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Sample records for early maturation stage

  1. Ion currents involved in oocyte maturation, fertilization and early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Gallo, Alessandra; Silvestre, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological techniques were used to study the role of ion currents in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis oocyte plasma membrane during different stages of growth, meiosis, fertilization and early development. Three stages of immature oocytes were discriminated in the ovary, with the germinal vesicle showing specific different features of growth and maturation. Stage-A (pre-vitellogenic) oocytes exhibited the highest L-type calcium current activity and were incompetent for meiosis resumption. Stage-B (vitellogenic) oocytes showed a progressive disappearance of calcium currents and the first appearance of sodium currents that remained high during the maturation process, up to the post-vitellogenic stage-C oocytes. The latter had acquired meiotic competence, undergoing spontaneous in vitro maturation and interacting with the spermatozoon. However, fertilized oocytes did not produce normal larvae, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation may affect embryo development. In mature oocytes at the metaphase I stage, sodium currents were present and remained high up to the zygote stage. Oocytes fertilized in the absence of sodium showed significant reduction of the fertilization current amplitude and high development of anomalous "rosette" embryos. Current amplitudes became negligible in embryos at the 2- and 4-cell stage, whereas resumption of all the current activities occurred at the 8-cell embryo. Taken together, these results suggest: (i) an involvement of L-type calcium currents in initial oocyte meiotic progression and growth; (ii) a role of sodium currents at fertilization; (iii) a role of the fertilization current in ensuring normal embryo development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature beneath well-developed, late-successional stage crusts than immature, early-successional stage crusts. We identified and enumerated nematodes by genus from beneath early- and late-stage crusts from both the Colorado Plateau, Utah (cool, winter rain desert) and Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico (hot, summer rain desert) at 0-10 and 10-30 cm depths. As hypothesized, nematode abundance, richness, diversity, and successional maturity were greater beneath well-developed crusts than immature crusts. The mechanism of this aboveground-belowground link between biological soil crusts and nematode community composition is likely the increased food, habitat, nutrient inputs, moisture retention, and/or environmental stability provided by late-successional crusts. Canonical correspondence analysis of nematode genera demonstrated that nematode community composition differed greatly between geographic locations that contrast in temperature, precipitation, and soil texture. We found unique assemblages of genera among combinations of location and crust type that reveal a gap in scientific knowledge regarding empirically derived characterization of dominant nematode genera in deserts soils and their functional role in a crust-associated food web. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of abbreviated Stanford V chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: mature results of the G4 trial.

    PubMed

    Advani, R H; Hoppe, R T; Baer, D; Mason, J; Warnke, R; Allen, J; Daadi, S; Rosenberg, S A; Horning, S J

    2013-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of an abbreviated Stanford V regimen in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). PATIENTS AND METHODS PATIENTS: with untreated nonbulky stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic HL were eligible for the G4 study. Stanford V chemotherapy was administered for 8 weeks followed by radiation therapy (RT) 30 Gy to involved fields (IF). Freedom from progression (FFP), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated. All 87 enrolled patients completed the abbreviated regimen. At a median follow-up of 10 years, FFP, DSS and OS are 94%, 99% and 94%, respectively. Therapy was well tolerated with no treatment-related deaths. Mature results of the abbreviated Stanford V regimen in nonbulky early-stage HL are excellent and comparable to the results from other contemporary therapies.

  4. Neural networks predict tomato maturity stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1999-03-01

    Almost 40% of the total horticultural produce exported from Mexico the USA is tomato, and quality is fundamental for maintaining the market. Many fruits packed at the green-mature stage do not mature towards a red color as they were harvested before achieving its physiological maturity. Tomato gassed for advancing maturation does not respond on those fruits, and repacking is necessary at terminal markets, causing losses to the producer. Tomato spectral signatures are different on each maturity stage and tomato size was poorly correlated against peak wavelengths. A back-propagation neural network was used to predict tomato maturity using reflectance ratios as inputs. Higher success rates were achieved on tomato maturity stage recognition with neural networks than with discriminant analysis.

  5. HIP1 exhibits an early recruitment and a late stage function in the maturation of coated pits.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Irit; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Ashery, Uri

    2009-09-01

    Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an accessory protein of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway, yet its precise role and the step at which it becomes involved are unclear. We employed live-cell imaging techniques to focus on the early steps of CME and characterize HIP1 dynamics. We show that HIP1 is highly colocalized with clathrin at the plasma membrane and shares similar dynamics with a subpopulation of clathrin assemblies. Employing transferrin receptor fused to pHluorin, we distinguished between open pits to which HIP1 localizes and newly internalized vesicles that are devoid of HIP1. Moreover, shRNA knockdown of clathrin compromised HIP1 membranal localization, unlike the reported behavior of Sla2p. HIP1 fragment, lacking its ANTH and Talin-like domains, inhibits internalization of transferrin, but retains colocalization with membranal clathrin assemblies. These data demonstrate HIP1's role in pits maturation and formation of the coated vesicle, and its strong dependence on clathrin for membranal localization.

  6. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  7. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  8. Emergence, Development, and Maturity of the Gonad of Two Species of Chitons “Sea Cockroach” (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or “early life stages” were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aXb. A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length “TL”) were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods (“Pw” without gonad, “Pe” gonad emergence, and “Pf” gonadal sac formed) and four stages (“S0” gametocytogenesis, “S1” gametogenesis, “S2” mature, and “S3” spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13–14.32 mm, Pe 10.32–16.93 mm, Pf 12.99–25.01 mm, S0 16.08–24.34 mm (females) and 19.51–26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15–35.63 mm (females) and 23.45–32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48–40.24 mm (females) and 25.45–32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management. PMID:23936353

  9. Effect of recombinant-LH and hCG in the absence of FSH on in vitro maturation (IVM) fertilization and early embryonic development of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes.

    PubMed

    Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Drakakis, Peter; Kefala, Stella; Kiapekou, Erasmia; Bletsa, Ritsa; Anagnostou, Elli; Kallianidis, Konstantinos; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    During in vitro maturation (IVM), intrinsic and extrinsic factors must co-operate properly in order to ensure cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. We examined the possible effect of LH/hCG in the process of oocyte maturation in mice with the addition of recombinant LH (r-LH) and hCG in our IVM cultures of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Moreover, the effects of these hormones on fertilization, early embryonic development and the expression of LH/hCG receptor were examined. Nuclear maturation of GV-stage oocytes was evaluated after culture in the presence of r-LH or hCG. Fertilization rates and embryonic development were assessed after 24h. Total RNA was isolated from oocytes of different stages of maturation and from zygotes and embryos of different stages of development in order to examine the expression of LH/hCG receptor, using RT-PCR. The in vitro nuclear maturation rate of GV-stage oocytes that received hCG was significantly higher compared to the control group. Early embryonic development was increased in the hCG and LH cultures of GV oocytes when LH was further added. The LH/hCG receptor was expressed in all stages of in vitro matured mouse oocytes and in every stage of early embryonic development. Addition of hCG in IVM cultures of mouse GV oocytes increased maturation rates significantly. LH, however, was more beneficial to early embryonic development than hCG. This suggests a promising new technique in basic science research or in clinical reproductive medicine. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Depressive Symptomatology among Very Early Maturing Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between very early menarche and depression was studied in a sample of 488 girls (336 sixth graders and 152 seventh graders), less than 10 percent of whom were very early maturers. Very early menarche was associated with higher levels of depression than was more normative development. (SLD)

  11. Reliability of cervical vertebral maturation staging.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Billie-Jean; Burnside, Girvan; Harrison, Jayne E

    2016-07-01

    Growth and its prediction are important for the success of many orthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. A group of 20 orthodontic clinicians, inexperienced in CVM staging, was trained to use the improved version of the CVM method for the assessment of mandibular growth with a teaching program. They independently assessed 72 consecutive lateral cephalograms, taken at Liverpool University Dental Hospital, on 2 occasions. The cephalograms were presented in 2 different random orders and interspersed with 11 additional images for standardization. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were evaluated using the weighted kappa statistic. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were substantial (weighted kappa, 0.6-0.8). The overall intraobserver agreement was 0.70 (SE, 0.01), with average agreement of 89%. The interobserver agreement values were 0.68 (SE, 0.03) for phase 1 and 0.66 (SE, 0.03) for phase 2, with average interobserver agreement of 88%. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values of classifying the vertebral stages with the CVM method were substantial. These findings demonstrate that this method of CVM classification is reproducible and reliable. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Near infrared spectrometers determine stage maturity in channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maturation is not synchronized in channel catfish and hence, individual fish are frequently handled and manually stage for maturation based on a selective subjective method. Fully matured fish are more responsive to hormone-induced spawning, and often result in better egg quality, higher relative f...

  13. Periostin in Mature Stage Localized Scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Woo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jung Ho; Koh, Seong-Joon; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun; Park, Hyun-Sun

    2017-06-01

    Periostin is a novel matricellular protein expressed in many tissues, including bone, periodontal ligament, and skin. Although its expression is prominent in various fibrotic conditions, studies of periostin in localized scleroderma are rare. To investigate the expression of periostin and other molecules in localized scleroderma. A retrospective study of 14 patients with confirmed mature stage localized scleroderma was undertaken. Fourteen age-matched and biopsy site-matched subjects with normal skin were included as controls. Collagen fiber deposition, periostin, procollagen, transforming growth factor-β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression were assessed and compared between the two groups. Co-localization of α-smooth muscle actin and periostin was evaluated using confocal microscopy. Periostin was predominantly expressed along the dermo-epidermal junction in the controls. Conversely, patients with localized scleroderma demonstrated increased collagen fiber deposition and periostin expression that was more widely distributed along the entire dermis. MMP-1 staining showed increased expression in the epidermis and dermis of patients compared to scanty expression in the controls. A semi-quantitative evaluation showed a higher proportion of excessive collagen bundle deposition (57.1% vs. 7.1%, p =0.013), diffuse periostin positivity (42.9% vs. 0%, p =0.016), and moderate MMP-1 positivity (71.4% vs. 7.1%, p =0.001) in patients than in the controls. Compared to the controls, patients with localized scleroderma had enhanced periostin expression corresponding to increased collagen fiber deposition and unexpected overexpression of MMP-1. The results of this human in vivo study may implicate the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma.

  14. Periostin in Mature Stage Localized Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Woo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jung Ho; Koh, Seong-Joon; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun

    2017-01-01

    Background Periostin is a novel matricellular protein expressed in many tissues, including bone, periodontal ligament, and skin. Although its expression is prominent in various fibrotic conditions, studies of periostin in localized scleroderma are rare. Objective To investigate the expression of periostin and other molecules in localized scleroderma. Methods A retrospective study of 14 patients with confirmed mature stage localized scleroderma was undertaken. Fourteen age-matched and biopsy site-matched subjects with normal skin were included as controls. Collagen fiber deposition, periostin, procollagen, transforming growth factor-β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression were assessed and compared between the two groups. Co-localization of α-smooth muscle actin and periostin was evaluated using confocal microscopy. Results Periostin was predominantly expressed along the dermo-epidermal junction in the controls. Conversely, patients with localized scleroderma demonstrated increased collagen fiber deposition and periostin expression that was more widely distributed along the entire dermis. MMP-1 staining showed increased expression in the epidermis and dermis of patients compared to scanty expression in the controls. A semi-quantitative evaluation showed a higher proportion of excessive collagen bundle deposition (57.1% vs. 7.1%, p=0.013), diffuse periostin positivity (42.9% vs. 0%, p=0.016), and moderate MMP-1 positivity (71.4% vs. 7.1%, p=0.001) in patients than in the controls. Conclusion Compared to the controls, patients with localized scleroderma had enhanced periostin expression corresponding to increased collagen fiber deposition and unexpected overexpression of MMP-1. The results of this human in vivo study may implicate the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma. PMID:28566901

  15. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to further elucidate the relation between pubertal timing and social anxiety, with a focus on clarifying the role of gender. Participants were 138 adolescents (ages 12-17 years) recruited from the general community. Level of social anxiety was examined as a function of gender and within-sample pubertal timing. As expected, early-maturing girls evidenced significantly higher social anxiety as compared to on-time girls and early-maturing boys, and no other differences were found as a function of gender or developmental timing. Findings and future directions are discussed in terms of forwarding developmentally-sensitive models of social anxiety etiology and prevention. PMID:21604866

  16. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  17. Neuropsychological and Early Maturational Correlates of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denno, Deborah J.

    A study designed to examine biological, sociological, and early maturational correlates of intelligence collected data prospectively, from birth to 15 years of age, on a sample of 987 black children. Multiple indicators of eight independent and three dependent variables were tested in a structural equation model. Altogether, clear sex differences…

  18. The Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 Lipopolysaccharide Is Not Only Relevant at Early Soybean Nodulation Stages but Also for Symbiosome Stability in Mature Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Margaret, Isabel; Lucas, M. Mercedes; Acosta-Jurado, Sebastián; Buendía-Clavería, Ana M.; Fedorova, Elena; Hidalgo, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Navarro, Dulce N.; Ruiz-Sainz, José E.; Vinardell, José M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have characterised the Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 greA lpsB lpsCDE genetic region and analysed for the first time the symbiotic performance of Sinorhizobium fredii lps mutants on soybean. The organization of the S. fredii HH103 greA, lpsB, and lpsCDE genes was equal to that of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. S. fredii HH103 greA, lpsB, and lpsE mutant derivatives produced altered LPS profiles that were characteristic of the gene mutated. In addition, S. fredii HH103 greA mutants showed a reduction in bacterial mobility and an increase of auto-agglutination in liquid cultures. RT-PCR and qPCR experiments demonstrated that the HH103 greA gene has a positive effect on the transcription of lpsB. Soybean plants inoculated with HH103 greA, lpsB or lpsE mutants formed numerous ineffective pseudonodules and showed severe symptoms of nitrogen starvation. However, HH103 greA and lps mutants were also able to induce the formation of a reduced number of soybean nodules of normal external morphology, allowing the possibility of studying the importance of bacterial LPS in later stages of the S. fredii HH103-soybean symbiosis. The infected cells of these nodules showed signs of early termination of symbiosis and lytical clearance of bacteroids. These cells also had very thick walls and accumulation of phenolic-like compounds, pointing to induced defense reactions. Our results show the importance of bacterial LPS in later stages of the S. fredii HH103-soybean symbiosis and their role in preventing host cell defense reactions. S. fredii HH103 lpsB mutants also showed reduced nodulation with Vigna unguiculata, although the symbiotic impairment was less pronounced than in soybean. PMID:24098345

  19. Skeletal maturation evaluation using mandibular second molar calcification stages.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Singla, Anu; Sharma, Rekha; Virdi, Mandeep S; Anupam, Anant; Mittal, Bindia

    2012-05-01

    To investigate (1) the relationships between the stages of mandibular second molar calcification and skeletal maturity; and (2) whether second molar calcification stages can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool to determine skeletal maturity. Samples were derived from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 300 subjects (137 males and 163 females) with ages ranging from 9 to 18 years, and estimates of dental maturity (Demirjian Index [DI]) and skeletal maturity (cervical vertebrae maturation indicators [CVMI]) were made. A highly significant association (C*  =  0.854 for males and 0.866 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). A highly significant association exists between DI and CVMI. Mandibular second molar DI stages are reliable indicators of skeletal maturity.

  20. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages.

    PubMed

    Džemidžić, Vildana; Tiro, Alisa; Zukanović, Amila; Redžić, Ismeta; Nakaš, Enita

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years). The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI), as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  1. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DENTAL AND SKELETAL MATURATION STAGES IN CROATIAN SUBJECTS.

    PubMed

    Srkoc, Tamara; Mestrović, Senka; Anić-Milosević, Sandra; Slaj, Mladen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and cervical vertebral maturation. The sample consisted of 295 subjects (129 male and 166 female), mean age 13.36 ± 2.65 (range 7-18) years. Dental age was evaluated from panoramic radiographs according to the method of Demirjian. Cervical vertebral maturation was determined on lateral cephalometric radiographs using cervical vertebrae maturation stages (CVS). For assessing the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation, percentage distributions of the stages of calcification for each studied tooth were calculated. Only in the first CVS stage, boys and girls were of the same age. In all other stages (CVS 2-CVS 6) girls were by 0.98 (range 0.23-1.86) younger than boys. Gender differences in the mineralization pattern were also observed. It was found that dental maturation was finished earlier in female subjects. The highest correlation coefficient between dental and skeletal maturity was found for second premolars. Mineralization pattern of second premolars could be considered as a guideline for prediction of the pubertal growth spurt. Dental maturation stages might be clinically useful as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  2. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C 37 and n-C 38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmans, Martin P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Lewan, Michael D.; Maxwell, James R.; Schaeffer, Philippe; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1997-06-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature ( Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330°C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C 37 and n-C 38 di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260°C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S- and O-bound n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons, saturated n-C 37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C 37 and C 38 mid-chain 2,5-di- n-alkylthiophenes, C 37 and C 38 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes, and C 37 and C 38n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S- and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons.

  3. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C37 and n-C38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Maxwell, J.R.; Schaeffer, P.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature (Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330??C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C37 and n-C38 di-and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260??C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S-and O-bound n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons, saturated n-C37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C37 and C38 mid-chain 2,5-di-n-alkylthiophenes, C37 and C38 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes, and C37 and C38 n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S-and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C37 and n-C38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  5. Correlation of skeletal maturation stages determined by cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist evaluations.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Burgess, Corr A; Champney, Mitchell; Jensen, Robert J; Pitcher, Micheal R; Major, Paul W

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the Fishman maturation prediction method (FMP) and the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for skeletal maturation stage determination. Hand-wrist and lateral cephalograms from 79 subjects (52 females and 27 males) were used. Hand-wrist radiographs were analyzed using the FMP to determine skeletal maturation level (advanced, average, or delayed) and stage (relative position of the individual in the pubertal growth curve). Cervical vertebrae (C2, C3, and C4) outlines obtained from lateral cephalograms were analyzed using the CVM to determine skeletal maturation stage. Intraexaminer reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) for both methods was calculated from 10 triplicate hand-wrist and lateral cephalograms from the same patients. An ICC coefficient of 0.985 for FMP and an ICC of 0.889 for CVM were obtained. A Spearman correlation value of 0.72 (P < .001) was found between the skeletal maturation stages of both methods. When the sample was subgrouped according to skeletal maturation level, the following correlation values were found: for early mature adolescents 0.73, for average mature adolescents 0.70, and for late mature adolescents 0.87. All these correlation values were statistically different from zero (P < .024). Correlation values between both skeletal maturation methods were moderately high. This may be high enough to use either of the methods indistinctively for research purposes but not for the assessment of individual patients. Skeletal level influences the correlation values and, therefore, it should be considered whenever possible.

  6. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  7. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S.; Conner, James M.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. PMID:25505106

  8. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  9. Early stages of soldering reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A.

    2005-09-15

    An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with themore » theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.« less

  10. [Local injection of exogenous nerve growth factor improves early bone maturation of implants].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Du, Yu; Gu, Xia; Guang, Meng-Kai; Huang, Bo; Gong, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the osteogenic action of implants and the maturation and reconstruction changes in bone tissues in the early stage of osseointegration. The mouse implant model was established by placing titanium in the femoral head of the mouse and locally injecting NGF in the implant zone. On 1, 2 and 4 weeks after operation, stain samples were collected from animals using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining. The effect of NGF on the bone maturation was compared at different time points of early stage osseointegration. The results of HE and Masson staining indicated that the local injection of external NGF can up-regulate bone mass, amount of bone trabecula, and bone maturity in the mouse model. The mature bone rate in treatment group of 1 week and 4 weeks after operation were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). NGF can shorten the period of bone maturation.

  11. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  12. Sexual Maturity and Life Stage Influences Toxic Metal Accumulation in Croatian Brown Bears.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Orct, Tatjana; Reljić, Slaven; Jurasović, Jasna; Huber, Đuro

    2018-02-01

    The influence of reproductive and (early) life stages on toxic metal levels was investigated in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the largest mammalian predator species in Croatia. The purpose was to examine critical clusters in a population that might be at a higher risk of adverse health effects caused by metals as environmental contaminants. Levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in muscle, liver and kidney cortex of 325 male and 139 female bears, quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were analysed according to distinct bear life stages (young: cub, yearling, subadult; mature: adult). Metal levels did not differ among sexes in young animals (< 4 years), except for mercury in muscles (higher in females), and adult females had higher cadmium and mercury. A trend of renal cadmium accumulation with age in immature male animals disappeared once they reached maturity, whereas for females this trend has only slowly declined in mature compared to immature bears. In early life stage (< 1 year), bear cubs had lower cadmium, comparable mercury, and higher lead in the kidneys than the bears of the following age category (yearlings). Due to a higher proportion of renal lead transfer from the mother to the cub compared with cadmium, it may be that the high burden of cadmium found in kidneys of older females has lower toxicological concern for their cubs than the lead content. Sex, reproductive, and life stages of bears were confirmed as important in assessing toxic metal burden.

  13. Maturity Group Classification and Maturity Locus Genotyping of Early-Maturing Soybean Varieties from High-Latitude Cold Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    Background With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Methods Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15′, E 127°27′, H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. Results The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. Conclusion HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially. PMID:24740097

  14. Proteomic analysis of 'Zaosu' pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its early-maturing bud sport.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Zhai, Rui; Feng, Wenting; Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Zhigang; Qiu, Zonghao; Zhang, Junke; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2014-07-01

    Maturation of fruits involves a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes that eventually make fleshy fruits attractive, palatable, and nutritional. In order to understand the mature mechanism of the early-maturing bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear, we analyzed the differences of proteome expression between the both pears in different mature stages by the methods of a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Seventy-five differential expressed protein spots (p<0.05) were obtained between 'Zaosu' pear and its early-maturing bud sport, but only sixty-eight were demonstratively identified in the database of NCBI and uniprot. The majority of proteins were linked to metabolism, energy, stress response/defense and cell structure. Additionally, our data confirmed an increase of proteins related to cell-wall modification, oxidative stress and pentose phosphate metabolism and a decrease of proteins related to photosynthesis and glycolysis during the development process of both pears, but all these proteins increased or decreased faster in the early-maturing bud sport. This comparative analysis between both pears showed that these proteins were closely associated with maturation and could provide more detailed characteristics of the maturation process of both pears. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insight into phagocytosis of mature sexual (gametocyte) stages of Plasmodium falciparum using a human monocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Geetha P; Weinstein, Corey S; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2016-05-01

    During natural infection malaria parasites are injected into the bloodstream of a human host by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Both asexual and mature sexual stages of Plasmodium circulate in the blood. Asexual forms are responsible for clinical malaria while sexual stages are responsible for continued transmission via the mosquitoes. Immune responses generated against various life cycle stages of the parasite have important roles in resistance to malaria and in reducing malaria transmission. Phagocytosis of free merozoites and erythrocytic asexual stages has been well studied, but very little is known about similar phagocytic clearance of mature sexual stages, which are critical for transmission. We evaluated phagocytic uptake of mature sexual (gametocyte) stage parasites by a human monocyte cell line in the absence of immune sera. We found that intact mature stages do not undergo phagocytosis, unless they are either killed or freed from erythrocytes. In view of this observation, we propose that the inability of mature gametocytes to be phagocytized may actually result in malaria transmission advantage. On the other hand, mature gametocytes that are not transmitted to mosquitoes during infection will eventually die and undergo phagocytosis, initiating immune responses that may have transmission blocking potential. A better understanding of early phagocytic clearance and immune responses to gametocytes may identify additional targets for transmission blocking strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Challenge of Sexual Maturation in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This fifth chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" looks at the issue of sexual maturation in early adolescence via four articles. "The Counselor's Impact on Middle-Grade Students," by Hershel Thornburg, examines physical, intellectual, and social developmental tasks of early adolescence. "Contraceptive and Sexuality Knowledge…

  17. Maturational differences in physical self- perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Niven, Alisa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Knowles, Anne-Marie; Stephenson, Claire

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between physical self-perceptions (PSPs), maturation, and physical activity and compared the strength of the relationships of biological and chronological age with PSPs in early adolescent girls (N = 208; mean age = 11.83 +/- 0.39 years). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile, and the Pubertal Development Scale. Results indicated that PSPs were significantly and moderately correlated with physical activity. There were no differences in physical activity between maturation stages. Girls who were in the early stages of maturation had significantly more positive perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth than girls in the mid stages of maturation. There was no evidence of a relationship between PSPs and chronological age. This study provided further support for the relationship between PSPs and physical activity and the relationship between maturation and aspects of PSPs. In this age group, maturation does not appear to be related to physical activity or the PSPs most strongly influential on physical activity behavior.

  18. Early stages of zeolite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    Zeolites are crystalline nonporous aluminosilicates with important applications in separation, purification, and adsorption of liquid and gaseous molecules. However, an ability to tailor the zeolite microstructure, such as particle size/shape and pore-size, to make it benign for specific application requires control over nucleation and particle growth processes. But, the nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of zeolites are not fully understood. In this context, the synthesis of an all-silica zeolite with MFI-type framework has been studied extensively as a model system. Throughout chapters 2, 4 and 5, MFI growth process has been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Of fundamental importance is the role of nanoparticles (~5 nm), which are present in the precursor sol, in MFI nucleation and crystallization. Formation of amorphous aggregates and their internal restructuring are concluded as essential steps in MFI nucleation. Early stage zeolite particles have disordered and less crystalline regions within, which indicates the role of structurally distributed population of nanoparticles in growth. Faceting occurs after the depletion of nanoparticles. The chapter 6 presents growth studies in silica sols prepared by using a dimer of tertaprpylammonium (TPA) and reports that MFI nucleation and crystallization are delayed with a more pronounced delay in crystal growth.

  19. Radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages for orthodontic patients: hand-wrist bones or cervical vertebrae?

    PubMed

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Chen, Mu-Hsiung; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-04-01

    The skeletal maturation status of a growing patient can influence the selection of orthodontic treatment procedures. Either lateral cephalometric or hand-wrist radiography can be used to assess skeletal development. In this study, we examined the correlation between the maturation stages of cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist bones in Taiwanese individuals. The study group consisted of 330 male and 379 female subjects ranging in age from 8 to 18 years. A total of 709 hand-wrist and 709 lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were assessed using National Taiwan University Hospital Skeletal Maturation Index (NTUH-SMI). Cervical vertebral maturation stages were determined by the latest Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stage (CVMS) Index. Spearman's rank correlation was used to correlate the respective maturation stages assessed from the hand-wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae. The values of Spearman's rank correlation were 0.910 for males and 0.937 for females, respectively. These data confirmed a strong and significant correlation between CVMS and NTUH-SMI systems (p less than 0.001). After comparison of the mean ages of subjects in different stages of CVMS and NTU-SMI systems, we found that CVMS I corresponded to NTUH-SMI stages 1 and 2, CVMS II to NTUH-SMI stage 3, CVMS III to NTUHSMI stage 4, CVMS IV to NTUH-SMI stage 5, CVMS V to NTUH-SMI stages 6, 7 and 8, and CVMS VI to NTUH-SMI stage 9. Our results indicate that cervical vertebral maturation stages can be used to replace hand-wrist bone maturation stages for evaluation of skeletal maturity in Taiwanese individuals.

  20. Host-mediated impairment of parasite maturation during blood-stage Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, David S.; Cromer, Deborah; Akter, Jasmin; Sebina, Ismail; Elliott, Trish; Thomas, Bryce S.; Soon, Megan S. F.; James, Kylie R.; Best, Shannon E.; Haque, Ashraful; Davenport, Miles P.

    2017-01-01

    Severe malaria and associated high parasite burdens occur more frequently in humans lacking robust adaptive immunity to Plasmodium falciparum. Nevertheless, the host may partly control blood-stage parasite numbers while adaptive immunity is gradually established. Parasite control has typically been attributed to enhanced removal of parasites by the host, although in vivo quantification of this phenomenon remains challenging. We used a unique in vivo approach to determine the fate of a single cohort of semisynchronous, Plasmodium berghei ANKA- or Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL-parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) after transfusion into naive or acutely infected mice. As previously shown, acutely infected mice, with ongoing splenic and systemic inflammatory responses, controlled parasite population growth more effectively than naive controls. Surprisingly, however, this was not associated with accelerated removal of pRBCs from circulation. Instead, transfused pRBCs remained in circulation longer in acutely infected mice. Flow cytometric assessment and mathematical modeling of intraerythrocytic parasite development revealed an unexpected and substantial slowing of parasite maturation in acutely infected mice, extending the life cycle from 24 h to 40 h. Importantly, impaired parasite maturation was the major contributor to control of parasite growth in acutely infected mice. Moreover, by performing the same experiments in rag1−/− mice, which lack T and B cells and mount weak inflammatory responses, we revealed that impaired parasite maturation is largely dependent upon the host response to infection. Thus, impairment of parasite maturation represents a host-mediated, immune system-dependent mechanism for limiting parasite population growth during the early stages of an acute blood-stage Plasmodium infection. PMID:28673996

  1. Evaluation of portable near infrared spectrophotometer to stage maturity in channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gonadal maturity of channel catfish varies within the same cohort of fish. Female channel catfish with superior maturity need to be identified and staged for higher success to induce spawn wit ovulating hormones to produce channel x blue hybrid catfish fry in hatcheries. Maturation is not synchron...

  2. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    SciTech Connect

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J.; Austin, II, Jotham

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generatemore » partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Lastly, our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins.« less

  3. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    DOE PAGES

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J.; Austin, II, Jotham; ...

    2015-12-28

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generatemore » partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Lastly, our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins.« less

  4. Distinct Prominent Roles for Enzymes of Plasmodium berghei Heme Biosynthesis in Sporozoite and Liver Stage Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Matuschewski, Kai; Haussig, Joana M.

    2016-01-01

    Malarial parasites have evolved complex regulation of heme supply and disposal to adjust to heme-rich and -deprived host environments. In addition to its own pathway for heme biosynthesis, Plasmodium likely harbors mechanisms for heme scavenging from host erythrocytes. Elaborate compartmentalization of de novo heme synthesis into three subcellular locations, including the vestigial plastid organelle, indicates critical roles in life cycle progression. In this study, we systematically profile the essentiality of heme biosynthesis by targeted gene deletion of enzymes in early steps of this pathway. We show that disruption of endogenous heme biosynthesis leads to a first detectable defect in oocyst maturation and sporogony in the Anopheles vector, whereas blood stage propagation, colonization of mosquito midguts, or initiation of oocyst development occurs indistinguishably from that of wild-type parasites. Although sporozoites are produced by parasites lacking an intact pathway for heme biosynthesis, they are absent from mosquito salivary glands, indicative of a vital role for heme biosynthesis only in sporozoite maturation. Rescue of the first defect in sporogony permitted analysis of potential roles in liver stages. We show that liver stage parasites benefit from but do not strictly depend upon their own aminolevulinic acid synthase and that they can scavenge aminolevulinic acid from the host environment. Together, our experimental genetics analysis of Plasmodium enzymes for heme biosynthesis exemplifies remarkable shifts between the use of endogenous and host resources during life cycle progression. PMID:27600503

  5. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tooth mineralization stages as a diagnostic tool for assessment of skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Sharmila; Thomas, Eapen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dental calcification can be used as a first-level diagnostic tool for assessment of skeletal maturity. A total of 150 healthy subjects (79 boys, 71 girls; mean age, 12.19 ± 2.03 years; range, 8-16 years) were enrolled in the study. Dental maturity was assessed through the calcification stages from panoramic radiographs of the mandibular canine, the first and second premolars, and the second molar. Determination of skeletal maturity was according to the modified middle phalanx of third finger (MP3) stages method on digital radiographs. Diagnostic ability was evaluated according to the dental maturation stages for each tooth for identification of the MP3 stages and the growth phases (prepubertal, pubertal, postpubertal) using positive likelihood ratios. Dental maturation stage E of the first premolars and the combination of canine stage F, first premolar stage E, second premolar stage E, and second molar stage D (FEED) gave the highest values for identification of the prepubertal growth phase, and stage H of the second molar had the highest value for identification of the postpubertal growth phase. Dental maturation assessment is only useful for diagnosis of the prepubertal and postpubertal growth phases. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between growth stunting with dental development and skeletal maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Mauricio, Franco Raul; Orellana, Maria Fernanda; Major, Paul William

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of growth stunting on the maturation stage of the medium phalanx of the third finger (MP3) and the dental development of the left mandibular canine in 280 high school children (140 stunted and 140 normal controls; equally distributed by sex) between 9.5 and 16.5 years of age, from a representative Peruvian school. Periapical radiographs of the MP3 from the left hand were used to determine the skeletal maturity stage, according to an adaptation of the Hägg and Taranger method. Panoramic radiographs were used to determine the dental maturity stage of the lower left canine, according to Demirjian method. Stunting was determined by relating height and age, according to the World Health Organization recommendations. There was no statistically significant difference in the skeletal maturation stage (P = .134) and the dental development stage (P = .497) according to nutritional status, even when considering different age groups (P > .183). A high correlation (r = 0.85) was found between both maturity indicators regardless of the nutritional status (growth stunted, r = 0.855 and normal controls, r = 0.863) or sex (boys, r = 0.809 and girls, r = 0.892). When skeletal level was considered, correlations values were similar between advanced (r = 0.903) and average (r = 0.895) maturers but lower (r = 0.751) for delayed maturers. Growth stunting was not associated with dental development and skeletal maturity stages in Peruvian school children.

  8. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Wandawi, H. K.; Abdul-Rahman, M. H.; Al-Shaickley, K. A.

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L.,var.Monte carlo) have been Y-irradiated (100-400Krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100,200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hour after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples . on the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and °Brix of tomatoes.

  9. Landing Kinematics in Elite Male Youth Soccer Players of Different Chronologic Ages and Stages of Maturation.

    PubMed

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2018-04-01

      Despite the high frequency of knee injuries in athletes, few researchers have studied the effects of chronologic age and stage of maturation on knee-joint kinematics in male youth soccer players.   To use a coach-friendly screening tool to examine knee-valgus scores for players of different ages and at different stages of maturation.   Cross-sectional study.   Academy soccer clubs.   A total of 400 elite male youth soccer players aged 10 to 18 years categorized by chronologic age and stage of maturation based on their years from peak height velocity (PHV).   Knee valgus was evaluated during the tuck-jump assessment via 2-dimensional analysis. Frontal-plane projection angles were subjectively classified as minor (<10°), moderate (10°-20°), or severe (>20°), and using these classifications, we scored knee valgus in the tuck jump as 0 ( no valgus), 1 ( minor), 2 ( moderate), or 3 ( severe).   A trend toward higher valgus scores was observed in the younger age groups and the pre-PHV group. The lowest frequency of no valgus occurred in the U18 and post-PHV groups. The highest percentages of severe scores were in the U13 and pre-PHV groups for the right limb. Knee-valgus scores were lower for both lower extremities in the U18 group than in all other age groups ( P < .001) except the U16 group. Scores were lower for the post-PHV than the pre-PHV group for the right limb ( P < .001) and both pre-PHV and circa-PHV groups for the left limb ( P < .001). Noteworthy interlimb asymmetries were evident in the U14, U15, and circa-PHV groups.   Reductions in knee valgus with incremental age and during the later stages of maturation indicated that this risk factor was more prevalent in younger players. Interlimb asymmetry may also emerge around the time of the peak growth spurt and early adolescence, potentially increasing the risk of traumatic injury.

  10. Faculty Development: A Stage Model Matched to Blended Learning Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, Michael L.; Duby, Tova Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Faculty development programs are critical to the implementation and support of curriculum innovation. In this case study, the authors present lessons learned from ten years of experience in faculty development programs created to support innovation in technology enhanced learning. Stages of curriculum innovation are matched to stages of faculty…

  11. A Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luong, Ming; Stevens, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success, a theoretical stages-of-growth model, explains long-term success in IT outsourcing relationships. Research showed the IT outsourcing relationship life cycle consists of four distinct, sequential stages: contract, transition, support, and partnership. The model was…

  12. Anthocyanins and antioxidant activity in coloured waxy corn at different maturation stages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concentrations of anthocyanins, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in kernels of 20 genotypes of waxy corn were investigated at two maturation stages, namely milky and mature. The levels of anthocyanins increased throughout the development of each genotype of corn, while phenolic compound...

  13. The RY/Sph element mediates transcriptional repression of maturation genes from late maturation to early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Gea; Martin, Nathalie; Golovko, Anna; Sundström, Jens F; Rask, Lars; Ezcurra, Ines

    2009-11-01

    In orthodox seeds, the transcriptional activator ABI3 regulates two major stages in embryo maturation: a mid-maturation (MAT) stage leading to accumulation of storage compounds, and a late maturation (LEA) stage leading to quiescence and desiccation tolerance. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms for transcriptional shutdown of MAT genes during late maturation, to better understand phase transition between MAT and LEA stages. Using transgenic and transient approaches in Nicotiana, we examined activities of two ABI3-dependent reporter genes driven by multimeric RY and abscisic acid response elements (ABREs) from a Brassica napus napin gene, termed RY and ABRE, where the RY reporter requires ABI3 DNA binding. Expression of RY peaks during mid-maturation and drops during late maturation, mimicking the MAT gene program, and in Arabidopsis thaliana RY elements are over-represented in MAT, but not in LEA, genes. The ABI3 transactivation of RY is inhibited by staurosporine, by a PP2C phosphatase, and by a repressor of maturation genes, VAL1/HSI2. The RY element mediates repression of MAT genes, and we propose that transcriptional shutdown of the MAT program during late maturation involves inhibition of ABI3 DNA binding by dephosphorylation. Later, during seedling growth, VAL1/HSI2 family repressors silence MAT genes by binding RY elements.

  14. Plasma Cholesterol–Induced Lesion Networks Activated before Regression of Early, Mature, and Advanced Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Hägg, Sara; Jain, Rajeev K.; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr−/−Apob 100/100 Mttp flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24586211

  15. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J; Austin, Jotham; Glick, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generate partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13232.001 PMID:26709839

  16. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  17. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low

  18. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cun-Quan; Sun, Yu-Han; Li, Yun-Fei; Zhao, Ke-Qi; Hu, Rui-Yang; Li, Yun

    2014-03-21

    Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia.

  19. Relationship between age at menarche and skeletal maturation stages in Taiwanese female orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Jane Yao, Chung-Chen; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-07-01

    The age at menarche reflects a pubertal girl's physiologic maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the age at menarche and skeletal maturation in female orthodontic patients. Hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs from 304 adolescent female subjects (age, 8-18.9 years) were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Hand-wrist bone maturation stages were assessed using the NTUH Skeletal Maturation Index (NTUH-SMI). Cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS) were determined using the latest CVMS Index. Menarcheal ages were self-reported by the patients and verified by the patients' mothers. The relationships between the NTUH-SMI or CVM stages and menarcheal status were investigated. More than 90% of the 148 subjects who had already attained menstruation had skeletal maturation beyond the NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III. However, the subjects who had never experienced menarche mostly had skeletal maturation before NTUH-SMI stage five or CVMS IV. During the period of orthodontic treatment, 19 females experienced their menarche. The mean age at menarche for the 167 female patients in total was 11.97 years. In average, menarche occurred between NTUH-SMI stages four and five or between CVM stages III and IV. The percentage of girls with menses increased from 1.2% at age 9 to 6.6% at age 10, 39.5% at age 11, 81.4% at age 12, 97% at age 13, and 100% at age 14. Compared with the results obtained 20 years previously, we found a downward shift of 0.47 years per decade for the mean age at menarche in female orthodontic patients. The majority of female orthodontic patients have passed the pubertal growth spurt when they experience their menarche. Menarche usually follows the pubertal growth spurt by about 1 year and occurs after NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III.

  20. Chlorpyrifos degradation in a biomixture of biobed at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Tortella, G R; Rubilar, O; Castillo, M d P; Cea, M; Mella-Herrera, R; Diez, M C

    2012-06-01

    The biomixture is a principal element controlling the degradation efficacy of the biobed. The maturity of the biomixture used in the biobed affects its overall performance of the biobed, but this is not well studied yet. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of using a typical composition of Swedish biomixture at different maturity stages on the degradation of chlorpyrifos. Tests were made using biomixture at three maturity stages: 0 d (BC0), 15 d (BC15) and 30 d (BC30); chlorpyrifos was added to the biobeds at final concentration of 200, 320 and 480 mg kg(-1). Chlorpyrifos degradation in the biomixture was monitored over time. Formation of TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol) was also quantified, and hydrolytic and phenoloxidase activities measured. The biomixture efficiently degraded chlorpyrifos (degradation efficiency >50%) in all the evaluated maturity stages. However, chlorpyrifos degradation decreased with increasing concentrations of the pesticide. TCP formation occurred in all biomixtures, but a major accumulation was observed in BC30. Significant differences were found in both phenoloxidase and hydrolytic activities in the three maturity stages of biomixture evaluated. Also, these two biological activities were affected by the increase in pesticide concentration. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that chlorpyrifos can be degraded efficiently in all the evaluated maturity stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer Based Assessment of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Using Digital Lateral Cephalograms.

    PubMed

    Dzemidzic, Vildana; Sokic, Emir; Tiro, Alisa; Nakas, Enita

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the reliability of a computer application for assessment of the stages of cervical vertebra maturation in order to determine the stage of skeletal maturity. For this study, digital lateral cephalograms of 99 subjects (52 females and 47 males) were examined. The following selection criteria were used during the sample composition: age between 9 and 16 years, absence of anomalies of the vertebrae, good general health, no history of trauma at the cervical region. Subjects with lateral cephalograms of low quality were excluded from the study. For the purpose of this study a computer application Cephalometar HF V1 was developed. This application was used to mark the contours of the second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae on the digital lateral cephalograms, which enabled a computer to determine the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. The assessment of the stages of cervical vertebral maturation was carried out by an experienced orthodontist. The assessment was conducted according to the principles of the method proposed by authors Hassel and Farman. The degree of the agreement between the computer application and the researcher was analyzed using by statistical Cohen Kappa test. The results of this study showed the agreement between the computer assessment and the researcher assessment of the cervical vertebral maturation stages, where the value of the Cohen Kappa coefficient was 0.985. The computer application Cephalometar HF V1 proved to be a reliable method for assessing the stages of cervical vertebral maturation. This program could help the orthodontists to identify the stage of cervical vertebral maturation when planning the orthodontic treatment for the patients with skeletal disharmonies.

  2. Evaluation of genetic variability among "Early Mature" Juglans regia using microsatellite markers and morphological traits.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Aziz; Zarei, Abdolkarim; Zamani Fardadonbeh, Mojtaba; Lawson, Shaneka

    2017-01-01

    Limiting the juvenile phase and reducing tree size are the two main challenges for breeders to improve most fruit crops. Early maturation and dwarf cultivars have been reported for many fruit species. "Early mature" and low vigor walnut genotypes were found among seedlings of Persian walnut. Nine microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity among "Early Mature" Persian walnut accessions and provide a comparison with "normal growth" accessions. Six maturation related characteristics were also measured in "Early Mature" samples. Phenotypic traits and diversity indices showed relatively high levels of genetic diversity in "Early Mature" seedlings and indicated high differentiation between individuals. Seedling height, the most diverse phenotypic trait, has an important role in the clustering of "Early Mature" accessions. The "Early Mature" type had higher number of alleles, number of effective allele, and Shannon index compared to the "Normal Growth" group. The two types of studied walnuts had different alleles, with more than half of produced alleles specific to a specific group. "Early Mature" and "Normal Growth" walnuts had 27 and 17 private alleles, respectively. Grouping with different methods separated "Early Mature" and "Normal Growth" samples entirely. The presence of moderate to high genetic diversity in "Early Mature" walnuts and high genetic differentiation with "Normal Growth" walnuts, indicated that "Early Mature" walnuts were more diverse and distinct from "Normal Growth" samples. Moreover, our results showed SSR markers were useful for differentiating between "Early Mature" and "Normal Growth" walnuts. A number of identified loci have potential in breeding programs for identification of "Early Mature" walnuts at the germination phase.

  3. [Influence of different processing methods and mature stages on 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Na; Xie, Xiao-Liang; Yang, Tai-Xin; Zhang, Cun-Li; Jia, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Ming; Wen, Chun-Xiu

    2014-04-01

    To study the different mature stages and the best processing methods on the quality of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds. The content of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol in Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds was determined by HPLC. The sample of different mature stages such as immature, near mature and fully mature and processed by different methods were studied. Fully mature Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds were better than the immatured, and the best processing method was dried under 60degrees C, the content of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol reached up to 131.63microlg/mL. Different processing methods and different mature stages had a significant influence on the quality of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds.

