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Sample records for early mature claystones

  1. Toward a new < 250 °C pyrrhotite-magnetite geothermometer for claystones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubourg, Charles; Pozzi, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effects of burial and moderate experimental heating on claystones from three regions with different degrees of maturation: immature (burial temperature ˜ 40 °C) of Bure Callovo-Oxfordian claystones in the Basin of Paris (France); early mature (burial temperature ˜ 85 °C) of Opalinus Lower Dogger claystones from the Mont Terri anticline in front of the Jura fold belt (Switzerland); and mature to overmature (burial temperature < 170 °C) of Chartreuse Callovian-Oxfordian claystones from Chartreuse Sub-Alpine chains. To have information about the nature of the magnetic assemblage, we perform low-temperature (10 K-300 K) investigation of an isothermal remanent magnetization. In a first set of laboratory heating experiments, we aim to impart a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) at 95 °C for several weeks in Bure and Opalinus claystones. Thermal demagnetization of the CRM reveals that magnetite is formed by heating the Opalinus claystones while an assemblage of magnetite and iron sulphide is formed in Bure claystones. Further, we document the appearance of a magnetic transition at ˜ 35 K in Bure claystones after heating. We name this transition the P-transition and we propose that it is related to the formation of fine-grained pyrrhotite (Fe 7S 8). The P-transition is also detected in early mature to mature Opalinus and Chartreuse claystones. We conduct additional experimental heating of natural Opalinus claystones. One set of experiments is referred to as short-term heating (1 h) from 100 °C to 200 °C. It is dedicated to an investigation of the effect of short-lived heating processes in geology. A second set of heating experiments is designed to approach burial conditions using a gold capsule. In burial-like experiments, we heated Opalinus claystones from 150 °C to 250 °C for several weeks under a pressure of 100 MPa. In both experiments, we observe a correlative diminution of the pyrrhotite signature at 35 K with increasing temperature

  2. Depressive Symptomatology among Very Early Maturing Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between very early menarche and depression was studied in a sample of 488 girls (336 sixth graders and 152 seventh graders), less than 10 percent of whom were very early maturers. Very early menarche was associated with higher levels of depression than was more normative development. (SLD)

  3. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to further elucidate the relation between pubertal timing and social anxiety, with a focus on clarifying the role of gender. Participants were 138 adolescents (ages 12-17 years) recruited from the general community. Level of social anxiety was examined as a function of gender and within-sample pubertal timing. As expected, early-maturing girls evidenced significantly higher social anxiety as compared to on-time girls and early-maturing boys, and no other differences were found as a function of gender or developmental timing. Findings and future directions are discussed in terms of forwarding developmentally-sensitive models of social anxiety etiology and prevention. PMID:21604866

  4. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  5. Neuropsychological and Early Maturational Correlates of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denno, Deborah J.

    A study designed to examine biological, sociological, and early maturational correlates of intelligence collected data prospectively, from birth to 15 years of age, on a sample of 987 black children. Multiple indicators of eight independent and three dependent variables were tested in a structural equation model. Altogether, clear sex differences…

  6. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  7. Maturity Group Classification and Maturity Locus Genotyping of Early-Maturing Soybean Varieties from High-Latitude Cold Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    Background With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Methods Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15′, E 127°27′, H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. Results The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. Conclusion HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially. PMID:24740097

  8. The Challenge of Sexual Maturation in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This fifth chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" looks at the issue of sexual maturation in early adolescence via four articles. "The Counselor's Impact on Middle-Grade Students," by Hershel Thornburg, examines physical, intellectual, and social developmental tasks of early adolescence. "Contraceptive and Sexuality Knowledge…

  9. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    SciTech Connect

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J.; Austin, II, Jotham

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generatemore » partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Lastly, our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins.« less

  10. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    DOE PAGES

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J.; Austin, II, Jotham; ...

    2015-12-28

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generatemore » partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Lastly, our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins.« less

  11. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J; Austin, Jotham; Glick, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generate partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13232.001 PMID:26709839

  13. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  14. Evaluation of genetic variability among "Early Mature" Juglans regia using microsatellite markers and morphological traits.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Aziz; Zarei, Abdolkarim; Zamani Fardadonbeh, Mojtaba; Lawson, Shaneka

    2017-01-01

    Limiting the juvenile phase and reducing tree size are the two main challenges for breeders to improve most fruit crops. Early maturation and dwarf cultivars have been reported for many fruit species. "Early mature" and low vigor walnut genotypes were found among seedlings of Persian walnut. Nine microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity among "Early Mature" Persian walnut accessions and provide a comparison with "normal growth" accessions. Six maturation related characteristics were also measured in "Early Mature" samples. Phenotypic traits and diversity indices showed relatively high levels of genetic diversity in "Early Mature" seedlings and indicated high differentiation between individuals. Seedling height, the most diverse phenotypic trait, has an important role in the clustering of "Early Mature" accessions. The "Early Mature" type had higher number of alleles, number of effective allele, and Shannon index compared to the "Normal Growth" group. The two types of studied walnuts had different alleles, with more than half of produced alleles specific to a specific group. "Early Mature" and "Normal Growth" walnuts had 27 and 17 private alleles, respectively. Grouping with different methods separated "Early Mature" and "Normal Growth" samples entirely. The presence of moderate to high genetic diversity in "Early Mature" walnuts and high genetic differentiation with "Normal Growth" walnuts, indicated that "Early Mature" walnuts were more diverse and distinct from "Normal Growth" samples. Moreover, our results showed SSR markers were useful for differentiating between "Early Mature" and "Normal Growth" walnuts. A number of identified loci have potential in breeding programs for identification of "Early Mature" walnuts at the germination phase.

  15. Mechanical factors direct mouse aortic remodelling during early maturation

    PubMed Central

    Le, Victoria P.; Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Kim, Jungsil; Staiculescu, Marius C.; Ficker, Shawn W.; Sheth, Saahil C.; Bhayani, Siddharth A.; Mecham, Robert P.; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous diseases have been linked to genetic mutations that lead to reduced amounts or disorganization of arterial elastic fibres. Previous work has shown that mice with reduced amounts of elastin (Eln+/−) are able to live a normal lifespan through cardiovascular adaptations, including changes in haemodynamic stresses, arterial geometry and arterial wall mechanics. It is not known if the timeline and presence of these adaptations are consistent in other mouse models of elastic fibre disease, such as those caused by the absence of fibulin-5 expression (Fbln5−/−). Adult Fbln5−/− mice have disorganized elastic fibres, decreased arterial compliance and high blood pressure. We examined mechanical behaviour of the aorta in Fbln5−/− mice through early maturation when the elastic fibres are being assembled. We found that the physiologic circumferential stretch, stress and modulus of Fbln5−/− aorta are maintained near wild-type levels. Constitutive modelling suggests that elastin contributions to the total stress are decreased, whereas collagen contributions are increased. Understanding how collagen fibre structure and mechanics compensate for defective elastic fibres to meet the mechanical requirements of the maturing aorta may help to better understand arterial remodelling in human elastinopathies. PMID:25652465

  16. Gut microbial functional maturation and succession during human early life.

    PubMed

    Cerdó, Tomás; Ruiz, Alicia; Acuña, Inmaculada; Jáuregui, Ruy; Jehmlich, Nico; Haange, Sven-Bastian; von Bergen, Martin; Suárez, Antonio; Campoy, Cristina

    2018-04-24

    The evolutional trajectory of gut microbial colonization from birth has been shown to prime for health later in life. Here, we combined cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics to investigate the functional maturation of gut microbiota in faecal samples from full-term healthy infants collected at 6 and 18 months of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the metaproteomes showed that Bifidobacterium provided the highest number of distinct protein groups. Considerable divergences between taxa abundance and protein phylogeny were observed at all taxonomic ranks. Age had a profound effect on early microbiota where compositional and functional diversity of less dissimilar communities increased with time. Comparisons of the relative abundances of proteins revealed the transition of taxon-associated saccharolytic and fermentation strategies from milk and mucin-derived monosaccharide catabolism feeding acetate/propanoate synthesis to complex food-derived hexoses fuelling butanoate production. Furthermore, co-occurrence network analysis uncovered two anti-correlated modules of functional taxa. A low-connected Bifidobacteriaceae-centred guild of facultative anaerobes was succeeded by a rich club of obligate anaerobes densely interconnected around Lachnospiraceae, underpinning their pivotal roles in microbial ecosystem assemblies. Our findings establish a framework to visualize whole microbial community metabolism and ecosystem succession dynamics, proposing opportunities for microbiota-targeted health-promoting strategies early in life. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genome-wide association mapping of flowering time and maturity dates in early mature soybean germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is a photoperiod-sensitive and short-day major crop grown worldwide. Days to flowering (DTF) and maturity (DTM) are two traits affecting soybean adaptability and yield. Some genes conditioning soybean flowering and maturity have been recently characterized. However, ...

  18. Poroelasticity of the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmokhtar, Malik; Delage, Pierre; Ghabezloo, Siavash; Tang, Anh-Minh; Menaceur, Hamza; Conil, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    This work is devoted to an experimental investigation of the poroelastic behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, a potential host rock for the deep underground repository of high-level radioactive waste in France. Drained, undrained, pore pressure loading and unjacketed tests were carried out in a specially designed isotropic compression cell to determine the poroelastic parameters of fully saturated specimens. Great care was devoted to the saturation procedure, and small loading rates were used to ensure full drainage conditions in drained and pore pressure tests (0.5 kPa/min) and in the unjacketed test (2 kPa/min). High-precision strain measurements were performed by ensuring direct contact between the LVDT stems and the specimen. An analysis in the framework of transverse isotropic poroelasticity provided the Biot effective stress coefficients b 1 (perpendicular to bedding) between 0.85 and 0.87 and b 2 (parallel to bedding) between 0.90 and 0.98 under different stress conditions (pore pressure 4 MPa, total isotropic stresses of 14 and 12 MPa, respectively). A set of equivalent isotropic poroelastic parameters was also determined and a very good compatibility between the results of different tests was found, giving confidence in the parameters determined. The unjacketed test provided a directly reliable measurement of the unjacketed modulus ( K s = 21.7 GPa) that was afterward confirmed by an indirect evaluation that showed the non-dependency of K s with respect to the stress level. These parameters were obtained for specimens cored and trimmed in the laboratory. A parametric study was then conducted so as to provide an estimation of the parameters in situ, i.e., not submitted to the damage supported by laboratory specimens. A minimal value b = 0.77 seems to be a reasonable lower bound for the equivalent isotropic Biot parameter.

  19. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  20. Proteomic analysis of 'Zaosu' pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its early-maturing bud sport.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Zhai, Rui; Feng, Wenting; Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Zhigang; Qiu, Zonghao; Zhang, Junke; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2014-07-01

    Maturation of fruits involves a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes that eventually make fleshy fruits attractive, palatable, and nutritional. In order to understand the mature mechanism of the early-maturing bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear, we analyzed the differences of proteome expression between the both pears in different mature stages by the methods of a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Seventy-five differential expressed protein spots (p<0.05) were obtained between 'Zaosu' pear and its early-maturing bud sport, but only sixty-eight were demonstratively identified in the database of NCBI and uniprot. The majority of proteins were linked to metabolism, energy, stress response/defense and cell structure. Additionally, our data confirmed an increase of proteins related to cell-wall modification, oxidative stress and pentose phosphate metabolism and a decrease of proteins related to photosynthesis and glycolysis during the development process of both pears, but all these proteins increased or decreased faster in the early-maturing bud sport. This comparative analysis between both pears showed that these proteins were closely associated with maturation and could provide more detailed characteristics of the maturation process of both pears. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Local injection of exogenous nerve growth factor improves early bone maturation of implants].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Du, Yu; Gu, Xia; Guang, Meng-Kai; Huang, Bo; Gong, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the osteogenic action of implants and the maturation and reconstruction changes in bone tissues in the early stage of osseointegration. The mouse implant model was established by placing titanium in the femoral head of the mouse and locally injecting NGF in the implant zone. On 1, 2 and 4 weeks after operation, stain samples were collected from animals using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining. The effect of NGF on the bone maturation was compared at different time points of early stage osseointegration. The results of HE and Masson staining indicated that the local injection of external NGF can up-regulate bone mass, amount of bone trabecula, and bone maturity in the mouse model. The mature bone rate in treatment group of 1 week and 4 weeks after operation were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). NGF can shorten the period of bone maturation.

  2. Lightweight aggregate production from claystone and shale in Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Norbert A.; Khan, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    Muffle furnace tests were made on samples of clay, claystone, and shale collected in the Chittagong and Dacca areas of East Pakistan to determine their amenability to bloating for the commercial production of light-weight aggregate. Several areas, sampled in some detail, were selected for investigation because of their proximity to market, and accessibility to fuel and electricity. Muffle furnace tests show that the clay, claystone, and shale are natural bloaters at temperatures in the 1700? to 2200? F range, and do not require additives. The most desirable deposit, insofar as producing a strong aggregate is concerned, can be determined only by pilot-kiln testing and by crushing-strength tests made on concrete test cylinders. Reserves of suitable raw material are large in both the Chittagong and Dacca areas.

  3. White matter maturation profiles through early childhood predict general cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Deoni, Sean C L; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elison, Jed T; Walker, Lindsay; Doernberg, Ellen; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Dean, Doug C; Jumbe, N L

    2016-03-01

    Infancy and early childhood are periods of rapid brain development, during which brain structure and function mature alongside evolving cognitive ability. An important neurodevelopmental process during this postnatal period is the maturation of the myelinated white matter, which facilitates rapid communication across neural systems and networks. Though prior brain imaging studies in children (4 years of age and above), adolescents, and adults have consistently linked white matter development with cognitive maturation and intelligence, few studies have examined how these processes are related throughout early development (birth to 4 years of age). Here, we show that the profile of white matter myelination across the first 5 years of life is strongly and specifically related to cognitive ability. Using a longitudinal design, coupled with advanced magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that children with above-average ability show differential trajectories of myelin development compared to average and below average ability children, even when controlling for socioeconomic status, gestation, and birth weight. Specifically, higher ability children exhibit slower but more prolonged early development, resulting in overall increased myelin measures by ~3 years of age. These results provide new insight into the early neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive ability, and suggest an early period of prolonged maturation with associated protracted white matter plasticity may result in strengthened neural networks that can better support later development. Further, these results reinforce the necessity of a longitudinal perspective in investigating typical or suspected atypical cognitive maturation.

  4. Maturational differences in physical self- perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Niven, Alisa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Knowles, Anne-Marie; Stephenson, Claire

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between physical self-perceptions (PSPs), maturation, and physical activity and compared the strength of the relationships of biological and chronological age with PSPs in early adolescent girls (N = 208; mean age = 11.83 +/- 0.39 years). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile, and the Pubertal Development Scale. Results indicated that PSPs were significantly and moderately correlated with physical activity. There were no differences in physical activity between maturation stages. Girls who were in the early stages of maturation had significantly more positive perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth than girls in the mid stages of maturation. There was no evidence of a relationship between PSPs and chronological age. This study provided further support for the relationship between PSPs and physical activity and the relationship between maturation and aspects of PSPs. In this age group, maturation does not appear to be related to physical activity or the PSPs most strongly influential on physical activity behavior.

  5. CD101, a Novel Echinocandin, Possesses Potent Antibiofilm Activity against Early and Mature Candida albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2018-02-01

    Currently available echinocandins are generally effective against Candida biofilms, but the recent emergence of resistance has underscored the importance of developing new antifungal agents that are effective against biofilms. CD101 is a long-acting novel echinocandin with distinctive pharmacokinetic properties and improved stability and safety relative to other drugs in the same class. CD101 is currently being evaluated as a once-weekly intravenous (i.v.) infusion for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In this study, we determined (i) the effect of CD101 against early and mature phase biofilms formed by C. albicans in vitro and (ii) the temporal effect of CD101 on the formation of biofilms using time-lapse microscopy (TLM). Early- or mature-phase biofilms were formed on silicone elastomer discs and were exposed to the test compounds for 24 h and quantified by measuring their metabolic activity. Separate batches were observed under a confocal microscope or used to capture TLM images from 0 to 16 h. Measurements of their metabolic activity showed that CD101 (0.25 or 1 μg/ml) significantly prevented adhesion-phase cells from developing into mature biofilms ( P = 0.0062 or 0.0064, respectively) and eradicated preformed mature biofilms ( P = 0.04 or 0.01, respectively) compared to those of untreated controls. Confocal microscopy showed significant reductions in biofilm thicknesses for both early and mature phases ( P < 0.05). TLM showed that CD101 stopped the growth of adhesion- and early-phase biofilms within minutes. CD101-treated hyphae failed to grow into mature biofilms. These results suggest that CD101 may be effective in the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2018 Chandra and Ghannoum.

  6. Do mature forest birds prefer early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period?

    Treesearch

    Carlin C. Chandler; David I. King; Richard B. Chandler

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the post-fledging period to bird populations, suggesting that the importance of this portion of the life cycle is equal to or greater than the nesting period. Nevertheless, few studies have compared abundance of forest nesting species between mature forest and early-successional habitats while controlling for...

