively associated with MDI [cord/maternal: β=2.6 (95% Cl: −0.04, 5.3); cord/total: β=22.0 (95% Cl: 3.2, 40.7)] and PDI (cord/maternal: β=1.7 (95% Cl: −0.5, 3.9); cord/total: β=15.6 (95% Cl: 0.3, 20.9)). Compared to mother-child pairs with low maternal and cord manganese, associations with neurodevelopment scores were negative for pairs with either high maternal, high cord, or high maternal and cord manganese. Maternal blood manganese concentrations were negatively associated with early

  12. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes From Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during adolescence accentuated the association between child care quality and adolescent academic-cognitive skills at age 15 years when maternal sensitivity during adolescence was high. This interaction was obtained in analyses with maternal sensitivity as both a categorical and continuous variable. Relations between early child care hours and adolescent behavioral outcomes also were moderated by maternal sensitivity, with longer child care hours predicting more impulsivity and externalizing at age 15 when maternal sensitivity during middle childhood, scored as a categorical variable, was low to moderate and when maternal sensitivity during adolescence, scored as a continuous variable, was lower. These findings suggest that some child care effects are moderated by subsequent parenting and that this moderation may take both linear and nonlinear forms. PMID:23937381

  13. Prenatal Maternal Stress Associated with ADHD and Autistic Traits in early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Angelica; Pennell, Craig E.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioral development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is a risk factor for both autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2 years, mothers completed the child behavior checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviors in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p = 0.03) and females (p = 0.01). Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviors and confounding variables, in males only (p = 0.04). In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful life events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviors independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal, and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene–environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association. PMID:21833278

  14. Recognizing Maternal Depressive Symptoms: An Opportunity to Improve Outcomes in Early Intervention Programs.

    PubMed

    Beeber, Linda S; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Martinez, Maria; Matsuda, Yui; Wheeler, Anne C; Mandel, Marcia; LaForett, Dore; Waldrop, Julee

    2017-04-01

    Objective A higher rate of depressive symptoms is found among mothers of children with disabilities compared to other parents. However, there is a lack of study of mothers with children <3 years of age participating in Early Intervention (EI) programs. This study aims to more fully describe the extent of mood disorders in these mothers including estimated prevalence, severity and factors associated with maternal mental health, using gold standard clinical diagnostic and symptom measures, and test models associating depressive symptoms with contextual factors and child behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 106 women who had at least one child enrolled in EI. Mothers were interviewed and completed reliable, valid measures to evaluate mental health, health status, family conflict, parent-child interaction, self-efficacy, social support, child behavioral problems, hardship, endangerment, and child disability. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were performed. Results We found 8 % of participants met all criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) with 44 % of the sample reporting a past episode and 43 % endorsing recurrent episodes. Using the CES-D to assess depressive symptom severity approximately 34 % of mothers screened in a clinically significant range. Using linear regression to predict severity of current depressive symptoms demonstrated that current depression severity was primarily predicted by poorer maternal health status, lower self-efficacy and past MDE (p < 0.05). Conclusions for practice A brief assessment of maternal mood, health and self-efficacy are important factors to assess when evaluating how to support mothers of children in EI.

  15. Maternal genetic effects on adaptive divergence between anadromous and resident brook charr during early life history.

    PubMed

    Perry, G M L; Audet, C; Bernatchez, L

    2005-09-01

    The importance of directional selection relative to neutral evolution may be determined by comparing quantitative genetic variation in phenotype (Q(ST)) to variation at neutral molecular markers (F(ST)). Quantitative divergence between salmonid life history types is often considerable, but ontogenetic changes in the significance of major sources of genetic variance during post-hatch development suggest that selective differentiation varies by developmental stage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal genetic differentiation between anadromous and resident brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) populations for early quantitative traits (embryonic size/growth, survival, egg number and developmental time) would be greater than neutral genetic differentiation, but that the maternal genetic basis for differentiation would be higher for pre-resorption traits than post-resorption traits. Quantitative genetic divergence between anadromous (seawater migratory) and resident Laval River (Québec) brook charr based on maternal genetic variance was high (Q(ST) > 0.4) for embryonic length, yolk sac volume, embryonic growth rate and time to first response to feeding relative to neutral genetic differentiation [F(ST) = 0.153 (0.071-0.214)], with anadromous females having positive genetic coefficients for all of the above characters. However, Q(ST) was essentially zero for all traits post-resorption of the yolk sac. Our results indicate that the observed divergence between resident and anadromous brook charr has been driven by directional selection, and may therefore be adaptive. Moreover, they provide among the first evidence that the relative importance of selective differentiation may be highly context-specific, and varies by genetic contributions to phenotype by parental sex at specific points in offspring ontogeny. This in turn suggests that interpretations of Q(ST)-F(ST) comparisons may be improved by considering the structure of quantitative genetic

  16. Differential sensitization of parenting on early adolescent cortisol: Moderation by profiles of maternal stress.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body's stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on (a) parenting in young children and (b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M=11.00years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents' cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers' stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Liu, Enqing; Guo, Jia; Pan, Lei; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jin; Wang, Yue; Liu, Gongshu; Hu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months old in Tianjin, China. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, health care records of 38,539 pregnant women had been collected, and their children had been measured body weight and length at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The independent and joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines with anthropometry in the offspring were examined using General Linear Model and Logistic Regression. Results Prepregnancy BMI and maternal GWG were positively associated with Z-scores for birth weight-for-gestational age, birth length-for-gestational age, and birth weight-for-length. Infants born to mothers with excessive GWG had the greatest changes in Z-scores for weight-for-age from birth to Month 3, and from Month 6 to Month 12, and the greatest changes in Z-scores for length-for-age from birth to months 3 and 12 compared with infants born to mothers with adequate GWG. Excessive GWG was associated with an increased risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 12 months old in all BMI categories except underweight. Conclusions Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater weight gain and length gain of offspring in early infancy. Excessive GWG was associated with increased infancy overweight and obesity risk. PMID:24204979

  18. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development.

    PubMed

    Singer, Alison B; Windham, Gayle C; Croen, Lisa A; Daniels, Julie L; Lee, Brian K; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E; Fallin, M Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-11-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one job during pregnancy. Asthmagen exposure was estimated from a published job-exposure matrix. The adjusted odds ratio for ASD comparing asthmagen-exposed to unexposed was 1.39 (95 % CI 0.96-2.02). Maternal workplace asthmagen exposure was not associated with ASD risk in this study, but this result does not exclude some involvement of maternal exposure to asthma-causing agents in ASD.

  19. Early-life risperidone administration alters maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Matthew A; Brown, Clifford J; Stevens, Rachel M; Griffith, Molly S; Marczinski, Cecile A; Bardgett, Mark E

    2015-03-01

    Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is approved for use in childhood psychiatric disorders such as autism. One concern regarding the use of this drug in pediatric populations is that it may interfere with social interactions that serve to nurture brain development. This study used rats to assess the impact of risperidone administration on maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting between cage mates. Mixed-sex litters received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1.0 or 3.0mg/kg of risperidone between postnatal days (PNDs) 14-42. Rats were weaned and housed three per cage on PND 21. In observations made between PNDs 14-17, risperidone significantly suppressed several aspects of maternal-offspring interactions at 1-hour post-injection. At 23 h post-injection, pups administered risperidone had lower activity scores and made fewer non-nursing contacts with their moms. In observations of play-fighting behavior made once a week between PNDs 22-42, risperidone profoundly decreased many forms of social interaction at 1h post-injection. At 23h post-injection, rats administered risperidone made more non-social contacts with their cage mates, but engaged in less social grooming. Risperidone administration to rats at ages analogous to early childhood through adolescence in humans produces a pattern of abnormal social interactions across the day that could impact how such interactions influence brain development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early-Life Risperidone Administration Alters Maternal-Offspring Interactions and Juvenile Play Fighting

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Matthew A.; Brown, Clifford J.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Griffith, Molly S.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Bardgett, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is approved for use in childhood psychiatric disorders such as autism. One concern regarding the use of this drug in pediatric populations is that it may interfere with social interactions that serve to nurture brain development. This study used rats to assess the impact of risperidone administration on maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting between cage mates. Mixed-sex litters received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg of risperidone between postnatal days (PNDs) 14-42. Rats were weaned and housed three per cage on PND 21. In observations made between PNDs 14-17, risperidone significantly suppressed several aspects of maternal-offspring interactions at one-hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, pups administered risperidone had lower activity scores and made fewer non-nursing contacts with their moms. In observations of play-fighting behavior made once a week between PNDs 22-42, risperidone profoundly decreased many forms of social interaction at one hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, rats administered risperidone made more non-social contacts with their cage mates, but engaged in less social grooming. Risperidone administration to rats at ages analogous to early childhood through adolescence in humans produces a pattern of abnormal social interactions across the day that could impact how such interactions influence brain development. PMID:25600754

  1. Matter-antimatter separation in the early universe by rotating black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration of the effect of rotating black holes evaporating early in the universe shows that they would have produced oppositely directed neutrino and antineutrino currents, which push matter and antimatter apart. This separation mechanism is, however, too feeble to account for a present baryon-to-photon ratio of 10 to the -9th, and has no significant observational consequences.

  2. The relationship between maternal serum iron and zinc levels and their nutritional intakes in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Safary, Kolsum; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Lamyian, Minoor; Goshtasebi, Azita; Goshtasbi, Azita; Alian-Moghaddam, Narges

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal iron/zinc serum levels and their nutritional intake in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes. The maternal serum zinc/iron levels were measured in 1,033 healthy singleton pregnant women aged 20-35 between 14 and 20 weeks of gestation, within two groups: namely, normal and gestational diabetes, and participants were followed up to 24-28 weeks of gestation. Food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutritional intakes of iron/zinc. The main outcome was gestational diabetes screened with the 50-g glucose challenge test and diagnosed with oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Gestational diabetes occurred in 72 (6.96 %) of 1,033 women in study. There was a statistical relationship between early pregnancy maternal serum iron and gestational diabetes, mean (SD), 143.8 (48.7) vs. 112.5 (83.5) μg/dl, P value of <0.0001. There was no statistical significant difference in zinc levels and iron/zinc nutritional intake between groups. The results remained unchanged after using regression model for adjustment of potential risk factors with an adjusted OR of 1.006 (95 % CI 1.002 to 1.009; P = 0.001) for early pregnancy maternal serum iron to cause gestational diabetes. The receiver-operator characteristic curve identified that a maternal serum iron above 100 μg/dl in early pregnancy is the optimum cutoff value for predicting gestational diabetes, which showed a sensitivity and specificity of 80.6 and 50.7 %, respectively. In conclusion, high maternal serum iron in early pregnancy could increase the risk of gestational diabetes. Also, it could be used as a sensitive and specific predictor for gestational diabetes.

  3. Early maternal depressive symptoms and child growth trajectories: a longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative US birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depressive symptoms are negatively associated with early child growth in developing countries; however, few studies have examined this relation in developed countries or used a longitudinal design with data past the second year of the child’s life. We investigated if and when early maternal depressive symptoms affect average growth in young children up to age 6 in a nationally representative sample of US children. Methods Using data from 6,550 singleton births from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study -- Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), we fit growth trajectory models with random effects to examine the relation between maternal depressive symptoms at 9 months based on the twelve-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and child height and body mass index (BMI) to age 6 years. Results Mothers with moderate/severe depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum had children with shorter stature at this same point in time [average 0.26 cm shorter; 95% CI: 5 cm, 48 cm] than mothers without depressive symptoms; children whose mothers reported postpartum depressive symptoms remained significantly shorter throughout the child’s first 6 years. Conclusions Results suggest that the first year postpartum is a critical window for addressing maternal depressive symptoms in order to optimize child growth. Future studies should investigate the role of caregiving and feeding practices as potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms and child growth trajectories. PMID:25047367

  4. Cortisol Secretion and Change in Sleep Problems in Early Childhood: Moderation by Maternal Overcontrol

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Hummel, Alexandra C.; Luebbe, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sleep problems are prevalent and relate to a wide range of negative psychological outcomes. However, it remains unclear how biological processes, such as HPA activity, may predict sleep problems over time in childhood in the context of certain parenting environments. Fifty-one mothers and their 18–20 month-old toddlers participated in a short-term longitudinal study assessing how shared variance among morning levels, diurnal change, and nocturnal change in toddlers’ cortisol secretion predicted change in sleep problems in the context of maternal overprotection and critical control. A composite characterized by low variability in, and, to a lesser extent, high morning values of cortisol, predicted increasing sleep problems from age 2 to age 3 when mothers reported high critical control. Results suggest value in assessing shared variance among different indices of cortisol secretion patterns and the interaction between cortisol and the environment in predicting sleep problems in early childhood. PMID:25766262

  5. Borderline Personality Disorder in the perinatal period: early infant and maternal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blankley, Gaynor; Galbally, Megan; Snellen, Martien; Power, Josephine; Lewis, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    This study examines pregnancy and early infant outcomes of pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder presenting for obstetric services to a major metropolitan maternity hospital in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective case review of pregnancy and early infant outcomes on 42 women who had been diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder via psychiatric assessment using DSM-IV-R criteria was undertaken. Outcomes were compared with a control group of 14,313 consisting of women and infants of non-affected women from the same hospital over the same period of time. Women presenting for obstetric services with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder experienced considerable psychosocial impairment. They anticipated birth as traumatic and frequently requested early delivery. High comorbidity with substance abuse was found and high rates of referral to child protective services. Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder were significantly more likely to have negative birth outcomes such as lowered Apgar scores, prematurity and special care nursery referral when compared with controls. These findings offer preliminary evidence to be considered by clinicians in developing treatments and services for the perinatal care of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. Further research is required in order to develop evidence informed clinical guidelines for the management of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Early and middle adolescents' autonomy development: impact of maternal HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Debra A; Greenwell, Lisa; Resell, Judith; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Schuster, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Progression toward autonomy is considered of central importance during the adolescent period. For young adolescents with an HIV-infected parent, there may be additional challenges. This study investigated current autonomy among early and middle adolescents affected by maternal HIV (N = 108), as well as examined longitudinally the children's responsibility taking when they were younger (age 6-11; N = 81) in response to their mother's illness and their current autonomy as early/middle adolescents. In analyses of self-care and family autonomy, children with greater attachment to their mothers had higher autonomy, and there was a trend for children who drink or use drugs alone to have lower autonomy. In analyses of management autonomy, attachment to peers was associated with higher autonomy. Trajectory group findings indicate that those children who had taken on more responsibility for instrumental caretaking roles directly because of their mother's illness showed better autonomy development as early and middle age adolescents. Therefore, 'parentification' of young children with a mother with HIV may not negatively affect later autonomy development.

  7. Placental pathology in early intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, J H W; Nikkels, P G J; Torrance, H L; Gravesteijn, J; Post Uiterweer, E D; Derks, J B; Koenen, S V; Visser, G H A; Van Rijn, B B; Franx, A

    2014-09-01

    To identify key pathological characteristics of placentas from pregnancies complicated by early intrauterine growth restriction, and to examine their relations with maternal hypertensive disease and umbilical artery Doppler waveform abnormalities. Single-center retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow patterns resulting in a live birth <34 weeks of a baby with a weight <10th percentile for gestational age. Umbilical artery end diastolic flow was classified as being either present or absent/reversed (AREDF). Data were stratified into intrauterine growth restriction with or without hypertensive disease and pathological characteristics were compared between these various conditions according to predefined scoring criteria. Among 164 placentas studied, we found high rates of characteristic histopathological features that were associated with intrauterine growth restriction, including infarction (>5% in 42%), chronic villitis (21%), chronic chorioamnionitis (36%), membrane necrosis (20%), elevated nucleated red blood cells (89%), increased syncytial knotting (93%), increased villous maturation (98%), fetal thrombosis (32%) and distal villous hypoplasia (35%). Chronic inflammation of fetal membranes and syncytial knotting were more common in women with concomitant hypertensive disease as compared to women with normotensive IUGR (p < 0.05). Placentas from women with umbilical artery AREDF were more likely to show increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells and distal villous hypoplasia (p < 0.05). Placentas of women with early IUGR show high rates of several histological aberrations. Further, concomitant maternal hypertension is associated with characteristic inflammatory changes and umbilical artery AREDF with signs of chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyperforin alleviates mood deficits of adult rats suffered from early separation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghui; Liu, Chunhua; Qin, Xuan; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-11-03

    In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of hyperforin (Hyp) on adult rats suffered from early separation. Wistar infant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CON), early separation from parents group (ESP), and early separation from parents+treatment with 3mg/kg/day Hyp group (ESP+Hyp). Postnatal rats of ESP group and ESP+Hyp group were separated from their mothers for 6h every day on the 14th day after birth, and this separation lasted for 3 weeks, while rats of CON group had no separation. Hyperforin was intragastric administrated on the 21th day after birth, and lasted for 2 weeks in ESP+Hyp group. After separation, adult rats were evaluated by using the open field test (OFT), novelty suppressed feeding test (NSF) and forced swimming test (FST). In OFT, time spent in central grids was much shorter in ESP group compared with that of CON group. After treatment with hyperforin, time spent in central area was much longer compared with that of ESP group. In NSF, the feeding latency of ESP group was much longer than that of CON group. After treatment with hyperforin, the feeding latency was shorter compared with that of ESP group. In FST, score of ESP group was markedly higher than that of CON group. Interestingly, the score was obviously lower in ESP+Hyp group than that of ESP group. In conclusion, these results suggest that hyperforin is able to alleviate anxiety and remit depression in ESP rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Maternal Alcohol Consumption Alters Hippocampal DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Volume in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Marjonen, Heidi; Sierra, Alejandra; Nyman, Anna; Rogojin, Vladimir; Gröhn, Olli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are known, but the molecular events that lead to the phenotypic characteristics are unclear. To unravel the molecular mechanisms, we have used a mouse model of gestational ethanol exposure, which is based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v) ethanol for the first 8 days of gestation (GD 0.5-8.5). Early neurulation takes place by the end of this period, which is equivalent to the developmental stage early in the fourth week post-fertilization in human. During this exposure period, dynamic epigenetic reprogramming takes place and the embryo is vulnerable to the effects of environmental factors. Thus, we hypothesize that early ethanol exposure disrupts the epigenetic reprogramming of the embryo, which leads to alterations in gene regulation and life-long changes in brain structure and function. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in the mouse hippocampus revealed altered expression of 23 genes and three miRNAs in ethanol-exposed, adolescent offspring at postnatal day (P) 28. We confirmed this result by using two other tissues, where three candidate genes are known to express actively. Interestingly, we found a similar trend of upregulated gene expression in bone marrow and main olfactory epithelium. In addition, we observed altered DNA methylation in the CpG islands upstream of the candidate genes in the hippocampus. Our MRI study revealed asymmetry of brain structures in ethanol-exposed adult offspring (P60): we detected ethanol-induced enlargement of the left hippocampus and decreased volume of the left olfactory bulb. Our study indicates that ethanol exposure in early gestation can cause changes in DNA methylation, gene expression, and brain structure of offspring. Furthermore, the results support our hypothesis of early epigenetic origin of alcohol-induced disorders: changes in gene regulation may have already taken place in embryonic stem cells and therefore can be seen in different tissue

  10. Behavior problems in late childhood: the roles of early maternal attachment and teacher-child relationship trajectories.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Erin E; Collins, Brian A; Supplee, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were: (1) to examine the roles of early maternal attachment relationships and teacher-child relationships during childhood for externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood, and (2) to investigate teacher-child relationships, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood as possible mechanisms linking early maternal attachment relationships to behavior problems in late childhood. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1140 mothers and children) were used in this investigation. There were three main findings. First, insecure/other maternal attachment relationships in early childhood (i.e., 36 months) were associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood (Grade 5). Second, elevated levels of teacher-child conflict during childhood were associated with externalizing behaviors in late childhood whereas low levels of teacher-child closeness were associated with internalizing behaviors. Third, the effects of insecure/other attachment on externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood were mediated through teacher-child relationships during childhood and early externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.

  11. Influence of maternal adiposity, preterm birth and birth weight centiles on early childhood obesity in an Indigenous Australian pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pringle, K G; Lee, Y Q; Weatherall, L; Keogh, L; Diehm, C; Roberts, C T; Eades, S; Brown, A; Smith, R; Lumbers, E R; Brown, L J; Collins, C E; Rae, K M

    2018-05-16

    Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother-child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23.1 weeks) and offspring BMI and adiposity (abdominal circumference, subscapular skinfold thickness) in early childhood (mean age 23.4 months). Maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations were positively associated with infant birth weight (P=0.005) and GROW customized birth weight centiles (P=0.008). There was a significant association between maternal percentage body fat (P=0.02) and visceral fat area (P=0.00) with infant body weight in early childhood. Body mass index (BMI) in early childhood was significantly higher in offspring born preterm compared with those born at term (P=0.03). GROW customized birth weight centiles was significantly associated with body weight (P=0.01), BMI (P=0.007) and abdominal circumference (P=0.039) at early childhood. Our findings suggest that being born preterm, large for gestational age or exposed to an obesogenic intrauterine environment and higher maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations are associated with increased obesity risk in early childhood. Future strategies should aim to reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women of child-bearing age and emphasize the importance of optimal glycemia during pregnancy, particularly in Indigenous women.

  12. Maternal Sensitivity and Effortful Control in Early Childhood as Predictors of Adolescents' Adjustment: The Mediating Roles of Peer Group Affiliation and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N.; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial,…

  13. Pathways from maternal distress and child problem behavior to adolescent depressive symptoms: a prospective examination from early childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Wendy; Gustavson, Kristin; Røysamb, Espen; Kjeldsen, Anne; Karevold, Evalill

    2013-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the pathways from maternal distress and child problem behaviors (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) across childhood and their impact on depressive symptoms during adolescence among girls and boys. Data from families of 921 Norwegian children in a 15-year longitudinal community sample were used. Using structural equation modeling, the authors explored the interplay between maternal-reported distress and child problem behaviors measured at 5 time points from early (ages 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years) and middle (age 8.5 years) childhood to early adolescence (age 12.5 years), and their prediction of self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence (ages 14.5 and 16.5 years). The findings revealed paths from internalizing and externalizing problems throughout the development for corresponding problems (homotypic paths) and paths from early externalizing to subsequent internalizing problems (heterotypic paths). The findings suggest 2 pathways linking maternal-rated risk factors to self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. There was a direct path from early externalizing problems to depressive symptoms. There was an indirect path from early maternal distress going through child problem behavior to depressive symptoms. In general, girls and boys were similar, but some gender-specific effects appeared. Problem behaviors in middle childhood had heterotypic paths to subsequent problems only for girls. The findings highlight the developmental importance of child externalizing problems, as well as the impact of maternal distress as early as age 1.5 years for the development of adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings also indicate a certain vulnerable period in middle childhood for girls. NOTE: See Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JDBP/A45, for a video introduction to this article.

  14. Maternal lipid profile during early pregnancy and pregnancy complications and outcomes: the ABCD study.

    PubMed

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Krukziener, Náthalie; Hutten, Barbara A; Vollebregt, Karlijn C; van Eijsden, Manon; Twickler, Marcel B

    2012-11-01

    Elevated lipid levels during late pregnancy are associated with complications and adverse outcome for both mother and newborn. However, it is inconclusive whether a disturbed lipid profile during early pregnancy has similar negative associations. Our objective was to investigate whether nonfasting maternal total cholesterol and triglyceride levels during early pregnancy are associated with six major adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data were derived from the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development (ABCD) cohort study. Random blood samples of nonfasting total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were determined during early gestation (median = 13, interquartile range = 12-14 wk). Outcome measures were pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preeclampsia, preterm birth, small/large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and child loss. Only nondiabetic women with singleton deliveries were included; the baseline sample consisted of 4008 women. Analysis for PIH and preeclampsia were performed in nulliparous women only (n = 2037). Mean (sd) triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were 1.33 (0.55) and 4.98 (0.87) mmol/liter, respectively. The incidence of pregnancy complications and perinatal outcomes were as follows: PIH, 4.9%; preeclampsia, 3.7%; preterm birth, 5.3%; SGA, 9.3%; LGA, 9.3%; and child loss, 1.4%. After adjustments, every unit increase in triglycerides was linearly associated with an increased risk of PIH [odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, P = 0.021], preeclampsia (OR = 1.69, P = 0.018), LGA (OR = 1.48, P < 0.001), and induced preterm delivery (OR = 1.69, P = 0.006). No associations were found for SGA or child loss. Total cholesterol was not associated with any of the outcome measures. Elevated maternal triglyceride levels measured during early pregnancy are associated with pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. These results suggest that future lifestyle programs in women of reproductive age with a focus on lowering triglyceride levels (i.e. diet, weight

  15. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes from Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Belsky, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during…

  16. Separator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashbrook, C.L.

    1970-09-22

    A separator consists of a housing having an upper fluid inlet and a lower fluid outlet in the sides of the housing. An inverted conical tube is disposed internally of the housing and is in fluid communication with the fluid inlet. The upper fluid inlet tangentially intersects the inverted conical tube so as to create a rotating vortex upon introduction of the mixture. Axially disposed within the vortex tube at the upper end is a withdrawal tube for removing lighter mixture components that are drawn toward the center of the tube. At the lower end of the vortex tube ismore » an adjustable impact plate for transmitting a concussion wave through the vortexed body, so as to cause cavitation. Heavier mixture components gravitate toward the lower fluid outlet and are withdrawn through it. (7 claims)« less

  17. Maternal Psychological Control and Peer Victimization in Early Adolescence: An Application of the Family Relational Schema Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena D.; Loukas, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the family relational schema model, the current study examined the direct and indirect contributions of maternal psychological control to subsequent relational and overt peer victimization, via early adolescents' conduct problems, fear of negative evaluation, and depressive symptoms. Participants were 499 10- to 14-year-olds (53% female;…

  18. Anger and Positive Reactivity in Infancy: Effects on Maternal Report of Surgency and Attention Focusing in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jie; Hane, Amie Ashley; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Henderson, Heather A.; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined two aspects of temperamental approach in early infancy, positive reactivity and anger, and their unique and combined influences on maternal reports of child surgency and attention focusing at 4 years of age. One hundred and fourteen infants were observed for their positive reactions to novel stimuli at 4 months, and their anger…

  19. Early life social stress induced changes in depression and anxiety associated neural pathways which are correlated with impaired maternal care.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Peña, Catherine J; Podda, Giovanni; Nestler, Eric J; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2015-08-01

    Exposures to various types of early life stress can be robust predictors of the development of psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to investigate the roles of the translationally relevant targets of central vasopressin, oxytocin, ghrelin, orexin, glucocorticoid, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway in an early chronic social stress (ECSS) based rodent model of postpartum depression and anxiety. The present study reports novel changes in gene expression and extracellular signal related kinase (ERK) protein levels in the brains of ECSS exposed rat dams that display previously reported depressed maternal care and increased maternal anxiety. Decreases in oxytocin, orexin, and ERK proteins, increases in ghrelin receptor, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA levels, and bidirectional changes in vasopressin underscore related work on the adverse long-term effects of early life stress on neural activity and plasticity, maternal behavior, responses to stress, and depression and anxiety-related behavior. The differences in gene and protein expression and robust correlations between expression and maternal care and anxiety support increased focus on these targets in animal and clinical studies of the adverse effects of early life stress, especially those focusing on depression and anxiety in mothers and the transgenerational effects of these disorders on offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence of Maternal Early to Mid-Gestation Nutrient Restriction of Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Fetal Sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The early to mid-gestational period (days 28-78) in sheep is the period of most rapid placental development. Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in this phase has negative consequences on fetal growth and development, predisposing the fetus to disease in adult life. The influence of MNR on fetal tis...