  4. Mechanical factors direct mouse aortic remodelling during early maturation

    PubMed Central

    Le, Victoria P.; Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Kim, Jungsil; Staiculescu, Marius C.; Ficker, Shawn W.; Sheth, Saahil C.; Bhayani, Siddharth A.; Mecham, Robert P.; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous diseases have been linked to genetic mutations that lead to reduced amounts or disorganization of arterial elastic fibres. Previous work has shown that mice with reduced amounts of elastin (Eln+/−) are able to live a normal lifespan through cardiovascular adaptations, including changes in haemodynamic stresses, arterial geometry and arterial wall mechanics. It is not known if the timeline and presence of these adaptations are consistent in other mouse models of elastic fibre disease, such as those caused by the absence of fibulin-5 expression (Fbln5−/−). Adult Fbln5−/− mice have disorganized elastic fibres, decreased arterial compliance and high blood pressure. We examined mechanical behaviour of the aorta in Fbln5−/− mice through early maturation when the elastic fibres are being assembled. We found that the physiologic circumferential stretch, stress and modulus of Fbln5−/− aorta are maintained near wild-type levels. Constitutive modelling suggests that elastin contributions to the total stress are decreased, whereas collagen contributions are increased. Understanding how collagen fibre structure and mechanics compensate for defective elastic fibres to meet the mechanical requirements of the maturing aorta may help to better understand arterial remodelling in human elastinopathies. PMID:25652465

  5. Chemical profile and antioxidant capacity verification of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) fruits at different stages of maturation

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Heverton M.; Rodrigues, Fabíola F. G.; Costa, Wégila D.; Nonato, Carla de F. A.; Rodrigues, Fábio F. G.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth L.; Costa, José G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), a common plant in Cariri region, Ceara, Brazil, as well as in various parts of the world, contains high concentrations of bioactive compounds and in many communities its parts are used for therapeutic purposes. Studies describe antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diarrheal actions from extracts obtained from leaves, but information about the activities of the fruits and comparison of these at different maturity stages (immature, partially mature and mature) are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant properties by quantifying the levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C of P. guajava fruits at different stages of maturation. The content of phenolic compounds for the immature fruit, partially mature and mature were: 22.41; 34.61 and 32.92 mg of AG/g fraction. The flavonoid content for immature fruits, intermediate and mature were: 2.83; 5.10 and 5.65 mg RUT/g fraction, respectively. Following the same standards of maturation stages, the ascorbic acid content was determined with values of 0.48; 0.38 and 0.21 mg AA/g fraction, respectively. HPLC analysis identified and quantified the presence of gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, glycosylated campeferol, tocopherol, β-carotene and lycopene. The antioxidant activity carried out by DPPH method showed the mature fruits bearing the best results, whereas chelation of Fe2+ ions showed higher percentage for the immature fruit. The results obtained by lipidic peroxidation were not satisfactory. PMID:26933403

  6. Evaluation of skeletal maturity using maxillary canine, mandibular second and third molar calcification stages.

    PubMed

    Trakinienė, Giedrė; Smailienė, Dalia; Kučiauskienė, Ainė

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the calcification stages of maxillary canine, mandibular second molar, and mandibular third molar can be used for assessment of growth phase. The study group consisted of 274 subjects. Pre-treatment digital panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs of the patients were analysed. The patients' age was ranging from 7 to 19 years. Right maxillary canine, mandibular second molar and third molar were used as a sample. The teeth mineralization was assessed using modification of Gleiser and Hunt method. The skeletal maturation was assessed by the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method. A significant association was found between CVM stage 2 and maxillary canine (UC) stage 4, mandibular second molar (LM2) stage 4, and mandibular third molar (LM3) stage 1. CVM stage 3 corresponded with UC stage 5, LM2 stage 5, LM3 stage 2. CVM stage 4 matched with UC stage 5, LM2 stage 6 and LM3 stage 3. The highest correlations between CVM and calcification stages were in the group of the maxillary canine (r = 0.812, P < 0.01) and mandibular second molar (r = 0.824, P < 0.01). Limitation of our study was that the study sample was not very big and the distribution value in the groups was very high, so it was impossible to check more statistical parameters. The calcification stages of UC, LM2, and LM3 as indicators of skeletal maturity could be clinically used with caution, until this method is verified with a larger sample group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Differential maturation of rhythmic clock gene expression during early development in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Ines H; Lahiri, Kajori; Lopez-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Loosli, Felix; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Vallone, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    One key challenge for the field of chronobiology is to identify how circadian clock function emerges during early embryonic development. Teleosts such as the zebrafish are ideal models for studying circadian clock ontogeny since the entire process of development occurs ex utero in an optically transparent chorion. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) represents another powerful fish model for exploring early clock function with, like the zebrafish, many tools available for detailed genetic analysis. However, to date there have been no reports documenting circadian clock gene expression during medaka development. Here we have characterized the expression of key clock genes in various developmental stages and in adult tissues of medaka. As previously reported for other fish, light dark cycles are required for the emergence of clock gene expression rhythms in this species. While rhythmic expression of per and cry genes is detected very early during development and seems to be light driven, rhythmic clock and bmal expression appears much later around hatching time. Furthermore, the maturation of clock function seems to correlate with the appearance of rhythmic expression of these positive elements of the clock feedback loop. By accelerating development through elevated temperatures or by artificially removing the chorion, we show an earlier onset of rhythmicity in clock and bmal expression. Thus, differential maturation of key elements of the medaka clock mechanism depends on the developmental stage and the presence of the chorion.

  8. The relationship between salivary insulin-like growth factor I and quantitative cervical maturational stages of skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Subash; Bhad Patil, Wasundhara A; Doshi, Umal Hiralal

    2014-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) has been used as an indicator of growth hormone levels and hence can also be used as a marker of growth. The main objective of the study was to quantify salivary IGF-I levels and its secretion rate at different quantitative cervical maturation (QCVM) stages and evaluate a possible role for salivary IGF-I in evaluating skeletal growth. Forty-five subjects (24 female, 21 male) between the ages of 7 and 23 years were included in the study. Each subject had personal information, a lateral cephalogram, and a parotid saliva sample collected on the same day. Salivary IGF-I levels and salivary secretion rates were lowest at QCVM skeletal stages previously associated with the acceleration phase of mandibular growth. Highest levels were found at the high velocity stage. After this there was gradual drop in salivary IGF-I levels and secretion rate at deceleration and completing velocity stages. Relatively high levels in the decelerating velocity stage may be an indication of residual skeletal growth. There was a negative correlation between patient age and levels of IGF-I and its secretion rate, once growth velocity decreased. Salivary IGF-I levels or its secretion rate can be used as an indicator of skeletal growth but longitudinal data are necessary to confirm salivary IGF-I as a marker for skeletal growth prediction and residual mandibular growth. © 2014 British Orthodontic Society.

  9. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gut microbial functional maturation and succession during human early life.

    PubMed

    Cerdó, Tomás; Ruiz, Alicia; Acuña, Inmaculada; Jáuregui, Ruy; Jehmlich, Nico; Haange, Sven-Bastian; von Bergen, Martin; Suárez, Antonio; Campoy, Cristina

    2018-04-24

    The evolutional trajectory of gut microbial colonization from birth has been shown to prime for health later in life. Here, we combined cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics to investigate the functional maturation of gut microbiota in faecal samples from full-term healthy infants collected at 6 and 18 months of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the metaproteomes showed that Bifidobacterium provided the highest number of distinct protein groups. Considerable divergences between taxa abundance and protein phylogeny were observed at all taxonomic ranks. Age had a profound effect on early microbiota where compositional and functional diversity of less dissimilar communities increased with time. Comparisons of the relative abundances of proteins revealed the transition of taxon-associated saccharolytic and fermentation strategies from milk and mucin-derived monosaccharide catabolism feeding acetate/propanoate synthesis to complex food-derived hexoses fuelling butanoate production. Furthermore, co-occurrence network analysis uncovered two anti-correlated modules of functional taxa. A low-connected Bifidobacteriaceae-centred guild of facultative anaerobes was succeeded by a rich club of obligate anaerobes densely interconnected around Lachnospiraceae, underpinning their pivotal roles in microbial ecosystem assemblies. Our findings establish a framework to visualize whole microbial community metabolism and ecosystem succession dynamics, proposing opportunities for microbiota-targeted health-promoting strategies early in life. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Racial and sex differences in timing of the cervical vertebrae maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Montasser, Mona A; Viana, Grace; Evans, Carla A

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to investigate skeletal maturation of female and male subjects from different racial groups by comparing the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) stages. The study included 3 racial groups: white, African American, and Hispanic subjects. Each group was subdivided into female and male. The age range of the subjects was between 7 and 18 years. The sample included 60 lateral cephalographs for each subgroup. Skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae was assessed according to a method that described 6 CVM stages. Racial differences were evident in the mean ages of CVM stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 (P = 0.002; P = 0.003; P = 0.001; and P = 0.001, respectively) among females; among males, only stage 3 was different (P = 0.001). Sex differences in the mean ages of stages 1, 2, and 3 in Hispanic subjects (P <0.001), and in stages 2 and 3 in African American subjects (P = 0.019 and P <0.001) and white subjects (P = 0.004 and P <0.001) were detected. In both sexes, racial differences were not apparent between whites and African Americans, but differences were evident between Hispanics vs both whites and African Americans. Sex differences were apparent between the sexes in each of the 3 ethnic groups in CVM stages 2 and 3. No sex differences were detected in stages 4, 5, or 6 in any of the 3 racial groups. It is recommended to consider racial and sex differences when using the CVM stage as a skeletal maturation indicator. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early-stage aeolian protodune development and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, J. M.; Baddock, M. C.; Wiggs, G.

    2017-12-01

    Early-stage bedforms, or protodunes, can be observed to form on sandy beaches, desert gravels or superimposed on the surfaces of larger dunes and can develop topography of 0.1 m or more over several hours. These protodunes are the precursors to embryo and eventually mature dunes, and so it is important to understand how feedbacks between flow, transport and form contribute to this development sequence. Whilst theory and conceptual models have offered some explanation for protodune existence and development, we know surprisingly little about how these bedforms initiate and migrate because it is difficult to measure small changes in form (millimetres; seconds) on highly active surfaces of limited topographic expression. Here, we employ terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to measure morphological change at the high frequency and spatial resolution (sub-millimetre) required to gain new insights into protodune behaviour. Along with TLS derived saltation and surface moisture, additional sediment flux and windspeed measurements help to elucidate how the protodune topography interacts with airflow and sand transport. We focus on a number of coastal bedforms in various development stages including a 0.06 m high protodune which grew vertically by 0.005 m in two hours with the switch from erosion to deposition identified to occur at a point 0.07 m upwind of the crest. This growth was associated with a reduction in time-averaged sediment flux of 18% over the crestal region. We also observed a decline in lower stoss slope steepness (by 3°) and a steepening of the lee slope, indicating a reshaping of initial protodune form towards the morphology of a more mature dune. Our findings highlight the crucial role of form-flow feedbacks, even on very small bedforms, in driving early-stage bedform growth and development, and show how the use of high resolution TLS to measure both surface topography and grains moving above the surface, can offer new insights into a long standing deficiency

  13. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  14. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  15. The early stages of duplicate gene evolution

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard C.; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Gene duplications are one of the primary driving forces in the evolution of genomes and genetic systems. Gene duplicates account for 8–20% of the genes in eukaryotic genomes, and the rates of gene duplication are estimated at between 0.2% and 2% per gene per million years. Duplicate genes are believed to be a major mechanism for the establishment of new gene functions and the generation of evolutionary novelty, yet very little is known about the early stages of the evolution of duplicated gene pairs. It is unclear, for example, to what extent selection, rather than neutral genetic drift, drives the fixation and early evolution of duplicate loci. Analysis of recently duplicated genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome reveals significantly reduced species-wide levels of nucleotide polymorphisms in the progenitor and/or duplicate gene copies, suggesting that selective sweeps accompany the initial stages of the evolution of these duplicated gene pairs. Our results support recent theoretical work that indicates that fates of duplicate gene pairs may be determined in the initial phases of duplicate gene evolution and that positive selection plays a prominent role in the evolutionary dynamics of the very early histories of duplicate nuclear genes. PMID:14671323

  16. Changes in chemical components and cytotoxicity at different maturity stages of Pleurotus eryngii fruiting body.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yunhong; Yang, Yan; Sun, Wenjing; Wu, Di; Ping, Lifeng

    2014-12-31

    The present study investigated the changes of the chemical components and cytotoxicity potency at 5 developmental stages of Pleurotus eryngii fruiting body. The carbohydrate and protein contents increased along the maturity of fruiting body while fat content decreased. By comparison, the polysaccharide-protein fractions had the highest antiproliferative effect on SGC-7901 and HepG-2 cells in vitro and increasing activity with growing maturity of P. eryngii fruiting body.The maturation process increased the protein content and acid property through the enhanced relative abundance of Asp, Thr, and Glu in polysaccharide-protein fractions. Further purification and electrophoresis identified that the polysaccharide-protein PEG-1with three subunits possibly was the target cytotoxical component. Our findings proved that mature fruiting body of P. eryngii containing these polysaccharide-proteins possessed highly nutritional values and therapeutical benefits.

  17. Genome-wide association mapping of flowering time and maturity dates in early mature soybean germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is a photoperiod-sensitive and short-day major crop grown worldwide. Days to flowering (DTF) and maturity (DTM) are two traits affecting soybean adaptability and yield. Some genes conditioning soybean flowering and maturity have been recently characterized. However, ...

  18. A comparison between cervical vertebrae and modified MP3 stages for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Mandava; Ganji, Venkata Suresh Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of skeletal maturity in human individuals is an important aspect in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics because, growth guidance and fundamental structural changes are essential for treatment of skeletal discrepancies in all the three planes. Among various growth assessment methods, cervical vertebra maturation stages and hand wrist have been correlated with the individual growth changes during puberty. The purpose of this study is to determine correlation of the CVM index with the modified median phalanx index (MP3) as described by Rajagopal and Kansal. 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) of Nellore, Indian origin boys aged between 10 to 19 years and girls of 8 to 16 years were selected for the study. The subjects are selected randomly from patients visiting the Departments of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Pediatric dentistry and Oral medicine and Radiology at Narayana Dental College and Hospital. Nellore. Radiographs of left hand MP3 and lateral cephalogram were taken. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess the agreement between the two measurements based on categorical variables. There was a good concordance between 6 stages of CVMI (Hassel and Farman) and the 6 stages of MP3 (Rajagopal and Kansal). Physiological maturity was earlier in females than in males when compared to the individuals of opposite sex of same chronological age. Chronological age was not a valid predictor of assessing the skeletal maturity because of significant variations in the distribution of CVMI and MP3 stages with respect to individual chronological age distribution.

  19. A comparison between cervical vertebrae and modified MP3 stages for the assessment of skeletal maturity

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Ganji, Venkata Suresh Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of skeletal maturity in human individuals is an important aspect in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics because, growth guidance and fundamental structural changes are essential for treatment of skeletal discrepancies in all the three planes. Among various growth assessment methods, cervical vertebra maturation stages and hand wrist have been correlated with the individual growth changes during puberty. The purpose of this study is to determine correlation of the CVM index with the modified median phalanx index (MP3) as described by Rajagopal and Kansal. Materials and Methods: 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) of Nellore, Indian origin boys aged between 10 to 19 years and girls of 8 to 16 years were selected for the study. The subjects are selected randomly from patients visiting the Departments of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Pediatric dentistry and Oral medicine and Radiology at Narayana Dental College and Hospital. Nellore. Radiographs of left hand MP3 and lateral cephalogram were taken. Results: Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess the agreement between the two measurements based on categorical variables. Conclusions: There was a good concordance between 6 stages of CVMI (Hassel and Farman) and the 6 stages of MP3 (Rajagopal and Kansal). Physiological maturity was earlier in females than in males when compared to the individuals of opposite sex of same chronological age. Chronological age was not a valid predictor of assessing the skeletal maturity because of significant variations in the distribution of CVMI and MP3 stages with respect to individual chronological age distribution. PMID:23633839

  20. Use of ultrasonography to identify late-stage maturity in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Morphometric measurements by ultrasonography has been used to determine gonad and follicle size in many species of fish for purposes of identifying sex and estimating stage of maturation. We have been using a portable ultrasound system (SonoSite MicroMaxx, L25e/13-6 MHz transducer) to identify fem...

  1. Liquid biopsy for early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Weizhe; Liang, Hengrui; Zeng, Haikang; He, Jianxing

    2018-04-01

    Liquid biopsy, which analyzes biological fluids especially blood specimen to detect and quantify circulating cancer biomarkers, have been rapidly introduced and represents a promising potency in clinical practice of lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Unlike conventional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is non-invasive, safe, simple in procedure, and is not influenced by manipulators' skills. Notably, some circulating cancer biomarkers are already detectable in disease with low-burden, making liquid biopsy feasible in detecting early stage lung cancer. In this review, we described a landscape of different liquid biopsy methods by highlighting the rationale and advantages, accessing the value of various circulating biomarkers and discussing their possible future development in the detection of early lung cancer.

  2. Acne vulgaris in early adolescent boys. Correlations with pubertal maturation and age.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Biro, F M; Huster, G A; Morrison, J A; Elder, N

    1991-02-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of acne vulgaris in young adolescent boys, we studied 219 black and 249 white boys in fifth through ninth grades in Cincinnati, Ohio. The mean age was 12.2 +/- 1.4 years, with a range of 9 to 15 years. Pubertal maturation was scored as Tanner pubic hair stages (PH I to V) and pubertal stages (PS I to IV) that included testicular volume assessment. Acne was scored by number of comedonal (open plus closed comedones) and inflammatory (papules plus pustules) lesions. Comedonal and inflammatory lesions were analyzed separately and evaluated both as numerical scores and as grades (1, less than or equal to 10 lesions; 2, 11 to 25 lesions; and 3, greater than or equal to 26 lesions). Grades 2 and 3 were considered clinically significant acne. Acne became progressively more severe with advancing maturity. Mean acne scores correlated better with PS and pubic hair than with age. Black subjects were more mature than white subjects. Black boys in PSI and II had significantly more comedones than white boys; white boys had significantly more inflammatory lesions at PS I and III. Clinically significant comedonal acne was already present in PS I and occurred in 100% of boys in PS IV. In contrast, no boys at PS I and only 50% at PS IV had significant inflammatory acne. Midfacial acne dominated. We concluded that acne prevalence and severity correlate well with advancing pubertal maturation in young adolescent boys. Comedonal acne was more frequent and severe than inflammatory disease. Awareness of the extent and severity of acne in preadolescents and young adolescents may ultimately provide rationale for early intervention and thus prevention of severe acne vulgaris.

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma: early-stage management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Erstad, Derek J; Tanabe, Kenneth K

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death and is increasing in incidence. This review focuses on HCC surveillance and treatment of early-stage disease, which are essential to improving outcomes. Multiple societies have published HCC surveillance guidelines, but screening efforts have been limited by noncompliance and overall lack of testing for patients with undiagnosed chronic liver disease. Treatment of early-stage HCC has become increasingly complex due to expanding therapeutic options and better outcomes with established treatments. Surgical indications for HCC have broadened with improved preoperative liver testing, neoadjuvant therapy, portal vein embolization, and perioperative care. Advances in post-procedural monitoring have improved efficacies of transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, and novel therapies involving delivery of radiochemicals are being studied in small trials. Finally, advances in liver transplantation have allowed for expanded indications beyond Milan criteria with non-inferior outcomes. More clinical trials evaluating new therapies and multimodal regimens are necessary to help clinicians design better treatment algorithms and improve outcomes. PMID:28721349

  4. Large Blooms of Bacillales (Firmicutes) Underlie the Response to Wetting of Cyanobacterial Biocrusts at Various Stages of Maturity.

    PubMed

    Karaoz, Ulas; Couradeau, Estelle; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Lim, Hsiao-Chien; Northen, Trent; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Brodie, Eoin L

    2018-03-06

    and global significance. Ecosystem succession toward maturity has been associated with both resistance and resilience to disturbance. Recent work has shown that the impacts of both climate change and physical disturbance on biocrusts increase the potential for successional resetting. A larger proportion of biocrusts are expected to be at an early developmental stage, hence increasing susceptibility to changes in precipitation frequencies. Therefore, it is essential to characterize how biocrusts respond to wetting across early developmental stages. In this study, we document the wetting response of microbial communities from a biocrust chronosequence. Overall, our results suggest that the cumulative effects of altered precipitation frequencies on the stability of biocrusts will depend on biocrust maturity. Copyright © 2018 Karaoz et al.

  5. Changes in the nutritional quality of five Mangifera species harvested at two maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Gámez, Ignacio; Caballero Montoya, Karla P; Ledesma, Noris; Sáyago Ayerdi, Sonia G; García Magaña, María de Lourdes; Bishop von Wettberg, Eric J; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2017-11-01

    There are 69 species of edible Mangifera recognized in Southeast Asia. Most of these species have not been characterized for nutritional properties. This paper describes the nutritional quality of the pulp of several Mangifera species - Mangifera casturi, Mangifera lalijiwa, Mangifera odorata, Mangifera zeylanica and two cultivars of Mangifera indica, 'Tommy-Kent' and 'Tommy Atkins' - at two maturity stages. The results showed that nutritional quality varied with maturity stage and among species. The immature pulp of all species had higher content of total dietary fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, total soluble polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. In mature pulp, the protein, ash, fat, soluble carbohydrate and B vitamin values were higher in all species. The species with the best nutritional quality were, in order from highest to lowest, M. casturi, M. odorata, M. zeylanica, M. indica cultivars and M. lalijiwa. The fruit pulp of three species had higher nutritional quality at both maturity stages in comparison with M. indica cultivars. These other Mangifera species can be nutritionally important in communities facing food insecurity and have potential as emerging crops. The decline of these valuable species in their natural habitats is an increasing concern, and their nutritional properties justify greater efforts to protect them. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Maturation of enabling technologies for the next generation reignitable cryogenic upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark

    Following the ESA decision in November 2008, a pre-development phase (Phase 1) of a future evolution of the Ariane 5 launcher (named Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution, A5ME) was started under Astrium Prime leadership. This upgraded version of the Ariane 5 launcher is based on an enhanced performance Upper Stage including the cryogenic re-ignitable VINCI engine. Thanks to this reignition capability, this new Upper Stage shall be "versatile" in the sense that it shall fulfil customer needs on a broader spectrum of orbits than the "standard" orbits (i.e. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits, GTO) typically used for commercial telecommunications satellites. In order to meet the challenges of versatility, new technologies are currently being investigated. These technologies are mainly related -but not limited-to propellant management during the extended coasting phases with the related heat transfer into the tanks and the required multiple engine re-ignitions. Within the frame of the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (Period 2 Slice 1), the Cryogenic Upper Stage Technology project (CUST) aims to mature critical technologies to such a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) that they can be integrated into the baseline A5ME Upper Stage development schedule. In addition to A5ME application, these technologies can also be used on the future next generation European launcher. This paper shows the down-selection process implemented to identify the most crucial enabling technologies for a future versatile Upper Stage and gives a description of each technology finally selected for maturation in the frame of CUST. These include -amongst others-a Sandwich Common Bulkhead for the propellant tank, an external thermal insulation kit and various propellant management devices for the coasting phase. The paper also gives an overview on the related development and maturation plan including the tests to be conducted, as well as first results of the maturation activities themselves.

  7. Urinary Biomarkers at Early ADPKD Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Katja; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Spanaus, Katharina; Andreisek, Gustav; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Pavik, Ivana; Ho, Thien Anh; Serra, Andreas L.; Rotar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course. Methods ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), and Uromodulin (UMOD) were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16) was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR) was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results. Results In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2) the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found. Conclusion UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our

  8. Fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells according to differentiation stage and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Seong-Il; Ko, Hee-Chul; Shin, Hye-Sun

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Fucoxanthin enhances 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at an early stage. {yields} Fucoxanthin inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at intermediate and late stages. {yields} Fucoxanthin attenuates glucose uptake by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IRS in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. {yields} Fucoxanthin exerts its anti-obesity effect by inhibiting the differentiation of adipocytes at both intermediate and late stages, as well as glucose uptake in mature adipocytes. -- Abstract: Progression of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation is divided into early (days 0-2, D0-D2), intermediate (days 2-4, D2-D4), and late stages (day 4 onwards, D4-). In this study, we investigated the effects of fucoxanthin, isolated from themore » edible brown seaweed Petalonia binghamiae, on adipogenesis during the three differentiation stages of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When fucoxanthin was applied during the early stage of differentiation (D0-D2), it promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, as evidenced by increased triglyceride accumulation. At the molecular level, fucoxanthin increased protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and aP2, and adiponectin mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. However, it reduced the expression of PPAR{gamma}, C/EBP{alpha}, and SREBP1c during the intermediate (D2-D4) and late stages (D4-D7) of differentiation. It also inhibited the uptake of glucose in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by reducing the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). These results suggest that fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells of different differentiation stages and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes.« less

  9. Visual assessment of the cervical vertebral maturation stages: A study of diagnostic accuracy and repeatability.

    PubMed

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Caprioglio, Alberto; Contardo, Luca

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and repeatability of the visual assessment of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. Ten operators underwent training sessions in visual assessment of CVM staging. Subsequently, they were asked to stage 72 cases equally divided into the six stages. Such assessment was repeated twice in two sessions (T1 and T2) 4 weeks apart. A reference standard for each case was created according to a cephalometric analysis of both the concavities and shapes of the cervical vertebrae. The overall agreement with the reference standard was about 68% for both sessions and 76.9% for intrarater repeatability. The overall kappa coefficients with the reference standard were up to 0.86 for both sessions, and 0.88 for intrarater repeatability. Overall, disagreements one stage and twp stage apart were 23.5% (T1) and 5.1% (T2), respectively. Sensitivity ranged from 53.3% for CS5 (T1) to 99.9% for CS1 (T2), positive predictive values ranged from 52.4% for CS5 (T2) to 94.3% for CS6 (T1), and accuracy ranged from 83.6% for CS4 (T2) to 94.9% for CS1 (T1). Visual assessment of the CVM stages is accurate and repeatable to a satisfactory level. About one in three cases remain misclassified; disagreement is generally limited to one stage and is mostly seen in stages 4 and 5.

  10. Preliminary Study On Gonad Maturity Stages of the Sea Cucumber Paracaudina australis from Kenjeran Water, Surabaya, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widianingsih, Widianingsih; Zaenuri, Muhammad; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermin; Hartati, Retno

    2018-02-01

    The holothurian Paracaudina australis is belong to family Caudinidae, ordo Molpadida and class Holothuroidea. This species is among the most common holothurian widely distributed in the tropical water. The purpose of this reseach is to do preliminary study on maturity stages of sea cucumber Paracaudina australis from Kenjeran Water, Surabaya, Indonesia. This research was conducted on April 2016. Samples were collected randomly on the Kenjeran Water, Surabaya. The result showed that there are five stages of gonad maturity. At the stage of maturity 1, the gonad was not clearly distinguished, there were unbranched small tubule. At the stage of maturity 2, there were small branched of tubules. At this stage, gonad can be differentiated between male and female. At the stage of maturity 3, tubule can been branched not only for male but also female. At the stage of maturity 4, the gonad was good mature, there were clearly branched tubule. At the stage of matury 5, there were generally had empty tubule except for a few relict unreleased spermatozoa. At female gonad, there were shrunken tubule and relict oocytes were presented in the lumen of the tubule.

  11. Virtual exploration of early stage atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Andy L; González Ballester, Miguel A; Noailly, Jérôme

    2016-12-15

    Biological mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. The early stage of atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized by the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) droplets, leading to the creation of foam cells (FC). To address the difficulty to explore the dynamics of interactions that controls this process, this study aimed to develop a model of agents and infer on the most influential cell- and molecule-related parameters. FC started to accumulate after six to eight months of simulated hypercholesterolemia. A sensitivity analysis revealed the strong influence of LDL oxidation rate on the risk of FC creation, which was exploited to model the antioxidant effect of statins. Combined with an empirical simulation of the drug ability to decrease the level of LDL, the virtual statins treatment led to reductions of oxidized LDL levels similar to reductions measured in vivo. An Open source software was used to develop the agent-based model of early AS. Two different concentrations of LDL agents were imposed in the intima layer to simulate healthy and hypercholesterolemia groups of 'virtual patients'. The interactions programmed between molecules and cells were based on experiments and models reported in the literature. A factorial sensitivity analysis explored the respective effects of the less documented model parameters as (i) agent migration speed, (ii) LDL oxidation rate and (iii) concentration of autoantibody agents. Finally, the response of the model to known perturbations was assessed by introducing statins agents, able to reduce the oxidation rate of LDL agents and the LDL boundary concentrations. jerome.noailly@upf.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Biological maturity at birth, the course of the subsequent ontogenetic stages and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Szwed, A; Kosińska, M

    2012-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to assess the influence of biological maturity at birth on growth processes in the subsequent years and during puberty in girls. The material of this study comes from the outpatient clinic cards and cross-sectional research on girls from the province of Wielkopolska in Poland. It includes data of 527 girls. The influence of perinatal maturity on body weight in the later stages of ontogeny was determined with the use of the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. In order to determine the relationship between perinatal maturity and age at menarche, the survival analysis module was used. The results show a diverse influence of perinatal maturity on the values of body weight achieved in later years of life. The indicated predictive factors included both birth weight and gestational age. In the examined girls menarche occurred between the 10th year and the 17th year of life (X¯=12.87, s=1.26; Me=13 years). The comparison showed a significant variation in age at menarche depending on the length of pregnancy (log-rank χ(2)(2)=27.068, p<0.0001) and birth weight (log-rank χ(2)(2)=23.241, p<0.0001). There was no variation in maturation of the examined girls conditioned by the occurrence of intra-uterine growth retardation (log-rank χ(2)(2)=2.046, p>0.05). Remote prognoses as to the postnatal development of preterm-born children and/or children with low birth weight indicate adverse influence of these variables on age at menarche. Perinatal biological maturity of a newborn conditions the course of postnatal development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  14. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5-18 years of age). We performed Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05). The simple regression model with the greatest R-square indicated the fourth-cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level.

  15. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5–18 years of age). We performed Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05). The simple regression model with the greatest R-square indicated the fourth-cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level. PMID:27340668

  16. Developmental steps of the human cervical spine: parameters for evaluation of skeletal maturation stages.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marcos Fabio Henriques; de Lima, Rodrigo Lopes; De-Ary-Pires, Bernardo; Pires-Neto, Mário Ary; de Ary-Pires, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The central objective of this investigation was to focus on the development of the cervical spine observed by lateral cephalometric radiological images of children and adolescents (6-16 years old). A sample of 26 individuals (12 girls and 14 boys) was classified according to stages of cervical spine maturation in two subcategories: group I (initiation phase) and group II (acceleration phase). The morphology of the cervical spine was assessed by lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained in accordance with an innovative method for establishing a standardized head posture. A total of 29 linear variables and 5 angular variables were used to clarify the dimensions of the cervical vertebrae. The results suggest that a few measurements can be used as parameters of vertebral maturation both for males and females. The aforementioned measurements include the inferior depth of C2-C4, the inferior depth of C5, the anterior height of C4-C5, and the posterior height of C5. We propose original morphological parameters that may prove remarkably useful in the determination of bone maturational stages of the cervical spine in children and adolescents.

  17. Characterization of odor-active volatiles in apples: influence of cultivars and maturity stage.

    PubMed

    Mehinagic, Emira; Royer, Gaëlle; Symoneaux, Ronan; Jourjon, Frédérique; Prost, Carole

    2006-04-05

    The aroma and texture of three different apple cultivars, harvested at three maturity stages, were analyzed by sensory and instrumental analysis. The emphasis was on the identification of the most potent odorant volatiles, and the challenge was to separate the few most important flavor compounds, which may be trace chemicals, from the vast number of nonodorant compounds present in apple aroma extracts. Thirty-six odorant compounds were detected, 24 of which were common to all extracts. A significant correlation coefficient was found between the aroma intensity scores and overall quantity of the odorant volatiles, which shows that the development of sensory aroma is similar to that of odorant volatiles. This study also showed that the parameters measured by penetrometry and compression were highly correlated with sensory textural attributes. The determination of the optimal maturity stage for different apple cultivars by the usual parameters, such as color, diameter, total soluble solids, and titrable acidity, may not be sufficient to determine the optimal sensory quality for consumers. Moreover, the sensory quality of fruits changes during maturation in a different way from one cultivar to another, and this should be taken into account.

  18. Coconut water of different maturity stages ameliorates inflammatory processes in model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coconut water is a natural beverage that is a part of daily diet of many people. This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water of different maturation stages (young and mature) with rat paw edema model of inflammation using plethysmometer. Methodology: For this study, albino rats were selected and divided into four equal groups (10 rats in each group). Group 1 was set as control and administered distilled water 1 ml orally; Groups 2 and 3 were treated with young and mature coconut water, respectively, at 4 ml/100 g dose orally. Group 4 was treated with the standard drug (ibuprofen) at 400 mg/70 kg. 0.1 ml of 1% w/v acetic acid was administered in the subplantar tissue of rat paw 30 min after oral treatments of groups. Plethysmometer was used to measure rat paw edema. Results: Results revealed that both coconut water possess significant anti-inflammatory activity (P < 0.001). In comparison to control, percent inhibition by young coconut water was 20.22%, 35.13%, 42.52%, and 36% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (42.52%) was observed in the second phase of the inflammatory process. On the other hand, percent inhibition by mature coconut water was 18.80%, 25.94%, 24.13%, and 18.66% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (25.94%) was observed in the first phase of the inflammatory process. Conclusions: This study strongly suggests the use of young coconut water for potent anti-inflammatory effect and mature coconut water for moderate anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27366350

  19. Coconut water of different maturity stages ameliorates inflammatory processes in model of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    Coconut water is a natural beverage that is a part of daily diet of many people. This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water of different maturation stages (young and mature) with rat paw edema model of inflammation using plethysmometer. For this study, albino rats were selected and divided into four equal groups (10 rats in each group). Group 1 was set as control and administered distilled water 1 ml orally; Groups 2 and 3 were treated with young and mature coconut water, respectively, at 4 ml/100 g dose orally. Group 4 was treated with the standard drug (ibuprofen) at 400 mg/70 kg. 0.1 ml of 1% w/v acetic acid was administered in the subplantar tissue of rat paw 30 min after oral treatments of groups. Plethysmometer was used to measure rat paw edema. Results revealed that both coconut water possess significant anti-inflammatory activity (P < 0.001). In comparison to control, percent inhibition by young coconut water was 20.22%, 35.13%, 42.52%, and 36% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (42.52%) was observed in the second phase of the inflammatory process. On the other hand, percent inhibition by mature coconut water was 18.80%, 25.94%, 24.13%, and 18.66% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (25.94%) was observed in the first phase of the inflammatory process. This study strongly suggests the use of young coconut water for potent anti-inflammatory effect and mature coconut water for moderate anti-inflammatory effect.

  20. SHIP-1 Increases Early Oxidative Burst and Regulates Phagosome Maturation in Macrophages1

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Lynn A.; Levinsohn, Jonathan; Cadwallader, Amy; Tridandapani, Susheela; Swanson, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the inositol phosphatase SHIP-1 is generally thought to inhibit signaling for Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, the product of its activity, phosphatidylinositol 3,4 bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) has been implicated in activation of the NADPH oxidase. This suggests that SHIP-1 positively regulates generation of reactive oxygen species after phagocytosis. To examine how SHIP-1 activity contributes to Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, we measured and compared phospholipid dynamics, membrane trafficking and the oxidative burst in macrophages from SHIP-1-deficient and wild-type mice. SHIP-1-deficient macrophages showed significantly elevated ratios of PI(3,4,5) P3 to PI(3,4)P2 on phagosomal membranes. Imaging reactive oxygen intermediate activities in phagosomes revealed decreased early NADPH oxidase activity in SHIP-1-deficient macrophages. SHIP-1-deficiency also altered later stages of phagosome maturation, as indicated by the persistent elevation of PI(3)P and the early localization of Rab5a to phagosomes. These direct measurements of individual organelles indicate that phagosomal SHIP-1 enhances the early oxidative burst through localized alteration of the membrane 3′ phosphoinositide composition. PMID:18490750

  1. Gender and gonadal maturity stage identification of captive Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, using ultrasound imagery and sex steroids.

    PubMed

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Leng, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Shuhuan; Luo, Jiang; Liu, Zhigang; Qiao, Xingmei; Kynard, Boyd; Wei, Qiwei

    2017-05-01

    Long lifespan and late maturation make it difficult to establish gamete maturity and breeding age of captive endangered Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis. This greatly handicaps timely breeding and future conservation stocking efforts. We used ultrasound imagery and sex steroids to determine the gender and gonadal maturity stage of captive Chinese sturgeon (age, 10-17years old). The echogenicity of the reproductive organs and the respective morphology of the gonads were described and two quantitative parameters p o (proportion of the ovary to the entire reproductive organs) and d (thickness of the reproductive organs) were measured to characterize sex and maturity stage of Chinese sturgeon. Females were accordingly placed fish into several categories: F II (F II - , F II , F II + ), F III (F III , F III + ) and F IV (F IV , F IV + ) and F VI and males as M II , M III , M IV , M V and M VI . The accuracy of gender and maturity stage determination provided by ultrasonographic methods was 72.7% for F II - ovary (n=11) and 76.2% for M II testis (n=42). Accuracy of sex and maturity determination using only serum sex steroid of testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E 2 ) was low (58-73%, depending on maturity stage). However, when the two methods were used together, accuracy increased sharply, especially for immature (II stage) females. In summary, of 151 Chinese sturgeon, whose sex and maturity stage were independently confirmed, 88.1% (n=133), 62.9% (n=95), and 96.7% (n=146) were successfully sexed and staged using ultrasound, sex steroids, or both methods, respectively. The results provide reliable non-invasive techniques for determining sex and gonadal maturation of captive Chinese sturgeon. These methods can track individual gonad characteristics over multi-year reproductive cycles, which will assist captive broodstock management, artificial reproduction, and future conservation stocking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of Curve Progression in Idiopathic Scoliosis: Validation of the Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System.

    PubMed

    Sitoula, Prakash; Verma, Kushagra; Holmes, Laurens; Gabos, Peter G; Sanders, James O; Yorgova, Petya; Neiss, Geraldine; Rogers, Kenneth; Shah, Suken A

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective case series. This study aimed to validate the Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System and to assess its correlation to curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. The Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System has been used to predict curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. This study intended to validate that initial study with a larger sample size. We retrospectively reviewed 1100 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis between 2005 and 2011. Girls aged 8 to 14 years (<2 yr postmenarche) and boys aged 10 to 16 years who had obtained at least 1 hand and spine radiograph on the same day for evaluation of skeletal age and scoliosis curve magnitude were followed to skeletal maturity (Risser stage 5 or fully capped Risser stage 4), curve progression to 50° or greater, or spinal fusion. Patients with nonidiopathic curves were excluded. There were 161 patients: 131 girls (12.3 ± 1.2 yr) and 30 boys (13.9 ± 1.1 yr). The distribution of patients within Sanders stage (SS) 1 through 7 was 7, 28, 41, 45, 7, 31, and 2 patients, respectively; modified Lenke curve types 1 to 6 were 26, 12, 63, 5, 38, and 17 patients, respectively. All patients in SS2 with initial Cobb angles of 25° or greater progressed, and patients in SS1 and SS3 with initial Cobb angles of 35° or greater progressed. Similarly, all patients with initial Cobb angles of 40° or greater progressed except those in SS7. Conversely, none of the patients with initial Cobb angles of 15° or less or those in SS5, SS6, and SS7 with initial Cobb angles of 30° or less progressed. Predictive progression of 67%, 50%, 43%, 27%, and 60% was observed for subgroups SS1/30°, SS2/20°, SS3/30°, SS4/30°, and SS6/35° respectively. This larger cohort shows a strong predictive correlation between SS and initial Cobb angle for probability of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. 3.

  3. Chemical Compositions and Macrophage Activation of Polysaccharides from Leon's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Different Maturation Stages.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan; Cui, Fengjie

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of the maturation stage on the chemical compositions and macrophage activation activity of polysaccharides from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Results showed that total polysaccharides increased, whereas protein content decreased with the maturation stage development of fruiting body. Nine polysaccharide fractions, 3 from each of the maturity stages IV (small fungal spine stage), V (mid-fungal spine stage) and VI (mature), were prepared using the gradient ethanol precipitation method. The polysaccharide fraction HP4A isolated from the maturating-stage (stage IV) fruiting body had a significant difference from the fractions HP5A (stage V) and HP6A (stage VI) in the molecular weight distribution and monosaccharide compositions. Immunostimulating tests revealed that the polysaccharide fraction HP6 isolated from the mature stage (stage VI) fruiting body presented higher macrophage activation activity. Our findings provided important information for the harvest and use of H. erinaceus with higher qualities and functional benefits.

  4. Early-Stage Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ashley; de Pablo, Juan

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, or human amylin) is implicated in the development of type II diabetes. hIAPP is known to aggregate into amyloid fibrils; however, it is prefibrillar oligomeric species, rather than mature fibrils, that are proposed to be cytotoxic. In order to better understand the role of hIAPP aggregation in the onset of disease, as well as to design effective diagnostics and therapeutics, it is crucial to understand the mechanism of early-stage hIAPP aggregation. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations combined with multiple advanced sampling techniques to examine the formation of the hIAPP dimer and trimer. Metadynamics calculations reveal a free energy landscape for the hIAPP dimer, which suggest multiple possible transition pathways. We employ finite temperature string method calculations to identify favorable pathways for dimer and trimer formation, along with relevant free energy barriers and intermediate structures. Results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms and energetics of hIAPP aggregation. In addition, this work demonstrates that the finite temperature string method is an effective tool in the study of protein aggregation. Funded by National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  5. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  6. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality.

  7. Effects of drying process on the physicochemical properties of nopal cladodes at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Valderrama-Bravo, María Del Carmen; Rojas-Molina, Isela; Espinosa-Arbeláez, Diego Germán; Suárez-Vargas, Raúl; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2012-03-01

    Chemical proximate analysis was done in order to determine the changes of nutritional characteristics of nopal powders from three different maturity stages 50, 100, and 150 days and obtained by three different drying processes: freeze dried, forced air oven, and tunnel. Results indicate that nopal powder obtained by the process of freeze dried retains higher contents of protein, soluble fiber, and fat than the other two processes. Also, freeze dried process had less effect on color hue variable. No changes were observed in insoluble fiber content, chroma and lightness with the three different drying processes. Furthermore, the soluble fibers decreased with the age of nopal while insoluble fibers and ash content shows an opposite trend. In addition, the luminosity and hue values did not show differences among the maturity stages studied. The high content of dietary fibers of nopal pad powder could to be an interesting source of these important components for human diets and also could be used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Metabolic and structural changes during early maturation of Inga vera seeds are consistent with the lack of a desiccation phase.

    PubMed

    Caccere, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Simone P; Centeno, Danilo C; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; Braga, Márcia R

    2013-06-15

    Inga vera, native to South America, is an important leguminous species used for ecological restoration of riparian forests and its seeds are among the most recalcitrant ones described up to date. In this work, we analysed the metabolic profile, cell ultrastructure as well as cell wall polysaccharides of I. vera seeds in order to better understand its maturation, which allows embryo germination without a quiescent phase. Increased amounts of citric, glutamic, pyroglutamic, and aspartic acids from stages I to II (120 and 129 days after flowering (DAF)) corroborate the hypothesis of high metabolism, shifting from fermentative to aerobic respiration at seed maturity. This phase was characterized by an extensive vacuolization of embryonic cells, which also indicate high metabolic activity. The proportion of arabinose in the cell walls of embryonic axis (approx. 20%) was lower than those found in some orthodox seeds (nearly 40%), suggesting that arabinose-containing polysaccharides, which are thought to provide more flexibility to the cell wall during natural drying, are less abundant in I. vera seeds. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the major changes occurred during early stages of seed maturation of I. vera, indicating that the rapid temporary metabolic shift observed between stages I and II may be related to the lack of desiccation phase, moving directly to germination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Deformation strain is the main physical driver for skeletal precursors to undergo osteogenesis in earlier stages of osteogenic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Ramani-Mohan, Ram-Kumar; Schwedhelm, Ivo; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Krug, Melanie; Schwarz, Thomas; Jakob, Franz; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells play a major role during bone remodelling and are thus of high interest for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Mechanical stimuli, that is, deformation strain and interstitial fluid-flow-induced shear stress, promote osteogenic lineage commitment. However, the predominant physical stimulus that drives early osteogenic cell maturation is not clearly identified. The evaluation of each stimulus is challenging, as deformation and fluid-flow-induced shear stress interdepend. In this study, we developed a bioreactor that was used to culture mesenchymal stem cells harbouring a strain-responsive AP-1 luciferase reporter construct, on porous scaffolds. In addition to the reporter, mineralization and vitality of the cells was investigated by alizarin red staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Quantification of the expression of genes associated to bone regeneration and bone remodelling was used to confirm alizarin red measurements. Controlled perfusion and deformation of the 3-dimensional scaffold facilitated the alteration of the expression of osteogenic markers, luciferase activity, and calcification. To isolate the specific impact of scaffold deformation, a computational model was developed to derive a perfusion flow profile that results in dynamic shear stress conditions present in periodically loaded scaffolds. In comparison to actually deformed scaffolds, a lower expression of all measured readout parameters indicated that deformation strain is the predominant stimulus for skeletal precursors to undergo osteogenesis in earlier stages of osteogenic cell maturation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. White matter maturation profiles through early childhood predict general cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Deoni, Sean C L; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elison, Jed T; Walker, Lindsay; Doernberg, Ellen; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Dean, Doug C; Jumbe, N L

    2016-03-01

    Infancy and early childhood are periods of rapid brain development, during which brain structure and function mature alongside evolving cognitive ability. An important neurodevelopmental process during this postnatal period is the maturation of the myelinated white matter, which facilitates rapid communication across neural systems and networks. Though prior brain imaging studies in children (4 years of age and above), adolescents, and adults have consistently linked white matter development with cognitive maturation and intelligence, few studies have examined how these processes are related throughout early development (birth to 4 years of age). Here, we show that the profile of white matter myelination across the first 5 years of life is strongly and specifically related to cognitive ability. Using a longitudinal design, coupled with advanced magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that children with above-average ability show differential trajectories of myelin development compared to average and below average ability children, even when controlling for socioeconomic status, gestation, and birth weight. Specifically, higher ability children exhibit slower but more prolonged early development, resulting in overall increased myelin measures by ~3 years of age. These results provide new insight into the early neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive ability, and suggest an early period of prolonged maturation with associated protracted white matter plasticity may result in strengthened neural networks that can better support later development. Further, these results reinforce the necessity of a longitudinal perspective in investigating typical or suspected atypical cognitive maturation.

  11. Study of lesions of the lumbar endplate based on the stage of maturation of the lumbar vertebral body: the relationship between skeletal maturity and chronological age.

    PubMed

    Uraoka, Hideyuki; Higashino, Kosaku; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Yamashita, Kazuta; Tezuka, Fumitake; Takata, Yoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Murase, Masaaki; Sairyo, Koichi

    2018-02-01

    The lesion of the lumbar endplate is sometimes identified in the vertebrae of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare between skeletal maturity and chronological age. The second purpose of this study is to clarify the lesions of the lumbar endplate based on the maturation of the lumbar vertebral body. Six hundred and thirty-two (485 men and 147 women) consecutive patients were included. The mean age at the first medical examination was 13.8 years. Their skeletal maturity was evaluated based on the appearances of the secondary ossification center of L3. The area of the endplate lesions was classified into five types. The apophyseal stage was observed from 10 years old to 18 years old, and the apophyseal stage was shown the peak at 14 years old. The appearance of the apophyseal ring was observed earlier in female patients than in male patients. For the concave type, the lesion at upper level vertebra was more prevalent. The anterior and middle type of the lesion at upper level vertebra was more prevalent. For the posterior type, the lesion of the inferior rim of L4 and the lesion of the rim of L5 were more prevalent. This study emerged after comparing skeletal maturity based on the maturation of the lumbar vertebral body with the chronological age of a large number of patients and examining the lesions of the lumbar endplate based on the stage of maturation of the lumbar vertebral body.

  12. Relationship between mandibular second molar calcification stages and cervical vertebrae maturity in Italian children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Cossellu, G; Biagi, R; Pisani, L; Barbieri, V; Farronato, G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the stages of calcification of the mandibular second molar and the stages of skeletal maturity among Italian children and young adults. Cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples were derived from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 500 Italian subjects aged from 10 to 20 years. Dental maturity index (DM) was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular second molars according to the Demirjian method; skeletal maturity was evaluated with cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVM) according to Hassel and Farman. The Pearson r coefficient and Spearman rank correlation coefficient were estimated to determine the relationship between DM and CVM. Skeletal maturation stages occurred earlier in females (about 6 months). A highly significant correlation between CVM and DM (0.78-0.86 cor according to Pearson test and 0.81-0.85 rho according to Spearman test) was found. DM stage E corresponds to phase CVM 1 and 2 (the phase prior to the growth spurt), DM stage F corresponds to the phase of pubertal growth spurt, stages CVM 2 and CVM 3; DM stage G is indicator of the growth spurt underway (CVM 3-4), but it can still be found during CVM 5 in females. The second mandibular molars can be considered reliable indicators for the evaluation of the growth phases. In case of females the end of the growth spurt it is not clearly associated with a dental maturity stage and needs to be stated with further parameters such as CVM.