  7. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  8. Plasma Cholesterol–Induced Lesion Networks Activated before Regression of Early, Mature, and Advanced Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Hägg, Sara; Jain, Rajeev K.; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr−/−Apob 100/100 Mttp flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24586211

  9. Early life stress accelerates behavioral and neural maturation of the hippocampus in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bath, K; Manzano-Nieves, G; Goodwill, H

    2016-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for later cognitive and emotional dysfunction. ELS is known to truncate neural development through effects on suppressing cell birth, increasing cell death, and altering neuronal morphology, effects that have been associated with behavioral profiles indicative of precocious maturation. However, how earlier silencing of growth drives accelerated behavioral maturation has remained puzzling. Here, we test the novel hypothesis that, ELS drives a switch from growth to maturation to accelerate neural and behavioral development. To test this, we used a mouse model of ELS, fragmented maternal care, and a cross-sectional dense sampling approach focusing on hippocampus and measured effects of ELS on the ontogeny of behavioral development and biomarkers of neural maturation. Consistent with previous work, ELS was associated with an earlier developmental decline in expression of markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67) and differentiation (doublecortin). However, ELS also led to a precocious arrival of Parvalbumin-positive cells, led to an earlier switch in NMDA receptor subunit expression (marker of synaptic maturity), and was associated with an earlier rise in myelin basic protein expression (key component of the myelin sheath). In addition, in a contextual fear-conditioning task, ELS accelerated the timed developmental suppression of contextual fear. Together, these data provide support for the hypothesis that ELS serves to switch neurodevelopment from processes of growth to maturation and promotes accelerated development of some forms of emotional learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Sex Differences in the Role of Cortisol Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Ge, Xiaojia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    An accumulating body of literature has shown a link between early pubertal maturation and internalizing problems, particularly among girls. Our knowledge is, however, limited with regard to what accounts for this association. Based on a hypothesis that early maturing girls have heightened stress sensitivity that increases the risk of internalizing…

  11. Individual condition and stream temperature influence early maturation of rainbow and steelhead trout, ncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMillan, John R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Reeves, Gordon H.; Mills, Justin S.; Jordan, Chris E.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative male phenotypes in salmonine fishes arise from individuals that mature as larger and older anadromous marine-migrants or as smaller and younger freshwater residents. To better understand the processes influencing the expression of these phenotypes we examined the influences of growth in length (fork length) and whole body lipid content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were sampled from the John Day River basin in northeast Oregon where both anadromous ("steelhead") and freshwater resident rainbow trout coexist. Larger males with higher lipid levels had a greater probability of maturing as a resident at age-1+. Among males, 38% were maturing overall, and the odds ratios of the logistic model indicated that the probability of a male maturing early as a resident at age-1+ increased 49% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 23-81%) for every 5 mm increase in length and 33% (95% CI = 10-61%) for every 0.5% increase in whole body lipid content. There was an inverse association between individual condition and water temperature as growth was greater in warmer streams while whole body lipid content was higher in cooler streams. Our results support predictions from life history theory and further suggest that relationships between individual condition, maturation, and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature) are shaped by complex developmental and evolutionary influences.

  12. Ion currents involved in oocyte maturation, fertilization and early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Gallo, Alessandra; Silvestre, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological techniques were used to study the role of ion currents in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis oocyte plasma membrane during different stages of growth, meiosis, fertilization and early development. Three stages of immature oocytes were discriminated in the ovary, with the germinal vesicle showing specific different features of growth and maturation. Stage-A (pre-vitellogenic) oocytes exhibited the highest L-type calcium current activity and were incompetent for meiosis resumption. Stage-B (vitellogenic) oocytes showed a progressive disappearance of calcium currents and the first appearance of sodium currents that remained high during the maturation process, up to the post-vitellogenic stage-C oocytes. The latter had acquired meiotic competence, undergoing spontaneous in vitro maturation and interacting with the spermatozoon. However, fertilized oocytes did not produce normal larvae, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation may affect embryo development. In mature oocytes at the metaphase I stage, sodium currents were present and remained high up to the zygote stage. Oocytes fertilized in the absence of sodium showed significant reduction of the fertilization current amplitude and high development of anomalous "rosette" embryos. Current amplitudes became negligible in embryos at the 2- and 4-cell stage, whereas resumption of all the current activities occurred at the 8-cell embryo. Taken together, these results suggest: (i) an involvement of L-type calcium currents in initial oocyte meiotic progression and growth; (ii) a role of sodium currents at fertilization; (iii) a role of the fertilization current in ensuring normal embryo development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Low temperature magnetic behaviour near 35 K in unmetamorphosed claystones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kars, Myriam; Aubourg, Charles; Pozzi, Jean-Pierre

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that the magnetic assemblage of claystones, illustrated by low-temperature magnetic transitions at ˜120 K and ˜35 K, may be representative of the peak burial temperature in the so-called oil-window (60-150°C). In previous studies, it was proposed that this magnetic assemblage is characterized by fine-grained pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) and magnetite (Fe3O4). However, evidence of pyrrhotite was not so obvious and the magnetic transition near 35 K of fine-grained pyrrhotite has similarities with those of siderite (FeCO3) or rhodochrosite (MnCO3). Here, we propose some diagnostic tests to distinct <50 K behaviours by studying claystones from Netherlands borehole and Borneo Prism that experienced different peak burial temperatures. We perform magnetic susceptibility, temperature dependency of SIRM (ZFC, RT-SIRM) and field cooled hysteresis loops. On cooling of RT-SIRM (300 K to 10 K), we applied a magnetic field of 5 μT to enhance Néel type magnetic transition. It is found that our samples can be classified in two categories based on the shape of the RT-SIRM curve: one displaying an abrupt break-in-slope in the remanence at ˜30 K, called N-behaviour, and the other one characterized by a progressive increase of the remanent magnetization by 80 K, named P-behaviour. The first category contains essentially magnetite and Fe-Mn carbonates, the second one magnetite and probably iron sulphides.

  14. The RY/Sph element mediates transcriptional repression of maturation genes from late maturation to early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Gea; Martin, Nathalie; Golovko, Anna; Sundström, Jens F; Rask, Lars; Ezcurra, Ines

    2009-11-01

    In orthodox seeds, the transcriptional activator ABI3 regulates two major stages in embryo maturation: a mid-maturation (MAT) stage leading to accumulation of storage compounds, and a late maturation (LEA) stage leading to quiescence and desiccation tolerance. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms for transcriptional shutdown of MAT genes during late maturation, to better understand phase transition between MAT and LEA stages. Using transgenic and transient approaches in Nicotiana, we examined activities of two ABI3-dependent reporter genes driven by multimeric RY and abscisic acid response elements (ABREs) from a Brassica napus napin gene, termed RY and ABRE, where the RY reporter requires ABI3 DNA binding. Expression of RY peaks during mid-maturation and drops during late maturation, mimicking the MAT gene program, and in Arabidopsis thaliana RY elements are over-represented in MAT, but not in LEA, genes. The ABI3 transactivation of RY is inhibited by staurosporine, by a PP2C phosphatase, and by a repressor of maturation genes, VAL1/HSI2. The RY element mediates repression of MAT genes, and we propose that transcriptional shutdown of the MAT program during late maturation involves inhibition of ABI3 DNA binding by dephosphorylation. Later, during seedling growth, VAL1/HSI2 family repressors silence MAT genes by binding RY elements.

  15. Early parental care is important for hippocampal maturation: evidence from brain morphology in humans.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hengyi; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Korczykowski, Marc; Avants, Brian B; Gee, James C; Wang, Jiongjiong; Hurt, Hallam; Detre, John A; Farah, Martha J

    2010-01-01

    The effects of early life experience on later brain structure and function have been studied extensively in animals, yet the relationship between childhood experience and normal brain development in humans remains largely unknown. Using a unique longitudinal data set including ecologically valid in-home measures of early experience during childhood (at age 4 and 8 years) and high-resolution structural brain imaging during adolescence (mean age 14 years), we examined the effects on later brain morphology of two dimensions of early experience: parental nurturance and environmental stimulation. Parental nurturance at age 4 predicts the volume of the left hippocampus in adolescence, with better nurturance associated with smaller hippocampal volume. In contrast, environmental stimulation did not correlate with hippocampal volume. Moreover, the association between hippocampal volume and parental nurturance disappears at age 8, supporting the existence of a sensitive developmental period for brain maturation. These findings indicate that variation in normal childhood experience is associated with differences in brain morphology, and hippocampal volume is specifically associated with early parental nurturance. Our results provide neuroimaging evidence supporting the important role of warm parental care during early childhood for brain maturation.

  16. The maturation of cortical sleep rhythms and networks over early development

    PubMed Central

    Chu, CJ; Leahy, J; Pathmanathan, J; Kramer, MA; Cash, SS

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although neuronal activity drives all aspects of cortical development, how human brain rhythms spontaneously mature remains an active area of research. We sought to systematically evaluate the emergence of human brain rhythms and functional cortical networks over early development. Methods We examined cortical rhythms and coupling patterns from birth through adolescence in a large cohort of healthy children (n=384) using scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in the sleep state. Results We found that the emergence of brain rhythms follows a stereotyped sequence over early development. In general, higher frequencies increase in prominence with striking regional specificity throughout development. The coordination of these rhythmic activities across brain regions follows a general pattern of maturation in which broadly distributed networks of low-frequency oscillations increase in density while networks of high frequency oscillations become sparser and more highly clustered. Conclusion Our results indicate that a predictable program directs the development of key rhythmic components and physiological brain networks over early development. Significance This work expands our knowledge of normal cortical development. The stereotyped neurophysiological processes observed at the level of rhythms and networks may provide a scaffolding to support critical periods of cognitive growth. Furthermore, these conserved patterns could provide a sensitive biomarker for cortical health across development. PMID:24418219

  17. The maturation of cortical sleep rhythms and networks over early development.

    PubMed

    Chu, C J; Leahy, J; Pathmanathan, J; Kramer, M A; Cash, S S

    2014-07-01

    Although neuronal activity drives all aspects of cortical development, how human brain rhythms spontaneously mature remains an active area of research. We sought to systematically evaluate the emergence of human brain rhythms and functional cortical networks over early development. We examined cortical rhythms and coupling patterns from birth through adolescence in a large cohort of healthy children (n=384) using scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in the sleep state. We found that the emergence of brain rhythms follows a stereotyped sequence over early development. In general, higher frequencies increase in prominence with striking regional specificity throughout development. The coordination of these rhythmic activities across brain regions follows a general pattern of maturation in which broadly distributed networks of low-frequency oscillations increase in density while networks of high frequency oscillations become sparser and more highly clustered. Our results indicate that a predictable program directs the development of key rhythmic components and physiological brain networks over early development. This work expands our knowledge of normal cortical development. The stereotyped neurophysiological processes observed at the level of rhythms and networks may provide a scaffolding to support critical periods of cognitive growth. Furthermore, these conserved patterns could provide a sensitive biomarker for cortical health across development. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential maturation of rhythmic clock gene expression during early development in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Ines H; Lahiri, Kajori; Lopez-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Loosli, Felix; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Vallone, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    One key challenge for the field of chronobiology is to identify how circadian clock function emerges during early embryonic development. Teleosts such as the zebrafish are ideal models for studying circadian clock ontogeny since the entire process of development occurs ex utero in an optically transparent chorion. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) represents another powerful fish model for exploring early clock function with, like the zebrafish, many tools available for detailed genetic analysis. However, to date there have been no reports documenting circadian clock gene expression during medaka development. Here we have characterized the expression of key clock genes in various developmental stages and in adult tissues of medaka. As previously reported for other fish, light dark cycles are required for the emergence of clock gene expression rhythms in this species. While rhythmic expression of per and cry genes is detected very early during development and seems to be light driven, rhythmic clock and bmal expression appears much later around hatching time. Furthermore, the maturation of clock function seems to correlate with the appearance of rhythmic expression of these positive elements of the clock feedback loop. By accelerating development through elevated temperatures or by artificially removing the chorion, we show an earlier onset of rhythmicity in clock and bmal expression. Thus, differential maturation of key elements of the medaka clock mechanism depends on the developmental stage and the presence of the chorion.

  19. The impact of early repeated pain experiences on stress responsiveness and emotionality at maturity in rats.

    PubMed

    Page, Gayle G; Blakely, Wendy P; Kim, Miyong

    2005-01-01

    The intensive care necessary for premature newborns is characterized by multiple procedures, many of which are painful. Given emerging evidence that such early pain during this time of high brain plasticity may affect long-term neurodevelopmental and social-emotional functioning, this study explored the impact of early repeated pain on emotionality and stress responsivity at maturity. From birth through postnatal day 7, Fischer 344 pups underwent either paw needle prick every day versus every other day or daily paw touch, or were left unperturbed. Each paw received the designated perturbation once per day. At maturity, some animals underwent emotionality testing: either a 4-day series of open field exposures or a single elevated plus-maze (EPM) exposure. The paw prick groups exhibited less open field habituation and occupied the EPM open arms more. Two weeks later, all animals were either subjected to forced swim or not. At 1h post-swim, animals underwent either blood withdrawal for plasma corticosterone (CS) levels and ex vivo natural killer cell activity (NKCA) or were injected intravenously with radiolabeled NK-sensitive syngeneic MADB106 tumor cells and assessed for lung tumor retention. Sex was a major factor in the manifestation of perturbation-related differences in the biologic outcomes. Whereas postnatal pain differentially affected baseline tumor retention between males and females, only males exhibited perturbation-related differences in swim stress-induced increases in tumor retention and CS. Finally, male-female differences were evident in CS, NKCA, and tumor responses to swim stress. These findings suggest that early pain affects neurodevelopmental function in the mature organism; however, these relationships are complicated by sex differences, the postnatal pain schedule, and the outcome measured.

  20. Acne vulgaris in early adolescent boys. Correlations with pubertal maturation and age.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Biro, F M; Huster, G A; Morrison, J A; Elder, N

    1991-02-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of acne vulgaris in young adolescent boys, we studied 219 black and 249 white boys in fifth through ninth grades in Cincinnati, Ohio. The mean age was 12.2 +/- 1.4 years, with a range of 9 to 15 years. Pubertal maturation was scored as Tanner pubic hair stages (PH I to V) and pubertal stages (PS I to IV) that included testicular volume assessment. Acne was scored by number of comedonal (open plus closed comedones) and inflammatory (papules plus pustules) lesions. Comedonal and inflammatory lesions were analyzed separately and evaluated both as numerical scores and as grades (1, less than or equal to 10 lesions; 2, 11 to 25 lesions; and 3, greater than or equal to 26 lesions). Grades 2 and 3 were considered clinically significant acne. Acne became progressively more severe with advancing maturity. Mean acne scores correlated better with PS and pubic hair than with age. Black subjects were more mature than white subjects. Black boys in PSI and II had significantly more comedones than white boys; white boys had significantly more inflammatory lesions at PS I and III. Clinically significant comedonal acne was already present in PS I and occurred in 100% of boys in PS IV. In contrast, no boys at PS I and only 50% at PS IV had significant inflammatory acne. Midfacial acne dominated. We concluded that acne prevalence and severity correlate well with advancing pubertal maturation in young adolescent boys. Comedonal acne was more frequent and severe than inflammatory disease. Awareness of the extent and severity of acne in preadolescents and young adolescents may ultimately provide rationale for early intervention and thus prevention of severe acne vulgaris.

  1. Early Cannabis Use, Polygenic Risk Score for Schizophrenia and Brain Maturation in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    French, Leon; Gray, Courtney; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Richer, Louis; Séguin, Jean R; Veillette, Suzanne; Evans, C John; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun W L; Bromberg, Uli; Bruehl, Ruediger; Buchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaitre, Herve; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pangelinan, Melissa Marie; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Timpson, Nic J; Schumann, Gunter; Smith, George Davey; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis use during adolescence is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in men. Sex differences in the dynamics of brain maturation during adolescence may be of particular importance with regard to vulnerability of the male brain to cannabis exposure. To evaluate whether the association between cannabis use and cortical maturation in adolescents is moderated by a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia. Observation of 3 population-based samples included initial analysis in 1024 adolescents of both sexes from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and follow-up in 426 adolescents of both sexes from the IMAGEN Study from 8 European cities and 504 male youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in England. A total of 1577 participants (aged 12-21 years; 899 [57.0%] male) had (1) information about cannabis use; (2) imaging studies of the brain; and (3) a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia across 108 genetic loci identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Data analysis was performed from March 1 through December 31, 2014. Cortical thickness derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Linear regression tests were used to assess the relationships between cannabis use, cortical thickness, and risk score. Across the 3 samples of 1574 participants, a negative association was observed between cannabis use in early adolescence and cortical thickness in male participants with a high polygenic risk score. This observation was not the case for low-risk male participants or for the low- or high-risk female participants. Thus, in SYS male participants, cannabis use interacted with risk score vis-à-vis cortical thickness (P = .009); higher scores were associated with lower thickness only in males who used cannabis. Similarly, in the IMAGEN male participants, cannabis use interacted with increased risk score vis-à-vis a change in decreasing cortical thickness from 14.5 to 18.5 years of age (t137 = -2.36; P

  2. Surgical management of patients with a history of early Le Fort III advancement after they have attained skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Caterson, E J; Shetye, Pradip R; Grayson, Barry H; McCarthy, Joseph G

    2013-10-01

    The classic Le Fort III procedure was recommended in syndromic craniosynostotic children to reduce exorbitism, improve airway function, and decrease dysmorphism. This study reports on a cohort of syndromic craniosynostosis patients who have undergone early primary subcranial (classic Tessier) Le Fort III advancement and who have been followed longitudinally through skeletal maturity and beyond. In this study, the Le Fort III advancements all occurred between the ages of 3 to 5 years, with a mean age of 4.6 years. Subsequently, these early Le Fort III patients were followed throughout development with longitudinal dental, medical, radiographic, and photographic evaluations conducted through skeletal maturity and beyond. For study inclusion, the patients had to have preoperative medical photographs and cephalometric studies at 6 months and 1, 5, and 10 years postoperatively after the primary Le Fort III advancement as well as cephalometric documentation 6 months and 1 year after the secondary midface advancement after skeletal maturity. After early or primary Le Fort III advancement, there was no evidence of relapse and only minimal anterior or horizontal postoperative growth of the midface. However, there was also a return of occlusal disharmony from "anticipated" mandibular growth, approaching a maximum at skeletal maturity. The dysmorphic concave facial profile and malocclusion, and airway and ocular considerations, provided the impetus for secondary midface surgery after skeletal maturity was attained. The data demonstrate that early Le Fort III advancement performed before the age of mixed dentition does not obviate the need for a secondary advancement after skeletal maturity is reached. Therapeutic, IV.