  1. Home Visiting Family Support Programs: Benefits of the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Home Visiting Campaign, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The federally funded, locally administered Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program sponsors family support programs that are often called "home visiting" because they take place in the homes of at-risk families. These families often lack support, experience, and knowledge of basic parenting skills. Because children…

  2. Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the amygdala influences visceral sensitivity via glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in male maternal separation rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X-P; Sha, J; Huang, L; Li, T-N; Zhang, R-R; Tang, M-D; Lin, L; Li, X-L

    2016-10-01

    Nesfatin-1, a recently identified satiety molecule derived from nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), is associated with visceral hypersensitivity in rats and is expressed in the amygdala. We tested the hypothesis that nesfatin-1 expression in the amygdala is involved in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) visceral hypersensitivity. An animal model of IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity was established using maternal separation (MS) during postnatal days 2-16. The role of nesfatin-1 in the amygdala on visceral sensitivity was evaluated. Rats subjected to MS showed a significantly increased mean abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score and electromyographic (EMG) activity at 40, 60, and 80 mmHg colorectal distension. Plasma concentrations of nesfatin-1 and corticosterone were significantly higher than in non-handled (NH) rats. mRNA and protein expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the amygdala were increased in MS rats, but not in NH rats. In MS rats, AWR scores and EMG activity were significantly decreased after anti-nesfatin-1/NUCB2 injection. In normal rats, mean AWR score, EMG activity, and corticosterone expression were significantly increased after nesfatin-1 injection into the amygdala. Nesfatin-1-induced visceral hypersensitivity was abolished following application of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists. Elevated expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the amygdala in MS rats suggests a potential role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, which could potentially take place via activation of GR and MR signaling pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Combined Independent Source Separation and Quality Index Optimization Method for Fetal ECG Extraction from Abdominal Maternal Leads

    PubMed Central

    Billeci, Lucia; Varanini, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) technique has recently received considerable interest in monitoring fetal health. The aim of our paper is to propose a novel fECG algorithm based on the combination of the criteria of independent source separation and of a quality index optimization (ICAQIO-based). The algorithm was compared with two methods applying the two different criteria independently—the ICA-based and the QIO-based methods—which were previously developed by our group. All three methods were tested on the recently implemented Fetal ECG Synthetic Database (FECGSYNDB). Moreover, the performance of the algorithm was tested on real data from the PhysioNet fetal ECG Challenge 2013 Database. The proposed combined method outperformed the other two algorithms on the FECGSYNDB (ICAQIO-based: 98.78%, QIO-based: 97.77%, ICA-based: 97.61%). Significant differences were obtained in particular in the conditions when uterine contractions and maternal and fetal ectopic beats occurred. On the real data, all three methods obtained very high performances, with the QIO-based method proving slightly better than the other two (ICAQIO-based: 99.38%, QIO-based: 99.76%, ICA-based: 99.37%). The findings from this study suggest that the proposed method could potentially be applied as a novel algorithm for accurate extraction of fECG, especially in critical recording conditions. PMID:28509860

  4. Maternal separation decreases adult hippocampal cell proliferation and impairs cognitive performance but has little effect on stress sensitivity and anxiety in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, Henriëtte J; Novati, Arianna; Sgoifo, Andrea; Luiten, Paul G M; den Boer, Johan A; Meerlo, Peter

    2011-01-20

    Stressful events during childhood are thought to increase the risk for the development of adult psychopathology. A widely used animal model for early life stress is maternal separation (MS), which is thought to affect development and cause alterations in neuroendocrine stress reactivity and emotionality lasting into adulthood. However, results obtained with this paradigm are inconsistent. Here we investigated whether this variation may be related to the type of stressor or the tests used to assess adult stress sensitivity and behavioral performance. Rat pups were exposed to a 3h daily MS protocol during postnatal weeks 1-2. In adulthood, animals were subjected to a wide variety of stressors and tests to obtain a better view on the effects of MS on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, anxiety-like behavior, social interaction and cognition. Also, the influence of MS on adult hippocampal neurogenesis was studied because it might underlie changes in neuroendocrine regulation and behavioral performance. The results show that, independent of the nature of the stressor, MS did not affect the neuroendocrine response. MS did not influence anxiety-like behavior, explorative behavior and social interaction, but did affect cognitive function in an object recognition task. The amount of new born cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly decreased in MS animals; yet, cell differentiation and survival were not altered. In conclusion, while interfering with the mother-infant relationship early in life did affect some aspects of adult neuroplasticity and cognitive function, it did not lead to permanent changes in stress sensitivity and emotionality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of maternal separation on dynamics of urocortin 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus.

    PubMed

    Gaszner, Balázs; Jensen, Kai-Ole; Farkas, József; Reglodi, Dóra; Csernus, Valér; Roubos, Eric W; Kozicz, Tamás

    2009-08-01

    Although mood disorders are frequently genetically determined and to some degree gender-dependent, the concept of early life 'programming', implying a relation between perinatal environmental events and adult mood disorders, has recently gained considerable attention. In particular, maternal separation (MS) markedly affects various stress-sensitive brain centers. Therefore, MS is considered as a suitable experimental paradigm to study how early life events affect brain plasticity and, hence, cause psychopathologies like major depression. In adult mammals, the classical hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis and the urocortin 1 (Ucn1)-containing non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) respond in opposite ways to chronic stressors. This raises the hypothesis that MS, which is known to increase vulnerability for adult mood disorders via the dysregulation of the HPA-axis, will affect npEW dynamics as well. We have tested this hypothesis and, moreover, studied a possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in such npEW plasticity. By triple immunocytochemistry we show that BDNF and Ucn1 coexist in rat npEW-neurons that are c-Fos-positive upon acute stress. Quantitative immunocytochemistry revealed that MS increases the contents of Ucn1 and BDNF in these cells. Furthermore, in males and females, the c-Fos response of npEW-Ucn1 neurons upon restraint stress was blunted in animals with MS history, a phenomenon that was concomitant with dampening of the HPA corticosterone response in females but not in males. Based on these data we suggest that the BDNF-containing npEW-Ucn1 system might be affected by MS in a sex-specific manner. This supports the idea that the npEW would play a role in the appearance of sex differences in the pathogenesis of stress-induced mood disorders.

  6. Maternal Western diet increases adiposity even in male offspring of obesity-resistant rat dams: early endocrine risk markers

    PubMed Central

    Frihauf, Jennifer B.; Fekete, Éva M.; Nagy, Tim R.; Levin, Barry E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal overnutrition or associated complications putatively mediate the obesogenic effects of perinatal high-fat diet on developing offspring. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a Western diet developmental environment increases adiposity not only in male offspring from obesity-prone (DIO) mothers, but also in those from obesity-resistant (DR) dams, implicating a deleterious role for the Western diet per se. Selectively bred DIO and DR female rats were fed chow (17% kcal fat) or Western diet (32%) for 54 days before mating and, thereafter, through weaning. As intended, despite chow-like caloric intake, Western diet increased prepregnancy weight gain and circulating leptin levels in DIO, but not DR, dams. Yet, in both genotypes, maternal Western diet increased the weight and adiposity of preweanlings, as early as in DR offspring, and increased plasma leptin, insulin, and adiponectin of weanlings. Although body weight normalized with chow feeding during adolescence, young adult Western diet offspring subsequently showed decreased energy expenditure and, in DR offspring, decreased lipid utilization as a fuel substrate. By mid-adulthood, maternal Western diet DR offspring ate more chow, weighed more, and were fatter than controls. Thus, maternal Western diet covertly programmed increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood, disrupted relations of energy regulatory hormones with body fat, and decreased energy expenditure in offspring of lean, genetically obesity-resistant mothers. Maternal Western diet exposure alone, without maternal obesity or overnutrition, can promote offspring weight gain. PMID:27654396

  7. Maternal Western diet increases adiposity even in male offspring of obesity-resistant rat dams: early endocrine risk markers.

    PubMed

    Frihauf, Jennifer B; Fekete, Éva M; Nagy, Tim R; Levin, Barry E; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2016-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition or associated complications putatively mediate the obesogenic effects of perinatal high-fat diet on developing offspring. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a Western diet developmental environment increases adiposity not only in male offspring from obesity-prone (DIO) mothers, but also in those from obesity-resistant (DR) dams, implicating a deleterious role for the Western diet per se. Selectively bred DIO and DR female rats were fed chow (17% kcal fat) or Western diet (32%) for 54 days before mating and, thereafter, through weaning. As intended, despite chow-like caloric intake, Western diet increased prepregnancy weight gain and circulating leptin levels in DIO, but not DR, dams. Yet, in both genotypes, maternal Western diet increased the weight and adiposity of preweanlings, as early as in DR offspring, and increased plasma leptin, insulin, and adiponectin of weanlings. Although body weight normalized with chow feeding during adolescence, young adult Western diet offspring subsequently showed decreased energy expenditure and, in DR offspring, decreased lipid utilization as a fuel substrate. By mid-adulthood, maternal Western diet DR offspring ate more chow, weighed more, and were fatter than controls. Thus, maternal Western diet covertly programmed increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood, disrupted relations of energy regulatory hormones with body fat, and decreased energy expenditure in offspring of lean, genetically obesity-resistant mothers. Maternal Western diet exposure alone, without maternal obesity or overnutrition, can promote offspring weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Frihauf et al.

  8. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9) microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05). Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05) compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01) and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05), and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001). B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats

  9. Bifidobacterium breve with α-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Alters Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Maternal Separation Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Ross, R. Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M.; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; O'Toole, Paul W.; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (109 microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05). Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05) compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01) and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05), and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001). B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats

  10. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Maternal Employment during Early Childhood and the Elementary School Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambone, Kirsten; Gelband, Amy; Farrell, Debi; Black, Aimee; Szuchyt, Jamie; Aivazian, Casey; Lang, Allison; Nyce, Susan; Johnson, Lisa; Thomas, Amy; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Zohe, Dorothoy; Cane, Susan; Chambliss, Catherine

    Noting the lack of research into the effects of maternal employment on the cognitions of a young adult sample, this study examined the relationship between maternal employment and college students' beliefs about the consequences of maternal employment and their own plans for future workplace involvement. Participating in the study were 635…

  11. Does Warmth Moderate Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Spanking and Child Aggression in Early Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5…

  12. Gestational age-dependent risk factors for preterm birth: associations with maternal education and age early in gestation.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Wynant, Willy; Lo, Ernest

    2014-05-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) before 37 weeks can occur over a wide range of gestational ages, but few studies have assessed if associations between risk factors and PTB vary over the duration of gestation. We sought to evaluate if associations between two major risk factors (maternal education and age) and PTB depend on gestational age at delivery. We estimated hazard ratios of PTB for education and age in a time-to-event analysis using a retrospective cohort of 223,756 live singleton births from the province of Québec, Canada for the years 2001-2005. Differences in hazards of maternal education and age with PTB were assessed over gestational age in a Cox proportional hazards model using linear and nonlinear time interaction terms, adjusting for maternal characteristics. Associations of PTB with lower (vs. higher) education and older (vs. younger) age strengthened progressively at earlier gestational ages, such that the risk of PTB for maternal education and age was not constant over the course of gestation. Associations of PTB with risk factors such as maternal low education and older age may be stronger early in gestation. Models that capture the time-dependent nature of PTB may be useful when the goal is to assess associations at low gestational ages, and to avoid masked or biased associations early in gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal Body Mass Index in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Epilepsy in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Razaz, Neda; Tedroff, Kristina; Villamor, Eduardo; Cnattingius, Sven

    2017-06-01

    There is growing concern about the long-term neurologic effects of prenatal exposure to maternal overweight and obesity. The causes of epilepsy are poorly understood and, in more than 60% of the patients, no definitive cause can be determined. To investigate the association between early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of childhood epilepsy and examine associations between obesity-related pregnancy and neonatal complications and risks of childhood epilepsy. A population-based cohort study of 1 441 623 live single births at 22 or more completed gestational weeks in Sweden from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2011, was conducted. The diagnosis of epilepsy as well as obesity-related pregnancy and neonatal complications were based on information from the Sweden Medical Birth Register and National Patient Register. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs after adjusting for maternal age, country of origin, educational level, cohabitation with partner, height, smoking, maternal epilepsy, and year of delivery. Data analysis was conducted from June 1 to December 15, 2016. Risk of childhood epilepsy. Of the 1 421 551 children born between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, with covariate information available, 7592 (0.5%) were diagnosed with epilepsy through December 31, 2012. Of these 3530 (46.5%) were female. The overall incidence of epilepsy in children aged 28 days to 16 years was 6.79 per 10 000 child-years. Compared with offspring of normal-weight mothers (BMI 18.5 to <25.0), adjusted HRs of epilepsy by maternal BMI categories were as follows: overweight (BMI 25.0 to <30.0), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.04-1.17); obesity grade I (BMI 30.0 to <35.0), 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10-1.31); obesity grade II (BMI 35.0 to <40.0), 1.30 (95% CI, 1.12-1.50); and obesity grade III (BMI≥40.0), 1.82 (95% CI, 1.46-2.26). The rates of epilepsy were considerably increased for children with

  14. Premature brain aging in humans exposed to maternal nutrient restriction during early gestation.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Roseboom, Tessa J; Schwab, Matthias; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to undernutrition is widespread in both developing and industrialized countries, causing irreversible damage to the developing brain, resulting in altered brain structure and decreased cognitive function during adulthood. The Dutch famine in 1944/45 was a humanitarian disaster, now enabling studies of the effects of prenatal undernutrition during gestation on brain aging in late adulthood. We hypothesized that study participants prenatally exposed to maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) would demonstrate altered brain structure resembling premature brain aging in late adulthood, expecting the effect being stronger in men. Utilizing the Dutch famine birth cohort (n = 118; mean age: 67.5 ± 0.9 years), this study implements an innovative biomarker for individual brain aging, using structural neuroimaging. BrainAGE was calculated using state-of-the-art pattern recognition methods, trained on an independent healthy reference sample, then applied to the Dutch famine MRI sample, to evaluate the effects of prenatal undernutrition during early gestation on individual brain aging in late adulthood. Exposure to famine in early gestation was associated with BrainAGE scores indicative of an older-appearing brain in the male sample (mean difference to subjects born before famine: 4.3 years, p < 0.05). Furthermore, in explaining the observed variance in individual BrainAGE scores in the male sample, maternal age at birth, head circumference at birth, medical treatment of hypertension, history of cerebral incidences, actual heart rate, and current alcohol intake emerged to be the most influential variables (adjusted R 2  = 0.63, p < 0.01). The findings of our study on exposure to prenatal undernutrition being associated with a status of premature brain aging during late adulthood, as well as individual brain structure being shaped by birth- and late-life health characteristics, are strongly supporting the critical importance of sufficient nutrient

  15. Congenital heart disease in relation to maternal use of Bendectin and other drugs in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zierler, S; Rothman, K J

    1985-08-08

    To clarify the association of Bendectin and other drugs used in early pregnancy with the occurrence of congenital heart disease, we interviewed 298 mothers of children with congenital heart disease and 738 mothers of healthy controls. Differential recall of drug use by mothers of affected children and mothers of controls was evaluated by comparison of information collected by interview with that recorded in the prenatal record. Data derived from maternal interviews were generally consistent with the record data. Reported Bendectin use was minimally associated with congenital heart disease (prevalence odds ratio, 1.1; 90 per cent confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.5). The data from this study were consistent with previously reported associations of other drugs with congenital heart disease. In particular, aspirin use in early pregnancy was associated with about a twofold increase in the frequency of defects in septation of the truncus arteriosus (prevalence odds ratio, 2.1; 90 per cent confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.9).

  16. Reconsidering Parenting in Chinese Culture: Subtypes, Stability, and Change of Maternal Parenting Style During Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxin; Wei, Xing; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2017-05-01

    Parenting in Chinese culture has been a central topic and there have been debate on whether western-derived parenting style is applicable to Chinese cultures in terms of both behavioral profiles and their relationships with child and adolescent adjustment. This study identified the subtypes of Chinese maternal parenting style and examined their stability and changes over the transition to early adolescence. In an urban Chinese sample (N = 2173, 48% girls), four waves of longitudinal data were collected when the adolescents were in the fifth (M = 11.27 years), sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Latent profile analysis identified four subtypes of parenting style: authoritative, authoritarian, average-level undifferentiated, and strict-affectionate. Adolescents of authoritative mothers exhibited the best overall adjustment, while adolescents of authoritarian mothers showed the worst adjustment. Adolescents of strict-affectionate mothers generally adjusted as well as those of authoritative mothers, except they showed lower academic achievement. The strict-affectionate parenting represented a culture-specific subtype of parenting style in Chinese culture. Latent transition analysis revealed high stability of parenting styles during early adolescence, but transitions between subtypes were also evident. These findings highlight the importance of revisiting Chinese parenting and examining the developmental course of parenting style.

  17. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  18. Maternal high fat diet promotion of mammary tumor risk in adult progeny is associated with early expansion of mammary cancer stem-like cells and increased maternal oxidative environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many adult chronic diseases might be programmed during early life by maternal nutritional history. Here, we evaluated effects of maternal high fat diet on mammary gland development and tumor formation in adult progeny. Female Wnt-1 transgenic mice exposed to high fat (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or control C...

  19. Maternal ambient air pollution exposure preconception and during early gestation and offspring congenital orofacial defects

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yeyi; Zhang, Cuilin; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.; Wallace, Maeve; Mendola, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal air pollution exposure has been related to orofacial clefts but the literature is equivocal. Potential chronic preconception effects have not been studied. Objectives Criteria air pollutant exposure during three months preconception and gestational weeks 3–8 was studied in relation to orofacial defects. Methods Among 188,102 live births and fetal deaths from the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002–2008), 63 had isolated cleft palate (CP) and 159 had isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± CP). Exposures were estimated using a modified Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations adjusted for site/region and maternal demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI per interquartile increase in each pollutant. Results Preconception, carbon monoxide (CO; OR = 2.24; CI: 1.21, 4.16) and particulate matter (PM) ≤10 μm (OR = 1.72; CI: 1.12, 2.66) were significantly associated with CP, while sulfur dioxide (SO2) was associated with CL ± CP (OR = 1.93; CI: 1.16, 3.21). During gestational weeks 3–8, CO remained a significant risk for CP (OR = 2.74; CI: 1.62, 4.62) and nitrogen oxides (NOx; OR = 3.64; CI: 1.73, 7.66) and PM ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5; OR = 1.74; CI: 1.15, 2.64) were also related to the risk. Analyses by individual week revealed that positive associations of NOx and PM2.5 with CP were most prominent from weeks 3–6 and 3–5, respectively. Conclusions Exposure to several criteria air pollutants preconception and during early gestation was associated with elevated odds for CP, while CL ± CP was only associated with preconception SO2 exposure. PMID:26099933

  20. MATERNAL ACCOUNTS OF THEIR BREASTFEEDING INTENT AND EARLY CHALLENGES AFTER CESAREAN CHILDBIRTH

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding outcomes are often worse after cesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. Objectives This study characterizes mothers’ breastfeeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after cesarean childbirth. Methods Data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006 to March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1–6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled cesarean. Results Thematic analysis of the data suggested breastfeeding was mostly considered the “right thing to do,” preferable, natural, and “supposedly healthier,” but tiring and painful. Advantages of supplementation involved more satiated infants, feeding ease, and longer sleep bouts. The need for “thinking about yourself” was part of cesarean recovery. Infrequent feeding was concerning but also enabled maternal rest. Other breastfeeding obstacles were maternal mobility limitations, positioning difficulties, and frustration at the need for assistance. Participants were confused about nocturnal infant wakings, leading many to determine that they had insufficient milk. Mothers were surprised that sub-clinically poor infant condition was common following cesarean section. Some breastfeeding difficulty stemmed from “mucus” expulsion that had to occur before the infants could be “interested” in feeding. Women who cited motivations for breastfeeding that included benefit to themselves were more likely to exclusively breastfeed on the postnatal unit after their cesareans than those who reported infant-only motivations. Conclusions For the majority of mothers, breastfeeding after a cesarean is affected by interrelated and compounding difficulties. Provision of more relational breastfeeding information may enable families to better anticipate early feeding experiences after cesarean section childbirth. PMID:24252711

  1. Maternal accounts of their breast-feeding intent and early challenges after caesarean childbirth.

    PubMed

    Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L

    2014-06-01

    breast-feeding outcomes are often worse after caesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. this study characterises mothers' breast-feeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after caesarean childbirth. data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006-March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1-6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled caesarean. thematic analysis of the data suggested was mostly considered the 'right thing to do,' preferable, natural, and 'supposedly healthier,' but tiring and painful. Advantages of supplementation involved more satiated infants, feeding ease, and longer sleep bouts. The need for 'thinking about yourself' was part of caesarean recovery. Infrequent feeding was concerning but also enabled maternal rest. Other breast-feeding obstacles were maternal mobility limitations, positioning difficulties, and frustration at the need for assistance. Participants were confused about nocturnal infant wakings, leading many to determine that they had insufficient milk. Mothers were surprised that sub-clinically poor infant condition was common following caesarean section. Some breast-feeding difficulty stemmed from 'mucus' expulsion that had to occur before the infants could be 'interested' in feeding. Women who cited motivations for breast feeding that included benefit to themselves were more likely to exclusively breast feed on the postnatal unit after their caesareans than those who reported infant-only motivations. for the majority of mothers, breast feeding after a caesarean is affected by interrelated and compounding difficulties. Provision of more relational breast-feeding information may enable families to better anticipate early feeding experiences after caesarean section childbirth. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early postpartum maternal morbidity among rural women of Rajasthan, India: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Kirti

    2012-06-01

    morbidity affecting women in the first few days after delivery in a low-resource setting. Health programmes should invest to ensure that all women receive early postpartum visits after delivery at home and after discharge from institution to detect and manage maternal morbidity. Further, health programmes should also ensure that women are properly screened for complications before their discharge from hospitals after delivery.

  3. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile and offspring's lipids and glycaemic control at age 5-6 years: The ABCD study.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Noekie; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2017-12-01

    Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile might influence offspring's lipids and glycaemic control, through an increased offspring's fat percentage. This explorative study investigates whether maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipids and glycaemic control independently of offspring's fat percentage and if these associations are mediated by offspring's fat percentage. Possible sex differences in these associations are also examined. 1133 mother-child pairs of the prospective ABCD-study were included. Maternal non-fasting lipids were collected in early pregnancy: triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and free fatty acids (FFA). Fasting triglycerides, TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose and C-peptide were assessed in offspring aged 5-6 years and HOMA2-IR was calculated. After adjustment for covariates, strongest associations were found between maternal TC and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.141 (0.074-0.207); girls β(95%CI) = 0.268 (0.200; 0.336)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.114 (0.052; 0.176); girls β(95%CI) = 0.247 (0.181-0.312)), maternal ApoB and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.638 (0.311-0.965); girls β(95%CI) = 1.121 (0.766-1.475)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.699 (0.393-1.005); girls β(95%CI) = 1.198 (0.868-1.529)), and maternal ApoA1 and offspring's HDL (only boys β(95%CI) = 0.221 (0.101-0.341)). No significant association was found between maternal lipids and offspring's glycaemic control, and offspring's fat percentage played no mediating role. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipid profile in childhood, with overall stronger associations in girls. This study provides further evidence that lowering lipid levels during pregnancy might be beneficial for the long term health of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  4. The Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation: Early Findings on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program. A Report to Congress. OPRE Report 2015-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalopoulos, Charles; Lee, Helen; Duggan, Anne; Lundquist, Erika; Tso, Ada; Crowne, Sarah Shea; Burrell, Lori; Somers, Jennifer; Filene, Jill H.; Knox, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    "The Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation: Early Findings on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program--A Report to Congress" presents the first findings from the Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIHOPE), the legislatively mandated national evaluation of the Maternal, Infant, and…

  5. Emotion Separation Is Completed Early and It Depends on Visual Field Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lichan; Ioannides, Andreas A.

    2010-01-01

    It is now apparent that the visual system reacts to stimuli very fast, with many brain areas activated within 100 ms. It is, however, unclear how much detail is extracted about stimulus properties in the early stages of visual processing. Here, using magnetoencephalography we show that the visual system separates different facial expressions of emotion well within 100 ms after image onset, and that this separation is processed differently depending on where in the visual field the stimulus is presented. Seven right-handed males participated in a face affect recognition experiment in which they viewed happy, fearful and neutral faces. Blocks of images were shown either at the center or in one of the four quadrants of the visual field. For centrally presented faces, the emotions were separated fast, first in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS; 35–48 ms), followed by the right amygdala (57–64 ms) and medial pre-frontal cortex (83–96 ms). For faces presented in the periphery, the emotions were separated first in the ipsilateral amygdala and contralateral STS. We conclude that amygdala and STS likely play a different role in early visual processing, recruiting distinct neural networks for action: the amygdala alerts sub-cortical centers for appropriate autonomic system response for fight or flight decisions, while the STS facilitates more cognitive appraisal of situations and links appropriate cortical sites together. It is then likely that different problems may arise when either network fails to initiate or function properly. PMID:20339549

  6. Xenohormesis in early life: New avenues of research to explore anti-aging strategies through the maternal diet.

    PubMed

    de Medina, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease. Following this logic, studying the modification of maternal diet during early life may provide innovative new anti-aging approaches. Nutritional and psychological stresses during gestation are associated with poorer offspring health conditions in late life, and must be avoided during pregnancy. Besides these recommendations, very little has been published about the possible use of maternal diet to program offspring for healthy aging and an extended lifespan. Such health benefits may be provided by different foreign molecules, and particularly the phytochemicals produced by stressed plants, or xenohormetins. The xenohormesis hypothesis proposes that xenohormetins are signals of environmental change and trigger a beneficial adaptive response in individuals who consume them. No studies to date have investigated whether the consumption of stressed plants during pregnancy and lactation could provide chemical cues that impact early life programming and thus influence the future health and lifespan of offspring. Investigating the effect of xenohormesis in early life will involve adding edible plants exposed to different stressors (i.e. UV light, heat, ozone, etc.) to maternal diet and the exposure of offspring to this xenohormetin-enriched maternal diet at different periods of their prenatal life. The hypothesis proposed in this article is a potential tool to decipher the possible impact of xenohormesis during early

  7. Peer and teacher ratings of third- and fourth-grade children's social behavior as a function of early maternal employment.