  13. Evaluation of whole mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research in early-life stage fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than mature, adult fish. Therefore, defining adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to early-life stages is critical for linking perturbations of key events during fish development to potential adverse outcomes of...

  14. Evaluation of whole mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research in early-life stage fathead minnows (poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than mature, adult fish. Therefore, defining adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to early-life stages is critical for linking perturbations of key events during fish development to potential adverse outcomes of...

  15. Comparative performances of staging systems for early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Hari; Mentha, Gilles; Marques, Hugo P; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Majno, Pietro; Aldrighetti, Luca; Pulitano, Carlo; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Russolillo, Nadia; Philosophe, Benjamin; Barroso, Eduardo; Ferrero, Alessandro; Schulick, Richard D; Choti, Michael A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2009-08-01

    Several staging systems for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been proposed, but studies of their prognostic accuracy have yielded conflicting conclusions. Stratifying patients with early HCC is of particular interest because these patients may derive the greatest benefit from intervention, yet no studies have evaluated the comparative performances of staging systems in patients with early HCC. A retrospective cohort study was performed using data on 379 patients who underwent liver resection or liver transplantation for HCC at six major hepatobiliary centres in the USA and Europe. The staging systems evaluated were: the Okuda staging system, the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) staging system, the Cancer of the Liver Italian Programme (CLIP) score, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, the Japanese Integrated Staging (JIS) score and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging system, 6th edition. A recently proposed early HCC prognostic score was also evaluated. The discriminative abilities of the staging systems were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models and the bootstrap-corrected concordance index (c). Overall survival of the cohort was 74% at 3 years and 52% at 5 years, with a median survival of 62 months. Most systems demonstrated poor discriminatory ability (P > 0.05 on Cox proportional hazards analysis, c approximately 0.5). However, the AJCC/UICC system clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c = 0.59), albeit only into two groups. The early HCC prognostic score also clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c = 0.60) and identified three distinct prognostic groups. The early HCC prognostic score is superior to the AJCC/UICC staging system (6th edition) for predicting the survival of patients with early HCC after liver resection or liver transplantation. Other major HCC staging systems perform poorly in patients with early HCC.

  16. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R

    2009-12-01

    Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Current research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. Moringa oleifera is used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide range of various ailments. To understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions, antioxidant properties of the Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were tested in two stages of maturity using standard in vitro models. The successive aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, superoxide, nitric oxide radical and inhibition of lipid per oxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract was comparable with that of the reference antioxidants. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of Moringa oleifera both mature and tender leaves have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage.

  17. Assessment of skeletal maturation with permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Giri, Jamal; Shrestha, Basanta Kumar; Yadav, Rajiv; Ghimire, Tika Ram

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of growth status of a patient is a key component in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing patients with skeletal discrepancy. Skeletal maturation based on hand-wrist radiograph and cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) are commonly used methods of growth assessment. Studies have shown that stages of dental calcification can also be used to assess skeletal maturation status of an individual, whereas other studies have suggested that the relationship between dental calcification and skeletal maturation should be interpreted with caution owing to racial variation. To evaluate the relationship between permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages and skeletal maturity assessed by CVM among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients. One hundred and sixty-eight digital radiographs (84 orthopantomograms and 84 lateral cephalograms) were obtained from the records of 84 patients who sought orthodontic treatment in Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopaedic Unit, Department of Dentistry, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu. Two parameters were used in this study, namely, CVM stages from lateral cephalogram and Demirjian index (DI) stages from orthopantomogram. The evaluation of digital radiographs was carried out on a computer screen with a resolution of 1,280×800 pixels. The association between DI stages of permanent mandibular second molar and CVM stages was assessed. A statistically significant association was found between DI and CVM stages for both male and female subjects with Pearson's contingency coefficient value of 0.751 and 0.766 for male and female subjects, respectively. Skeletal maturation can be reliably assessed with dental calcification stages of permanent mandibular second molar for Nepalese orthodontic patients.

  18. The effects of platelet lysate on maturation, fertilization and embryo development of NMRI mouse oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    PubMed

    Pazoki, Hassan; Eimani, Hussein; Farokhi, Farah; Shahverdi, Abdol-Hossein; Tahaei, Leila Sadat

    2016-04-01

    Improving in vitro maturation could increase the rate of pregnancy from oocytes matured in vitro. Consequently, patients will be prevented from using gonadotropin with its related side effects. In this study, the maturation medium was enriched by platelet lysate (PL), then maturation and subsequent developments were monitored. Oocytes at germinal vesicle stage with cumulus cells (cumulus-oocyte complex) and without cumulus cells (denuded oocytes) were obtained from mature female mice. The maturation medium was enriched by 5 and 10 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) as experimental groups; the control groups' media consisted of 5 and 10 % FBS. After 18 h, the matured oocytes were collected and, after fertilization, subsequent development was monitored. The rates of maturation, fertilization and 2-cell embryo development for the denuded oocyte groups in experimental media 5 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % FBS were significantly higher than those of the control groups ( P < 0.05), while the results for the cumulus-oocyte complex groups were similar between the experimental groups and control groups. The results of this study indicated that platelet lysate could improve the maturation rate in the absence of granulosa cells compared to media with FBS. This extract also had positive effects on fertilization and embryo development.

  19. Demirjian's stages and Cameriere's third molar maturity index to estimate legal adult age in Peruvian population.

    PubMed

    Quispe Lizarbe, Roselhy Juliana; Solís Adrianzén, Christian; Quezada-Márquez, Milushka Miroslava; Galić, Ivan; Cameriere, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of Demirjian's stages (DS) and Cameriere's third molar maturity index cut-off value (I 3M <0.08) to estimate the age of majority on panoramic radiographs (OPTs) from the dental clinic of the Scientific University of the South (UCSUR), Lima, Peru. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted on the sample of 208 digital panoramic radiographs of patients aged 14-22years examined during 2015 in UCSUR. The left lower third molars were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop® CS6. An effectiveness of specific DS and I 3M <0.08 was evaluated by using accurate classification, sensitivity, specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios and Bayes post-test probability (p). Only G and H stages were practical for classify adults and minors in the tested sample, while I 3M <0.08 showed the best performance in both sexes. For I 3M <0.08, the accurate classification, sensitivity and specificity were 0.96, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.90, 0.84 and 0.95 in males and females, respectively. Values of LR+, LR- and p were 24.96, 0.04, 0.97 and 15.68, 0.17, 0.95 in males and females, respectively. The specific cut-off value of third molar maturity index (I 3M <0.08) showed to be more accurate in discriminating adults and minors in Peruvian sample when a test with high sensitivity and specificity is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The reliability of clinical decisions based on the cervical vertebrae maturation staging method.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Aydin; Babay Ahari, Sahar; Moslemzadeh, Hossein; Rafighi, Ali; Aghazadeh, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Of the various techniques used to determine the optimum timing for growth modification treatments, the cervical vertebrae maturation method has great advantages, including validity and no need for extra X-ray exposure. Recently, the reproducibility of this method has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of poor reproducibility of this method and to assess the reproducibility of the clinical decisions made based on it. Seventy lateral cephalograms of Iranian patients aged 9‒15 years were observed twice by five experienced orthodontists. In addition to determining the developmental stage, each single parameter involved in this method was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-observer reproducibility. In order to evaluate the reproducibility of clinical decisions based on this method, cervical vertebrae maturation staging (CVMS) I and II were considered as phase 1 and CVMS IV and V were considered as phase 3. By considering the clinical approach of the CVMS method, inter-observer reproducibility of this method increased from 0.48 to 0.61 (moderate to substantial) and intra-observer reproducibility enhanced from 0.72 to 0.74. 1. Complete visualization of the first four cervical vertebrae was an inclusion criterion, which also limits the clinical application of CVMS method. 2. These results can be generalized when determining growth modification treatments solely for Class II patients. Difficulty in determining the morphology of C3 and C4 leads to poor reproducibility of the CVMS method. Despite this, it has acceptable reproducibility in determining the timing of functional treatment for Class II patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Inflammasome and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at early stage of burns].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Jiahui; Xia, Zhaofan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammasomes are large multi-protein complexes that serve as a platform for caspase-1 activation, and this process induces subsequent maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as pyroptosis. As an important component of the innate immune system, early activation of inflammasomes in a variety of immune cell subsets can mediate inflammatory response and immunological conditions after burn injury. Here, we review the current knowledge of inflammasomes and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at the early stage of burn injury.

  2. Development of an early-stage toll revenue estimation model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    With agencies and states increasingly considering tolls as a means to finance transportation infrastructure, : there is an increasing need to quickly assess the feasibility of potential tolling projects. In the early stages : of a project when an age...

  3. Characteristics of Early Stages of Corrosion Fatigue in Aircraft Skin

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-02-01

    SRI International is conducting research to characterize and quantitatively describe the early stages of corrosion fatigue in the fuselage skin of commercial aircraft. Specific objectives are to gain an improved deterministic understanding of the tra...

  4. Following iron speciation in the early stages of magnetite magnetosome biomineralization

    DOE PAGES

    Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Olszewska, Agata; ...

    2016-02-26

    Understanding magnetosome magnetite biomineralization is of fundamental interest to devising the strategies for bioinspired synthesis of magnetic materials at the nanoscale. Thus, we investigated the early stages of magnetosome formation in this work and correlated the size and emergent crystallinity of magnetosome nanoparticles with the changes in chemical environment of iron and oxygen by utilizing advanced analytical electron microscopy techniques. We observed that magnetosomes in the early stages of biomineralization with the sizes of 5–10 nm were amorphous, with a majority of iron present as Fe 3+, indicative of ferric hydroxide. The magnetosomes with intermediate sizes showed partially crystalline structuremore » with a majority of iron present as Fe 3+ and trace amounts of Fe 2+. The fully maturated magnetosomes were indexed to magnetite. Furthermore, our approach provides spatially resolved structural and chemical information of individual magnetosomes with different particle sizes, attributed to magnetosomes at different stages of biomineralization.« less

  5. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  6. [Study on the difference of corresponding age at cervical vertebral maturation stages among different skeletal malocclusions].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Changyan; Cong, Chao; Wang, Shihui; Gu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    To compare the difference of corresponding age at cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages among different skeletal malocclusions and provide clinic guideline on optimal treatment timing for skeletal malocclusion. Based on ANB angle, 2 575 cephalograms collected from Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from May, 2006 to November, 2014 were classified into skeletal Class I (ANB 0°~5°, 1 317 subjects), Class II (ANB > 5°, 685 subjects) and Class III (ANB < 0°, 573 subjects) groups. CVM stages were evaluated with the modified version of CVM method. Independent sample t test was performed to analyze the difference of age at different CVM stages among various skeletal groups. Significant gender difference of age was found at CS3 to CS6 for skeletal Class I group (P < 0.05), at CS5 and CS6 for skeletal Class II group (P < 0.05), and at CS3 and CS5 for skeletal Class III group (P < 0.05). At CS3 stage, the average age of male in skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups was (11.6 ± 1.5) years old and (10.3 ± 1.9) years old, respectively; the average age of females in those two groups was (11.7 ± 1.3) years old and (9.3 ± 1.5) years old, respectively, and significant difference was found in both comparisons (P < 0.05). Compared average age at CS5 and CS6 between skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups [the ages of male was (15.1 ± 1.7) and (16.8 ± 1.6) years old, the ages of male was (14.6 ± 1.2) and (15.7 ± 2.5) years old], significant difference was also found (P < 0.05). Significant gender differences were found when evaluated CVM stage and age in skeletal Class I, II and III groups. Significant differences of age at different CVM stage was noted when skeletal Class II was compared with skeletal Class III groups.

  7. A Four Stage Approach to Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Julian S.

    This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…

  8. CD101, a Novel Echinocandin, Possesses Potent Antibiofilm Activity against Early and Mature Candida albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2018-02-01

    Currently available echinocandins are generally effective against Candida biofilms, but the recent emergence of resistance has underscored the importance of developing new antifungal agents that are effective against biofilms. CD101 is a long-acting novel echinocandin with distinctive pharmacokinetic properties and improved stability and safety relative to other drugs in the same class. CD101 is currently being evaluated as a once-weekly intravenous (i.v.) infusion for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In this study, we determined (i) the effect of CD101 against early and mature phase biofilms formed by C. albicans in vitro and (ii) the temporal effect of CD101 on the formation of biofilms using time-lapse microscopy (TLM). Early- or mature-phase biofilms were formed on silicone elastomer discs and were exposed to the test compounds for 24 h and quantified by measuring their metabolic activity. Separate batches were observed under a confocal microscope or used to capture TLM images from 0 to 16 h. Measurements of their metabolic activity showed that CD101 (0.25 or 1 μg/ml) significantly prevented adhesion-phase cells from developing into mature biofilms ( P = 0.0062 or 0.0064, respectively) and eradicated preformed mature biofilms ( P = 0.04 or 0.01, respectively) compared to those of untreated controls. Confocal microscopy showed significant reductions in biofilm thicknesses for both early and mature phases ( P < 0.05). TLM showed that CD101 stopped the growth of adhesion- and early-phase biofilms within minutes. CD101-treated hyphae failed to grow into mature biofilms. These results suggest that CD101 may be effective in the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2018 Chandra and Ghannoum.

  9. Do mature forest birds prefer early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period?

    Treesearch

    Carlin C. Chandler; David I. King; Richard B. Chandler

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the post-fledging period to bird populations, suggesting that the importance of this portion of the life cycle is equal to or greater than the nesting period. Nevertheless, few studies have compared abundance of forest nesting species between mature forest and early-successional habitats while controlling for...

  10. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  11. [Cognitive rehabilitation in early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kasper, E; Thöne-Otto, A; Bürger, K; Schröder, S G; Hoffmann, W; Schneider, W; Teipel, S

    2016-07-01

    Dementia impairs the coping with routine daily tasks and social relationships due to an increasing degeneration of cognitive abilities. An appropriate treatment must adequately consider the effects of declined cognitive abilities on patients and their environment. Therefore, in recent times, integrative procedures for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) have become increasingly important for the therapy of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia (MD). CR approaches provide compensatory possibilities for clearly defined routine challenges and the individual needs of those affected. This overview article in the form of a selective review elaborates factors for the effectiveness of CR on the basis of the currently available literature: 1) individuality - consideration of personal needs and targets, 2) compensation - mediation of skills and strategies to compensate for cognitive impairments, 3) interaction - inclusion of relatives and environmental conditions and 4) integration - integration of various therapeutic disciplines and methods. On the basis of this assessment with regards to the content, a critical analysis of the methods of short and long-term therapeutic effects on MCD and MD was carried out. Although the resulting factors were of high long-term relevance for the improvement of depression and quality of life, effects on cognition were more pronounced for MCI than for MD, which emphasizes the importance of beginning therapy as early as possible. The results show that future studies on effectiveness must employ endpoints relevant for routine daily life, and that the possibility of an implementation of therapeutic concepts in a healthcare system should be considered as an essential criterion.

  12. SEOM clinical guidelines in early-stage breast cancer 2015.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Saenz, J A; Bermejo, B; Estevez, L G; Palomo, A G; Gonzalez-Farre, X; Margeli, M; Pernas, S; Servitja, S; Rodriguez, C A; Ciruelos, E

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem. Despite remarkable advances in early diagnosis and treatment, one in three women may have metastases since diagnosis. Better understanding of prognostic and predictive factors allows us to select the most appropriate adjuvant therapy in each patient. In these guidelines, we summarize current evidence for the medical management of early-stage breast cancer.

  13. Surgical treatment for apparent early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most experts would agree that the standard surgical treatment for endometrial cancer includes a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, the benefit of full surgical staging with lymph node dissection in patients with apparent early stage disease remains a topic of debate. Recent prospective data and advances in laparoscopic techniques have transformed this disease into one that can be successfully managed with minimally invasive surgery. This review will discuss the current surgical management of apparent early stage endometrial cancer and some of the new techniques that are being incorporated. PMID:24596812

  14. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  15. Early life stress accelerates behavioral and neural maturation of the hippocampus in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bath, K; Manzano-Nieves, G; Goodwill, H

    2016-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for later cognitive and emotional dysfunction. ELS is known to truncate neural development through effects on suppressing cell birth, increasing cell death, and altering neuronal morphology, effects that have been associated with behavioral profiles indicative of precocious maturation. However, how earlier silencing of growth drives accelerated behavioral maturation has remained puzzling. Here, we test the novel hypothesis that, ELS drives a switch from growth to maturation to accelerate neural and behavioral development. To test this, we used a mouse model of ELS, fragmented maternal care, and a cross-sectional dense sampling approach focusing on hippocampus and measured effects of ELS on the ontogeny of behavioral development and biomarkers of neural maturation. Consistent with previous work, ELS was associated with an earlier developmental decline in expression of markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67) and differentiation (doublecortin). However, ELS also led to a precocious arrival of Parvalbumin-positive cells, led to an earlier switch in NMDA receptor subunit expression (marker of synaptic maturity), and was associated with an earlier rise in myelin basic protein expression (key component of the myelin sheath). In addition, in a contextual fear-conditioning task, ELS accelerated the timed developmental suppression of contextual fear. Together, these data provide support for the hypothesis that ELS serves to switch neurodevelopment from processes of growth to maturation and promotes accelerated development of some forms of emotional learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant activity of apples--an impact of maturity stage and fruit part.

    PubMed

    Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Tarko, Tomasz; Tuszyński, Tadeusz

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many studies have been oriented towards improving methods and efficiency of antioxidants recovery from different fruit and their wastes.The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant potential of apple seeds and peel, which constitute the fruit industry wastes, and compare it to apple flesh. Antioxidant activity of apples at different maturity and storage stage were analysed too. The Idared and the Šampion cultivars of apples were used in the study. Antioxidant activity was estimated using ABTS and DPPH assays, and polyphenols profile was determined by HPLC method. Seeds of analysed apple cultivars were characterised by a significantly higher antioxidant capacity and by higher concentrations of polyphenols analysed when compared to their peel and flesh. There were present two predominant compounds: phloridzin in seeds (84% and 72%) and quercetin glycosides in peels (54% and 38%, Idared and Šampion cultivars, respectively). No quercetin glycosides in seeds were found. The capacity to scavenge an ABTS radical, but not DPPH, decreased during ripening of apples, while cold storage resulted in enhanced antioxidant potential. It can be concluded that unripe apples together with apple seeds and peel (fruit industry wastes) constitute a valuable source of polyphenols.

  17. Response of Solanum tuberosum to Myzus persicae infestation at different stages of foliage maturity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Adriana E; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Tjallingii, W Fred; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Young leaves of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Kardal contain resistance factors to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and normal probing behavior is impeded. However, M. persicae can survive and reproduce on mature and senescent leaves of the cv. Kardal plant without problems. We compared the settling of M. persicae on young and old leaves and analyzed the impact of aphids settling on the plant in terms of gene expression. Settling, as measured by aphid numbers staying on young or old leaves, showed that after 21 h significantly fewer aphids were found on the young leaves. At earlier time points there were no difference between young and old leaves, suggesting that the young leaf resistance factors are not located at the surface level but deeper in the tissue. Gene expression was measured in plants at 96 h postinfestation, which is at a late stage in the interaction and in compatible interactions this is long enough for host plant acceptance to occur. In old leaves of cv. Kardal (compatible interaction), M. persicae infestation elicited a higher number of differentially regulated genes than in young leaves. The plant response to aphid infestation included a larger number of genes induced than repressed, and the proportion of induced versus repressed genes was larger in young than in old leaves. Several genes changing expression seem to be involved in changing the metabolic state of the leaf from source to sink. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Structure elucidation of a bioactive polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus in different maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yan-Fang; Li, Zheng-Peng; Feng, Jie; Yang, Yan

    2016-06-25

    HPB-3, a heteropolysaccharide, with a mean molecular weight of 1.5×10(4)Da, was obtained from the maturating-stage IV, V and VI fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus, exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities, was able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated macrophages, such as production of nitric oxide (NO). Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that HPB-3 comprised l-fucose, d-galactose and d-glucose in the ratio of 5.2:23.9:1. Its chemical structure was characterized by sugar and methylation analysis, along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. The results indicated that HPB-3 contained a-(1/6)-linked galactopyranosyl backbone, partially with a side chain composed of α-l-fucopyranose at the O-2 position. The predicted primary structure of the polysaccharide was established as below. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Sex Differences in the Role of Cortisol Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Ge, Xiaojia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    An accumulating body of literature has shown a link between early pubertal maturation and internalizing problems, particularly among girls. Our knowledge is, however, limited with regard to what accounts for this association. Based on a hypothesis that early maturing girls have heightened stress sensitivity that increases the risk of internalizing…

  20. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000; Chen, Hai-Xiao, E-mail: Hxchen-1@163.net

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not formmore » a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.« less

  1. Comparison of survival rate of cleavage stage embryos produced from in vitro maturation cycles after slow freezing and after vitrification.

    PubMed

    Son, Weon-Young; Chung, Jin-Tae; Gidoni, Yariv; Holzer, Hananel; Levin, Dan; Chian, Ri-Cheng; Tan, Seang Lin

    2009-09-01

    Significantly more embryos survived the vitrification procedure compared to slow freezing (85.5% vs. 61.8%) in cleavage-stage human embryos produced from in vitro maturation cycles, suggesting that vitrification is more efficient than slow freezing for cryopreservation.

  2. Carotenoids, Phenolic Profile, Mineral Content and Antioxidant Properties in Flesh and Peel of Prunus persica Fruits during Two Maturation Stages.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, Samia; Maatallah, Samira; Castagna, Antonella; Guizani, Monia; Sghaeir, Wala; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar. β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were the major carotenoids in both tissues and flesh contain the lowest amounts. Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were detected in both peel and flesh, with chlorogenic acid and catechin being the predominant components. Peel extracts showed markedly higher antioxidant activities, when estimated by ABTS or DPPH assays, than the flesh counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. Overall, total phenolics levels increased at full ripening stage in both peel and flesh. The results found herein provide important data on carotenoids, phenolic and macro- and micronutrient changes during fruit growth, and emphases peach fruit as a potential functional food.

  3. Unraveling Mixed Hydrate Formation: Microscopic Insights into Early Stage Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kyle Wm; Zhang, Zhengcai; Kusalik, Peter G

    2016-12-29

    The molecular-level details of mixed hydrate nucleation remain unclear despite the broad implications of this process for a variety of scientific domains. Through analysis of mixed hydrate nucleation in a prototypical CH 4 /H 2 S/H 2 O system, we demonstrate that high-level kinetic similarities between mixed hydrate systems and corresponding pure hydrate systems are not a reliable basis for estimating the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Moreover, we show that solution compositions prior to and during nucleation are not necessarily effective proxies for the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Rather, microscopic details, (e.g., guest-host interactions and previously neglected cage types) apparently play key roles in determining early stage behavior of mixed hydrates. This work thus provides key foundational concepts and insights for understanding mixed hydrate nucleation.

  4. Spiritual Diversity and Living with Early-Stage Dementia.

    PubMed

    McGee, Jocelyn Shealy; Zhao, Holly Carlson; Myers, Dennis R; Seela Eaton, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Attention to spiritual diversity is necessary for the provision of culturally informed clinical care for people with early-stage dementia and their family members. In this article, an evidence-based theoretical framework for conceptualizing spiritual diversity is described in detail (Pargament, 2011). The framework is then applied to two clinical case studies of people living with early-stage dementia to elucidate the multilayered components of spiritual diversity in this population. The case studies were selected from a larger mixed-methods study on spirituality, positive psychological factors, health, and well-being in people living with early-stage dementia and their family members. To our knowledge this is the first systematic attempt to apply a theoretical framework for understanding spiritual diversity in this population. Implications for clinical practice are provided.

  5. Individual condition and stream temperature influence early maturation of rainbow and steelhead trout, ncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMillan, John R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Reeves, Gordon H.; Mills, Justin S.; Jordan, Chris E.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative male phenotypes in salmonine fishes arise from individuals that mature as larger and older anadromous marine-migrants or as smaller and younger freshwater residents. To better understand the processes influencing the expression of these phenotypes we examined the influences of growth in length (fork length) and whole body lipid content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were sampled from the John Day River basin in northeast Oregon where both anadromous ("steelhead") and freshwater resident rainbow trout coexist. Larger males with higher lipid levels had a greater probability of maturing as a resident at age-1+. Among males, 38% were maturing overall, and the odds ratios of the logistic model indicated that the probability of a male maturing early as a resident at age-1+ increased 49% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 23-81%) for every 5 mm increase in length and 33% (95% CI = 10-61%) for every 0.5% increase in whole body lipid content. There was an inverse association between individual condition and water temperature as growth was greater in warmer streams while whole body lipid content was higher in cooler streams. Our results support predictions from life history theory and further suggest that relationships between individual condition, maturation, and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature) are shaped by complex developmental and evolutionary influences.

  6. Minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy for pediatric early stage congenital cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chul Ho; Jung, Eun Kyung; Sung, Chung Man; Kim, Seung Beom; Kim, Young Yoon; Seong, Jong Yuap; Kang, Sung Hoon; Cho, Yong Beom

    2016-11-01

    Recently, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), which is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma (CC) in children, was introduced. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short-term surgical results of MITM in pediatric early stage CC. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 24 patients who underwent MITM between January 2013 and October 2015. The patients' ages ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 2.6 years). There were 17 male and 7 female patients. The right side (n = 13) was affected twice as often as the left side (n = 11). The most common site was the anterosuperior quadrant (15 cases). The diameter of the CC on axial computed tomography images ranged from 2.8 to 5.7 mm (mean, 3.9 mm). CCs were graded according to Potsic's system: 18 cases were classified as stage I, 3 case as stage II, and 3 cases as stage III. AllCCs except 1 were closed type. In21 patients, the tympanic membrane closed naturally without recurrence. Three patients showed small persistent dry perforation. Natural closure occurred in these patients, who were treated with paper patches. MITM is a simple, effective technique for removing an early stage CC from the middle ear, and it can minimize operative time, length of hospitalization, and postoperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of subsets of human spermatozoa at different stages of maturation: implications in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ollero, M; Gil-Guzman, E; Lopez, M C; Sharma, R K; Agarwal, A; Larson, K; Evenson, D; Thomas, A J; Alvarez, J G

    2001-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage of membrane phospholipids and DNA in human spermatozoa has been implicated in the pathogenesis of male infertility. In this study, variations in ROS production, DNA structure (as measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay) and lipid composition, were studied in human spermatozoa at different stages of maturation. Sperm subsets were isolated by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation of semen samples obtained from healthy donors and from infertility patients. DNA damage and ROS production were highest in immature spermatozoa with cytoplasmic retention and abnormal head morphology, and lowest in mature spermatozoa. Docosahexaenoic acid and sterol content were highest in immature germ cells and immature spermatozoa, and lowest in mature spermatozoa. The relative proportion of ROS-producing immature spermatozoa in the sample was directly correlated with DNA damage in mature spermatozoa, and inversely correlated with the recovery of motile spermatozoa. There was no correlation between DNA damage and sperm morphology in mature spermatozoa. The high levels of ROS production and DNA damage observed in immature spermatozoa may be indicative of derangements in the regulation of spermiogenesis. DNA damage in mature spermatozoa may be the result of oxidative damage by ROS-producing immature spermatozoa during sperm migration from the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis.

  8. Effect of dynamic controlled atmosphere monitored by respiratory quotient and 1-methylcyclopropene on the metabolism and quality of 'Galaxy' apple harvested at three maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Brackmann, Auri; Anese, Rogerio de Oliveira; Ludwig, Vagner; Schultz, Erani Eliseu; Dos Santos, Luana Ferreira; Wendt, Lucas Mallmann

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between controlled atmosphere (CA), CA+1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and dynamic controlled atmosphere monitored by respiratory quotient (DCA-RQ) with three fruit maturity stages at harvest (early harvest date, optimal harvest date and late harvest date) on 'Galaxy' apple metabolism and quality after harvest and 9months storage plus 7days of shelf life at 20°C. Fruit stored under dynamic controlled atmosphere monitored by respiratory quotient 1.3 (DCA-RQ 1.3) showed lower ethylene production, respiration rate, mealiness and higher flesh firmness in comparison to CA stored fruit, but did not differ from those treated with 1-MCP. The dynamic controlled atmosphere monitored by respiratory quotient 1.5 (DCA-RQ 1.5) increased the acetaldehyde, ethanol and ethyl acetate concentration, regardless of the fruit maturity at harvest. The storage of 'Galaxy' apple under DCA-RQ 1.3 is efficient in keeping quality regardless of the maturity stage at harvest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Timing of maturation and predictors of Tanner stage transitions in boys enrolled in a contemporary British cohort.

    PubMed

    Monteilh, Carolyn; Kieszak, Stephanie; Flanders, W Dana; Maisonet, Mildred; Rubin, Carol; Holmes, Adrianne K; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the timing of puberty in 8- to 14-year-old boys enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and identifies factors associated with earlier achievement of advanced pubic hair stages. Women were enrolled during pregnancy and their offspring were followed prospectively. We analysed self-reported pubic hair Tanner staging collected annually. We used survival models to estimate median age of attainment of pubic hair stage >1, stage >2 and stage >3 of pubic hair development. We also constructed multivariable logistic regression models to identify factors associated with earlier achievement of pubic hair stages. Approximately 5% of the boys reported Tanner pubic hair stage >1 at age 8; 99% of boys were at stage >1 by age 14. The estimated median ages of entry into stages of pubic hair development were 11.4 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.3, 11.4] for stage >1, 12.7 years [95% CI 12.7, 12.8] for stage >2 and 13.5 years [95% CI 13.5, 13.6] for stage >3. Predictors of younger age at Tanner stage >1 included low birthweight, younger maternal age at delivery and being taller at age 8. Associations were found between younger age at attainment of stage >2 and gestational diabetes and taller or heavier body size at age 8. Being taller or heavier at age 8 also predicted younger age at Tanner stage >3. The results give added support to the strong influence of pre-adolescent body size on male pubertal development; the tallest and heaviest boys at 8 years achieved each stage earlier and the shortest boys later. Age at attainment of pubic hair Tanner stages in the ALSPAC cohort are similar to ages reported in other European studies that were conducted during overlapping time periods. This cohort will continue to be followed for maturational information until age 17. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Applying NGS Data to Find Evolutionary Network Biomarkers from the Early and Late Stages of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Ting-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major liver tumor (~80%), besides hepatoblastomas, angiosarcomas, and cholangiocarcinomas. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early-stage and late-stage liver cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we found that the two networks showed some common mechanisms and some significantly different mechanisms. To obtain differential network structures between cancer and noncancer PPINs, we constructed cancer PPIN and noncancer PPIN network structures for the two stages of liver cancer by systems biology method using NGS data from cancer cells and adjacent noncancer cells. Using carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs), we identified 43 and 80 significant proteins and their PPINs (network markers) for early-stage and late-stage liver cancer. To investigate the evolution of network biomarkers in the carcinogenesis process, a primary pathway analysis showed that common pathways of the early and late stages were those related to ordinary cancer mechanisms. A pathway specific to the early stage was the mismatch repair pathway, while pathways specific to the late stage were the spliceosome pathway, lysine degradation pathway, and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway. This study provides a new direction for cancer-targeted therapies at different stages. PMID:26366411

  11. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  12. Early stages of the evolution of life: a cybernetic approach.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Seleznev, Vladimir D

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  13. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  14. Early parental care is important for hippocampal maturation: evidence from brain morphology in humans.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hengyi; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Korczykowski, Marc; Avants, Brian B; Gee, James C; Wang, Jiongjiong; Hurt, Hallam; Detre, John A; Farah, Martha J

    2010-01-01

    The effects of early life experience on later brain structure and function have been studied extensively in animals, yet the relationship between childhood experience and normal brain development in humans remains largely unknown. Using a unique longitudinal data set including ecologically valid in-home measures of early experience during childhood (at age 4 and 8 years) and high-resolution structural brain imaging during adolescence (mean age 14 years), we examined the effects on later brain morphology of two dimensions of early experience: parental nurturance and environmental stimulation. Parental nurturance at age 4 predicts the volume of the left hippocampus in adolescence, with better nurturance associated with smaller hippocampal volume. In contrast, environmental stimulation did not correlate with hippocampal volume. Moreover, the association between hippocampal volume and parental nurturance disappears at age 8, supporting the existence of a sensitive developmental period for brain maturation. These findings indicate that variation in normal childhood experience is associated with differences in brain morphology, and hippocampal volume is specifically associated with early parental nurturance. Our results provide neuroimaging evidence supporting the important role of warm parental care during early childhood for brain maturation.

  15. Signatures of unfolding in the early stages of protein denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.

    2012-04-01

    A comparative study of the early stages of unfolding of five proteins: cyt c, c-b 562, cyt c‧, azurin, and lysozyme is reported. From crystallographic data, helical regions and intervening non-helical (or 'turning') regions are identified in each. Exploiting a previously introduced geometrical model, the paper describes quantitatively the stepwise extension of a polypeptide chain subject to the geometrical constraint that the spatial relationship among the residues of each triplet is fixed by native-state crystallographic data. Despite differences among the above-cited proteins, remarkable universality of behavior is found in the early stages of unfolding. At the very earliest stages, internal residues in each helical region have a common unfolding history; the terminal residues, however, are extraordinarily sensitive to structural perturbations. Residues in non-helical sections of the polypeptide unfold after residues in the internal helical regions, but with increasing steric perturbation playing a dominant role in advancing denaturation.

  16. Chemical profile of pineapple cv. Vitória in different maturation stages using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Elizângela M; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Caetano, Luiz Cs; Pinto, Fernanda E; Oliveira, Bruno G; Barroso, Maria Eduarda S; Scherer, Rodrigo; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2018-02-01

    Pineapple is the fruit of Ananas comosus var. comosus plant, being cultivated in tropical areas and has high energy content and nutritional value. Herein, 30 samples of pineapple cv. Vitória were analyzed as a function of the maturation stage (0-5) and their physico-chemical parameters monitored. In addition, negative-ion mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [ESI(-)FT-ICR MS] was used to identify and semi-quantify primary and secondary metabolites present in the crude and phenolic extracts of pineapple, respectively. Physico-chemical tests show an increase in the total soluble solids (TSS) values and in the TSS/total titratable acidity ratio as a function of the maturity stage, where a maximum value was observed in stage 3 (¾ of the fruit is yellow, which corresponds to the color of the fruit peel). ESI(-)FT-ICR MS analysis for crude extracts showed the presence mainly of sugars as primary metabolites present in deprotonated molecule form ([M - H] - and [2 M - H] - ions) whereas, for phenolic fractions, 11 compounds were detected, being the most abundant in the third stage of maturation. This behavior was confirmed by quantitative analysis of total polyphenols. ESI-FT-ICR MS was efficient in identifying primary (carbohydrates and organic acids) and secondary metabolites (13 phenolic compounds) presents in the crude and phenolic extract of the samples, respectively. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Adaptor Protein Complex 2 (AP-2) Mediated, Clathrin Dependent Endocytosis, And Related Gene Activities, Are A Prominent Feature During Maturation Stage Amelogenesis

    PubMed Central

    LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.; BROOKES, Steven J.; WEN, Xin; JIMENEZ, Jaime M.; VIKMAN, Susanna; HU, Ping; WHITE, Shane N.; LYNGSTADAAS, S. Petter; OKAMOTO, Curtis T.; SMITH, Charles E.; PAINE, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular events defining enamel matrix removal during amelogenesis are poorly understood. Early reports have suggested that adaptor proteins (AP) participate in ameloblast-mediated endocytosis. Enamel formation involves the secretory and maturation stages, with an increase in resorptive function during the latter. Here, using real time PCR, we show that the expression of clathrin and adaptor protein subunits are up-regulated in maturation stage rodent enamel organ cells. AP-2 is the most up-regulated of the four distinct adaptor protein complexes. Immunolocalization confirms the presence of AP-2 and clathrin in ameloblasts with strongest reactivity at the apical pole. These data suggest that the resorptive functions of enamel cells involve AP-2 mediated, clathrin dependent endocytosis, thus implying the likelihood of a specific membrane-bound receptor(s) of enamel matrix protein debris. The mRNA expression of other endocytosis-related gene products is also up-regulated during maturation including: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp1), cluster of differentiation 63 and 68 (Cd63 and Cd68), ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit D2 (Atp6v0d2), ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V1 subunit B2 (Atp6v1b2), chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7 (Clcn7) and cathepsin K (Ctsk). Immunohistological data confirms the expression of a number of these proteins in maturation stage ameloblasts. The enamel of Cd63-null mice was also examined. Despite increased mRNA and protein expression in the enamel organ during maturation, the enamel of Cd63-null mice appeared normal. This may suggest inherent functional redundancies between Cd63 and related gene products, such as Lamp1 and Cd68. Ameloblast-like LS8 cells treated with the enamel matrix protein complex Emdogain® showed up-regulation of AP-2 and clathrin subunits, further supporting the existence of a membrane-bound receptor regulated pathway for the endocytosis of enamel matrix proteins. These data together

  18. Adaptor protein complex 2-mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and related gene activities, are a prominent feature during maturation stage amelogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Brookes, Steven J; Wen, Xin; Jimenez, Jaime M; Vikman, Susanna; Hu, Ping; White, Shane N; Lyngstadaas, S Petter; Okamoto, Curtis T; Smith, Charles E; Paine, Michael L

    2013-03-01

    Molecular events defining enamel matrix removal during amelogenesis are poorly understood. Early reports have suggested that adaptor proteins (AP) participate in ameloblast-mediated endocytosis. Enamel formation involves the secretory and maturation stages, with an increase in resorptive function during the latter. Here, using real-time PCR, we show that the expression of clathrin and adaptor protein subunits are upregulated in maturation stage rodent enamel organ cells. AP complex 2 (AP-2) is the most upregulated of the four distinct adaptor protein complexes. Immunolocalization confirms the presence of AP-2 and clathrin in ameloblasts, with strongest reactivity at the apical pole. These data suggest that the resorptive functions of enamel cells involve AP-2 mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, thus implying the likelihood of specific membrane-bound receptor(s) of enamel matrix protein debris. The mRNA expression of other endocytosis-related gene products is also upregulated during maturation including: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp1); cluster of differentiation 63 and 68 (Cd63 and Cd68); ATPase, H(+) transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit D2 (Atp6v0d2); ATPase, H(+) transporting, lysosomal V1 subunit B2 (Atp6v1b2); chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7 (Clcn7); and cathepsin K (Ctsk). Immunohistologic data confirms the expression of a number of these proteins in maturation stage ameloblasts. The enamel of Cd63-null mice was also examined. Despite increased mRNA and protein expression in the enamel organ during maturation, the enamel of Cd63-null mice appeared normal. This may suggest inherent functional redundancies between Cd63 and related gene products, such as Lamp1 and Cd68. Ameloblast-like LS8 cells treated with the enamel matrix protein complex Emdogain showed upregulation of AP-2 and clathrin subunits, further supporting the existence of a membrane-bound receptor-regulated pathway for the endocytosis of enamel matrix proteins. These data

  19. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to thosemore » for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.« less

  20. Policosanol composition, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil at different seed maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Harrabi, Saoussem; Ferchichi, Azza; Bacheli, Asma; Fellah, Hayet

    2018-04-16

    Several anti-arthritic drugs and synthetic antioxidants have wide pharmaceutical uses and are often associated with various side effects on the human health. Dietary seed oils and their minor components like policosanol may offer an effective alternative treatment for arthritic and oxidative-stress related diseases. The biological effects of seed oils were affected by different parameters such as the stage of seed maturity. Hence, this study seeks to determine the policosanol content, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil extracted at various stages of seed maturation. Milk thistle oil samples were extracted from seeds collected at three maturation stages (immature, intermediate, and mature). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the extracted oils. The anti-arthritic activity of oil samples was evaluated with bovine serum protein denaturation and egg albumin denaturation methods. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine the policosanol profile. Policosanol profile, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle oil were influenced by the seed maturity stages. The oil extracted from the immature seeds had the highest total policosanol content (987.68 mg/kg of oil) and displayed the maximum antiradical activity (96.42% and 90.35% for DPPH test and ABTS assay, respectively). Nine aliphatic alcohols were identified in the milk thistle oil. The dominant poliosanol in the mature seed oil was octacosanol (75.44%), while triacontanol was the major compound (40.25%) in the immature seed oil. Additionally, the maximum inhibition of bovine serum protein denaturation (92.53%) and egg albumin denaturation (86.36%) were observed in immature seed oil as compared to mature seed oil. A high correlation was found between the total

  1. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage... Webinars regarding its proposed Early Stage Small Business Investment Companies (Early Stage SBIC) rule. The proposed Early Stage SBIC rule defines a new sub-category of small business investment companies...

  2. Localization of DNA methyltransferase-1 during oocyte differentiation, in vitro maturation and early embryonic development in cow

    PubMed Central

    Lodde, V.; Modina, S.C.; Franciosi, F.; Zuccari, E.; Tessaro, I.; Luciano, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1) is involved in the maintenance of DNA methylation patterns and is crucial for normal mammalian development. The aim of the present study was to assess the localization of Dnmt1 in cow, during the latest phases of oocyte differentiation and during the early stages of segmentation. Dnmt1 expression and localization were assessed in oocytes according to the chromatin configuration, which in turn provides an important epigenetic mechanism for the control of global gene expression and represents a morphological marker of oocyte differentiation. We found that the initial chromatin condensation was accompanied by a slight increase in the level of global DNA methylation, as assessed by 5-methyl-cytosine immunostaining followed by laser scanning confocal microscopy analysis (LSCM). RT-PCR confirmed the presence of Dnmt1 transcripts throughout this phase of oocyte differentiation. Analogously, Dnmt1 immunodetection and LSCM indicated that the protein was always present and localized in the cytoplasm, regardless the chromatin configuration and the level of global DNA methylation. Moreover, our data indicate that while Dnmt1 is retained in the cytoplasm in metaphase II stage oocytes and zygotes, it enters the nuclei of 8–16 cell stage embryos. As suggested in mouse, the functional meaning of the presence of Dnmt1 in the bovine embryo nuclei could be the maintainement of the methylation pattern of imprinted genes. In conclusion, the present work provides useful elements for the study of Dnmt1 function during the late stage of oocyte differentiation, maturation and early embryonic development in mammals. PMID:22073356

  3. Cholinesterase inhibitory activity and chemical constituents of Stenochlaena palustris fronds at two different stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Chear, Nelson Jeng-Yeou; Khaw, Kooi-Yeong; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Lai, Choon-Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Stenochlaena palustris fronds are popular as a vegetable in Southeast Asia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the anticholinesterase properties and phytochemical profiles of the young and mature fronds of this plant. Both types of fronds were found to have selective inhibitory effect against butyrylcholinesterase compared with acetylcholinesterase. However, different sets of compounds were responsible for their activity. In young fronds, an antibutyrylcholinesterase effect was observed in the hexane extract, which was comprised of a variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and phytosterols. In the mature fronds, inhibitory activity was observed in the methanol extract, which contained a series of kaempferol glycosides. Our results provided novel information concerning the ability of S. palustris to inhibit cholinesterase and its phytochemical profile. Further research to investigate the potential use of this plant against Alzheimer's disease is warranted, however, young and mature fronds should be distinguished due to their phytochemical differences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Deficit irrigation and maturation stage influence quality and flavonoid composition of 'Valencia' orange fruit.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Filipa S; Di Stefano, Vita; Lo Bianco, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Effects of continuous deficit irrigation (DI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD) treatments (50% ETc) in comparison with full irrigation (CI, 100% ETc) were investigated during 'Valencia' orange fruit maturation. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to quantify hesperidin, narirutin, tangeritin, nobiletin, didymin and neoeriocitrin in the fruit juice and peel. No significant effect of irrigation was found on yield, juice soluble solids or acidity. Juice color was not influenced by irrigation or harvest date, whereas peel color increased during maturation and was more pronounced in CI and PRD fruits. Juice acidity reached a peak in May, while soluble solids increased linearly throughout maturation. Hesperidin was the major flavanone detected during maturation, with concentrations 200-fold higher in the fruit peel than in the juice. In the peel, narirutin, didymin and neoeriocitrin decreased while hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeritin increased with maturation. Narirutin synthesis in the orange fruit was insensitive to irrigation strategy. In fruit peels, PRD and DI induced the decline of hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeritin only in June, whereas in the juice, deficit irrigation treatments induced an increase in hesperidin and didymin. These results suggest that deficit irrigation, in particular the conditions imposed with PRD, may cause a significant accumulation shift of total flavonoids from the fruit peel into the juice, with a positive impact on juice quality and nutritional value. Fruit compositional changes during maturation also suggest that late harvest can improve fruit palatability and nutritional quality under the cultural and environmental conditions of this study. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Folding of Polymer Chains in Early Stage of Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shichen; Miyoshi, Toshikazu

    Understanding the structural formation of long polymer chains in the early stage of crystallization is one of the long-standing problems in polymer science. Using solid state NMR, we investigated chain trajectory of isotactic polypropylene in the mesomorphic nano-domains formed via rapid and deep quenching. Comparison of experimental and simulated 13C-13C Double Quantum (DQ) buildup curves demonstrated that instead of random re-entry models and solidification models, individual chains in the mesomorphic form iPP adopt adjacent reentry sequences with an average folding number of = 3-4 (assuming an adjacent re-entry fraction of of 100%) during mesomorphic formation process via nucleation and growth in the early stage. This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant DMR-1105829 and 1408855) and startup funds from the UA.