  3. Measures of maturation in early fossil hominins: events at the first transition from australopiths to early Homo

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An important question in palaeoanthropology is whether, among the australopiths and the first fossil hominins attributed to early Homo, there was a shift towards a more prolonged period of growth that can be distinguished from that of the living great apes and whether between the end of weaning and the beginning of puberty there was a slow period of growth as there is in modern humans. Evidence for the pace of growth in early fossil hominins comes from preserved tooth microstructure. A record of incremental growth in enamel and dentine persists, which allows us to reconstruct tooth growth and compare key measures of dental maturation with modern humans and living great apes. Despite their diverse diets and way of life, it is currently difficult to identify any clear differences in the timing of dental development among living great apes, australopiths and the earliest hominins attributed to the genus Homo. There is, however, limited evidence that some early hominins may have attained a greater proportion of their body mass and stature relatively earlier in the growth period than is typical of modern humans today. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298465

  4. Arrested development: early prefrontal lesions impair the maturation of moral judgement.

    PubMed

    Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Asp, Erik W; Koenigs, Michael; Sutterer, Matthew; Anderson, Steven W; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Learning to make moral judgements based on considerations beyond self-interest is a fundamental aspect of moral development. A deficit in such learning is associated with poor socialization and criminal behaviour. The neural systems required for the acquisition and maturation of moral competency are not well understood. Here we show in a unique sample of neurological patients that focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex, acquired during development, result in an abnormally egocentric pattern of moral judgement. In response to simple hypothetical moral scenarios, the patients were more likely than comparison participants to endorse self-interested actions that involved breaking moral rules or physically harming others in order to benefit themselves. This pattern (which we also found in subjects with psychopathy) differs from that of patients with adult-onset ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions--the latter group showed normal rejection of egocentric rule violations. This novel contrast of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions acquired during development versus during adulthood yields new evidence suggesting that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is a critical neural substrate for the acquisition and maturation of moral competency that goes beyond self-interest to consider the welfare of others. Disruption to this affective neural system early in life interrupts moral development.

  5. SHIP-1 Increases Early Oxidative Burst and Regulates Phagosome Maturation in Macrophages1

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Lynn A.; Levinsohn, Jonathan; Cadwallader, Amy; Tridandapani, Susheela; Swanson, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the inositol phosphatase SHIP-1 is generally thought to inhibit signaling for Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, the product of its activity, phosphatidylinositol 3,4 bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) has been implicated in activation of the NADPH oxidase. This suggests that SHIP-1 positively regulates generation of reactive oxygen species after phagocytosis. To examine how SHIP-1 activity contributes to Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, we measured and compared phospholipid dynamics, membrane trafficking and the oxidative burst in macrophages from SHIP-1-deficient and wild-type mice. SHIP-1-deficient macrophages showed significantly elevated ratios of PI(3,4,5) P3 to PI(3,4)P2 on phagosomal membranes. Imaging reactive oxygen intermediate activities in phagosomes revealed decreased early NADPH oxidase activity in SHIP-1-deficient macrophages. SHIP-1-deficiency also altered later stages of phagosome maturation, as indicated by the persistent elevation of PI(3)P and the early localization of Rab5a to phagosomes. These direct measurements of individual organelles indicate that phagosomal SHIP-1 enhances the early oxidative burst through localized alteration of the membrane 3′ phosphoinositide composition. PMID:18490750

  6. Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early successional and mature tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Powell, G.V.N.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Many Neotropical migratory species inhabit both mature and early successional forest on their wintering grounds, yet comparisons of survival rates between habitats are lacking. Consequently, the factors affecting habitat suitability for Neotropical migrants and the potential effects of tropical deforestation on migrants are not well understood. We estimated over-winter survival and capture probabilities of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), and Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus) inhabiting two common tropical habitat types, mature and early-successional forest. Our results suggest that large differences (for example, ratio of survival rates (gamma) < 0.85) in overwinter survival between these habitats do not exist for any of these species. Age ratios did not differ between habitats, but males were more common in forest habitats and females more common in successional habitats for Hooded Warblers and Kentucky Warblers. Future research on overwinter survival should address the need for age- and sex-specific survival estimates before we can draw strong conclusions regarding winter habitat suitability. Our estimates of over-winter survival extrapolated to annual survival rates that were generally lower than previous estimates of annual survival of migratory birds. Capture probability differed between habitats for Kentucky Warblers, but our results provide strong evidence against large differences in capture probability between habitats for Wood Thrush, Hooded Warblers, and Ovenbirds. We found no temporal or among site differences in survival or capture probability for any of the four species. Additional research is needed to examine the effects of winter habitat use on survival during migration and between-winter survival.

  7. Short Stature, Accelerated Bone Maturation, and Early Growth Cessation Due to Heterozygous Aggrecan Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Ola; Guo, Michael H.; Dunbar, Nancy; Popovic, Jadranka; Flynn, Daniel; Jacobsen, Christina; Lui, Julian C.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Baron, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Context: Many children with idiopathic short stature have a delayed bone age. Idiopathic short stature with advanced bone age is far less common. Objective: The aim was to identify underlying genetic causes of short stature with advanced bone age. Setting and Design: We used whole-exome sequencing to study three families with autosomal-dominant short stature, advanced bone age, and premature growth cessation. Results: Affected individuals presented with short stature [adult heights −2.3 to −4.2 standard deviation scores (SDS)] with histories of early growth cessation or childhood short stature (height SDS −1.9 to −3.5 SDS), advancement of bone age, and normal endocrine evaluations. Whole-exome sequencing identified novel heterozygous variants in ACAN, which encodes aggrecan, a proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix of growth plate and other cartilaginous tissues. The variants were present in all affected, but in no unaffected, family members. In Family 1, a novel frameshift mutation in exon 3 (c.272delA) was identified, which is predicted to cause early truncation of the aggrecan protein. In Family 2, a base-pair substitution was found in a highly conserved location within a splice donor site (c.2026+1G>A), which is also likely to alter the amino acid sequence of a large portion of the protein. In Family 3, a missense variant (c.7064T>C) in exon 14 affects a highly conserved residue (L2355P) and is strongly predicted to perturb protein function. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that heterozygous mutations in ACAN can cause a mild skeletal dysplasia, which presents clinically as short stature with advanced bone age. The accelerating effect on skeletal maturation has not previously been noted in the few prior reports of human ACAN mutations. Our findings thus expand the spectrum of ACAN defects and provide a new molecular genetic etiology for the unusual child who presents with short stature and accelerated skeletal maturation. PMID:24762113

  8. Early Cannabis Use, Polygenic Risk Score for Schizophrenia, and Brain Maturation in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    French, Leon; Gray, Courtney; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G. Bruce; Richer, Louis; Séguin, Jean R.; Veillette, Suzanne; Evans, C. John; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun W. L.; Bromberg, Uli; Bruehl, Ruediger; Buchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaitre, Herve; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pangelinan, Melissa Marie; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Timpson, Nic J.; Schumann, Gunter; Smith, George Davey; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cannabis use during adolescence is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in men. Sex differences in the dynamics of brain maturation during adolescence may be of particular importance with regard to vulnerability of the male brain to cannabis exposure. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the association between cannabis use and cortical maturation in adolescents is moderated by a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observation of 3 population-based samples included initial analysis in 1024 adolescents of both sexes from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and follow-up in 426 adolescents of both sexes from the IMAGEN Study from 8 European cities and 504 male youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in England. A total of 1577 participants (aged 12–21 years; 899 [57.0%] male) had (1) information about cannabis use; (2) imaging studies of the brain; and (3) a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia across 108 genetic loci identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Data analysis was performed from March 1 through December 31, 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cortical thickness derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Linear regression tests were used to assess the relationships between cannabis use, cortical thickness, and risk score. RESULTS Across the 3 samples of 1574 participants, a negative association was observed between cannabis use in early adolescence and cortical thickness in male participants with a high polygenic risk score. This observation was not the case for low-risk male participants or for the low- or high-risk female participants. Thus, in SYS male participants, cannabis use interacted with risk score vis-à-vis cortical thickness (P = .009); higher scores were associated with lower thickness only in males who used cannabis. Similarly, in the IMAGEN male participants, cannabis use interacted with increased risk score vis-à-vis a change in

  9. Effects of intratracheal budesonide during early postnatal life on lung maturity of premature fetal rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Chen; Feng, Xiuliang; Du, Yongping; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yueping

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to study the effects of intratracheal instillation of budesonide on lung maturity of premature fetal rabbits. The developmental pattern of pulmonary alveoli in rabbits is similar to that in humans. Fetal rabbits were taken out from female rabbits on the 28th day of pregnancy (full term = 31 days) by cesarean section (c-section). The fetal rabbits were divided into four groups: control (normal saline, NS), budesonide (budesonide, BUD), calf pulmonary surfactant for injection (pulmonary surfactant, PS), and calf pulmonary surfactant + budesonide for injection (pulmonary surfactant + budesonide, PS + BUD). All premature rabbits were kept warm after c-section. After 15-min autonomous respiration, a tracheal cannula was implemented for instilling NS, BUD, PS, and PS + BUD. The morphology of lung tissues of premature fetal rabbits was analyzed using optical and electron microscopes. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) mRNA and protein levels in lung tissues were determined using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Intratracheal instillation of BUD could increase the alveolar area of the fetal rabbits (P < 0.01), decrease the alveolar wall thickness (P < 0.01), and increase the mean density of lamellar bodies (P < 0.05) and SP-B protein levels in type II epithelial cells of pulmonary alveoli (P < 0.05). Intratracheal instillation of BUD during early postnatal life is effective in promoting alveolarization and increasing SP-B expression, the pro-pulmonary maturity of BUD combined with PS is superior to that of BUD or PS alone. However, the long-term effect of BUD on lung development needs further exploration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Supplementation with CTGF, SDF1, NGF, and HGF promotes ovine in vitro oocyte maturation and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wang, D H; Ren, J; Zhou, C J; Han, Z; Wang, L; Liang, C G

    2018-05-17

    The strategies for improving the in vitro maturation (IVM) of domestic animal oocytes focus on promoting nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. The identification of paracrine factors and their supplementation in the culture medium represent effective approaches for oocyte maturation and embryo development. This study investigated the effects of paracrine factor supplementation including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and stromal derived factor 1 (SDF1) on ovine oocytes and early parthenogenetic embryos using an in vitro culture system. First, we identified the optimal concentrations of CTGF (30 ng/mL), SDF1 (10 ng/mL), NGF (3 ng/mL), and HGF (100 ng/mL) for promoting oocyte maturation, which combined, induced nuclear maturation in 94.19% of oocytes. This combination also promoted cumulus cell expansion and inhibited oocyte/cumulus apoptosis, while enabling a larger proportion (33.04%) of embryos to develop into blastocysts than in the controls and prevented embryo apoptosis. These novel findings demonstrate that the paracrine factors CTGF, SDF1, NGF, and HGF facilitate ovine oocyte and early parthenogenetic embryo development in vitro. Thus, supplementation with these factors may help optimize the IVM of ovine oocytes and early parthenogenetic embryo development strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Auditory maturation in premature infants: a potential pitfall for early cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Hof, Janny R; Stokroos, Robert J; Wix, Eduard; Chenault, Mickey; Gelders, Els; Brokx, Jan

    2013-08-01

    To describe spontaneous hearing improvement in the first years of life of a number of preterm neonates relative to cochlear implant candidacy. Retrospective case study. Hearing levels of 14 preterm neonates (mean gestational age at birth = 29 weeks) referred after newborn hearing screening were evaluated. Initial hearing thresholds ranged from 40 to 105 dBHL (mean = 85 dBHL). Hearing level improved to normal levels for four neonates and to moderate levels for five, whereas for five neonates, no improvement in hearing thresholds was observed and cochlear implantation was recommended. Three of the four neonates in whom the hearing improved to normal levels were born prior to 28 weeks gestational age. Hearing improvement was mainly observed prior to a gestational age of 80 weeks. Delayed maturation of an immature auditory pathway might be an important reason for referral after newborn hearing screening in premature infants. Caution is advised regarding early cochlear implantation in preterm born infants. Audiological follow-ups until at least 80 weeks gestational age are therefore recommended. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Thermal Volume Changes and Creep in the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmokhtar, Malik; Delage, Pierre; Ghabezloo, Siavash; Conil, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    The Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) claystone is considered as a potential host rock for high-level radioactive waste disposal at great depth in France. Given the exothermic nature of radioactive wastes, a temperature elevation planned to be smaller than 100 °C will affect the host rock around the disposal cells. To gain better understanding of the thermal volumetric response of the COx claystone, a new thermal isotropic compression cell was developed with particular attention devoted to monitoring axial and radial strains. To do so, a high-precision LVDTs system ensuring direct contact between the LVDT stem and the claystone sample through the membrane was developed. A short drainage length (10 mm) was also ensured so as to allow full saturation of the sample under stress conditions close to in situ, and fully drained conditions during compression. High-precision strain monitoring allowed to observe a volumetric creep under stress conditions close to in situ. A drained heating test under constant stress carried out afterwards up to 80 °C exhibited a thermoelastic expansion up to a temperature of 48 °C, followed by thermoplastic contraction at higher temperature. Creep volume changes, that appeared to be enhanced by temperature, were modelled by using a simple Kelvin-Voigt model, so as to estimate the instantaneous response of the COx claystone and to determine its thermal expansion coefficient. The temperature at which the transition between thermal expansion and contraction appeared is close to the maximum burial temperature of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, estimated at 50 °C. This is in agreement with what has been already observed on the Opalinus Clay by Monfared et al. (2012) that was interpreted as a thermal hardening phenomenon, showing that the material kept the memory of the highest temperature supported during its geological history.

  13. The role of early maturation, perceived popularity, and rumors in the emergence of internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Bridget M; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-11-01

    Despite the widely reported link between early pubertal timing and internalizing symptoms among girls, less is known about the peer reputation of earlier maturing girls. The current study assesses whether early maturation is associated with perceived popularity and/or rumors, and whether these reputational factors help account for earlier maturing girls' vulnerability to emotional distress. Drawing on three waves of data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of middle school girls (n = 912), hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that more advanced development at the start of middle school predicted peer- and teacher-reported popularity as well as increased risk of being targeted for rumors. Mediation analyses suggested that popularity among boys can put earlier developing girls at risk for rumors. Finally, rumors acted as a partial mechanism through which early maturation was associated with subsequent internalizing symptoms. Knowledge of the peer mechanisms putting earlier developing girls at risk for psychosocial maladjustment can inform intervention and prevention efforts aimed at improving adolescent well-being.

  14. Efficacy of dendritic cells matured early with OK-432 (Picibanil), prostaglandin E2, and interferon-alpha as a vaccine for a hormone refractory prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Changhee; Do, Hyun-Ah; Jeong, In Gab; Park, Hongzoo; Hwang, Jung-Jin; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Jin Seon; Choo, Myong-Soo; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2010-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells. OK432 (Picibanil) was introduced as a potent stimulator of DC maturation in combination with prostaglandin-E(2) and interferon-alpha. We compared the efficacy of a DC-prostate cancer vaccine using early-mature DCs stimulated with OK432, PGE2 and INF-alpha (OPA) with that of vaccines using other methods. On days 3 or 7 of DC culture, TNF-alpha (T), TNF-alpha and LPS (TL) or OPA were employed as maturation stimulators. DU145 cells subjected to heat stress were hybridized with mature DCs using polyethyleneglycol. T cells were sensitized by the hybrids, and their proliferative and cytokine secretion activities and cytotoxicity were measured. The yields of early-mature DCs were higher, compared to yields at the conventional maturation time (P<0.05). In the early maturation setting, the mean fusion ratios, calculated from the fraction of dual-positive cells, were 13.3%, 18.6%, and 39.9%, respectively (P=0.051) in the T only, TL, and OPA-treated groups. The function of cytotoxic T cells, which were sensitized with the hybrids containing DCs matured early with OPA, was superior to that using other methods. The antitumor effects of DC-DU145 hybrids generated with DCs subjected to early maturation with the OPA may be superior to that of the hybrids using conventional maturation methods.

  15. Turf-type and early maturing annual ryegrass to establish perennial vegetation : technical report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is not currently recommended by TxDOT as a roadside re-vegetation nurse crop because its late maturity and height are too competitive for establishing perennial or spring plant mixtures. Two available genotypes us...