    PubMed

    Youngblade, Lise M

    2003-05-01

    One of the more controversial issues related to maternal employment in the United States concerns the timing of entry into the workforce and its effect on children, particularly during the first year of the child's life. Some studies show deleterious effects on children, such as increases in aggression and noncompliance, while others document few negative and even positive effects of early employment. This study examined the long-term effects of maternal employment during the child's first year of life on the social behavior of 171 third- and fourth-grade children in two-parent families. The moderating effects of child gender and social class were investigated. The extent to which stability in alternative care arrangements statistically explained links between early maternal employment and child outcomes was tested. After controlling for child gender, and maternal ethnicity, social class, and current employment status, third- and fourth-grade children whose mothers were employed during their first year of life evinced more acting out and less frustration tolerance and were nominated more often by peers for 'hitting' and 'being mean' than children whose mothers were not employed. There was some evidence that these associations were moderated by child gender and social class: boys, but not girls, whose mothers were employed during the first year were subsequently rated by teachers as acting out more than other children, and were also more likely to be nominated by peers for hitting. Higher nominations for hitting were only found in the working class. Finally, there was partial evidence that the number of alternative child-care arrangements during the first year accounted for the links between early maternal employment and subsequent child outcomes. These results are congruent with extant research that posits a risk of early employment on socioemotional development, but show that this risk is partially attributable to child-care instability.

  8. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  9. Are infants differentially sensitive to parenting? Early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and externalizing behavior during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. The 7-repeat (7r) allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has meta-analytically been associated with a heightened susceptibility to adverse as well as supportive environments. In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. In a sample of 296 offspring, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a psychiatric interview conducted at age 15 years. Parents additionally filled out a questionnaire on their children's psychopathic behaviors. Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. This study replicates earlier findings with regard to an interaction between DRD4 genotype and early caregiving on externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers. It is the first one to imply continuity of this effect until adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced excitability and down-regulated voltage-gated potassium channels in colonic drg neurons from neonatal maternal separation rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia-Lie; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wong, Chun-Kit; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Huang, Yu; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2011-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), characterized mainly by abdominal pain, is a functional bowel disorder. The present study aimed to examine changes in the excitability and the activity of the voltage-gated K(+) channel in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons innervating the colon of rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS). Colonic DRG neurons from NMS rats as identified by FAST DiI™ labeling showed an increased cell size compared with those from nonhandled (NH) rats. Whole cell current-clamp recordings showed that colonic DRG neurons from NMS rats displayed: 1) depolarized resting membrane potential; 2) increased input resistance; 3) a dramatic reduction in rheobase; and 4) a significant increase in the number of action potentials evoked at twice rheobase. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that neurons from both groups exhibited transient A-type (I(A)) and delayed rectifier (I(K)) K(+) currents. Compared with NH rat neurons, the averaged density of I(K) was significantly reduced in NMS rat neurons. Furthermore, the Kv1.2 expression was significantly decreased in NMS rat colonic DRG neurons. These results suggest that NMS increases the excitability of colonic DRG neurons mainly by suppressing the I(K) current, which is likely accounted for by the downregulation of the Kv1.2 expression and somal hypertrophy. This study demonstrates the alteration of delayed rectifier K current and Kv1.2 expression in DRG neurons from IBS model rats, representing a molecular mechanism underlying visceral pain and sensitization in IBS, suggesting the potential of Kv1.2 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of IBS. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early childhood trajectories of separation anxiety: Bearing on mental health, academic achievement, and physical health from mid-childhood to preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Marco; Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Côté, Sylvana M; Dionne, Ginette; Touchette, Evelyne; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2017-10-01

    Separation anxiety disorder is the most prevalent childhood anxiety condition, but no study assessed children for separation anxiety at preschool age and followed them longitudinally and directly until mid-childhood/early adolescence. Multi-informant (children, teachers, family), multipoint (at age 8, 10, 12, 13) assessments of 1,290 children of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, who had been categorized between age 1.5 and 6 into four specific separation anxiety trajectories (1, low-persistent; 2, low-increasing; 3, high-decreasing, and the less common: 4, high-increasing) by growth mixture modeling. Participants in the high-increasing trajectory were compared to participants in the other three trajectories for: (a) child's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior; (b) physical health; (c) academic achievement; (d) maternal anxiety. Multivariate analyses of variance/covariance at separate time points showed the high-increasing trajectory mostly associated with: (a) higher internalizing, but not externalizing, behavior; (b) worse academic achievement (most consistently by comparisons to the normative low-persistent trajectory; (c) higher rates of maternal panic/agoraphobic anxiety; (d) worse physical health (most consistently by comparisons to the low-persistent trajectory). The high-increasing trajectory had twofold to threefold higher incidences of physical illnesses than the normative low-persistent group; this was specific for headaches at age 12 years, chronic asthma at age 10 and 13, and having received asthma-related medication during the past 12 months. High-increasing separation anxiety in preschool maintains longitudinal relationships to independent health and academic outcomes, at least until preadolescence. This knowledge can inform the deployment of clinical resources at the earlier signs of the more impairing manifestations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Maternal depression and parenting in early childhood: Contextual influence of marital quality and social support in two samples.

    PubMed

    Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Wilson, Melvin N; Dishion, Thomas J; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David

    2017-03-01

    Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18-36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced parenting quality was strongest in the context of high marital quality and high social support, and largely nonsignificant in the context of low marital quality and low social support. Possible explanations for these surprising findings are discussed. Results point to the importance of accounting for factors in the broader family context in predicting the association between depressive symptoms and maternal parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Sensitization of Depressive-like Behavior during Repeated Maternal Separation is Associated with More-Rapid Increase in Core Body Temperature and Reduced Plasma Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Yusko, Brittany; Hawk, Kiel; Schiml, Patricia A.; Deak, Terrence; Hennessy, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Infant guinea pigs exhibit a 2-stage response to maternal separation: an initial active stage, characterized by vocalizing, and a second passive stage marked by depressive-like behavior (hunched posture, prolonged eye-closure, extensive piloerection) that appears to be mediated by proinflammatory activity. Recently we found that pups showed an enhanced (i.e., sensitized) depressive-like behavioral response during repeated separation. Further, core body temperature was higher during the beginning of a second separation compared to the first, suggesting a more-rapid stress-induced febrile response to separation the second day, though the possibility that temperature was already elevated prior to the second separation could not be ruled out. Therefore, the present study examined temperature prior to, and during, 2 daily separations. We also examined the temperature response to a third separation conducted 3 days after the second, and assessed the effect of repeated separation on plasma cortisol levels. Core temperature did not differ just prior to the separations, but showed a more-rapid increase and then decline during both a second and third separation than during a first. Temperature responses were not associated with changes in motor activity. Depressive-like behavior was greater during the second and third separations. Pups separated a first time showed a larger plasma cortisol response at the conclusion of separation than did animals of the same age separated a third time. In all, the results indicate that the sensitization of depressive-like behavior during repeated separations over several days is accompanied by a more-rapid febrile response that may be related to a reduction of glucocorticoid suppression. PMID:22079581

  14. Maternal separation diminishes α-adrenergic receptor density and function in renal vasculature from male Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Loria, Analia S; Osborn, Jeffrey L

    2017-07-01

    Adult rats exposed to maternal separation (MatSep) are normotensive but display lower glomerular filtration rate and increased renal neuroadrenergic drive. The aim of this study was to determine the renal α-adrenergic receptor density and the renal vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation in male rats exposed to MatSep. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was assessed to determine a component of neural control of the vasculature. Using tissue collected from 4-mo-old MatSep and control rats, α 1 -adrenergic receptors (α 1 -ARs) were measured in renal cortex and isolated renal vasculature using receptor binding assay, and the α-AR subtype gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. Renal cortical α 1 -AR density was similar between MatSep and control tissues (B max = 44 ± 1 vs. 42 ± 2 fmol/mg protein, respectively); however, MatSep reduced α 1 -AR density in renal vasculature (B max = 47 ± 4 vs. 62 ± 4 fmol/mg protein, P < 0.05, respectively). In a separate group of rats, the pressor, bradycardic, and renal vascular constrictor responses to acute norepinephrine injection (NE, 0.03-0.25 μg/μl) were determined under anesthesia. Attenuated NE-induced renal vasoconstriction was observed in rats exposed to MatSep compared with control ( P < 0.05). A third group of rats was infused at steady state with the α 1 agonist phenylephrine (10 μg/min iv) and vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (5 μg/min iv). The difference between the change in heart rate/mean arterial pressure slopes was indicative of reduced baroreflex sensitivity in MatSep vs. control rats (-0.45 ± 0.04 vs. -0.95 ± 0.07 beats·min -1 ·mmHg -1 , P < 0.05). These data support the notion that reduced α-adrenergic receptor expression and function in the renal vasculature could develop secondary to MatSep-induced overactivation of the renal neuroadrenergic tone. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  16. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    PubMed

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.

  17. Preventing early child maltreatment: implications from a longitudinal study of maternal abuse history, substance use problems, and offspring victimization.

    PubMed

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J; Rosanbalm, Katherine D; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-06-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers' childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants' target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab] = .07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size = .26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab] = .05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size = .19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment.

  18. The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Frick, Matilda A; Forslund, Tommie; Fransson, Mari; Johansson, Maria; Bohlin, Gunilla; Brocki, Karin C

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated infant predictors of early cognitive and emotional self-regulation from an intrinsic and caregiving environmental perspective. Sustained attention, reactive aspects of infant temperament, and maternal sensitivity were assessed at 10 months (n = 124) and early self-regulation (including executive functions, EF, and emotion regulation) was assessed at 18 months. The results indicated that sustained attention predicted early EF, which provide empirical support for the hierarchical framework of EF development, advocating early attention as a foundation for the development of cognitive self-regulation. Maternal sensitivity and surgency predicted emotion regulation, in that infants of sensitive mothers showed more regulatory behaviours and a longer latency to distress, whereas high levels of surgency predicted low emotion regulation, suggesting both the caregiving environment and temperament as important in the development of self-regulation. Interaction effects suggested high sustained attention to be a protective factor for children of insensitive mothers, in relation to emotion regulation. In addition, high levels of maternal sensitivity seemed to foster development of emotion regulation among children with low to medium levels of sustained attention and/or surgency. In all, our findings point to the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in infant development of self-regulation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy is associated with blood pressure at age 5-6.

    PubMed

    Smarius, L J C A; Strieder, T G A; Doreleijers, T A H; Vrijkotte, T G M; de Rooij, S R

    2018-06-01

    Early life stress has been shown to contribute to alterations in biobehavioral regulation. Whereas many different forms of childhood adversities have been studied in relation to cardiovascular outcomes, very little is known about potential associations between caregivers' verbally aggressive behavior and heart rate and blood pressure in the child. This prospective study examined whether maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy is associated with heart rate or blood pressure at age 5-6. In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a large prospective, population-based birth cohort, maternal verbally aggressive behavior was assessed by questionnaire in the 13th week after birth. The child's blood pressure and heart rate were measured during rest at age 5-6 (n=2553 included). Maternal verbally aggressive behavior in infancy was associated with a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) both in supine and sitting position after adjustment for sex, height and age (SBP supine B=1.01 mmHg; 95% CI [0.06; 1.95] and SPB sitting B=1.29 mmHg; 95% CI [0.12; 2.46]). Adjustment for potential confounding variables, such as other mother-infant dyad aspects, family hypertension and child's BMI, only slightly attenuated the associations (SBP supine B=0.99 mmHg; 95% CI [0.06; 1.93] and SPB sitting B=1.11 mmHg; 95% CI [-0.06; 2.27]). Maternal verbally aggressive behavior was not associated with diastolic blood pressure or heart rate at age 5-6. Maternal verbally aggressive behavior might be an important early life stressor with negative impact on blood pressure later in life, which should be further investigated. Possible underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Deviant early pregnancy maternal triglyceride levels and increased risk of congenital anomalies: a prospective community-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nederlof, M; de Walle, H E K; van Poppel, M N M; Vrijkotte, T G M; Gademan, M G J

    2015-08-01

    The maternal lipid profile could be of importance in congenital anomaly development. This study therefore investigates whether the maternal lipid profile during early pregnancy is associated with major nonsyndromic congenital anomalies (MNCA). Prospective community-based cohort study. Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study. A cohort of 3074 pregnant women recruited in 2003-2004 and their offspring. Non-fasting blood samples from pregnant women participating in the ABCD-study (median 12.9 weeks of gestation) were analysed for triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), free fatty acids (FFA), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA) (n = 3074). The perinatal outcome (MNCA) was obtained from the Youth Health Care Registration and two questionnaires. Adjustment was made for ethnicity. MNCA prevalence. The prevalence of MNCA was 2.2% (n = 68: 20 cardiovascular, 25 bone and muscle, and 23 other single anomalies). A nonlinear association was found between maternal TG levels and MNCA prevalence. With a lower or higher level of maternal TG, the estimated probability increased: a TG level of 0.73 mmol/l (5th percentile), of 1.28 mmol/l (50th percentile), and of 2.35 mmol/l (95th percentile) corresponded with an estimated probability of 3.6, 2.1, and 2.9%, respectively. Unadjusted subgroup analyses showed that the U-shaped association was most prominent for cardiovascular congenital anomalies. Other lipids were not associated with MNCA. Both low and high maternal TG levels during early pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of MNCA in offspring. This suggests that an attempt should be made to normalise TG levels before or during early pregnancy; however, replication of our results is necessary before clinical practice recommendations can be made. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Grant, Frederick; Goldenberg, Tamar; Zongrone, Amanda; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2012-07-01

    Current understanding of biologic processes indicates that women's nutritional status before and during early pregnancy may play an important role in determining early developmental processes and ensuring successful pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for the impact of maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy (<12 weeks gestation) on maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes and included 45 articles (nine intervention trials and 32 observational studies) that were identified through PubMed and EMBASE database searches and examining review articles. Intervention trials and observational studies show that periconceptional (<12 weeks gestation) folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of neural tube defects. Observational studies suggest that preconceptional and periconceptional intake of vitamin and mineral supplements is associated with a reduced risk of delivering offspring who are low birthweight and/or small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm deliveries (PTD). Some studies report that indicators of maternal prepregnancy size, low stature, underweight and overweight are associated with increased risks of PTD and SGA. The available data indicate the importance of women's nutrition prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, but there is a need for well-designed prospective studies and controlled trials in developing country settings that examine relationships with low birthweight, SGA, PTD, stillbirth and maternal and neonatal mortality. The knowledge gaps that need to be addressed include the evaluation of periconceptional interventions such as food supplements, multivitamin-mineral supplements and/or specific micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin B-6 and B-12) as well as the relationship between measures of prepregnancy body size and composition and maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Maternal dental history and child’s birth outcome and early cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, JL; Rowland, AS; Longnecker, MP; Crawford, P; Golding, J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Prenatal exposure to high levels of mercury, radiation, and inflammation have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes such as increases in preterm delivery, low birthweight, and delayed neurodevelopment. Few data are available to evaluate the potential effects of prenatal low-level exposure to these factors as might occur during dental care. We evaluated maternal dental history prior to and during pregnancy in relation to birth outcomes and early communicative development among offspring in a large cohort (n=7375) of British children born in 1991–1992. Dental history was assessed by questionnaire. The child’s communicative development was assessed using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory at 15 months of age. Total mercury was measured in umbilical cord tissue for a subset of the children. Overall, dental care, including amalgam fillings, was not associated with birth outcomes or language development. Having x-rays taken during pregnancy was not associated with birthweight measured continuously (β=14.7, p=0.4), but was associated with slightly increased odds of having a term, low birthweight baby (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.0–3.4). More detailed evaluation of the potential adverse effects of elective dental treatment during pregnancy, particularly dental x-rays, may be warranted. PMID:17697075

  3. Dimensions of maternal parenting and infants’ autonomic functioning interactively predict early internalizing behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Propper, Cathi; Gueron-Sela, Noa; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger

    2015-01-01

    Developmental pathways to childhood internalizing behavior problems are complex, with both environmental and child-level factors contributing to their emergence. The authors use data from a prospective longitudinal study (n = 206) to examine the associations between dimensions of caregiving experiences in the first year of life and anxious/depressed and withdrawn behaviors in early childhood. Additionally, the authors examine the extent to which these associations were moderated by infants’ autonomic functioning in the first year of life indexed using measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart period (HP). Findings suggest that higher levels of maternal sensitivity in infancy are associated with fewer anxious/depressed and withdrawn behaviors at age 3 years. Negative intrusiveness was found to be positively associated with children’s anxious/depressed behaviors but not withdrawn behaviors. Further, moderation analyses suggested that the link between negative intrusive parenting during infancy and subsequent anxious/depressed behaviors is exacerbated for infants with average or low baseline HP and that positive engaging parenting during infancy was negatively related to withdrawn behaviors for infants demonstrating average to high levels baseline HP. Interestingly, RSA was not found to moderate the associations between parenting in infancy and later internalizing behavior problems suggesting that, during infancy, overall autonomic functioning may have greater implications for the development of internalizing behaviors than do parasympathetic influences alone. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:26063322

  4. Oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Michela; Waqas, Muhammad Salman; Pru, James K; Tibary, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Pregnancy maintenance depends on the maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), a physiological process by which the lifespan of the corpus luteum is prolonged. This mechanism is not well characterized in camelids. The objectives of the present research were to determine if exogenous oxytocin prolongs the corpus luteum activity in alpacas and to evaluate expression and localization of oxytocin receptors within the endometrium at 9 and 14days post-mating. In the oxytocin studies, plasma progesterone profiles were determined after ovulation in the same alpacas on 2 cycles: one cycle without oxytocin treatment and one cycle with oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin was administered daily by intramuscular injections (IM) at a dose of 20IU (experiment 1, n=6) or 60IU (experiment 2, n=7 from day 3 through day 10 after induction of ovulation with GnRH IM. There was no significant difference in the length of the luteal phase (i.e. corpus luteum lifespan) between the treated and control cycles using either 20 or 60IU of oxytocin. In the final experiment, uteri from open and pregnant alpacas (n=4 per group) at 9 and 14days post-mating were evaluated for expressions of oxytocin receptors by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference (P≤0.05) in the expression of oxytocin receptors was observed between open and pregnant animals in either staining intensity or tissue localization. We conclude that oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early MRP in alpacas. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Quantification of Maternal Serum Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Shen, Yanting; Ge, Qinyu; He, Youji; Qiao, Dongyan; Ren, Mulan; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the increased serum cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) level of gravidas developed into early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE) subsequently in the early second trimesters is related to prenatal screening markers. Serum was collected from 1011 gravidas. The level of cffDNA and prenatal screening markers were analyzed in 20 cases with EOPE and 20 controls. All fetuses were male. The maternal serum cffDNA level was assessed by amplification of the Y chromosome specific gene. Correlations between the variables were examined. (Logged) cffDNA in EOPE (median, 3.08; interquartile range, 2.93–3.68) was higher than controls (median, 1.79; interquartile range, 1.46–2.53). The increased level of (logged) cffDNA was correlated significantly with the increased human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level (r = 0.628, p < 0.001). Significant reciprocal correlations between cffDNA and babies’ birth weight as well as gestation weeks at delivery were noted (r = −0.516, p = 0.001; r = −0.623, p < 0.001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of cffDNA to discriminate between the EOPE cases and the controls were 90% and 85%, respectively. CffDNA is a potential marker for EOPE, which had a significant reciprocal correlation with babies’ birth weight and gestation weeks at delivery. Moreover, it may help in indicating the underlying hypoxic condition in the placenta. PMID:23567271

  6. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Orla; Delaney, Liam; O’Farrelly, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Nick; Daly, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children’s school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems. Methods Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing. Results The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday. Conclusion The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments. PMID:28095505

  7. The impact of a child's special health care needs on maternal work participation during early motherhood.

    PubMed

    Hauge, Lars Johan; Kornstad, Tom; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Kristensen, Petter; Irgens, Lorentz M; Eskedal, Leif T; Landolt, Markus A; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2013-07-01

    Many women temporarily reduce work hours or stop working when caring for small children. However, mothers of children with special health care needs may face particular challenges balancing childrearing responsibilities and employment demands. This study examines how the work participation among mothers of children with special health care needs compares with that of mothers in general during early motherhood, focusing in particular on the extent of the child's additional health care needs. By linkage of the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study with national registers on employment, child health care needs, and social background factors, 41,255 mothers employed prior to childbirth were followed until child age 3 years to investigate associations between the child's care needs and mother's dropping out of employment. In total, 16.3% of the formerly employed mothers were no longer employed at child age 3 years. Mothers of children with mild care needs did not differ from mothers in general, whereas mothers of children with moderate [Risk Ratio (RR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 1.80] and severe care needs [RR 2.19; 95% CI 1.67, 2.87] were at substantial risk of not being employed at follow-up. The impact of the child's health care needs remained strong also after adjusting for several factors associated with employment in general. Extensive childhood health care needs are associated with reduced short-term employment prospects and remain a substantial influence on mothers' work participation during early motherhood, irrespective of other important characteristics associated with maternal employment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Poor early childhood outcomes attributable to maternal depression in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie; Villalobos, Aremis; Rojas, Rosalba; Barrientos, Tonatiuh; Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to estimate the population fraction of poor early child health and developmental outcomes attributable to maternal depressive symptoms (DS) contrasting it between low- and middle/high-income households. We used a nationally representative probabilistic sample of 4240 children younger than 5 years old and their mothers, derived from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey Data (ENSANUT 2012). Complex survey design, sampling, and analytic weights were taken into account in analyses. DS was measured by CESD-7. Child outcomes were as follows: breastfeeding, attending well-child check-ups, respiratory disease, diarrhea and general health problems, immunization, accidents, growth, obesity, and food insecurity. Prevalence of DS among mothers was 21.36%. In low-SES households, DS was associated with higher risk of never being breastfed (RR = 1.77; p < .05), health problems (RR = 1.37; p < .05), acute respiratory disease (RR = 1.51; p < .05), accidents requiring child hospitalization (RR = 2.16; p < .01), and moderate or severe food insecurity (RR = 1.58; p < .001). In medium- or high-SES households, DS was associated with higher risk of never attending a developmental check-up (RR = 2.14; p < .05) and moderate or severe food insecurity (RR = 1.75; p < .01). Population risks attributable to DS ranged from 2.30 to 17.45%. Prevention of DS could lead to reduction of problematic early childhood outcomes in both low and medium/high SES.

  9. Maternal Serum B-Cell Activating Factor Levels: Candidate Early Biomarker for Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stohl, Hindi E; Lee, Richard H; Manetta, Joseph; Kikly, Kristine; Korst, Lisa M; Stohl, William

    2017-11-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Early suppression of B-cell lymphopoiesis is necessary for a normal pregnancy. Dysregulation of factors critical to B-cell survival may result in pregnancy complications, including hypertension. In this prospective observational study at a single medical center, serum levels of BAFF (B-cell activating factor) were measured in pregnant participants at each trimester, at delivery, and postpartum and in nonpregnant controls at a single time point. Comparisons were made between nonpregnant and pregnant subjects and between time periods of pregnancy. First-trimester serum BAFF levels were further tested for association with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The study included 149 healthy pregnant women, 25 pregnant women with chronic hypertension, and 48 nonpregnant controls. Median first-trimester serum BAFF level (ng/mL) for healthy women (0.90) was lower than median serum BAFF levels for women with chronic hypertension (0.96; P =0.013) and controls (1.00; P =0.002). Serum BAFF levels steadily declined throughout pregnancy, with the median second-trimester level lower than the corresponding first-trimester level (0.77; P =0.003) and the median third-trimester level lower than the corresponding second-trimester level (0.72; P =0.025). The median first-trimester serum BAFF level was elevated in women who subsequently developed hypertension compared with women who remained normotensive (1.02 versus 0.85; P =0.012), with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve being 0.709. First-trimester serum BAFF level may be an early and clinically useful predictor of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Stronger influence of maternal than paternal obesity on infant and early childhood body mass index: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Linabery, A M; Nahhas, R W; Johnson, W; Choh, A C; Towne, B; Odegaard, A O; Czerwinski, S A; Demerath, E W

    2013-06-01

    Excessive early childhood adiposity is a prevalent and increasing concern in many parts of the world. Parental obesity is one of the several factors previously associated with infant and early childhood weight, length and adiposity. Parental obesity represents a surrogate marker of the complex interplay among genetic, epigenetic and shared environmental factors, and is potentially modifiable. The relative contributions of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) to infant and early childhood growth, as well as the timing of such effects, have not been firmly established. Utilizing serial infant measurements and growth curve modelling, this is the largest study to fully characterize and formally compare associations between maternal and paternal BMI and offspring growth across the entire infancy and early childhood period. Maternal obesity is a stronger determinant of offspring BMI than paternal obesity at birth and from 2 to 3 years of age, suggesting that prevention efforts focused particularly on maternal lifestyle and BMI may be important in reducing excess infant BMI. The observation that maternal BMI effects are not constant, but rather present at birth, wane and re-emerge during late infancy, suggests that there is a window of opportunity in early infancy when targeted interventions on children of obese mothers may be most effective. Parental obesity influences infant body size. To fully characterize their relative effects on infant adiposity, associations between maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) category (normal: ≤25 kg m(-2) , overweight: 25 - <30 kg m(-2) , obese: ≥30 kg m(-2) ) and infant BMI were compared in Fels Longitudinal Study participants. A median of 9 serial weight and length measures from birth to 3.5 years were obtained from 912 European American children born in 1928-2008. Using multivariable mixed effects regression, contributions of maternal vs. paternal BMI status to infant BMI growth curves were evaluated

  11. Transactional processes in child disruptive behavior and maternal depression: A longitudinal study from early childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    GROSS, HEATHER E.; SHAW, DANIEL S.; BURWELL, REBECCA A.; NAGIN, DANIEL S.

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been written about the utility of applying Sameroff and Chandler's transactional perspective to the study of child psychopathology, relatively few researchers have used such an approach to trace the emergence of child problem behavior from infancy to adolescence. Using a sample of 289 male toddlers from predominantly low-income families, the current study examined associations between various forms of early child disruptive behavior, subsequent trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms over the course of 8 years, and adolescent problem behavior. Results indicated that early child noncompliance was the most robust predictor of more chronic and elevated trajectories of maternal depression, which in turn discriminated teacher and youth reports of adolescent antisocial behavior but not internalizing symptoms. The findings were consistent with transactional perspectives of developmental psychopathology that have emphasized the dynamic interplay between child and parent characteristics. PMID:19144227

  12. Discrimination of amygdala response predicts future separation anxiety in youth with early deprivation.

    PubMed

    Green, Shulamite A; Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Louie, Jennifer; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-10-01

    Significant disruption in caregiving is associated with increased internalizing symptoms, most notably heightened separation anxiety symptoms during childhood. It is also associated with altered functional development of the amygdala, a neurobiological correlate of anxious behavior. However, much less is known about how functional alterations of amygdala predict individual differences in anxiety. Here, we probed amygdala function following institutional caregiving using very subtle social-affective stimuli (trustworthy and untrustworthy faces), which typically result in large differences in amygdala signal, and change in separation anxiety behaviors over a 2-year period. We hypothesized that the degree of differentiation of amygdala signal to trustworthy versus untrustworthy face stimuli would predict separation anxiety symptoms. Seventy-four youths mean (SD) age = 9.7 years (2.64) with and without previous institutional care, who were all living in families at the time of testing, participated in an fMRI task designed to examine differential amygdala response to trustworthy versus untrustworthy faces. Parents reported on their children's separation anxiety symptoms at the time of scan and again 2 years later. Previous institutional care was associated with diminished amygdala signal differences and behavioral differences to the contrast of untrustworthy and trustworthy faces. Diminished differentiation of these stimuli types predicted more severe separation anxiety symptoms 2 years later. Older age at adoption was associated with diminished differentiation of amygdala responses. A history of institutional care is associated with reduced differential amygdala responses to social-affective cues of trustworthiness that are typically exhibited by comparison samples. Individual differences in the degree of amygdala differential responding to these cues predict the severity of separation anxiety symptoms over a 2-year period. These findings provide a biological

  13. Calcium transport in the early conceptus and associated maternal tissues in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, J. E. A.; Lutwak-Mann, C.