  6. Dyslipidogenic microangiopathy in guinea pigs at early stages of atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bersenev, A V; Klimenko, E D; Kobozeva, L P; Michunskaya, A B; Onishchenko, N A; Pozdnyakov, O M

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of dyslipidemia on lipid metabolism, state of microcirculatory system, and morphological alterations in the aorta and liver of guinea pigs at the early stages of experimental atherogenesis. The important role of microcirculatory disorders in the development of regional pathology and atherosclerosis is confirmed. The proposed alimentary model can be used in the development of novel methods for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  7. The maturation of cortical sleep rhythms and networks over early development

    PubMed Central

    Chu, CJ; Leahy, J; Pathmanathan, J; Kramer, MA; Cash, SS

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although neuronal activity drives all aspects of cortical development, how human brain rhythms spontaneously mature remains an active area of research. We sought to systematically evaluate the emergence of human brain rhythms and functional cortical networks over early development. Methods We examined cortical rhythms and coupling patterns from birth through adolescence in a large cohort of healthy children (n=384) using scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in the sleep state. Results We found that the emergence of brain rhythms follows a stereotyped sequence over early development. In general, higher frequencies increase in prominence with striking regional specificity throughout development. The coordination of these rhythmic activities across brain regions follows a general pattern of maturation in which broadly distributed networks of low-frequency oscillations increase in density while networks of high frequency oscillations become sparser and more highly clustered. Conclusion Our results indicate that a predictable program directs the development of key rhythmic components and physiological brain networks over early development. Significance This work expands our knowledge of normal cortical development. The stereotyped neurophysiological processes observed at the level of rhythms and networks may provide a scaffolding to support critical periods of cognitive growth. Furthermore, these conserved patterns could provide a sensitive biomarker for cortical health across development. PMID:24418219

  8. The maturation of cortical sleep rhythms and networks over early development.

    PubMed

    Chu, C J; Leahy, J; Pathmanathan, J; Kramer, M A; Cash, S S

    2014-07-01

    Although neuronal activity drives all aspects of cortical development, how human brain rhythms spontaneously mature remains an active area of research. We sought to systematically evaluate the emergence of human brain rhythms and functional cortical networks over early development. We examined cortical rhythms and coupling patterns from birth through adolescence in a large cohort of healthy children (n=384) using scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in the sleep state. We found that the emergence of brain rhythms follows a stereotyped sequence over early development. In general, higher frequencies increase in prominence with striking regional specificity throughout development. The coordination of these rhythmic activities across brain regions follows a general pattern of maturation in which broadly distributed networks of low-frequency oscillations increase in density while networks of high frequency oscillations become sparser and more highly clustered. Our results indicate that a predictable program directs the development of key rhythmic components and physiological brain networks over early development. This work expands our knowledge of normal cortical development. The stereotyped neurophysiological processes observed at the level of rhythms and networks may provide a scaffolding to support critical periods of cognitive growth. Furthermore, these conserved patterns could provide a sensitive biomarker for cortical health across development. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of early repeated pain experiences on stress responsiveness and emotionality at maturity in rats.

    PubMed

    Page, Gayle G; Blakely, Wendy P; Kim, Miyong

    2005-01-01

    The intensive care necessary for premature newborns is characterized by multiple procedures, many of which are painful. Given emerging evidence that such early pain during this time of high brain plasticity may affect long-term neurodevelopmental and social-emotional functioning, this study explored the impact of early repeated pain on emotionality and stress responsivity at maturity. From birth through postnatal day 7, Fischer 344 pups underwent either paw needle prick every day versus every other day or daily paw touch, or were left unperturbed. Each paw received the designated perturbation once per day. At maturity, some animals underwent emotionality testing: either a 4-day series of open field exposures or a single elevated plus-maze (EPM) exposure. The paw prick groups exhibited less open field habituation and occupied the EPM open arms more. Two weeks later, all animals were either subjected to forced swim or not. At 1h post-swim, animals underwent either blood withdrawal for plasma corticosterone (CS) levels and ex vivo natural killer cell activity (NKCA) or were injected intravenously with radiolabeled NK-sensitive syngeneic MADB106 tumor cells and assessed for lung tumor retention. Sex was a major factor in the manifestation of perturbation-related differences in the biologic outcomes. Whereas postnatal pain differentially affected baseline tumor retention between males and females, only males exhibited perturbation-related differences in swim stress-induced increases in tumor retention and CS. Finally, male-female differences were evident in CS, NKCA, and tumor responses to swim stress. These findings suggest that early pain affects neurodevelopmental function in the mature organism; however, these relationships are complicated by sex differences, the postnatal pain schedule, and the outcome measured.

  10. Multimodal imaging findings in 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS.

    PubMed

    Cahuzac, Armelle; Wolff, Benjamin; Mathis, Thibaud; Errera, Marie-Hélène; Sahel, José-Alain; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine

    2017-10-01

    To describe a new stage of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), occurring at a very early phase of the disease. Retrospective analysis of clinical, angiographic and tomographic findings in four patients with 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS. In four patients seen within 1 week of the onset of symptoms, fundus analysis revealed macular granity and the classic yellow-white dots, some having no corresponding hyperautofluorescent pattern. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed central foveal disruption of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation layer with a hyper-reflective dome-shaped lesion. In two patients, fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed an intermediate hypofluorescent perimacular halo, whereas late indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) showed a hyperfluorescent halo as well as the classic MEWDS features. After a few days, the EZ disruption appeared complete on OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in all patients. Visual acuity, OCT and FAF findings had fully recovered within 3 months. We have shown a new feature of MEWDS on FAF, OCT, FA and ICGA, corresponding to a very early stage of the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Low Temperature and Short-Term High-CO2 Treatment in Postharvest Storage of Table Grapes at Two Maturity Stages: Effects on Transcriptome Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Raquel; Romero, Irene; Fernandez-Caballero, Carlos; Escribano, M. Isabel; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal) are highly perishable and their quality deteriorates during postharvest storage at low temperature mainly because of sensitivity to fungal decay and senescence of rachis. The application of a 3-day CO2 treatment (20 kPa CO2 + 20 kPa O2 + 60 kPa N2) at 0°C reduced total decay and retained fruit quality in early and late-harvested table grapes during postharvest storage. In order to study the transcriptional responsiveness of table grapes to low temperature and high CO2 levels in the first stage of storage and how the maturity stage affect these changes, we have performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis using the custom-made GrapeGen GeneChip®. In the first stage of storage, low temperature led to a significantly intense change in grape skin transcriptome irrespective of fruit maturity, although there were different changes within each stage. In the case of CO2 treated samples, in comparison to fruit at time zero, only slight differences were observed. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that major modifications in the transcriptome profile of early- and late-harvested grapes stored at 0°C are linked to biotic and abiotic stress-responsive terms. However, in both cases there is a specific reprogramming of the transcriptome during the first stage of storage at 0°C in order to withstand the cold stress. Thus, genes involved in gluconeogenesis, photosynthesis, mRNA translation and lipid transport were up-regulated in the case of early-harvested grapes, and genes related to protein folding stability and intracellular membrane trafficking in late-harvested grapes. The beneficial effect of high CO2 treatment maintaining table grape quality seems to be an active process requiring the induction of several transcription factors and kinases in early-harvested grapes, and the activation of processes associated to the maintenance of energy in late-harvested grapes. PMID:27468290

  12. Persistent positive metaiodobenzylguanidine scans after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation may indicate maturation of stage 4 neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kodama, Yuichi; Nishikawa, Takuro; Rindiarti, Almitra; Tanabe, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Takako; Takumi, Koji; Kaji, Tatsuru; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-04-01

    Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scans are sensitive testing tools for neuroblastoma. Persistent positive MIBG scans in patients with stage 3 neuroblastoma have previously been found to indicate maturation rather than regression. We assessed the significance of this finding in stage 4 neuroblastoma in the present study. Fifteen consecutive pediatric patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma treated between 2004 and 2014 at the Kagoshima University Hospital were retrospectively examined. Treatment involved a combination of multiagent chemotherapy, resection, autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), radiotherapy, and maintenance therapy with retinoic acid. The MIBG uptake in each patient during treatment was assessed using a Curie score. The 5-year event-free and overall survival rates in 15 patients were 38.9% and 58.7%, respectively. Four patients with persistent positive MIBG scans who underwent autologous PBSCT but experienced decreased 123 I-MIBG uptake during the clinical course survived without progression, and their event-free survival (EFS) was significantly superior to that of patients who showed negative MIBG scans after PBSCT (5-year EFS rate: 18.2%, p = 0.0176). Therefore, persistent positive MIBG scans with gradually decreased uptake after PBSCT do not always indicate neuroblastoma progression, and may instead indicate tumor maturation in some selected cases, if not all cases, of stage 4 neuroblastoma.

  13. Mycochemical Characterization of Agaricus subrufescens considering Their Morphological and Physiological Stage of Maturity on the Traceability Process

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Jose E; Tomaz, Rafael Simões; Miasaki, Celso Tadao; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Agaricus subrufescens Peck is a basidiomycete with immunomodulatory compounds and antitumor activities. This research evaluated the mycochemical composition of A. subrufescens, considering their morphological and physiological stage of maturity, with a particular focus on the development of a traceability process for the formulation of new nutritional products based on fungal foods. The stipes contained a high amount of dry matter (10.33%), total carbohydrate (69.56%), available carbohydrate (63.89%), and energy value (363.97 kcal 100 g−1 DM). The pilei contained a high amount of moisture (90.66%), nitrogen (7.75%), protein (33.96%), ash (8.24), crude fat (2.44%), acid detergent fiber (16.75 g kg−1), neutral detergent fiber (41.82 g kg−1), hemicellulose (25.07 g kg−1), and lignin (9.77 g kg−1). Stipes with mature physiological stage had higher values of dry matter (10.50%), crude fiber (5.94%), total carbohydrate (72.82%), AC (66.88%), and energy value (364.91 kcal 100 g−1 DM). Pilei of the mushrooms in the immature physiological stage had higher values of P (36.83%), N (8.41%), and A (8.44%). Due to the differences between the mycochemical compositions of the morphological parts of mushrooms linked to their physiological stage of maturity, such characteristics have immense potential to be considered for a traceability process. This study can be used for the purpose of providing the consumer with more product diversity, optimizing bioactivities of composts, and allowing farmers an efficient and profitable use of the mushroom biomass. PMID:29082241

  14. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  15. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E; Neimat, Joseph S; Molinari, Anna L; Tramontana, Michael G; Finder, Stuart G; Gill, Chandler E; Bliton, Mark J; Kao, Chris; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M; Cannard, Kevin R; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50-75, on medication ≥6 months but ≤4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n = 15) or DBS + ODT (n = 15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. Medication requirements in the DBS + ODT group were lower at all time points with a maximal difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS + ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation therapy in early-stage invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ray; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar

    2011-06-01

    The treatment of breast cancer involves a multi-disciplinary approach with radiation therapy playing a key role. Breast-conserving surgery has been an option for women with early-stage breast cancer for over two decades now. Multiple randomized trials now have demonstrated the efficacy of breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy. With the advancements in breast imaging and the successful campaign for early detection of breast cancer, more women today are found to have early-stage small breast cancers. Patient factors (breast size, tumor location, history of prior radiation therapy, preexisting conditions such as collagen vascular disease, age, having prosthetically augmented breasts), pathological factors (margin status, tumor size, presence of extensive intraductal component requiring multiple surgical excisions), as well as patient preference are all taken into consideration prior to surgical management of breast cancer. Whole-breast fractionated radiation therapy between 5 and 7 weeks is considered as the standard of care treatment following breast-conserving surgery. However, new radiation treatment strategies have been developed in recent years to provide alternatives to the conventional 5-7 week whole-breast radiation therapy for some patients. Accelerated partial breast radiation therapy (APBI) was introduced because the frequency of breast recurrences outside of the surgical cavity has been shown to be low. This technique allows treatments to be delivered quicker (usually 1 week, twice daily) to a limited volume. Often times, this treatment involves the use of a brachytherapy applicator to be placed into the surgical cavity following breast-conserving surgery. Accelerated hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation may be another faster way to deliver radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery. This journal article reviews the role of radiation therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer addressing patient selection in breast

  17. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

  18. Early in vitro fertilization improves development of bovine ova heat stressed during in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Schrock, G E; Saxton, A M; Schrick, F N; Edwards, J L

    2007-09-01

    The objectives were to examine the development of embryos derived from control (38.5 degrees C) or heat-stressed ova [41.0 degrees C during the first 12 h of in vitro maturation (hIVM)] when in vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed at 16, 18, 20, 24, or 30 hIVM. Effects of heat stress in compromising ovum development depended on when IVF was performed (in vitro maturation temperature x IVF time interaction). When IVF was performed at 24 or 30 hIVM, fewer heat-stressed ova developed to the blastocyst stage compared with the respective controls. In contrast, when IVF was performed at 16, 18, or 20 hIVM, more heat-stressed ova developed to the blastocyst stage compared with the respective controls. Performing IVF earlier than usual was beneficial, because the ability of heat-stressed ova to develop to the blastocyst stage was improved when IVF was performed at 18 or 20 vs. 24 hIVM. Blastocyst stage and quality were equivalent to non-heat-stressed controls regardless of IVF time. Control ova undergoing IVF at 20, 24, 30, or 32 hIVM and heat-stressed ova undergoing IVF at 16, 18, 20, or 24 hIVM were compared for blastocyst development by multisource regression. Although linear and quadratic slopes were similar, heat stress reduced the peak and shifted the developmental response of ova by 7.3 h. In other words, obtaining optimal blastocyst development from heat-stressed ova would depend on performing IVF at 19.5 hIVM compared with 26.7 hIVM for non-heat-stressed controls. Heat-induced reductions in peak blastocyst development significantly reduced the window of time available to perform IVF and obtain > or = 20% blastocyst development. In summary, results support an effect of heat stress to hasten developmentally important events during oocyte maturation. The inability of earlier IVF to fully restore the development of heat-stressed ova to that of non-heat-stressed controls highlights the importance of further study.

  19. Influence of zinc on growth and bone maturation in children with end stage renal disease (ESRD)

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, D.; Fleischmann, L.; Schemmel, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    Children with ESRD, age 5-19 years, were supplemented with zinc acetate (2 mg/kg BW, maximum 40 mg/da/child) to determine if zinc supplements (ZS) would improve growth and bone maturation. Twelve children completed the study. Three of the 12 did not receive ZS. Seven of the 9 ZS children were followed for 1 year pre- and 1 yr during-ZS. Two subjects were followed for shorter periods of time. Heights, weights, and hand wrist radiographs were taken at the beginning of the study, just pre-ZS, and at the end of the study. Blood was analyzed for serum alkaline phosphatase and albumin monthly.more » Alkaline phosphatase was elevated in 7 of 12 subjects pre-ZS and in 5 of 9 subjects post-ZS. Albumin levels were below normal in 7 subjects pre-ZS and 4 subjects post-ZS. Mean plasma Zn and Cu levels, 97+/-17 and 164+/-42 mcg/dl, pre-ZS, and 102+/-30 and 173+/-46 mcg/dl post-ZS, respectively, were similar. Growth velocity in males (4.1+/-2.2 cm/yr, 3.0+/-2.3 cm/yr) and females (3.9+/-0.7, 3.3+/-2.1 cm/yr) pre- and post-ZS, respectively, were similar. Bone maturation per chronological age improved after ZS in 4 of 6 subjects, 1 matured at the same rate, and one at a slower rate. It appears that ZS of children with ESRD increased the rate of bone maturation but not linear growth.« less

  20. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Early life stages contribute strongly to local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2016-07-05

    The magnitude and genetic basis of local adaptation is of fundamental interest in evolutionary biology. However, field experiments usually do not consider early life stages, and therefore may underestimate local adaptation and miss genetically based tradeoffs. We examined the contribution of differences in seedling establishment to adaptive differentiation and the genetic architecture of local adaptation using recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between two locally adapted populations (Italy and Sweden) of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana We planted freshly matured, dormant seeds (>180 000) representing >200 RILs at the native field sites of the parental genotypes, estimated the strength of selection during different life stages, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness and its components, and quantified selection on seed dormancy. We found that selection during the seedling establishment phase contributed strongly to the fitness advantage of the local genotype at both sites. With one exception, local alleles of the eight distinct establishment QTL were favored. The major QTL for establishment and total fitness showed evidence of a fitness tradeoff and was located in the same region as the major seed dormancy QTL and the dormancy gene DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1). RIL seed dormancy could explain variation in seedling establishment and fitness across the life cycle. Our results demonstrate that genetically based differences in traits affecting performance during early life stages can contribute strongly to adaptive differentiation and genetic tradeoffs, and should be considered for a full understanding of the ecology and genetics of local adaptation.

  2. Phosphorylated and Nonphosphorylated PfMAP2 Are Localized in the Nucleus, Dependent on the Stage of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Dahalan, Farah Aida; Sidek, Hasidah Mohd; Murtey, Mogana Das; Embi, Mohammed Noor; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Fei Tieng, Lim; Zakaria, Nurul Aiezzah

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, a family of enzymes central to signal transduction processes including inflammatory responses, are a promising target for antimalarial drug development. Our study shows for the first time that the P. falciparum specific MAP kinase 2 (PfMAP2) is colocalized in the nucleus of all of the asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and is particularly elevated in its phosphorylated form. It was also discovered that PfMAP2 is expressed in its highest quantity during the early trophozoite (ring form) stage and significantly reduced in the mature trophozoite and schizont stages. Although the phosphorylated form of the kinase is always more prevalent, its ratio relative to the nonphosphorylated form remained constant irrespective of the parasites' developmental stage. We have also shown that the TSH motif specifically renders PfMAP2 genetically divergent from the other plasmodial MAP kinase activation sites using Neighbour Joining analysis. Furthermore, TSH motif-specific designed antibody is crucial in determining the location of the expression of the PfMAP2 protein. However, by using immunoelectron microscopy, PPfMAP2 were detected ubiquitously in the parasitized erythrocytes. In summary, PfMAP2 may play a far more important role than previously thought and is a worthy candidate for research as an antimalarial. PMID:27525262

  3. Frustration Sculpts the Early Stages of Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Di Silvio, Eva; Brunori, Maurizio; Gianni, Stefano

    2015-09-07

    The funneled energy landscape theory implies that protein structures are minimally frustrated. Yet, because of the divergent demands between folding and function, regions of frustrated patterns are present at the active site of proteins. To understand the effects of such local frustration in dictating the energy landscape of proteins, here we compare the folding mechanisms of the two alternative spliced forms of a PDZ domain (PDZ2 and PDZ2as) that share a nearly identical sequence and structure, while displaying different frustration patterns. The analysis, based on the kinetic characterization of a large number of site-directed mutants, reveals that although the late stages for folding are very robust and biased by native topology, the early stages are more malleable and dominated by local frustration. The results are briefly discussed in the context of the energy-landscape theory. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Metabolomic Markers of Altered Nucleotide Metabolism in Early Stage Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wikoff, William R.; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F.; DeFelice, Brian; Rom, William; Pass, Harvey; Kim, Kyoungmi; Nguyen, UyenThao; Taylor, Sandra L.; Kelly, Karen; Fiehn, Oliver; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, a type of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the most frequently diagnosed lung cancer and the leading cause of lung cancer mortality in the United States. It is well documented that biochemical changes occur early in the transition from normal to cancer cells, but the extent to which these alterations affect tumorigenesis in adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. Herein we describe the application of mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis in one of the largest biomarker research studies to date aimed at distinguishing metabolic differences between malignant and non-malignant lung tissue. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to measure 462 metabolites in 39 malignant and non-malignant lung tissue pairs from current or former smokers with early stage (Stage IA–IB) adenocarcinoma. Statistical mixed effects models, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and network integration, were used to identify key cancer-associated metabolic perturbations in adenocarcinoma compared to non-malignant tissue. Cancer-associated biochemical alterations were characterized by: 1) decreased glucose levels, consistent with the Warburg effect, 2) changes in cellular redox status highlighted by elevations in cysteine and antioxidants, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, 3) elevations in nucleotide metabolites 5,6-dihydrouracil and xanthine suggestive of increased dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidoreductase activity, 4) increased 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine levels indicative of reduced purine salvage and increased de novo purine synthesis and 5) coordinated elevations in glutamate and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine suggesting increased protein glycosylation. The present study revealed distinct metabolic perturbations associated with early stage lung adenocarcinoma which may provide candidate molecular targets for personalizing therapeutic interventions and treatment efficacy monitoring. PMID:25657018

  5. Early Cannabis Use, Polygenic Risk Score for Schizophrenia and Brain Maturation in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    French, Leon; Gray, Courtney; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Richer, Louis; Séguin, Jean R; Veillette, Suzanne; Evans, C John; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun W L; Bromberg, Uli; Bruehl, Ruediger; Buchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaitre, Herve; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pangelinan, Melissa Marie; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Timpson, Nic J; Schumann, Gunter; Smith, George Davey; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis use during adolescence is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in men. Sex differences in the dynamics of brain maturation during adolescence may be of particular importance with regard to vulnerability of the male brain to cannabis exposure. To evaluate whether the association between cannabis use and cortical maturation in adolescents is moderated by a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia. Observation of 3 population-based samples included initial analysis in 1024 adolescents of both sexes from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and follow-up in 426 adolescents of both sexes from the IMAGEN Study from 8 European cities and 504 male youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in England. A total of 1577 participants (aged 12-21 years; 899 [57.0%] male) had (1) information about cannabis use; (2) imaging studies of the brain; and (3) a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia across 108 genetic loci identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Data analysis was performed from March 1 through December 31, 2014. Cortical thickness derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Linear regression tests were used to assess the relationships between cannabis use, cortical thickness, and risk score. Across the 3 samples of 1574 participants, a negative association was observed between cannabis use in early adolescence and cortical thickness in male participants with a high polygenic risk score. This observation was not the case for low-risk male participants or for the low- or high-risk female participants. Thus, in SYS male participants, cannabis use interacted with risk score vis-à-vis cortical thickness (P = .009); higher scores were associated with lower thickness only in males who used cannabis. Similarly, in the IMAGEN male participants, cannabis use interacted with increased risk score vis-à-vis a change in decreasing cortical thickness from 14.5 to 18.5 years of age (t137 = -2.36; P

  6. Cervical vertebral maturation: An objective and transparent code staging system applied to a 6-year longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Bianchet, Alberto; Franchi, Lorenzo; Contardo, Luca

    2017-05-01

    To date, little information is available regarding individual cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) morphologic changes. Moreover, contrasting results regarding the repeatability of the CVM method call for the use of objective and transparent reporting procedures. In this study, we used a rigorous morphometric objective CVM code staging system, called the "CVM code" that was applied to a 6-year longitudinal circumpubertal analysis of individual CVM morphologic changes to find cases outside the reported norms and analyze individual maturation processes. From the files of the Oregon Growth Study, 32 subjects (17 boys, 15 girls) with 6 annual lateral cephalograms taken from 10 to 16 years of age were included, for a total of 221 recordings. A customized cephalometric analysis was used, and each recording was converted into a CVM code according to the concavities of cervical vertebrae (C) C2 through C4 and the shapes of C3 and C4. The retrieved CVM codes, either falling within the reported norms (regular cases) or not (exception cases), were also converted into the CVM stages. Overall, 31 exception cases (14%) were seen. with most of them accounting for pubertal CVM stage 4. The overall durations of the CVM stages 2 to 4 were about 1 year, even though only 4 subjects had regular annual durations of CVM stages 2 to 5. Whereas the overall CVM changes are consistent with previous reports, intersubject variability must be considered when dealing with individual treatment timing. Future research on CVM may take advantage of the CVM code system. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgical management of patients with a history of early Le Fort III advancement after they have attained skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Caterson, E J; Shetye, Pradip R; Grayson, Barry H; McCarthy, Joseph G

    2013-10-01

    The classic Le Fort III procedure was recommended in syndromic craniosynostotic children to reduce exorbitism, improve airway function, and decrease dysmorphism. This study reports on a cohort of syndromic craniosynostosis patients who have undergone early primary subcranial (classic Tessier) Le Fort III advancement and who have been followed longitudinally through skeletal maturity and beyond. In this study, the Le Fort III advancements all occurred between the ages of 3 to 5 years, with a mean age of 4.6 years. Subsequently, these early Le Fort III patients were followed throughout development with longitudinal dental, medical, radiographic, and photographic evaluations conducted through skeletal maturity and beyond. For study inclusion, the patients had to have preoperative medical photographs and cephalometric studies at 6 months and 1, 5, and 10 years postoperatively after the primary Le Fort III advancement as well as cephalometric documentation 6 months and 1 year after the secondary midface advancement after skeletal maturity. After early or primary Le Fort III advancement, there was no evidence of relapse and only minimal anterior or horizontal postoperative growth of the midface. However, there was also a return of occlusal disharmony from "anticipated" mandibular growth, approaching a maximum at skeletal maturity. The dysmorphic concave facial profile and malocclusion, and airway and ocular considerations, provided the impetus for secondary midface surgery after skeletal maturity was attained. The data demonstrate that early Le Fort III advancement performed before the age of mixed dentition does not obviate the need for a secondary advancement after skeletal maturity is reached. Therapeutic, IV.

  8. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected bymore » antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These

  9. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  10. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  12. Transcriptional changes of cytokines in rooster testis and epididymis during sexual maturation stages and Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-08-01

    Infection of rooster testis and epididymis by pathogens can lead to impaired fertility, resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry. Antimicrobial protection of rooster reproductive organs is, therefore, an important aspect of reproductive physiology. Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, caused by Salmonella bacteria including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and is usually the result of infection of the reproductive organs. Thus, knowledge of the endogenous innate immune mechanisms of the rooster testis and epididymis is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for stimulating the immune response and inflammation in chickens to Salmonella infection. In the present study the expression profile of 11 pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the rooster testis and epididymis in vivo and transcriptional changes in these organs during sexual maturation and SE infection were investigated. Gene expression analysis data revealed that in both testis and epididymis nine cytokines namely the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 genes were expressed, while no mRNA transcripts were detected in both organs for IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, the expression of various cytokine genes during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated, while SE infection resulted in a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, -6, -12 and -18 genes in the testis and an increase in the mRNA relative abundance of IL-1β, -6, -12, -16 and -18 in the epididymis of SE-infected sexually mature 28-week-old roosters. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the rooster reproductive tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surgical Staging of Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: Comparison Between Laparotomy and Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Api, Murat; Kayatas, Semra; Boza, Aysen Telce; Nazik, Hakan; Adiguzel, Cevdet; Guzin, Kadir; Eroglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the laparotomy (LT) and laparoscopy (LS) in patients who undergone surgical staging for early stage endometrium cancer. Methods Retrospective data were collected and analyzed for amount of intraoperative bleeding, complication rates, total resected and laterality specific number of lymph nodes and duration of operation in patients operated with either LT or LS. Results Seventy-nine stage I endometrium cancer patients were found to be eligible for the trial purposes: 58 (73.4%) treated by LT and 21 (26.6%) treated by LS. The number of lymph nodes was similar in LT (8.9 ± 5.3) and LS (9.2 ± 4.8) (P = 0.8). In LT group, there was no difference in the number of lymph nodes between the right and left sides (10 ± 5.8 and 8.7 ± 4.8 respectively, P = 0.19); in LS group, the number of lymph nodes resected from the right side was higher than the left side (9.8 ± 5 and 7 ± 3.5 respectively, P = 0.039). The amount of intraoperative bleeding and hospitalization period were significantly higher in LT group. Seventy-nine patients had a median follow-up of 30 months. The two groups were similar for disease-free survival (P = 0.46, log rank test). Conclusions There was no significant difference between the two methods in terms of number of total resected lymph nodes. In early stage endometrial carcinoma, LS has provided adequate staging and similar survival rates with LT. PMID:29147363

  14. Chloroplast Hsp93 Directly Binds to Transit Peptides at an Early Stage of the Preprotein Import Process1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Kai; Chan, Po-Ting; Chen, Lih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Three stromal chaperone ATPases, cpHsc70, Hsp90C, and Hsp93, are present in the chloroplast translocon, but none has been shown to directly bind preproteins in vivo during import, so it remains unclear whether any function as a preprotein-translocating motor and whether they have different functions during the import process. Here, using protein crosslinking followed by ionic detergent solubilization, we show that Hsp93 directly binds to the transit peptides of various preproteins undergoing active import into chloroplasts. Hsp93 also binds to the mature region of a preprotein. A time course study of import, followed by coimmunoprecipitation experiments, confirmed that Hsp93 is present in the same complexes as preproteins at an early stage when preproteins are being processed to the mature size. In contrast, cpHsc70 is present in the same complexes as preproteins at both the early stage and a later stage after the transit peptide has been removed, suggesting that cpHsc70, but not Hsp93, is important in translocating processed mature proteins across the envelope. PMID:26676256

  15. Ammonia and urea handling by early life stages of fishes.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2017-11-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in fishes has been a focus of comparative physiologists for nearly a century. In this Review, we focus specifically on early life stages of fishes, which have received considerable attention in more recent work. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in early life differs fundamentally from that of juvenile and adult fishes because of (1) the presence of a chorion capsule in embryos that imposes a limitation on effective ammonia excretion, (2) an amino acid-based metabolism that generates a substantial ammonia load, and (3) the lack of a functional gill, which is the primary site of nitrogen excretion in juvenile and adult fishes. Recent findings have shed considerable light on the mechanisms by which these constraints are overcome in early life. Perhaps most importantly, the discovery of Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins as ammonia transporters and their expression in ion-transporting cells on the skin of larval fishes has transformed our understanding of ammonia excretion by fishes in general. The emergence of larval zebrafish as a model species, together with genetic knockdown techniques, has similarly advanced our understanding of ammonia and urea metabolism and excretion by larval fishes. It has also now been demonstrated that ammonia excretion is one of the primary functions of the developing gill in rainbow trout larvae, leading to new hypotheses regarding the physiological demands driving gill development in larval fishes. Here, we highlight and discuss the dramatic changes in nitrogen handling that occur over early life development in fishes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Brief communication: a proposed method for the assessment of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains using cervical vertebrae maturation.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of age-at-death in non-adult skeletal remains is under constant review. However, in many past societies an individual's physical maturation may have been more important in social terms than their exact age, particularly during the period of adolescence. In a recent article (Shapland and Lewis: Am J Phys Anthropol 151 (2013) 302-310) highlighted a set of dental and skeletal indicators that may be useful in mapping the progress of the pubertal growth spurt. This article presents a further skeletal indicator of adolescent development commonly used by modern clinicians: cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM). This method is applied to a collection of 594 adolescents from the medieval cemetery of St. Mary Spital, London. Analysis reveals a potential delay in ages of attainment of the later CVM stages compared with modern adolescents, presumably reflecting negative environmental conditions for growth and development. The data gathered on CVM is compared to other skeletal indicators of pubertal maturity and long bone growth from this site to ascertain the usefulness of this method on archaeological collections. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass

    SciTech Connect

    Barrena, R.; Canovas, C.; Sanchez, A.

    2006-07-01

    A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 deg. C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large composting masses could be predicted by means of this simplified energy balance, which takes into account terms of convective, conductive and radiation heat dissipation. Heat lossesmore » in a large composting mass are not significant due to the similar temperatures found at the surroundings and at the surface of the pile (ranging from 15 to 40 deg. C). In contrast, thermophilic temperature in the core of the pile was maintained during the whole maturation process. Heat generation was estimated with the static respiration index, a parameter that is typically used to monitor the biological activity and stability of composting processes. In this study, the static respiration index is presented as a parameter to estimate the metabolic heat that can be generated according to the biodegradable organic matter content of a compost sample, which can be useful in predicting the temperature of the composting process.« less

  18. Measures of maturation in early fossil hominins: events at the first transition from australopiths to early Homo

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An important question in palaeoanthropology is whether, among the australopiths and the first fossil hominins attributed to early Homo, there was a shift towards a more prolonged period of growth that can be distinguished from that of the living great apes and whether between the end of weaning and the beginning of puberty there was a slow period of growth as there is in modern humans. Evidence for the pace of growth in early fossil hominins comes from preserved tooth microstructure. A record of incremental growth in enamel and dentine persists, which allows us to reconstruct tooth growth and compare key measures of dental maturation with modern humans and living great apes. Despite their diverse diets and way of life, it is currently difficult to identify any clear differences in the timing of dental development among living great apes, australopiths and the earliest hominins attributed to the genus Homo. There is, however, limited evidence that some early hominins may have attained a greater proportion of their body mass and stature relatively earlier in the growth period than is typical of modern humans today. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298465

  19. Loss of corticospinal tract integrity in early MS disease stages

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Jens; Kaufmann, Jörn; Heidel, Jan; Stadler, Erhard; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine; Sailer, Michael; Schreiber, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We investigated corticospinal tract (CST) integrity in the absence of white matter (WM) lesions using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in early MS disease stages. Methods: Our study comprised 19 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 11 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, for whom MRI measures of CST integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD]), T1- and T2-based lesion load, and brain volumes were available. The mean (SD) disease duration was 3.5 (2.1) months, and disability score was low (median Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.5) at the time of the study. Results: Patients with CIS and RRMS had significantly lower CST FA and higher CST MD values compared with controls. These findings were present, irrespective of whether WM lesions affected the CST. However, no group differences in the overall gray or WM volume were identified. Conclusions: In early MS disease stages, CST integrity is already affected in the absence of WM lesions or brain atrophy. PMID:28959706

  20. Metamorphic density controls on early-stage subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Oberhänsli, Roland; Bousquet, Romain

    2013-04-01

    Subduction is primarily driven by the densification of the downgoing oceanic slab, due to dynamic P-T-fields in subduction zones. It is crucial to unravel slab densification induced by metamorphic reactions to understand the influence on plate dynamics. By analyzing the density and metamorphic structure of subduction zones, we may gain knowledge about the driving, metamorphic processes in a subduction zone like the eclogitization (i.e., the transformation of a MORB to an eclogite), the breakdown of hydrous minerals and the release of fluid or the generation of partial melts. We have therefore developed a 2D subduction zone model down to 250 km that is based on thermodynamic equilibrium assemblage computations. Our model computes the "metamorphic density" of rocks as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition using the Theriak-Domino software package at different time stages. We have used this model to investigate how the hydration, dehydration, partial melting and fractionation processes of rocks all influence the metamorphic density and greatly depend on the temperature field within subduction systems. These processes are commonly neglected by other approaches (e.g., gravitational or thermomechanical in nature) reproducing the density distribution within this tectonic setting. The process of eclogitization is assumed as being important to subduction dynamics, based on the very high density (3.6 g/cm3) of eclogitic rocks. The eclogitization in a MORB-type crust is possible only if the rock reaches the garnet phase stability field. This process is primarily temperature driven. Our model demonstrates that the initiation of eclogitization of the slab is not the only significant process that makes the descending slab denser and is responsible for the slab pull force. Indeed, our results show that the densification of the downgoing lithospheric mantle (due to an increase of pressure) starts in the early subduction stage and makes a significant

  1. Arrested development: early prefrontal lesions impair the maturation of moral judgement.

    PubMed

    Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Asp, Erik W; Koenigs, Michael; Sutterer, Matthew; Anderson, Steven W; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Learning to make moral judgements based on considerations beyond self-interest is a fundamental aspect of moral development. A deficit in such learning is associated with poor socialization and criminal behaviour. The neural systems required for the acquisition and maturation of moral competency are not well understood. Here we show in a unique sample of neurological patients that focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex, acquired during development, result in an abnormally egocentric pattern of moral judgement. In response to simple hypothetical moral scenarios, the patients were more likely than comparison participants to endorse self-interested actions that involved breaking moral rules or physically harming others in order to benefit themselves. This pattern (which we also found in subjects with psychopathy) differs from that of patients with adult-onset ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions--the latter group showed normal rejection of egocentric rule violations. This novel contrast of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions acquired during development versus during adulthood yields new evidence suggesting that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is a critical neural substrate for the acquisition and maturation of moral competency that goes beyond self-interest to consider the welfare of others. Disruption to this affective neural system early in life interrupts moral development.

  2. Maturation Stage Enamel Malformations in Amtn and Klk4 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Stephanie M.; Chun, Yong-Hee P.; Ganss, Bernhard; Hu, Yuanyuan; Richardson, Amelia S; Schmitz, James E.; Fajardo, Roberto; Yang, Jie; Hu, Jan C-C.; Simmer, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) and kallikrein-4 (KLK4) are secreted proteins specialized for enamel biomineralization. We characterized enamel from wild-type, Amtn−/−, Klk4−/−, Amtn+/−Klk4+/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice to gain insights into AMTN and KLK4 functions during amelogenesis. All of the null mice were healthy and fertile. The mandibular incisors in Amtn−/−, Klk4−/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice were chalky-white and chipped. No abnormalities except in enamel were observed, and no significant differences were detected in enamel thickness or volume, or in rod decussation. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) maximum intensity projections localized the onset of enamel maturation in wild-type incisors distal to the first molar, but mesial to this position in Amtn−/−, Klk4−/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice, demonstrating a delay in enamel maturation in Amtn−/− incisors. Micro-CT detected significantly reduced enamel mineral density (2.5 and 2.4 gHA/cm3) in the Klk4−/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice respectively, compared with wild-type enamel (3.1 gHA/cm3). Backscatter scanning electron microscopy showed that mineral density progressively diminished with enamel depth in the Klk4−/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice. Knoop hardness of Amtn−/− outer enamel was significantly reduced relative to the wild-type and was not as hard as the middle or inner enamel. Klk4−/− enamel hardness was significantly reduced at all levels, but the outer enamel was significantly harder than the inner and middle enamel. Thus the hardness patterns of the Amtn−/− and Klk4−/− mice were distinctly different, while the Amtn−/−Klk4−/− outer enamel was not as hard as in the Amtn−/− and Klk4−/− mice. We conclude that AMTN and KLK4 function independently, but are both necessary for proper enamel maturation. PMID:26620968

  3. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Salinas, M Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids that showed the highest and the lowest concentration in the must were the same, regardless of the grape variety and maturation stage. Moreover, the consumption of amino acids during the fermentation increased with their concentration in the must. The formation of volatile compounds was not nitrogen composition dependent. However, the concentration of amino acids in the must from grapes collected 1 wk before harvest can be used as a parameter to estimate the concentration of esters in wines from grapes collected at harvest and therefore to have more information to know the grape oenological capacity. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility to estimate the concentration of esters in the wines with the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of ameloblast-enamel adhesion at maturation stage in amelogenesis in Macaca fuscata tooth germ.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Maturation-stage ameloblasts are firmly bound to the tooth enamel by a basal lamina-like structure. The mechanism underlying this adhesion, however, remains to be fully clarified. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying adhesion between the basal lamina-like structure and the enamel in monkey tooth germ. High-resolution immunogold labeling was performed to localize amelotin and laminin 332 at the interface between ameloblasts and tooth enamel. Minute, electron-dense strands were observed on the enamel side of the lamina densa, extending into the degrading enamel matrix to produce a well-developed fibrous layer (lamina fibroreticularis). In un-demineralized tissue sections, mineral crystals smaller than those in the bulk of the enamel were observed adhering to these strands where they protruded into the surface enamel. Immunogold particles reactive for amelotin were preferentially localized on these strands in the fibrous layer. On the other hand, those for laminin 332 were localized solely in the lamina densa; none were observed in the fibrous layer. These results suggest that the fibrous layer of the basal lamina-like structure is partly composed of amelotin molecules, and that these molecules facilitate ameloblast-enamel adhesion by promoting mineralization of the fibrous layer during the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  5. Nature versus nurture? Consequences of short captivity in early stages.

    PubMed

    Horreo, Jose L; Valiente, America G; Ardura, Alba; Blanco, Aida; Garcia-Gonzalez, Claudia; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Biological changes occurring as a consequence of domestication and/or captivity are not still deeply known. In Atlantic salmon (S almo salar ), endangered (Southern Europe) populations are enhanced by supportive breeding, which involves only 6 months of captive rearing following artificial spawning of wild-collected adults. In this work, we assess whether several fitness-correlated life-history traits (migratory behavior, straying rate, age at maturity, and growth) are affected by early exposure to the captive environment within a generation, before reproduction thus before genetic selection. Results showed significant differences in growth and migratory behavior (including straying), associated with this very short period of captivity in natural fish populations, changing even genetic variability (decreased in hatchery-reared adults) and the native population structure within and between rivers of the species. These changes appeared within a single generation, suggesting very short time of captivity is enough for initiating changes normally attributed to domestication. These results may have potential implications for the long-term population stability/viability of species subjected to restoration and enhancement processes and could be also considered for the management of zoo populations.

  6. Assessment of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in subjects during the pre-pubertal, pubertal, and adult stages of skeletal maturation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bhadrinath; Premkumar, Sridhar

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate serum levels of the hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), during the pre-pubertal, pubertal, and adult stages of skeletal maturation based on the methods of Björk and Grave and Brown of assessing hand-wrist radiographs. The levels of the DHEAS of each individual were measured using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and correlated with the corresponding stages in their hand-wrist radiograph. This study was performed on 60 subjects (30 females and 30 males) aged from 7 to 30 years. Analysis of variance followed by a Tukey honestly significant difference test showed that the serum levels of the DHEAS were statistically significant at (P < 0.01) in all three groups. The serum levels were significant (P < 0.05) when each of the three groups were individually compared with the other two groups. The mean DHEAS levels were 0.43 ± 0.28, 2.17 ± 0.92, and 4.60 ± 1.34 μg/ml in the pre-pubertal, pubertal, and adult groups, respectively. There was a gradual increase in the hormonal level with progressing skeletal age. The adult group showed the highest DHEAS level and the pre-pubertal group the lowest. Serum levels of DHEAS showed a constant increase from pre-puberty to adulthood, and at the same level of skeletal maturation, both females and males had similar hormone levels. This finding highlights the fact that the hormone DHEAS plays a significant role and can be a valuable tool in assessing skeletal maturation.

  7. Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early successional and mature tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Powell, G.V.N.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Many Neotropical migratory species inhabit both mature and early successional forest on their wintering grounds, yet comparisons of survival rates between habitats are lacking. Consequently, the factors affecting habitat suitability for Neotropical migrants and the potential effects of tropical deforestation on migrants are not well understood. We estimated over-winter survival and capture probabilities of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), and Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus) inhabiting two common tropical habitat types, mature and early-successional forest. Our results suggest that large differences (for example, ratio of survival rates (gamma) < 0.85) in overwinter survival between these habitats do not exist for any of these species. Age ratios did not differ between habitats, but males were more common in forest habitats and females more common in successional habitats for Hooded Warblers and Kentucky Warblers. Future research on overwinter survival should address the need for age- and sex-specific survival estimates before we can draw strong conclusions regarding winter habitat suitability. Our estimates of over-winter survival extrapolated to annual survival rates that were generally lower than previous estimates of annual survival of migratory birds. Capture probability differed between habitats for Kentucky Warblers, but our results provide strong evidence against large differences in capture probability between habitats for Wood Thrush, Hooded Warblers, and Ovenbirds. We found no temporal or among site differences in survival or capture probability for any of the four species. Additional research is needed to examine the effects of winter habitat use on survival during migration and between-winter survival.

  8. Short Stature, Accelerated Bone Maturation, and Early Growth Cessation Due to Heterozygous Aggrecan Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Ola; Guo, Michael H.; Dunbar, Nancy; Popovic, Jadranka; Flynn, Daniel; Jacobsen, Christina; Lui, Julian C.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Baron, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Context: Many children with idiopathic short stature have a delayed bone age. Idiopathic short stature with advanced bone age is far less common. Objective: The aim was to identify underlying genetic causes of short stature with advanced bone age. Setting and Design: We used whole-exome sequencing to study three families with autosomal-dominant short stature, advanced bone age, and premature growth cessation. Results: Affected individuals presented with short stature [adult heights −2.3 to −4.2 standard deviation scores (SDS)] with histories of early growth cessation or childhood short stature (height SDS −1.9 to −3.5 SDS), advancement of bone age, and normal endocrine evaluations. Whole-exome sequencing identified novel heterozygous variants in ACAN, which encodes aggrecan, a proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix of growth plate and other cartilaginous tissues. The variants were present in all affected, but in no unaffected, family members. In Family 1, a novel frameshift mutation in exon 3 (c.272delA) was identified, which is predicted to cause early truncation of the aggrecan protein. In Family 2, a base-pair substitution was found in a highly conserved location within a splice donor site (c.2026+1G>A), which is also likely to alter the amino acid sequence of a large portion of the protein. In Family 3, a missense variant (c.7064T>C) in exon 14 affects a highly conserved residue (L2355P) and is strongly predicted to perturb protein function. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that heterozygous mutations in ACAN can cause a mild skeletal dysplasia, which presents clinically as short stature with advanced bone age. The accelerating effect on skeletal maturation has not previously been noted in the few prior reports of human ACAN mutations. Our findings thus expand the spectrum of ACAN defects and provide a new molecular genetic etiology for the unusual child who presents with short stature and accelerated skeletal maturation. PMID:24762113

  9. Early-\\x90stage Electrical Breakdown involving Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold; Moore, Chris; Schultz, Peter; Bussman, Ezra; Scrymgeour, David; Hopkins, Matt

    The early stage of electrical breakdown from a surface is assumed to involve field emission. In real-world applications, the electrical field is often assumed to be increased by geometrical effects. In addition to these enhancement effects, contamination by adsorbates can lead to reductions in the effective work functions. To develop a physics-based understanding beyond the use of these empirical effects, the field emission currents at early times are being computed and measured. The calculations involve a solution of the Boltzmann equation, and the measurements involve a scanning tunneling microscope. Early results from this collaborative theoretical-experimental project will be described in this presentation. The presentation will focus on results for an ideal system with an absence of geometrical effects. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Seafood-Processing Sludge Composting: Changes to Microbial Communities and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Static Treatment versus for Turning during the Maturation Stage

    PubMed Central

    Alves, David; Mato, Salustiano

    2016-01-01

    In general, in composting facilities the active, or intensive, stage of the process is done separately from the maturation stage, using a specific technology and time. The pre-composted material to be matured can contain enough biodegradable substrates to cause microbial proliferation, which in turn can cause temperatures to increase. Therefore, not controlling the maturation period during waste management at an industrial level can result in undesired outcomes. The main hypothesis of this study is that controlling the maturation stage through turning provides one with an optimized process when compared to the static approach. The waste used was sludge from a seafood-processing plant, mixed with shredded wood (1:2, v/v). The composting system consists of an intensive stage in a 600L static reactor, followed by maturation in triplicate in 200L boxes for 112 days. Two tests were carried out with the same process in reactor and different treatments in boxes: static maturation and turning during maturation when the temperature went above 55°C. PLFAs, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, forms of nitrogen and carbon, hydrolytic enzymes and respiratory activity were periodically measured. Turning significantly increased the duration of the thermophilic phase and consequently increased the organic-matter degradation. PCA differentiated significantly the two treatments in function of tracking parameters, especially pH, total carbon, forms of nitrogen and C/N ratio. So, stability and maturity optimum values for compost were achieved in less time with turnings. Whereas turning resulted in microbial-group stabilization and a low mono/sat ratio, static treatment produced greater variability in microbial groups and a high mono/sat ratio, the presence of more degradable substrates causes changes in microbial communities and their study during maturation gives an approach of the state of organic-matter degradation. Obtaining quality compost and optimizing the composting

  11. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in females and males in different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shreya; Deoskar, Anuradha; Gupta, Puneet; Jain, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. RESULTS: Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml) values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages. PMID:25992990

  12. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in females and males in different cervical vertebral maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shreya; Deoskar, Anuradha; Gupta, Puneet; Jain, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml) values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml). Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages.