  16. Maize aflatoxin accumulation segregates with early maturing selections from an S2 breeding cross population.

    PubMed

    Henry, W Brien

    2013-01-15

    Maize breeders continue to seek new sources of aflatoxin resistance, but most lines identified as resistance sources are late maturing. The vast difference in flowering time makes it hard to cross these lines with proprietary commercial lines that mature much earlier and often subjects the reproductive phase of these resistant lines to the hottest and driest portion of the summer, making silking, pollination and grain fill challenging. Two hundred crosses from the GEM Project were screened for aflatoxin accumulation at Mississippi State in 2008, and a subset of these lines were screened again in 2009. The breeding cross UR13085:S99g99u was identified as a potential source of aflatoxin resistance, and maturity-based selections were made from an S2 breeding population from this same germplasm source: UR13085:S99g99u-B-B. The earliest maturing selections performed poorly for aflatoxin accumulation, but later maturing selections were identified with favorable levels of aflatoxin accumulation. These selections, while designated as "late" within this study, matured earlier than most aflatoxin resistant lines presently available to breeders. Two selections from this study, designated S5_L7 and S5_L8, are potential sources of aflatoxin resistance and will be advanced for line development and additional aflatoxin screening over more site years and environments.

  17. Early life vitamin D depletion alters the postnatal response to skeletal loading in growing and mature bone

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Harriet; Owen, Robert; Marin, Ana Campos; Lu, Yongtau; Eyles, Darryl; Lacroix, Damien; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Skerry, Tim M.; Bishop, Nick J.

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of persistent effects of early life vitamin D exposure on later skeletal health; linking low levels in early life to smaller bone size in childhood as well as increased fracture risk later in adulthood, independently of later vitamin D status. A major determinant of bone mass acquisition across all ages is mechanical loading. We tested the hypothesis in an animal model system that early life vitamin D depletion results in abrogation of the response to mechanical loading, with consequent reduction in bone size, mass and strength during both childhood and adulthood. A murine model was created in which pregnant dams were either vitamin D deficient or replete, and their offspring moved to a vitamin D replete diet at weaning. Tibias of the offspring were mechanically loaded and bone structure, extrinsic strength and growth measured both during growth and after skeletal maturity. Offspring of vitamin D deplete mice demonstrated lower bone mass in the non loaded limb and reduced bone mass accrual in response to loading in both the growing skeleton and after skeletal maturity. Early life vitamin D depletion led to reduced bone strength and altered bone biomechanical properties. These findings suggest early life vitamin D status may, in part, determine the propensity to osteoporosis and fracture that blights later life in many individuals. PMID:29370213

  18. Effects of feeding regimes and early maturation on migratory behaviour of landlocked hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Norrgård, J R; Bergman, E; Schmitz, M; Greenberg, L A

    2014-10-01

    The migratory behaviour of hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised under three different feeding regimes was monitored through the lower part of the River Klarälven, Sweden. The smolts were implanted with acoustic transmitters and released into the River Klarälven, 25 km upstream of the outlet in Lake Vänern. Early mature males, which had matured the previous autumn, were also tagged and released. To monitor migration of the fish, acoustic receivers were deployed along the migratory route. The proportion of S. salar that reached Lake Vänern was significantly greater for fish fed fat-reduced feed than for fish given rations with higher fat content, regardless of ration size. Fish from the early mature male group remained in the river to a greater extent than fish from the three feeding regimes. Smolt status (degree of silvering), as visually assessed, did not differ among the feeding regime groups, and moreover, fully-silvered fish, regardless of feeding regime, migrated faster and had a greater migration success than fish with less developed smolt characteristics. Also, successful migrants had a lower condition factor than unsuccessful ones. These results indicate that the migration success of hatchery-reared S. smolts released to the wild can be enhanced by relatively simple changes in feeding regimes and by matching stocking time with smolt development. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Individual condition and stream temperature influences early maturation of rainbow and steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Treesearch

    John R. McMillan; Jason B. Dunham; Gordon H. Reeves; Justin S. Mills; Chris E. Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Alternative male phenotypes in salmonine fishes arise from individuals that mature as larger and older anadromous marine-migrants or as smaller and younger freshwater residents. To better understand the processes influencing the expression of these phenotypes we examined the influences of growth in length (fork length) and whole body lipid content in rainbow trout (...

  20. Relation of adrenal-derived steroids with bone maturation, mineral density and geometry in healthy prepubertal and early pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, S; Taes, Y; Fiers, T; Toye, K; Van Caenegem, E; Kaufman, J-M; De Schepper, J

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of adrenal steroids on skeletal maturation and bone mass acquisition in healthy prepubertal boys. To study whether adrenal-derived steroids within the physiological range are associated with skeletal maturation, areal and volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD and vBMD) and bone geometry in healthy prepubertal and early pubertal boys. 98 healthy prepubertal and early pubertal boys (aged 6-14 y) were studied cross-sectionally. Androstenedione (A) and estrone (E1) were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and DHEAS was determined by immunoassay. Whole body and lumbar spine aBMD and bone area were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular (distal site) and cortical (proximal site) vBMD and bone geometry were assessed at the non-dominant forearm and leg using peripheral QCT. Skeletal age was determined by X-ray of the left hand. Adrenal-derived steroids (DHEAS, A and E1) are positively associated with bone age in prepubertal and early pubertal children, independently of age. There are no associations between the adrenal-derived steroids and the studied parameters of bone size (lumbar spine and whole body bone area, trabecular or cortical area at the radius or tibia, periosteal circumference and cortical thickness at the radius or tibia) or BMD (aBMD or vBMD). In healthy prepubertal and early pubertal boys, serum adrenal-derived steroid levels, are associated with skeletal maturation, independently of age, but not with bone size or (v)BMD. Our data suggest that adrenal derived steroids are not implicated in the accretion of bone mass before puberty in boys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass media as a sexual super peer for early maturing girls.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the possibility that the mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) serve as a kind of super peer for girls who enter puberty sooner than their age-mates. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant associations between earlier pubertal timing and earlier transition to first sex. Does puberty also stimulate interest in sexual media content that is seen as giving permission to engage in sexual behavior? White and African-American female adolescents (n = 471; average age 13.7 years) recruited from public middle schools in central North Carolina completed two self-administered surveys in their homes about their pubertal status, interest in and exposure to various media, and perceptions of sexual media content. Earlier maturing girls reported more interest than later maturing girls in seeing sexual content in movies, television, and magazines, and in listening to sexual content in music, regardless of age or race. Earlier maturing girls were also more likely to be listening to music and reading magazines with sexual content, more likely to see R-rated movies, and to interpret the messages they saw in the media as approving of teens having sexual intercourse. The mass media may be serving as a kind of sexual super peer, especially for earlier maturing girls. Given the lack of sexual health messages in most media adolescents attend to, these findings give cause for concern. The media should be encouraged to provide more sexually healthy content, and youth service providers and physicians should be aware that earlier maturing girls may be interested in sexual information.

  2. Seed development and maturation in early spring-flowering Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus continues post-shedding with little evidence of maturation in planta

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Rosemary J.; Hay, Fiona R.; Ellis, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Seeds of the moist temperate woodland species Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus, dispersed during spring or early summer, germinated poorly in laboratory tests. Seed development and maturation were studied to better understand the progression from developmental to germinable mode in order to improve seed collection and germination practices in these and similar species. Methods Phenology, seed mass, moisture content and ability to germinate and tolerate desiccation were monitored during seed development until shedding. Embryo elongation within seeds was investigated during seed development and under several temperature regimes after shedding. Key Results Seeds were shed at high moisture content (>59 %) with little evidence that dry mass accumulation or embryo elongation were complete. Ability to germinate developed prior to the ability of some seeds to tolerate enforced desiccation. Germination was sporadic and slow. Embryo elongation occurred post-shedding in moist environments, most rapidly at 20 °C in G. nivalis and 15 °C in N. pseudonarcissus. The greatest germination also occurred in these regimes, 78 and 48 %, respectively, after 700 d. Conclusions Seeds of G. nivalis and N. pseudonarcissus were comparatively immature at shedding and substantial embryo elongation occurred post-shedding. Seeds showed limited desiccation tolerance at dispersal. PMID:23478943

  3. White matter maturation is associated with the emergence of Theory of Mind in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Grosse Wiesmann, Charlotte; Schreiber, Jan; Singer, Tania; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Friederici, Angela D.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to attribute mental states to other individuals is crucial for human cognition. A milestone of this ability is reached around the age of 4, when children start understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. The neural basis supporting this critical step is currently unknown. Here, we relate this behavioural change to the maturation of white matter structure in 3- and 4-year-old children. Tract-based spatial statistics and probabilistic tractography show that the developmental breakthrough in false belief understanding is associated with age-related changes in local white matter structure in temporoparietal regions, the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and with increased dorsal white matter connectivity between temporoparietal and inferior frontal regions. These effects are independent of co-developing cognitive abilities. Our findings show that the emergence of mental state representation is related to the maturation of core belief processing regions and their connection to the prefrontal cortex. PMID:28322222

  4. White matter maturation is associated with the emergence of Theory of Mind in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Grosse Wiesmann, Charlotte; Schreiber, Jan; Singer, Tania; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-03-21

    The ability to attribute mental states to other individuals is crucial for human cognition. A milestone of this ability is reached around the age of 4, when children start understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. The neural basis supporting this critical step is currently unknown. Here, we relate this behavioural change to the maturation of white matter structure in 3- and 4-year-old children. Tract-based spatial statistics and probabilistic tractography show that the developmental breakthrough in false belief understanding is associated with age-related changes in local white matter structure in temporoparietal regions, the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and with increased dorsal white matter connectivity between temporoparietal and inferior frontal regions. These effects are independent of co-developing cognitive abilities. Our findings show that the emergence of mental state representation is related to the maturation of core belief processing regions and their connection to the prefrontal cortex.

  5. Metabolic and structural changes during early maturation of Inga vera seeds are consistent with the lack of a desiccation phase.

    PubMed

    Caccere, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Simone P; Centeno, Danilo C; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; Braga, Márcia R

    2013-06-15

    Inga vera, native to South America, is an important leguminous species used for ecological restoration of riparian forests and its seeds are among the most recalcitrant ones described up to date. In this work, we analysed the metabolic profile, cell ultrastructure as well as cell wall polysaccharides of I. vera seeds in order to better understand its maturation, which allows embryo germination without a quiescent phase. Increased amounts of citric, glutamic, pyroglutamic, and aspartic acids from stages I to II (120 and 129 days after flowering (DAF)) corroborate the hypothesis of high metabolism, shifting from fermentative to aerobic respiration at seed maturity. This phase was characterized by an extensive vacuolization of embryonic cells, which also indicate high metabolic activity. The proportion of arabinose in the cell walls of embryonic axis (approx. 20%) was lower than those found in some orthodox seeds (nearly 40%), suggesting that arabinose-containing polysaccharides, which are thought to provide more flexibility to the cell wall during natural drying, are less abundant in I. vera seeds. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the major changes occurred during early stages of seed maturation of I. vera, indicating that the rapid temporary metabolic shift observed between stages I and II may be related to the lack of desiccation phase, moving directly to germination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Tropical anurans mature early and die young: Evidence from eight Afromontane Hyperolius species and a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Age- and size-related life-history traits of anuran amphibians are thought to vary systematically with latitude and altitude. Because the available data base is strongly biased towards temperate-zone species, we provide new estimates on eight afrotropical Reed Frog species. A meta-analysis of the demographic traits in 44 tropical anuran species aims to test for the predicted clinal variation and to contrast results with variation detected in temperate-zone species. The small-sized reed frogs reach sexual maturity during the first or second year of life, but longevity does not exceed three to four years. Latitudinal effects on demographic life-history traits are not detectable in tropical anurans, and altitudinal effects are limited to a slight size reduction at higher elevations. Common features of anuran life-history in the tropics are early sexual maturation at small size and low longevity resulting in low lifetime fecundity. This pattern contrasts with that found in temperate-zone anurans which mature later at larger size and grow considerably older yielding greater lifetime fecundity than in the tropics. Latitudinal and altitudinal contraction of the yearly activity period shape the evolution of life-history traits in the temperate region, while trait variation in the tropics seems to be driven by distinct, not yet identified selective forces. PMID:28182738

  7. Forward Genetics Defines Xylt1 as a Key, Conserved Regulator of Early Chondrocyte Maturation and Skeletal Length

    PubMed Central

    Mis, Emily K.; Liem, Karel F.; Kong, Yong; Schwartz, Nancy B.; Domowicz, Miriam; Weatherbee, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The long bones of the vertebrate body are built by the initial formation of a cartilage template that is later replaced by mineralized bone. The proliferation and maturation of the skeletal precursor cells (chondrocytes) within the cartilage template and their replacement by bone is a highly coordinated process which, if misregulated, can lead to a number of defects including dwarfism and other skeletal deformities. This is exemplified by the fact that abnormal bone development is one of the most common types of human birth defects. Yet, many of the factors that initiate and regulate chondrocyte maturation are not known. We identified a recessive dwarf mouse mutant (pug) from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. pug mutant skeletal elements are patterned normally during development, but display a ~20% length reduction compared to wild-type embryos. We show that the pug mutation does not lead to changes in chondrocyte proliferation but instead promotes premature maturation and early ossification, which ultimately leads to disproportionate dwarfism. Using sequence capture and high-throughput sequencing, we identified a missense mutation in the Xylosyltransferase 1 (Xylt1) gene in pug mutants. Xylosyltransferases catalyze the initial step in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain addition to proteoglycan core proteins, and these modifications are essential for normal proteoglycan function. We show that the pug mutation disrupts Xylt1 activity and subcellular localization, leading to a reduction in GAG chains in pug mutants. The pug mutant serves as a novel model for mammalian dwarfism and identifies a key role for proteoglycan modification in the initiation of chondrocyte maturation. PMID:24161523

  8. Forward genetics defines Xylt1 as a key, conserved regulator of early chondrocyte maturation and skeletal length.

    PubMed

    Mis, Emily K; Liem, Karel F; Kong, Yong; Schwartz, Nancy B; Domowicz, Miriam; Weatherbee, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    The long bones of the vertebrate body are built by the initial formation of a cartilage template that is later replaced by mineralized bone. The proliferation and maturation of the skeletal precursor cells (chondrocytes) within the cartilage template and their replacement by bone is a highly coordinated process which, if misregulated, can lead to a number of defects including dwarfism and other skeletal deformities. This is exemplified by the fact that abnormal bone development is one of the most common types of human birth defects. Yet, many of the factors that initiate and regulate chondrocyte maturation are not known. We identified a recessive dwarf mouse mutant (pug) from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. pug mutant skeletal elements are patterned normally during development, but display a ~20% length reduction compared to wild-type embryos. We show that the pug mutation does not lead to changes in chondrocyte proliferation but instead promotes premature maturation and early ossification, which ultimately leads to disproportionate dwarfism. Using sequence capture and high-throughput sequencing, we identified a missense mutation in the Xylosyltransferase 1 (Xylt1) gene in pug mutants. Xylosyltransferases catalyze the initial step in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain addition to proteoglycan core proteins, and these modifications are essential for normal proteoglycan function. We show that the pug mutation disrupts Xylt1 activity and subcellular localization, leading to a reduction in GAG chains in pug mutants. The pug mutant serves as a novel model for mammalian dwarfism and identifies a key role for proteoglycan modification in the initiation of chondrocyte maturation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Adsorption of polar organic molecules on sediments: Case-study on Callovian-Oxfordian claystone.