    1974-01-01

    1. The kinetics of calcium transport were studied in unmated (oestrous) and pregnant rabbits in the first half of gestation, with the aim of establishing evidence of hormonal (ovarian) influence on the pattern of transport. 2. The following tissues were examined at short- (45min and 2h) and long-duration (4, 16 and 48h) intervals after parenteral administration of 45Ca or 47Ca: maternal blood plasma, endometrium, uterine fluid, placental tissues, two developmentally disparate stages of rabbit conceptus, namely the unattached blastocyst and the early post-implantation foetus, and bone (femur). 3. Marked variability in calcium content characterized rabbit tissues and body fluids. 4. Compartmental analysis was applied to measurements of specific radioactivity. Oestrous endometrium had the largest rapidly exchanging calcium fraction (turnover time of 12min) and the highest value for calcium flux (500μg of Ca exchanged/h per g fresh wt. of tissue). A marked downward gradient in values of flux existed between the progestational endometrium, uterine fluid and blastocyst; there was a similar gradient between placental tissues and foetus. 5. An hormonal influence on calcium transport was evident in (i) the decrease in specific radioactivity of rabbit blood plasma with advancing pregnancy, (ii) the extraordinarily rapid calcium transport between blood plasma and endometrium, especially in the oestrous stage, and (iii) the effectiveness of ovarian hormone substitution in ovariectomized rabbits. 6. The very low specific radioactivity recorded for bone indicated that only a minute fraction of its calcium was exchanging with that of blood plasma under the experimental conditions examined. 7. The rate of uptake of 45Ca by rabbit blastocysts growing in vitro was one-tenth of that of 22Na, or that recorded for calcium in vivo. 8. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity with acetazolamide in vivo, in maternal erythrocytes, endometrium and placental tissues, produced no

  14. The three-dimensional feto-maternal vascular interrelationship during early bovine placental development: a scanning electron microscopical study

    PubMed Central

    PFARRER, CHRISTIANE; EBERT, BRIGITTE; MIGLINO, MARIA ANGELICA; KLISCH, KARL; LEISER, RUDOLF

    2001-01-01

    Both the fetal and maternal microvasculature of bovine placentomes was examined by scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts. So far the development of the vascular architecture of the bovine placentome in early gestation has only been studied 2-dimensionally due to technical difficulties arising from the fragility of the early placental blood vessels. Repeated experiments led to the selection of the microvascular corrosion casts presented here. The vasculature of the maternal compartment is supplied by large caruncular stalk or spiral arteries, which release short maternal stem arteries. In the 3rd month of gestation, these arteries branch into several arterioles at their base, thus providing the vascular framework for the lower part of the septal walls of the primary crypts. In the 4th month, due to progressive longitudinal growth of the stem arteries, branching into arterioles occurs not only at the base, but over the whole length of the stem arteries. These arterioles supply the capillary complexes of the septa which resemble the major part of the septal vasculature and face the secondary crypts. Further indentation results in the formation of tertiary crypt capillary complexes, encircling the earlier secondary unit. From the 6th month of gestation the architecture resembles the fully developed maternal placenta with stem arteries running directly to the fetal side to branch into 4 to 6 arterioles, which turn back to enter secondary and tertiary septa. Maternal venules, collecting the blood from the capillary bed of secondary and tertiary septa, converge onto stem veins leaving the caruncle via branches of the uterine vein. The fetal part of the placentome is supplied by the cotyledonary arteries, which branch into fetal stem arteries that are the tributary to single villous trees. Over their whole course towards the maternal side, these give off arterioles entering secondary villi. The tertiary or terminal villous vasculature consists of capillaries

  15. First-trimester screening for early and late preeclampsia using maternal characteristics, biomarkers, and estimated placental volume.

    PubMed

    Sonek, Jiri; Krantz, David; Carmichael, Jon; Downing, Cathy; Jessup, Karen; Haidar, Ziad; Ho, Shannon; Hallahan, Terrence; Kliman, Harvey J; McKenna, David

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. First-trimester screening has been shown to be effective in selecting patients at an increased risk for preeclampsia in some studies. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of screening for preeclampsia in the first trimester based on maternal characteristics, medical history, biomarkers, and placental volume. This is a prospective observational nonintervention cohort study in an unselected US population. Patients who presented for an ultrasound examination between 11-13+6 weeks' gestation were included. The following parameters were assessed and were used to calculate the risk of preeclampsia: maternal characteristics (demographic, anthropometric, and medical history), maternal biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein), and estimated placental volume. After delivery, medical records were searched for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Detection rates for early-onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks' gestation) and later-onset preeclampsia (≥34 weeks' gestation) for 5% and 10% false-positive rates using various combinations of markers were calculated. We screened 1288 patients of whom 1068 (82.99%) were available for analysis. In all, 46 (4.3%) developed preeclampsia, with 13 (1.22%) having early-onset preeclampsia and 33 (3.09%) having late-onset preeclampsia. Using maternal characteristics, serum biomarkers, and uterine artery pulsatility index, the detection rate of early-onset preeclampsia for either 5% or 10% false-positive rate was 85%. With the same protocol, the detection rates for preeclampsia with delivery <37 weeks were 52% and 60% for 5% and 10% false-positive rates, respectively. Based on maternal characteristics, the detection rates for late-onset preeclampsia were 15% and 48% for 5% and 10%, while for preeclampsia at ≥37 weeks' gestation the detection rates were 24

  16. Associations between maternal early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and placental DNA methylation at term

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The placenta serves as the definitive maternal-fetal interface and mediates exchange of nutrients, gases, and waste between mother and the developing fetus. The placenta integrates signals from both mother and baby, coordinating maternal nutrient supply with fetal demand and development. In epidemio...

  17. Nonstandard Maternal Work Schedules: Implications for African American Children's Early Language Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Erika C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Crouter, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, observed maternal positive engagement and perception of work-family spillover were examined as mediators of the association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and children's expressive language outcomes in 231 African American families living in rural households. Mothers reported their work schedules when their child was 24…

  18. Function and Content of Maternal Demands: Developmental Significance of Early Demands for Competent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczynski, Leon; Kochanska, Grazyna

    1995-01-01

    Examined mothers' demands during mothers' interactions with their 1.5- to 3.5-year olds. Mothers with authoritative child-rearing attitudes emphasized proactive, competence-oriented demands and avoided regulatory control. Maternal demands for competent action predicted fewer behavior problems in their children at age five; maternal demands focused…

  19. Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

    2010-01-01

    To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

  20. Implications of Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms for Early Cognitive and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2006-01-01

    Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…

  1. Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

  2. Associations among Maternal Behavior, Delay of Gratification, and School Readiness across the Early Childhood Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razza, Rachel A.; Raymond, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental pathways from maternal behavior to school readiness within a sample of 1007 children, with a specific focus on the mediating role of delay of gratification (DoG). Maternal behavior across the first 36 months of age was explored as a predictor of children's DoG at 54 months as well as their behavioral and…

  3. Relations among Maternal Parenting Style, Academic Competence, and Life Satisfaction in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Candice Y.-W.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lai, Beatrice P.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The relations among maternal concern and restrictiveness, self-evaluated academic competence, and life satisfaction were explored in a short-term longitudinal study of 346 7th-grade students (126 males and 220 females) in Hong Kong. The authors found that perceived maternal concern, academic competence, and life satisfaction significantly declined…

  4. Maternal Employment Stability in Early Childhood: Links with Child Behavior and Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated links between maternal employment and children's wellbeing, less research has considered whether the stability of maternal employment is linked with child outcomes. Using unique employment calendar data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,011), an urban birth cohort study of largely…

  5. [Readmission in a Maternity Hospital for early mother-child relationship disorders].

    PubMed

    Poizat, A

    1998-10-01

    We report the original experience of admission in a post-delivery care unit, of a mother and her one-month-old child, for the treatment of post-delivery depression, in association with mother-child relational disorders. In this emergency situation, a maternity hospital team was involved in a maternity care.

  6. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

  7. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether earl...

  8. Views on contentious practices in dairy farming: the case of early cow-calf separation.

    PubMed

    Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Schuppli, C A; Weary, D M

    2013-09-01

    The public has become increasingly interested in the welfare of food animals, but the food animal industries possess few mechanisms for public engagement. Here we present results from a web-based forum designed to allow stakeholders to share views on controversial issues in dairying. In response to the question "Should dairy calves be separated from the cow within the first few hours after birth?" participants were able to indicate "yes," "no," or "neutral" and either write a reason in support of their view or select reasons provided by other participants. Four independent groups of participants were recruited (a total of 163 people); 31% said they had no involvement in the dairy industry; the remaining 69% (with some involvement in the industry) were students or teachers (33%), animal advocates (13%), producers (11%), veterinarians (9%) and other dairy industry professionals (3%). Overall, little consensus existed among participants across groups; 44% chose "yes," 48% "no," and 9% "neutral." Responses varied with demographics, with opposition to early separation higher among females, animal advocates, and those with no involvement with the dairy industry. A fifth group was recruited at a dairy industry conference (an additional 28 participants); 46% chose "yes," 32% "no," and 21% "neutral." Across all 5 groups, opponents and supporters often referenced similar issues in the reasons they provided. Opponents of early separation contended that it is emotionally stressful for the calf and cow, it compromises calf and cow health, it is unnatural, and the industry can and should accommodate cow-calf pairs. In contrast, supporters of early separation reasoned that emotional distress is minimized by separating before bonds develop, that it promotes calf and cow health, and that the industry is limited in its ability to accommodate cow-calf pairs. These results illustrate the potential of web-based forums to identify areas of agreement and conflict among stakeholders

  9. Maternal xNorrin, a Canonical Wnt Signaling Agonist and TGF-β Antagonist, Controls Early Neuroectoderm Specification in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Suhong; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Juan; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Dorsal–ventral specification in the amphibian embryo is controlled by β-catenin, whose activation in all dorsal cells is dependent on maternal Wnt11. However, it remains unknown whether other maternally secreted factors contribute to β-catenin activation in the dorsal ectoderm. Here, we show that maternal Xenopus Norrin (xNorrin) promotes anterior neural tissue formation in ventralized embryos. Conversely, when xNorrin function is inhibited, early canonical Wnt signaling in the dorsal ectoderm and the early expression of the zygotic neural inducers Chordin, Noggin, and Xnr3 are severely suppressed, causing the loss of anterior structures. In addition, xNorrin potently inhibits BMP- and Nodal/Activin-related functions through direct binding to the ligands. Moreover, a subset of Norrin mutants identified in humans with Norrie disease retain Wnt activation but show defective inhibition of Nodal/Activin-related signaling in mesoderm induction, suggesting that this disinhibition causes Norrie disease. Thus, xNorrin is an unusual molecule that acts on two major signaling pathways, Wnt and TGF-β, in opposite ways and is essential for early neuroectoderm specification. PMID:22448144

  10. Effects of maternal dietary egg intake during early lactation on human milk ovalbumin concentration: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, J R; Marsh, J A; D'Vaz, N; Geddes, D T; Lai, C T; Prescott, S L; Palmer, D J

    2016-12-01

    There is limited understanding of how maternal diet affects breastmilk food allergen concentrations, and whether exposure to allergens through this route influences the development of infant oral tolerance or sensitization. To investigate how maternal dietary egg ingestion during early lactation influences egg protein (ovalbumin) levels detected in human breastmilk. In a randomized controlled trial, women were allocated to a dietary group for the first six weeks of lactation: high-egg diet (> 4 eggs per week), low-egg diet (one-three eggs per week) or an egg-free diet. Breastmilk samples were collected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of lactation for the measurement of ovalbumin. The permeability of the mammary epithelium was assessed by measuring the breastmilk sodium : potassium ratio. Egg-specific IgE and IgG4 were measured in infant plasma at 6 weeks, and prior to the introduction of egg in solids at 16 weeks. Average maternal egg ingestion was associated with breastmilk ovalbumin concentration. Specifically, for each additional egg ingested per week, there was an average 25% increase in ovalbumin concentration (95% CI: 5-48%, P = 0.01). Breastmilk ovalbumin concentrations were significantly higher in the 'high-egg' group (> 4 eggs per week) compared with the 'egg-free' group (P = 0.04). However, one-third of women had no breastmilk ovalbumin detected. No detectable associations were found between mammary epithelium permeability and breastmilk ovalbumin concentrations. Infant plasma egg-specific IgG4 levels were also positively associated with maternal egg ingestion, with an average 22% (95% CI: 3-45%) increase in infant egg-specific IgG4 levels per additional egg consumed per week (P = 0.02). Increased maternal egg ingestion is associated with increased breastmilk ovalbumin, and markers of immune tolerance in infants. These results highlight the potential for maternal diet to benefit infant oral tolerance development during lactation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A randomised trial of early palliative care for maternal stress in infants prenatally diagnosed with single-ventricle heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Hayley S; Pituch, Ken; Uzark, Karen; Bhat, Priya; Fifer, Carly; Silveira, Maria; Yu, Sunkyung; Welch, Suzanne; Donohue, Janet; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit

    2018-04-01

    Children with single-ventricle disease experience high mortality and complex care. In other life-limiting childhood illnesses, paediatric palliative care may mitigate maternal stress. We hypothesised that early palliative care in the single-ventricle population may have the same benefit for mothers. In this pilot randomised trial of early palliative care, mothers of infants with prenatal single-ventricle diagnoses completed surveys measuring depression, anxiety, coping, and quality of life at a prenatal visit and neonatal discharge. Infants were randomised to receive early palliative care - structured evaluation, psychosocial/spiritual, and communication support before surgery - or standard care. Among 56 eligible mothers, 40 enrolled and completed baseline surveys; 38 neonates were randomised, 18 early palliative care and 20 standard care; and 34 postnatal surveys were completed. Baseline Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Index scores exceeded normal pregnant sample scores (mean 13.76±8.46 versus 7.0±5.0 and 46.34±12.59 versus 29.8±6.35, respectively; p=0.0001); there were no significant differences between study groups. The early palliative care group had a decrease in prenatal to postnatal State-Trait Anxiety Index scores (-7.6 versus 0.3 in standard care, p=0.02), higher postnatal Brief Cope Inventory positive reframing scores (p=0.03), and a positive change in PedsQL Family Impact Module communication and family relationships scores (effect size 0.46 and 0.41, respectively). In conclusion, these data show that mothers of infants with single-ventricle disease experience significant depression and anxiety prenatally. Early palliative care resulted in decreased maternal anxiety, improved maternal positive reframing, and improved communication and family relationships.

  12. Early Second Trimester Maternal Plasma Choline and Betaine Are Related to Measures of Early Cognitive Development in Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Brian T. F.; Dyer, Roger A.; King, D. Janette; Richardson, Kelly J.; Innis, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The importance of maternal dietary choline for fetal neural development and later cognitive function has been well-documented in experimental studies. Although choline is an essential dietary nutrient for humans, evidence that low maternal choline in pregnancy impacts neurodevelopment in human infants is lacking. We determined potential associations between maternal plasma free choline and its metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age. Methodology This was a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their full-term, single birth infants. Maternal blood was collected at 16 and 36 weeks of gestation and infant neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months of age for 154 mother-infant pairs. Maternal plasma choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, total B12, holotranscobalamin and folate were quantified. Infant neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development–III. Multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates that impact development, was used to determine the associations between maternal plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine and infant neurodevelopment. Results The maternal plasma free choline at 16 and 36 weeks gestation was median (interquartile range) 6.70 (5.78–8.03) and 9.40 (8.10–11.3) µmol/L, respectively. Estimated choline intakes were (mean ±SD) 383±98.6 mg/day, and lower than the recommended 450 mg/day. Betaine intakes were 142±70.2 mg/day. Significant positive associations were found between infant cognitive test scores and maternal plasma free choline (B = 6.054, SE = 2.283, p = 0.009) and betaine (B = 7.350, SE = 1.933, p = 0.0002) at 16 weeks of gestation. Maternal folate, total B12, or holotranscobalamin were not related to infant development. Conclusion We show that choline status in the first half of pregnancy is associated with cognitive development among healthy term gestation

  13. Early second trimester maternal plasma choline and betaine are related to measures of early cognitive development in term infants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Brian T F; Dyer, Roger A; King, D Janette; Richardson, Kelly J; Innis, Sheila M

    2012-01-01

    The importance of maternal dietary choline for fetal neural development and later cognitive function has been well-documented in experimental studies. Although choline is an essential dietary nutrient for humans, evidence that low maternal choline in pregnancy impacts neurodevelopment in human infants is lacking. We determined potential associations between maternal plasma free choline and its metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age. This was a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their full-term, single birth infants. Maternal blood was collected at 16 and 36 weeks of gestation and infant neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months of age for 154 mother-infant pairs. Maternal plasma choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, total B12, holotranscobalamin and folate were quantified. Infant neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III. Multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates that impact development, was used to determine the associations between maternal plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine and infant neurodevelopment. The maternal plasma free choline at 16 and 36 weeks gestation was median (interquartile range) 6.70 (5.78-8.03) and 9.40 (8.10-11.3) µmol/L, respectively. Estimated choline intakes were (mean ± SD) 383 ± 98.6 mg/day, and lower than the recommended 450 mg/day. Betaine intakes were 142 ± 70.2 mg/day. Significant positive associations were found between infant cognitive test scores and maternal plasma free choline (B=6.054, SE=2.283, p=0.009) and betaine (B=7.350, SE=1.933, p=0.0002) at 16 weeks of gestation. Maternal folate, total B12, or holotranscobalamin were not related to infant development. We show that choline status in the first half of pregnancy is associated with cognitive development among healthy term gestation infants. More work is needed on the potential limitation of choline or betaine

  14. Maternal depression and physical health problems in early pregnancy: findings of an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Perlen, Susan; Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Brown, Stephanie J

    2013-03-01

    to investigate the relationship between physical health problems and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. baseline questionnaire, prospective pregnancy cohort study. six metropolitan public maternity hospitals in Victoria, Australia. 1507 nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy. nine per cent of women (131/1500) scored ≥ 13 on the EPDS indicating probable clinical depression in early pregnancy (mean gestation=15 weeks). The five most commonly reported physical health problems were as follows: exhaustion (86.9%), morning sickness (64.3%), back pain (45.6%), constipation (43.5%) and severe headaches or migraines (29.5%). Women scoring ≥ 13 on the EPDS reported a mean of six physical health problems compared with a mean of 3.5 among women scoring <13 on the EPDS. Women reporting five or more physical health problems had a three-fold increase in likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms (Adj OR=3.13, 95% CI 2.14-4.58) after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, including maternal age. the findings from this large multi-centre study show that women experiencing a greater number of physical health problems are at increased risk of reporting depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. early detection and support for women experiencing physical and psychological health problems in pregnancy is an important aspect of antenatal care. The extent of co-morbid physical and psychological health problems underlines the need for comprehensive primary health care as an integral component of antenatal care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Lactation and Infant Feeding Practices Differ by Maternal Gestational Diabetes History.

    PubMed

    Oza-Frank, Reena; Moreland, Jennifer J; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-11-01

    Detailed data on lactation practices by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) history are lacking, precluding potential explanations and targets for interventions to improve lactation intensity and duration and, ultimately, long-term maternal and child health. This study aimed to examine breastfeeding practices through 12 months postpartum by GDM history. Women who delivered a singleton, liveborn infant at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (Columbus, OH), in 2011 completed a postal questionnaire to assess lactation and infant feeding practices and difficulties. Bivariate and multivariate associations between GDM history and lactation and infant feeding practices were examined. The sample included 432 women (62% response rate), including 7.9% who had GDM during the index pregnancy. Women with GDM initiated breastfeeding (at-the-breast or pumping) as often as women without any diabetes but were more likely to report introduction of formula within the first 2 days of life (79.4% vs 53.8%, P < .01; adjusted odds ratio: 3.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-8.26). Women with GDM initiated pumping 4 days earlier than women without diabetes ( P < .05), which was confirmed in adjusted analyses. There was no difference in the proportion of women reporting breastfeeding difficulty (odds ratio: 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-5.52). However, there was a trend toward women with GDM reporting more formula feeding and less at-the-breast feeding as strategies to address difficulty compared with women without diabetes. Additional research is needed to understand why women with GDM engage in different early lactation and infant feeding practices, and how best to promote and sustain breastfeeding among these women.

  16. Highly Palatable Food during Adolescence Improves Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Rats that Experienced Neonatal Maternal Separation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum consumption of highly palatable food (HPF) during adolescence on the adverse behavioral outcome of neonatal maternal separation. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 hours daily during the first 2 weeks of birth (maternal separation, MS) or left undisturbed (nonhandled, NH). Half of MS pups received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28 (MS+HPF). Pups were subjected to behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to stress challenge was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Results Daily caloric intake and body weight gain did not differ among the experimental groups. Ambulatory activities were decreased defecation activity and rostral grooming were increased in MS controls (fed with chow only) compared with NH rats. MS controls spent less time in open arms, and more time in closed arms during the elevated plus maze test, than NH rats. Immobility duration during the forced swim test was increased in MS controls compared with NH rats. Cookie access normalized the behavioral scores of ambulatory and defecation activities and grooming, but not the scores during the elevated plus maze and swim tests in MS rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was blunted in MS rats fed with chow only, and cookie access normalized it. Conclusion Prolonged access to HPF during adolescence and youth partly improves anxiety-related, but not depressive, symptoms in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, possibly in relation with improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PMID:25031890

  17. Early prenatal food supplementation ameliorates the negative association of maternal stress with birth size in a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-01

    Low birthweight increases the risk of infant mortality, morbidity and poor development. Maternal nutrition and stress influence birth size, but their combined effect is not known. We hypothesised that an early-invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation programme could reduce the negative influence of prenatal maternal stress on birth size, and that effect would differ by infant sex. A cohort of 1041 pregnant women, who had delivered an infant, June 2003-March 2004, was sampled from among 3267 in the randomised controlled trial, Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 weeks gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation to start food supplements (2.5 MJ d(-1) ; 6 days a week) either early (∼9 weeks gestation; early-invitation group) or at usual start time for the governmental programme (∼20 weeks gestation; usual-invitation group). Morning concentration of cortisol was measured from one saliva sample/woman at 28-32 weeks gestation to assess stress. Birth-size measurements for 90% of infants were collected within 4 days of birth. In a general linear model, there was an interaction between invitation time to start the food supplementation programme and cortisol with birthweight, length and head circumference of male infants, but not female infants. Among the usual-invitation group only, male infants whose mothers had higher prenatal cortisol weighed less than those whose mothers had lower prenatal cortisol. Prenatal food supplementation programmes that begin first trimester may support greater birth size of male infants despite high maternal stress where low birthweight is a public health concern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes With Early Compared With Delayed Pushing Among Nulliparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lynn M.; Sandoval, Grecio; Bailit, Jennifer; Reddy, Uma M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Caritis, Steve N.; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T.N.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J.; Blackwell, Sean C.; Tolosa, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe factors associated with delayed pushing and evaluate the relationship between delayed pushing and perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women with singleton term gestations. Methods This was a secondary analysis of NICHD Assessment of Perinatal Excellence (APEX) cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 U.S. hospitals from 2008-2011. Nulliparous women with singleton, cephalic, nonanomalous term births who achieved 10 cm cervical dilation were included. Women in whom pushing was delayed by ≥60 minutes (delayed group) were compared with those who initiated pushing within 30 minutes (early group). Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the independent association of delayed pushing with mode of delivery, length of second stage and other maternal and perinatal outcomes (significance defined as p<0.05). Results Of 21,034 women in the primary analysis sample, pushing was delayed in 18.4% (n=3870). Women who were older, privately insured, or non-Hispanic white, as well as those who had induction or augmentation of labor, diabetes, or epidural analgesia were more likely to have delayed pushing. Delayed pushing was more common when the second stage began during daytime hours or in hospitals with dedicated 24-hour obstetric anesthesia, although differences were small. After adjusting for differences in baseline and labor characteristics including center, women in the delayed group had longer mean durations of the second stage (191 vs. 84 min, p<0.001) and of active pushing (86 vs. 76 min, p<0.001). Delayed pushing was associated with greater rates of cesarean delivery (11.2% vs 5.1%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63-2.12), operative vaginal delivery (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.40), postpartum hemorrhage (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.05-1.95) and blood transfusion (aOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.04-2.17). Delayed pushing was not associated with increased odds of adverse neonatal outcomes compared with early pushing

  19. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes With Early Compared With Delayed Pushing Among Nulliparous Women.

    PubMed

    Yee, Lynn M; Sandoval, Grecio; Bailit, Jennifer; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Caritis, Steve N; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2016-11-01

    To describe factors associated with delayed pushing and evaluate the relationship between delayed pushing and perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women with singleton term gestations. This was a secondary analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Assessment of Perinatal Excellence cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 U.S. hospitals from 2008 to 2011. Nulliparous women with singleton, cephalic, nonanomalous term births who achieved 10-cm cervical dilation were included. Women in whom pushing was delayed by 60 minutes or greater (delayed group) were compared with those who initiated pushing within 30 minutes (early group). Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the independent association of delayed pushing with mode of delivery, length of the second stage, and other maternal and perinatal outcomes (significance defined as P<.05). Of 21,034 women in the primary analysis sample, pushing was delayed in 18.4% (n=3,870). Women who were older, privately insured, or non-Hispanic white as well as those who had induction or augmentation of labor, diabetes, or epidural analgesia were more likely to have delayed pushing. Delayed pushing was more common when the second stage began during daytime hours or in hospitals with dedicated 24-hour obstetric anesthesia, although differences were small. After adjusting for differences in baseline and labor characteristics including center, women in the delayed group had longer mean durations of the second stage (191 compared with 84 minutes, P<.001) and of active pushing (86 compared with 76 minutes, P<.001). Delayed pushing was associated with greater rates of cesarean delivery (11.2% compared with 5.1%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63-2.12), operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.40), postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.05-1.95), and blood transfusion (adjusted OR 1.51, 95% CI 1

  20. Early and late selection processes have separable influences on the neural substrates of attention.

    PubMed

    Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of target selection, we examined how the spatial separation of salient items and their similarity to a pre-defined target interact using lateralised electrophysiological correlates of visual spatial attention (N2pc component) and visual short-term memory (VSTM; SPCN component). Using these features of target selection, we sought to expand on previous work proposing a model of early and late selection, where the N2pc is suggested to reflect the selection probability of visual stimuli (Aubin and Jolicoeur, 2016). The authors suggested that early-selection processes could be enhanced when items are adjacent. In the present work, the stimuli were short oriented lines, all of which were grey except for two that were blue and hence salient. A decrease in N2pc amplitude with decreasing spatial separation between salient items was observed. The N2pc increased in amplitude with increasing similarity of salient distractors to the target template, but only in target-absent trials. There was no interaction between these two factors, suggesting that separable attentional mechanisms influenced the N2pc. The findings suggest that selection is initially based on easily-distinguished attributes (i.e., both blue items) followed by a later identification-based process (if necessary), which depends on feature similarity to a target template. For the SPCN component, the results were in line with previous work: for target-present trials, an increase in similarity of salient distractors was associated with an increase in SPCN amplitude, suggesting more information was maintained in VSTM. In sum, results suggest there is a need for further inspection of salient distractors when they are similar to the target, increasing the need for focal attention, demonstrated by an increase in N2pc amplitude, followed by a higher probability of transfer to VSTM, demonstrated by an increase in SPCN amplitude. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Early adolescent romantic relationships and maternal approval among inner city Latino families.