  13. Production of blastocysts following in vitro maturation and fertilization of dromedary camel oocytes vitrified at the germinal vesicle stage.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Mohamed; Moawad, Adel R; Badr, Magdy R

    2018-01-01

    Cryopreservation of oocytes would serve as an alternative to overcome the limited availability of dromedary camel oocytes and facilitate improvements in IVP techniques in this species. Our goal was to develop a protocol for the vitrification of camel oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage using different cryoprotectant combinations: 20% EG and 20% DMSO (VS1), 25% EG plus 25% DMSO (VS2) or 25% EG and 25% glycerol (VS3) and various cryo-carriers; straws or open pulled-straw (OPS) or solid surface vitrification (SSV); and Cryotop. Viable oocytes were cultured in vitro for 30 h. Matured oocytes were fertilized with epididymal spermatozoa and then cultured in vitro in modified KSOMaa medium for 7 days. Survival and nuclear maturation rates were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) in oocytes exposed to VS3 (44.8% and 34.0%, respectively) than those exposed to VS1 (68.2% and 48.0%, respectively) and VS2 (79.3% and 56.9%, respectively). Although recovery rates were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) in SSV and Cryotop vitrified oocytes (66.9% to 71.1%) than those vitrified by straws with VS1 or VS2 solutions (86.3% to 91.0%), survival rates were higher in the SSV and Cryotop groups (90.7% to 94.8%) than in the straw and OPS groups (68.2% to 86.5%). Among vitrified groups, maturation and fertilization rates were the highest in the Cryotop-VS2 group (51.8% and 39.2%, respectively). These values were comparable to those seen in the controls (59.2% and 44.6%, respectively). Cleavage (22.5% to 27.9%), morula (13.2% to 14.5%), and blastocyst (6.4% to 8.5%) rates were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in SSV and Cryotop groups than in straws. No significant differences were observed in these parameters between the Cryotop and control groups. We report for the first time that dromedary oocytes vitrified at the GV-stage have the ability to be matured, fertilized and subsequently develop in vitro to produce blastocysts at frequencies comparable to those obtained using fresh oocytes.

  14. Calophyllolide content in Calophyllum inophyllum at different stages of maturity and its osteogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hsien; Liu, Yen-Wenn; Chen, Zih-Fong; Chiou, Wen-Fei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2015-07-07

    Calophyllum inophyllum is a coastal plant rich in natural substances. Its ingredients have been used for the development of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug. In this study, we collected C. inophyllum fruit, and the ethanol extract of the fruit was chromatographically separated using silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns to obtain the major compound, calophyllolide. The fruits were harvested from September to December in 2011; a quantitative analysis of the calophyllolide content was conducted using HPLC to explore the differences between the different parts of the fruit during the growing season. The results showed that in fruits of C. inophyllum, calophyllolide exists only in the nuts, and dried nuts contain approximately 2 mg·g-1 of calophyllolide. The calophyllolide levels in the nuts decreased during maturity. In addition, calophyllolide dose-dependently enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, without significant cytotoxicity. The expression of osteoblastic genes, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN), were increased by calophyllolide. Calophyllolide induced osteoblasts differentiation also evidenced by increasing mineralization and ALP staining.

  15. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    PubMed

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Early stage response problem for post-disaster incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Shin, Youngchul; Lee, Gyu M.; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2018-07-01

    Research on evacuation plans for reducing damages and casualties has been conducted to advise defenders against threats. However, despite the attention given to the research in the past, emergency response management, designed to neutralize hazards, has been undermined since planners frequently fail to apprehend the complexities and contexts of the emergency situation. Therefore, this study considers a response problem with unique characteristics for the duration of the emergency. An early stage response problem is identified to find the optimal routing and scheduling plan for responders to prevent further hazards. Due to the complexity of the proposed mathematical model, two algorithms are developed. Data from a high-rise building, called Central City in Seoul, Korea, are used to evaluate the algorithms. Results show that the proposed algorithms can procure near-optimal solutions within a reasonable time.

  17. Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Press, Joshua Z.; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:22685466

  18. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  19. Early stage of plastic deformation in thin films undergoing electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valek, B. C.; Tamura, N.; Spolenak, R.; Caldwell, W. A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Bravman, J. C.; Batterman, B. W.; Nix, W. D.; Patel, J. R.

    2003-09-01

    Electromigration occurs when a high current density drives atomic motion from the cathode to the anode end of a conductor, such as a metal interconnect line in an integrated circuit. While electromigration eventually causes macroscopic damage, in the form of voids and hillocks, the earliest stage of the process when the stress in individual micron-sized grains is still building up is largely unexplored. Using synchrotron-based x-ray microdiffraction during an in-situ electromigration experiment, we have discovered an early prefailure mode of plastic deformation involving preferential dislocation generation and motion and the formation of a subgrain structure within individual grains of a passivated Al (Cu) interconnect. This behavior occurs long before macroscopic damage (hillocks and voids) is observed.

  20. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P J

    2003-10-01

    The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54) or infrared coagulation (N = 46). Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years). The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months). The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale). Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059). The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03), but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03). Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  1. Efficacy of Cyclooctadepsipeptides and Aminophenylamidines against Larval, Immature and Mature Adult Stages of a Parasitologically Characterized Trichurosis Model in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Daniel; Krücken, Jürgen; Harder, Achim; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Trichuris includes parasites of major relevance in veterinary and human medicine. Despite serious economic losses and enormous impact on public health, treatment options against whipworms are very limited. Additionally, there is an obvious lack of appropriately characterized experimental infection models. Therefore, a detailed parasitological characterization of a Trichuris muris isolate was performed in C57BL/10 mice. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacies of the aminophenylamidines amidantel, deacylated amidantel (dAMD) and tribendimidine as well as the cyclooctadepsipeptides emodepside and in particular PF1022A were analyzed. This was performed using various administration routes and treatment schemes targeting histotropic and further developed larval as well as immature and mature adult stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Duration of prepatent period, time-dependent localization of larvae during period of prepatency as well as the duration of patency of the infection were determined before drugs were tested in the characterized trichurosis model. Amidantel showed no effect against mature adult T. muris. Tribendimidine showed significantly higher potency than dAMD after oral treatments (ED50 values of 6.5 vs. 15.1 mg/kg). However, the opposite was found for intraperitoneal treatments (ED50 values of 15.3 vs. 8.3 mg/kg). When emodepside and PF1022A were compared, the latter was significantly less effective against mature adults following intraperitoneal (ED50 values of 6.1 vs. 55.7 mg/kg) or subcutaneous (ED50 values of 15.2 vs. 225.7 mg/kg) administration. Only minimal differences were observed following oral administration (ED50 values of 2.7 vs. 5.2 mg/kg). Triple and most single oral doses with moderate to high dosages of PF1022A showed complete efficacy against histotropic second stage larvae (3×100 mg/kg or 1×250 mg/kg), further developed larvae (3×10 mg/kg or 1×100 mg/kg) and immature adults (3×10 mg/kg or 1×100 mg

  2. Early Cannabis Use, Polygenic Risk Score for Schizophrenia, and Brain Maturation in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    French, Leon; Gray, Courtney; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G. Bruce; Richer, Louis; Séguin, Jean R.; Veillette, Suzanne; Evans, C. John; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun W. L.; Bromberg, Uli; Bruehl, Ruediger; Buchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaitre, Herve; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pangelinan, Melissa Marie; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Timpson, Nic J.; Schumann, Gunter; Smith, George Davey; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cannabis use during adolescence is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in men. Sex differences in the dynamics of brain maturation during adolescence may be of particular importance with regard to vulnerability of the male brain to cannabis exposure. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the association between cannabis use and cortical maturation in adolescents is moderated by a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observation of 3 population-based samples included initial analysis in 1024 adolescents of both sexes from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and follow-up in 426 adolescents of both sexes from the IMAGEN Study from 8 European cities and 504 male youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in England. A total of 1577 participants (aged 12–21 years; 899 [57.0%] male) had (1) information about cannabis use; (2) imaging studies of the brain; and (3) a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia across 108 genetic loci identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Data analysis was performed from March 1 through December 31, 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cortical thickness derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Linear regression tests were used to assess the relationships between cannabis use, cortical thickness, and risk score. RESULTS Across the 3 samples of 1574 participants, a negative association was observed between cannabis use in early adolescence and cortical thickness in male participants with a high polygenic risk score. This observation was not the case for low-risk male participants or for the low- or high-risk female participants. Thus, in SYS male participants, cannabis use interacted with risk score vis-à-vis cortical thickness (P = .009); higher scores were associated with lower thickness only in males who used cannabis. Similarly, in the IMAGEN male participants, cannabis use interacted with increased risk score vis-à-vis a change in

  3. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-21

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient's quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation.

  4. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

  5. Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Raemaekers, John

    2016-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such as the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) HD10 study demonstrated, that even two cycles of ABVD followed by 20 Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) are sufficient and result in more than 90% of patients being cured. The current treatment for early unfavorable patients is either four cycles of ABVD plus 30 Gy IF-RT or two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline followed by two cycles of ABVD plus IF-RT. Here, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) demonstrated that in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive patients after two cycles of ABVD, treatment switched to two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline plus radiotherapy results in significantly improved outcomes. Other aspects including attempts to further reduce intensity of treatment will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of intratracheal budesonide during early postnatal life on lung maturity of premature fetal rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Chen; Feng, Xiuliang; Du, Yongping; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yueping

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to study the effects of intratracheal instillation of budesonide on lung maturity of premature fetal rabbits. The developmental pattern of pulmonary alveoli in rabbits is similar to that in humans. Fetal rabbits were taken out from female rabbits on the 28th day of pregnancy (full term = 31 days) by cesarean section (c-section). The fetal rabbits were divided into four groups: control (normal saline, NS), budesonide (budesonide, BUD), calf pulmonary surfactant for injection (pulmonary surfactant, PS), and calf pulmonary surfactant + budesonide for injection (pulmonary surfactant + budesonide, PS + BUD). All premature rabbits were kept warm after c-section. After 15-min autonomous respiration, a tracheal cannula was implemented for instilling NS, BUD, PS, and PS + BUD. The morphology of lung tissues of premature fetal rabbits was analyzed using optical and electron microscopes. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) mRNA and protein levels in lung tissues were determined using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Intratracheal instillation of BUD could increase the alveolar area of the fetal rabbits (P < 0.01), decrease the alveolar wall thickness (P < 0.01), and increase the mean density of lamellar bodies (P < 0.05) and SP-B protein levels in type II epithelial cells of pulmonary alveoli (P < 0.05). Intratracheal instillation of BUD during early postnatal life is effective in promoting alveolarization and increasing SP-B expression, the pro-pulmonary maturity of BUD combined with PS is superior to that of BUD or PS alone. However, the long-term effect of BUD on lung development needs further exploration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Supplementation with CTGF, SDF1, NGF, and HGF promotes ovine in vitro oocyte maturation and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wang, D H; Ren, J; Zhou, C J; Han, Z; Wang, L; Liang, C G

    2018-05-17

    The strategies for improving the in vitro maturation (IVM) of domestic animal oocytes focus on promoting nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. The identification of paracrine factors and their supplementation in the culture medium represent effective approaches for oocyte maturation and embryo development. This study investigated the effects of paracrine factor supplementation including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and stromal derived factor 1 (SDF1) on ovine oocytes and early parthenogenetic embryos using an in vitro culture system. First, we identified the optimal concentrations of CTGF (30 ng/mL), SDF1 (10 ng/mL), NGF (3 ng/mL), and HGF (100 ng/mL) for promoting oocyte maturation, which combined, induced nuclear maturation in 94.19% of oocytes. This combination also promoted cumulus cell expansion and inhibited oocyte/cumulus apoptosis, while enabling a larger proportion (33.04%) of embryos to develop into blastocysts than in the controls and prevented embryo apoptosis. These novel findings demonstrate that the paracrine factors CTGF, SDF1, NGF, and HGF facilitate ovine oocyte and early parthenogenetic embryo development in vitro. Thus, supplementation with these factors may help optimize the IVM of ovine oocytes and early parthenogenetic embryo development strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in chlorophyll and polyphenols content in Camellia sinensis var. sinensis at different stage of leaf maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prawira-Atmaja, M. I.; Shabri; Khomaini, H. S.; Maulana, H.; Harianto, S.; Rohdiana, D.

    2018-03-01

    Chlorophyll and polyphenols are chemical compound related to parameter quality of green tea. We studied the variation of chlorophyll and polyphenol in the development stage of tea leaves (bud, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th). Five clones of tea (Camelia sinensis var. sinensis) from Indonesia and a clone from Japan were used in this study. The results showed that total chlorophyll and total polyphenol content in bud between 1.59-2.15 mg/g (db) and 12.24-14.59% respectively. The concentration of chlorophyll increased significantly with developments stage of leaf while total polyphenol tended to decrease with leaf maturity. Pearson Correlation analysis showed that chlorophyll content was negatively correlated (r = -0.83; p = 0.05) with total polyphenol during developmental stage of tea leaves. Results suggests that five clones of tea from Indonesia have similar quality with tea clone from Japan in chlorophyll and polyphenol content. The present study also provides guidelines on application plucking standard to produce high quality of green tea.

  9. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery

    PubMed Central

    Klimberg, V. Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. Methods In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post‐absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Results Major surgery resulted in an up‐regulation of post‐absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2 = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non‐cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. Conclusions The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the

  10. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2  = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non-cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after

  11. Impacts of ocean acidification on sea urchin growth across the juvenile to mature adult life-stage transition is mitigated by warming.

    PubMed

    Dworjanyn, Symon A; Byrne, Maria

    2018-04-11

    Understanding how growth trajectories of calcifying invertebrates are affected by changing climate requires acclimation experiments that follow development across life-history transitions. In a long-term acclimation study, the effects of increased acidification and temperature on survival and growth of the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla from the early juvenile (5 mm test diameter-TD) through the developmental transition to the mature adult (60 mm TD) were investigated. Juveniles were reared in a combination of three temperature and three pH/ p CO 2 treatments, including treatments commensurate with global change projections. Elevated temperature and p CO 2 /pH both affected growth, but there was no interaction between these factors. The urchins grew more slowly at pH 7.6, but not at pH 7.8. Slow growth may be influenced by the inability to compensate coelomic fluid acid-base balance at pH 7.6. Growth was faster at +3 and +6°C compared to that in ambient temperature. Acidification and warming had strong and interactive effects on reproductive potential. Warming increased the gonad index, but acidification decreased it. At pH 7.6 there were virtually no gonads in any urchins regardless of temperature. The T. gratilla were larger at maturity under combined near-future warming and acidification scenarios (+3°C/pH 7.8). Although the juveniles grew and survived in near-future warming and acidification conditions, chronic exposure to these stressors from an early stage altered allocation to somatic and gonad growth. In the absence of phenotypic adjustment, the interactive effects of warming and acidification on the benthic life phases of sea urchins may compromise reproductive fitness and population maintenance as global climatic change unfolds. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  13. The effects of EGF and IGF-1 on FSH-mediated in vitro maturation of domestic cat oocytes derived from follicular and luteal stages.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Koray; Vural, M Rıfat; Küplülü, Sükrü; Ozcan, Ziya; Polat, I Mert

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) on the in vitro maturation of cat oocytes recovered from follicular and luteal stage ovaries. Oocytes from follicular (n=580) and luteal (n=209) stages were harvested and divided into four groups, which were cultured in FSH-mediated maturation medium supplemented with: (1) EGF alone (25ng/mL); (2) IGF-1 alone (100ng/mL); (3) EGF+IGF-1 (25ng/mL EGF+100ng/mL IGF-I); or (4) no growth factor (control). The proportion of follicular stage oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage was significantly higher than that of oocytes obtained at the luteal stage in both control and study groups (p<0.001). The percentages of oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage during the follicular period were 62.6% in control; 70.9% in EGF; 72.8% in IGF-1, and 78.1% in EGF+IGF-1 groups, whereas the respective values for gametes collected from luteal stage ovaries were 12.5%, 17.5%, 12.5%, and 16.9%. Additionally, the differences between the study and control groups were significant in the case of follicular stage oocytes. Finally, supplementing the maturation medium with EGF and/or IGF-1 significantly enhanced the meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from follicular stage ovaries. The present study also demonstrated that the combination of EGF and IGF-I provides an additional or synergic effect on meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from the follicular stage. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Cloning of rat amelotin and localization of the protein to the basal lamina of maturation stage ameloblasts and junctional epithelium.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Pierre; Smith, Charles E; St-Arnaud, René; Simmons, Darrin; Wright, J Timothy; Nanci, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Formation of tooth enamel is a very complex process in which a specific set of proteins secreted by ameloblasts play a primordial role. As part of a screening procedure to identify novel proteins secreted by EO (enamel organ) cells of rat incisors, we isolated a partial cDNA fragment (EO-017) that is the homologue of the recently described mouse Amtn (amelotin) gene [Iwasaki, Bajenova, Somogyi-Ganss, Miller, Nguyen, Nourkeyhani, Gao, Wendel and Ganss (2005) J. Dent. Res. 84, 1127-1132]. Presented herein is the cloning of rat and pig full-length cDNAs with their deduced protein sequences. Detailed expression profiling by Northern-blot analysis and RT (reverse transcriptase)-PCR on rat and mouse tissues revealed highest expression in the mandible, more specifically in the maturation stage of the EO. Among all tissues tested, low expression was detected only in periodontal ligament, lung, thymus and gingiva. In silico analyses revealed that the Amtn gene is highly conserved in seven other mammals, but is absent from fish, birds and amphibians. The Amtn protein is enriched in proline, leucine, glutamine and threonine (52% of total) and contains a perfectly conserved protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation site. Transient transfection experiments in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells) showed that secreted Amtn is post-translationally modified possibly through O-linked oligosaccharides on threonine residues. In concordance with its predominant expression site, immunofluorescence localization within the rat and mouse mandibles revealed Amtn localized to the basal lamina of maturation stage ameloblasts of incisors and unerupted molars. Intense Amtn protein expression was also detected in the internal basal lamina of junctional epithelium in molars. The peculiar and unique cellular localization of Amtn suggests a role in cell adhesion.

  15. Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  16. General Differences between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Anfimov, D. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  17. Association of Marital Status With T Stage at Presentation and Management of Early-Stage Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Cimarron E; Sinnamon, Andrew J; Ming, Michael E; Chu, Emily Y; Fraker, Douglas L; Karakousis, Giorgos C

    2018-05-01

    Early detection of melanoma is associated with improved patient outcomes. Data suggest that spouses or partners may facilitate detection of melanoma before the onset of regional and distant metastases. Less well known is the influence of marital status on the detection of early clinically localized melanoma. To evaluate the association between marital status and T stage at the time of presentation with early-stage melanoma and the decision for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in appropriate patients. This retrospective, population-based study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of 18 population-based registered cancer institutes. Patients with cutaneous melanoma who were at least 18 years of age and without evidence of regional or distant metastases and presented from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014, were identified for the study. Data were analyzed from September 27 to December 5, 2017. Marital status, categorized as married, never married, divorced, or widowed. Clinical T stage at presentation and performance of SLNB for lesions with Breslow thickness greater than 1 mm. A total of 52 063 patients were identified (58.8% men and 41.2% women; median age, 64 years; interquartile range, 52-75 years). Among married patients, 16 603 (45.7%) presented with T1a disease, compared with 3253 never married patients (43.0%), 1422 divorced patients (39.0%), and 1461 widowed patients (32.2%) (P < .001). Conversely, 428 widowed patients (9.4%) presented with T4b disease compared with 1188 married patients (3.3%) (P < .001). The association between marital status and higher T stage at presentation remained significant among never married (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.26-1.39; P < .001), divorced (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.30-1.47; P < .001), and widowed (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.60-1.81; P < .001) patients after adjustment for various socioeconomic and patient factors. Independent of T stage and other patient factors, married

  18. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  19. Auditory maturation in premature infants: a potential pitfall for early cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Hof, Janny R; Stokroos, Robert J; Wix, Eduard; Chenault, Mickey; Gelders, Els; Brokx, Jan

    2013-08-01

    To describe spontaneous hearing improvement in the first years of life of a number of preterm neonates relative to cochlear implant candidacy. Retrospective case study. Hearing levels of 14 preterm neonates (mean gestational age at birth = 29 weeks) referred after newborn hearing screening were evaluated. Initial hearing thresholds ranged from 40 to 105 dBHL (mean = 85 dBHL). Hearing level improved to normal levels for four neonates and to moderate levels for five, whereas for five neonates, no improvement in hearing thresholds was observed and cochlear implantation was recommended. Three of the four neonates in whom the hearing improved to normal levels were born prior to 28 weeks gestational age. Hearing improvement was mainly observed prior to a gestational age of 80 weeks. Delayed maturation of an immature auditory pathway might be an important reason for referral after newborn hearing screening in premature infants. Caution is advised regarding early cochlear implantation in preterm born infants. Audiological follow-ups until at least 80 weeks gestational age are therefore recommended. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Phloem unloading follows an extensive apoplasmic pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit from anthesis to marketable maturing stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liping; Sun, Huihui; Li, Ruifu; Zhang, Lingyun; Wang, Shaohui; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2011-11-01

    The phloem unloading pathway remains unclear in fruits of Cucurbitaceae, a classical stachyose-transporting species with bicollateral phloem. Using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of phloem-mobile symplasmic tracer carboxyfluorescein, assays of acid invertase and sucrose transporter, and [(14)C]sugar uptake, the phloem unloading pathway was studied in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit from anthesis to the marketable maturing stage. Structural investigations showed that the sieve element-companion cell (SE-CC) complex of the vascular bundles feeding fruit flesh is apparently symplasmically restricted. Imaging of carboxyfluorescein unloading showed that the dye remained confined to the phloem strands of the vascular bundles in the whole fruit throughout the stages examined. A 37 kDa acid invertase was located predominantly in the cell walls of SE-CC complexes and parenchyma cells. Studies of [(14)C]sugar uptake suggested that energy-driven transporters may be functional in sugar trans-membrane transport within symplasmically restricted SE-CC complex, which was further confirmed by the existence of a functional plasma membrane sucrose transporter (CsSUT4) in cucumber fruit. These data provide a clear evidence for an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway in cucumber fruit. A presumption that putative raffinose or stachyose transporters may be involved in soluble sugars unloading was discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Affective motives for smoking among early stage smokers.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Amanda R; Wahlquist, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16-20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR - NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  3. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-08-21

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease.

  4. Multiscale Investigations of the Early Stage Oxidation on Cu Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Xiao, Penghao; Lian, Xin; Yang, Shen-Che; Henkelman, Grame; Saidi, Wissam; Yang, Judith; University of Pittsburgh Team; University of Texas at Austin Team

    Previous in situ TEM experiments have shown that the oxidation of the three low index Cu surfaces (100), (110) and (111) exhibit different oxide nucleation rates, and the resulting oxides have 3-dimensional (3D) island shapes or 2D rafts under different conditions. In order to better understand these results, we have investigated the early stages of Cu oxidation using a multiscale computational approach that employs density functional theory (DFT), reactive force field (ReaxFF), and kinetic Mote Carlo (KMC). With DFT calculation, we have compared O2 dissociation barriers on Cu (100), (110) and (111) surfaces at high oxygen coverage to evaluate the kinetic barrier of sublayer oxidization. We found that O2 dissociation barriers on Cu(111) surface are all lower than those on (110) and (100) surfaces. This trend agrees with experimental observations that (111) surface is easier to oxidize. These DFT calculated energy barriers are then incorporated into KMC simulations. The large scale ReaxFF molecular dynamics and KMC simulations detail the oxidation dynamics of the different Cu surfaces, and show the formation of various oxide morphologies that are consistent with experimental observations.

  5. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  6. Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Evgeniya; Zinger, Assaf; da Silva, Dana; Yaari, Zvi; Kajal, Ashima; Vardi-Oknin, Dikla; Goldfeder, Mor; Schroeder, Josh E.; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Hershkovitz, Dov; Schroeder, Avi

    2017-10-01

    Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

  7. Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ming, Wendy; Palidis, Dimitrios J; Spering, Miriam; McKeown, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Visual impairments are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact normal functioning in daily activities. Visual contrast sensitivity is a powerful nonmotor sign for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, it is usually assessed with static visual stimuli. Here we examined the interaction between perception and eye movements in static and dynamic contrast sensitivity tasks in a cohort of mildly impaired, early-stage PD patients. Patients (n = 13) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) viewed stimuli of various spatial frequencies (0-8 cyc/deg) and speeds (0°/s, 10°/s, 30°/s) on a computer monitor. Detection thresholds were determined by asking participants to adjust luminance contrast until they could just barely see the stimulus. Eye position was recorded with a video-based eye tracker. Patients' static contrast sensitivity was impaired in the intermediate spatial-frequency range and this impairment correlated with fixational instability. However, dynamic contrast sensitivity and patients' smooth pursuit were relatively normal. An independent component analysis revealed contrast sensitivity profiles differentiating patients and controls. Our study simultaneously assesses perceptual contrast sensitivity and eye movements in PD, revealing a possible link between fixational instability and perceptual deficits. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity profiles may represent an easily measurable metric as a component of a broader combined biometric for nonmotor features observed in PD.

  8. Partial breast radiation for early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Beryl

    2012-02-01

    This review is to provide an update on the current status of partial breast irradiation (PBI) for women presenting with early-stage breast cancer, as an alternate radiation technique to fractionated, whole breast radiation, following conservation surgery. As more women are asking for and receiving this treatment, both on and off protocols, understanding recent additions to the literature is important to physicians caring for this patient population. Newly published retrospective studies, with follow-up times out to 10 years and the status of both recently completed and still open large prospective phase III trials will be covered, with emphasis on unexpected side effects reported, and some hypothesis-generating radiobiology observations. A recent consensus treatment guideline for PBI use is also discussed. Selected retrospective studies continue to report outcomes matching those achieved with whole breast radiation; however, results from large prospective randomized trials comparing PBI to whole breast radiation have been reported only with short follow-up times, or in two studies, are still pending. A recent consensus guideline is useful at present in selecting patients for discussion of this treatment.

  9. Metformin inhibits early stage diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    JO, WOORI; YU, EUN-SIL; CHANG, MINSUN; PARK, HYUN-KYU; CHOI, HYUN-JI; RYU, JAE-EUN; JANG, SUNGWOONG; LEE, HYO-JU; JANG, JA-JUNE; SON, WOO-CHAN

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effects of metformin have recently emerged despite its original use for type II diabetes. In the present study, the effects of metformin on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model of HCC. Tumor foci were characterized by gross examination and by histopathological characteristics, including proliferation, hepatic progenitor cell content and the expression of hepatocarcinoma-specific molecular markers. Potential target molecules of metformin were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of metformin on chemically induced liver tumorigenesis. The antitumor effects of metformin were increased by the reduction of surface nodules and decreased the incidence of altered hepatocellular foci, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. Also, decreased expression levels of glutathione S-transferase placental form, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin 8 described the inhibitory effects of metformin on HCC. In the present study, Wistar rats receiving treatment with DEN were administered metformin for 16 weeks. In addition, metformin suppressed liver tumorigenesis via an AMPK-dependent pathway. These results suggested that metformin has promising effects on the early stage of HCC in rats. Therefore, metformin may be used for the prevention of HCC recurrence following primary chemotherapy for HCC and/or for high-risk patients, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. PMID:26548419

  10. The role of early maturation, perceived popularity, and rumors in the emergence of internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Bridget M; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-11-01

    Despite the widely reported link between early pubertal timing and internalizing symptoms among girls, less is known about the peer reputation of earlier maturing girls. The current study assesses whether early maturation is associated with perceived popularity and/or rumors, and whether these reputational factors help account for earlier maturing girls' vulnerability to emotional distress. Drawing on three waves of data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of middle school girls (n = 912), hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that more advanced development at the start of middle school predicted peer- and teacher-reported popularity as well as increased risk of being targeted for rumors. Mediation analyses suggested that popularity among boys can put earlier developing girls at risk for rumors. Finally, rumors acted as a partial mechanism through which early maturation was associated with subsequent internalizing symptoms. Knowledge of the peer mechanisms putting earlier developing girls at risk for psychosocial maladjustment can inform intervention and prevention efforts aimed at improving adolescent well-being.

  11. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... respect to geographic location. SBA's primary concern in terms of geography is to ensure that the Early... SBICs is the primary source of cash used to service their SBA debt. SBA expects that some Early Stage...--Early Stage SBICs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this...

  12. Efficacy of dendritic cells matured early with OK-432 (Picibanil), prostaglandin E2, and interferon-alpha as a vaccine for a hormone refractory prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Changhee; Do, Hyun-Ah; Jeong, In Gab; Park, Hongzoo; Hwang, Jung-Jin; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Jin Seon; Choo, Myong-Soo; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2010-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells. OK432 (Picibanil) was introduced as a potent stimulator of DC maturation in combination with prostaglandin-E(2) and interferon-alpha. We compared the efficacy of a DC-prostate cancer vaccine using early-mature DCs stimulated with OK432, PGE2 and INF-alpha (OPA) with that of vaccines using other methods. On days 3 or 7 of DC culture, TNF-alpha (T), TNF-alpha and LPS (TL) or OPA were employed as maturation stimulators. DU145 cells subjected to heat stress were hybridized with mature DCs using polyethyleneglycol. T cells were sensitized by the hybrids, and their proliferative and cytokine secretion activities and cytotoxicity were measured. The yields of early-mature DCs were higher, compared to yields at the conventional maturation time (P<0.05). In the early maturation setting, the mean fusion ratios, calculated from the fraction of dual-positive cells, were 13.3%, 18.6%, and 39.9%, respectively (P=0.051) in the T only, TL, and OPA-treated groups. The function of cytotoxic T cells, which were sensitized with the hybrids containing DCs matured early with OPA, was superior to that using other methods. The antitumor effects of DC-DU145 hybrids generated with DCs subjected to early maturation with the OPA may be superior to that of the hybrids using conventional maturation methods.

  13. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and alpha-fetoprotein predict prognosis of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, XinWei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in ∼15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n=70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n=109). This noninvasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Alpha-fetoprotein Predict Prognosis of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, Xin Wei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here, we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in approximately 15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n = 70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n = 109). Conclusion: This non-invasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. PMID:24700365

  15. Runx2 is required for early stages of endochondral bone formation but delays final stages of bone repair in Axin2-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Dudakovic, Amel; Lian, Jane B.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Kakar, Sanjeev; Hsu, Wei; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Runx2 and Axin2 regulate skeletal development. We recently determined that Axin2 and Runx2 molecularly interact in differentiating osteoblasts to regulate intramembranous bone formation, but the relationship between these factors in endochondral bone formation was unresolved. To address this, we examined the effects of Axin2 deficiency on the cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) phenotype of Runx2+/− mice, focusing on skeletal defects attributed to improper endochondral bone formation. Axin2 deficiency unexpectedly exacerbated calvarial components of the CCD phenotype in the Runx2+/− mice; the endocranial layer of the frontal suture, which develops by endochondral bone formation, failed to mineralize in the Axin2−/−:Runx2+/− mice, resulting in a cartilaginous, fibrotic and larger fontanel than observed in Runx2+/− mice. Transcripts associated with cartilage development (e.g., Acan, miR140) were expressed at higher levels, whereas blood vessel morphogenesis transcripts (e.g., Slit2) were suppressed in Axin2−/−:Runx2+/− calvaria. Cartilage maturation was impaired, as primary chondrocytes from double mutant mice demonstrated delayed differentiation and produced less calcified matrix in vitro. The genetic dominance of Runx2 was also reflected during endochondral fracture repair, as both Runx2+/− and double mutant Axin2−/−:Runx2+/− mice had enlarged fracture calluses at early stages of healing. However, by the end stages of fracture healing, double mutant animals diverged from the Runx2+/− mice, showing smaller calluses and increased torsional strength indicative of more rapid end stage bone formation as seen in the Axin2−/− mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate a dominant role for Runx2 in chondrocyte maturation, but implicate Axin2 as an important modulator of the terminal stages of endochondral bone formation. PMID:24973690

  16. Pax-3 expression in segmental mesoderm marks early stages in myogenic cell specification.

    PubMed

    Williams, B A; Ordahl, C P

    1994-04-01

    Specification of the myogenic lineage begins prior to gastrulation and culminates in the emergence of determined myogenic precursor cells from the somites. The myoD family (MDF) of transcriptional activators controls late step(s) in myogenic specification that are closely followed by terminal muscle differentiation. Genes expressed in myogenic specification at stages earlier than MDFs are unknown. The Pax-3 gene is expressed in all the cells of the caudal segmental plate, the early mesoderm compartment that contains the precursors of skeletal muscle. As somites form from the segmental plate and mature, Pax-3 expression is progressively modulated. Beginning at the time of segmentation, Pax-3 becomes repressed in the ventral half of the somite, leaving Pax-3 expression only in the dermomyotome. Subsequently, differential modulation of Pax-3 expression levels delineates the medial and lateral halves of the dermomyotome, which contain precursors of axial (back) muscle and limb muscle, respectively. Pax-3 expression is then repressed as dermomyotome-derived cells activate MDFs. Quail-chick chimera and ablation experiments confirmed that the migratory precursors of limb muscle continue to express Pax-3 during migration. Since limb muscle precursors do not activate MDFs until 2 days after they leave the somite, Pax-3 represents the first molecular marker for this migratory cell population. A null mutation of the mouse Pax-3 gene, Splotch, produces major disruptions in early limb muscle development (Franz, T., Kothary, R., Surani, M. A. H., Halata, Z. and Grim, M. (1993) Anat. Embryol. 187, 153-160; Goulding, M., Lumsden, A. and Paquette, A. (1994) Development 120, 957-971). We conclude, therefore, that Pax-3 gene expression in the paraxial mesoderm marks earlier stages in myogenic specification than MDFs and plays a crucial role in the specification and/or migration of limb myogenic precursors.

  17. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes.

  18. The developmental stages of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3): a sole indicator in assessing the skeletal maturity?

    PubMed

    Madhu, S; Hegde, Amitha M; Munshi, A K

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of skeletal maturity is an integral part of interceptive diagnosis and treatment planning. The present day methods of skeletal maturity assessment like the hand-wrist radiographs or cervical vertebrae radiographs are expensive, require elaborate equipment and accounts for high radiation exposure, especially for growing children. The present study was thus undertaken to provide a simple and practical method of skeletal maturity assessment using the developmental stages of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3) as seen on an IOPA film taken using a standard dental x-ray machine. The results of the study showed that this simple method was highly reliable and could be used as an alternative method to assess the skeletal maturity of growing children.

  19. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  20. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  1. Physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional quality of fresh-cut "Rojo Brillante" persimmon affected by maturity stage and antibrowning agents.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, Elena; Mateos, Milagros; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2016-10-01

    To prevent enzymatic browning of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon, different combinations of ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) with calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) were tested in fruit harvested at two maturity stages (MS1 and MS2). Color, firmness, sensory quality, total vitamin C, radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, and carotenoids were evaluated over nine days of storage at 5 ℃. Antibrowning dips reduced enzymatic browning if compared with the control samples. Selecting fruits with good firmness and the addition of 10 g/l CaCl 2 help prevent loss of firmness of fresh-cut "Rojo Brillante" persimmons treated with acidic solutions as antibrowning agents to control enzymatic browning. The limit of marketability of the persimmon fruit processed at MS1 was significantly reduced by the burst of the disorder known as "flesh browning," and only the samples treated with 10 g/l CA + 10 g/l CaCl 2 maintained a limit of marketability close to seven days. At MS2, all the antibrowning solutions allowed a limit of marketability of seven storage days at 5 ℃. Nutritional quality was not affected by either antibrowning dips or cutting processes, but MS at harvest was. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Turf-type and early maturing annual ryegrass to establish perennial vegetation : technical report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is not currently recommended by TxDOT as a roadside re-vegetation nurse crop because its late maturity and height are too competitive for establishing perennial or spring plant mixtures. Two available genotypes us...

  3. A new classification of a preovulatory oocyte maturation stage suitable for the synchronization of ovulation in controlled reproduction of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L.

    PubMed

    Zarski, Daniel; Bokor, Zoltán; Kotrik, László; Urbanyi, Béla; Horváth, Akos; Targońska, Katarzyna; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Palińska, Katarzyna; Kucharczyk, Dariusz

    2011-11-01

    To improve controlled reproduction of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis, the criteria for the evaluation of final oocyte maturation stages were revised. The new classification covers six preovulatory maturational stages (I -VI) from the end of vitellogenesis to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and was based on macroscopic changes of preovulatory oocytes (position of the germinal vesicle, GVBD, oil droplets coalescence). The observation was performed during out-of-season artificial reproduction with the use of a single hCG injection (500 IU/kg). The classification was subsequently verified with the controlled reproduction of wild female perch with the use of hormonal stimulation (500 IU hCG/kg of body weight at 12°C). The females were at different maturational stages and constituted respective experimental groups (I-VI). During the experiment, ovulation appeared to be considerably synchronized within particular groups. Statistical differences in latency time (time between hormonal treatment and ovulation) were found between experimental groups (mean latency time: 110, 92, 68, 49, 29 and 18 h in groups representing VI, V, IV, III, II and I stage of the proposed classification, respectively). The proposed classification and the results presented in the study allowed for effective synchronisation of ovulation. The use of our new oocyte maturation classification may positively influence the effectiveness of Eurasian perch production.

  4. Maize aflatoxin accumulation segregates with early maturing selections from an S2 breeding cross population.

    PubMed

    Henry, W Brien

    2013-01-15

    Maize breeders continue to seek new sources of aflatoxin resistance, but most lines identified as resistance sources are late maturing. The vast difference in flowering time makes it hard to cross these lines with proprietary commercial lines that mature much earlier and often subjects the reproductive phase of these resistant lines to the hottest and driest portion of the summer, making silking, pollination and grain fill challenging. Two hundred crosses from the GEM Project were screened for aflatoxin accumulation at Mississippi State in 2008, and a subset of these lines were screened again in 2009. The breeding cross UR13085:S99g99u was identified as a potential source of aflatoxin resistance, and maturity-based selections were made from an S2 breeding population from this same germplasm source: UR13085:S99g99u-B-B. The earliest maturing selections performed poorly for aflatoxin accumulation, but later maturing selections were identified with favorable levels of aflatoxin accumulation. These selections, while designated as "late" within this study, matured earlier than most aflatoxin resistant lines presently available to breeders. Two selections from this study, designated S5_L7 and S5_L8, are potential sources of aflatoxin resistance and will be advanced for line development and additional aflatoxin screening over more site years and environments.

  5. Experimental constrain of hydrogen production during early serpentinization stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, M.; Munoz, M.; Vidal, O.; Parra, T.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of mantellic peridotites and ultramafic rocks along axial valleys of low spread oceanic ridges plays a key role in different fundamental domains like, 1) energetic gaz production (H2 and hydrocarbons) representing a potential source of energy for future generations, 2) formation of organic pre-biotic molecules in potential relation with the origin of life. Moreover, such complex volcanic-related alteration processes play fundamental role in economic geology, being widely associated to important polymetallic sulphides ore deposits. Recent researches proposed an initial hydrogen production due to the integration of ferric iron in Fe,Mg-serpentine. To better understand the early stages of hydrogen production, a series of natural peridotite rocks have been experimentally exposed to hydrothermal conditions, up to 300°C, 300 bars during different time scales. Experiments have been performed in using autoclaves with a sampling gas system. A systematic mineralogical characterization of the new products was carried out using classical spectroscopic tools. In particular, we focused on the iron behaviour using a redox and structural micro-XANES investigation. Redox information has been accurately derived from the pre-peak features previously calibrated from model compounds, while structural information about short and medium range order around iron has been extracted from the XANES region of the spectra, based both on experimental standards and ab-initio theoretical calculations. Two processes of oxidation emerged. Before two month experiment duration, serpentine displays a not negligible oxidation of ferrous iron in his structure (up to 60%), while after two months, iron oxides and hydroxides appear in the system. These results seem to correspond to natural observations. The iron coordination decreases linearly with time. It means that iron also integrates the serpentine tetrahedral sites. Moreover, high resolution µ-XAS maps on experimental samples

  6. Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S.; Cardellini, P.

    1997-02-01

    The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surfacemore » ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.« less

  7. Is knowledge translation adequate? A quality assurance study of staging investigations in early stage breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Dolly; Hogeveen, Sophie; Sweet Goldstein, Miriam; George, Ralph; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Hoch, Jeffrey; Haq, Rashida; Simmons, Christine E

    2012-02-01

    After primary surgery, patients diagnosed with early stage breast cancer undergo radiological investigations based on pathologic stage of disease to rule out distant metastases. Published guidelines can aid clinicians in determining which tests are appropriate based on stage of disease. We wished to assess the consistency of radiological staging in an academic community oncology setting with standard guidelines and to determine the overall impact of non-adherence to these guidelines. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for new breast cancer patients seen at a single institution between January 2009 and April 2010. Patients were included if initial diagnosis and primary surgery was at this institution. Pathologic stage and radiological tests completed were recorded. A literature review was performed and the results were compared with those from this study to determine overall adherence rates. Subsequently, a cost analysis was performed to determine the financial impact at this centre. 231 patients met eligibility criteria for inclusion in this study. A large proportion of patients were over-staged with 129 patients (55%) undergoing unnecessary investigations according to guidelines. Specifically, 59% of stage I patients and 58% of stage II patients were over-investigated. Distant metastases at the time of diagnosis were found in three patients, all of whom had stage III disease (1.3%). The literature reviewed revealed similar non-adherence rates in other centres. The estimated cost of such non-adherence is in the range of $78 (CDN) per new early stage breast cancer patient seen at this centre. This oncology centre has a low adherence to practice guidelines for staging investigations in breast cancer patients, with 55% of patients undergoing unnecessary tests. Very few patients had metastases at diagnosis, and all had pathological stage III disease. Efforts may need to focus on improving knowledge translation across clinical oncology settings to increase

  8. Actin Waves Do Not Boost Neurite Outgrowth in the Early Stages of Neuron Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mortal, Simone; Iseppon, Federico; Perissinotto, Andrea; D'Este, Elisa; Cojoc, Dan; Napolitano, Luisa M. R.; Torre, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    During neurite development, Actin Waves (AWs) emerge at the neurite base and move up to its tip, causing a transient retraction of the Growth Cone (GC). Many studies have shown that AWs are linked to outbursts of neurite growth and, therefore, contribute to the fast elongation of the nascent axon. Using long term live cell-imaging, we show that AWs do not boost neurite outgrowth and that neurites without AWs can elongate for several hundred microns. Inhibition of Myosin II abolishes the transient GC retraction and strongly modifies the AWs morphology. Super-resolution nanoscopy shows that Myosin IIB shapes the growth cone-like AWs structure and is differently distributed in AWs and GCs. Interestingly, depletion of membrane cholesterol and inhibition of Rho GTPases decrease AWs frequency and velocity. Our results indicate that Myosin IIB, membrane tension, and small Rho GTPases are important players in the regulation of the AW dynamics. Finally, we suggest a role for AWs in maintaining the GCs active during environmental exploration. PMID:29326552

  9. (−)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Targets Notch to Attenuate the Inflammatory Response in the Immediate Early Stage in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tengfei; Xiang, Zemin; Wang, Ya; Li, Xi; Fang, Chongye; Song, Shuang; Li, Chunlei; Yu, Haishuang; Wang, Han; Yan, Liang; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays important roles at different stages of diabetes mellitus, tumorigenesis, and cardiovascular diseases. (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can attenuate inflammatory responses effectively. However, the immediate early mechanism of EGCG in inflammation remains unclear. Here, we showed that EGCG attenuated the inflammatory response in the immediate early stage of EGCG treatment by shutting off Notch signaling and that the effect did not involve the 67-kDa laminin receptor, the common receptor for EGCG. EGCG eliminated mature Notch from the cell membrane and the nuclear Notch intercellular domain, the active form of Notch, within 2 min by rapid degradation via the proteasome pathway. Transcription of the Notch target gene was downregulated simultaneously. Knockdown of Notch 1/2 expression by RNA interference impaired the downregulation of the inflammatory response elicited by EGCG. Further study showed that EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and turned off Notch signaling in human primary macrophages. Taken together, our results show that EGCG targets Notch to regulate the inflammatory response in the immediate early stage. PMID:28443100

  10. Early life vitamin D depletion alters the postnatal response to skeletal loading in growing and mature bone

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Harriet; Owen, Robert; Marin, Ana Campos; Lu, Yongtau; Eyles, Darryl; Lacroix, Damien; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Skerry, Tim M.; Bishop, Nick J.

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of persistent effects of early life vitamin D exposure on later skeletal health; linking low levels in early life to smaller bone size in childhood as well as increased fracture risk later in adulthood, independently of later vitamin D status. A major determinant of bone mass acquisition across all ages is mechanical loading. We tested the hypothesis in an animal model system that early life vitamin D depletion results in abrogation of the response to mechanical loading, with consequent reduction in bone size, mass and strength during both childhood and adulthood. A murine model was created in which pregnant dams were either vitamin D deficient or replete, and their offspring moved to a vitamin D replete diet at weaning. Tibias of the offspring were mechanically loaded and bone structure, extrinsic strength and growth measured both during growth and after skeletal maturity. Offspring of vitamin D deplete mice demonstrated lower bone mass in the non loaded limb and reduced bone mass accrual in response to loading in both the growing skeleton and after skeletal maturity. Early life vitamin D depletion led to reduced bone strength and altered bone biomechanical properties. These findings suggest early life vitamin D status may, in part, determine the propensity to osteoporosis and fracture that blights later life in many individuals. PMID:29370213

  11. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  12. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  13. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  14. Three-peat NREL Intern Pushes Boundaries of Early-Stage Fuels Research on

    Science.gov Websites

    Early-Stage Fuels Research on Way to Master's Degree Three-peat NREL Intern Pushes Boundaries of Early -Stage Fuels Research on Way to Master's Degree January 4, 2018 Woman preparing a fuel evaluation in a constant volume combustion vessel Drew Cameron, Research Participant Program Intern, prepares a test for

  15. To Stay or to Go? Narratives of Early-Stage Sociologists about Persisting in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wöhrer, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyses of life course questionnaires, semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group interviews carried out with early-stage sociologists over a period of 8 years, this paper presents analyzes of continuity and change in the decisions made by early-stage researchers in regard to their work and careers. The longitudinal approach…

  16. The effect of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog regime and stage of oocyte maturity for induced ovulation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effective LHRHa (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog) dose based on the gonadal maturity of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus to optimize channel x blue hybrid catfish production was evaluated in 4 trials (twice in early part of the season and twice in the peak spawning season) in a ...