    PubMed

    Rasamimanana, S; Lefèvre, G; Dagnelie, R V H

    2017-08-01

    The release and transport of anthropogenic organic matter through the geosphere is often an environmental criterion of safety. Sedimentary rocks are widely studied in this context as geological barriers for waste management. It is the case of Callovian-Oxfordian claystone (COx), for which several studies report adsorption of anthropogenic organic molecules. In this study, we evaluated and reviewed adsorption data of polar organic molecules on COx claystone. Experiments were performed on raw claystone, decarbonated and clay fractions. Adsorption isotherms were measured with adsorbates of various polarities: adipate, benzoate, ortho-phthalate, succinate, gluconate, oxalate, EDTA, citrate. A significant adsorption was observed for multidentate polycarboxylic acids as evidenced with phthalate, succinate, oxalate, gluconate, EDTA and citrate (R d  = 1.53, 3.52, 8.4, 8.8, 12.4, 54.7 L kg -1 respectively). Multiple linear regression were performed as a statistical analysis to determine the predictors from these adsorption data. A linear correlation between adsorption data (R d ) and dipole moment (μ) of adsorbates was evidenced (R 2  = 0.91). Molecules with a high dipole moment, μ(D) > 2.5, displayed a significant adsorption, R d ≫1 L kg -1 . A qualitative correlation can be easily estimated using the water/octanol partition coefficient, P ow , of adsorbates (R 2  = 0.77). In this case, two opposite trends were distinguished for polar and apolar molecules. The use of organic carbon content in sediments is relevant for predicting adsorption of apolar compounds, log (P ow )>+1. The oxides/clays contents may be relevant regarding polar molecules, log ( apparent P ow )<-1. The proposed scheme offers a general methodology for investigation of geo-barriers towards heterogeneous organic plumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microstructures and composition of brittle faults in claystones: Constraints on the barrier behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneuker, Tilo; Hammer, Jörg; Jahn, Steffen; Zulauf, Gernold

    2017-04-01

    Investigations of fault rocks are crucial to evaluate the barrier properties of clay rich formations used for the storage of hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide gas or for the storage of heat generating radioactive waste. Claystones are considered as a geological barrier. However, their barrier capability can be reduced if the claystones are cut by brittle faults. Our study is focusing on the microfabrics and element mobility of artificially and naturally fractured claystones using a multi-method approach. Particular attention was paid to small scale lithological heterogeneities occurring in the clayey sequence. The microfabrics were investigated using SEM and optical microscopy. Geochemical and phase analyses were carried out using XRD, XRF and ICP-MS. In addition, organic (TOC) and inorganic carbon (TIC), total sulphur (TS) as well as the cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined. Macroscopic observations of fault zones on outcrops and drill cores indicate closely spaced planar and undulating discontinuities, including slickenside striations. The investigated fault zones are often accompanied by calcite veins and calcite enriched zones. The fault core is formed by a mm to cm thick clayey, fine grained, cohesionless fault gouge including reworked calcite fragments. Duplex-like domains are separated by discrete microshears, along which the rocks disintegrate. Calcareous fossils, common in undeformed claystones, appear in these zones fragmented and rotated. In contrast to calcite, quartz is more resistant to solution-precipitation processes. Rarely intracrystalline fracturing was observed. The calcite mineralization in veins, and solution-precipitation processes of calcite, documented by stylolites, reflect enhanced palaeo-permeability and activity of Ca2+- and CO2-rich fluids inside some of the fault zones, mainly along fault parallel shear planes. Elevated Sr and Ba concentrations are bound to the tectonic, secondary calcite veins within and outside the investigated

  11. Exploring the Early Organization and Maturation of Linguistic Pathways in the Human Infant Brain.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jessica; Poupon, Cyril; Thirion, Bertrand; Simonnet, Hina; Kulikova, Sofya; Leroy, François; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2016-05-01

    Linguistic processing is based on a close collaboration between temporal and frontal regions connected by two pathways: the "dorsal" and "ventral pathways" (assumed to support phonological and semantic processing, respectively, in adults). We investigated here the development of these pathways at the onset of language acquisition, during the first post-natal weeks, using cross-sectional diffusion imaging in 21 healthy infants (6-22 weeks of age) and 17 young adults. We compared the bundle organization and microstructure at these two ages using tractography and original clustering analyses of diffusion tensor imaging parameters. We observed structural similarities between both groups, especially concerning the dorsal/ventral pathway segregation and the arcuate fasciculus asymmetry. We further highlighted the developmental tempos of the linguistic bundles: The ventral pathway maturation was more advanced than the dorsal pathway maturation, but the latter catches up during the first post-natal months. Its fast development during this period might relate to the learning of speech cross-modal representations and to the first combinatorial analyses of the speech input. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature beneath well-developed, late-successional stage crusts than immature, early-successional stage crusts. We identified and enumerated nematodes by genus from beneath early- and late-stage crusts from both the Colorado Plateau, Utah (cool, winter rain desert) and Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico (hot, summer rain desert) at 0-10 and 10-30 cm depths. As hypothesized, nematode abundance, richness, diversity, and successional maturity were greater beneath well-developed crusts than immature crusts. The mechanism of this aboveground-belowground link between biological soil crusts and nematode community composition is likely the increased food, habitat, nutrient inputs, moisture retention, and/or environmental stability provided by late-successional crusts. Canonical correspondence analysis of nematode genera demonstrated that nematode community composition differed greatly between geographic locations that contrast in temperature, precipitation, and soil texture. We found unique assemblages of genera among combinations of location and crust type that reveal a gap in scientific knowledge regarding empirically derived characterization of dominant nematode genera in deserts soils and their functional role in a crust-associated food web. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  14. Early in vitro fertilization improves development of bovine ova heat stressed during in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Schrock, G E; Saxton, A M; Schrick, F N; Edwards, J L

    2007-09-01

    The objectives were to examine the development of embryos derived from control (38.5 degrees C) or heat-stressed ova [41.0 degrees C during the first 12 h of in vitro maturation (hIVM)] when in vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed at 16, 18, 20, 24, or 30 hIVM. Effects of heat stress in compromising ovum development depended on when IVF was performed (in vitro maturation temperature x IVF time interaction). When IVF was performed at 24 or 30 hIVM, fewer heat-stressed ova developed to the blastocyst stage compared with the respective controls. In contrast, when IVF was performed at 16, 18, or 20 hIVM, more heat-stressed ova developed to the blastocyst stage compared with the respective controls. Performing IVF earlier than usual was beneficial, because the ability of heat-stressed ova to develop to the blastocyst stage was improved when IVF was performed at 18 or 20 vs. 24 hIVM. Blastocyst stage and quality were equivalent to non-heat-stressed controls regardless of IVF time. Control ova undergoing IVF at 20, 24, 30, or 32 hIVM and heat-stressed ova undergoing IVF at 16, 18, 20, or 24 hIVM were compared for blastocyst development by multisource regression. Although linear and quadratic slopes were similar, heat stress reduced the peak and shifted the developmental response of ova by 7.3 h. In other words, obtaining optimal blastocyst development from heat-stressed ova would depend on performing IVF at 19.5 hIVM compared with 26.7 hIVM for non-heat-stressed controls. Heat-induced reductions in peak blastocyst development significantly reduced the window of time available to perform IVF and obtain > or = 20% blastocyst development. In summary, results support an effect of heat stress to hasten developmentally important events during oocyte maturation. The inability of earlier IVF to fully restore the development of heat-stressed ova to that of non-heat-stressed controls highlights the importance of further study.

  15. Early Childhood Depression and Alterations in the Trajectory of Gray Matter Maturation in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Jackson, Joshua J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Harms, Michael P; Tillman, Rebecca; Botteron, Kelly; Whalen, Diana; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    The trajectory of cortical gray matter development in childhood has been characterized by early neurogenesis and volume increase, peaking at puberty followed by selective elimination and myelination, resulting in volume loss and thinning. This inverted U-shaped trajectory, as well as cortical thickness, has been associated with cognitive and emotional function. Synaptic pruning-based volume decline has been related to experience-dependent plasticity in animals. To date, there have been no data to inform whether and how childhood depression might be associated with this trajectory. To examine the effects of early childhood depression, from the preschool age to the school age period, on cortical gray matter development measured across 3 waves of neuroimaging from late school age to early adolescence. Data were collected in an academic research setting from September 22, 2003, to December 13, 2014, on 193 children aged 3 to 6 years from the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were observed for up to 11 years in a longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study of childhood depression. Multilevel modeling was applied to explore the association between the number of childhood depression symptoms and prior diagnosis of major depressive disorder and the trajectory of gray matter change across 3 scan waves. Data analysis was conducted from October 29, 2014, to September 28, 2015. Volume, thickness, and surface area of cortical gray matter measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 scan waves. Of the 193 children, 90 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder; 116 children had 3 full waves of neuroimaging scans. Findings demonstrated marked alterations in cortical gray matter volume loss (slope estimate, -0.93 cm³; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.10 cm³ per scan wave) and thinning (slope estimate, -0.0044 mm; 95% CI, -0.0077 to -0.0012 mm per scan wave) associated with experiencing an episode of major depressive disorder before the first magnetic resonance

  16. The early mature part of bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) precursor proteins contributes to TatBC receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, Agnes; Freudl, Roland

    2018-05-11

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across bacterial membranes. Tat precursor proteins possess a conserved twin-arginine (RR) motif in their signal peptides that is involved in the binding of the proteins to the membrane-associated TatBC receptor complex. In addition, the hydrophobic region in the Tat signal peptides also contributes to TatBC binding, but whether regions beyond the signal-peptide cleavage site are involved in this process is unknown. Here, we analyzed the contribution of the early mature protein part of the Escherichia coli trimethylamine N -oxide reductase (TorA) to productive TatBC receptor binding. We identified substitutions in the 30 amino acids immediately following the TorA signal peptide (30aa-region) that restored export of a transport-defective TorA[KQ]-30aa-MalE precursor, in which the RR residues had been replaced by a lysine-glutamine pair. Some of these substitutions increased the hydrophobicity of the N-terminal part of the 30aa-region and thereby likely enhanced hydrophobic substrate-receptor interactions within the hydrophobic TatBC substrate-binding cavity. Another class of substitutions increased the positive net charge of the region's C-terminal part, presumably leading to strengthened electrostatic interactions between the mature substrate part and the cytoplasmic TatBC regions. Furthermore, we identified substitutions in the C-terminal domains of TatB following the transmembrane segment that restored transport of various transport-defective TorA-MalE derivatives. Some of these substitutions most likely affected the orientation or conformation of the flexible, carboxy-proximal helices of TatB. Therefore, we propose that a tight accommodation of the folded mature region by TatB contributes to productive binding of Tat substrates to TatBC. © 2018 Ulfig and Freudl.

  17. Mothers' Knowledge of Early Adolescents' Activities following the Middle School Transition and Pubertal Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…

  18. Maturation, Peer Context, and Indigenous Girls' Early-Onset Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Melissa L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a biosocial model of the impact of puberty on indigenous girls' early-onset substance use by considering the potential mediating role of peer context (i.e., mixed-sex peer groups and substance use prototypes) on the puberty and substance use relationship. Data include responses from 360 girls of a common indigenous cultural…

  19. The Role of Microfilaments in Early Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calarco, Patricia G.

    2005-04-01

    Mouse oocyte microfilaments (MF) were perturbed by depolymerization (cytochalasin B) or stabilization (jasplakinolide) and correlated meiotic defects examined by confocal microscopy. MF, microtubules, and mitochondria were vitally stained; centrosomes ([gamma]-tubulin), after fixation. MF depolymerization by cytochalasin in culture medium did not affect central migration of centrosomes, mitochondria, or nuclear breakdown (GVBD); some MF signal was localized around the germinal vesicle (GV). In maturation-blocking medium (containing IBMX), central movement was curtailed and cortical MF aggregations made the plasma membrane wavy. Occasional long MF suggested that not all MF were depolymerized. MF stabilization by jasplakinolide led to MF aggregations throughout the cytoplasm. GVBD occurred (unless IBMX was present) but no spindle formed. Over time, most oocytes constricted creating a dumbbell shape with MF concentrated under one-half of the oocyte cortex and on either side of the constriction. In IBMX medium, the MF-containing half of the dumbbell over time sequestered the GV, MF, mitochondria, and one to two large cortical centrosomes; the non-MF half appeared empty. Cumulus processes contacted the oocyte surface (detected by microtubule content) and mirrored MF distribution. Results demonstrated that MF play an essential role in meiosis, primarily through cortically mediated events, including centrosome localization, spindle (or GV) movement to the periphery, activation of (polar body) constriction, and establishment of oocyte polarity. The presence of a cortical “organizing pole” is hypothesized.

  20. Dental maturational sequence and dental tissue proportions in the early Upper Paleolithic child from Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Bayle, Priscilla; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Trinkaus, Erik; Duarte, Cidália; Mazurier, Arnaud; Zilhão, João

    2010-01-01

    Neandertals differ from recent and terminal Pleistocene human populations in their patterns of dental development, endostructural (internal structure) organization, and relative tissue proportions. Although significant changes in craniofacial and postcranial morphology have been found between the Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic modern humans of western Eurasia and the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene inhabitants of the same region, most studies of dental maturation and structural morphology have compared Neandertals only to later Holocene humans. To assess whether earlier modern humans contrasted with later modern populations and possibly approached the Neandertal pattern, we used high-resolution microtomography to analyze the remarkably complete mixed dentition of the early Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian) child from Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, and compared it to a Neandertal sample, the late Upper Paleolithic (Magdalenian) child of La Madeleine, and a worldwide extant human sample. Some aspects of the dental maturational pattern and tooth endostructural organization of Lagar Velho 1 are absent from extant populations and the Magdalenian specimen and are currently documented only among Neandertals. Therefore, a simple Neandertal versus modern human dichotomy is inadequate to accommodate the morphostructural and developmental variation represented by Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic populations. These data reinforce the complex nature of Neandertal-modern human similarities and differences, and document ongoing human evolution after the global establishment of modern human morphology. PMID:20080622

  1. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha W; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-06-12

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4-5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake.

  2. Early reproductive maturity among Pumé foragers: Implications of a pooled energy model to fast life histories.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D; Ellison, Peter T

    2009-01-01

    Life history theory places central importance on relationships between ontogeny, reproduction, and mortality. Fast human life histories have been theoretically and empirically associated with high mortality regimes. This relationship, however, poses an unanswered question about energy allocation. In epidemiologically stressful environments, a greater proportion of energy is allocated to immune function. If growth and maintenance are competing energetic expenditures, less energy should be available for growth, and the mechanism to sustain rapid maturation remains unclear. The human pattern of extended juvenile provisioning and resource sharing may provide an important source of variation in energy availability not predicted by tradeoff models that assume independence at weaning. We consider a group of South American foragers to evaluate the effects that pooled energy budgets may have on early reproduction. Despite growing up in an environment with distinct seasonal under-nutrition, harsh epidemiological conditions, and no health care, Pumé girls mature quickly and initiate childbearing in their midteens. Pooled energy budgets compensate for the low productivity of girls not only through direct food transfers but importantly by reducing energy they would otherwise expend in foraging activities to meet metabolic requirements. We suggest that pooled energy budgets affect energy availability at both extrinsic and intrinsic levels. Because energy budgets are pooled, Pumé girls and young women are buffered from environmental downturns and can maximize energy allocated to growth completion and initiate reproduction earlier than a traditional bound-energy model would predict. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Early-Life Food Nutrition, Microbiota Maturation and Immune Development Shape Life-Long Health.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Du, Lina; Shi, Ronghua; Chen, Zhidong; Zhou, Yiming; Li, Zongjie

    2018-06-06

    The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state. Therefore it is commonly believed early-life perturbation of the microbial community structure and the dietary nutrition interference on the child mucosal immunity contribute to the whole life susceptibility to chronic diseases. In all, the combined interrelationship between food ingredients nutrition, intestinal microbiota configurations and host system immunity provides new therapeutic targets to treat various kinds of pathogenic inflammations and chronic diseases.

  4. Methods for evaluating a mature substance abuse prevention/early intervention program.

    PubMed

    Becker, L R; Hall, M; Fisher, D A; Miller, T R

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe methods for work in progress to evaluate four workplace prevention and/or early intervention programs designed to change occupational norms and reduce substance abuse at a major U.S. transportation company. The four programs are an employee assistance program, random drug testing, managed behavioral health care, and a peer-led intervention program. An elaborate mixed-methods evaluation combines data collection and analysis techniques from several traditions. A process-improvement evaluation focuses on the peer-led component to describe its evolution, document the implementation process for those interested in replicating it, and provide information for program improvement. An outcome-assessment evaluation examines impacts of the four programs on job performance measures (e.g., absenteeism, turnover, injury, and disability rates) and includes a cost-offset and employer cost-savings analysis. Issues related to using archival data, combining qualitative and quantitative designs, and working in a corporate environment are discussed.

  5. Shocked quartz and more: Impact signatures in K-T boundary clays and claystones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, Bruce F.

    1988-01-01

    Quartz grains displaying multiple sets of planar features are described from numerous Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clays and claystones at both marine and nonmarine depositional sites around the world. All these sites also show anomalously high amounts of iridium and enrichments of other siderophile elements in cosmic ratios within these boundary units. This combination of mineralogical and geochemical features are used in support of an impact hypothesis for the end-Cretaceous event. Recently, it was suggested that some combination of explosive and nonexplosive volcanism associated with the formation of the Deccan traps in India could be responsible for the mineralogy and geochemistry seen in the K-T boundary units. Besides the obvious contradition of simultaneous explosive and nonexplosive volcanism from one locality during an instant of geologic time, there remains the difficulty of spreading both iridium (and trace elements in cosmic proportions) and quartz grains around the world by volcanic (atmospheric) transport. In addition, the ability of volcanism to produce the type of shock metamorphism seen in minerals at the K-T boundary was not demonstrated. Multiple sets of shock lamellae in quartz are considered characteristic of shock metamorphism in rocks at the sites of known impact craters and are the type of deformation seen in quartz from K-T boundary clays and claystones. Single sets of poorly defined lamellae described from rare quartz grains in certain volcanic deposits are characteristic of tectonic deformation and do not correspond to the shock lamellae in quartz from K-T sediments and impact structures. So-called shock mosaicism in quartz and feldspar grains described from volcanic deposits can result from many processes other than shock metamorphism, and therefore is not considered to be an effect characteristic solely of shock. The mineralogy of shock-metamorphosed grains at the K-T boundary also argues against a volcanic origin.

  6. Quantification of diffusion tensor imaging in normal white matter maturation of early childhood using an automated processing pipeline.

    PubMed

    Loh, K B; Ramli, N; Tan, L K; Roziah, M; Rahmat, K; Ariffin, H

    2012-07-01

    The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas. Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction. DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued. DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data. Diffusion tensor imaging outperforms conventional MRI in depicting white matter maturation. • DTI will become an important clinical tool for diagnosing paediatric neurological diseases. • DTI appears especially helpful for developmental abnormalities, tumours and white matter disease. • An automated processing pipeline assists quantitative analysis of high throughput DTI data.

  7. The cargo receptor p24A facilitates calcium sensing receptor maturation and stabilization in the early secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Stepanchick, Ann; Breitwieser, Gerda E.