    PubMed

    Bouris, Alida; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Ballan, Michelle; Lesesne, Catherine A; Gonzalez, Bernardo

    2012-08-01

    Latino youth are at high risk for acquiring HIV during adolescence. The present study documented the nature of adolescent romantic relationships among 702 Latino eighth grade students and their mothers in the Bronx, NY. The study examined adolescent romantic relationships, the association between participation in such relationships and intentions to engage in sexual risk behavior, and maternal influences on adolescent's involvement in intimate behaviors in romantic relationships. Almost 50% of youth had been in a romantic relationship, which typically lasted 3-3.5 months. Mothers tended to approve of intimate behaviors and sexual activity in romantic relationships more so for males than females. Latino youth tended to underestimate maternal disapproval of a range of intimate behaviors, and the correlations between perceived and actual maternal approval were generally low in magnitude. Finally, maternal orientations towards their adolescent engaging in romantic relationships were associated with their child's intentions to have sexual intercourse in the future.

  2. 76 FR 22713 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... specified in the Affordable Care Act (such as maternal and child health status, school readiness, and domestic violence, among others); (b) the effectiveness of such programs on different populations...

  3. Between Mexico and New York City: Mexican Maternal Migration's Influences on Separated Siblings' Social and Educational Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    There are negative consequences for children and youth when a primary caregiver leaves to migrate. However there are unforeseen experiences related to schooling. I compare how Mexican maternal migration has influenced the education experiences of the children left behind in Mexico and their siblings living in the United States. These microcontexts…

  4. Early interactive behaviours in preterm infants and their mothers: influences of maternal depressive symptomatology and neonatal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Dellabartola, Sara; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2014-02-01

    The study evaluated the quality of preterm infant-mother interactions, considering severity of birth weight (ELBW and VLBW) and maternal depression, compared to full term babies. 69 preterm infants (29 ELBW and 40 VLBW) and 80 full-term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, the quality of mother-infant interaction was evaluated through Global Rating Scales; moreover, infant level of development and maternal depression were assessed through Griffith Development Mental Scales and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results showed adequate sensitivity in preterm infants' mothers and higher involvement with their infants, compared to full term mothers, but ELBW ones exhibited an intrusive interactive pattern and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms. The study underlined the relevance of paying special attention to both ELBW infants and their mothers, in order to support the parenting role and the co-construction of early interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Relations Between Maternal Prenatal Anxiety or Stress and Child's Early Negative Reactivity or Self-Regulation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Korja, Riikka; Nolvi, Saara; Grant, Kerry Ann; McMahon, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    In the present review, we examine the association between maternal prenatal stress or anxiety and children's early negative reactivity or self-regulation. The review includes 32 studies that focus on pregnancy-related anxiety, state or trait anxiety, perceived stress, and stressful life events in relation to child's crying, temperament, or behavior during the first 2 years of life. We searched four electronic databases and 32 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies found an association between maternal prenatal anxiety or stress and a child's negative reactivity or self-regulation, and typically the effect sizes varied from low to moderate. The association was found regardless of the form of prenatal stress or anxiety and the trimester in which the prenatal stress or anxiety was measured. In conclusion, several forms of prenatal anxiety and stress may increase the risk of emotional and self-regulatory difficulties during the first 2 years of life.

  6. Separation, failure and temporary relinquishment: women's experiences of early mothering in the context of emergency hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Elmir, Rakime; Schmied, Virginia; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2012-04-01

    To describe the experiences of women who have had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage and the impact on their early mothering experiences. Postpartum haemorrhage and subsequent hysterectomy is a traumatic birth event. Traumatic birth experiences have the potential to impact on a woman's experience of motherhood and her initial relationship with her baby. The relative rarity of this event makes it easy to dismiss the experiences of women having a hysterectomy following childbirth. Little is known about a woman's early mothering experience in the context of having an emergency hysterectomy. Qualitative naturalistic inquiry approach. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative interviews from 21 Australian women who had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. Findings revealed three themes in relation to early mothering experiences in the context of having a hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. They were 'initial separation: lost bonding time', 'feelings of failure' and 'relinquishing care of the infant'. This paper highlights the ways undergoing emergency hysterectomy following childbirth can impact on the experience of early mothering in the postnatal period. Greater recognition and attention to the specific needs of women who have an emergency hysterectomy following childbirth is required. Providing women with an opportunity to talk, debrief and ask questions related to their birthing experiences, will help women to reconcile their feelings. Giving women the opportunity to have their infants with them in intensive care unit, together with ongoing emotional support and anticipatory guidance, may also be useful approaches in assisting women during this difficult and traumatic time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods.

  8. Maternal and fetal alternative complement pathway activation in early severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M Camille; Rumer, Kristen K; Kramer, Anita; Lynch, Anne M; Winn, Virginia D

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether alternative complement activation fragment Bb (Bb) levels are elevated in the maternal, fetal, and placental blood in cases of severe preeclampsia (PE) compared with normotensive controls. This was a cross-sectional study of women admitted at ≥24 weeks gestation with or without severe PE. Maternal plasma was collected at the time of enrollment. Umbilical venous cord and intervillous space blood were collected at delivery. Plasma Bb levels were assessed using ELISA. Bb levels were compared between cases and controls. Median Bb levels were higher in the maternal plasma of severe PE subjects (n = 24) than in controls (n = 20), 1.45 ± 1.03 versus 0.65 ± 0.23 μg/mL, P < 0.001. In umbilical venous plasma, Bb levels were higher in severe PE subjects (n = 15) compared with controls (n = 15), 2.48 ± 1.40 versus 1.01 ± 0.57 μg/mL, P = 0.01. Activation fragment Bb is increased in the maternal and umbilical venous blood of cases of severe PE when compared with normotensive controls. These data provide support for alternative complement pathway involvement in the pathogenesis of severe PE and demonstrate that alternative complement activation occurs not only in the maternal but also in the fetal compartment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Nonstandard Maternal Work Schedules: Implications for African American Children’s Early Language Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Odom, Erika C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, observed maternal positive engagement and perception of work-family spillover were examined as mediators of the association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and children’s expressive language outcomes in 231 African American families living in rural households. Mothers reported their work schedules when their child was 24 months of age and children’s expressive language development was assessed during a picture book task at 24 months and with a standardized assessment at 36 months. After controlling for family demographics, child, and maternal characteristics, maternal employment in nonstandard schedules at the 24 month timepoint was associated with lower expressive language ability among African American children concurrently and at 36 months of age. Importantly, the negative association between nonstandard schedules and children’s expressive language ability at 24 months of age was mediated by maternal positive engagement and negative work-family spillover, while at 36 months of age, the association was mediated only by negative work-family spillover. These findings suggest complex links between mothers’ work environments and African American children’s developmental outcomes. PMID:23459591

  10. Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny in American toads.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Christine M; Hopkins, William A; Bodinof, Catherine M; Budischak, Sarah A; Wada, Haruka; Unrine, Jason M

    2011-10-15

    Maternal transfer of environmental contaminants is a disadvantageous parental effect which can have long-lasting implications for offspring fitness. We investigated the effects of mercury (Hg) on the reproductive success of female amphibians and the subsequent effects of maternal transfer on the development of their offspring. American toads (Bufo americanus) maternally transferred Hg to their eggs, and there was a negative relationship between Hg concentrations and the percentage of viable hatchlings produced in clutches. However, when we continued to monitor larvae that successfully hatched, we found 21% greater metamorphic success in larvae from Hg-exposed mothers compared to reference larvae. The negative effect in the embryonic stage and positive effect in the larval stage counterbalanced one another, ultimately resulting in no difference in predicted terrestrial recruitment, regardless of maternal Hg exposure. Our findings demonstrate that maternal effects on survival manifesting at different stages in ontogeny have the potential to produce complicated outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential effects of tianeptine on the dorsal hippocampal volume of rats submitted to maternal separation followed by chronic unpredictable stress in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pollano, Antonella; Zalosnik, María I; Durando, Patricia E; Suárez, Marta M

    2016-11-01

    Early maternal separation (MS) may produce lasting effects in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) that can change its response to chronic stress in adulthood. Chronic stress affects DH morphology and function, but tianeptine (an anti-depressant) can reverse the stress-induced morphological impairments. Morphologic alterations of hippocampus can affect contextual memory. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of tianeptine in MS and chronically stressed rats on: 1) volume of the DH and its areas using stereology and 2) hippocampal-dependent memory using a fear conditioning test. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily MS for 4.5 h between postnatal days (PND) 1-21, or to animal facility rearing (AFR). Between (PND) days 50 and 74, rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress and were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle, providing eight groups: AFR-unstressed/vehicle (n = 5 for stereology, n = 18 for fear conditioning test); AFR unstressed/tianeptine (n = 6 and n = 10); AFR-chronic stress/vehicle (n = 6 and n = 14); AFR-chronic stress/tianeptine (n = 6 and n = 10), MS-unstressed/vehicle (n = 5 and n = 19), MS-unstressed/tianeptine (n = 6 and n = 10), MS-chronic stress/vehicle (n = 6 and n = 18), and MS-chronic stress/tianeptine (n = 6 and n = 10). MS-chronic stress/tianeptine rats showed a diminished CA1 area than the corresponding MS-unstressed/tianeptine rats. The combination of stressors produced a freezing response similar to those of the control group during postconditioning. During retrieval, MS led to a diminished freezing response compared to the AFR-unstressed groups. Tianeptine had no effect on freezing behavior. Our results show that tianeptine can affect the CA1 area volume differently depending on the nature and quantity of stressors but cannot alter freezing to context.

  12. Involvement of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of selegiline in maternal separation model of mouse.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Shayan; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Razmi, Ali; Olson, Carl O; Rastegar, Mojgan; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-01

    Mother-infant interactions are known to be associated with the psychological well-being of an individual in adulthood. It is well accepted that emotional stress in early life, such as maternal separation (MS), leads to alterations in the neurotransmission systems of various brain regions, especially the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, and subsequently can increase the risk for development of psychiatric disorders including depression in adulthood. Selegiline is an irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B inhibitor which increases striatal dopamine levels and exerts an antidepressant effect. In this study, 180min of MS stress was applied to mice at postnatal day (PND) 2-14 followed by behavioral tests for determining depressive-like behaviors, such as forced swimming test (FST), splash test and sucrose preference test (SPT) in adult mice (PND 50). The open field test (OFT) also was applied to validate FST results. We used SCH23390 (D1 antagonist) and sulpiride (D2 antagonist) in order to determine the role of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in antidepressant-like effects of selegiline. Our results revealed that MS provoked depressive-like behaviors in adult male mice, and the administration of selegiline attenuated depressive-like behaviors in MS mice. Our findings showed that D1 dopamine receptors facilitate the positive effects of selegiline on the passive behavior in the FST. Furthermore, antidepressant effects of selegiline on hedonic difficulties are mediated via D2 receptor in the SPT. The results of the splash test revealed that both D1 and D2 receptors mediate the protective effect of selegiline against motivational and self-care problems. Based on our results, we conclude that both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors are involved in mediating the antidepressant-like effect of selegiline. We found that D1 receptors mediate an effect on despair behavior, D2 receptors mediate an effect on anhedonia, and both D1 and D2 receptors contribute to the protective effects of

  13. Maternal Interleukin-6 concentration during pregnancy is associated with variation in frontolimbic white matter and cognitive development in early life.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod M; Graham, Alice M; Entringer, Sonja; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Fair, Damien A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2018-04-11

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy can alter the trajectory of fetal brain development and increase risk for offspring psychiatric disorders. However, the majority of relevant research to date has been conducted in animal models. Here, in humans, we focus on the structural connectivity of frontolimbic circuitry as it is both critical for socioemotional and cognitive development, and commonly altered in a range of psychiatric disorders associated with intrauterine inflammation. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that elevated maternal concentration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) during pregnancy will be associated with variation in microstructural properties of this circuitry in the neonatal period and across the first year of life. Pregnant mothers were recruited in early pregnancy and maternal blood samples were obtained for assessment of maternal IL-6 concentrations in early (12.6 ± 2.8 weeks [S.D.]), mid (20.4 ± 1.5 weeks [S.D.]) and late (30.3 ± 1.3 weeks [S.D.]) gestation. Offspring brain MRI scans were acquired shortly after birth (N = 86, scan age = 3.7 ± 1.7 weeks [S.D.]) and again at 12-mo age (N = 32, scan age = 54.0 ± 3.1 weeks [S.D.]). Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to characterize fractional anisotropy (FA) along the left and right uncinate fasciculus (UF), representing the main frontolimbic fiber tract. In N = 30 of the infants with serial MRI data at birth and 12-mo age, cognitive and socioemotional developmental status was characterized using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. All analyses tested for potentially confounding influences of household income, prepregnancy Body-Mass-Index, obstetric risk, smoking during pregnancy, and infant sex, and outcomes at 12-mo age were additionally adjusted for the quality of the postnatal caregiving environment. Maternal IL-6 concentration (averaged across pregnancy) was prospectively and inversely associated with FA

  14. Maternal endothelial damage as a disorder shared by early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Dołegowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Marczuk, Natalia; Loj, Beata; Torbè, Andrzej

    2017-10-26

    Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are separate disease entities that have frequently been reported as sharing the same pathogenesis. In both of them, angiogenesis disorders and generalized endothelial damage with an accompanying inflammation are the dominant symptoms. In this study, we attempted to prove that both these processes demonstrate the same profile in early PE, late PE and IUGR patients, while the only difference is in the degree of exacerbation of the lesions. In 167 patients divided into four groups, three of those with early PE, late PE and IUGR and one control group, fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), high sensitive c-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibronectin were determined. The behavior of these parameters in each of the groups was studied, and correlations between them were sought for. Higher concentrations of sFlt-1, hsCRP and fibronectin and a lower concentration of PlGF were found in the study groups compared to the control group. Significant correlations were observed between the factors concerned. The higher values of disordered angiogenesis markers, endothelial damage markers and inflammatory markers both in the PE and the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) groups suggest the existence of shared disorders in the development of these pathologies. The correlations between disordered angiogenesis markers and endothelial damage markers argue in favor of a mutual relationship between these two processes in the development of pathologies evolving as secondary to placental ischemia. The results obtained confirm that the lesion profiles are the same in both PE and IUGR patients, which can be utilized in developing common diagnostic criteria.

  15. Thinking in early modernity and the separation process between philosophy and psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-03-01

    One of the big questions in psychology is when and how psychology disentangled from philosophy. Usually it is referred to the laboratory Wundt established in Leipzig in 1879 as the birth for psychology as an independent science. However this separation process can also be traced in other ways, like by focusing on how the two sciences approach and understand thinking. Although thinking and language were not included in the research in this laboratory, Wundt (1897) regarded thinking as the core of psychology. As a commentary to Papanicolaou (Integr Psychol Behav Sci doi:10.1007/s12124-014-9273-3, 2014), this paper investigates the differences in how psychology and philosophy conceptualized thinking in early Western modernity. Thus one of the findings is that the separation process between the two was more or less initiated by Immanuel Kant. By defining thinking in terms of the pure reason he excluded the psychological understanding of thinking because psychology basically defined thinking in terms of ideas derived from qualia and sensation. Another finding is that psychology itself has not completely realized the differences between the philosophical and the psychological understanding of thinking by having been influenced by Kant's ideal of the pure reason. This may also explain some of the crises psychology went through during the twentieth century.

  16. Early bacteriopheophytin reduction in charge separation in reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingyi; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Paparelli, Laura; Jones, Michael R; Groot, Marie Louise

    2013-06-04

    A question at the forefront of biophysical sciences is, to what extent do quantum effects and protein conformational changes play a role in processes such as biological sensing and energy conversion? At the heart of photosynthetic energy transduction lie processes involving ultrafast energy and electron transfers among a small number of tetrapyrrole pigments embedded in the interior of a protein. In the purple bacterial reaction center (RC), a highly efficient ultrafast charge separation takes place between a pair of bacteriochlorophylls: an accessory bacteriochlorophyll (B) and bacteriopheophytin (H). In this work, we applied ultrafast spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral region to Rhodobacter sphaeroides RCs to accurately track the timing of the electron on BA and HA via the appearance of the BA and HA anion bands. We observed an unexpectedly early rise of the HA⁻ band that challenges the accepted simple picture of stepwise electron transfer with 3 ps and 1 ps time constants. The implications for the mechanism of initial charge separation in bacterial RCs are discussed in terms of a possible adiabatic electron transfer step between BA and HA, and the effect of protein conformation on the electron transfer rate. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship of maternal employment to early adolescent daily experience with and without parents.

    PubMed

    Richards, M H; Duckett, E

    1994-02-01

    This study examines how maternal work may shape pre- and young adolescents' daily life experience. According to the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 295 10-13-year-old children carried electronic pagers for 1 week and completed self-report forms in response to random signals sent every other hour. Their daily experience did not differ by maternal employment status, with the following exceptions: full-time maternal employment was associated with more time doing homework with mothers and less time in general leisure, while part-time employment was associated with more time doing sports with parents. Relative to those with nonemployed mothers, youth with part-time employed mothers reported more positive daily moods and higher self-esteem, while youth reported time with full-time employed mothers to be the friendliest. While children with employed mothers spent no less time with family, parents, friends, in class or alone, they spent more time alone with fathers.

  18. Maternal Support of Children's Early Numerical Concept Learning Predicts Preschool and First-Grade Math Achievement.

    PubMed

    Casey, Beth M; Lombardi, Caitlin M; Thomson, Dana; Nguyen, Hoa Nha; Paz, Melissa; Theriault, Cote A; Dearing, Eric

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal in this study was to examine maternal support of numerical concepts at 36 months as predictors of math achievement at 4½ and 6-7 years. Observational measures of mother-child interactions (n = 140) were used to examine type of support for numerical concepts. Maternal support that involved labeling the quantities of sets of objects was predictive of later child math achievement. This association was significant for preschool (d = .45) and first-grade math (d = .49), controlling for other forms of numerical support (identifying numerals, one-to-one counting) as well as potential confounding factors. The importance of maternal support of labeling set sizes at 36 months is discussed as a precursor to children's eventual understanding of the cardinal principle. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Prenatal fine particulate exposure and early childhood asthma: Effect of maternal stress and fetal sex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison; Leon Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Bose, Sonali; Rosa, Maria José; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2018-05-01

    The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex, and exposure dose and timing. We prospectively examined associations between coexposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) and maternal stress and childhood asthma (n = 736). Daily PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved prediction model. Prenatal maternal negative life events (NLEs) were dichotomized around the median (high: NLE ≥ 3; low: NLE < 3). We used Bayesian distributed lag interaction models to identify sensitive windows for prenatal PM 2.5 exposure on children's asthma by age 6 years, and determine effect modification by maternal stress and child sex. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models identified a critical window of exposure (19-23 weeks' gestation, cumulative odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; per interquartile range [1.7 μg/m 3 ] increase in prenatal PM 2.5 level) during which children concomitantly exposed to prenatal PM 2.5 and maternal stress had increased risk of asthma. No significant association was seen in children born to women reporting low prenatal stress. When examining modifying effects of prenatal stress and fetal sex, we found that boys born to mothers with higher prenatal stress were most vulnerable (19-21 weeks' gestation; cumulative odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; per interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 ). Prenatal PM 2.5 exposure during sensitive windows is associated with increased risk of child asthma, especially in boys concurrently exposed to elevated maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High Body Mass Index Is an Indicator of Maternal Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroxinemia, and Thyroid-Peroxidase Antibody Positivity during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy complications and neurocognitive deficiencies in the developing fetus. Currently, some researchers demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) is associated with thyroid function in nonpregnant population. Hence, the American Thyroid Association recommended screening thyroid function in obese pregnant women; however, the evidence for this is weak. For this purpose, our study investigated the relationship between high BMI and thyroid functions during early pregnancy in Liaoning province, an iodine-sufficient region of China. Methods. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) concentration, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and BMI were determined in 6303 pregnant women. Results. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 may act as an indicator of hypothyroxinemia and TPOAb positivity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was associated with increases in the odds of hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia, and TPOAb positivity. The prevalence of isolated hypothyroxinemia increased among pregnant women with BMI > 24 kg/m2. Conclusions. High BMI during early pregnancy may be an indicator of maternal thyroid dysfunction; for Asian women whose BMI > 24 kg/m2 and who are within 8 weeks of pregnancy, thyroid functions should be assessed especially. PMID:26273610

  1. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert; Koo, Hyun; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4. A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries-free children). Among 18 child

  2. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother-infant relationship.

  3. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Andrew M.; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.; Salamone, John D.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. Objective This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A2A receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. Methods The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Results Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Conclusions Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother–infant relationship. PMID:20848086

  4. Maternal Type A behavior during pregnancy, neonatal crying, and early infant temperament: do type A women have type A babies?

    PubMed

    Parker, S J; Barrett, D E

    1992-03-01

    It was hypothesized that type A behavior in pregnant women would be associated with increased neonatal crying and differential reports of infant temperament at 3 months. Type A behaviors during pregnancy were measured in a self-selected cohort of 72 healthy, primiparous, middle-class women. Their newborns were assessed at 48 hours of age and the women completed an infant temperament questionnaire at 3 months. Women who were classified as type A on the Job Involvement scale of the Jenkins Activity Survey had infants who cried more during a standardized neurobehavioral assessment compared with infants of women who were type B on the same scale. Women who were type A for Job Involvement rated their 3-month-old infants as more intense and less predictable in their responses to the environment. They were also more likely to be breast-feeding their infants at 3 months. This is the first study to examine the prevalence and nature of maternal type A behaviors during pregnancy and to show their relationship to neonatal crying behavior, to maternal report of early infant temperament, and to maternal breast-feeding.