  17. Management of Early Stage, High-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma: Preoperative and Surgical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Gaetan

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. Most cases are diagnosed at an early stage and have low-grade histology, portending an overall excellent prognosis. There exists a subgroup of patients with early, high-risk disease, whose management remains controversial, as current data is clouded by inclusion of early stage tumors with different high-risk features for recurrence, unstandardized protocols for surgical staging, and an evolving staging system by which we are grouping these patients. Here, we present preoperative and intraoperative considerations that should be taken into account when planning surgical management for this population of patients. PMID:23878545

  18. The Impact of Maturity Stage on Cell Membrane Integrity and Enzymatic Browning Reactions in High Pressure Processed Peaches (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-09-28

    Fruit maturity is an important factor associated with final product quality, and it may have an effect on the level of browning in peaches that are high pressure processed (HPP). Peaches from three different maturities, as determined by firmness (M1 = 50-55 N, M2 = 35-40 N, and M3 = 15-20 N), were subjected to pressure levels at 0.1, 200, and 400 MPa for 10 min. The damage from HPP treatment results in loss of fruit integrity and the development of browning during storage. Increasing pressure levels of HPP treatment resulted in greater damage, particularly in the more mature peaches, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) of the vacuolar component and by light microscopy. The discoloration of peach slices of different maturities processed at the same pressure was comparable, indicating that the effect of pressure level is greater than that of maturity in the development of browning.

  19. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  20. Influence of Maturation Stage on Agility Performance Gains After Plyometric Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Abbas; Arazi, Hamid; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Moran, Jason; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-09-01

    Asadi, A, Arazi, H, Ramirez-Campillo, R, Moran, J, and Izquierdo, M. Influence of maturation stage on agility performance gains after plyometric training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2609-2617, 2017-Although plyometric training (PT) improves change of direction (COD) ability, the influence of age on COD gains after PT is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify the age-related pattern of improvement in COD ability after PT in youths. A computerized search within 6 databases was performed, selecting studies based on specific inclusion criteria: experimental trials published in English-language journals, PT focused on the lower-body, COD ability measurements reported before and after training, and male participants aged 10 to 18 years. Sixteen articles with a total of 30 effect sizes (ESs) in the experimental groups and 13 ESs in the control groups were included. For the analyses, subjects were categorized into 3 age groups: 10-12.9 years of age (PRE), 13-15.9 years of age (MID), and 16-18 years of age (POST). Independent of age, PT improved COD ability in youths (ES = 0.86, time gains [TG = -0.61]). However, a tendency toward greater COD ability gains was observed in older subjects (MID, ES = 0.95; POST, ES = 0.99) compared with younger subjects (PRE, ES = 0.68). Pearson product-moment correlation (r) indicated that 2-weekly sessions of PT-induced meaningful COD ability gains (for ES, r = 0.436; for TG, r = -0.624). A positive relationship was found between training intensity and ES (r = 0.493). In conclusion, PT improves COD ability in youths, with meaningfully greater effects in older youths. Two PT sessions per week, with 1,400 moderate-intensity jumps for 7 weeks, seems to be an adequate dose.

  1. Effects of feeding regimes and early maturation on migratory behaviour of landlocked hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Norrgård, J R; Bergman, E; Schmitz, M; Greenberg, L A

    2014-10-01

    The migratory behaviour of hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised under three different feeding regimes was monitored through the lower part of the River Klarälven, Sweden. The smolts were implanted with acoustic transmitters and released into the River Klarälven, 25 km upstream of the outlet in Lake Vänern. Early mature males, which had matured the previous autumn, were also tagged and released. To monitor migration of the fish, acoustic receivers were deployed along the migratory route. The proportion of S. salar that reached Lake Vänern was significantly greater for fish fed fat-reduced feed than for fish given rations with higher fat content, regardless of ration size. Fish from the early mature male group remained in the river to a greater extent than fish from the three feeding regimes. Smolt status (degree of silvering), as visually assessed, did not differ among the feeding regime groups, and moreover, fully-silvered fish, regardless of feeding regime, migrated faster and had a greater migration success than fish with less developed smolt characteristics. Also, successful migrants had a lower condition factor than unsuccessful ones. These results indicate that the migration success of hatchery-reared S. smolts released to the wild can be enhanced by relatively simple changes in feeding regimes and by matching stocking time with smolt development. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. CD81 Controls Sustained T Cell Activation Signaling and Defines the Maturation Stages of Cognate Immunological Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Perugini, V.; Zamai, M.; González-Granado, J. M.; Barreiro, O.; Tejera, E.; Yañez-Mó, M.; Caiolfa, V. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the molecular interactions of tetraspanin CD81 in T lymphocytes, and we show that CD81 controls the organization of the immune synapse (IS) and T cell activation. Using quantitative microscopy, including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), phasor fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-Föster resonance energy transfer (phasorFLIM-FRET), and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), we demonstrate that CD81 interacts with ICAM-1 and CD3 during conjugation between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CD81 and ICAM-1 exhibit distinct mobilities in central and peripheral areas of early and late T cell-APC contacts. Moreover, CD81–ICAM-1 and CD81-CD3 dynamic interactions increase over the time course of IS formation, as these molecules redistribute throughout the contact area. Therefore, CD81 associations unexpectedly define novel sequential steps of IS maturation. Our results indicate that CD81 controls the temporal progression of the IS and the permanence of CD3 in the membrane contact area, contributing to sustained T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3-mediated signaling. Accordingly, we find that CD81 is required for proper T cell activation, regulating CD3ζ, ZAP-70, LAT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation; CD69 surface expression; and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion. Our data demonstrate the important role of CD81 in the molecular organization and dynamics of the IS architecture that sets the signaling threshold in T cell activation. PMID:23858057

  3. Individual condition and stream temperature influences early maturation of rainbow and steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Treesearch

    John R. McMillan; Jason B. Dunham; Gordon H. Reeves; Justin S. Mills; Chris E. Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Alternative male phenotypes in salmonine fishes arise from individuals that mature as larger and older anadromous marine-migrants or as smaller and younger freshwater residents. To better understand the processes influencing the expression of these phenotypes we examined the influences of growth in length (fork length) and whole body lipid content in rainbow trout (...

  4. Diagnostic performance of skeletal maturity for the assessment of midpalatal suture maturation.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H S; McNamara, James A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method in estimating accurately the stages of maturation of the midpalatal suture. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from 142 subjects (84 female, 58 male; mean age, 14.8 ± 9.7 years) were analyzed by 2 calibrated examiners to define, by visual analysis, the maturational stages of the cervical vertebrae and the midpalatal suture. These CBCT images were required by orthodontists and surgeons for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Positive likelihood ratios (LHRs) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the CVM stages in identifying the maturational stages of the midpalatal suture. Positive LHRs greater than 10 were found for several cervical vertebral stages (CSs), including CS1 and CS2 for the identification of midpalatal suture stages A and B, CS3 for the diagnosis of midpalatal suture stage C, and CS5 for the assessment of midpalatal suture stages D and E. These positive LHRs indicated large and often conclusive increases in the likelihood that the CVM stages were associated with specific stages of midpalatal suture maturation. At CS4, there were a moderate positive LHR for stage C and low positive LHRs for stages D and E. Most CVM stages can be used for the diagnosis of the stages of maturation of the midpalatal suture, so that CBCT imaging may not be necessary in these patients. In the postpubertal period, however, an assessment of the midpalatal suture maturation using CBCT images may be indicated in deciding between conventional rapid maxillary expansion and surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. On the other hand, if the CVM stage cannot be assessed, chronologic age may be a viable alternative to predict some midpalatal suture stages (particularly the early stages). Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relation of adrenal-derived steroids with bone maturation, mineral density and geometry in healthy prepubertal and early pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, S; Taes, Y; Fiers, T; Toye, K; Van Caenegem, E; Kaufman, J-M; De Schepper, J

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of adrenal steroids on skeletal maturation and bone mass acquisition in healthy prepubertal boys. To study whether adrenal-derived steroids within the physiological range are associated with skeletal maturation, areal and volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD and vBMD) and bone geometry in healthy prepubertal and early pubertal boys. 98 healthy prepubertal and early pubertal boys (aged 6-14 y) were studied cross-sectionally. Androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and DHEAS was determined by immunoassay. Whole body and lumbar spine aBMD and bone area were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular (distal site) and cortical (proximal site) vBMD and bone geometry were assessed at the non-dominant forearm and leg using peripheral QCT. Skeletal age was determined by X-ray of the left hand. Adrenal-derived steroids (DHEAS, A and E1) are positively associated with bone age in prepubertal and early pubertal children, independently of age. There are no associations between the adrenal-derived steroids and the studied parameters of bone size (lumbar spine and whole body bone area, trabecular or cortical area at the radius or tibia, periosteal circumference and cortical thickness at the radius or tibia) or BMD (aBMD or vBMD). In healthy prepubertal and early pubertal boys, serum adrenal-derived steroid levels, are associated with skeletal maturation, independently of age, but not with bone size or (v)BMD. Our data suggest that adrenal derived steroids are not implicated in the accretion of bone mass before puberty in boys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass media as a sexual super peer for early maturing girls.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the possibility that the mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) serve as a kind of super peer for girls who enter puberty sooner than their age-mates. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant associations between earlier pubertal timing and earlier transition to first sex. Does puberty also stimulate interest in sexual media content that is seen as giving permission to engage in sexual behavior? White and African-American female adolescents (n = 471; average age 13.7 years) recruited from public middle schools in central North Carolina completed two self-administered surveys in their homes about their pubertal status, interest in and exposure to various media, and perceptions of sexual media content. Earlier maturing girls reported more interest than later maturing girls in seeing sexual content in movies, television, and magazines, and in listening to sexual content in music, regardless of age or race. Earlier maturing girls were also more likely to be listening to music and reading magazines with sexual content, more likely to see R-rated movies, and to interpret the messages they saw in the media as approving of teens having sexual intercourse. The mass media may be serving as a kind of sexual super peer, especially for earlier maturing girls. Given the lack of sexual health messages in most media adolescents attend to, these findings give cause for concern. The media should be encouraged to provide more sexually healthy content, and youth service providers and physicians should be aware that earlier maturing girls may be interested in sexual information.

  7. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

  9. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  10. Seed development and maturation in early spring-flowering Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus continues post-shedding with little evidence of maturation in planta

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Rosemary J.; Hay, Fiona R.; Ellis, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Seeds of the moist temperate woodland species Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus, dispersed during spring or early summer, germinated poorly in laboratory tests. Seed development and maturation were studied to better understand the progression from developmental to germinable mode in order to improve seed collection and germination practices in these and similar species. Methods Phenology, seed mass, moisture content and ability to germinate and tolerate desiccation were monitored during seed development until shedding. Embryo elongation within seeds was investigated during seed development and under several temperature regimes after shedding. Key Results Seeds were shed at high moisture content (>59 %) with little evidence that dry mass accumulation or embryo elongation were complete. Ability to germinate developed prior to the ability of some seeds to tolerate enforced desiccation. Germination was sporadic and slow. Embryo elongation occurred post-shedding in moist environments, most rapidly at 20 °C in G. nivalis and 15 °C in N. pseudonarcissus. The greatest germination also occurred in these regimes, 78 and 48 %, respectively, after 700 d. Conclusions Seeds of G. nivalis and N. pseudonarcissus were comparatively immature at shedding and substantial embryo elongation occurred post-shedding. Seeds showed limited desiccation tolerance at dispersal. PMID:23478943

  11. Efficient embryonic culture method for the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, and its early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Atsushi; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The morphogenesis of snake embryos is an elusive yet fascinating research target for developmental biologists. However, few data exist on development of early snake embryo due to limited availability of pregnant snakes, and the need to harvest early stage embryos directly from pregnant snakes before oviposition without knowing the date of fertilization. We established an ex vivo culture method for early snake embryos using the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata. This method, which we named "sausage-style (SS) culture", allows us to harvest snake embryos at specific stages for each experiment. Using this SS culture system, we calculated somite formation rate at early stages before oviposition. The average somite formation rate between 6/7 and 12/13 somite stages was 145.9 min, between 60/70 and 80/91 somite stages 42.4 min, and between 113-115 and 126/127 somite stages 71 min. Thus, somite formation rate that we observed during early snake embryogenesis was changed over time. We also describe a developmental staging series for E. quadrivirgata. This is the first report of a developmental series of early snake embryogenesis prior to oviposition by full-color images with high-resolution. We propose that the SS culture system is an easy method for treating early snake embryos ex vivo. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  12. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    PubMed

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

  14. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is required for a late-stage fusion process during skeletal myotube maturation.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Hyun; Chen, Jie

    2005-09-09

    Skeletal myogenesis is a well orchestrated cascade of events regulated by multiple signaling pathways, one of which is recently characterized by its sensitivity to the bacterial macrolide rapamycin. Previously we reported that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates the initiation of the differentiation program in mouse C2C12 myoblasts by controlling the expression of insulin-like growth factor-II in a kinase-independent manner. Here we provide experimental evidence suggesting that a different mode of mTOR signaling regulates skeletal myogenesis at a later stage. In the absence of endogenous mTOR function in C2C12 cells treated with rapamycin, a kinase-inactive mTOR fully supports myogenin expression, but causes a delay in contractile protein expression. Myoblasts fuse to form nascent myotubes in the absence of kinase-active mTOR, whereas the formation of mature myotubes by further fusion requires the catalytic activity of mTOR. Therefore, the two stages of myocyte fusion are molecularly separable at the level of mTOR signaling. In addition, our data suggest that a factor secreted into the culture medium is responsible for mediating the function of mTOR in regulating the late-stage fusion leading to mature myotubes. Furthermore, taking advantage of the unique features of cells stably expressing a mutant mTOR, we have performed cDNA microarray analysis to compare global gene expression profiles between mature and nascent myotubes, the results of which have implicated classes of genes and revealed candidate regulators in myotube maturation or functions of mature myotubes.

  15. Effects of different maturity stages and growing locations on changes in chemical, biochemical and aroma volatile composition of 'Wonderful' pomegranate juice.

    PubMed

    Mphahlele, Rebogile R; Caleb, Oluwafemi J; Fawole, Olaniyi A; Opara, Umezuruike Linus

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the changes in chemical attributes of pomegranate fruit such as total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), TSS/TA ratio, pH, individual compounds (organic acids and sugars) and volatile composition as affected by fruit maturity status and growing location (Kakamas, Koedoeshoek and Worcester in South Africa). Headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for volatile analysis. A significant increase in TSS from 14.7 ± 0.6 to 17.5 ± 0.6 °Brix was observed with advancement in fruit maturity, while TA decreased from 2.1 ± 0.7 to 1.1 ± 0.3 g citric acid per 100 mL across all agro-climatic locations investigated. Fruit TSS/TA ratio and pH increased from 7.8 ± 2.6 to 16.6 ± 2.8 and from 3.3 ± 0.1 to 3.6 ± 0.2 respectively during fruit maturation across all agro-climatic locations. Fructose and glucose concentrations increased continually with fruit maturity from 69.4 ± 4.9 to 91.1 ± 4.9 g kg(-1) and from 57.1 ± 4.7 to 84.3 ± 5.2 g kg(-1) respectively. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected and identified, belonging to five chemical classes. The most abundant volatile in unripe and mid-ripe fruit was 1-hexanol, while 3-hexen-1-ol was highest at commercial maturity. Knowledge on the impact of fruit maturity and agro-climatic locations (with different altitudes) on biochemical and aroma volatile attributes of pomegranate fruit provides a useful guide for selecting farm location towards improving fruit quality and the maturity stage best for juice processing. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. White matter maturation is associated with the emergence of Theory of Mind in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Grosse Wiesmann, Charlotte; Schreiber, Jan; Singer, Tania; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Friederici, Angela D.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to attribute mental states to other individuals is crucial for human cognition. A milestone of this ability is reached around the age of 4, when children start understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. The neural basis supporting this critical step is currently unknown. Here, we relate this behavioural change to the maturation of white matter structure in 3- and 4-year-old children. Tract-based spatial statistics and probabilistic tractography show that the developmental breakthrough in false belief understanding is associated with age-related changes in local white matter structure in temporoparietal regions, the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and with increased dorsal white matter connectivity between temporoparietal and inferior frontal regions. These effects are independent of co-developing cognitive abilities. Our findings show that the emergence of mental state representation is related to the maturation of core belief processing regions and their connection to the prefrontal cortex. PMID:28322222

  17. White matter maturation is associated with the emergence of Theory of Mind in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Grosse Wiesmann, Charlotte; Schreiber, Jan; Singer, Tania; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-03-21

    The ability to attribute mental states to other individuals is crucial for human cognition. A milestone of this ability is reached around the age of 4, when children start understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. The neural basis supporting this critical step is currently unknown. Here, we relate this behavioural change to the maturation of white matter structure in 3- and 4-year-old children. Tract-based spatial statistics and probabilistic tractography show that the developmental breakthrough in false belief understanding is associated with age-related changes in local white matter structure in temporoparietal regions, the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and with increased dorsal white matter connectivity between temporoparietal and inferior frontal regions. These effects are independent of co-developing cognitive abilities. Our findings show that the emergence of mental state representation is related to the maturation of core belief processing regions and their connection to the prefrontal cortex.

  18. Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    patients with early stage ErbB2-overexpressing biopsies and ER- atypia . 13 REFERENCES: 1. Jordan VC. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention. Proc Soc...Summary01-03-2012 Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer Shalini Jain University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston...SUBTITLE “Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  19. DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0194 TITLE: DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0194 5c. PROGRAM...determine the copy number gain and loss for early stage high grade ovarian cancers through IlluminaHumanOmniExpress-FFPE BeadChip system • Subtask 1 DNA

  20. [Anxiety-phobic disorders in the early childhood stage].

    PubMed

    Volkova, O M; Kozlovskaia, G V; Proselkova, M O

    2012-01-01

    The complex of such phenomena as anxiety and fear in children of the early age and their relationship with risk factors for psychic pathology were investigated. Eighty cases of anxiety-phobic disorders in children of the first five years of life were studied. The types of behavioral and somatic reactions that allowed to reveal not only the clinically expressed phenomena of anxiety and fear but the higher readiness to them were described. The first anxiety-phobic reactions appeared at the age when emotional functions were not completely formed and might be considered as the presentations of emotional dysontogenesis. The authors assume that characteristics of fear expression in the early age allow to suspect a mental disease which might be timely diagnosed in case of its manifestation. The conclusions made in the paper may be useful for clinical practice of pediatricians, children neurologists, psychologists and psychiatrists.

  1. Clusterin immunoexpression is associated with early stage endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah Ahmed; Butt, Nadeem Shafique; Anfinan, Nisrin; Sait, Khalid; Sait, Hesham; Bajouh, Osama; Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal

    2016-05-01

    Clusterin has anti-apoptotic, regeneration and migration stimulating effects on tumor cells. This study investigates the relation between clusterin expression and the clinicopathological parameters in endometrial carcinomas. Seventy one cases of previously diagnosed endometrial carcinoma (including 59 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 9 serous adenocarcinoma, 1 clear cell adenocarcinoma, and 2 malignant mixed Mullerian tumor) and 30 tissue samples of non-cancerous endometrium (including 16 proliferative endometrium, 10 secretory endometrium and 4 endometrial polyps) were employed for clusterin detection using tissue microarrays and immunostaining. A total number of 23 (32.4%) cases were positive for clusterin immunostaining. Brown granular cytoplasmic expression of clusterin was detected in 33.9% of endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 22.2% papillary serous endometrial carcinomas. Three (10%) control cases showed granular cytoplasmic expression. Positive clusterin immunostaining was found more frequent in well differentiated and stage I endometrial carcinomas, showing significant statistical association (p-value=0.036 and p-value=0.002 respectively). Significant difference in clusterin expression was observed between tumor cases and control group (P-Value=0.019), i.e., endometrial carcinoma cases are more than four times likely to show positive clusterin immunostaining (odds ratio 4.313 with 95% confidence interval 1.184-15.701). This study did not find relation between clusterin expression and disease recurrence, survival or any of the other clinicopathological parameters in endometrial tumors. The results of our study confirms the diagnostic values of clusterin in supporting the diagnosis of endometrioid carcinoma. When clusterin is expressed in endometrial tumors, it is associated with lower stage. The correlation of clusterin with tumor stage suggests involvement of this molecule in endometrial tumor progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398-3559, and IRAS 16253-2429 at resolutions of ˜100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398-3559 and IRAS 16253-2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398-3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253-2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398-3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253-2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  3. [Feedback of ultrasound and RMI in the staging of endometrial carcinoma in early stage].

    PubMed

    Buhler, J; Routiot, T; Polet-Lefebvre, K; Morel, O

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in France. The therapeutic management is based on preoperative staging. The recommended imaging examination remains the MRI. This is to evaluate ultrasound and MRI in the staging for localized cancers. This is a retrospective observational study, conducted from July 2012 to July 2014, at the University Hospital of Nancy, on all patients care for endometrial cancer stage I, who underwent a pelvic ultrasound and MRI for the assessment of myometrial infiltration. Twenty-nine patients were included with a mean age of 69 years and a BMI of 30 kg/m(2). Using ultrasound, we have a sensitivity of 58%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 70% and an accuracy of 75%. Using MRI, we have a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 83%, a VPN of 88%, and an accuracy of 86%. Transvaginal sonography should be performed before post-menopausal bleeding. It remains possible in the staging of localized cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Tropical anurans mature early and die young: Evidence from eight Afromontane Hyperolius species and a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Age- and size-related life-history traits of anuran amphibians are thought to vary systematically with latitude and altitude. Because the available data base is strongly biased towards temperate-zone species, we provide new estimates on eight afrotropical Reed Frog species. A meta-analysis of the demographic traits in 44 tropical anuran species aims to test for the predicted clinal variation and to contrast results with variation detected in temperate-zone species. The small-sized reed frogs reach sexual maturity during the first or second year of life, but longevity does not exceed three to four years. Latitudinal effects on demographic life-history traits are not detectable in tropical anurans, and altitudinal effects are limited to a slight size reduction at higher elevations. Common features of anuran life-history in the tropics are early sexual maturation at small size and low longevity resulting in low lifetime fecundity. This pattern contrasts with that found in temperate-zone anurans which mature later at larger size and grow considerably older yielding greater lifetime fecundity than in the tropics. Latitudinal and altitudinal contraction of the yearly activity period shape the evolution of life-history traits in the temperate region, while trait variation in the tropics seems to be driven by distinct, not yet identified selective forces. PMID:28182738

  5. Anatomical evaluation of the cervical vertebrae of Wistar rats by means of digital radiographs and its correlation with the maturation stages of human cervical vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Roberto Hiroshi; Castilho, Julio Cezar de Melo; de Moraes, Luiz César; Gomes, Mônica Fernandes; Faltin Júnior, Kurt; Matsui, Miriam Yumi

    2013-01-01

    Biological age is an important parameter for growth and development assessment. It can be evaluated through the observation of radiographic changes in skeletal maturation of cervical vertebrae. This study aims to: a) verify if there is correlation between growth curve and the stages of bone age of animals used in laboratories, by evaluating radiographs of the cervical vertebrae; b) correlate these stages with their correspondents in humans. 35 Wistar rats were evaluated for a period of 160 days, starting at day 22nd (weaning), with cross sections for periodic weighing, length measurement and digital radiography. Radiographs of the cervical vertebrae (C2 and C3) were measured by means of a computer program (Radio IMP). Data were submitted to statistical analysis (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation. Growth spurt was characterized by fast increasing in weight and length. Through ANOVA, differences were observed in the cervical measurements between days 22, 97, 127, 157, 187 and 217 (p <0.001). A high correlation was found between increasing in body length and weight, as well as in cervical vertebrae height (r = 0.86). Increments in concavities of vertebrae were also observed, similar to humans. There is correlation between body growth and maturation of cervical vertebrae in rats. Despite the continuous development of concavities, it was not possible to clearly identify the 5/6 stages as in studies of cervical vertebrae maturation in humans.

  6. A parasitism-mutualism-predation model consisting of crows, cuckoos and cats with stage-structure and maturation delays on crows and cuckoos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Yantao; Zhang, Long; Teng, Zhidong; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a parasitism-mutualism-predation model is proposed to investigate the dynamics of multi-interactions among cuckoos, crows and cats with stage-structure and maturation time delays on cuckoos and crows. The crows permit the cuckoos to parasitize their nestlings (eggs) on the crow chicks (eggs). In return, the cuckoo nestlings produce a malodorous cloacal secretion to protect the crow chicks from predation by the cats, which is apparently beneficial to both the crow and cuckoo population. The multi-interactions, i.e., parasitism and mutualism between the cuckoos (nestlings) and crows (chicks), predation between the cats and crow chicks are modeled both by Holling-type II and Beddington-DeAngelis-type functional responses. The existence of positive equilibria of three subsystems of the model are discussed. The criteria for the global stability of the trivial equilibrium are established by the Krein-Rutman Theorem and other analysis methods. Moreover, the threshold dynamics for the coexistence and weak persistence of the model are obtained, and we show, both analytically and numerically, that the stabilities of the interior equilibria may change with the increasing maturation time delays. We find there exists an evident difference in the dynamical properties of the parasitism-mutualism-predation model based on whether or not we consider the effects of stage-structure and maturation time delays on cuckoos and crows. Inclusion of stage structure results in many varied dynamical complexities which are difficult to encompass without this inclusion.

  7. Functional and hypoglycemic properties of nopal cladodes (O. ficus-indica) at different maturity stages using in vitro and in vivo tests.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-López, María A; Paredes-López, Octavio; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2013-11-20

    Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes are recommended for their therapeutic properties; their maturity stage may affect their biological properties. Cladodes of three maturity stages, from the same crop and location, were dehydrated and evaluated for some of their physicochemical and nutritional characteristics and antidiabetic properties. The flours of small and medium cladodes (SCF and MCF, respectively) had higher contents of dietary fiber, water absorption, swelling, and viscosity compared to those of the large cladode flour (LCF). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, treated with MCF and SCF (doses of 50 mg/kg body weight), showed reduction of postprandial blood glucose on 46.0 and 23.6%, respectively (p < 0.05), in relation to the control; and LCF had no significant effect. In vitro, glucose diffusion tests showed similar ranking by the two former samples, whereas the latter was close to the control. Cladode maturity stages showed different fiber content and produced suspensions with differences in viscosity, which may affect in vitro and in vivo glucose responses.

  8. Cephalometric evaluation of the effects of the Twin Block appliance in subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion amongst different cervical vertebral maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the cephalometric changes in skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue variables induced by Clark's Twin Block (CTB) in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and to compare these changes in different cervical vertebral maturation stages. Pre- and post-treatment/observation lateral cephalograms of 53 Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and 60 controls were compared to evaluate skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes. Skeletal maturity was assessed according to cervical vertebral maturation stages. Pre- and post-treatment/observation mean changes and differences (T2-T1) were compared by means of Wilcoxon sign rank and Mann-Whitney U-tests, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between different cervical stages were performed by means of Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test (p ≤ 0.05) . When compared with controls, there was a significant reduction in ANB angle (p < 0.001), which was due to a change in SNB angle in CS-2 and CS-3 (p < 0.001), and in SNA (p < 0.001) and SNB (p = 0.016) angles in the CS-4 group. There was significant increase in the GoGn-SN angle in CS-2 (p = 0.007) and CS-4 (p = 0.024), and increase in Co-Gn and Go-Gn amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05). There was significant decrease in U1-SN and increase in IMPA amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05). There was significant retraction of the upper lip in CS-3 (p = 0.001), protrusion of the lower lip in CS-2 (p = 0.005), increase in nasolabial angle in CS-4 (p = 0.006) and Z-angle in CS-3 (p = 0.016), reduction in H-angle in CS-2 (p = 0.013) and CS-3 (p = 0.002) groups. When pre- and post-treatment mean differences were compared between different cervical stages, significant differences were found for SNA, SNB and UI-SN angles and overjet. . The Twin-Block along with the normal craniofacial growth improves facial esthetics in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion by changes in underlying skeletal and dentoalveolar structures. The favorable mandibular growth occurs

  9. Cephalometric evaluation of the effects of the Twin Block appliance in subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion amongst different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the cephalometric changes in skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue variables induced by Clark's Twin Block (CTB) in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and to compare these changes in different cervical vertebral maturation stages. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment/observation lateral cephalograms of 53 Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and 60 controls were compared to evaluate skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes. Skeletal maturity was assessed according to cervical vertebral maturation stages. Pre- and post-treatment/observation mean changes and differences (T2-T1) were compared by means of Wilcoxon sign rank and Mann-Whitney U-tests, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between different cervical stages were performed by means of Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test (p ≤ 0.05) . Results: When compared with controls, there was a significant reduction in ANB angle (p < 0.001), which was due to a change in SNB angle in CS-2 and CS-3 (p < 0.001), and in SNA (p < 0.001) and SNB (p = 0.016) angles in the CS-4 group. There was significant increase in the GoGn-SN angle in CS-2 (p = 0.007) and CS-4 (p = 0.024), and increase in Co-Gn and Go-Gn amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05). There was significant decrease in U1-SN and increase in IMPA amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05). There was significant retraction of the upper lip in CS-3 (p = 0.001), protrusion of the lower lip in CS-2 (p = 0.005), increase in nasolabial angle in CS-4 (p = 0.006) and Z-angle in CS-3 (p = 0.016), reduction in H-angle in CS-2 (p = 0.013) and CS-3 (p = 0.002) groups. When pre- and post-treatment mean differences were compared between different cervical stages, significant differences were found for SNA, SNB and UI-SN angles and overjet. . Conclusions: The Twin-Block along with the normal craniofacial growth improves facial esthetics in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion by changes in underlying skeletal and dentoalveolar

  10. Expression signatures of early-stage and advanced medaka melanomas.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Barbara; Kneitz, Susanne; Regensburger, Martina; Hahn, Lena; Dannemann, Michael; Kelso, Janet; Nickel, Birgit; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wesley; Kunz, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Schartl, Manfred

    2018-06-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive tumors with a very low survival rate once metastasized. The incidence of newly detected cases increases every year suggesting the necessity of development and application of innovative treatment strategies. Human melanoma develops from melanocytes localized in the epidermis of the skin to malignant tumors because of deregulated effectors influencing several molecular pathways. Despite many advances in describing the molecular changes accompanying melanoma formation, many critical and clinically relevant molecular features of the transformed pigment cells and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To contribute to a better understanding of the molecular processes of melanoma formation, we use a transgenic medaka melanoma model that is well suited for the investigation of melanoma tumor development because fish and human melanocytes are both localized in the epidermis. The purpose of our study was to gain insights into melanoma development from the first steps of tumor formation up to melanoma progression and to identify gene expression patterns that will be useful for monitoring treatment effects in drug screening approaches. Comparing transcriptomes from juvenile fish at the tumor initiating stage with nevi and advanced melanoma of adults, we identified stage specific expression signatures and pathways that are characteristic for the development of medaka melanoma, and are also found in human malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fully compressible solutions for early stage Richtmyer–Meshkov instability

    DOE PAGES

    Margolin, Len G.; Reisner, Jon Michael

    2016-10-27

    Here, we will consider the effects of compressibility and viscosity on the early dynamics of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI). In particular, we will combine theory, scaling, and high resolution simulation of RMI to probe the details of the initial compression and the subsequent viscous damping as a shock interacts with a density discontinuity. We will propose a refinement of the classic 1D model for the linear regime of RMI that, for small initial perturbation wavelengths, more accurately reproduces the 2D dynamics of a fully resolved numerical simulation.

  12. Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

    2011-01-01

    Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

  13. Correlation among chronologic age, skeletal maturity, and dental age.

    PubMed

    Sukhia, Rashna H; Fida, Mubassar

    2010-01-01

    To determine the correlation among chronologic age, skeletal maturity, and dental age in reference to both sexes. In 380 subjects (147 males and 233 females) between 7 and 17 years of age, skeletal maturity was assessed using the cervical vertebral maturation stages described by Baccetti et al. Dental age was determined using the Demirjian method. The correlation between skeletal maturity and chronologic age on one side and between skeletal maturity and dental age on the other was assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between chronologic and dental age. For both sexes, significant correlations among chronologic age, skeletal maturity, and dental age were found. The mandibular first premolar had the highest correlation with skeletal maturation in both sexes. As skeletal maturity and dental age are significantly correlated, tooth development may be used to assess a patient's skeletal maturity at an early age. © 2011 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  14. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  15. Forward Genetics Defines Xylt1 as a Key, Conserved Regulator of Early Chondrocyte Maturation and Skeletal Length

    PubMed Central

    Mis, Emily K.; Liem, Karel F.; Kong, Yong; Schwartz, Nancy B.; Domowicz, Miriam; Weatherbee, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The long bones of the vertebrate body are built by the initial formation of a cartilage template that is later replaced by mineralized bone. The proliferation and maturation of the skeletal precursor cells (chondrocytes) within the cartilage template and their replacement by bone is a highly coordinated process which, if misregulated, can lead to a number of defects including dwarfism and other skeletal deformities. This is exemplified by the fact that abnormal bone development is one of the most common types of human birth defects. Yet, many of the factors that initiate and regulate chondrocyte maturation are not known. We identified a recessive dwarf mouse mutant (pug) from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. pug mutant skeletal elements are patterned normally during development, but display a ~20% length reduction compared to wild-type embryos. We show that the pug mutation does not lead to changes in chondrocyte proliferation but instead promotes premature maturation and early ossification, which ultimately leads to disproportionate dwarfism. Using sequence capture and high-throughput sequencing, we identified a missense mutation in the Xylosyltransferase 1 (Xylt1) gene in pug mutants. Xylosyltransferases catalyze the initial step in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain addition to proteoglycan core proteins, and these modifications are essential for normal proteoglycan function. We show that the pug mutation disrupts Xylt1 activity and subcellular localization, leading to a reduction in GAG chains in pug mutants. The pug mutant serves as a novel model for mammalian dwarfism and identifies a key role for proteoglycan modification in the initiation of chondrocyte maturation. PMID:24161523

  16. Forward genetics defines Xylt1 as a key, conserved regulator of early chondrocyte maturation and skeletal length.

    PubMed

    Mis, Emily K; Liem, Karel F; Kong, Yong; Schwartz, Nancy B; Domowicz, Miriam; Weatherbee, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    The long bones of the vertebrate body are built by the initial formation of a cartilage template that is later replaced by mineralized bone. The proliferation and maturation of the skeletal precursor cells (chondrocytes) within the cartilage template and their replacement by bone is a highly coordinated process which, if misregulated, can lead to a number of defects including dwarfism and other skeletal deformities. This is exemplified by the fact that abnormal bone development is one of the most common types of human birth defects. Yet, many of the factors that initiate and regulate chondrocyte maturation are not known. We identified a recessive dwarf mouse mutant (pug) from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. pug mutant skeletal elements are patterned normally during development, but display a ~20% length reduction compared to wild-type embryos. We show that the pug mutation does not lead to changes in chondrocyte proliferation but instead promotes premature maturation and early ossification, which ultimately leads to disproportionate dwarfism. Using sequence capture and high-throughput sequencing, we identified a missense mutation in the Xylosyltransferase 1 (Xylt1) gene in pug mutants. Xylosyltransferases catalyze the initial step in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain addition to proteoglycan core proteins, and these modifications are essential for normal proteoglycan function. We show that the pug mutation disrupts Xylt1 activity and subcellular localization, leading to a reduction in GAG chains in pug mutants. The pug mutant serves as a novel model for mammalian dwarfism and identifies a key role for proteoglycan modification in the initiation of chondrocyte maturation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Macular micropseudocysts in early stages of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Gemma; Pierro, Luisa; de Benedetto, Umberto; Margari, Sergio; Gagliardi, Marco; Maestranzi, Gisella; Calori, Giliola; Lorenzi, Mara; Lattanzio, Rosangela

    2011-01-01

    To identify by noninvasive means early retinal abnormalities that may predict diabetic macular edema. The authors analyzed retrospectively data from consecutive patients with Type 1 (n = 16) or Type 2 (n = 23) diabetes who presented for routine follow-up of early retinopathy, had no clinical signs or symptoms of diabetic macular edema, and were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Age- and gender-matched nondiabetic subjects provided normative data. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed in the macular region of diabetic patients small hyporeflective areas (median diameter, 55 μm) contained within discrete retinal layers that we named micropseudocysts (MPCs). Micropseudocysts are associated with vascular leakage. The patients showing MPCs had more frequently systemic hypertension and increased central foveal thickness than those without MPCs. The association with increased central foveal thickness was only in the patients with Type 2 diabetes. Macular MPCs in patients with mild diabetic retinopathy appear to reflect leakage and can precede macular thickening. The association of MPCs with increased central foveal thickness in patients with Type 2 diabetes, but not in patients with Type 1 diabetes, points to a greater tendency to retinal fluid accumulation in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Studies in larger cohorts will determine the usefulness of MPCs in strategies to abort diabetic macular edema.

  18. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO 2 as well as N 2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’more » ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  19. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO 2 as well as N 2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’more » ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  20. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  1. Flexibility in Early Stage Design of U. S. Navy Ships: An Analysis of Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Flexibility in Early Stage Design of US Navy Ships: An Analysis of Options by Jonathan Page B.S., Systems Engineering, US Naval Academy, 2002...8217C/ v = (;!;!: ;: Pat Hale Director, Systems Design and Ma~ement Fellows Program E~i_yfering.S~~pivi~i~ Acceptedby...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flexibility in Early Stage Design of U. S. Navy Ships: An

  2. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms."

  3. Exploring the Early Organization and Maturation of Linguistic Pathways in the Human Infant Brain.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jessica; Poupon, Cyril; Thirion, Bertrand; Simonnet, Hina; Kulikova, Sofya; Leroy, François; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2016-05-01

    Linguistic processing is based on a close collaboration between temporal and frontal regions connected by two pathways: the "dorsal" and "ventral pathways" (assumed to support phonological and semantic processing, respectively, in adults). We investigated here the development of these pathways at the onset of language acquisition, during the first post-natal weeks, using cross-sectional diffusion imaging in 21 healthy infants (6-22 weeks of age) and 17 young adults. We compared the bundle organization and microstructure at these two ages using tractography and original clustering analyses of diffusion tensor imaging parameters. We observed structural similarities between both groups, especially concerning the dorsal/ventral pathway segregation and the arcuate fasciculus asymmetry. We further highlighted the developmental tempos of the linguistic bundles: The ventral pathway maturation was more advanced than the dorsal pathway maturation, but the latter catches up during the first post-natal months. Its fast development during this period might relate to the learning of speech cross-modal representations and to the first combinatorial analyses of the speech input. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  5. Tiotropium in Early-Stage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumin; Zhong, Nan-Shan; Li, Xiaochen; Chen, Shuyun; Zheng, Jinping; Zhao, Dongxing; Yao, Weimin; Zhi, Rongchang; Wei, Liping; He, Bingwen; Zhang, Xiangyan; Yang, Changli; Li, Ying; Li, Fenglei; Du, Juan; Gui, Jianping; Hu, Bin; Bai, Chunxue; Huang, Ping; Chen, Gang; Xu, Yongjian; Wang, Changzheng; Liang, Biao; Li, Yinhuan; Hu, Guoping; Tan, Hui; Ye, Xianwei; Ma, Xitao; Chen, Yan; Hu, Xiwei; Tian, Jia; Zhu, Xiaodan; Shi, Zhe; Du, Xiufang; Li, Minjing; Liu, Shengming; Yu, Ronghuan; Zhao, Jianping; Ma, Qianli; Xie, Canmao; Li, Xiongbin; Chen, Tao; Lin, Yingxiang; Zeng, Lizhen; Ye, Changxiu; Ye, Weishu; Luo, Xiangwen; Zeng, Lingshan; Yu, Shuqing; Guan, Wei-Jie; Ran, Pixin

    2017-09-07

    Patients with mild or moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rarely receive medications, because they have few symptoms. We hypothesized that long-term use of tiotropium would improve lung function and ameliorate the decline in lung function in patients with mild or moderate COPD. In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that was conducted in China, we randomly assigned 841 patients with COPD of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 1 (mild) or 2 (moderate) severity to receive a once-daily inhaled dose (18 μg) of tiotropium (419 patients) or matching placebo (422) for 2 years. The primary end point was the between-group difference in the change from baseline to 24 months in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) before bronchodilator use. Secondary end points included the between-group difference in the change from baseline to 24 months in the FEV 1 after bronchodilator use and the between-group difference in the annual decline in the FEV 1 before and after bronchodilator use from day 30 to month 24. Of 841 patients who underwent randomization, 388 patients in the tiotropium group and 383 in the placebo group were included in the full analysis set. The FEV 1 in patients who received tiotropium was higher than in those who received placebo throughout the trial (ranges of mean differences, 127 to 169 ml before bronchodilator use and 71 to 133 ml after bronchodilator use; P<0.001 for all comparisons). There was no significant amelioration of the mean (±SE) annual decline in the FEV 1 before bronchodilator use: the decline was 38±6 ml per year in the tiotropium group and 53±6 ml per year in the placebo group (difference, 15 ml per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1 to 31; P=0.06). In contrast, the annual decline in the FEV 1 after bronchodilator use was significantly less in the tiotropium group than in the placebo group (29±5 ml per year vs. 51±6 ml per year; difference, 22

  6. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  7. Current developments in the treatment of early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Borchmann, Sven; von Tresckow, Bastian; Engert, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    After presenting the current treatment recommendations for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, we give an overview on recently published clinical trials in this setting. Furthermore, the potential influence of current trials on the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma and integration of newly emerging drugs into treatment protocols will be discussed. Trials attempting treatment de-escalation and omission of radiotherapy on the basis of early interim PET-scans have been disappointing so far, but results of some large trials employing this strategy are still awaited. In contrast, a more defensive strategy of starting treatment with less aggressive doxorubicine, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy and intensifying treatment in early interim PET-positive patients has shown encouraging results. New drugs such as brentuximab vedotin and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising results in relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical trials of brentuximab vedotin in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma have been initiated. Additionally, biomarker-based treatment de-escalation might be a possible route for future improvements. The challenge for future clinical research in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma is to continue to cure the majority of patients with first-line treatment while reducing long-term toxicity. New strategies to achieve that goal are currently being developed and will further refine treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

  8. Significance of mediastinal involvement in early stage Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mauch, P.; Goodman, R.; Hellman, S.

    1978-09-01

    Between April 1969 and December 1974, 111 consecutive surgically staged I A and II A patients with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease were treated at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy. Patients received 3600 to 4400 rad to mantle and para-aortic--splenic pedicle regions. Median follow-up was 56 months. Fourteen patients developed relapsing Hodgkin's disease and three patients died of possible treatment-related causes, two with acute myocardial infarctions and one with radiation pneumonitis. Patients with mediastinal enlargement greater than one third of the chest diameter have a significantly higher risk (p < 0.01) of developing relapse (9 of 18) than patients with lessermore » or no mediastinal disease (5 of 93). Of the 18 patients with large mediastinal disease, six relapsed in the mediastinum and two in the lung. There continue to be no pelvic extensions in the entire group. There is a 92% relapse-free and 97% overall survival in the 93 patients without extensive mediastinal disease. We continue to recommend mantle and para-aortic--splenic pedicle irradiation for these patients. In view of the large number of relapses in patients with extensive mediastinal disease, we are now treating this subgroup of patients with MOPP chemotherapy in addition to mantle and para-aortic irradiation.« less

  9. Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Neri, Franco M.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible–infected–removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

  10. Slowdown of surface diffusion during early stages of bacterial colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourc'h, T.; Peerhossaini, H.; Léopoldès, J.; Méjean, A.; Chauvat, F.; Cassier-Chauvat, C.

    2018-03-01

    We study the surface diffusion of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 during the incipient stages of cell contact with a glass surface in the dilute regime. We observe a twitching motility with alternating immobile tumble and mobile run periods, resulting in a normal diffusion described by a continuous-time random walk with a coefficient of diffusion D . Surprisingly, D is found to decrease with time down to a plateau. This is observed only when the cyanobacterial cells are able to produce released extracellular polysaccharides, as shown by a comparative study between the wild-type strain and various polysaccharides-depleted mutants. The analysis of the trajectories taken by the bacterial cells shows that the temporal characteristics of their intermittent motion depend on the instantaneous fraction of visited sites during diffusion. This describes quantitatively the time dependence of D , related to the progressive surface coverage by the polysaccharides. The observed slowdown of the surface diffusion may constitute a basic precursor mechanism for microcolony formation and provides clues for controlling biofilm formation.

  11. Cost analysis of adjuvant management strategies in early stage (stage I) testicular seminoma

    PubMed Central

    Cox, John A; Gajjar, Shefali R; Lanni, Thomas B; Swanson, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Background Acceptable post-orchiectomy adjuvant therapy strategies for stage I seminoma patients include surveillance, para-aortic radiation therapy (RT), dog-leg RT, and a single cycle of carboplatin. The required follow-up recommendations were amended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) in 2012. Given a cause-specific survival of nearly 100%, a closer analysis of the reimbursement for each treatment strategy is warranted. Methods NCCN guidelines were used to design treatment plans for each acceptable adjuvant treatment strategy. Follow-up charges were generated for 10 years based on 2012 (version 1.2012; unchanged in current version 1.2013) and 2011 NCCN (version 2.2011) surveillance recommendations. The 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates were used to calculate each treatment strategy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to compare the treatment options. Results Under the current NCCN follow-up recommendations, the total reimbursements generated over 10 years of surveillance, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin were $10,643, $11,678, $9,662, and $10,405, respectively. This is compared with the reimbursements as per the 2011 NCCN recommendations: $20,986, $11,517, $9,394, and $20,365 respectively. Factoring the rates of relapse into a salvage model, observation was found to be more costly and less effective ($–1,831, $−7,318, $–7,010) in the adjuvant management of stage I seminoma patients Conclusion Based on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin are cost-effective options for the treatment of stage I seminoma when compared with observation; however, surveillance could potentially spare as many as 80%–85% of men diagnosed with stage I seminoma from additional therapy after radical inguinal orchiectomy. Such cost and reimbursement analyses are becoming increasingly relevant, but are not meant to usurp sound clinical judgment. Further studies are required to validate these findings

  12. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  13. Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

  14. 13 CFR 107.1181 - Interest reserve requirements for Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Binding unfunded commitments from your Institutional Investors that cannot be called for any purpose other... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest reserve requirements for... Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1181 Interest reserve requirements for Early...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1181 - Interest reserve requirements for Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Binding unfunded commitments from your Institutional Investors that cannot be called for any purpose other... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest reserve requirements for... Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1181 Interest reserve requirements for Early...

  16. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  17. Influence of hope, social support, and self-esteem in early stage dementia.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Valerie T; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W; Fisher, Kathleen; Richards, Kathy C

    2018-02-01

    Background People in the early stages of dementia adjust to the illness through stages of awareness, coping, and evaluation. Studies have found that hope, social support, and self-esteem facilitate coping, adjustment, and adaptation in chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationships between hope, social support, and self-esteem in individuals with early stage dementia. Methods Data were obtained from 53 individuals with early stage dementia. The scores on the Herth Hope Index, Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and the State Self-Esteem Scale were analyzed using linear regression. Results Hope was moderately associated with self-esteem ( r = .49, p < .001). Hope accounted for 25% of the variance in self-esteem and was a key component in predicting self-esteem. No significant relationship was found between social support and self-esteem. Conclusion Findings suggest that hope may be an important factor to help individuals manage potential threats to self-esteem in the experience of early stage dementia. Strategies to inspire hope and then enhance self-esteem are promising for individuals living with early stage dementia.