    2010-01-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a Family 3/C G protein-coupled receptor with slow and partial targeting to the plasma membrane in both native and heterologous cells. We identified cargo receptor family member p24A in yeast two-hybrid screens with the CaSR carboxyl terminus. Interactions were confirmed by immunoprecipitation of either p24A or CaSR in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Only the immaturely glycosylated form of CaSR interacts with p24A. Dissociation likely occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or cis-Golgi, since only the uncleaved form of a CaSR mutant sensitive to the trans-Golgi enzyme furin was coimmunoprecipitated with p24A. p24A and p24A(ΔGOLD) significantly increased total and plasma membrane CaSR protein but p24A(FF/AA) did not. The CaSR carboxyl terminus distal to T868 is required for differential sensitivity to p24A and its mutants. Interaction with p24A therefore increases CaSR stability in the ER and enhances plasma membrane targeting. Neither wt Sar1p or the T39N mutant increased CaSR maturation or abundance while the H79G mutant increased abundance but prevented maturation of CaSR. These results suggest that p24A is the limiting factor in CaSR trafficking in the early secretory pathway, and that cycling between the ER and ERGIC protects CaSR from degradation. PMID:20361938

  8. Pomerelle Russet: An early maturing potato variety with high yield of U.S. No.1 tubers suitable for fresh market and early processing and resistance to Potato mop top virus and corky ringspot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pomerelle Russet is an early maturing fresh potato variety, which produces moderately high early-season yields of oblong-long tubers with brown-russet skin. It is notable for its very attractive, smooth tubers and resistances to internal and external defects with a high percentage of U.S. No. 1 tube...

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Maturation on Physical Self-Perceptions and the Relationship with Physical Activity in Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G.; Fawkner, Samantha G.; Henretty, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N = 150; mean age = 12.79 plus or minus 0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and…

  10. HIP1 exhibits an early recruitment and a late stage function in the maturation of coated pits.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Irit; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Ashery, Uri

    2009-09-01

    Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an accessory protein of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway, yet its precise role and the step at which it becomes involved are unclear. We employed live-cell imaging techniques to focus on the early steps of CME and characterize HIP1 dynamics. We show that HIP1 is highly colocalized with clathrin at the plasma membrane and shares similar dynamics with a subpopulation of clathrin assemblies. Employing transferrin receptor fused to pHluorin, we distinguished between open pits to which HIP1 localizes and newly internalized vesicles that are devoid of HIP1. Moreover, shRNA knockdown of clathrin compromised HIP1 membranal localization, unlike the reported behavior of Sla2p. HIP1 fragment, lacking its ANTH and Talin-like domains, inhibits internalization of transferrin, but retains colocalization with membranal clathrin assemblies. These data demonstrate HIP1's role in pits maturation and formation of the coated vesicle, and its strong dependence on clathrin for membranal localization.

  11. Localization of DNA methyltransferase-1 during oocyte differentiation, in vitro maturation and early embryonic development in cow

    PubMed Central

    Lodde, V.; Modina, S.C.; Franciosi, F.; Zuccari, E.; Tessaro, I.; Luciano, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1) is involved in the maintenance of DNA methylation patterns and is crucial for normal mammalian development. The aim of the present study was to assess the localization of Dnmt1 in cow, during the latest phases of oocyte differentiation and during the early stages of segmentation. Dnmt1 expression and localization were assessed in oocytes according to the chromatin configuration, which in turn provides an important epigenetic mechanism for the control of global gene expression and represents a morphological marker of oocyte differentiation. We found that the initial chromatin condensation was accompanied by a slight increase in the level of global DNA methylation, as assessed by 5-methyl-cytosine immunostaining followed by laser scanning confocal microscopy analysis (LSCM). RT-PCR confirmed the presence of Dnmt1 transcripts throughout this phase of oocyte differentiation. Analogously, Dnmt1 immunodetection and LSCM indicated that the protein was always present and localized in the cytoplasm, regardless the chromatin configuration and the level of global DNA methylation. Moreover, our data indicate that while Dnmt1 is retained in the cytoplasm in metaphase II stage oocytes and zygotes, it enters the nuclei of 8–16 cell stage embryos. As suggested in mouse, the functional meaning of the presence of Dnmt1 in the bovine embryo nuclei could be the maintainement of the methylation pattern of imprinted genes. In conclusion, the present work provides useful elements for the study of Dnmt1 function during the late stage of oocyte differentiation, maturation and early embryonic development in mammals. PMID:22073356

  12. High-density genetic linkage map construction by F2 populations and QTL analysis of early-maturity traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Libei; Zhao, Shuqi; Su, Junji; Fan, Shuli; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Gu, Lijiao; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Guoyuan; Yu, Dingwei; Liu, Qibao; Zhang, Xianlong; Yu, Shuxun

    2017-01-01

    Due to China's rapidly increasing population, the total arable land area has dramatically decreased; as a consequence, the competition for farming land allocated for grain and cotton production has become fierce. Therefore, to overcome the existing contradiction between cotton grain and fiber production and the limited farming land, development of early-maturing cultivars is necessary. In this research, a high-density linkage map of upland cotton was constructed using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with early maturity in 170 F2 individuals derived from a cross between LU28 and ZHONG213. The high-density genetic map, which was composed of 3978 SNP markers across the 26 cotton chromosomes, spanned 2480 cM with an average genetic distance of 0.62 cM. Collinearity analysis showed that the genetic map was of high quality and accurate and agreed well with the Gossypium hirsutum reference genome. Based on this high-density linkage map, QTL analysis was performed on cotton early-maturity traits, including FT, FBP, WGP, NFFB, HNFFB and PH. A total 47 QTLs for the six traits were detected; each of these QTLs explained between 2.61% and 32.57% of the observed phenotypic variation. A major region controlling early-maturity traits in Gossypium hirsutum was identified for FT, FBP, WGP, NFFB and HNFFB on chromosome D03. QTL analyses revealed that phenotypic variation explained (PVE) ranged from 10.42% to 32.57%. Two potential candidate genes, Gh_D03G0885 and Gh_D03G0922, were predicted in a stable QTL region and had higher expression levels in the early-maturity variety ZHONG213 than in the late-maturity variety LU28. However, further evidence is required for functional validation. This study could provide useful information for the dissection of early-maturity traits and guide valuable genetic loci for molecular-assisted selection (MAS) in cotton breeding.

  13. High-density genetic linkage map construction by F2 populations and QTL analysis of early-maturity traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Libei; Zhao, Shuqi; Su, Junji; Fan, Shuli; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Gu, Lijiao; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Guoyuan; Yu, Dingwei; Liu, Qibao; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-01-01

    Due to China’s rapidly increasing population, the total arable land area has dramatically decreased; as a consequence, the competition for farming land allocated for grain and cotton production has become fierce. Therefore, to overcome the existing contradiction between cotton grain and fiber production and the limited farming land, development of early-maturing cultivars is necessary. In this research, a high-density linkage map of upland cotton was constructed using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with early maturity in 170 F2 individuals derived from a cross between LU28 and ZHONG213. The high-density genetic map, which was composed of 3978 SNP markers across the 26 cotton chromosomes, spanned 2480 cM with an average genetic distance of 0.62 cM. Collinearity analysis showed that the genetic map was of high quality and accurate and agreed well with the Gossypium hirsutum reference genome. Based on this high-density linkage map, QTL analysis was performed on cotton early-maturity traits, including FT, FBP, WGP, NFFB, HNFFB and PH. A total 47 QTLs for the six traits were detected; each of these QTLs explained between 2.61% and 32.57% of the observed phenotypic variation. A major region controlling early-maturity traits in Gossypium hirsutum was identified for FT, FBP, WGP, NFFB and HNFFB on chromosome D03. QTL analyses revealed that phenotypic variation explained (PVE) ranged from 10.42% to 32.57%. Two potential candidate genes, Gh_D03G0885 and Gh_D03G0922, were predicted in a stable QTL region and had higher expression levels in the early-maturity variety ZHONG213 than in the late-maturity variety LU28. However, further evidence is required for functional validation. This study could provide useful information for the dissection of early-maturity traits and guide valuable genetic loci for molecular-assisted selection (MAS) in cotton breeding. PMID:28809947

  14. Efficacy of Dendritic Cells Matured Early with OK-432 (Picibanil®), Prostaglandin E2, and Interferon-α as a Vaccine for a Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Changhee; Do, Hyun-Ah; Jeong, In Gab; Park, Hongzoo; Hwang, Jung-Jin; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Jin Seon; Choo, Myong-Soo; Ahn, Hanjong

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells. OK432 (Picibanil®) was introduced as a potent stimulator of DC maturation in combination with prostaglandin-E2 and interferon-α. We compared the efficacy of a DC-prostate cancer vaccine using early-mature DCs stimulated with OK432, PGE2 and INF-α (OPA) with that of vaccines using other methods. On days 3 or 7 of DC culture, TNF-α (T), TNF-α and LPS (TL) or OPA were employed as maturation stimulators. DU145 cells subjected to heat stress were hybridized with mature DCs using polyethyleneglycol. T cells were sensitized by the hybrids, and their proliferative and cytokine secretion activities and cytotoxicity were measured. The yields of early-mature DCs were higher, compared to yields at the conventional maturation time (P<0.05). In the early maturation setting, the mean fusion ratios, calculated from the fraction of dual-positive cells, were 13.3%, 18.6%, and 39.9%, respectively (P=0.051) in the T only, TL, and OPA-treated groups. The function of cytotoxic T cells, which were sensitized with the hybrids containing DCs matured early with OPA, was superior to that using other methods. The antitumor effects of DC-DU145 hybrids generated with DCs subjected to early maturation with the OPA may be superior to that of the hybrids using conventional maturation methods. PMID:20808670

  15. Nicotine and elevated body temperature reduce the complexity of the genioglossus and diaphragm EMG signals in rats during early maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, David; Akay, Yasemin M.; Akay, Metin

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we examined the effect of nicotine exposure and increased body temperature on the complexity (dynamics) of the genioglossus muscle (EMGg) and the diaphragm muscle (EMGdia) to explore the effects of nicotine and hyperthermia. Nonlinear dynamical analysis of the EMGdia and EMGg signals was performed using the approximate entropy method on 15 (7 saline- and 8 nicotine-treated) juvenile rats (P25-P35) and 19 (11 saline- and 8 nicotine-treated) young adult rats (P36-P44). The mean complexity values were calculated over the ten consecutive breaths using the approximate entropy method during mild elevated body temperature (38 °C) and severe elevated body temperature (39-40 °C) in two groups. In the first (nicotine) group, rats were treated with single injections of nicotine enough to produce brain levels of nicotine similar to those achieved in human smokers (2.5 (mg kg-1)/day) until the recording day. In the second (control) group, rats were treated with injections of saline, beginning at postnatal 5 days until the recording day. Our results show that warming the rat by 2-3 °C and nicotine exposure significantly decreased the complexity of the EMGdia and EMGg for the juvenile age group. This reduction in the complexity of the EMGdia and EMGg for the nicotine group was much greater than the normal during elevated body temperatures. We speculate that the generalized depressive effects of nicotine exposure and elevated body temperature on the respiratory neural firing rate and the behavior of the central respiratory network could be responsible for the drastic decrease in the complexity of the EMGdia and EMGg signals, the outputs of the respiratory neural network during early maturation.

  16. Early IGF-1 primes visual cortex maturation and accelerates developmental switch between NKCC1 and KCC2 chloride transporters in enriched animals.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, Laura; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Melani, Riccardo; Deidda, Gabriele; Landi, Silvia; Narducci, Roberta; Cancedda, Laura; Maffei, Lamberto; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2017-02-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has a remarkable impact on brain development. Continuous exposure to EE from birth determines a significant acceleration of visual system maturation both at retinal and cortical levels. A pre-weaning enriched experience is sufficient to trigger the accelerated maturation of the visual system, suggesting that factors affected by EE during the first days of life might prime visual circuits towards a faster development. The search for such factors is crucial not only to gain a better understanding of the molecular hierarchy of brain development but also to identify molecular pathways amenable to be targeted to correct atypical brain developmental trajectories. Here, we showed that IGF-1 levels are increased in the visual cortex of EE rats as early as P6 and this is a crucial event for setting in motion the developmental program induced by EE. Early intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of IGF-1 in standard rats was sufficient to mimic the action of EE on visual acuity development, whereas blocking IGF-1 signaling by i.c.v. injections of the IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB1 prevented the deployment of EE effects. Early IGF-1 decreased the ratio between the expression of NKCC1 and KCC2 cation/chloride transporters, and the reversal potential for GABA A R-driven Cl - currents (E Cl ) was shifted toward more negative potentials, indicating that IGF-1 is a crucial factor in accelerating the maturation of GABAergic neurotransmission and promoting the developmental switch of GABA polarity from excitation to inhibition. In addition, early IGF-1 promoted a later occurring increase in its own expression, suggesting a priming effect of early IGF-1 in driving post-weaning cortical maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of the Nitrate Transporter Gene OsNRT1.1A/OsNPF6.3 Confers High Yield and Early Maturation in Rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Bin; Yuan, Dingyang; Liu, Yongqiang; Che, Ronghui; Hu, Yingchun; Ou, Shujun; Liu, Yongxin; Zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Hongru; Li, Hua; Jiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Zhengli; Gao, Xiaokai; Qiu, Yahong; Meng, Xiangbing; Liu, Yongxin; Bai, Yang; Liang, Yan; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Lianhe; Li, Legong; Sodmergen; Jing, Haichun; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major driving force for crop yield improvement, but application of high levels of N delays flowering, prolonging maturation and thus increasing the risk of yield losses. Therefore, traits that enable utilization of high levels of N without delaying maturation will be highly desirable for crop breeding. Here, we show that OsNRT1.1A (OsNPF6.3), a member of the rice ( Oryza sativa ) nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family, is involved in regulating N utilization and flowering, providing a target to produce high yield and early maturation simultaneously. OsNRT.1A has functionally diverged from previously reported NRT1.1 genes in plants and functions in upregulating the expression of N utilization-related genes not only for nitrate but also for ammonium, as well as flowering-related genes. Relative to the wild type, osnrt1.1a mutants exhibited reduced N utilization and late flowering. By contrast, overexpression of OsNRT1.1A in rice greatly improved N utilization and grain yield, and maturation time was also significantly shortened. These effects were further confirmed in different rice backgrounds and also in Arabidopsis thaliana Our study paves a path for the use of a single gene to dramatically increase yield and shorten maturation time for crops, outcomes that promise to substantially increase world food security. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. The mating brain: early maturing sneaker males maintain investment into the brain also under fast body growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Trombley, Susanne; Rogell, Björn; Brannström, Ioana; Foconi, Eric; Schmitz, Monika; Kolm, Niclas

    It has been suggested that mating behaviours require high levels of cognitive ability. However, since investment into mating and the brain both are costly features, their relationship is likely characterized by energetic trade-offs. Empirical data on the subject remains equivocal. We investigated if early sexual maturation was associated with brain development in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), in which males can either stay in the river and sexually mature at a small size (sneaker males) or migrate to the sea and delay sexual maturation until they have grown much larger (anadromous males). Specifically, we tested how sexual maturation may induce plastic changes in brain development by rearing juveniles on either natural or ad libitum feeding levels. After their first season we compared brain size and brain region volumes across both types of male mating tactics and females. Body growth increased greatly across both male mating tactics and females during ad libitum feeding as compared to natural feeding levels. However, despite similar relative increases in body size, early maturing sneaker males maintained larger relative brain size during ad libitum feeding levels as compared to anadromous males and females. We also detected several differences in the relative size of separate brain regions across feeding treatments, sexes and mating strategies. For instance, the relative size of the cognitive centre of the brain, the telencephalon, was largest in sneaker males. Our data support that a large relative brain size is maintained in individuals that start reproduction early also during fast body growth. We propose that the cognitive demands during complex mating behaviours maintain a high level of investment into brain development in reproducing individuals.

  19. The Status of Water in Swelling Shales: An Insight from the Water Retention Properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menaceur, Hamza; Delage, Pierre; Tang, Anh Minh; Talandier, Jean

    2016-12-01

    The Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) claystone is considered in France as a possible host rock for the disposal of high-level long-lived radioactive waste at great depth. During the operational phase, the walls of the galleries and of the disposal cells will be successively subjected to desaturation induced by ventilation followed by resaturation once the galleries are closed. To better understand this phenomenon, a sound understanding of the water retention properties of the COx claystone is necessary. Following a previous study by the same group, this paper presents an investigation of microstructure changes in COx claystone under suction changes. Microstructure was investigated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry tests on freeze-dried specimens previously submitted to various suctions. Along the drying path, the initial microstructure, characterised by a well-classified unimodal pore population around a mean diameter value of 32 nm, slightly changed with the same shape of the PSD curve and slightly moved towards smaller diameters (27-28 nm) at suctions of 150 and 331 MPa, respectively. The infra-porosity too small to be intruded by mercury (diameter smaller than 5.5 nm) reduced from 4.3 to 3.3 %. Oven drying reduced the mean diameter to 20 nm and the infra-porosity to 1 %. Wetting up to 9 MPa suction leads to saturation with no significant change in the PSD curve, whereas wetting at zero suction gave rise to the appearance of a large pore population resulting from the development of cracks with width of several micrometres, together with an enlargement of the initial pore population above the mean diameter. The concepts describing the step hydration of smectites (by the successive placement within the clay platelets along the smectite faces of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of water molecules with respect to the suction applied) appeared relevant to better understand the changes in microstructure of the COx claystone under suction changes. This also allowed to better define

  20. A longitudinal examination of the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Henretty, Joan M

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N=150; mean age=12.79+/-0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Pubertal Development Scale on two occasions 12 months apart. The results demonstrated a decrease in overall physical activity levels over 12 months which was not influenced by maturational status or physical characteristics. Additional analysis indicated that physical self-perceptions partially accounted for the explained variance in physical activity change, with physical condition being an important individual predictor of physical activity. Further analysis indicated that body mass was an important individual predictor of changes in perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth. At this age maturation has a limited influence on the physical activity behaviours of early adolescent girls and although the variance in physical activity was partly accounted for by physical self-perceptions, this was a relatively small contribution and other factors related to this drop in physical activity need to be considered longitudinally.