  5. Do working mothers raise couch potato kids? Maternal employment and children's lifestyle behaviours and weight in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Brown, Judith E; Broom, Dorothy H; Nicholson, Jan M; Bittman, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. More distal predictors such as maternal employment may also be implicated since working mothers have less time to supervise children's daily activities. The research reported here used two waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to investigate whether mothers' hours in paid work shape young children's television viewing, snacking and physical activity, and through those lifestyle behaviours, children's weight at ages 4-5 years and 6-7 years. At both ages, children's lifestyle behaviours were interrelated and associated with weight status. Cross-sectional analysis confirmed small, direct associations between longer hours of maternal employment and child weight at age 4-5 years, but not with child's weight measured two years later. In both the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, the children of mothers who worked part-time watched less television and were less likely to be overweight than children of mothers who were not employed or who worked full-time. While associations were small, they remained significant after adjustment for maternal weight, household income and other factors. The combination of direct and indirect relationships between mothers' work hours and the weight status of their young children provides additional support to calls for family-friendly work policies as an important means for promoting healthy family lifestyles and early childhood wellbeing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal depression from early pregnancy to 4 years postpartum in a prospective pregnancy cohort study: implications for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, H; Gartland, D; Mensah, F; Brown, S J

    2015-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of maternal depression from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum, and the risk factors for depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum. Prospective pregnancy cohort study of nulliparous women. Melbourne, Australia. In all, 1507 women completed baseline data in pregnancy (mean gestation 15 weeks). Women were recruited from six public hospitals. Questionnaires were completed at recruitment and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months postpartum, and 4 years postpartum. Scores ≥13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were used to indicate depressive symptoms. Almost one in three women reported depressive symptoms at least once in the first 4 years after birth. The prevalence of depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum was 14.5%, and was higher than at any time-point in the first 12 months postpartum. Women with one child at 4 years postpartum were more likely to report depressive symptoms at this time compared with women with subsequent children (22.9 versus 11.3%), and this association remained significant in adjusted models (Adjusted odds ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.63). Maternal depression is more common at 4 years postpartum than at any time in the first 12 months postpartum, and women with one child at 4 years postpartum report significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than women with subsequent children. There is a need for scaling up of current services to extend surveillance of maternal mental health to cover the early years of parenting. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors, anxiety and its precursors in early childhood: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Möller, Eline L; Nikolić, Milica; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-04-01

    In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children (0-5years). Two meta-analyses were conducted, one for mothers (k=28, N=5,728), and one for fathers (k=12, N=1,019). In general, associations between parenting and child anxiety were small. Associations between child anxiety and overcontrol, overprotection, and overinvolvement did not differ for mothers and fathers. Maternal autonomy granting was not significantly related to child anxiety, and no studies examined fathers' autonomy granting. A significant difference was found for challenging parenting; mothers' challenging parenting was not significantly related to child anxiety, whereas fathers' challenging parenting was related to less child anxiety. Post-hoc meta-analyses revealed that mothers' and fathers' parenting was more strongly related to children's anxiety symptoms than to child anxiety precursors. Moreover, the association between parenting and child anxiety symptoms was stronger for fathers than for mothers. In conclusion, although parenting plays only a small role in early childhood anxiety, fathers' parenting is at least as important as mothers'. Paternal challenging behavior even seems more important than maternal challenging behavior. Research is needed to determine whether challenging fathering can prevent child anxiety development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal and early life factors of tooth emergence patterns and number of teeth at one and two years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ntani, Georgia; Day, Peter F; Baird, Janis; Godfrey, Keith M; Robinson, Sian M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

    2015-01-01

    Various environmental factors have been associated with the timing of eruption of primary dentition, but the evidence to date comes from small studies with limited information on potential risk factors. We aimed to investigate associations between tooth emergence patterns and pre-conception, pregnancy and post-natal influences. Dentition patterns were recorded at ages one and two years in 2,915 children born to women in the Southampton Women’s Survey from whom information had been collected on maternal factors before conception and during pregnancy. In mutually adjusted regression models we found that: children were more dentally advanced at ages one and two years if their mothers had smoked during pregnancy or they were longer at birth; mothers of children whose dental development was advanced at age two years tended to have poorer socioeconomic circumstances, and to have reported a slower walking speed pre-pregnancy; and children of mothers of Asian ethnicity had later tooth development than those of white mothers. The findings add to the evidence of environmental impacts on the timing of the eruption of primary dentition in indicating that maternal smoking during pregnancy, socio-economic status and physical activity (assessed by reported walking speed) may influence the child’s primary dentition. Early life factors, including size at birth are also associated with dentition patterns, as is maternal ethnicity. PMID:25936832

  9. Early pushing urge in labour and midwifery practice: a prospective observational study at an Italian maternity hospital.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Sara E; Locatelli, Anna; Nespoli, Antonella

    2013-08-01

    to investigate the early pushing urge (EPU) incidence in one maternity unit and explore how it is managed by midwives. The relation to some obstetric outcomes was also observed but not analysed in depth. prospective observational study. Italian maternity hospital. 60 women (44 nullips and 16 multips) experiencing EPU during labour. the total EPU incidence percentage was 7.6%. The single midwives' incidences range had a very wide margin, noting an inverse proportion between the number of diagnoses of EPU and midwife's waiting time between urge to push and vaginal examination. Two care policies were adopted in relation to the phenomenon: the stop pushing technique (n=52/60) and the 'let the woman do what she feels' technique (n=8/60). In case of stop pushing techniques, midwives proposed several combined techniques (change of maternal position, blowing breath, vocalisation, use of the bath). The EPU diagnosis at less than 8cm of cervical dilatation was associated with more medical interventions. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were within the range of normal physiology. An association between the dilatation at EPU diagnosis and obstetric outcomes was observed, in particular the modality of childbirth and perineal outcomes. this paper contributes new knowledge to the body of literature around the EPU phenomenon during labour and midwifery practices adopted in response to it. Overall, it could be argued that EPU is a physiologic variation in labour if maternal and fetal conditions are good. Midwives might suggest techniques to woman to help her to stay with the pain, such as change of position, blowing breath, vocalisation and use of the bath. However, the impact of policies, guidelines and culture on midwifery practices of the specific setting are a limitation of the study because it is not representative of other similar maternity units. Thus, a larger scale work should be considered, including different units and settings. The optimal response to the phenomenon

  10. Starting Early: A Guide to Federal Resources in Maternal and Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockenhaupt, Robin

    Designed to simplify the search for federal government resources on maternal and child health, this guide was prepared for use by health professionals, educators, administrators, and the general public. It describes over 250 print and nonprint (posters, audiovisuals) resources in prenatal, infant, child, and adolescent health. The guide is divided…

  11. The Early Maternal Linguistic Environment of Normal and Down's Syndrome (Mongoloid) Language Learning Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buium, Nissan; Rynders, John

    To demonstrate that the child learning language constructs his theory of language on the basis of the linguistic data available to him, this study investigated 21 linguistic parameters that Down's Syndrome and normal children are exposed to in their maternal linguistic environment. It was found that mothers produced certain levels of linguistic…

  12. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  13. Maternal Psychological Distress in the First Two Years after Very Preterm Birth and Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; Koldewijn, Karen; van Baar, Anneloes; Kok, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Preterm delivery may have a strong impact on mothers. In a multicentre randomised controlled trial, including very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks and/or less than 1500 g), the effect of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) on maternal psychological distress at 6, 12 and 24 (corrected) months after preterm birth…

  14. Infant and maternal predictors of early life feeding decisions: The timing of solid food introduction

    PubMed Central

    Doub, Allison E.; Moding, Kameron J.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the maternal and infant characteristics associated with the timing of solid food introduction. The current study examined how maternal feeding style and infant temperament independently and interactively predicted the age at which infants were introduced to solid food. Data from 115 predominately white, middle-class mothers were collected when infants were 4 and 6 months of age. The timing of solid food introduction was positively correlated with mothers' age, education, breastfeeding at 4 months, self-reported responsiveness to infants' hunger and satiety cues, and negatively correlated with mothers' pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), beliefs about feeding infants solid food prior to 6 months of age, and infants' temperamental motor reactivity. When controlling for maternal age, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, and milk feeding method at 4 months, the timing of solid food introduction was negatively predicted by mothers' beliefs about feeding solid food prior to 6 months of age. Exploratory interaction analyses suggested that infant temperament marginally moderated maternal feeding style in predicting the timing of solid food introduction. PMID:26025089

  15. Early Determinants of Maternal and Paternal Harsh Discipline: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; van IJzendoorn, M. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Research described risk factors for maternal use of harsh discipline, but knowledge about determinants of paternal harsh discipline is lacking. This study aimed to identify determinants of harsh discipline and whether this differed between mothers and fathers. Harsh disciplining practices were self-reported by Dutch parents of 3-year-old children.…

  16. Examining Temporal Associations between Perceived Maternal Psychological Control and Early Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55%…

  17. The ABC's of Chinese: Maternal Mediation of Pinyin for Chinese Children's Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan; Liu, Phil D.; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, maternal Pinyin mediation and its relations with young Chinese children's word reading and word writing development were explored. At time 1, 43 Mainland Chinese children and their mothers were videotaped on a task in which children were asked to write 12 words in Pinyin (a phonological coding system used in Mainland China as…

  18. Thinking Across Generations: Unique Contributions of Maternal Early Life and Prenatal Stress to Infant Physiology.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A O; Jones, Christopher W; Theall, Katherine P; Glackin, Erin; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a parasympathetic-mediated biomarker of self-regulation linked to lifespan mental and physical health outcomes. Intergenerational impacts of mothers' exposure to prenatal stress have been demonstrated, but evidence for biological embedding of maternal preconception stress, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on infant RSA is lacking. We examine the independent effects of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress on infant RSA, seeking to broaden the understanding of the earliest origins of mental and physical health risk. Mothers reported on ACEs and prenatal stress. RSA was recorded in a sample of 167 4-month-old infants (49% female and 51% male) during a dyadic stressor, the Still Face Paradigm. Independent contributions of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress to infant RSA were observed. High maternal ACEs were associated with lower RSA, whereas prenatal stress was associated with failure to recover following the stressor. Sex but not race differences were observed. Prenatal stress was associated with higher RSA among boys but lower RSA among girls. Infants' RSA is affected by mothers' life course experiences of stress, with ACEs predicting a lower set point and prenatal stress dampening recovery from stress. For prenatal stress but not ACEs, patterns vary across sex. Findings underscore that stress-reducing interventions for pregnant women or those considering pregnancy may lead to decreased physical and mental health risk across generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal Verbal Responsiveness and Directiveness: Consistency, Stability, and Relations to Child Early Linguistic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paavola-Ruotsalainen, Leila; Lehtosaari, Jaana; Palomäki, Josefina; Tervo, Immi

    2018-01-01

    Maternal responsive and directive speech to children at ages 0;10 and 2;0 was investigated by applying a procedure frst introduced by Flynn and Masur (2007) to a new language community (Finnish). The issues examined were consistency and stability over time, and also the role of responsiveness and directiveness in child linguistic development at…

  20. Relevance of the quality of partner relationships and maternal health to early child wellness.

    PubMed

    Surkan, Pamela J; Poteat, Tonia

    2011-05-01

    To examine the relationship between child health and maternal relationship quality with a spouse/partner, self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and social support. In a cross-sectional study, structured interviews were completed with 595 mothers in 2002. Women were recruited from a random sample of households in low-income communities of Teresina, Piauí. Child health status was assessed with the Eisen Infant Health Rating Scale and a composite index of child fever, worms, or diarrhea in the past 2 weeks. Exposure variables included maternal relationship quality, self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and social support. Analyses included multivariable linear and logistic regression modeling, controlling for sociodemographics. Both a high-quality partner relationship and good/excellent maternal self-rated health were significantly associated with higher scores on the Eisen Infant Health Rating Scale (â = 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3-1.4 and β = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.7-1.6, respectively). Every 5-point increase in depressive symptoms was negatively associated with infant health scores (β = -0.3; 95% CI: -0.4 to -0.1) and with recent child wellness (lack of fever, diarrhea, or worms) (odds ratio = 0.9 95%; CI: 0.8-1.0). Maternal factors, such as partner relationship quality and health status, may be important to child health and should be considered for inclusion in confirmatory longitudinal studies.

  1. Maternal Support and Brain Development: Neuroscience Validation for the Importance of Early Caregiving Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan; Rogers, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Advances in brain imaging methods and technology over the last 2 decades have opened an unprecedented window into the understanding of the structure and function of the human brain. In this article, the authors describe their investigation of the relationship between maternal support, observed during the preschool period, and the size of key brain…

  2. Infant and maternal predictors of early life feeding decisions. The timing of solid food introduction.

    PubMed

    Doub, Allison E; Moding, Kameron J; Stifter, Cynthia A

    2015-09-01

    There is limited research on the maternal and infant characteristics associated with the timing of solid food introduction. The current study examined how maternal feeding style and infant temperament independently and interactively predicted the age at which infants were introduced to solid food. Data from 115 predominately white, middle-class mothers were collected when infants were 4 and 6 months of age. The timing of solid food introduction was positively correlated with mothers' age, education, breastfeeding at 4 months, self-reported responsiveness to infants' hunger and satiety cues, and negatively correlated with mothers' pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), beliefs about feeding infants solid food prior to 6 months of age, and infants' temperamental motor reactivity. When controlling for maternal age, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, and milk feeding method at 4 months, the timing of solid food introduction was negatively predicted by mothers' beliefs about feeding solid food prior to 6 months of age. Exploratory interaction analyses suggested that infant temperament marginally moderated maternal feeding style in predicting the timing of solid food introduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Depression and Early Intervention: A Call for an Integration of Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Shanna L.; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Mandel, Marcia; Beeber, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious disorder with severe and far-reaching consequences. Two decades of observational research have shown robust associations between maternal depression and adverse consequences on offspring (S. Campbell et al., 2004; S. Campbell, P. Matestic, C. von Stauffenberg, R. Mohan, & T. Kirchner, 2007; S. Campbell, A. Morgan-Lopez,…

  4. Maternal Sensitivity Moderates the Relation between Negative Discipline and Aggression in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Three models regarding the relation between maternal (in)sensitivity, negative discipline, and child aggression were examined in a sample of 117 mother-child pairs with high scores on child externalizing behavior: (1) Sensitivity and discipline are uniquely related to child aggression (the additive model); (2) the relation between discipline and…

  5. Maternal Work Early in the Lives of Children and Its Distal Associations with Achievement and Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; Goldberg, Wendy A.; Prause, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 69 studies (1,483 effect sizes) used random effects models to examine maternal employment during infancy/early childhood in relation to 2 major domains of child functioning: achievement and behavior problems. Analyses of studies that spanned 5 decades indicated that, with a few exceptions, early employment was not…

  6. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling.

  7. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling. PMID:26020623

  8. Risks for Early Substance Involvement Associated with Parental Alcoholism and Parental Separation in an Adolescent Female Cohort*

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Mary; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined timing of substance involvement as a joint function of parental history of alcoholism and parental separation during childhood. Method Data were drawn from a large cohort of female like-sex twins [n = 613 African Ancestry (AA), n = 3550 European or other Ancestry (EA)]. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use of alcohol, first alcohol intoxication, first use and regular use of cigarettes, and first use of cannabis and other illicit drugs from dummy variables coding for parental alcoholism and parental separation. Propensity score analysis was also conducted comparing intact and separated families by predicted probability of parental separation. Results In EA families, increased risk of substance involvement was found in both alcoholic and separated families, particularly through ages 10 or 14 years, with risk to offspring from alcoholic separated families further increased. In AA families, associations with parental alcoholism and parental separation were weak and with few exceptions statistically nonsignificant. While propensity score findings confirmed unique risks observed in EA families, intact and separated AA families were poorly matched on risk-factors presumed to predate parental separation, especially parental alcoholism, requiring cautious interpretation of AA survival-analytic findings. Conclusion For offspring of European ancestry, parental separation predicts early substance involvement that is not explained by parental alcoholism nor associated family background characteristics. Additional research is needed to better characterize risks associated with parental separation in African American families. PMID:24647368

  9. Risks for early substance involvement associated with parental alcoholism and parental separation in an adolescent female cohort.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mary; Vaughan, Ellen L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Sartor, Carolyn E; Duncan, Alexis E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2014-05-01

    We examined timing of substance involvement as a joint function of parental history of alcoholism and parental separation during childhood. Data were drawn from a large cohort of female like-sex twins [n=613 African Ancestry (AA), n=3550 European or other ancestry (EA)]. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use of alcohol, first alcohol intoxication, first use and regular use of cigarettes, and first use of cannabis and other illicit drugs from dummy variables coding for parental alcoholism and parental separation. Propensity score analysis was also conducted comparing intact and separated families by predicted probability of parental separation. In EA families, increased risk of substance involvement was found in both alcoholic and separated families, particularly through ages 10 or 14 years, with risk to offspring from alcoholic separated families further increased. In AA families, associations with parental alcoholism and parental separation were weak and with few exceptions statistically nonsignificant. While propensity score findings confirmed unique risks observed in EA families, intact and separated AA families were poorly matched on risk-factors presumed to predate parental separation, especially parental alcoholism, requiring cautious interpretation of AA survival-analytic findings. For offspring of European ancestry, parental separation predicts early substance involvement that is not explained by parental alcoholism nor associated family background characteristics. Additional research is needed to better characterize risks associated with parental separation in African American families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early maternal rejection affects the development of monoaminergic systems and adult abusive parenting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Higley, J Dee; Lindell, Stephen G; Newman, Timothy K; McCormack, Kai M; Sanchez, Mar M

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of early exposure to variable parenting style and infant abuse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites and examined the role of monoaminergic function in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Forty-three infants reared by their biological mothers and 15 infants that were cross-fostered at birth and reared by unrelated mothers were followed longitudinally through their first 3 years of life or longer. Approximately half of the infants were reared by abusive mothers and half by nonabusive controls. Abused infants did not differ from controls in CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG). Abused infants, however, were exposed to higher rates of maternal rejection, and highly rejected infants had lower CSF 5-HIAA and HVA than low-rejection infants. The abused females who became abusive mothers in adulthood had lower CSF 5-HIAA than the abused females who did not. A similar trend was also observed among the cross-fostered females, suggesting that low serotonergic function resulting from early exposure to high rates of maternal rejection plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse.

  11. Maternal report of fever from cold or flu during early pregnancy and the risk for noncardiac birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Waller, Dorothy Kim; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Duong, Hao T; Tinker, Sarah C; Gallaway, Michael Shayne; Olney, Richard S; Finnell, Richard H; Hecht, Jacqueline Tauber; Canfield, Mark A

    2018-03-01

    As maternal fever affects approximately 6-8% of early pregnancies, it is important to expand upon previous observations of an association between maternal fever and birth defects. We analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, case-control study of major structural birth defects. Telephone interviews were completed by mothers of cases (n = 17,162) and controls (n = 10,127). Using multivariable logistic regression, we assessed the association between maternal self-report of cold or flu with fever and cold or flu without fever during early pregnancy and 30 categories of non-cardiac birth defects. Maternal report of cold or flu with fever was significantly associated with 8 birth defects (anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, colonic atresia/stenosis, bilateral renal agenesis/hypoplasia, limb reduction defects, and gastroschisis) with elevated adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 3.7. Maternal report of cold or flu without fever was not associated with any of the birth defects studied. This study adds to the evidence that maternal fever during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for selected birth defects. Elevated associations were limited to mothers who reported a fever, suggesting that it is fever that contributes to the excess risk rather than illnesses associated with it. However, fever may also serve as a marker for more severe infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adolescence fluoxetine increases serotonergic activity in the raphe-hippocampus axis and improves depression-like behaviors in female rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang Bae; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Vitaly; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if fluoxetine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, would reverse adverse behavioral effects of neonatal maternal separation in female rats. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 3h during postnatal day (PND) 1-14 (maternal separation; MS) or left undisturbed (non-handled; NH). Female NH and MS pups received intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) or vehicle daily from PND 35 until the end of the whole experimental period. Rats were either subjected to behavioral tests during PND 44-54, or sacrificed for neurochemical analyses during PND 43-45. Daily food intake and weight gain of both NH and MS pups were suppressed by fluoxetine, with greater effects in MS pups. MS experience increased immobility and decrease swimming in forced swim test. Swimming was increased, although immobility was not significantly decreased, in MS females by adolescence fluoxetine. However, adolescence fluoxetine increased immobility during forced swim test and decreased time spent in open arms during elevated plus maze test in NH females. Fluoxetine normalized MS-induced decrease of the raphe 5-HT levels and increased 5-HT metabolism in the hippocampus in MS females, and increased the hypothalamic 5-HT both in NH and MS. Fluoxetine decreased the raphe 5-HT and increased the plasma corticosterone in NH females. Results suggest that decreased 5-HTergic activity in the raphe nucleus is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression-like behaviors, and increased 5-HTergic activities in the raphe-hippocampus axis may be a part of anti-depressant efficacy of fluoxetine, in MS females. Also, an extra-hypothalamic 5-HTergic activity may contribute to the increased anorectic efficacy of fluoxetine in MS females. Additionally, decreased 5-HT in the raphe and elevated plasma corticosterone may be related with fluoxetine-induced depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors in NH females. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Association of Gestational Weight Gain and Maternal Body Mass Index in Early Pregnancy With Risk for Nonaffective Psychosis in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Euan; Dalman, Christina; Karlsson, Håkan; Gardner, Renee M

    2017-04-01

    Prenatal exposure to famine is associated with a 2-fold risk for nonaffective psychoses. Less is known about whether maternal nutrition states during pregnancy modify offspring risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring in well-fed populations. To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy and maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy are associated with risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring. This population-based cohort study used data from Swedish health and population registers to follow up 526 042 individuals born from January 1, 1982, through December 31, 1989, from 13 years of age until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for socioeconomic status and potential risk factors were used to examine the risk for developing nonaffective psychoses. Family-based study designs were used to further test causality. Data were analyzed from February 1 to May 14, 2016. Gestational weight gain during pregnancy, maternal body mass index at the first antenatal visit, and paternal body mass index at the time of conscription into the Swedish military (at 18 years of age). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the diagnosis of nonaffective psychoses (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] codes F20 to F29 and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] codes 295, 297 and 298, except 298A and 298B) and narrowly defined schizophrenia (ICD-9 code 295 and ICD-10 code F20). The 526 042 individuals in the cohort (48.52% female and 51.47% male; mean [SD] age, 26 [2.3] years) included 2910 persons with nonaffective psychoses at the end of follow-up, of whom 704 had narrowly defined schizophrenia. Among the persons with nonaffective psychosis, 184 (6.32%) had mothers with extremely inadequate GWG (<8 kg for mothers with normal baseline BMI), compared with 23 627 (4.52%) of unaffected individuals. Extremely inadequate GWG was associated

  14. Self-competence Among Early and Middle Adolescents Affected by Maternal HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Marelich, William D.; Murphy, Debra A.; Payne, Diana L.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent children of mothers with HIV face a host of stressors that place them at increased risk for poor outcomes. Using covariance structure analysis, this study examines adolescent risk outcomes and their relationships to maternal health, as well as the potentially protective factors of family environment and self-competence. The final model indicated that poor maternal health was negatively related to a protective family environment, which in turn was negatively related to adolescent risk outcomes. A protective family environment was also positively related to adolescent self-competence, which was negatively related to adolescent risk outcomes. Implications of the study are discussed, including how these findings can influence interventions aimed at reducing the risk for poor outcomes among adolescent youth with HIV-infected mothers. PMID:22485061

  15. Rapid DNA Synthesis During Early Drosophila Embryogenesis Is Sensitive to Maternal Humpty Dumpty Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Lesly, Shera; Bandura, Jennifer L; Calvi, Brian R

    2017-11-01

    Problems with DNA replication cause cancer and developmental malformations. It is not fully understood how DNA replication is coordinated with development and perturbed in disease. We had previously identified the Drosophila gene humpty dumpty ( hd ), and showed that null alleles cause incomplete DNA replication, tissue undergrowth, and lethality. Animals homozygous for the missense allele, hd 272-9 , were viable, but adult females had impaired amplification of eggshell protein genes in the ovary, resulting in the maternal effects of thin eggshells and embryonic lethality. Here, we show that expression of an hd transgene in somatic cells of the ovary rescues amplification and eggshell synthesis but not embryo viability. The germline of these mothers remain mutant for the hd 272-9 allele, resulting in reduced maternal Hd protein and embryonic arrest during mitosis of the first few S/M nuclear cleavage cycles with chromosome instability and chromosome bridges. Epistasis analysis of hd with the rereplication mutation plutonium indicates that the chromosome bridges of hd embryos are the result of a failed attempt to segregate incompletely replicated sister chromatids. This study reveals that maternally encoded Humpty dumpty protein is essential for DNA replication and genome integrity during the little-understood embryonic S/M cycles. Moreover, the two hd 272-9 maternal-effect phenotypes suggest that ovarian gene amplification and embryonic cleavage are two time periods in development that are particularly sensitive to mild deficits in DNA replication function. This last observation has broader relevance for interpreting why mild mutations in the human ortholog of humpty dumpty and other DNA replication genes cause tissue-specific malformations of microcephalic dwarfisms. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Why non-invasive maternal hemodynamics assessment is clinically relevant in early pregnancy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vonck, Sharona; Staelens, Anneleen Simone; Bollen, Ine; Broekx, Lien; Gyselaers, Wilfried

    2016-10-12

    The maternal cardiovascular system adapts quickly when embryo implantation is recognized by the body. Those adaptations play an important role, as a normal cardiovascular adaptation is a requirement for a normal course of pregnancy. Disturbed adaptations predispose to potential hypertensive disorders further in pregnancy [1-3]. This report aims to briefly inform the obstetricians, general practitioners and midwives, who are the key players in detecting and treating hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. The PubMed database was used as main tool to find studies involving clearly defined first trimester hemodynamic changes in normal pregnancies and hypertensive pregnancies. In addition, the bibliographies of these studies were investigated for further relevant literature. A comprehensive overview is given concerning the normal adaptations in the cardiovascular tree in a first trimester pregnancy. Additionally, signs of abnormal cardiovascular changes observed in first trimester are described together with the normal reference range for each non-invasive, easily applicable technique for maternal hemodynamics assessment. With a combination of techniques, it is possible to integrate and evaluate the maternal heart, veins and arteries at 12 weeks of pregnancy. Applying those techniques into the daily clinic opens perspectives to prevention and prophylactic treatment, aiming for a reduction of the risk for hypertension during pregnancy.

  17. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth, and body fat distribution at school age.

    PubMed

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Gaillard, Romy

    2016-05-01

    The associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns and body fat and insulin levels at school age were examined. In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy was assessed by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onward. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years, and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. These results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Maternal exposure to ambient air temperature during pregnancy and early childhood pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yufeng; Shen, Yong-Ming; Lu, Chan; Zeng, Ji; Deng, Qihong

    2017-10-01

    Pneumonia has been widely recognized as the leading cause of death in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We examined the association between maternal exposure to ambient air temperature during pregnancy and lifetime pneumonia in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study of 2598 preschool children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed using questionnaire. We backwards estimated each child's exposure to air temperature during prenatal and postnatal periods. Multiple regression model was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to air temperature in terms of odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence of childhood pneumonia in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal exposure to air temperature, with adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.77 (1.23-2.54) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in temperature, particularly during the second trimester with adjusted OR (95% CI) = 2.26 (1.32-3.89). Boys are more susceptible to the risk of pneumonia due to air temperature than girls. We further observed that maternal exposure to extreme heat days during pregnancy increased the risk of pneumonia in the offspring. Maternal exposure to air temperature during pregnancy, particularly the second trimester, was associated with pneumonia in the children, providing the evidence for fetal origins of pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection with Maternal Infection or Colonization: A Global Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace J.; Lee, Anne CC; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Tan, Jingwen; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal infections cause a significant proportion of deaths in the first week of life, yet little is known about risk factors and pathways of transmission for early-onset neonatal sepsis globally. We aimed to estimate the risk of neonatal infection (excluding sexually transmitted diseases [STDs] or congenital infections) in the first seven days of life among newborns of mothers with bacterial infection or colonization during the intrapartum period. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies of maternal infection, vertical transmission, and neonatal infection published from January 1, 1960 to March 30, 2013. Studies were included that reported effect measures on the risk of neonatal infection among newborns exposed to maternal infection. Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool data and calculate the odds ratio estimates of risk of infection. Eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies (8.4%) were from high neonatal mortality settings. Considerable heterogeneity existed between studies given the various definitions of laboratory-confirmed and clinical signs of infection, as well as for colonization and risk factors. The odds ratio for neonatal lab-confirmed infection among newborns of mothers with lab-confirmed infection was 6.6 (95% CI 3.9–11.2). Newborns of mothers with colonization had a 9.4 (95% CI 3.1–28.5) times higher odds of lab-confirmed infection than newborns of non-colonized mothers. Newborns of mothers with risk factors for infection (defined as prelabour rupture of membranes [PROM], preterm <37 weeks PROM, and prolonged ROM) had a 2.3 (95% CI 1.0–5.4) times higher odds of infection than newborns of mothers without risk factors. Conclusions Neonatal infection in the first week of life is associated with maternal infection and colonization. High-quality studies, particularly from settings with high

  20. Perinatal maternal high-fat diet induces early obesity and sex-specific alterations of the endocannabinoid system in white and brown adipose tissue of weanling rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mariana M; Dias-Rocha, Camilla P; Souza, André S; Muros, Mariana F; Mendonca, Leonardo S; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Trevenzoli, Isis H

    2017-11-01

    Perinatal maternal high-fat (HF) diet programmes offspring obesity. Obesity is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in adult subjects, but the role of the ECS in the developmental origins of obesity is mostly unknown. The ECS consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2)) and metabolising enzymes. We hypothesised that perinatal maternal HF diet would alter the ECS in a sex-dependent manner in white and brown adipose tissue of rat offspring at weaning in parallel to obesity development. Female rats received standard diet (9 % energy content from fat) or HF diet (29 % energy content from fat) before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring were killed for tissue harvest. Maternal HF diet induced early obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and increased lipid accumulation in brown adipose tissue associated with sex-specific changes of the ECS's components in weanling rats. In male pups, maternal HF diet decreased CB1 and CB2 protein in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In female pups, maternal HF diet increased visceral and decreased subcutaneous CB1. In brown adipose tissue, maternal HF diet increased CB1 regardless of pup sex. In addition, maternal HF diet differentially changed oestrogen receptor across the adipose depots in male and female pups. The ECS and oestrogen signalling play an important role in lipogenesis, adipogenesis and thermogenesis, and we observed early changes in their targets in adipose depots of the offspring. The present findings provide insights into the involvement of the ECS in the developmental origins of metabolic disease induced by inadequate maternal nutrition in early life.