  18. [Aging affects early stage direction selectivity of MT cells in rhesus monkeys].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhen; Chen, Yue-Ming; Meng, Xue; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Bao-Zhuo; Xie, Ying-Ying; He, Wen-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    The middle temporal area (MT/V5) plays an important role in motion processing. Neurons in this area have a strongly selective response to the moving direction of objects and as such, the selectivity of MT neurons was proposed to be a neural mechanism for the perception of motion. Our previous studies have found degradation in direction selectivity of MT neurons in old monkeys, but this direction selectivity was calculated during the whole response time and the results were not able to uncover the mechanism of motion perception over a time course. Furthermore, experiments have found that direction selectivity was enhanced by attention at a later stage. Therefore, the response should be excluded in experiments with anesthesia. To further characterize the neural mechanism over a time course, we investigated the age-related changes of direction selectivity in the early stage by comparing the proportions of direction selective MT cells in old and young macaque monkeys using in vivo single-cell recording techniques. Our results show that the proportion of early-stage-direction-selective cells is lower in old monkeys than in young monkeys, and that the early stage direction bias (esDB) of old MT cells decreased relative to young MT cells. Furthermore, the proportion of MT cells having strong early stage direction selectivity in old monkeys was decreased. Accordingly, the functional degradation in the early stage of MT cells may mediate perceptual declines of old primates in visual motion tasks.

  19. Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than the late-diverged population, and that trait differences acquired early are maintained over time. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  1. Efficient harvesting methods for early-stage snake and turtle embryos.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Reptile development is an intriguing research target for understating the unique morphogenesis of reptiles as well as the evolution of vertebrates. However, there are numerous difficulties associated with studying development in reptiles. The number of available reptile eggs is usually quite limited. In addition, the reptile embryo is tightly adhered to the eggshell, making it a challenge to isolate reptile embryos intact. Furthermore, there have been few reports describing efficient procedures for isolating intact embryos especially prior to pharyngula stage. Thus, the aim of this review is to present efficient procedures for obtaining early-stage reptilian embryos intact. We first describe the method for isolating early-stage embryos of the Japanese striped snake. This is the first detailed method for obtaining embryos prior to oviposition in oviparous snake species. Second, we describe an efficient strategy for isolating early-stage embryos of the soft-shelled turtle. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  2. Methods for Surgical Targeting of the STN in Early-Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Camalier, Corrie R.; Konrad, Peter E.; Gill, Chandler E.; Kao, Chris; Remple, Michael R.; Nasr, Hana M.; Davis, Thomas L.; Hedera, Peter; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Molinari, Anna L.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Charles, David

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience progressive neurological decline, and future interventional therapies are thought to show most promise in early stages of the disease. There is much interest in therapies that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with surgical access. While locating STN in advanced disease patients (Hoehn–Yahr Stage III or IV) is well understood and routinely performed at many centers in the context of deep brain stimulation surgery, the ability to identify this nucleus in early-stage patients has not previously been explored in a sizeable cohort. We report surgical methods used to target the STN in 15 patients with early PD (Hoehn–Yahr Stage II), using a combination of image guided surgery, microelectrode recordings, and clinical responses to macrostimulation of the region surrounding the STN. Measures of electrophysiology (firing rates and root mean squared activity) have previously been found to be lower than in later-stage patients, however, the patterns of electrophysiology seen and dopamimetic macrostimulation effects are qualitatively similar to those seen in advanced stages. Our experience with surgical implantation of Parkinson’s patients with minimal motor symptoms suggest that it remains possible to accurately target the STN in early-stage PD using traditional methods. PMID:24678307

  3. [An unexpected stage of alkalosis in the dynamics of the early posthemorrhagic period].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, A V

    2000-01-01

    A study was made on acid-base metabolism in early posthemorrhagic period as exemplified by examination of patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It has been ascertained that hemorrhage is accompanied by a mixed variant of the acid-base state (ABS) deviation, namely metabolic lactate-acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. In the time-related course of posthemorrhagic period such deviations persist in patients with lethal outcome; with the disease running a favourable course the above deviations are found to return to normal quite soon. The development of complications leads to staging in ABC, its stages being as follows: stage I--the initial stage, stage II--persisting metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis, stage III--alkalosis, stage IV--normalization, with stage III of ABS being encouraged by hypocapnia caused by function disorders of the lungs in early posthemorrhagic period, normalization of cell metabolism, increase in the rate of urination as a reflection of the third earlier identified stage of water metabolism, with the H+ excretion in the urine at the previous level. The identified ABS stage III threatens coming trouble, being accompanied by metabolic deviations together with a risk of function disorder of the myocardium.

  4. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  5. Urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases: current status and perspective.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Gao, Youhe

    2018-02-01

    As a noninvasive and easily available biological fluid, the urine is becoming an important source for disease biomarker study. Change is essential for the usefulness of a biomarker. Without homeostasis mechanisms, urine can accommodate more changes, especially in the early stages of diseases. In this review, we summarize current status and discuss perspectives on the discovery of urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases. We emphasize the advantages of urine biomarkers compared to plasma biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases at early stages, propose a urine biomarker research roadmap, and highlight a novel membrane storage technique that enables large-scale urine sample collection and storage efficiently and economically. It is anticipated that urine biomarker studies will greatly promote early diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of a variety of diseases, and provide strong support for translational and precision medicine.

  6. Short wavelength Raman spectroscopy applied to the discrimination and characterization of three cultivars of extra virgin olive oils in different maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Gouvinhas, Irene; Machado, Nelson; Carvalho, Teresa; de Almeida, José M M M; Barros, Ana I R N A

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oils produced from three cultivars on different maturation stages were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. Chemometric methods (principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, principal component regression and partial least squares regression) applied to Raman spectral data were utilized to evaluate and quantify the statistical differences between cultivars and their ripening process. The models for predicting the peroxide value and free acidity of olive oils showed good calibration and prediction values and presented high coefficients of determination (>0.933). Both the R(2), and the correlation equations between the measured chemical parameters, and the values predicted by each approach are presented; these comprehend both PCR and PLS, used to assess SNV normalized Raman data, as well as first and second derivative of the spectra. This study demonstrates that a combination of Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis methods can be useful to predict rapidly olive oil chemical characteristics during the maturation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs. PMID:22645430

  8. LOX Gene transcript accumulation in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits at different stages of maturation: relationship between volatile compounds, environmental factors, and technological treatments for oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  9. Living with early-stage dementia: a review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Steeman, Els; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Godderis, Jan; Grypdonck, Mieke

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a literature review whose aim was to provide better understanding of living with early-stage dementia. Even in the early stages, dementia may challenge quality of life. Research on early-stage dementia is mainly in the domain of biomedical aetiology and pathology, providing little understanding of what it means to live with dementia. Knowledge of the lived experience of having dementia is important in order to focus pro-active care towards enhancing quality of life. Qualitative research is fundamentally well suited to obtaining an insider's view of living with early-stage dementia. We performed a meta-synthesis of qualitative research findings. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and reviewed the papers cited in the references of pertinent articles, the references cited in a recently published book on the subjective experience of dementia, one thesis, and the journal Dementia. Thirty-three pertinent articles were identified, representing 28 separate studies and 21 different research samples. Findings were coded, grouped, compared and integrated. Living with dementia is described from the stage a person discovers the memory impairment, through the stage of being diagnosed with dementia, to that of the person's attempts to integrate the impairment into everyday life. Memory loss often threatens perceptions of security, autonomy and being a meaningful member of society. At early stages of memory loss, individuals use self-protecting and self-adjusting strategies to deal with perceived changes and threats. However, the memory impairment itself may make it difficult for an individual to deal with these changes, thereby causing frustration, uncertainty and fear. Our analysis supports the integration of proactive care into the diagnostic process, because even early-stage dementia may challenge quality of life. Moreover, this care should actively involve both the individual with dementia and their family so that both parties can adjust positively

  10. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Frielink, Lindy M J; Pijlman, Brenda M; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The percentage of patients that received adjuvant chemotherapy was determined as well as the comprehensiveness of staging and outcome. Forty percent (54/135) of the patients with early-stage EOC received adjuvant chemotherapy. Treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with FIGO stage, clear-cell histology and nonoptimal staging. Optimal staging was achieved in 50%, and nonoptimal staging was associated with advanced age, comorbidity and treatment in a non-referral hospital. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy. Yet, in grade 3 tumors, adjuvant chemotherapy seems beneficial. Selective treatment of patients with early-stage EOC might reduce adjuvant chemotherapy without compromising outcome. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Opposite Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice Depending on Fruit Maturity Stage on Gastrointestinal Physiological Parameters in Rat.

    PubMed

    Rtibi, Kais; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-06-01

    The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α- 2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α- 2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), and loperamide (5 mg kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). In vivo reverse effect of juice on GI physiological parameters was investigated using a charcoal meal test, phenol-red colorimetric method, loperamide-induced acute constipation, and castor oil-caused small-bowel hypersecretion. However, the opposite in vitro influence of juice on intestinal permeability homeostasis was assessed by the Ussing chamber system. Mature prickly pear juice administration stimulated significantly and dose dependently the GI transit (GIT; 8-26%) and gastric emptying (0.9-11%) in a rat model. Conversely, the immature prickly pear juice reduced gastric emptying (7-23%), GIT (10-28%), and diarrhea (59-88%). Moreover, the standard drugs have produced their antagonistic effects on GI physiological functions. The permeability of the isolated perfused rat small-intestine has a paradoxical response flowing prickly pear juices administration at diverse doses and maturity grade. Most importantly, the quantitative phytochemical analyses of both juices showed a different composition depending on the degree of maturity. In conclusion, the prickly pear juice at two distinct phases of maturity has different phytochemical characteristics and opposite effects on GI physiological actions in rat.

  13. Early Childhood Depression and Alterations in the Trajectory of Gray Matter Maturation in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Jackson, Joshua J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Harms, Michael P; Tillman, Rebecca; Botteron, Kelly; Whalen, Diana; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    The trajectory of cortical gray matter development in childhood has been characterized by early neurogenesis and volume increase, peaking at puberty followed by selective elimination and myelination, resulting in volume loss and thinning. This inverted U-shaped trajectory, as well as cortical thickness, has been associated with cognitive and emotional function. Synaptic pruning-based volume decline has been related to experience-dependent plasticity in animals. To date, there have been no data to inform whether and how childhood depression might be associated with this trajectory. To examine the effects of early childhood depression, from the preschool age to the school age period, on cortical gray matter development measured across 3 waves of neuroimaging from late school age to early adolescence. Data were collected in an academic research setting from September 22, 2003, to December 13, 2014, on 193 children aged 3 to 6 years from the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were observed for up to 11 years in a longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study of childhood depression. Multilevel modeling was applied to explore the association between the number of childhood depression symptoms and prior diagnosis of major depressive disorder and the trajectory of gray matter change across 3 scan waves. Data analysis was conducted from October 29, 2014, to September 28, 2015. Volume, thickness, and surface area of cortical gray matter measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 scan waves. Of the 193 children, 90 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder; 116 children had 3 full waves of neuroimaging scans. Findings demonstrated marked alterations in cortical gray matter volume loss (slope estimate, -0.93 cm³; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.10 cm³ per scan wave) and thinning (slope estimate, -0.0044 mm; 95% CI, -0.0077 to -0.0012 mm per scan wave) associated with experiencing an episode of major depressive disorder before the first magnetic resonance

  14. The early mature part of bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) precursor proteins contributes to TatBC receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, Agnes; Freudl, Roland

    2018-05-11

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across bacterial membranes. Tat precursor proteins possess a conserved twin-arginine (RR) motif in their signal peptides that is involved in the binding of the proteins to the membrane-associated TatBC receptor complex. In addition, the hydrophobic region in the Tat signal peptides also contributes to TatBC binding, but whether regions beyond the signal-peptide cleavage site are involved in this process is unknown. Here, we analyzed the contribution of the early mature protein part of the Escherichia coli trimethylamine N -oxide reductase (TorA) to productive TatBC receptor binding. We identified substitutions in the 30 amino acids immediately following the TorA signal peptide (30aa-region) that restored export of a transport-defective TorA[KQ]-30aa-MalE precursor, in which the RR residues had been replaced by a lysine-glutamine pair. Some of these substitutions increased the hydrophobicity of the N-terminal part of the 30aa-region and thereby likely enhanced hydrophobic substrate-receptor interactions within the hydrophobic TatBC substrate-binding cavity. Another class of substitutions increased the positive net charge of the region's C-terminal part, presumably leading to strengthened electrostatic interactions between the mature substrate part and the cytoplasmic TatBC regions. Furthermore, we identified substitutions in the C-terminal domains of TatB following the transmembrane segment that restored transport of various transport-defective TorA-MalE derivatives. Some of these substitutions most likely affected the orientation or conformation of the flexible, carboxy-proximal helices of TatB. Therefore, we propose that a tight accommodation of the folded mature region by TatB contributes to productive binding of Tat substrates to TatBC. © 2018 Ulfig and Freudl.

  15. Mothers' Knowledge of Early Adolescents' Activities following the Middle School Transition and Pubertal Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…

  16. Maturation, Peer Context, and Indigenous Girls' Early-Onset Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Melissa L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a biosocial model of the impact of puberty on indigenous girls' early-onset substance use by considering the potential mediating role of peer context (i.e., mixed-sex peer groups and substance use prototypes) on the puberty and substance use relationship. Data include responses from 360 girls of a common indigenous cultural…

  17. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  18. The Role of Microfilaments in Early Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calarco, Patricia G.

    2005-04-01

    Mouse oocyte microfilaments (MF) were perturbed by depolymerization (cytochalasin B) or stabilization (jasplakinolide) and correlated meiotic defects examined by confocal microscopy. MF, microtubules, and mitochondria were vitally stained; centrosomes ([gamma]-tubulin), after fixation. MF depolymerization by cytochalasin in culture medium did not affect central migration of centrosomes, mitochondria, or nuclear breakdown (GVBD); some MF signal was localized around the germinal vesicle (GV). In maturation-blocking medium (containing IBMX), central movement was curtailed and cortical MF aggregations made the plasma membrane wavy. Occasional long MF suggested that not all MF were depolymerized. MF stabilization by jasplakinolide led to MF aggregations throughout the cytoplasm. GVBD occurred (unless IBMX was present) but no spindle formed. Over time, most oocytes constricted creating a dumbbell shape with MF concentrated under one-half of the oocyte cortex and on either side of the constriction. In IBMX medium, the MF-containing half of the dumbbell over time sequestered the GV, MF, mitochondria, and one to two large cortical centrosomes; the non-MF half appeared empty. Cumulus processes contacted the oocyte surface (detected by microtubule content) and mirrored MF distribution. Results demonstrated that MF play an essential role in meiosis, primarily through cortically mediated events, including centrosome localization, spindle (or GV) movement to the periphery, activation of (polar body) constriction, and establishment of oocyte polarity. The presence of a cortical “organizing pole” is hypothesized.

  19. Dental maturational sequence and dental tissue proportions in the early Upper Paleolithic child from Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Bayle, Priscilla; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Trinkaus, Erik; Duarte, Cidália; Mazurier, Arnaud; Zilhão, João

    2010-01-01

    Neandertals differ from recent and terminal Pleistocene human populations in their patterns of dental development, endostructural (internal structure) organization, and relative tissue proportions. Although significant changes in craniofacial and postcranial morphology have been found between the Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic modern humans of western Eurasia and the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene inhabitants of the same region, most studies of dental maturation and structural morphology have compared Neandertals only to later Holocene humans. To assess whether earlier modern humans contrasted with later modern populations and possibly approached the Neandertal pattern, we used high-resolution microtomography to analyze the remarkably complete mixed dentition of the early Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian) child from Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, and compared it to a Neandertal sample, the late Upper Paleolithic (Magdalenian) child of La Madeleine, and a worldwide extant human sample. Some aspects of the dental maturational pattern and tooth endostructural organization of Lagar Velho 1 are absent from extant populations and the Magdalenian specimen and are currently documented only among Neandertals. Therefore, a simple Neandertal versus modern human dichotomy is inadequate to accommodate the morphostructural and developmental variation represented by Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic populations. These data reinforce the complex nature of Neandertal-modern human similarities and differences, and document ongoing human evolution after the global establishment of modern human morphology. PMID:20080622

  20. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha W; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-06-12

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4-5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake.

  1. Early reproductive maturity among Pumé foragers: Implications of a pooled energy model to fast life histories.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D; Ellison, Peter T

    2009-01-01

    Life history theory places central importance on relationships between ontogeny, reproduction, and mortality. Fast human life histories have been theoretically and empirically associated with high mortality regimes. This relationship, however, poses an unanswered question about energy allocation. In epidemiologically stressful environments, a greater proportion of energy is allocated to immune function. If growth and maintenance are competing energetic expenditures, less energy should be available for growth, and the mechanism to sustain rapid maturation remains unclear. The human pattern of extended juvenile provisioning and resource sharing may provide an important source of variation in energy availability not predicted by tradeoff models that assume independence at weaning. We consider a group of South American foragers to evaluate the effects that pooled energy budgets may have on early reproduction. Despite growing up in an environment with distinct seasonal under-nutrition, harsh epidemiological conditions, and no health care, Pumé girls mature quickly and initiate childbearing in their midteens. Pooled energy budgets compensate for the low productivity of girls not only through direct food transfers but importantly by reducing energy they would otherwise expend in foraging activities to meet metabolic requirements. We suggest that pooled energy budgets affect energy availability at both extrinsic and intrinsic levels. Because energy budgets are pooled, Pumé girls and young women are buffered from environmental downturns and can maximize energy allocated to growth completion and initiate reproduction earlier than a traditional bound-energy model would predict. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Maturation of the growth axis in marsupials occurs gradually during post-natal life and over an equivalent developmental stage relative to eutherian species.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoffrey; Fletcher, Terry P; Pask, Andrew J; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2012-02-26

    The separation of a nutrition-responsive insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and a growth hormone (GH) responsive IGF system to control pre- and post-natal growth of developing mammals may originate from the constraints imposed by intra-uterine development. In eutherian species that deliver relatively precocial young, maturation of the GH regulatory system is coincident with the time of birth. We measured the hepatic expression of the four key growth axis genes GH-receptor, IGF-1 and -2, and IGFBBP-3, and plasma protein concentrations of IGF-1 from late fetal life through to adult stages of a marsupial, the tammar wallaby. The data clearly show that maturation of GH-regulated growth in marsupials occurs gradually over the course of post-natal life at an equivalent developmental stage to that of precocial eutherian mammals. This suggests that the timing of GH-regulated growth in marsupials is not related to parturition but instead to the relative developmental stage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of chronic crude oil exposure on early developmental stages of the Northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica).

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Maj; Moodley, Leon; Dunaevskaya, Evgenia; Ramanand, Sreerekha; Ingvarsdóttir, Anna; Nilsen, Marianne; Ravagnan, Elisa; Westerlund, Stig; Sanni, Steinar; Tarling, Geraint A; Bechmann, Renée K

    2017-01-01

    Rising oil and gas activities in northern high latitudes have led to an increased risk of petroleum pollution in these ecosystems. Further, seasonal high UV radiation at high latitudes may elevate photo-enhanced toxicity of petroleum pollution to marine organisms. Zooplanktons are a key ecological component of northern ecosystems; therefore, it is important to assess their sensitivity to potential pollutants of oil and gas activity. As ontogenetic development may be particularly sensitive, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of chronic exposure to oil water dispersion (OWD) on development and feeding of early life stages of the Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica. In a range of experiments, embryonic, nonfeeding, and feeding larval stages were exposed to concentrations of between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L of oil or photo-modified oil for 19 and 21 d. No significant effects on egg respiration, hatching success, development, length and larval survival were observed from these treatments. Similarly, evolution of fatty acid composition patterns during ontogenetic development was unaffected. The results indicates a high degree of resilience of these early developmental stages to such types and concentrations of pollutants. However, feeding and motility in later calyptopis-stage larvae were significantly impaired at exposure of 0.1 mg/L oil. Data indicate that feeding larval stage of krill was more sensitive to OWD than early nonfeeding life stages. This might be attributed to the narcotic effects of oil pollutants, their direct ingestion, or accumulated adverse effects over early development.

  4. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  5. Structural neuroimaging across early-stage psychosis: Aberrations in neurobiological trajectories and implications for the staging model.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Cropley, Vanessa L; Wannan, Cassandra; Di Biase, Maria; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2017-05-01

    This review critically examines the structural neuroimaging evidence in psychotic illness, with a focus on longitudinal imaging across the first-episode psychosis and ultra-high-risk of psychosis illness stages. A thorough search of the literature involving specifically longitudinal neuroimaging in early illness stages of psychosis was conducted. The evidence supporting abnormalities in brain morphology and altered neurodevelopmental trajectories is discussed in the context of a clinical staging model. In general, grey matter (and, to a lesser extent, white matter) declines across multiple frontal, temporal (especially superior regions), insular and parietal regions during the first episode of psychosis, which has a steeper trajectory than that of age-matched healthy counterparts. Although the ultra-high-risk of psychosis literature is considerably mixed, evidence indicates that certain volumetric structural aberrations predate psychotic illness onset (e.g. prefrontal cortex thinning), while other abnormalities present in ultra-high-risk of psychosis populations are potentially non-psychosis-specific (e.g. hippocampal volume reductions). We highlight the advantages of longitudinal designs, discuss the implications such studies have on clinical staging and provide directions for future research.

  6. EGFR mutations in early-stage and advanced-stage lung adenocarcinoma: Analysis based on large-scale data from China.

    PubMed

    Pi, Can; Xu, Chong-Rui; Zhang, Ming-Feng; Peng, Xiao-Xiao; Wei, Xue-Wu; Gao, Xing; Yan, Hong-Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2018-05-02

    EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors play an important role in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR mutations in advanced NSCLC occur in approximately 35% of Asian patients and 60% of patients with adenocarcinoma. However, the frequency and type of EGFR mutations in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma remain unclear. We retrospectively collected data on patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma tested for EGFR mutation. Early stage was defined as pathological stage IA-IIIA after radical lung cancer surgery, and advanced stage was defined as clinical stage IIIB without the opportunity for curative treatment or stage IV according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual, 7th edition. A total of 1699 patients were enrolled in this study from May 2014 to May 2016; 750 were assigned to the early-stage and 949 to the advanced-stage group. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were balanced, except that there were more smokers in the advanced-stage group (P < 0.001). The total EGFR mutation rate in the early-stage group was similar to that in the advanced-stage group (53.6% vs. 51.4%, respectively; P = 0.379). There was no significant difference in EGFR mutation type between the two groups. In subgroup analysis of smoking history, there was no difference in EGFR mutation frequency or type between the early-stage and advanced-stage groups. Early-stage and advanced-stage groups exhibited the same EGFR mutation frequencies and types. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Early-stage valuation of medical devices: the role of developmental uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Girling, Alan; Young, Terry; Brown, Celia; Lilford, Richard

    2010-08-01

    At the concept stage, many uncertainties surround the commercial viability of a new medical device. These include the ultimate functionality of the device, the cost of producing it and whether, and at what price, it can be sold to a health-care provider (HCP). Simple assessments of value can be made by estimating such unknowns, but the levels of uncertainty may mean that their operational value for investment decisions is unclear. However, many decisions taken at the concept stage are reversible and will be reconsidered later before the product is brought to market. This flexibility can be exploited to enhance early-stage valuations. To develop a framework for valuing a new medical device at the concept stage that balances benefit to the HCP against commercial costs. This is done within a simplified stage-gated model of the development cycle for new products. The approach is intended to complement existing proposals for the evaluation of the commercial headroom available to new medical products. A model based on two decision gates can lead to lower bounds (underestimates) for product value that can serve to support a decision to develop the product. Quantifiable uncertainty that can be resolved before the device is brought to market will generally enhance early-stage valuations of the device, and this remains true even when some components of uncertainty cannot be fully described. Clinical trials and other evidence-gathering activities undertaken as part of the development process can contribute to early-stage estimates of value.

  8. Large-scale Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Potential Biomarkers for Early Stage Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueqin; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Wei; Li, Kang; Yu, Bo; Sun, Meng

    2017-09-18

    Coronary atherosclerosis (CAS) is the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, which is a prevalent and chronic life-threatening disease. Initially, this disease is not always detected until a patient presents with seriously vascular occlusion. Therefore, new biomarkers for appropriate and timely diagnosis of early CAS is needed for screening to initiate therapy on time. In this study, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify potential biomarkers that could enable highly sensitive and specific CAS detection. Score plots from partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated early-stage CAS patients from controls. Meanwhile, the levels of 24 metabolites increased greatly and those of 18 metabolites decreased markedly in early CAS patients compared with the controls, which suggested significant metabolic dysfunction in phospholipid, sphingolipid, and fatty acid metabolism in the patients. Furthermore, binary logistic regression showed that nine metabolites could be used as a combinatorial biomarker to distinguish early-stage CAS patients from controls. The panel of nine metabolites was then tested with an independent cohort of samples, which also yielded satisfactory diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.890). In conclusion, our findings provide insight into the pathological mechanism of early-stage CAS and also supply a combinatorial biomarker to aid clinical diagnosis of early-stage CAS.

  9. Effects of education on the progression of early- versus late-stage mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Seo, Sang Won; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Hong, Chang Hyung; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Moon, So Young; Kim, Sangyun; Han, Seol-Heui; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Na, Duk L

    2013-04-01

    Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education. A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (-1.5 to -1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below -1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated. Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores. Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.

  10. A noncanonical role for dynamin-1 in regulating early stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in non-neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Madhura; Chen, Zhiming; Chen, Ping-Hung; Wang, Xinxin; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2018-01-01

    Dynamin Guanosine Triphosphate hydrolases (GTPases) are best studied for their role in the terminal membrane fission process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), but they have also been proposed to regulate earlier stages of CME. Although highly enriched in neurons, dynamin-1 (Dyn1) is, in fact, widely expressed along with Dyn2 but inactivated in non-neuronal cells via phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β) kinase. Here, we study the differential, isoform-specific functions of Dyn1 and Dyn2 as regulators of CME. Endogenously expressed Dyn1 and Dyn2 were fluorescently tagged either separately or together in two cell lines with contrasting Dyn1 expression levels. By quantitative live cell dual- and triple-channel total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we find that Dyn2 is more efficiently recruited to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) than Dyn1, and that Dyn2 but not Dyn1 exhibits a pronounced burst of assembly, presumably into supramolecular collar-like structures that drive membrane scission and clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) formation. Activation of Dyn1 by acute inhibition of GSK3β results in more rapid endocytosis of transferrin receptors, increased rates of CCP initiation, and decreased CCP lifetimes but did not significantly affect the extent of Dyn1 recruitment to CCPs. Thus, activated Dyn1 can regulate early stages of CME that occur well upstream of fission, even when present at low, substoichiometric levels relative to Dyn2. Under physiological conditions, Dyn1 is activated downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to alter CCP dynamics. We identify sorting nexin 9 (SNX9) as a preferred binding partner to activated Dyn1 that is partially required for Dyn1-dependent effects on early stages of CCP maturation. Together, we decouple regulatory and scission functions of dynamins and report a scission-independent, isoform-specific regulatory role for Dyn1 in CME. PMID:29668686

  11. Falls and Fall Prevention in Older Adults With Early-Stage Dementia: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Lach, Helen W; Harrison, Barbara E; Phongphanngam, Sutthida

    2017-05-01

    Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia have an increased risk of falling, with risks to their health and quality of life. The purpose of the current integrative review was to evaluate evidence on fall risk and fall prevention in this population. Studies were included if they examined falls or fall risk factors in older adults with MCI or early-stage dementia, or reported interventions in this population; 40 studies met criteria. Evidence supports the increased risk of falls in individuals even in the early stages of dementia or MCI, and changes in gait, balance, and fear of falling that may be related to this increased fall risk. Interventions included exercise and multifactorial interventions that demonstrated some potential to reduce falls in this population. Few studies had strong designs to provide evidence for recommendations. Further study in this area is warranted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(03):139-148.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. A case of urinary retention in the early stages of herpes simplex virus type-1 encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Takuya; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Miyake, Akifumi; Tamura, Naotoshi; Araki, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Toshimasa

    2017-06-01

    A 70-year-old man developed urinary retention in the early stages of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1 encephalitis. A nerve conduction study suggested latent myeloradiculitis. This is the first report of human herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis followed by urinary retention at early stage from the onset like the Elsberg syndrome. Although relatively few similar cases have been reported, we consider that urinary retention is common in HSV-1 encephalitis, in which disturbances of consciousness usually require bladder catheterization from the onset. We further emphasize that urinary retention may occasionally occur in early stages of HSV-1 encephalitis, with a significant possibility of recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of information technology in nursing practice has become a trend in healthcare. The impact of this technology on users has been widely studied, but little attention has been given to its influence at the beginning stage of implementation. Knowing the barriers to adopting technology could shorten this transition stage and minimize its negative influences. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences in the early stage of implementing a nursing information system. Focus groups were used to collect data at a medical center in Taiwan. The results showed that nurses had problems with the system's content design, had insufficient training, were concerned about data security, were stressed by added work, and experienced poor interdisciplinary cooperation. To smooth this beginning stage, the author recommends involving nurses early in the system design, providing sufficient training in keyboard entry skills, redesigning workflow, and improving interdisciplinary communication.

  14. Early-Life Food Nutrition, Microbiota Maturation and Immune Development Shape Life-Long Health.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Du, Lina; Shi, Ronghua; Chen, Zhidong; Zhou, Yiming; Li, Zongjie

    2018-06-06

    The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state. Therefore it is commonly believed early-life perturbation of the microbial community structure and the dietary nutrition interference on the child mucosal immunity contribute to the whole life susceptibility to chronic diseases. In all, the combined interrelationship between food ingredients nutrition, intestinal microbiota configurations and host system immunity provides new therapeutic targets to treat various kinds of pathogenic inflammations and chronic diseases.

  15. Photons from the early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, L.; Ruggieri, M.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Peng, G. X.; Greco, V.

    2017-07-01

    We present results about photon-production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The main novelty of our study is the calculation of the contribution of the early-stage photons to the photon spectrum. The initial stage is modeled by an ensemble of classical gluon fields which decay to a quark-gluon plasma via the Schwinger mechanism, and the evolution of the system is studied by coupling classical field equations to relativistic kinetic theory; photon production is then computed by including the pertinent collision processes into the collision integral. We find that the contribution of the early-stage photons to the direct photon spectrum is substantial for pT≈2 GeV and higher, the exact value depending on the collision energy; therefore, we identify this part of the photon spectrum as the sign of the early stage. Moreover, the amount of photons produced during the early stage is not negligible with respect to those produced by a thermalized quark-gluon plasma: We support the idea that there is no dark age in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  16. Confidence interval estimation of the difference between two sensitivities to the early disease stage.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tuochuan; Kang, Le; Hutson, Alan; Xiong, Chengjie; Tian, Lili

    2014-03-01

    Although most of the statistical methods for diagnostic studies focus on disease processes with binary disease status, many diseases can be naturally classified into three ordinal diagnostic categories, that is normal, early stage, and fully diseased. For such diseases, the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is the most commonly used index of diagnostic accuracy. Because the early disease stage is most likely the optimal time window for therapeutic intervention, the sensitivity to the early diseased stage has been suggested as another diagnostic measure. For the purpose of comparing the diagnostic abilities on early disease detection between two markers, it is of interest to estimate the confidence interval of the difference between sensitivities to the early diseased stage. In this paper, we present both parametric and non-parametric methods for this purpose. An extensive simulation study is carried out for a variety of settings for the purpose of evaluating and comparing the performance of the proposed methods. A real example of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is analyzed using the proposed approaches. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Speech acoustic markers of early stage and prodromal Huntington's disease: a marker of disease onset?

    PubMed

    Vogel, Adam P; Shirbin, Christopher; Churchyard, Andrew J; Stout, Julie C

    2012-12-01

    Speech disturbances (e.g., altered prosody) have been described in symptomatic Huntington's Disease (HD) individuals, however, the extent to which speech changes in gene positive pre-manifest (PreHD) individuals is largely unknown. The speech of individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene is a behavioural/motor/cognitive marker demonstrating some potential as an objective indicator of early HD onset and disease progression. Speech samples were acquired from 30 individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene (13 PreHD, 17 early stage HD) and 15 matched controls. Participants read a passage, produced a monologue and said the days of the week. Data were analysed acoustically for measures of timing, frequency and intensity. There was a clear effect of group across most acoustic measures, so that speech performance differed in-line with disease progression. Comparisons across groups revealed significant differences between the control and the early stage HD group on measures of timing (e.g., speech rate). Participants carrying the mutant HTT gene presented with slower rates of speech, took longer to say words and produced greater silences between and within words compared to healthy controls. Importantly, speech rate showed a significant correlation to burden of disease scores. The speech of early stage HD differed significantly from controls. The speech of PreHD, although not reaching significance, tended to lie between the performance of controls and early stage HD. This suggests that changes in speech production appear to be developing prior to diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PTT functional recovery in early stage II PTTD after tendon balancing and calcaneal lengthening osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Brilhault, Jean; Noël, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The decision to offer surgery for Stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) is a difficult one since orthotic treatment has been documented to be a viable alternative to surgery at this stage. Taking this into consideration we limited our treatment to bony realignment by a lengthening calcaneus Evans osteotomy and tendon balancing. The goal of the study was to clinically evaluate PTT functional recovery with this procedure. The patient population included 17 feet in 13 patients. Inclusion was limited to early Stage II PTTD flatfeet with grossly intact but deficient PTT. Deficiency was assessed by the lack of hindfoot inversion during single heel rise test. The surgical procedure included an Evans calcaneal opening wedge osteotomy with triceps surae and peroneus brevis tendon lengthening. PTT function at follow up was evaluated by an independent examiner. Evaluation was performed at an average of 4 (range, 2 to 6.3) years. One case presented postoperative subtalar pain that required subtalar fusion. Every foot could perform a single heel rise with 13 feet having active inversion of the hindfoot during elevation. The results of this study provide evidence of PTT functional recovery without augmentation in early Stage II. It challenges our understanding of early Stage II PTTD as well as the surgical guidelines recommending PTT augmentation at this specific stage.

  19. Methods for evaluating a mature substance abuse prevention/early intervention program.

    PubMed

    Becker, L R; Hall, M; Fisher, D A; Miller, T R

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe methods for work in progress to evaluate four workplace prevention and/or early intervention programs designed to change occupational norms and reduce substance abuse at a major U.S. transportation company. The four programs are an employee assistance program, random drug testing, managed behavioral health care, and a peer-led intervention program. An elaborate mixed-methods evaluation combines data collection and analysis techniques from several traditions. A process-improvement evaluation focuses on the peer-led component to describe its evolution, document the implementation process for those interested in replicating it, and provide information for program improvement. An outcome-assessment evaluation examines impacts of the four programs on job performance measures (e.g., absenteeism, turnover, injury, and disability rates) and includes a cost-offset and employer cost-savings analysis. Issues related to using archival data, combining qualitative and quantitative designs, and working in a corporate environment are discussed.

  20. Is early adulthood a critical developmental stage for psychosis proneness? A survey of delusional ideation in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Verdoux, H; van Os, J; Maurice-Tison, S; Gay, B; Salamon, R; Bourgeois, M

    1998-02-09

    It has been hypothesized that late adolescence and early adulthood might be a brain developmental stage favoring the clinical expression of psychotic symptoms in psychiatric or neurological diseases. The aim of the present survey was to examine the relationship between age and delusional ideation in a sample of subjects with no psychiatric disorder. The survey was carried out with the Aquitaine Sentinel Network of general practitioners. Consecutive practice attenders were invited to complete the PDI-21 (Peters Delusional Inventory 21 items), a self-report questionnaire designed to measure delusional ideation in the normal population. The study concerned 444 patients who had no lifetime history of psychiatric disorder and who completed the PDI-21. A principal component analysis of the PDI-21 items was performed in order to identify delusional dimensions. An age-related decrease in the likelihood to report delusional ideas was found, younger subjects scoring higher on most dimensions of delusional ideation, such as 'persecution', 'thought disturbance', 'grandiosity' and 'paranormal beliefs'. 'Religiosity' was the only dimension positively associated with age. The results suggest that there may be a physiological neurodevelopmental stage favouring the expression of psychosis proneness in normal subjects, and support the hypothesis that the association between age and positive psychotic symptoms in functional and organic psychoses may be linked to the interaction between normal brain maturational processes and cerebral abnormalities involved in the aetiology of functional and organic psychoses.

  1. Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    early stage ovarian cancer to help researchers worldwide identify biomarkers that can aid early detection and inform novel targets for therapy. This...to detect differentially expressed genes after transformation using Voom. When using the top 5 genes to build the classifier, it predicted...to analyze expression of micro-RNA in these samples. Thus, at the end of the third year of funding we started a parallel analysis of RNAseq, DNA- CNV

  2. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success.

  3. A comparison of cervical vertebral maturation assessment of skeletal growth stages with chronological age in Thai between cleft lip and palate and non-cleft patients.

    PubMed

    Pisek, Poonsak; Godfrey, Keith; Manosudprasit, Montian; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Leelasinjaroen, Pornnapha

    2013-09-01

    (1) To search for any difference in chronological age related to stages of the cervical vertebral maturation index stages (CVMIs) comparing groups of cleft lip and palate (CLP) and non-cleft (non-CLP) subjects; (2) To investigate the relationship between chronological age and CVMIs in both groups of subjects. Cervical vertebrae C2, C3, C4 were assessed on 1,549 cephalometric films (503 CLP films, 1,046 non-CLP films of subjects aged 5 to 18 years) using Hassel and Farman's method. T-tests showed mean chronological ages of CVMIs 2, 3 and 6 were different at p = 0.001, 0.024 and 0.016, respectively. CVMIs 1, 4 and 5 showed no significant differences. The CLP group achieved each CVMI score one year ahead of the non-CLP group, except for CVMI 4. Spearman's rank order correlations were r = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.76-0.83) for CLP, and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.74-0.79) for non-CLP. CLP subjects tended to have a slightly advanced growth compared with non-CLP subjects. A high correlation coefficient was found between chronological age and cervical vertebral skeletal maturation.

  4. Effect of sex, maturation stage and cooking methods on the nutritional quality and safety of black scabbard fish (Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839).

    PubMed

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Machado, Raquel; Amaral, Andressa; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Marques, António

    2012-05-01

    Black scabbard fish (Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839) is a deep-water fish resource that is highly appreciated in southern European countries and can accumulate high levels of mercury in the muscle. Currently, European legislation establishes limits for the presence of toxic contaminants in raw seafood, despite these products are generally cooked before consumption. In addition, there is still a lack of information concerning the nutritional quality and contaminants available in cooked products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of sex, maturation stages and three common cooking practices (steaming, grilling and frying) on the toxic elements (Hg, As, Cd and Pb) and nutritional value (chemical, elemental and fatty acid composition) of black scabbard fish. Few variations occurred between sexes and maturation stages, particularly in fatty acid and elemental content. Concerning cooked black scabbard fish, the greatest differences occurred in fried and grilled samples, attaining higher Hg levels, whereas steamed fish composition was closer to raw black scabbard fish. Raw and cooked black scabbard fish can be considered as a very good source of essential nutrients such as n-3 PUFA, proteins, macro and trace elements. Yet, when the fish is grilled, the Hg content may be above the limits set by EU. Considering the alterations occurred during the cooking processes, steaming seems the best procedure to cook this species.

  5. Deciphering the interplay among genotype, maturity stage and low-temperature storage on phytochemical composition and transcript levels of enzymatic antioxidants in Prunus persica fruit.

    PubMed

    Manganaris, George A; Drogoudi, Pavlina; Goulas, Vlasios; Tanou, Georgia; Georgiadou, Egli C; Pantelidis, George E; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Manganaris, Athanasios

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the antioxidant metabolic changes of peach (cvs. 'Royal Glory', 'Red Haven' and 'Sun Cloud') and nectarine fruits (cv. 'Big Top') exposed to different combinations of low-temperature storage (0, 2, 4 weeks storage at 0 °C, 90% R.H.) and additional ripening at room temperature (1, 3 and 5 d, shelf life, 20 °C) with an array of analytical, biochemical and molecular approaches. Initially, harvested fruit of the examined cultivars were segregated non-destructively at advanced and less pronounced maturity stages and qualitative traits, physiological parameters, phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity were determined. 'Big Top' and 'Royal Glory' fruits were characterized by slower softening rate and less pronounced ripening-related alterations. The coupling of HPLC fingerprints, consisted of 7 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quecetin-3-O-glucoside, procyanidin B1) and spectrophotometric methods disclosed a great impact of genotype on peach bioactive composition, with 'Sun Cloud' generally displaying the highest contents. Maturity stage at harvest did not seem to affect fruit phenolic composition and no general guidelines for the impact of cold storage and shelf-life on individual phenolic compounds can be extrapolated. Subsequently, fruit of less pronounced maturity at harvest were used for further molecular analysis. 'Sun Cloud' was proven efficient in protecting plasmid pBR322 DNA against ROO attack throughout the experimental period and against HO attack after 2 and 4 weeks of cold storage. Interestingly, a general down-regulation of key genes implicated in the antioxidant apparatus with the prolongation of storage period was recorded; this was more evident for CAT, cAPX, Cu/ZnSOD2, perAPX3 and GPX8 genes. Higher antioxidant capacity of 'Sun Cloud' fruit could potentially be linked with compounds other than enzymatic antioxidants that further regulate peach

  6. Maize Brittle stalk2 encodes a COBRA-like protein expressed in early organ development but required for tissue flexibility at maturity.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Anoop; Langewisch, Tiffany; Olek, Anna; Multani, Dilbag S; McCann, Maureen C; Vermerris, Wilfred; Carpita, Nicholas C; Johal, Gurmukh

    2007-12-01

    The maize (Zea mays) brittle stalk2 (bk2) is a recessive mutant, the aerial parts of which are easily broken. The bk2 phenotype is developmentally regulated and appears 4 weeks after planting, at about the fifth-leaf stage. Before this time, mutants are indistinguishable from wild-type siblings. Afterward, all organs of the bk2 mutants turn brittle, even the preexisting ones, and they remain brittle throughout the life of the plant. Leaf tension assays and bend tests of the internodes show that the brittle phenotype does not result from loss of tensile strength but from loss in flexibility that causes the tissues to snap instead of bend. The Bk2 gene was cloned by a combination of transposon tagging and a candidate gene approach and found to encode a COBRA-like protein similar to rice (Oryza sativa) BC1 and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COBRA-LIKE4. The outer periphery of the stalk has fewer vascular bundles, and the sclerids underlying the epidermis possess thinner secondary walls. Relative cellulose content is not strictly correlated with the brittle phenotype. Cellulose content in mature zones of bk2 mature stems is lowered by 40% but is about the same as wild type in developing stems. Although relative cellulose content is lowered in leaves after the onset of the brittle phenotype, total wall mass as a proportion of dry mass is either unchanged or slightly increased, indicating a compensatory increase in noncellulosic carbohydrate mass. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated an increase in phenolic ester content in the walls of bk2 leaves and stems. Total content of lignin is unaffected in bk2 juvenile leaves before or after appearance of the brittle phenotype, but bk2 mature and developing stems are markedly enriched in lignin compared to wild-type stems. Despite increased lignin in bk2 stems, loss of staining with phloroglucinol and ultraviolet autofluorescence is observed in vascular bundles and sclerid layers. Consistent with the infrared

  7. Maize Brittle stalk2 Encodes a COBRA-Like Protein Expressed in Early Organ Development But Required for Tissue Flexibility at Maturity1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sindhu, Anoop; Langewisch, Tiffany; Olek, Anna; Multani, Dilbag S.; McCann, Maureen C.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Johal, Gurmukh

    2007-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) brittle stalk2 (bk2) is a recessive mutant, the aerial parts of which are easily broken. The bk2 phenotype is developmentally regulated and appears 4 weeks after planting, at about the fifth-leaf stage. Before this time, mutants are indistinguishable from wild-type siblings. Afterward, all organs of the bk2 mutants turn brittle, even the preexisting ones, and they remain brittle throughout the life of the plant. Leaf tension assays and bend tests of the internodes show that the brittle phenotype does not result from loss of tensile strength but from loss in flexibility that causes the tissues to snap instead of bend. The Bk2 gene was cloned by a combination of transposon tagging and a candidate gene approach and found to encode a COBRA-like protein similar to rice (Oryza sativa) BC1 and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COBRA-LIKE4. The outer periphery of the stalk has fewer vascular bundles, and the sclerids underlying the epidermis possess thinner secondary walls. Relative cellulose content is not strictly correlated with the brittle phenotype. Cellulose content in mature zones of bk2 mature stems is lowered by 40% but is about the same as wild type in developing stems. Although relative cellulose content is lowered in leaves after the onset of the brittle phenotype, total wall mass as a proportion of dry mass is either unchanged or slightly increased, indicating a compensatory increase in noncellulosic carbohydrate mass. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated an increase in phenolic ester content in the walls of bk2 leaves and stems. Total content of lignin is unaffected in bk2 juvenile leaves before or after appearance of the brittle phenotype, but bk2 mature and developing stems are markedly enriched in lignin compared to wild-type stems. Despite increased lignin in bk2 stems, loss of staining with phloroglucinol and ultraviolet autofluorescence is observed in vascular bundles and sclerid layers. Consistent with the infrared

  8. HMGCR inhibits the early stage of PCV2 infection, while PKC enhances the infection at the late stage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Chen, Xinrong; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Liu, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Ting; Peng, Zhiyuan; Yang, Xin; Chen, Fuwang; Pang, Daxin; Bai, Jieying; Ren, Linzhu

    2017-02-02

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the smallest DNA virus, which causes porcine circovirus diseases and porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVD/PCVAD). Due the small size of viral genomic DNA, PCV2 replication predominantly relies on the host factors. In this study, effects of PKC and HMGCR on PCV2 infection were evaluated using real time PCR and western blot. We found that PKC and HMGCR participated in different stages of PCV2 infection. HMGCR works on the early stage of the infection to inhibit the virus infection, while PKC enhances the infection at the late stage. Furthermore, PKC enhances PCV2 replication by activating JNK1/2 and inactivating HMGCR via regulating phosphorylation of these two proteins, while HMGCR can suppress phosphorylation of JNK1/2. The results in the present study will provide new sights in the pathogenesis of PCV2 infection, as well as interactions between host factors during PCV2 infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrodynamic instability of elastic-plastic solid plates at the early stage of acceleration.

    PubMed

    Piriz, A R; Sun, Y B; Tahir, N A

    2015-03-01

    A model is presented for the linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place at the early stage of acceleration of an elastic-plastic solid, when the shock wave is still running into the solid and is driven by a time varying pressure on the interface. When the the shock is formed sufficiently close to the interface, this stage is considered to follow a previous initial phase controlled by the Ritchmyer-Meshkov instability that settles new initial conditions. The model reproduces the behavior of the instability observed in former numerical simulation results and provides a relatively simpler physical picture than the currently existing one for this stage of the instability evolution.