  1. Effects from early planting of late-maturing sunflowers on damage from primary insect pests in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Delayed planting is recommended to reduce damage from sunflower insect pests in the United States, including the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) and banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham. However, in some locations, planting earlier or growing later-maturing hybrids could i...

  2. Detection and cultivation of indigenous microorganisms in Mesozoic claystone core samples from the Opalinus Clay Formation (Mont Terri Rock Laboratory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauclaire, L.; McKenzie, J. A.; Schwyn, B.; Bossart, P.

    Although microorganisms have been isolated from various deep-subsurface environments, the persistence of microbial activity in claystones buried to great depths and on geological time scales has been poorly studied. The presence of in-situ microbial life in the Opalinus Clay Formation (Mesozoic claystone, 170 million years old) at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Canton Jura, Switzerland was investigated. Opalinus Clay is a host rock candidate for a radioactive waste repository. Particle tracer tests demonstrated the uncontaminated nature of the cored samples, showing their suitability for microbiological investigations. To determine whether microorganisms are a consistent and characteristic component of the Opalinus Clay Formation, two approaches were used: (i) the cultivation of indigenous micoorganisms focusing mainly on the cultivation of sulfate-reducing bacteria, and (ii) the direct detection of molecular biomarkers of bacteria. The goal of the first set of experiments was to assess the presence of cultivable microorganisms within the Opalinus Clay Formation. After few months of incubation, the number of cell ranged from 0.1 to 2 × 10 3 cells ml -1 media. The microorganisms were actively growing as confirmed by the observation of dividing cells, and detection of traces of sulfide. To avoid cultivation bias, quantification of molecular biomarkers (phospholipid fatty acids) was used to assess the presence of autochthonous microorganisms. These molecules are good indicators of the presence of living cells. The Opalinus Clay contained on average 64 ng of PLFA g -1 dry claystone. The detected microbial community comprises mainly Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria as indicated by the ratio of iso/anteiso phospholipids (about 2) and the detection of large amount of β-hydroxy substituted fatty acids. The PLFA composition reveals the presence of specific functional groups of microorganisms in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria ( Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and

  3. Maturity-associated variation in change of direction and dribbling speed in early pubertal years and 5-year developmental changes in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Valente-Dos-Santos, J; Coelho-E-Silva, M J; Vaz, V; Figueiredo, A J; Capranica, L; Sherar, L B; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Malina, R M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the developmental changes in change of direction and dribbling speed in youth soccer players taking into account skeletal age (SA), maturity status, body size, estimated fat mass, aerobic endurance, lower limb explosive strength and annual volume of training. Eighty-three male soccer players aged 10-15 years (SA) at baseline were annually followed over 5 years, resulting in an average 4.4 observations per player. After testing for multicollinearity, multi-level regression modeling was used to examine the longitudinal developmental changes on change of direction and dribbling speed. Maturity-associated variability was significant in change of direction and also dribbling speed among young soccer players aged 12-14 years with better scores being performed by late maturers. Moreover, the predicted longitudinal scores for change of direction and dribbling speed improved with SA (P<0.01), SA2 (P<0.01) and skeletal maturity status entered as an additional developmental predictor (P<0.05). Estimated fat-free mass (P<0.01), aerobic endurance (P<0.01) and lower limb strength (P<0.01) were additional predictors in both models. The soccer-specific skill, dibbling speed, was also explained by annual volume of training (P<0.05). Skeletal maturity status explains inter-individual variability on maximal short-term run performances with and without the ball possession at early ages of participation in competitive soccer. The effects tend to persist across ages combined with longitudinal changes in body composition and functional fitness. In the particular case of the ball test, annual volume of training was also a longitudinal performance predictor.

  4. Early Antibody Lineage Diversification and Independent Limb Maturation Lead to Broad HIV-1 Neutralization Targeting the Env High-Mannose Patch.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Daniel T; Choi, Nancy M; Briney, Bryan; Garces, Fernando; Ver, Lorena S; Landais, Elise; Murrell, Ben; Wrin, Terri; Kilembe, William; Liang, Chi-Hui; Ramos, Alejandra; Bian, Chaoran B; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Kong, Leopold; Eren, Kemal; Wu, Chung-Yi; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Wilson, Ian A; Burton, Dennis R; Poignard, Pascal

    2016-05-17

    The high-mannose patch on HIV Env is a preferred target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), but to date, no vaccination regimen has elicited bnAbs against this region. Here, we present the development of a bnAb lineage targeting the high-mannose patch in an HIV-1 subtype-C-infected donor from sub-Saharan Africa. The Abs first acquired autologous neutralization, then gradually matured to achieve breadth. One Ab neutralized >47% of HIV-1 strains with only ∼11% somatic hypermutation and no insertions or deletions. By sequencing autologous env, we determined key residues that triggered the lineage and participated in Ab-Env coevolution. Next-generation sequencing of the Ab repertoire showed an early expansive diversification of the lineage followed by independent maturation of individual limbs, several of them developing notable breadth and potency. Overall, the findings are encouraging from a vaccine standpoint and suggest immunization strategies mimicking the evolution of the entire high-mannose patch and promoting maturation of multiple diverse Ab pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maturational and Non-Maturational Factors in Heritage Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Ji Hye

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the maturational and non-maturational aspects of early bilingualism and language attrition in heritage speakers who have acquired their L1 incompletely in childhood. The study highlights the influential role of age and input dynamics in early L1 development, where the timing of reduction in L1 input and the…

  6. Efficacy of abbreviated Stanford V chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: mature results of the G4 trial.

    PubMed

    Advani, R H; Hoppe, R T; Baer, D; Mason, J; Warnke, R; Allen, J; Daadi, S; Rosenberg, S A; Horning, S J

    2013-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of an abbreviated Stanford V regimen in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). PATIENTS AND METHODS PATIENTS: with untreated nonbulky stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic HL were eligible for the G4 study. Stanford V chemotherapy was administered for 8 weeks followed by radiation therapy (RT) 30 Gy to involved fields (IF). Freedom from progression (FFP), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated. All 87 enrolled patients completed the abbreviated regimen. At a median follow-up of 10 years, FFP, DSS and OS are 94%, 99% and 94%, respectively. Therapy was well tolerated with no treatment-related deaths. Mature results of the abbreviated Stanford V regimen in nonbulky early-stage HL are excellent and comparable to the results from other contemporary therapies.

  7. Mapping-by-Sequencing Identifies HvPHYTOCHROME C as a Candidate Gene for the early maturity 5 Locus Modulating the Circadian Clock and Photoperiodic Flowering in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Pankin, Artem; Campoli, Chiara; Dong, Xue; Kilian, Benjamin; Sharma, Rajiv; Himmelbach, Axel; Saini, Reena; Davis, Seth J; Stein, Nils; Schneeberger, Korbinian; von Korff, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Phytochromes play an important role in light signaling and photoperiodic control of flowering time in plants. Here we propose that the red/far-red light photoreceptor HvPHYTOCHROME C (HvPHYC), carrying a mutation in a conserved region of the GAF domain, is a candidate underlying the early maturity 5 locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We fine mapped the gene using a mapping-by-sequencing approach applied on the whole-exome capture data from bulked early flowering segregants derived from a backcross of the Bowman(eam5) introgression line. We demonstrate that eam5 disrupts circadian expression of clock genes. Moreover, it interacts with the major photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1 to accelerate flowering under noninductive short days. Our results suggest that HvPHYC participates in transmission of light signals to the circadian clock and thus modulates light-dependent processes such as photoperiodic regulation of flowering. PMID:24996910

  8. The "waiting period" of sensory and motor axons in early chick hindlimb: its role in axon pathfinding and neuronal maturation.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Scott, S A

    2000-07-15

    During embryonic development motor axons in the chick hindlimb grow out slightly before sensory axons and wait in the plexus region at the base of the limb for approximately 24 hr before invading the limb itself (Tosney and Landmesser, 1985a). We have investigated the role of this waiting period by asking, Is the arrest of growth cones in the plexus region a general property of both sensory and motor axons? Why do axons wait? Does eliminating the waiting period affect the further development of motor and sensory neurons? Here we show that sensory axons, like motor axons, pause in the plexus region and that neither sensory nor motor axons require cues from the other population to wait in or exit from the plexus region. By transplanting older or younger donor limbs to host embryos, we show that host axons innervate donor limbs on a schedule consistent with the age of the grafted limbs. Thus, axons wait in the plexus region for maturational changes to occur in the limb rather than in the neurons themselves. Both sensory and motor axons innervate their appropriate peripheral targets when the waiting period is eliminated by grafting older donor limbs. Therefore, axons do not require a prolonged period in the plexus region to sort out and project appropriately. Eliminating the waiting period does, however, accelerate the onset of naturally occurring cell death, but it does not enhance the development of central projections or the biochemical maturation of sensory neurons.

  9. Early Life Lung Antioxidant Levels and Response to Ozone: Influence of Sex and Maturation in Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects on respiratory health report significant modification by sex. Studies of children suggest stronger effects among boys in early life and girls in later childhood. In adults, particularly the elderly, studies report stronger...

  10. Teton Russet: an early-maturing, dual-purpose potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content, low Asparagine, and resistances to common scab and Fusarium dry rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Teton Russet is an early-maturing, medium- russeted, potato cultivar with high merit for both fresh-pack and processing. In early harvest trials in the Pacific Northwest, Teton Russet had total yields similar to Russet Norkotah, and higher than Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank. Marketable yield of T...

  11. CERES–Maize Model for Determining the Optimum Planting Dates of Early Maturing Maize Varieties in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Adnan A.; Jibrin, Jibrin M.; Kamara, Alpha Y.; Abdulrahman, Bassam L.; Shaibu, Abdulwahab S.; Garba, Ismail I.

    2017-01-01

    Field trials were carried out in the Sudan Savannah of Nigeria to assess the usefulness of CERES–maize crop model as a decision support tool for optimizing maize production through manipulation of plant dates. The calibration experiments comprised of 20 maize varieties planted during the dry and rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Bayero University Kano and Audu Bako College of Agriculture Dambatta. The trials for model evaluation were conducted in 16 different farmer fields across the Sudan (Bunkure and Garun—Mallam) and Northern Guinea (Tudun-Wada and Lere) Savannas using two of the calibrated varieties under four different sowing dates. The model accurately predicted grain yield, harvest index, and biomass of both varieties with low RMSE-values (below 5% of mean), high d-index (above 0.8), and high r-square (above 0.9) for the calibration trials. The time series data (tops weight, stem and leaf dry weights) were also predicted with high accuracy (% RMSEn above 70%, d-index above 0.88). Similar results were also observed for the evaluation trials, where all variables were simulated with high accuracies. Estimation efficiencies (EF)-values above 0.8 were observed for all the evaluation parameters. Seasonal and sensitivity analyses on Typic Plinthiustalfs and Plinthic Kanhaplustults in the Sudan and Northern Guinea Savannas were conducted. Results showed that planting extra early maize varieties in late July and early maize in mid-June leads to production of highest grain yields in the Sudan Savanna. In the Northern Guinea Savanna planting extra-early maize in mid-July and early maize in late July produced the highest grain yields. Delaying planting in both Agro-ecologies until mid-August leads to lower yields. Delaying planting to mid-August led to grain yield reduction of 39.2% for extra early maize and 74.4% for early maize in the Sudan Savanna. In the Northern Guinea Savanna however, delaying planting to mid-August resulted in yield reduction of 66.9 and 94

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of claystones from the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary at Penglaitan, South China: Insights into the pre-Lopingian geological events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yu-Ting; He, Bin; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    The Guadalupian-Lopingian (G/L) boundary, at a stratigraphically well-documented outcrop in Penglaitan, Guangxi Autonomous Region, South China, has been approved as the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP). Several volcanic ashes or tuffs occur at this boundary, but their mineralogy and geochemistry are not available yet and no reliable age for this boundary has been obtained. A combined study of mineralogy, geochemistry and geochronology has been carried out in this study on six layers of claystones collected below (Group 1) and above (Group 2) the G/L boundary at the Penglaitan section. Both Group 1 and Group 2 claystones are likely clastic in origin, rather than volcanic ashes as previously thought. Thus the Penglaitan claystones are not suitable for age determination of the G/L boundary. They are significantly different in terms of mineralogy and geochemistry. Specifically, Group 1 claystones are likely derived from a mafic source which is genetically related to the Emeishan large igneous province, therefore providing additional evidence for the synchroneity between the G/L boundary mass extinction and the Emeishan volcanism. Group 2 samples were derived from a felsic source, of which zircons yield an age spectrum peaked at 262 ± 3 Ma, undistinguishable within the uncertainty from the currently accepted G/L boundary age (260.4 ± 0.4 Ma). Nevertheless, Group 2 samples are not related to Emeishan volcanism, because their negative zircon ɛHf(t) values differ significantly from those of Emeishan magmas and trace element compositions of zircons are indicative of an arc source, rather than a within-plate source. In consideration of paleogeographic reconstruction, we propose that the Group 2 claystones may have been derived from continental arcs during the palaeo-Tethys evolution. This is the first sedimentary evidence for Permian continental arc in the northern margin of palaeo-Tethys.

  13. Emergence, Development, and Maturity of the Gonad of Two Species of Chitons “Sea Cockroach” (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or “early life stages” were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aXb. A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length “TL”) were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods (“Pw” without gonad, “Pe” gonad emergence, and “Pf” gonadal sac formed) and four stages (“S0” gametocytogenesis, “S1” gametogenesis, “S2” mature, and “S3” spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13–14.32 mm, Pe 10.32–16.93 mm, Pf 12.99–25.01 mm, S0 16.08–24.34 mm (females) and 19.51–26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15–35.63 mm (females) and 23.45–32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48–40.24 mm (females) and 25.45–32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management. PMID:23936353

  14. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  15. Effects of feed quality and quantity on growth, early maturation and smolt development in hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Norrgård, J R; Bergman, E; Greenberg, L A; Schmitz, M

    2014-10-01

    The effects of feed quality and quantity on growth, early male parr maturation and development of smolt characteristics were studied in hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The fish were subjected to two levels of feed rations and two levels of lipid content from first feeding until release in May of their second year. Salmo salar fed high rations, regardless of lipid content, grew the most and those fed low lipid feed with low rations grew the least. In addition, fish fed low lipid feed had lower body lipid levels than fish fed high lipid feed. Salmo salar from all treatments showed some reduction in condition factor (K) and lipid levels during their second spring. Smolt status was evaluated using both physiological and morphological variables. These results, based on gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase (NKA) enzyme activity, saltwater tolerance challenges and visual assessments, were consistent with each other, showing that S. salar from all treatments, except the treatment in which the fish were fed low rations with low lipid content, exhibited characteristics associated with smolting at 2 years of age. Sexually mature male parr from the high ration, high lipid content treatment were also subjected to saltwater challenge tests, and were found to be unable to regulate plasma sodium levels. The proportion of sexually mature male parr was reduced when the fish were fed low feed rations, but was not affected by the lipid content of the feed. Salmo salar fed low rations with low lipid content exhibited the highest degree of severe fin erosion. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. 'Billings' wheat combines early maturity, disease resistance, and desirable grain quality for the Southern Great Plains of the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selection pressure for earliness, resistance to multiple pathogens, and quality attributes consistent with the hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) market class is tantamount to, or can obscure, selection for yield potential in lower elevations of the U.S. southern Great Plains. The de...

  17. Exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic radiation promote early maturation and differentiation in newborn rat cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Lisi, A; Ciotti, M T; Ledda, M; Pieri, M; Zona, C; Mercanti, D; Rieti, S; Giuliani, L; Grimaldi, S

    2005-08-01

    The wish of this work is the study of the effect of electromagnetic (EMF) radiations at a frequency of 50 Hz on the development of cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). Granule neurons, prepared from newborn rat cerebellum (8 days after birth), were cultured after plate-seeding in the presence of EMF radiations, with the plan of characterizing their cellular and molecular biochemistry, after exposure to the electromagnetic stimulus. Five days challenge to EMF radiations showed, by the cytotoxic glutamate (Glu) pulse test, a 30% decrease of cells survival, while only 5% of mortality was reported for unexposed sample. Moreover, blocking the glutamate receptor (GluR) with the Glu competitor MK-801, no toxicity effect after CGN challenge to EMF radiations and Glu was detected. By patch-clamp recording technique, the Kainate-induced currents from 6 days old exposed CGN exhibited a significant increase with respect to control cells. Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses show that EMF exposure of rats CGN, induces a change in both GluRs proteins and mRNAs expression with respect to control. In addition, the use of monoclonal antibody raised against neurofilament protein (NF-200) reveals an increase in NF-200 synthesis in the exposed CGN. All these results indicate that exposure to non-ionizing radiations contribute to a premature expression of GluRs reducing the life span of CGN, leading to a more rapid cell maturation. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. T-Lymphocytes Enable Osteoblast Maturation via IL-17F during the Early Phase of Fracture Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Diane; Mau, Elaine; Wang, Yufa; Wright, David; Silkstone, David; Whetstone, Heather; Whyne, Cari; Alman, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that the presence of lymphocytes and cytokines are important for fracture healing, the exact role of the various cytokines expressed by cells of the immune system on osteoblast biology remains unclear. To study the role of inflammatory cytokines in fracture repair, we studied tibial bone healing in wild-type and Rag1−/− mice. Histological analysis, µCT stereology, biomechanical testing, calcein staining and quantitative RNA gene expression studies were performed on healing tibial fractures. These data provide support for Rag1−/− mice as a model of impaired fracture healing compared to wild-type. Moreover, the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-17F, was found to be a key mediator in the cellular response of the immune system in osteogenesis. In vitro studies showed that IL-17F alone stimulated osteoblast maturation. We propose a model in which the Th17 subset of T-lymphocytes produces IL-17F to stimulate bone healing. This is a pivotal link in advancing our current understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of fracture healing, which in turn may aid in optimizing fracture management and in the treatment of impaired bone healing. PMID:22768215

  19. Effect of temperature on the containment properties of argillaceous rocks: The case study of Callovo-Oxfordian claystones.