  1. Maintaining the 'good maternal body': expressing milk as a way of negotiating the demands and dilemmas of early infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sally; Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Lyttle, Steven

    2013-03-01

    To report a descriptive study of early infant feeding experiences focusing on ACCOUNTS OF WOMEN WHO EXPRESSED MILK EXTENSIVELY IN THE FIRST FEW WEEKS POSTPARTUM. Relatively little is known about the reasons for expressing milk following healthy term births. Evidence indicates it is an increasingly common practice during early infant feeding in Westernized countries. A more comprehensive understanding of this practice will help midwives and nurses assist mothers negotiate early feeding challenges. Qualitative data were collected in two phases in the first few weeks postpartum. Audio-diary and semi-structured interview data from seven British women who extensively expressed milk in the first month postpartum were analysed. These data were drawn from a larger qualitative longitudinal study which took place in 2006-2007. Themes, discursive constructions and discourses are identified through the use of a feminist informed analysis. The practice of expressing was employed as a solution to managing the competing demands and dilemmas of early breastfeeding and ensuring the continued provision of breast milk, thereby deflecting potential accusations of poor mothering. In addition, the practice may afford a degree of freedom to new mothers. The need to maintain the 'good maternal body' can account for the motivation to express milk, although there may be reasons to be cautious about promoting expression as a solution to breastfeeding difficulties. Education for health professionals, which emphasizes the complexities and contradictions of mothering and which challenges prescriptive notions of 'good mothering' could better support new mothers in their feeding 'choices'. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The Association Between Maternal Early Life Forced Sexual Intercourse and Offspring Birth Weight: The Role of Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Amelia R; Morris, Julia

    2017-05-01

    This study utilizes a life-course framework to investigate whether maternal early life forced sexual intercourse operates in conjunction with health behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and the prenatal period to influence offspring birth weight. Using data from the 1994-2009 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we examined whether early life forced sexual intercourse predicted offspring birth weight through a mediated pathway, including depressive symptoms, substance use, and prenatal cigarette smoking. We stratify our analysis by socioeconomic status (SES) to determine whether the proposed pathways operate similarly, or differently, according to SES. Our findings suggest that the pathways through which forced sexual intercourse affects offspring birth weight differ by SES. Among middle-to-high SES women, we found a mediated pathway linking forced sexual intercourse to offspring birth weight with prenatal cigarette smoking predicting lower offspring birth weight. Among low SES women, however, we did not find a mediated pathway linking forced sexual intercourse to birth weight. Findings suggest that prenatal cigarette smoking was not a mechanism of influence in the pathway between maternal early life forced sexual intercourse and offspring birth weight for low SES women. Our findings suggest that forced sexual intercourse may influence infant birth weight in the next generation. Infants born with a low birth weight are at increased risk for a myriad of adverse outcomes across the life-course. Study results suggest the importance of interventions designed to reduce behavioral risks and to support health promoting behaviors among survivors in the short term, in an effort to prevent long-term consequences among later-born offspring.

  3. Neonatal and maternal serum creatinine levels during the early postnatal period in preterm and term infants.

    PubMed

    Go, Hayato; Momoi, Nobuo; Kashiwabara, Nozomi; Haneda, Kentaro; Chishiki, Mina; Imamura, Takashi; Sato, Maki; Goto, Aya; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of neonatal and maternal serum creatinine (nSCr and mSCr, respectively) with various maternal/infant characteristics at different gestational ages (GA). We reviewed medical records of neonates admitted to NICU. We collected data on birth weight, GA, Apgar scores, medications, etc. Spearman's test was used to analyze the correlation between serum creatinine and continuous variables, and the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables between groups. The changes in nSCr, mSCr, and nSCr/mSCr ratio because of gestational age and the points in gestational changes in trends were estimated using joinpoint trend analysis. From 614 neonate and mother pairs, we found that nSCr was significantly correlated with GA. However, mSCr at >28 wks decreased with GA. The nSCr/mSCr ratio was correlated with GA. In infants born <29 weeks, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (p = 0.000, β = 0.20) and mSCr (p = 0.000, β = 0.73) were significantly associated with nSCr. In term infants, maternal magnesium administration (p = 0.000, β = 0.25), respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.013, β = 0.16), PIH (p = 0.005, β = 0.19), and mSCr (p = 0.000, β = 0.33) were significantly associated with nSCr. nSCr reflected mSCr at all gestational ages. The correlation between nSCr and mSCr in preterm infants (p = 0.000, β = 0.74) was stronger than in term infants (p = 0.000, β = 0.34).

  4. Maternal characteristics associated with the obesogenic quality of the home environment in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Fisher, Abigail; Fildes, Alison; Wardle, Jane

    2016-12-01

    The home environment is likely to influence children's diet and activity patterns and ultimately, their weight trajectories. Identifying family characteristics associated with a more 'obesogenic' home can provide insight into the determinants, and has implications for targeting and tailoring strategies to promote healthier lifestyles. The present study examined maternal characteristics associated with a more obesogenic home environment in 1113 families with preschool children. Primary caregivers (99% mothers) from the Gemini cohort completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI) when their children were 4 years old. Maternal demographics and BMI were assessed in the Gemini baseline questionnaire when the children were on average 8 months old. Maternal eating style was assessed when the children were on average 2 years old, using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). Responses to the HEI were standardised and summed to create a composite score of the obesogenic quality of the home; this was categorised into tertiles. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression showed that mothers who were younger (adjusted OR; 95% CI = 0.96; 0.94-0.98), less educated (1.97; 1.40-2.77), and had lower incomes (1.89; 1.43-2.49) at baseline were more likely to live in an obesogenic home environment at 4 years, as were mothers who scored higher on the DEBQ External Eating scale (1.40; 1.16-1.70) at 2 years, and had a higher baseline BMI (1.05; 1.02-1.08). Using a novel, composite measure of the home environment, this study finds that families who are more socio-economically deprived, and where the mothers are themselves heavier and have a more food responsive eating style, tend to provide a home environment with the hallmarks of a higher risk of weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal Health Literacy Is Associated with Early Childhood Nutritional Status in India.

    PubMed

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Koné, Georges K; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Minoyan, Nanor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Pahwa, Smriti

    2016-07-01

    The global burden of child undernutrition is concentrated in South Asia, where gender inequality and female educational disadvantage are important factors. Maternal health literacy is linked to women's education and empowerment, can influence multiple malnutrition determinants, and is rapidly modifiable. This study investigated whether maternal health literacy is associated with child undernutrition in 2 resource-poor Indian populations. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site, interviewing 1 woman with a child aged 12-23 mo/household. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted independently for each site. The main exposure was maternal health literacy. We assessed respondents' ability to understand, appraise, and apply health-related information with the use of Indian health promotion materials. The main outcomes were severe stunting, severe underweight, and severe wasting. We classified children as having a severe nutritional deficiency if their z score was <-3 SDs from the WHO reference population for children of the same age and sex. Analyses controlled for potential confounding factors including parental education and household wealth. Rural and urban analyses included 1116 and 657 mother-child pairs, respectively. In each site, fully adjusted models showed that children of mothers with high health literacy had approximately half the likelihood of being severely stunted (rural adjusted OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.74; P = 0.001; urban adjusted OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.94; P = 0.028) or severely underweight (rural adjusted OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.87; P = 0.009; urban adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.91; P = 0.025) than children of mothers with low health literacy. Health literacy was not associated with severe wasting. In resource-poor rural and urban settings in India, maternal health literacy is associated with child nutritional status. Programs targeting health literacy may offer effective entry points for

  6. Early diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin deficiency of infancy owing to occult maternal pernicious anemia.

    PubMed

    Banka, Siddharth; Roberts, Ruth; Plews, Dianne; Newman, William G

    2010-05-01

    We report case of an infant who presented with failure to thrive and developmental delay at 4 months of age. He was diagnosed to have vitamin B12 deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor secondary to undiagnosed maternal pernicious anemia. The child was treated with hydroxocobalamin and now at 2 years of age, he is developing and growing within normal range. We review the literature on this rare cause of cobalamin deficiency in infants. We highlight the factors determining the outcome and situations where raised index of suspicion could help in recognizing this preventable cause of developmental delay and learning difficulties.

  7. Maternal separation increases later immobility during forced swim in guinea pig pups: evidence for sensitization of a depressive-like state.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael B; Schreibeis, Amanda D; Schiml, Patricia A; Deak, Terrence

    2017-01-01

    Early-life stress is thought to increase later vulnerability for developing depressive illness by sensitizing underlying stress-responsive systems. Guinea pig pups separated from their mother and isolated in a novel cage for 3 hr exhibit a sensitized depressive-like behavioral response when separated again the following day as well as weeks later. The behavioral response and its sensitization appear to be mediated by inflammatory factors. To determine if this sensitization is specific to the separation response or if it reflects a broader underlying depressive-like state, guinea pig pups that had either been separated for 3 hr or remained with their mothers were observed in the forced swim test the following 3 days. Earlier separation was found to increase the duration of immobility, a measure sensitive to antidepressant treatment. These results support the use of the guinea pig as a model for examining mechanisms of inflammatory-mediated sensitization of depression following stress in early life. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Garrido, Pedro; Zelena, Dóra; Monasterio, Nela; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces “detrimental” effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first post-natal days and exposure to a “substitute” mother. The maternal care of biological and “substitute” mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM), acoustic startle response (ASR) and forced swim test (FST). In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects). Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behavior by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the “substitute” mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of “detrimental” and “beneficial” effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behavior. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR) and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a

  9. Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Garrido, Pedro; Zelena, Dóra; Monasterio, Nela; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces "detrimental" effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first post-natal days and exposure to a "substitute" mother. The maternal care of biological and "substitute" mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM), acoustic startle response (ASR) and forced swim test (FST). In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects). Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behavior by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the "substitute" mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of "detrimental" and "beneficial" effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behavior. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR) and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may "buffer" the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner.

  10. A comparison between early maternal and neonatal complications of restrictive episiotomy and routine episiotomy in primiparous vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Azar Danesh; Aram, Shahnaz; Pourkabirian, Soodabeh; Khodaee, Sepideh; Choupannejad, Shekofeh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine episiotomy is a controversial issue among gynecologists. The aim of this study was to compare early maternal and neonatal complications of restrictive episiotomy and routine episiotomy in primiparus vaginal delivery. METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, two groups of primiparus normal vaginal delivery (NVD) cases with routine and restrictive episiotomy were studied. Immediately and in the first 24 and 48 hours after delivery, specific charts were used to compare the two groups in terms of perineal laceration size, neonatal Apgar score and post-delivery. For data analysis, SPSS was used to conduct student t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Forty primiparus pregnant women were studied in each group. Episiotomy was performed in 7.5% of the restrictive group. Perineal laceration was measured as 3.68 ± 0.47 cm and 1.21 ± 1.1 in routine and restrictive episiotomy groups, respectively (p < 0.05). Intact perineum or first-degree laceration was seen in 80% of the restrictive group. However, second- and third-degree laceration were respectively observed in 75% and 15% of the routine episiotomy group (p < 0.05). Pain relief (immediately, 24 and 48 hours after delivery) was significantly higher in the restrictive group (p < 0.05). On the contrary, no significant difference in Apgar scores at the first and fifth minutes after birth was found between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Restrictive episiotomy results in low maternal complications. Therefore, avoiding routine episiotomy in unnecessary conditions would increase the rate of intact perineal and minor perineal trauma and reduce postpartum delivery pain with no adverse effects neither on maternal nor neonatal morbidities. PMID:22973367

  11. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Early and Mid-Pregnancy Lipid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Scifres, Christina M.; Catov, Janet M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the impact of maternal overweight/obesity and excessive weight gain on maternal serum lipids in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Design and Methods Prospective data were collected for 225 women. Maternal serum lipids and fatty acids were measured at <13 weeks and between 24–28 weeks. Analyses were stratified by normal weight versus overweight/obese status and excessive vs. non-excessive weight gain. Results Overweight/obese women had higher baseline cholesterol (161.3±29.6 vs 149.4±26.8 mg/dL, p<0.01), LDL (80.0±19.9 vs 72.9 ±18.8 mg/dL, p<0.01) and triglycerides ( 81.7±47.2 vs 69.7±40.3 mg/dL, p=0.05) when compared to normal weight women, while HDL (43.6 ±10.4 47.6±11.5 mg/dL, p<0.01) was lower. However, cholesterol and LDL increased at a higher weekly rate in normal weight women, resulting in higher total cholesterol in normal weight women (184.1±28.1 vs. 176.0 ±32.1 mg/dL, p=0.05) at 24–28 weeks. Excessive weight gain did not affect the rate of change in lipid profiles in either group. Overweight/obese women had higher levels of arachidonic acid at both time points. Conclusions Overweight/obese women have significantly more atherogenic lipid profiles than normal weight women during the period of early pregnancy, delineating one physiologic pathway that could explain differences in pregnancy outcomes between normal weight and overweight/obese women. PMID:23853155

  12. The Armadillo Repeat Gene ZAK IXIK Promotes Arabidopsis Early Embryo and Endosperm Development through a Distinctive Gametophytic Maternal Effect[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Quy A.; Baroux, Celia; Guthörl, Daniela; Mozerov, Peter; Collinge, Margaret A.; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    The proper balance of parental genomic contributions to the fertilized embryo and endosperm is essential for their normal growth and development. The characterization of many gametophytic maternal effect (GME) mutants affecting seed development indicates that there are certain classes of genes with a predominant maternal contribution. We present a detailed analysis of the GME mutant zak ixik (zix), which displays delayed and arrested growth at the earliest stages of embryo and endosperm development. ZIX encodes an Armadillo repeat (Arm) protein highly conserved across eukaryotes. Expression studies revealed that ZIX manifests a GME through preferential maternal expression in the early embryo and endosperm. This parent-of-origin–dependent expression is regulated by neither the histone and DNA methylation nor the DNA demethylation pathways known to regulate some other GME mutants. The ZIX protein is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells in reproductive tissues and actively dividing root zones. The maternal ZIX allele is required for the maternal expression of MINISEED3. Collectively, our results reveal a reproductive function of plant Arm proteins in promoting early seed growth, which is achieved through a distinct GME of ZIX that involves mechanisms for maternal allele-specific expression that are independent of the well-established pathways. PMID:23064319

  13. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN EARLY MATERNAL DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOM TRAJECTORIES AND TODDLERS' FELT SECURITY AT 18 MONTHS: ARE BOYS AND GIRLS AT DIFFERENTIAL RISK?

    PubMed

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Partridge, Ty; Tronick, Ed; Muzik, Maria; Rahimian Mashhadi, Mahya; Boeve, Jordan L; Irwin, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether there are sex differences in children's vulnerability to caregiving risk, as indexed by trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms assessed from 2 to 18 months' postpartum, and children's rated attachment security in toddlerhood, adjusting for maternal social support and demographic risk. Analyses utilized longitudinal data collected for 182 African American mother-child dyads from economically diverse backgrounds. Participants were recruited at the time of the child's birth and followed to 18 months' postpartum. Results of conditional latent growth models indicated that an increasing rate of change in level of maternal depressive symptoms over time negatively predicted toddlers' felt attachment security. Higher social support was associated with decreasing levels of maternal depressive symptoms over time whereas higher demographic risk was associated with increasing levels of maternal depressive symptoms. A subsequent multigroup conditional latent growth model revealed that child sex moderated these associations. For male (but not female) children, a rapid increase in maternal depressive symptoms was associated with lower felt attachment security at 18 months. These findings suggest that boys, as compared to girls, may be more vulnerable to early caregiving risks such as maternal depression, with negative consequences for mother-child attachment security in toddlerhood. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. The Decision-Making Processes of Early Childhood Teachers When Working with Children Experiencing Parental Separation and Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, L.; Lunn, J.; Petriwskyj, A.; Walsh, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pedagogical decision-making processes of 21 Australian early childhood teachers working with children experiencing parental separation and divorce were examined. Transcripts from interviews and a focus group with teachers were analysed using grounded theory methodology. The findings showed that as teachers interacted with young…

  15. Early Parturition: Is Young Maternal Age at First Birth Associated with Obesity?

    PubMed

    Patchen, Loral; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Astone, Nan M

    2017-10-01

    Examine the association of age at first birth with body mass index (BMI), and explore the role of young maternal age and subsequent obesity. This study analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative longitudinal study of US families. Analyses were conducted using a mixed effects longitudinal linear regression with a random intercept to examine the effect of aging, age at first birth, and minority status using nested data. Study criteria yielded a final sample of 146 women with 707 observations. BMI. Age at first birth exhibited a significant association with BMI. The association of age at first birth with BMI was greatest for women age 21 and younger. Overall, women who experienced their first birth at age 21 or younger had a BMI 5 units greater than women who delayed childbearing until at least age 30 (point estimate, 5.02; P = .02; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-9.40). Young maternal age at first birth might be associated with increased BMI. Minority women also experience their first birth at younger ages compared with white women, suggesting possible linkages between the timing of reproductive events and obesity disparities. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of early person reference development: maternal language input, attachment and neurodevelopmental markers.

    PubMed

    Lemche, Erwin; Joraschky, Peter; Klann-Delius, Gisela

    2013-12-01

    In a longitudinal natural language development study in Germany, the acquisition of verbal symbols for present persons, absent persons, inanimate things and the mother-toddler dyad was investigated. Following the notion that verbal referent use is more developed in ostensive contexts, symbolic play situations were coded for verbal person reference by means of noun and pronoun use. Depending on attachment classifications at twelve months of age, effects of attachment classification and maternal language input were studied up to 36 months in four time points. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, except for mother absence, maternal verbal referent input rates at 17 and 36 months were stronger predictors for all referent types than any of the attachment organizations, or any other social or biological predictor variable. Attachment effects accounted for up to 9.8% of unique variance proportions in the person reference variables. Perinatal and familial measures predicted person references dependent on reference type. The results of this investigation indicate that mother-reference, self-reference and thing-reference develop in similar quantities measured from the 17-month time point, but are dependent of attachment quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Contribution of maternal smoking during pregnancy and lead exposure to early child behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Pine, D S; Graziano, J H

    2001-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy elevates risk for later child behavior problems. Because prior studies considered only Western settings, where smoking co-occurs with social disadvantage, we examined this association in Yugoslavia, a different cultural setting. Mothers enrolled in pregnancy as the low-exposure group in a prospective study of lead exposure were interviewed about health, including smoking history. A total of 199 children were assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 4, 4 1/2, and 5 years. Average cumulative blood lead (BPb) was determined from serial samples taken biannually since delivery. Longitudinal analyses were derived from 191 children with available data on behavior and covariates. Smoking was unrelated to social adversity. Controlling for age, gender, birthweight, ethnicity, maternal education, and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Acceptance, smoking was associated with worse scores on almost all subscales; BPb concentration was related to small increases in the Delinquency subscale. Daughters of smokers received significantly higher scores on Somatic Complaints compared to daughters of nonsmokers, consistent with other work relating biological factors and internalizing problems in young girls. Because the present smoking/child behavior associations persist after control for individual and social factors also related to behavior problems, possible biological mediators are considered.

  18. The influence of interpersonal aggression on maternal perceptions of infant emotions: Associations with early parenting quality.

    PubMed

    Dayton, Carolyn J; Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Busuito, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that mothers who have experienced child maltreatment and aggression within their adult relationships may be at particular risk for misinterpreting infant emotions, leading to less sensitive parenting behaviors. Participants were 120 pregnant women recruited for a larger, longitudinal study investigating the role of psychosocial and environmental risk on women and their young children. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy, and when children were 1 and 2 years of age. Participants completed a projective test designed to elicit individual differences in perceptions of infant emotions and an observer-rated assessment of parenting behaviors was conducted in the family home. Using structural equation modeling, we tested associations between maternal interpersonal aggression exposure and perceptions of infant emotion and parenting behaviors. Results demonstrated that a history of child abuse and intimate partner conflict were associated with a maternal tendency to view ambiguous infant facial expressions as negative (i.e., negative attribution bias), and in turn, with less parenting sensitivity over time. Findings suggest that negative attributions of infant emotion may be 1 mechanism by which a history of trauma and violence exposure contributes to less sensitive parenting for some mothers. Implications for intervention include the need for trauma-informed clinical services and psychoeducational methods that help mothers more accurately read and respond to infant emotional expression and bids for connection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Epigenetic modifications by Trithorax group proteins during early embryogenesis: do members of Trx-G function as maternal effect genes?

    PubMed

    Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia; Matzuk, Martin M

    2007-02-01

    Maternal effect genes encode transcripts that are expressed during oogenesis. These gene products are stored in the oocyte and become functional during resumption of meiosis and zygote genome activation, and in embryonic stem cells. To date, a few maternal effect genes have been identified in mammals. Epigenetic modifications have been shown to be important during early embryonic development and involve DNA methylation and post-translational modification of core histones. During development, two families of proteins have been shown to be involved in epigenetic changes: Trithorax group (Trx-G) and Polycomb group (Pc-G) proteins. Trx-G proteins function as transcriptional activators and have been shown to accumulate in the oocyte. Deletion of Trx-G members using conventional knockout technology results in embryonic lethality in the majority of the cases analysed to date. Recent studies using conditional knockout mice have revealed that at least one family member is necessary for zygote genome activation. We propose that other Trx-G members may also regulate embryonic genome activation and that the use of oocyte-specific deletor mouse lines will help clarify their roles in this process.

  20. Longitudinal Associations of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy and Maternal Corporal Punishment with Behavior Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the…

  1. Poverty and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood: The Mediating Role of Maternal Depression Symptoms and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Julia Rachel; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Booij, Linda; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana

    2017-01-01

    Poverty is a well-established risk factor for behavior problems, yet our understanding of putative family mediators during early childhood (i.e., before age 5 years) is limited. The present study investigated whether the association between poverty and behavior problems during early childhood is mediated simultaneously by perceived parenting,…

  2. Length of stay for childbirth in Trentino (North-East of Italy): the impact of maternal characteristics and organizational features of the maternity unit on the probability of early discharge of healthy, term infants.

    PubMed

    Pertile, Riccardo; Pavanello, Lucia; Soffiati, Massimo; Manica, Laura; Piffer, Silvano

    2018-01-01

    Early discharge (ED) of healthy term infants has become a common practice due to current social and economic needs. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate trends in early discharge of healthy term neonates (≥ 37 gestational weeks) by delivery method (cesarean and vaginal) in maternity units in the Province of Trento. The secondary objective was to identify the socio-demographic characteristics (including the area of residence and distance from the designated hospital) and clinical characteristics of mothers whose infants were discharged early. This retrospective study reviewed records of live births from 2006 to 2016, for a total of 45, 314 healthy term infants. The trend for ED grew significantly during the period 2006-2016, for both cesarean and vaginal deliveries. The multiple logistic regression analysis shows how the determinants of ED are maternal age, birth order, citizenship of mother, maternal smoking, maternal employment status, and the number of births at the hospital on the day of birth. The post-partum length of stay should be adjusted based on the characteristics and needs of the mother-infant dyad, identifying the criteria for safe discharge. In Trento, various procedures and programs are becoming more uniform today with the intention to provide family assistance service. What is Known: • Admission for childbirth is one of the primary causes of hospitalization in industrialized countries. • The length of stay for childbirth has been steadily declining in recent decades, with the aim of reducing costs while also demedicalizing pregnancy. What is New: • A higher rate of early discharge (ED) was recorded for neonates of women having foreign citizenship, < 30 years, pluriparous, smoked during pregnancy, housewife, and, if emplyed, entrepreneurs, self-employed professionals or managers. • ED was more common when the new mother gave birth on a day in which there was a higher number of births at the hospital, indicating

  3. Breaking cycles of risk: The mitigating role of maternal working memory in associations among socioeconomic status, early caregiving, and children's working memory.

    PubMed

    Suor, Jennifer H; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Skibo, Michael A

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has documented socioeconomic-related disparities in children's working memory; however, the putative proximal caregiving mechanisms that underlie these effects are less known. The present study sought to examine whether the effects of early family socioeconomic status on children's working memory were mediated through experiences of caregiving, specifically maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness. Utilizing a psychobiological framework of parenting, the present study also tested whether maternal working memory moderated the initial paths between the family socioeconomic context and maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness in the mediation model. The sample included 185 socioeconomically diverse mother-child dyads assessed when children were 3.5 and 5 years old. Results demonstrated that maternal harsh discipline was a unique mediator of the relation between early experiences of family socioeconomic adversity and lower working memory outcomes in children. Individual differences in maternal working memory emerged as a potent individual difference factor that specifically moderated the mediating influence of harsh discipline within low socioeconomic contexts. The findings have implications for early risk processes underlying deficits in child working memory outcomes and potential targets for parent-child interventions.

  4. Sex and strategy use matters for pattern separation, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene expression in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shunya; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) plays a crucial role for pattern separation, and there are sex differences in the regulation of neurogenesis. Although sex differences, favoring males, in spatial navigation have been reported, it is not known whether there are sex differences in pattern separation. The current study was designed to determine whether there are sex differences in the ability for separating similar or distinct patterns, learning strategy choice, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the DG in response to pattern separation training. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single injection of the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and were tested for the ability of separating spatial patterns in a spatial pattern separation version of delayed nonmatching to place task using the eight-arm radial arm maze. Twenty-seven days following BrdU injection, rats received a probe trial to determine whether they were idiothetic or spatial strategy users. We found that male spatial strategy users outperformed female spatial strategy users only when separating similar, but not distinct, patterns. Furthermore, male spatial strategy users had greater neurogenesis in response to pattern separation training than all other groups. Interestingly, neurogenesis was positively correlated with performance on similar pattern trials during pattern separation in female spatial strategy users but negatively correlated with performance in male idiothetic strategy users. These results suggest that the survival of new neurons may play an important positive role for pattern separation of similar patterns in females. Furthermore, we found sex and strategy differences in IEG expression in the CA1 and CA3 regions in response to pattern separation. These findings emphasize the importance of studying biological sex on hippocampal function and neural plasticity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of Maternal Negativity and of Early and Recent Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Children’s False Belief Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children’s emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, three false belief tasks were administered to five-year-old children whose mothers had either met criteria for major depressive disorder within the first 20 months of the child’s life (n = 91) or had never been depressed (n = 50). Significant difficulties in performance were found among the children of depressed mothers, especially those whose mothers had experienced early and recent recurrent depressive disorder. Regardless of diagnostic status, children whose mothers exhibited negativity during problem-solving tasks administered at an earlier developmental period also were less likely to demonstrate false belief understanding. These effects remained even after child verbal ability was controlled. PMID:21244156

  6. Using Skype to support remote clinical supervision for health professionals delivering a sustained maternal early childhood programme: a phenomenographical study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Tracey; Byrne, Fiona; Kemp, Lynn

    2018-02-01

    Skype technology was implemented by the Australian Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting (MECSH) Support Service as a tool for the remote provision of clinical supervision for clinicians working in the MECSH program in Seoul, South Korea. To gain a better understanding of the processes underpinning sustainable delivery of remote clinical supervision using digital technologies. A phenomenographical study. Recorded notes and reflections on each supervision session, noting exemplars and characteristics of the experience were read and re-read to derive the characterizations of the experience. The experience has provided learnings in three domains: (1) the processes in using Skype; (2) supervisory processes; and (3) language translation, including managing clarity of, and time for translation. Skype has potential for use in remote provision of clinical supervision, including where translation is required. Further research evaluating the benefit of telesupervision from supervisor and supervisee perspectives is necessary to determine if it is a sustainable process.