  10. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    PubMed

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of DEMETER, a DNA demethylase, promotes early apical bud maturation in poplar.

    PubMed

    Conde, Daniel; Moreno-Cortés, Alicia; Dervinis, Christopher; Ramos-Sánchez, José M; Kirst, Matias; Perales, Mariano; González-Melendi, Pablo; Allona, Isabel

    2017-11-01

    The transition from active growth to dormancy is critical for the survival of perennial plants. We identified a DEMETER-like (CsDML) cDNA from a winter-enriched cDNA subtractive library in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), an economically and ecologically important species. Next, we characterized this DNA demethylase and its putative ortholog in the more experimentally tractable hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × alba), under the signals that trigger bud dormancy in trees. We performed phylogenetic and protein sequence analysis, gene expression profiling, and 5-methyl-cytosine methylation immunodetection studies to evaluate the role of CsDML and its homolog in poplar, PtaDML6. Transgenic hybrid poplars overexpressing CsDML were produced and analysed. Short days and cold temperatures induced CsDML and PtaDML6. Overexpression of CsDML accelerated short-day-induced bud formation, specifically from Stages 1 to 0. Buds acquired a red-brown coloration earlier than wild-type plants, alongside with the up-regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis enzymes and accumulation of flavonoids in the shoot apical meristem and bud scales. Our data show that the CsDML gene induces bud formation needed for the survival of the apical meristem under the harsh conditions of winter. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Fraction magnitude understanding and its unique role in predicting general mathematics achievement at two early stages of fraction instruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingyi

    2017-09-08

    Prior studies on fraction magnitude understanding focused mainly on students with relatively sufficient formal instruction on fractions whose fraction magnitude understanding is relatively mature. This study fills a research gap by investigating fraction magnitude understanding in the early stages of fraction instruction. It extends previous findings to children with limited and primary formal fraction instruction. Thirty-five fourth graders with limited fraction instruction and forty fourth graders with primary fraction instruction were recruited from a Chinese primary school. Children's fraction magnitude understanding was assessed with a fraction number line estimation task. Approximate number system (ANS) acuity was assessed with a dot discrimination task. Whole number knowledge was assessed with a whole number line estimation task. General reading and mathematics achievements were collected concurrently and 1 year later. In children with limited fraction instruction, fraction representation was linear and fraction magnitude understanding was concurrently related to both ANS and whole number knowledge. In children with primary fraction instruction, fraction magnitude understanding appeared to (marginally) significantly predict general mathematics achievement 1 year later. Fraction magnitude understanding emerged early during formal instruction of fractions. ANS and whole number knowledge were related to fraction magnitude understanding when children first began to learn about fractions in school. The predictive value of fraction magnitude understanding is likely constrained by its sophistication level. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  14. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  15. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Heo, Eun Jin; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-03-01

    Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC.

  16. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  17. "We're the Mature People": A Study of Masculine Subjectivity and Its Relationship to Key Stage Four Religious Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Critical theory and research has shown that subjects carry gendered meanings. Numbers opting for Religious Studies (RS) have remained skewed towards girls. Drawing from post-structuralism and masculinities theory, this article critically analyses data from interviews with a group of key stage four boys who had opted for Religious Studies in…

  18. Quantification of diffusion tensor imaging in normal white matter maturation of early childhood using an automated processing pipeline.

    PubMed

    Loh, K B; Ramli, N; Tan, L K; Roziah, M; Rahmat, K; Ariffin, H

    2012-07-01

    The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas. Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction. DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued. DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data. Diffusion tensor imaging outperforms conventional MRI in depicting white matter maturation. • DTI will become an important clinical tool for diagnosing paediatric neurological diseases. • DTI appears especially helpful for developmental abnormalities, tumours and white matter disease. • An automated processing pipeline assists quantitative analysis of high throughput DTI data.

  19. The cargo receptor p24A facilitates calcium sensing receptor maturation and stabilization in the early secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Stepanchick, Ann; Breitwieser, Gerda E.

    2010-01-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a Family 3/C G protein-coupled receptor with slow and partial targeting to the plasma membrane in both native and heterologous cells. We identified cargo receptor family member p24A in yeast two-hybrid screens with the CaSR carboxyl terminus. Interactions were confirmed by immunoprecipitation of either p24A or CaSR in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Only the immaturely glycosylated form of CaSR interacts with p24A. Dissociation likely occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or cis-Golgi, since only the uncleaved form of a CaSR mutant sensitive to the trans-Golgi enzyme furin was coimmunoprecipitated with p24A. p24A and p24A(ΔGOLD) significantly increased total and plasma membrane CaSR protein but p24A(FF/AA) did not. The CaSR carboxyl terminus distal to T868 is required for differential sensitivity to p24A and its mutants. Interaction with p24A therefore increases CaSR stability in the ER and enhances plasma membrane targeting. Neither wt Sar1p or the T39N mutant increased CaSR maturation or abundance while the H79G mutant increased abundance but prevented maturation of CaSR. These results suggest that p24A is the limiting factor in CaSR trafficking in the early secretory pathway, and that cycling between the ER and ERGIC protects CaSR from degradation. PMID:20361938

  20. SPIRIT advance care planning intervention in early stage dementias: An NIH stage I behavioral intervention development trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E; Hepburn, Kenneth; Paul, Sudeshna; Shah, Raj C; Morhardt, Darby J

    2018-06-02

    People in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) are encouraged to engage in advance care planning (ACP) while they are still competent to appoint a surrogate decision maker and meaningfully participate in ACP discussions with the surrogate. In this NIH Stage I behavioral intervention development trial, we will adapt and test an efficacious ACP intervention, SPIRIT (Sharing Patient's Illness Representation to Increase Trust), with people with mild dementia and their surrogates to promote open, honest discussions while such discussions about end-of-life care are possible. We will first adapt SPIRIT (in person) to target people with mild dementia and their surrogates through a process of modification-pretesting-refinement using stakeholders (persons with mild dementia, family caregivers, and clinicians) and experts, including adapting the delivery mode to interactive web-based videoconference format (SPIRIT-remote). Then in a 3-group RCT with 120 patient-surrogate dyads, we will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of SPIRIT in-person and SPIRIT remote, and preliminary efficacy of SPIRIT compared to usual care on preparedness outcomes for end-of-life decision making (dyad congruence on goals of care, patient decisional conflict, and surrogate decision-making confidence) shortly after the intervention. This Stage I research of SPIRIT will generate valuable insights regarding how to improve ACP for people with mild dementia who will progress to an advanced stage of the disease in the foreseeable future. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03311711, Registered 10/12/2017. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging in Early-stage Ovarian Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Indini, Alice; Ferrero, Simone; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Few studies investigated the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (eEOC). In this context, we aimed to review the current evidence comparing laparoscopy and the laparotomic approach for staging procedures in eEOC. This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Overall, 3065 patients were included: 1450 undergoing laparoscopy and 1615 undergoing laparotomic staging. Patients undergoing laparoscopy experienced a longer (but not statistically significant) operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 28.3 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.59 to 59.2), a lower estimated blood loss (WMD = -156.5 mL; 95% CI, -216.4 to -96.5), a shorter length of hospital stay (WMD = -3.7 days; 95% CI, -5.2 to -2.1), and a lower postoperative complication rate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.81) than patients undergoing laparotomy. The upstaging (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.55-1.20) and cyst rupture (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.52-3.38) rates were similar between groups. Laparoscopic staging is associated with a shorter time to chemotherapy than laparotomic procedures (WMD = -5.16 days; 95% CI, -8.68 to -1.64). Survival outcomes were not influenced by the route of surgery. Pooled data suggested that the minimally invasive surgical approach is equivalent to laparotomy for the treatment of eEOC and may be superior in terms of perioperative outcomes. However, because of the low level of evidence of the included studies, further randomized trials are warranted. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  3. Funding opportunities for investigators in the early stages of career development.

    PubMed

    Sumandea, C Amelia; Balke, C William

    2009-03-10

    Many sources of advice and guidance are available to the early career investigator. Generally, mentors serve as the primary source of information, although program and review officers are the most underutilized resources. This article organizes these opportunities to enable early career investigators to plot a rational trajectory for career success. A list of the major agencies that provide grant support for early career investigators is included. In addition, funding opportunities are organized on the basis of the stage in career development pathway and the type of terminal degree.

  4. Portfolio management in early stage drug discovery - a traveler's guide through uncharted territory.

    PubMed

    Betz, Ulrich A K

    2011-07-01

    Portfolio management in drug development has become a best practice in the pharmaceutical industry. By contrast, early on in the value chain - the discovery phase - portfolio management is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, owing to the attrition of R&D projects from phase to phase and the cost of capital involved, these early phases of drug discovery play a significant part for the overall cost of bringing new, innovative drugs to the market. This paper describes various approaches to manage a portfolio of projects in early-stage drug discovery and provides crucial factors that determine the success of such an approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pomerelle Russet: An early maturing potato variety with high yield of U.S. No.1 tubers suitable for fresh market and early processing and resistance to Potato mop top virus and corky ringspot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pomerelle Russet is an early maturing fresh potato variety, which produces moderately high early-season yields of oblong-long tubers with brown-russet skin. It is notable for its very attractive, smooth tubers and resistances to internal and external defects with a high percentage of U.S. No. 1 tube...

  6. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  7. Test Design Optimization in CAT Early Stage with the Nominal Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.

    2007-01-01

    The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…

  8. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  9. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  10. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  11. Laminarin improves developmental competence of porcine early stage embryos by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Liang, Shuang; Yao, Xue-Rui; Jin, Yong-Xun; Shen, Xing-Hui; Yuan, Bao; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2018-04-23

    Laminarin (LMA), a β-glucan mixture with good biocompatibility, improves the growth performance and immune response when used as food additives and nutraceuticals. The aim of the present research was to explore the effects of LMA on porcine early stage embryo development, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that the developmental competence of porcine early stage embryos was dramatically improved after LMA supplementation during the in vitro culture period. The presence of 20 μg/mL LMA during the in vitro culture period significantly improved cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rates, hatching rate, and total cell number in the blastocyst compared to that in the control group. Notably, LMA attenuated the intracellular reactive oxygen species generation induced by H 2 O 2 . Furthermore, LMA not only increased intracellular glutathione levels, but also ameliorated mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the expression of a zygotic genome activation related gene (YAP1), pluripotency-related genes (OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2), and hatching-related genes (COX2, GATA4, and ITGA5) were up-regulated following LMA supplementation during porcine early stage embryo development. These results demonstrate that LMA has beneficial effects on the development of porcine early stage embryos via regulation of oxidative stress. This evidence provides a novel method for embryo development improvement associated with exposure to LMA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Photodynamic therapy of early stage cancer of lung, esophagus, and stomach with two different photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chissov, Valery I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Vaschakmadze, L. A.; Frank, George A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Belous, T. A.; Gladunov, V. K.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Menenkov, V. D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early-stage cancer of lung (17 patients), esophagus (8 patients) and stomach (10 patients). Fifteen patients had second primary tumors. New drugs photoheme and photosens were used as photosensitizers. Complete remission was obtained in 87%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2.5 years.

  13. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  14. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  15. Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

    2008-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

  16. Association Between Increased Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS in Early-stage NPDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vu, Amanda C.; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Knecht, Brenda E.; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K. V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Our hypothesis predicts that retinal blood vessels increase in density during early-stage progression to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of DR and in the function of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), a critical bone marrow-derived population that is instrumental in vascular repair.

  17. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  18. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  19. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  20. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  1. Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

  2. Stimuli-disassembling gold nanoclusters for diagnosis of early stage oral cancer by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Ingato, Dominique; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2018-01-01

    A key design consideration in developing contrast agents is obtaining distinct, multiple signal changes in diseased tissue. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been developed as contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study aims to demonstrate that stimuli-responsive plasmonic Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) can be used as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early-stage cancer. Au NPs were clustered via acid-cleavable linkers to synthesize Au NCs that disassemble under mildly acidic conditions into individual Au NPs, simultaneously diminishing SPR effect (quantified by scattering intensity) and increasing Brownian motion (quantified by Doppler variance). The acid-triggered morphological and accompanying optico-physical property changes of the acid-disassembling Au NCs were confirmed by TEM, DLS, UV/Vis, and OCT. Stimuli-responsive Au NCs were applied in a hamster check pouch model carrying early-stage squamous carcinoma tissue. The tissue was visualized by OCT imaging, which showed reduced scattering intensity and increased Doppler variance in the dysplastic tissue. This study demonstrates the promise of diagnosing early-stage cancer using molecularly programmable, inorganic nanomaterial-based contrast agents that are capable of generating multiple, stimuli-triggered diagnostic signals in early-stage cancer.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  4. Towards a Conceptualization of the Early Career Stage of Principalship: Current Research, Idiosyncrasies and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This review aims at providing a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of the early career stage of principalship by documenting the experiences and tasks of new principals (NPs) in the first three years in the post, and their personal and organizational determinants. The synthesis is based on empirical research…

  5. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  6. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  7. Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary incisor development.

    PubMed

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Iseki, Sachiko; Eto, Kazuhiro; Chareonvit, Suconta

    2006-03-01

    Developmental process of rat maxillary incisor has been studied through histological analysis and investigation of tooth-related gene expression patterns at initial tooth development. The tooth-related genes studied here are fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf-8), pituitary homeobox gene-2 (Pitx-2), sonic hedgehog (Shh), muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1), paired box-9 (Pax-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp-4). The genes are expressed in oral epithelium and/or ectomesenchyme at the stage of epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development. Both the histological observation and tooth-related gene expression patterns during early stage of maxillary incisor development demonstrate that dual odontogenic origins aligned medio-laterally in the medial nasal process develop, subsequently only single functional maxillary incisor dental placode forms. The cascade of tooth-related gene expression patterns in rat maxillary incisor studied here is quite similar to those of the previous studies in mouse mandibular molar, even though the origins of oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme involved in development of maxillary incisor and mandibular molar are different. Thus, we conclude that maxillary incisor and mandibular molar share a similar signaling control of Fgf-8, Pitx-2, Shh, Msx-1, Pax-9 and Bmp-4 genes at the stage of oral epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development.

  8. Role of chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Misako; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2018-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy is accepted as standard of care in stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and is often considered in patients with stage IB disease who have tumors ≥ 4 cm. The survival advantage is modest with approximately 5% at 5 years. Areas covered: This review article presents relevant data regarding chemotherapy use in the perioperative setting for early stage NSCLC. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed as well as clinical trial.gov. Randomized phase III studies in this setting including adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of chemotherapy as well as ongoing trials on targeted therapy and immunotherapy are also discussed. Expert commentary: With increasing utilization of screening computed tomography scans, it is possible that the percentage of early stage NSCLC patients will increase in the coming years. Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage NSCLC patients remain modest. There is a need to better define patients most likely to derive survival benefit from adjuvant therapy and spare patients who do not need adjuvant chemotherapy due to the toxicity of such therapy. Trials for adjuvant targeted therapy, including adjuvant EGFR-TKI trials and trials of immunotherapy drugs are ongoing and will define the role of these agents as adjuvant therapy.

  9. Association Between Increased Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS in Early-Stage NPDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vu, Amanda C.; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Knecht, Brenda E.; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K . V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Our hypothesis predicts that retinal blood vessels increase in density during early-stage progression to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The prevailing paradigm of NPDR progression is that vessels drop out prior to abnormal, vision-impairing regrowth at late-stage proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, surprising results for our previous preliminary study 1 with NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software showed that vessels proliferated considerably during moderate NPDR compared to drop out at both mild and severe NPDR. Validation of our hypothesis will support development of successful early-stage regenerative therapies such as vascular repair by circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS)is implicated in the pathogenesis of DR and in the function of CACs, a critical bone marrow-derived population that is instrumental in vascular repair.

  10. The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

    2007-11-01

    This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT.

  11. Compositional Variation in Sugars and Organic Acids at Different Maturity Stages in Selected Small Fruits from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Boyce, Mary C.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    Selected soluble sugars and organic acids were analyzed in strawberry, sweet cherry, and mulberry fruits at different ripening stages by HPLC. The amounts of fructose, glucose and sucrose were found to be: strawberry (1.79–2.86, 1.79–2.25 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g FW), sweet cherry (0.76–2.35, 0.22–3.39 and 0.03–0.13 g/100 g) and mulberry (3.07–9.41, 1.53–4.95 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g) at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. The strawberry, sweet cherry and mulberry mainly contained tartaric, citric and ascorbic acids in the range of 16–55, 70–1934 and 11–132 mg/100 g; 2–8, 2–10 and 10–17 mg/100 g; 2–118, 139–987 and 2–305 mg/100 g at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. Fructose and glucose were established to be the major sugars in all the tested fruit while citric and ascorbic acid were the predominant organic acids in strawberry and mulberry while tartaric acid was mainly present in sweet cherry. The tested fruits mostly showed an increase in the concentration of sugars and organic acids with ripening. PMID:22408396

  12. Balancing risk and benefit in early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bröckelmann, Paul J; Sasse, Stephanie; Engert, Andreas

    2018-04-12

    With defined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) and risk-adapted treatment, early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become curable in a majority of patients. Hence, a major current goal is to reduce treatment-related toxicity while maintaining long-term disease control. Patients with early-stage favorable disease (ie, limited stage without risk factors [RFs]) are frequently treated with 2 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (2×ABVD) followed by 20-Gy involved-field or involved-site RT (IF/ISRT). In patients with early-stage unfavorable disease (ie, limited stage with RFs), 4 cycles of chemotherapy are usually consolidated with 30-Gy IF/ISRT. Compared with 4×ABVD, 2 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (2×BEACOPP escalated ) followed by 2×ABVD improved 5-year progression-free survival (PFS), with similar 5-year overall survival. Recently, treatment strategies based on [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) response were evaluated. In early-stage unfavorable HL, a majority of patients achieved a negative interim PET after 2×ABVD and an excellent outcome after 4×ABVD, whereas in those with a positive interim PET, 2×BEACOPP escalated improved 5-year PFS. Furthermore, a PET-guided RT approach was evaluated to decrease long-term toxicity. Although both the RAPID and H10 trials reported poorer disease control without RT, PET-guided omission of RT can constitute a valid therapeutic option in patients with an increased risk of RT-associated toxicity (eg, because of sex, age, or disease localization). Implementation of drugs such as the anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin or the anti-programmed death 1 antibodies nivolumab or pembrolizumab might allow further reduction of overall mortality and improve quality of life in affected patients. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Treatment of Early-stage Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformations with Intralesional Interstitial Bleomycin Injection: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yunbo; Zou, Yun; Hua, Chen; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xi; Ma, Gang; Chang, Lei; Qiu, Yajing; Lyu, Dongze; Wang, Tianyou; Chang, Shih-Jen; Qiao, Congzhen; Luo, Chunfen; Tremp, Mathias; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy and safety of intralesional interstitial bleomycin injection in the treatment of early-stage (Schobinger stage I or II) extracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Materials and Methods This prospective study involved 34 patients with early-stage AVMs, as defined by the Schobinger staging system. The patients received intralesional interstitial bleomycin injected at a maximum dose of 15 000 IU or 1000 IU per kilogram of body weight for children who weighed less than 15 kg per procedure for a total of 6 months (once every month). Therapeutic outcome was evaluated by the degree of devascularization at angiography and the clinical outcome 3 months after the last treatment. Further follow-up was evaluated based on further clinical outcome. Adverse events were recorded according to the Society of Interventional Radiology classification. Results Of the 34 patients with early-stage AVM, 32 (mean age, 20.5 years; 24 female [75%]) completed the study. The results showed that 27 (84.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 71.1, 97.7) patients were responsive to bleomycin injection, including nine (28.1%) with a complete response. Four (12.5%) patients showed no response, and one (3.1%) patient experienced worsening 3 months after the last treatment. During further follow-up (mean follow-up time, 20.7 months; range, 5-28 months), the outcome remained stable in 31 (96.9%) of the 32 patients. A major complication, anaphylactic shock, was observed in one (3.1%, 95% CI: 0, 9.5) patient. Common minor complications included hyperpigmentation, nausea, pruritus, and bullae. Conclusion Intralesional interstitial bleomycin injection is a feasible approach for early-stage AVMs and yields safe and effective outcomes. © RSNA, 2017.

  14. Poor prognosis of uterine serous carcinoma compared with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma in early stage patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Sohn, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Wha; Sung, Chang Ohk; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2013-03-01

    Difference in prognosis between grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) of the endometrium and uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is controversial. In this study, we further evaluated the difference in prognosis, if any, between G3EC (n = 61) and USC (n = 47) on a total of 565 patients with endometrial cancer. In addition, meta-analysis was performed using data from seven previous publications (n = 8,637) and from the Asan Medical Center (n = 108). Regarding the cases from our institution, USC tended to occur in older patients (≥65 years) than G3EC (P = 0.011). Deep myometrial invasion (more than or equal to half) was more frequently identified in G3EC (36/61, 59.0 %) than in USC (17/47, 36.2 %) (P = 0.021). Between patients with early stage G3EC and USC (stages I and II), there were no significant differences in any clinicopathological parameter, but there was a significant difference in overall survival (P = 0.017) that was not found in advanced stage (P = 0.588). USC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.125; P = 0.030) in early stage patients. In the meta-analysis on 5-year survival in patients with early stage cancers, which also included our study results, a higher relative risk (1.92, 95 % CI 1.62-2.27) was demonstrated in USC than in G3EC (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our study reveals that USC is associated with a poorer prognosis compared with G3EC, only in patients with early stage carcinoma, suggesting that different treatment strategies should be considered according to the histologic type in order to improve treatment outcome.

  15. Prognostic model for survival in patients with early stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Biewenga, Petra; van der Velden, Jacobus; Mol, Ben Willem J; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Schilthuis, Marten S; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Burger, Matthé P M; Buist, Marrije R

    2011-02-15

    In the management of early stage cervical cancer, knowledge about the prognosis is critical. Although many factors have an impact on survival, their relative importance remains controversial. This study aims to develop a prognostic model for survival in early stage cervical cancer patients and to reconsider grounds for adjuvant treatment. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to identify the prognostic weight of clinical and histological factors for disease-specific survival (DSS) in 710 consecutive patients who had surgery for early stage cervical cancer (FIGO [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics] stage IA2-IIA). Prognostic scores were derived by converting the regression coefficients for each prognostic marker and used in a score chart. The discriminative capacity was expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The 5-year DSS was 92%. Tumor diameter, histological type, lymph node metastasis, depth of stromal invasion, lymph vascular space invasion, and parametrial extension were independently associated with DSS and were included in a Cox regression model. This prognostic model, corrected for the 9% overfit shown by internal validation, showed a fair discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.73). The derived score chart predicting 5-year DSS showed a good discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.85). In patients with early stage cervical cancer, DSS can be predicted with a statistical model. Models, such as that presented here, should be used in clinical trials on the effects of adjuvant treatments in high-risk early cervical cancer patients, both to stratify and to include patients. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  16. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  17. Cysts mark the early stage of metastatic tumor development in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Chitra; Rapp, Ulf R.; Rudel, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Identifying metastatic tumor growth at an early stage has been one of the biggest challenges in the treatment of lung cancer. By genetic lineage tracing approach in a conditional model of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in mice, we demonstrate that cystic lesions represent an early stage of metastatic invasion. We generated a mouse model for NSCLC which incorporated a heritable DsRed fluorescent tag driven by the ubiquitous CAG promoter in the alveolar type II cells of the lung. We found early cystic lesions in a secondary organ (liver) that lacked the expression of bona fide lung makers namely Scgb1a1 and surfactant protein C Sftpc and were DsRed positive hence identifying lung as their source of origin. This demonstrates the significant potential of alveolar type II cells in orchestrating the process of metastasis, rendering it as one of the target cell types of the lung of therapeutic importance in human NSCLC. PMID:29464089

  18. A Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Maturation on Physical Self-Perceptions and the Relationship with Physical Activity in Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G.; Fawkner, Samantha G.; Henretty, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N = 150; mean age = 12.79 plus or minus 0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and…

  19. Clinical Phenotype Predicts Early Staged Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Victor W.; Watts, Ray L.; Schrandt, Christian J.; Guthrie, Stephanie; Wang, Deli; Amara, Amy W.; Guthrie, Barton L.; Walker, Harrison C.

    2014-01-01

    Object While many centers place bilateral DBS systems simultaneously, unilateral STN DBS followed by a staged contralateral procedure has emerged as a treatment option for many patients. However little is known about whether the preoperative phenotype predicts when staged placement of a DBS electrode in the opposite subthalamic nucleus will be required. We aimed to determine whether preoperative clinical phenotype predicts early staged placement of a second subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode in patients who undergo unilateral subthalamic DBS for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Eighty-two consecutive patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral subthalamic DBS contralateral to the most affected hemibody and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression determined preoperative characteristics that predicted staged placement of a second electrode in the opposite subthalamic nucleus. Preoperative measurements included aspects of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), motor asymmetry index, and body weight. Results At 2 years follow-up, 28 of the 82 patients (34%) had undergone staged placement of a contralateral electrode while the remainder chose to continue with unilateral stimulation. Statistically significant improvements in UPDRS total and part 3 scores were retained at the end of the 2 year follow-up period in both subsets of patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the most important predictors for early staged placement of a second subthalamic stimulator were low asymmetry index (odds ratio 13.4; 95% confidence interval 2.8, 64.9), high tremor subscore (OR 7.2; CI 1.5, 35.0), and low body weight (OR 5.5; CI 1.4, 22.3). Conclusions This single center study provides evidence that elements of the preoperative PD phenotype predict whether patients will require early staged bilateral subthalamic DBS. These data may aid in the management of patients with advanced PD who undergo subthalamic DBS. PMID

  20. Early infection risk with primary versus staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) graft implantation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Andrew S; Gage, Shawn M; Lawson, Jeffrey H; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the use of a staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO; Merit Medical, South Jordan, Utah) implantation strategy incurs increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary HeRO implantation. A retrospective review was performed of 192 hemodialysis patients who underwent HeRO graft implantation: 105 patients underwent primary HeRO implantation in the operating room, and 87 underwent a staged implantation where a previously inserted tunneled central venous catheter was used for guidewire access for the venous outflow component. Within the staged implantation group, 32 were performed via an existing tunneled hemodialysis catheter (incidentally staged), and 55 were performed via a tunneled catheter inserted across a central venous occlusion in an interventional radiology suite specifically for HeRO implantation (intentionally staged). Early infection was defined as episodes of bacteremia or HeRO infection requiring resection ≤30 days of HeRO implantation. For staged HeRO implantations, the median interval between tunneled catheter insertion and conversion to a HeRO graft was 42 days. The overall HeRO-related infection rate ≤30 days of implantation was 8.6% for primary HeRO implantation and 2.3% for staged implantations (P = .12). The rates of early bacteremia and HeRO resection requiring surgical resection were not significantly different between groups (P = .19 and P = .065, respectively), nor were age, gender, laterality, anastomosis to an existing arteriovenous access, human immunodeficiency virus status, diabetes, steroids, chemotherapy, body mass index, or graft location. None of the patient variables, techniques, or graft-related variables correlated significantly with the early infection rate. The staged HeRO implantation strategy did not result in an increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary implantation and is thus a reasonable strategy for HeRO insertion in hemodialysis patients

  1. Astronomical Constraints on the Duration of Early Jurassic Stages and Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hinnov, L.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Storm, M.; Xu, W.; Riding, J. B.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic (201.3 to 174.1 Ma) is bracketed by the end-Triassic mass extinction and global warming event, and the Toarcian-Aalenian shift to (global) icehouse conditions (McElwain et al., 1999; Hesselbo et al., 2002; Ruhl et al., 2011; Korte et al., in review). It is further marked by the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), with possibly the largest exogenic carbon cycle perturbation of the Mesozoic and related perturbations in global geochemical cycles, climate and the environment, which are linked to large igneous province emplacement in the Karoo-Ferrar region (Jenkyns, 2010; Burgess et al., 2015). Furthermore, Early Jurassic continental rifting and the break-up of Pangaea and subsequent Early Jurassic opening of the Hispanic Corridor and Viking Strait respectively linked the equatorial Tethys Ocean to Eastern Panthalassa and the high-latitude Arctic Boreal realm. This initiated changes in (global) ocean currents and Earth's heat distribution and ultimately was followed by the opening of the proto-North Atlantic (Porter et al., 2013; Korte et al., in review). Here, we present high-resolution (sub-precession scale) elemental concentration data from the Mochras borehole (UK), which represents ~1300m of possibly the most complete and expanded lower Jurassic hemi-pelagic marine sedimentary archive known. We construct a floating ~9 Myr astronomical time-scale for the complete Early Jurassic Pliensbachian stage and biozones. Combined with radiometric and astrochronological constraints on early Jurassic stage boundaries, we construct a new Early Jurassic Time-Scale. With this we assess the duration and rate of change of early Jurassic global carbon cycle and climatic perturbations and we asses fundamental changes in the nature and expression of Early Jurassic long (100 - 1000 kyr) eccentricity cycles.

  2. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scuderi, Gaetano J.; Butcher, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte maturation. This

  3. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort.

    PubMed

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1-2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Is Breast Conserving Therapy a Safe Modality for Early-Stage Male Breast Cancer?

    PubMed

    Zaenger, David; Rabatic, Bryan M; Dasher, Byron; Mourad, Waleed F

    2016-04-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease and lacks data-based treatment guidelines. Most men are currently treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM) or simple mastectomy (SM). We compared the oncologic treatment outcomes of early-stage MBC to determine whether breast conservation therapy (BCT) is appropriate. We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database for MBC cases. That cohort was narrowed to cases of stage I-II, T1-T2N0 MBC with surgical and radiation therapy (RT) data available. The patients had undergone MRM, SM, or breast conservation surgery (BCS) with or without postoperative RT. We calculated the actuarial 5-year cause-specific survival (CSS). We identified 6263 MBC cases and included 1777 men with stage I or II, T1-T2, node-negative disease, who had the required treatment information available. MRM without RT was the most common treatment (43%). Only 17% underwent BCS. Of the BCS patients, 46% received adjuvant RT to complete the traditional BCT. No deaths were recorded in the BCT group, regardless of stage, or in the 3 stage I surgical groups if the men had received RT. The actuarial 5-year CSS was 100% in each BCT group. MRM alone resulted in an actuarial 5-year CSS of 97.3% for stage 1% and 91.2% for stage 2. The results from our study suggest that BCT for early-stage MBC yields comparable survival compared with more invasive treatment modalities (ie, MRM or SM alone). This could shift the treatment paradigm to less-invasive interventions and might have the added benefit of increased functional and psychological outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Financial Implication of Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Early-Stage Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurayshi, Zaid; Bu Ali, Daniah; Srivastav, Sudesh; Kandil, Emad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate disease-specific survival and cost related to radioactive iodine therapy (RAI) utilization in patients with early-stage papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This was a retrospective cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, 2004-2012. A total of 38,374 patients with PTC were identified. Of those, 56.3% had adjuvant RAI. RAI administration was not associated with a survival advantage in patients with PTC stage I (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11, 14.54; p = 0.85) or stage II (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.05, 4.88; p = 0.55). Patients with PTC stage III who underwent adjuvant RAI had an improved survival (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10, 0.91; p = 0.033). In 2012, RAI was used in 45.5% of patients with stage I and in 71.4% of patients with stage II. The total expenditure on adjuvant RAI for PTC stage I throughout the study period was estimated to be USD 82.3 million with an annual average of USD 9.1 (±2.0) million/year. If the decline rate in the utilization of RAI continued, the model projected that the annual expenditure would decrease by USD 0.14 million/year. There is a high prevalence of adjuvant RAI utilization for early-stage PTC that is causing financial burden on the health system with no evidence of survival benefit. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Identification of early B cell precursors (stage 1 and 2 hematogones) in the peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Kurzer, Jason H; Weinberg, Olga K

    2018-05-25

    Differentiating malignant B-lymphoblasts from early benign B cell precursors (hematogones) is a vital component of the diagnosis of B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. It has been previously reported that only late-stage B cell precursors circulate in the peripheral blood. Consequently, flow cytometric detection of cells with immunophenotypic findings similar to earlier stage precursors in the peripheral blood justifiably raises concern for involvement by B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. We report here, however, that benign early B cell precursors can indeed be detected in the peripheral blood, thus complicating the interpretation of flow cytometric findings derived from these sample types. A retrospective search of our collective databases identified 13 cases containing circulating early stage B cell precursors. The patients ranged in age from 15 days to 85 years old. All positive cases demonstrated that the earlier B cell precursors were associated with later stage precursors, a finding that could help differentiate these cells from B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

    2012-04-01

    Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity.

  8. [Clinical Advanced in Early-stage ALK-positive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiongqiong; Jiang, Xiangli; Huang, Chun

    2017-02-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of lung cancer cases, with the majority of the cases diagnosed at the advanced stage. Molecular targeted therapy is becoming the focus attention for advanced NSCLC. Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 gene and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (EML4-ALK) is among the most common molecular targets of NSCLC; its specific small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are approved for use in advanced NSCLC cases of ALK-positive. However, the influence of EML4-ALK fusion gene on the outcome of early-stage NSCLC cases and the necessity of application of TKIs for early-stage ALK-positive NSCLC patients are still uncertain. In this paper, we summarized the progression of testing methods for ALK-positive NSCLC patients as well as clinicopathological implication, outcome, and necessity of application of TKIs for early-stage ALK-positive NSCLC patients.

  9. Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.

    PubMed

    Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base.

  10. Adjuvant therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Serke, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Evidence clearly supports adjuvant chemotherapy following resection in patients with stage II or III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Based on 3 landmark studies, adjuvant chemotherapy has become standard in completely resected NSCLC stage II and IIIA. Survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy is estimated to be between 3% and 15%, depending on stage. Treatment should include 4 cycles of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. There is uncertainty about chemotherapy prescription in those patients with resected stage IB NSCLC, as the risk of recurrence is lower in early NSCLC and the magnitude of benefit of adjuvant therapy is proportional to the risk of relapse according to stage. Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) should not be used for stage I or II NSCLC, and remains controversial in resected stage IIIA (N2) disease. All positive adjuvant trials have utilized a cisplatin-based regimen, usually in combination with vinorelbine, and this should be considered the standard approach. Prognostic factors to select patients who will benefit from adjuvant therapy in general or from platinum-based chemotherapy are under discussion, but not yet established. In future we hope to optimize treatment convenience for the patients by using other combinations with the hope of better efficacy results. Work is currently under way to identify prognostic factors which in future may help to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from chemotherapy. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Optimization of a novel enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y F; Bronlund, J E; Allsop, T F; Shilton, A N; Edmonds, R L

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins has been previously reported by the Leather and Shoe Research Association of New Zealand (LASRA) as an alternative to current industry operations. The newly developed process had marked benefits over conventional processing in terms of a lowered energy usage (73%), processing time (47%) as well as water use (49%), but had been developed as a "proof of principle''. The objective of this work was to develop the process further to a stage ready for adoption by industry. Mass balancing was used to investigate potential modifications for the process based on the understanding developed from a detailed analysis of preliminary design trials. Results showed that a configuration utilising a 2 stage counter-current system for the washing stages and segregation and recycling of enzyme float prior to dilution in the neutralization stage was a significant improvement. Benefits over conventional processing include a reduction of residual TDS by 50% at the washing stages and 70% savings on water use overall. Benefits over the un-optimized LASRA process are reduction of solids in product after enzyme treatment and neutralization stages by 30%, additional water savings of 21%, as well as 10% savings of enzyme usage.

  12. Driving in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rebecca L; Ohman, Jennifer M

    2017-03-01

    One of the most difficult decisions for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is when to stop driving. Because driving is a fundamental activity linked to socialization, independent functioning, and well-being, making the decision to stop driving is not easy. Cognitive decline in older adults can lead to getting lost while driving, difficulty detecting and avoiding hazards, as well as increased errors while driving due to compromised judgment and difficulty in making decisions. The purpose of the current literature review was to synthesize evidence regarding how individuals with early-stage AD, their families, and providers make determinations about driving safety, interventions to increase driving safety, and methods to assist cessation and coping for individuals with early-stage AD. The evidence shows that changes in driving ability start early and progress throughout the trajectory of AD. Some individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early-stage AD may be safe to drive for a period of time. Support groups aimed at helping with the transition have been shown to be helpful for individuals who stop driving. Research and practice must support interventions to help individuals maintain safety while driving, as well as cope with driving cessation. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(2):86-100.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  14. High-density genetic linkage map construction by F2 populations and QTL analysis of early-maturity traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Libei; Zhao, Shuqi; Su, Junji; Fan, Shuli; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Gu, Lijiao; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Guoyuan; Yu, Dingwei; Liu, Qibao; Zhang, Xianlong; Yu, Shuxun

    2017-01-01

    Due to China's rapidly increasing population, the total arable land area has dramatically decreased; as a consequence, the competition for farming land allocated for grain and cotton production has become fierce. Therefore, to overcome the existing contradiction between cotton grain and fiber production and the limited farming land, development of early-maturing cultivars is necessary. In this research, a high-density linkage map of upland cotton was constructed using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with early maturity in 170 F2 individuals derived from a cross between LU28 and ZHONG213. The high-density genetic map, which was composed of 3978 SNP markers across the 26 cotton chromosomes, spanned 2480 cM with an average genetic distance of 0.62 cM. Collinearity analysis showed that the genetic map was of high quality and accurate and agreed well with the Gossypium hirsutum reference genome. Based on this high-density linkage map, QTL analysis was performed on cotton early-maturity traits, including FT, FBP, WGP, NFFB, HNFFB and PH. A total 47 QTLs for the six traits were detected; each of these QTLs explained between 2.61% and 32.57% of the observed phenotypic variation. A major region controlling early-maturity traits in Gossypium hirsutum was identified for FT, FBP, WGP, NFFB and HNFFB on chromosome D03. QTL analyses revealed that phenotypic variation explained (PVE) ranged from 10.42% to 32.57%. Two potential candidate genes, Gh_D03G0885 and Gh_D03G0922, were predicted in a stable QTL region and had higher expression levels in the early-maturity variety ZHONG213 than in the late-maturity variety LU28. However, further evidence is required for functional validation. This study could provide useful information for the dissection of early-maturity traits and guide valuable genetic loci for molecular-assisted selection (MAS) in cotton breeding.

  15. High-density genetic linkage map construction by F2 populations and QTL analysis of early-maturity traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Libei; Zhao, Shuqi; Su, Junji; Fan, Shuli; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Gu, Lijiao; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Guoyuan; Yu, Dingwei; Liu, Qibao; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-01-01

    Due to China’s rapidly increasing population, the total arable land area has dramatically decreased; as a consequence, the competition for farming land allocated for grain and cotton production has become fierce. Therefore, to overcome the existing contradiction between cotton grain and fiber production and the limited farming land, development of early-maturing cultivars is necessary. In this research, a high-density linkage map of upland cotton was constructed using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with early maturity in 170 F2 individuals derived from a cross between LU28 and ZHONG213. The high-density genetic map, which was composed of 3978 SNP markers across the 26 cotton chromosomes, spanned 2480 cM with an average genetic distance of 0.62 cM. Collinearity analysis showed that the genetic map was of high quality and accurate and agreed well with the Gossypium hirsutum reference genome. Based on this high-density linkage map, QTL analysis was performed on cotton early-maturity traits, including FT, FBP, WGP, NFFB, HNFFB and PH. A total 47 QTLs for the six traits were detected; each of these QTLs explained between 2.61% and 32.57% of the observed phenotypic variation. A major region controlling early-maturity traits in Gossypium hirsutum was identified for FT, FBP, WGP, NFFB and HNFFB on chromosome D03. QTL analyses revealed that phenotypic variation explained (PVE) ranged from 10.42% to 32.57%. Two potential candidate genes, Gh_D03G0885 and Gh_D03G0922, were predicted in a stable QTL region and had higher expression levels in the early-maturity variety ZHONG213 than in the late-maturity variety LU28. However, further evidence is required for functional validation. This study could provide useful information for the dissection of early-maturity traits and guide valuable genetic loci for molecular-assisted selection (MAS) in cotton breeding. PMID:28809947

  16. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, P=0.003; RR =0.84, 95% CI

  17. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  18. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 Sigma Factor K in Early-Stage Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, David G.; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σK is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods. PMID:22544236

  19. Stage-dependent remodeling of the nuclear envelope and lamina during rabbit early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Popken, Jens; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Guengoer, Tuna; Wolf, Eckhard; Zakhartchenko, Valeri

    2016-04-22

    Utilizing 3D structured illumination microscopy, we investigated the quality and quantity of nuclear invaginations and the distribution of nuclear pores during rabbit early embryonic development and identified the exact time point of nucleoporin 153 (NUP153) association with chromatin during mitosis. Contrary to bovine early embryonic nuclei, featuring almost exclusively nuclear invaginations containing a small volume of cytoplasm, nuclei in rabbit early embryonic stages show additionally numerous invaginations containing a large volume of cytoplasm. Small-volume invaginations frequently emanated from large-volume nuclear invaginations but not vice versa, indicating a different underlying mechanism. Large- and small-volume nuclear envelope invaginations required the presence of chromatin, as they were restricted to chromatin-positive areas. The chromatin-free contact areas between nucleolar precursor bodies (NPBs) and large-volume invaginations were free of nuclear pores. Small-volume invaginations were not in contact with NPBs. The number of invaginations and isolated intranuclear vesicles per nucleus peaked at the 4-cell stage. At this stage, the nuclear surface showed highly concentrated clusters of nuclear pores surrounded by areas free of nuclear pores. Isolated intranuclear lamina vesicles were usually NUP153 negative. Cytoplasmic, randomly distributed NUP153-positive clusters were highly abundant at the zygote stage and decreased in number until they were almost absent at the 8-cell stage and later. These large NUP153 clusters may represent a maternally provided NUP153 deposit, but they were not visible as clusters during mitosis. Major genome activation at the 8- to 16-cell stage may mark the switch from a necessity for a deposit to on-demand production. NUP153 association with chromatin is initiated during metaphase before the initiation of the regeneration of the lamina. To our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time major remodeling

  20. Role of Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of several randomized trials and meta-analyses, adjuvant chemotherapy is the accepted standard of care for certain patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with stage II, IIIA, or large (≥ 4 cm) IB tumors are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival improvement with adjuvant chemotherapy is approximately 5% at 5 years, though certain trials have suggested that it can be 8% to 10%. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy also has shown a survival advantage, though the volume of data with this approach is far less than that of adjuvant chemotherapy. The combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine is the most well-studied regimen, but current consensus is to use four cycles of any of the platinum-based chemotherapy regimens commonly used as front-line therapy for patients with advanced-stage NSCLC. Trials to define biomarkers that can predict benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy have not been successful, but results of other such trials are still awaited. On the basis of the benefit observed with targeted agents in patients with advanced-stage disease and driver genetic alterations in their tumors, ongoing trials are evaluating the utility of these targeted agents as adjuvant therapy. Similarly, clinical benefit observed with checkpoint inhibitors has prompted assessment of these drugs in patients with early-stage NSCLC. It is very likely, in the future, that factors other than the anatomy of the tumor will be used to select patients with early-stage NSCLC for systemic therapy and that the choice of systemic therapy will extend beyond platinum-based chemotherapy.

  1. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-07-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σ(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

  2. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer.

  3. High-concentrate diets based on forages harvested at different maturity stages affect ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-04-01

    Effects of plant maturity on apparent ruminal synthesis and post-ruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in two feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (Trial 1) or orchardgrass (Trial 2) silages harvested either (1) early cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. In Trial 1, conducted with 16 cows (569±43 kg of empty BW (ruminal content removed) and 43.7±8.6 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 17-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~22% forage NDF and 27% total NDF, and the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 53 : 47 and 42 : 58 for EC and LC, respectively. In Trial 2, conducted with 13 cows (588±55 kg of empty BW and 43.7±7.7 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 18-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~25% forage NDF and 31% total NDF; the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 58 : 42 and 46 : 54 for EC and LC, respectively. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. Diets based on EC alfalfa decreased the amounts of thiamin, niacin and folates reaching the duodenum, whereas diets based on EC orchardgrass increased riboflavin duodenal flow. Daily apparent ruminal synthesis of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting a microbial regulation of their concentration in the rumen. Vitamin B12 apparent ruminal synthesis was correlated negatively with total volatile fatty acids concentration, but positively with ruminal pH and microbial N duodenal flow.

  4. Usability of tablet computers by people with early-stage dementia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fabian S; Wallace, Tim; Luszcz, Mary A; Reynolds, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    Tablet computers are generally associated with an intuitive interface. The adoption and use of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context could potentially assist in daily living and provide users with a source for leisure activities and social networking. As dementia mainly affects the older adult population, it is expected that many people with dementia and even their carers do not use tablet computers as part of their everyday living. This paper explores the usability of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context as a source of leisure for people with dementia. The main advantage of the use of tablet computers in this manner is to provide carers some reprieve from the constant care and attention often required in caring for people with dementia. Seven-day in-home trials were conducted to determine whether people with early-stage dementia were -capable of using a tablet computer independently. Twenty-one people with early-stage dementia and carer dyads participated in the trial. Feedback was gathered through questionnaires from both the person with dementia and their carer regarding the use of a tablet computer as part of their everyday living. Approximately half the participants with dementia were able to engage with and use the tablet computer independently, which proved to be helpful to their carers. No significant traits were observed to help identify those who were less likely to use a tablet computer. Carer relief was quantified by the amount of time participants with dementia spent using the device without supervision. The results and feedback from the trial provide significant insights to introducing new technology within the early-stage dementia context. Users' needs must be considered on a case-by-case basis to successfully facilitate the uptake of tablet computers in the dementia context. The trial has provided sufficient justification to further explore more uses of tablet computers in the dementia context, and not just for

  5. Addressing the impact of mercury estuarine contamination in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) - An early diagnosis in glass eel stage based on erythrocytic nuclear morphology.

    PubMed

    Castro, D; Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Guilherme, S; Marques, A; Santos, M A; Duarte, A C; Pereira, E; Pacheco, M

    2018-02-01

    The decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) population throughout Europe has been partially attributed to pollution. As glass eel estuarine migration may represent a considerable threat, the impact of mercury (Hg) contamination at this stage was evaluated through an in situ experiment (7days). Total Hg (tHg) bioaccumulation was evaluated concomitantly with erythrocytic nuclear morphology alterations: erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities assay (ENA), frequency of immature erythrocytes (IE) and the erythrocytic maturity index (EMI). The ENA results suggested a genotoxic pressure at the most contaminated sites, in line with the tHg increase. The EMI data, together with IE frequency, showed that fish exposed to high levels of Hg exhibited alterations of haematological dynamics, translated into an erythropoiesis increment. Despite the presence of these compensatory mecha