  7. Effects of maternal negativity and of early and recent recurrent depressive disorder on children's false belief understanding.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Lisa M; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L; Maughan, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children's emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, 3 false belief tasks were administered to 5-year-old children whose mothers had either met criteria for major depressive disorder within the first 20 months of the child's life (n = 91) or had never been depressed (n = 50). Significant difficulties in performance were found among the children of depressed mothers, especially those whose mothers had experienced early and recent recurrent depressive disorder. Regardless of diagnostic status, children whose mothers exhibited negativity during problem-solving tasks administered at an earlier developmental period also were less likely to demonstrate false belief understanding. These effects remained even after child verbal ability was controlled.

  8. Implementation of maternal blood cell-free DNA testing in early screening for aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Gil, M M; Quezada, M S; Bregant, B; Ferraro, M; Nicolaides, K H

    2013-07-01

    To explore the feasibility of routine maternal blood cell-free (cf) DNA testing in screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 at 10 weeks' gestation. In this prospective study, women attending The Fetal Medicine Centre in London, UK, between October 2012 and April 2013, with singleton pregnancy and live fetus with CRL 32-45 mm, were screened for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 by cfDNA testing at 10 weeks and the combined test at 12 weeks. cfDNA testing was performed in 1005 singleton pregnancies with a median maternal age of 37 (range, 20-49) years. Risks for trisomies were provided for 957 (95.2%) cases and in 98.0% these were available within 14 days from sampling. In 48 (4.8%) cases no result was provided due to problems with delivery to the laboratory, low fetal fraction or assay failure. Repeat sampling was performed in 40 cases and a result obtained in 27 (67.5%) of these. In 11 cases the risk score for trisomy 21 and in five cases that for trisomy 18 was > 99%, in one the risk for trisomy 13 was 34% and in 968 the risk for each of the three trisomies was < 0.01%. The suspected trisomies were confirmed by karyotyping after chorionic villus sampling (CVS), except in one case of trisomy 18 in which the karyotype was normal. On the basis of the maternal age distribution of the study population, the expected and observed numbers for each of the three trisomies were similar. Both cfDNA and combined testing detected all trisomies, but the estimated false-positive rates (FPR) were 0.1% and 3.4%, respectively. Routine screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 by cfDNA testing at 10 weeks is feasible and has a lower FPR than does combined testing, but abnormal results require confirmation by CVS. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The maternal genetic make-up of the Iberian Peninsula between the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age.

    PubMed

    Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Roth, Christina; Brandt, Guido; Rihuete-Herrada, Cristina; Tejedor-Rodríguez, Cristina; Held, Petra; García-Martínez-de-Lagrán, Íñigo; Arcusa Magallón, Héctor; Zesch, Stephanie; Knipper, Corina; Bánffy, Eszter; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva; Barroso Bermejo, Rosa; de Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo; Herrero-Corral, Ana M; Flores Fernández, Raúl; Alonso Fernández, Carmen; Jiménez Echevarria, Javier; Rindlisbacher, Laura; Oliart, Camila; Fregeiro, María-Inés; Soriano, Ignacio; Vicente, Oriol; Micó, Rafael; Lull, Vicente; Soler Díaz, Jorge; López Padilla, Juan Antonio; Roca de Togores Muñoz, Consuelo; Hernández Pérez, Mauro S; Jover Maestre, Francisco Javier; Lomba Maurandi, Joaquín; Avilés Fernández, Azucena; Lillios, Katina T; Silva, Ana Maria; Magalhães Ramalho, Miguel; Oosterbeek, Luiz Miguel; Cunha, Claudia; Waterman, Anna J; Roig Buxó, Jordi; Martínez, Andrés; Ponce Martínez, Juana; Hunt Ortiz, Mark; Mejías-García, Juan Carlos; Pecero Espín, Juan Carlos; Cruz-Auñón Briones, Rosario; Tomé, Tiago; Carmona Ballestero, Eduardo; Cardoso, João Luís; Araújo, Ana Cristina; Liesau von Lettow-Vorbeck, Corina; Blasco Bosqued, Concepción; Ríos Mendoza, Patricia; Pujante, Ana; Royo-Guillén, José I; Esquembre Beviá, Marco Aurelio; Dos Santos Goncalves, Victor Manuel; Parreira, Rui; Morán Hernández, Elena; Méndez Izquierdo, Elena; Vega Y Miguel, Jorge; Menduiña García, Roberto; Martínez Calvo, Victoria; López Jiménez, Oscar; Krause, Johannes; Pichler, Sandra L; Garrido-Pena, Rafael; Kunst, Michael; Risch, Roberto; Rojo-Guerra, Manuel A; Haak, Wolfgang; Alt, Kurt W

    2017-11-15

    Agriculture first reached the Iberian Peninsula around 5700 BCE. However, little is known about the genetic structure and changes of prehistoric populations in different geographic areas of Iberia. In our study, we focus on the maternal genetic makeup of the Neolithic (~ 5500-3000 BCE), Chalcolithic (~ 3000-2200 BCE) and Early Bronze Age (~ 2200-1500 BCE). We report ancient mitochondrial DNA results of 213 individuals (151 HVS-I sequences) from the northeast, central, southeast and southwest regions and thus on the largest archaeogenetic dataset from the Peninsula to date. Similar to other parts of Europe, we observe a discontinuity between hunter-gatherers and the first farmers of the Neolithic. During the subsequent periods, we detect regional continuity of Early Neolithic lineages across Iberia, however the genetic contribution of hunter-gatherers is generally higher than in other parts of Europe and varies regionally. In contrast to ancient DNA findings from Central Europe, we do not observe a major turnover in the mtDNA record of the Iberian Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age, suggesting that the population history of the Iberian Peninsula is distinct in character.

  10. Early primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: maternal hyperimmunoglobulin therapy improves outcomes among infants at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Silvia; Manara, Renzo; Milanese, Laura; Da Roit, Anna; Forner, Gabriella; Salviato, Eleonora; Citton, Valentina; Magno, Fioretta Marciani; Orzan, Eva; Morando, Carla; Cusinato, Riccardo; Mengoli, Carlo; Palu, Giorgio; Ermani, Mario; Rinaldi, Roberto; Cosmi, Erich; Gussetti, Nadia

    2012-08-01

    Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the leading infectious cause of congenital neurological disabilities. Early CMV infection carries a higher risk of adverse neonatal outcome (sensorineural hearing loss or neurological deficits). Intravenous hyperimmunoglobulin (HIG) therapy seems to be promising, but its efficacy needs further investigation. Since 2002, we have enrolled consecutively all pregnant women with early (ie, before gestational week 17) CMV infection. Beginning in 2007, all women were offered treatment with HIG (200 UI per kilogram of maternal weight, in a single intravenous administration). Outcome of infants was evaluated at the age of 1 year. Of the 592 women with early primary CMV infection, amniocentesis for CMV DNA detection was performed for 446. Of the 92 CMV-positive fetuses, pregnancy was terminated for 24, HIG was administered to mothers of 31, and no treatment was received by mothers of 37. Fetuses of treated mothers did not differ from fetuses of nontreated mothers according to mother's age, gestational week of infection, CMV load, or detection of abnormal ultrasonography findings. At the 1-year evaluation, 4 of 31 infants with treated mothers (13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-25%) and 16 of 37 infants with nontreated mothers (43%; 95% CI, 27%-59%) presented with poor outcomes (P < .01, by the 2-tailed Fisher exact test). HIG treatment improved the outcome of fetuses from women who had primary CMV infection before gestational week 17.

  11. Random plasma glucose in early pregnancy is a better predictor of gestational diabetes diagnosis than maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Meek, Claire L; Murphy, Helen R; Simmons, David

    2016-03-01

    Asymptomatic pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes (GDM) at 24-28 weeks' gestation. Recent guidelines also recommend screening early in gestation to identify undiagnosed pre-existing overt diabetes. We assessed the performance of random plasma glucose (RPG) testing at antenatal booking in predicting GDM diagnosis later in pregnancy. Data from 25,543 consecutive singleton pregnancies at the Rosie Hospital in Cambridge (UK) were obtained from hospital electronic records as a service evaluation. All women were invited for an antenatal RPG (12-16 weeks) and a 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT; 24-28 weeks) with a 75 g OGTT if GCT >7.7 mmol/l (139 mg/dl). At booking, 17,736 women had an RPG that was able to predict GDM (receiver operating characteristic AUC 0.8) according to various diagnostic criteria in common use. A cut-off point of ≥7.5 mmol/l (135 mg/dl) gave a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.90 for GDM diagnosis. Theoretically, using this screening policy, 13.2% of women would have been categorised at high risk (26.3% had GDM) and 86.8% of women at low risk (1.7% had GDM). RPG performed better than maternal age (AUC 0.60) or BMI (AUC 0.65) at predicting GDM diagnosis. RPG at booking has reasonable performance as a screening test and is better than maternal age or BMI for identifying women at high risk of GDM. RPG cannot replace OGTT for diagnosis but it may be useful to exclude women who do not need further investigation for GDM and to identify women who could be prioritised for early diagnosis or lifestyle interventions.

  12. Low omega-3 index values and monounsaturated fatty acid levels in early pregnancy: an analysis of maternal erythrocytes fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Axelle; Bernardy, Florence; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Dardenne, Nadia; Degée, Sylvie; Timmermans, Marie; Nisolle, Michelle; Guillaume, Michèle; Castronovo, Vincenzo

    2018-04-02

    It is unanimously recognized that the maternal nutritional status at the pregnancy onset influence both short-term and long-term health of the mother and offspring. Among several nutrients, LCPUFA, particularly from the omega-3 family, are of utmost importance. This study was carried out to determine fatty acids profile of maternal erythrocyte membranes in early pregnancy and to identify potential determinants impacting on this status. A cohort of 122 healthy women with a singleton pregnancy was included. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. Because of the lack of cutoff values, reference ranges were used to determine fatty acids categories. Of concern, our data revealed low monounsaturated and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status in most participants. More than 75% of Belgian pregnant women exhibited Pal, AO and EPA levels as well as IOM3 values below the laboratory reference ranges. Higher DHA concentrations and IOM3 values were found among foreign-nationality participants, non-smokers and physically active women. With regard to dietary factors, omega-3 supplements and diet seem to be complementary since DHA from supplements (but not from diet) and EPA from diet (but not from supplements) were found to be associated with higher concentrations of DHA and EPA, respectively. Our study presents evidence demonstrating that the fatty acid status of most early pregnant women is far from being optimal based on the admitted general reference values. Clinicians should be advice to carefully evaluate and improve this status to guarantee the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.

  13. The role of negative maternal affective states and infant temperament in early interactions between infants with cleft lip and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Montirosso, Rosario; Fedeli, Claudia; Murray, Lynne; Morandi, Francesco; Brusati, Roberto; Perego, Guenda Ghezzi; Borgatti, Renato

    2012-03-01

    The study examined the early interaction between mothers and their infants with cleft lip, assessing the role of maternal affective state and expressiveness and differences in infant temperament. Mother-infant interactions were assessed in 25 2-month-old infants with cleft lip and 25 age-matched healthy infants. Self-report and behavioral observations were used to assess maternal depressive symptoms and expressions. Mothers rated infant temperament. Infants with cleft lip were less engaged and their mothers showed more difficulty in interaction than control group dyads. Mothers of infants with cleft lip displayed more negative affectivity, but did not report more self-rated depressive symptoms than control group mothers. No group differences were found in infant temperament. In order to support the mother's experience and facilitate her ongoing parental role, findings highlight the importance of identifying maternal negative affectivity during early interactions, even when they seem have little awareness of their depressive symptoms.

  14. Maternal work early in the lives of children and its distal associations with achievement and behavior problems: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Goldberg, Wendy A; Prause, JoAnn

    2010-11-01

    This meta-analysis of 69 studies (1,483 effect sizes) used random effects models to examine maternal employment during infancy/early childhood in relation to 2 major domains of child functioning: achievement and behavior problems. Analyses of studies that spanned 5 decades indicated that, with a few exceptions, early employment was not significantly associated with later achievement or internalizing/externalizing behaviors. The exceptions were for teacher ratings of achievement and internalizing behaviors: Employment was associated with higher achievement and fewer internalizing behaviors. Substantial heterogeneity among the effect sizes prompted examination of moderators. Sample-level moderator analyses pointed to the importance of socioeconomic and contextual variables, with early employment most beneficial when families were challenged by single parenthood or welfare status. Maternal employment during Years 2 and 3 was associated with higher achievement. Some moderator analyses indicated negative effects of employment for middle-class and 2-parent families and for very early employment (child's first year). Associations also differed depending on whether effect sizes were adjusted for contextual variables. Only 1 study-level moderator (sex of first author) was significant after adjusting for other moderators. The small effect size and primarily nonsignificant results for main effects of early maternal employment should allay concerns about mothers working when children are young. However, negative findings associated with employment during the child's first year are compatible with calls for more generous maternal leave policies. Results highlight the importance of social context for identifying under which conditions and for which subgroups early maternal employment is associated with positive or negative child outcomes.

  15. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation of opioid from nonopioid mediation of affect in neonatal rats: nonopioid mechanisms mediate maternal contact influences.

    PubMed

    Blass, E M; Fillion, T J; Weller, A; Brunson, L

    1990-08-01

    ) qualities of the mother are not mediated by opioid systems. Implications for understanding the means through which mothers can influence their young and the infantile mediators of these maternal influences are discussed.

  17. Maternal Early Life Factors Associated with Hormone Levels and the Risk of Having a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Nurses Health Study II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L.; Santangelo, Susan; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    It is not known whether reproductive factors early in the mother's life influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed maternal age at menarche, menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence, oral contraceptive use prior to first birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI) in association with ASD using binomial regression in…

  18. Early Mental Development as a Predictor of Preschool Cognitive and Behavioral Development in South Africa: The Moderating Role of Maternal Education in the Birth to Twenty Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Celia; Richter, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the influence of early development on preschool cognitive and behavioral outcomes in South Africa, as well as the role of family factors such as maternal education in moderating this association. The study involved 167 Black South African children (89 boys and 78 girls) from the Birth to Twenty study during their first 5…

  19. A longitudinal study of child sleep in high and low risk families: relationship to early maternal settling strategies and child psychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Andrew; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Evangeli, Michael; Byram, Victoria; Halligan, Sarah L

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether sleep disturbances previously found to characterise high risk infants: (a) persist into childhood; (b) are influenced by early maternal settling strategies and (c) predict cognitive and emotional/behavioural functioning. Mothers experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity (risk) were recruited antenatally and longitudinally assessed with their children. Mothers completed measures of settling strategies and infant sleep postnatally, and at 12 and 18 months, infant age. At five years, child sleep characteristics were measured via an actigraphy and maternal report; IQ and child adjustment were also assessed. Sleep disturbances observed in high-risk infants persisted at five years. Maternal involvement in infant settling was greater in high risk mothers, and predicted less optimal sleep at five years. Poorer five year sleep was associated with concurrent child anxiety/depression and aggression, but there was limited evidence for an influence of early sleep problems. Associations between infant/child sleep characteristics and IQ were also limited. Early maternal over-involvement in infant settling is associated with less optimal sleep in children, which in turn, is related to child adjustment. The findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in the early development of good settling practices, particularly in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of an Early Head Start Mental Health Coordinator: Screening for Maternal Depression in a Comprehensive Approach to Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canuso, Regina

    2007-01-01

    Screening for maternal depression was a core component of the P.E.A.C.E., Inc., Early Head Start program's comprehensive approach to supporting the mental health needs of low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. The addition of a mental health coordinator as a full-time staff member created an opportunity to develop a…

  1. Zika Virus Infects Early- and Midgestation Human Maternal Decidual Tissues, Inducing Distinct Innate Tissue Responses in the Maternal-Fetal Interface.

    PubMed

    Weisblum, Yiska; Oiknine-Djian, Esther; Vorontsov, Olesya M; Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Meir, Karen; Shveiky, David; Elgavish, Sharona; Nevo, Yuval; Roseman, Moshe; Bronstein, Michal; Stockheim, David; From, Ido; Eisenberg, Iris; Lewkowicz, Aya A; Yagel, Simcha; Panet, Amos; Wolf, Dana G

    2017-02-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a cause of congenital brain anomalies and a range of placenta-related abnormalities, highlighting the need to unveil the modes of maternal-fetal transmission. The most likely route of vertical ZIKV transmission is via the placenta. The earliest events of ZIKV transmission in the maternal decidua, representing the maternal uterine aspect of the chimeric placenta, have remained unexplored. Here, we show that ZIKV replicates in first-trimester human maternal-decidual tissues grown ex vivo as three-dimensional (3D) organ cultures. An efficient viral spread in the decidual tissues was demonstrated by the rapid upsurge and continued increase of tissue-associated ZIKV load and titers of infectious cell-free virus progeny, released from the infected tissues. Notably, maternal decidual tissues obtained at midgestation remained similarly susceptible to ZIKV, whereas fetus-derived chorionic villi demonstrated reduced ZIKV replication with increasing gestational age. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that ZIKV substantially upregulated the decidual tissue innate immune responses. Further comparison of the innate tissue response patterns following parallel infections with ZIKV and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) revealed that unlike HCMV, ZIKV did not induce immune cell activation or trafficking responses in the maternal-fetal interface but rather upregulated placental apoptosis and cell death molecular functions. The data identify the maternal uterine aspect of the human placenta as a likely site of ZIKV transmission to the fetus and further reveal distinct patterns of innate tissue responses to ZIKV. Our unique experimental model and findings could further serve to study the initial stages of congenital ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis and evaluate the effect of new therapeutic interventions. In view of the rapid spread of the current ZIKV epidemic and the severe manifestations of congenital ZIKV infection, it is crucial to learn

  2. Infant temperament reactivity and early maternal caregiving: independent and interactive links to later childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Natalie V; Degnan, Kathryn A; Hane, Amie A; Fox, Nathan A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2018-06-11

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with origins early in life. There is growing evidence that individual differences in temperament reactivity are predictive of ADHD symptoms, yet little is known about the relations between temperament reactivity in early infancy and later ADHD symptoms or the combined effect of reactivity with early environmental factors on ADHD symptom development. Using a 9-year prospective longitudinal design, this study tested the independent and interactive contributions of infant reactivity and maternal caregiving behaviors (MCB) on parent- and teacher-reported childhood ADHD symptoms. Participants included 291 children (132 male; 159 female) who participated in a larger study of temperament and social-emotional development. Reactivity was assessed by behavioral observation of negative affect, positive affect, and motor activity during novel stimuli presentations at 4 months of age. MCB were observed during a series of semistructured mother-infant tasks at 9 months of age. Finally, ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent- and teacher-report questionnaires at 7 and 9 years, respectively. Reactivity was predictive of ADHD symptoms, but results were sex specific. For boys, infant motor activity was positively predictive of later ADHD symptoms, but only at lower quality MCB. For girls, infant positive affect was positively predictive of later ADHD symptoms at lower quality MCB, and-unexpectedly-infant positive affect and motor activity were negatively predictive of later ADHD symptoms at higher quality MCB. These results point to early parenting as a moderating factor to mitigate temperament-related risk for later ADHD, suggesting this as a potential intervention target to mitigate risk for ADHD among reactive infants. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Associations between maternal experiences of racism and early child health and development: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Yvonne; Becares, Laia; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that experienced racism might help explain observed ethnic inequalities in early child health and development. There are few studies outside the US context and none that consider mothers' experiences of racism in relation to a range of early childhood health and developmental markers. The authors used cross-sectional data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study on 2136 mothers and their 5-year-old children from ethnic minority groups. Measures of racism tapped two dimensions of mothers' experience: perceived frequency of racist attacks in residential area and interpersonal racism. Markers of child health and development were obesity; socioemotional difficulties; cognitive: verbal, non-verbal and spatial ability test scores. There was a suggestion that the mothers' experience of interpersonal racism was associated with an increased risk of obesity ('received insults' OR=1.47; 'treated unfairly' OR=1.57; 'disrespectful treatment by shop staff' OR=1.55), but all CIs crossed 1.0, and size estimates were attenuated on further statistical adjustment. Perception of racism in the residential area was associated with socioemotional difficulties (fully adjusted coefficient=1.40, SE=0.47) and spatial abilities (fully adjusted coefficient=-1.99, SE=0.93) but not with verbal or non-verbal ability scores. Maternal experiences of racist insults were associated with non-verbal ability scores (fully adjusted coefficient=-1.70, SE=0.88). The results suggest that mothers' experienced racism is linked to markers of early child health and development. Interventions that aim to improve early child development and address ethnic health inequalities need to incorporate approaches to tackling racism at all levels of society.

  4. Lower Maternal Folate Status in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Childhood Hyperactivity and Peer Problems in Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlotz, Wolff; Jones, Alexander; Phillips, David I. W.; Gale, Catharine R.; Robinson, Sian M.; Godfrey, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been linked with fetal brain development and psychopathology in the offspring. We examined for associations of maternal folate status and dietary intake during pregnancy with brain growth and childhood behavioural difficulties in the offspring. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, maternal red…

  5. The emotional-behavioural functioning of children exposed to maternal depressive symptoms across pregnancy and early childhood: a prospective Australian pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Hiscock, Harriet; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    Children exposed to maternal depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period are at increased risk of a range of health, wellbeing and development problems. However, few studies have examined the course of maternal depressive symptoms in the perinatal period and beyond on children's wellbeing. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between both the severity and chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and children's emotional-behavioural difficulties at 4 years of age. Data from over 1,085 mothers and children participating in a large Australian prospective pregnancy cohort were used. Latent class analysis identified three distinct trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum: (1) no or few symptoms (61%), (2) persistent subclinical symptoms (30%), and (3) increasing and persistently high symptoms (9%). Regression analyses revealed that children of mothers experiencing subclinical and increasing and persistently high symptoms were at least two times more likely to have emotional-behavioural difficulties than children of mothers reporting minimal symptoms, even after accounting for known risk factors for poor outcomes for children. These findings challenge policy makers and health professionals to consider how they can tailor care and support to mothers experiencing a broader spectrum of depressive symptoms across the early childhood period, to maximize opportunities to improve both short-and long-term maternal and child health outcomes.

  6. Early participation in a prenatal food supplementation program ameliorates the negative association of food insecurity with quality of maternal-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-06-01

    Food insecurity is detrimental to child development, yet little is known about the combined influence of food insecurity and nutritional interventions on child development in low-income countries. We proposed that women assigned to an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program could reduce the negative influence of food insecurity on maternal-infant interaction. A cohort of 180 mother-infant dyads were studied (born between May and October 2003) from among 3267 in the randomized controlled trial Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, which was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 wk gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation time to start receiving food supplements (2.5 MJ/d; 6 d/wk) either early (~9 wk gestation; early-invitation group) or at the usual start time (~20 wk gestation; usual-invitation group) for the government program. Maternal-infant interaction was observed in homes with the use of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale, and food-insecurity status was obtained from questionnaires completed when infants were 3.4-4.0 mo old. By using a general linear model for maternal-infant interaction, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.012) between invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program and food insecurity. Those in the usual-invitation group with higher food insecurity scores (i.e., more food insecure) had a lower quality of maternal-infant interaction, but this relationship was ameliorated among those in the early-invitation group. Food insecurity limits the ability of mothers and infants to interact well, but an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program can support mother-infant interaction among those who are food insecure.

  7. Impact of maternal HIV infection on obstetrical and early neonatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Braddick, M R; Kreiss, J K; Embree, J B; Datta, P; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Pamba, H; Maitha, G; Roberts, P L; Quinn, T C; Holmes, K K

    1990-10-01

    In a case-control study of 177 HIV-seropositive and 326 seronegative women and their newborns in Nairobi, Kenya, maternal HIV infection at term was independently associated with travel to other African countries [odds ratio (OR) 4.9, P less than 0.0001], history of a blood transfusion since 1980 (OR 3.5, P = 0.01), history of more than one sexual partner in the previous 5 years (OR 1.8, P = 0.02) and unmarried status (OR 1.8, P = 0.02). Neonates of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women differed little with respect to occurrence of congenital malformations, stillbirths, in-hospital mortality, sex, APGAR score, or gestational age. However, the mean birth weight of singleton neonates of HIV-positive women was significantly lower than that of controls (3090 versus 3220 g, P = 0.005), and birth weight was less than 2500 g in 9% of cases and 3% of controls (OR 3.0, P = 0.007). Among neonates of HIV-seropositive women, birth weight was less than 2500 g in 17% if mothers were symptomatic and 6% if mothers were asymptomatic (OR 3.4, P = 0.08).

  8. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Ferreira, Patrícia Calesco; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2 to 4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz) was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2) or excess weight (BMIz≥2). Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity) was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001) and maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) (r=0.113; p=0.002). The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=-0.099; p=0.006) and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=-0.112; p=0.002). There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  10. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  11. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  12. Profiles of Disruptive Behavior across Early Childhood: Contributions of Frustration Reactivity, Physiological Regulation, and Maternal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degnan, Kathryn A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.

    2008-01-01

    Disruptive behavior, including aggression, defiance, and temper tantrums, typically peaks in early toddlerhood and decreases by school entry; however, some children do not show this normative decline. The current study examined disruptive behavior in 318 boys and girls at 2, 4, and 5 years of age and frustration reactivity, physiological…

  13. Maternal Scaffolding and Home Stimulation: Key Mediators of Early Intervention Effects on Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Finch, Jenna E.; Rasheed, Muneera A.

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of how early parenting interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries during the first 2 years of children's lives are sustained longitudinally to promote cognitive skills in preschoolers. We employed path analytic procedures to examine 2 family processes--the quality of home stimulation…

  14. Associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and early child behavior problems: Testing a mutually adjusted prospective longitudinal model.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Martina K; Nærde, Ane

    2016-05-15

    While there is substantial empirical work on maternal depression, less is known about how mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms compare in their association with child behavior problems in early childhood. In particular, few studies have examined unique relationships in the postpartum period by controlling for the other parent, or looked at longitudinal change in either parent's depressive symptoms across the first living years as a predictor of child problems. We examined depressive symptoms in parents at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months following childbirth, and child behavior problems at 48 months. Linear growth curve analysis was used to model parents' initial levels and changes in symptoms across time and their associations with child outcomes. Mothers' depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted behavior problems at 48 months for all syndrome scales, while fathers' did not. Estimates for mothers' symptoms were significantly stronger on all subscales. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms over time was a significantly larger predictor of child aggressive behavior than corresponding change in mothers'. No interaction effects between parents' symptoms on behavior problems appeared, and few child gender differences. Child behavior was assessed once precluding tests for bidirectional effects. We only looked at linear change in parental symptoms. Mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms are a stronger predictor for early child behavior problems than fathers'. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms across this developmental period was uniquely and strongly associated with child aggressive problems, and should therefore be addressed in future research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal program of apoptosis activated shortly after midblastula transition by overexpression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in Xenopus early embryos.