    PubMed

    Savoye, S; Goutelard, F; Beaucaire, C; Charles, Y; Fayette, A; Herbette, M; Larabi, Y; Coelho, D

    2011-07-01

    Heat generated by high level radioactive wastes could alter the performance of a clay repository. It was intended to investigate the effect of such a thermal period on the diffusive properties of Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Thus, through-diffusion experiments with HTO, Cl-36, Na-22 and Cs-137 were performed before, during and after stages of heating at 80°C that lasted for up to one year. A special attention was paid to limit the occurrence of any chemical disturbance. Therefore (i) the temperature was raised to 80°C, then progressively brought back to 21°C, thanks to three intermediate temperature stages, and (ii) specific synthetic solutions were used for each temperature, chemistry of which being close to the equilibrium state, especially with respect to the carbonate and sulphate minerals. It was found that experiments carried out at 80°C showed a clear increase of the effective diffusion coefficient values for the four tracers with respect to those obtained at 21°C (by a factor of 3 for HTO and Cl-36, 5 for Na-22 and 2 for Cs-137). On the other hand, the porosity and rock capacity values did not exhibit any significant discrepancy between 21°C and 80°C, indicating no observable damage of both the pore conducing network and the sorption properties of clay minerals. The Stokes-Einstein relationship, based on the temperature dependency of the viscosity of bulk water, could be used to describe the temperature dependence of the diffusion of HTO and Cl-36 but failed to describe the diffusive evolution of the two sorbing cations, Na-22 and Cs-137. Furthermore, experiments performed after the thermal period led to diffusive properties well matching those obtained before heating. All these results suggest that at the lab scale the heating of rock samples would not alter the claystone containment properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of temperature on the containment properties of argillaceous rocks: The case study of Callovo-Oxfordian claystones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoye, S.; Goutelard, F.; Beaucaire, C.; Charles, Y.; Fayette, A.; Herbette, M.; Larabi, Y.; Coelho, D.

    2011-07-01

    Heat generated by high level radioactive wastes could alter the performance of a clay repository. It was intended to investigate the effect of such a thermal period on the diffusive properties of Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Thus, through-diffusion experiments with HTO, Cl-36, Na-22 and Cs-137 were performed before, during and after stages of heating at 80 °C that lasted for up to one year. A special attention was paid to limit the occurrence of any chemical disturbance. Therefore (i) the temperature was raised to 80 °C, then progressively brought back to 21 °C, thanks to three intermediate temperature stages, and (ii) specific synthetic solutions were used for each temperature, chemistry of which being close to the equilibrium state, especially with respect to the carbonate and sulphate minerals. It was found that experiments carried out at 80 °C showed a clear increase of the effective diffusion coefficient values for the four tracers with respect to those obtained at 21 °C (by a factor of 3 for HTO and Cl-36, 5 for Na-22 and 2 for Cs-137). On the other hand, the porosity and rock capacity values did not exhibit any significant discrepancy between 21 °C and 80 °C, indicating no observable damage of both the pore conducing network and the sorption properties of clay minerals. The Stokes-Einstein relationship, based on the temperature dependency of the viscosity of bulk water, could be used to describe the temperature dependence of the diffusion of HTO and Cl-36 but failed to describe the diffusive evolution of the two sorbing cations, Na-22 and Cs-137. Furthermore, experiments performed after the thermal period led to diffusive properties well matching those obtained before heating. All these results suggest that at the lab scale the heating of rock samples would not alter the claystone containment properties.

  1. Effect of recombinant-LH and hCG in the absence of FSH on in vitro maturation (IVM) fertilization and early embryonic development of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes.

    PubMed

    Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Drakakis, Peter; Kefala, Stella; Kiapekou, Erasmia; Bletsa, Ritsa; Anagnostou, Elli; Kallianidis, Konstantinos; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    During in vitro maturation (IVM), intrinsic and extrinsic factors must co-operate properly in order to ensure cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. We examined the possible effect of LH/hCG in the process of oocyte maturation in mice with the addition of recombinant LH (r-LH) and hCG in our IVM cultures of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Moreover, the effects of these hormones on fertilization, early embryonic development and the expression of LH/hCG receptor were examined. Nuclear maturation of GV-stage oocytes was evaluated after culture in the presence of r-LH or hCG. Fertilization rates and embryonic development were assessed after 24h. Total RNA was isolated from oocytes of different stages of maturation and from zygotes and embryos of different stages of development in order to examine the expression of LH/hCG receptor, using RT-PCR. The in vitro nuclear maturation rate of GV-stage oocytes that received hCG was significantly higher compared to the control group. Early embryonic development was increased in the hCG and LH cultures of GV oocytes when LH was further added. The LH/hCG receptor was expressed in all stages of in vitro matured mouse oocytes and in every stage of early embryonic development. Addition of hCG in IVM cultures of mouse GV oocytes increased maturation rates significantly. LH, however, was more beneficial to early embryonic development than hCG. This suggests a promising new technique in basic science research or in clinical reproductive medicine. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of lipase maturation

    PubMed Central

    Péterfy, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    Lipases are acyl hydrolases that represent a diverse group of enzymes present in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans. This article focuses on an evolutionarily related family of extracellular lipases that include lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and endothelial lipase. As newly synthesized proteins, these lipases undergo a series of co- and post-translational maturation steps occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum, including glycosylation and glycan processing, and protein folding and subunit assembly. This article identifies and discusses mechanisms that direct early and late events in lipase folding and assembly. Lipase maturation employs the two general chaperone systems operating in the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as a recently identified lipase-specific chaperone termed lipase maturation factor 1. We propose that the two general chaperone systems act in a coordinated manner early in lipase maturation in order to help create partially folded monomers; lipase maturation factor 1 then facilitates final monomer folding and subunit assembly into fully functional homodimers. Once maturation is complete, the lipases exit the endoplasmic reticulum and are secreted to extracellular sites, where they carry out a number of functions related to lipoprotein and lipid metabolism. PMID:20543905

  3. Mutations of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes in Thais with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Plengvidhya, Nattachet; Boonyasrisawat, Watip; Chongjaroen, Nalinee; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Sriussadaporn, Sutin; Vannaseang, Sathit; Banchuin, Napatawn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2009-06-01

    Six known genes responsible for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) were analysed to evaluate the prevalence of their mutations in Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one unrelated probands with early-onset type 2 diabetes, 21 of them fitted into classic MODY criteria, were analysed for nucleotide variations in promoters, exons, and exon-intron boundaries of six known MODY genes, including HNF-4alpha, GCK, HNF-1alpha, IPF-1, HNF-1beta, and NeuroD1/beta2, by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method followed by direct DNA sequencing. Missense mutations or mutations located in regulatory region, which were absent in 130 chromosomes of non-diabetic controls, were classified as potentially pathogenic mutations. We found that mutations of the six known MODY genes account for a small proportion of classic MODY (19%) and early-onset type 2 diabetes (10%) in Thais. Five of these mutations are novel including GCK R327H, HNF-1alpha P475L, HNF-1alphaG554fsX556, NeuroD1-1972 G > A and NeuroD1 A322N. Mutations of IPF-1 and HNF-1beta were not identified in the studied probands. Mutations of the six known MODY genes may not be a major cause of MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes in Thais. Therefore, unidentified genes await discovery in a majority of Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes.

  4. Early In Vitro Differentiation of Mouse Definitive Endoderm Is Not Correlated with Progressive Maturation of Nuclear DNA Methylation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tajbakhsh, Jian; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Fagg, W. Samuel; Hatada, Seigo; Fair, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The genome organization in pluripotent cells undergoing the first steps of differentiation is highly relevant to the reprogramming process in differentiation. Considering this fact, chromatin texture patterns that identify cells at the very early stage of lineage commitment could serve as valuable tools in the selection of optimal cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine applications. Here we report on the first-time use of high-resolution three-dimensional fluorescence imaging and comprehensive topological cell-by-cell analyses with a novel image-cytometrical approach towards the identification of in situ global nuclear DNA methylation patterns in early endodermal differentiation of mouse ES cells (up to day 6), and the correlations of these patterns with a set of putative markers for pluripotency and endodermal commitment, and the epithelial and mesenchymal character of cells. Utilizing this in vitro cell system as a model for assessing the relationship between differentiation and nuclear DNA methylation patterns, we found that differentiating cell populations display an increasing number of cells with a gain in DNA methylation load: first within their euchromatin, then extending into heterochromatic areas of the nucleus, which also results in significant changes of methylcytosine/global DNA codistribution patterns. We were also able to co-visualize and quantify the concomitant stochastic marker expression on a per-cell basis, for which we did not measure any correlation to methylcytosine loads or distribution patterns. We observe that the progression of global DNA methylation is not correlated with the standard transcription factors associated with endodermal development. Further studies are needed to determine whether the progression of global methylation could represent a useful signature of cellular differentiation. This concept of tracking epigenetic progression may prove useful in the selection of cell phenotypes for future regenerative medicine

  5. Maize Brittle stalk2 encodes a COBRA-like protein expressed in early organ development but required for tissue flexibility at maturity.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Anoop; Langewisch, Tiffany; Olek, Anna; Multani, Dilbag S; McCann, Maureen C; Vermerris, Wilfred; Carpita, Nicholas C; Johal, Gurmukh

    2007-12-01

    The maize (Zea mays) brittle stalk2 (bk2) is a recessive mutant, the aerial parts of which are easily broken. The bk2 phenotype is developmentally regulated and appears 4 weeks after planting, at about the fifth-leaf stage. Before this time, mutants are indistinguishable from wild-type siblings. Afterward, all organs of the bk2 mutants turn brittle, even the preexisting ones, and they remain brittle throughout the life of the plant. Leaf tension assays and bend tests of the internodes show that the brittle phenotype does not result from loss of tensile strength but from loss in flexibility that causes the tissues to snap instead of bend. The Bk2 gene was cloned by a combination of transposon tagging and a candidate gene approach and found to encode a COBRA-like protein similar to rice (Oryza sativa) BC1 and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COBRA-LIKE4. The outer periphery of the stalk has fewer vascular bundles, and the sclerids underlying the epidermis possess thinner secondary walls. Relative cellulose content is not strictly correlated with the brittle phenotype. Cellulose content in mature zones of bk2 mature stems is lowered by 40% but is about the same as wild type in developing stems. Although relative cellulose content is lowered in leaves after the onset of the brittle phenotype, total wall mass as a proportion of dry mass is either unchanged or slightly increased, indicating a compensatory increase in noncellulosic carbohydrate mass. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated an increase in phenolic ester content in the walls of bk2 leaves and stems. Total content of lignin is unaffected in bk2 juvenile leaves before or after appearance of the brittle phenotype, but bk2 mature and developing stems are markedly enriched in lignin compared to wild-type stems. Despite increased lignin in bk2 stems, loss of staining with phloroglucinol and ultraviolet autofluorescence is observed in vascular bundles and sclerid layers. Consistent with the infrared

  6. Maize Brittle stalk2 Encodes a COBRA-Like Protein Expressed in Early Organ Development But Required for Tissue Flexibility at Maturity1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sindhu, Anoop; Langewisch, Tiffany; Olek, Anna; Multani, Dilbag S.; McCann, Maureen C.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Johal, Gurmukh

    2007-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) brittle stalk2 (bk2) is a recessive mutant, the aerial parts of which are easily broken. The bk2 phenotype is developmentally regulated and appears 4 weeks after planting, at about the fifth-leaf stage. Before this time, mutants are indistinguishable from wild-type siblings. Afterward, all organs of the bk2 mutants turn brittle, even the preexisting ones, and they remain brittle throughout the life of the plant. Leaf tension assays and bend tests of the internodes show that the brittle phenotype does not result from loss of tensile strength but from loss in flexibility that causes the tissues to snap instead of bend. The Bk2 gene was cloned by a combination of transposon tagging and a candidate gene approach and found to encode a COBRA-like protein similar to rice (Oryza sativa) BC1 and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COBRA-LIKE4. The outer periphery of the stalk has fewer vascular bundles, and the sclerids underlying the epidermis possess thinner secondary walls. Relative cellulose content is not strictly correlated with the brittle phenotype. Cellulose content in mature zones of bk2 mature stems is lowered by 40% but is about the same as wild type in developing stems. Although relative cellulose content is lowered in leaves after the onset of the brittle phenotype, total wall mass as a proportion of dry mass is either unchanged or slightly increased, indicating a compensatory increase in noncellulosic carbohydrate mass. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated an increase in phenolic ester content in the walls of bk2 leaves and stems. Total content of lignin is unaffected in bk2 juvenile leaves before or after appearance of the brittle phenotype, but bk2 mature and developing stems are markedly enriched in lignin compared to wild-type stems. Despite increased lignin in bk2 stems, loss of staining with phloroglucinol and ultraviolet autofluorescence is observed in vascular bundles and sclerid layers. Consistent with the infrared

  7. Temporal behavior of a ventilated claystone at the Tournemire URL: Cross-spectral analyses focused on daily harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, David; Matray, Jean-Michel; Ababou, Rachid

    2014-12-01

    The main topic of this communication is the presentation of study, auscultation and supervision procedures of deep geological radioactive waste storage repositories using natural harmonic forcings. In this paper, the effects of natural ventilation on the macroscopic behavior of a clayrock are investigated by means of time series recorded underground over a period of two years in the eastern part of Gallery 1996 at the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL). This study is based on time series acquired in theatmosphere, at the gallery wall surface, and inside the rock mass. It includes measured signals from 6 thermo-hygrometers, 5 crack-meters (measuring the displacement of 2 shrinkage cracks and 3 tectonic fractures), and a 1 meter-FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) profile probe equipped with 6 sensors for measuring the volumetric pore-water content into the rock mass. Auto-spectral and cross-spectral analyses using the concept of Singular Spectrum Harmonics (SSHs and cross-SSHs) are developed. Our analyses and interpretations focus here mainly on the solar diurnal atmospheric tide (denoted S1 ). This tide corresponds to the insolation cycle of the Earth atmosphere during a mean Solar Day (24 h 00 min). This component is tracked throughout the various measured signals ("Spectral Tracking" of tide fluctuations across signals). This is equivalent, in a way, to analyzing the temporal behavior of the URL during a "Mean Solar Day on Earth". Results indicate that the daily natural forcing caused mainly by a combination of barometric and temperature related fluctuations, is the most important effect overall on our various signals. The daily harmonic induces the fluctuations of gallery air temperature, relative and absolute air humidity and it leads to desaturation of the claystone, which in turn leads to the claystone deformation and damage. The effects of the annual harmonic SA may also be significant (it was fully analyzed in the more complete version of

  8. Early sexual maturity in local boars of Northeastern India: age-related changes in testicular growth, epididymal sperm characteristics and peripheral testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Kadirvel, G; Khargharia, G; Sarma, Rumi G; Goswami, J; Basumatary, Rantu; Palaniappan, Kavitha; Bardoloi, R K

    2011-03-01

    The present study reports the age related changes in the peripheral testosterone levels, testicular and epididymal growth and development and cauda epididymal spermiogram in local pigs of Northeastern India, which attain sexual maturity around 3 months of age. Local boars (n = 20) were castrated at monthly intervals from 2 to 6 months of age (4 boars per month) to study the testicular growth and development and the epididymal spermiogram. Blood samples, collected from local boars (n = 6) at monthly intervals from 2 to 6 months of age, were analyzed for testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay. Compared to Hampshire boars, significantly (P < 0.05) high testosterone levels were observed in the local boars as early as 2 months of age. The mean (± SEM) level of testosterone in the local boars at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was 11.89 ± 1.52, 20.45 ± 1.33 and 20.38 ± 2.0 ngml(-1), respectively. Though there was consistently significant (P < 0.05) difference in the body weight between Hampshire and local pigs, the same was not observed in case of testicular weight except at 3 and 6 months of age. In line with the above observation, the testis:body weight ratio (gram testis per kg body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the local boars compared to the Hampshire boars at any time of observation, which ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 in case of Hampshire and from 2.3 to 3.0 in local boars. The sperm concentration in the cauda epididymal fluid of local boars at 2, 3 and 6 months of age was 2255 ± 186.6, 3685 ± 103.8 and 4325 ± 146.2 million/ml, respectively and the sperm motility, viability and total abnormality was 73.3, 75.2 and 6.2%, respectively at 3 months of age. Taken together, the testosterone level, testicular growth and development and epididymal spermiogram indicate the trait of early sexual maturity in the local pigs as compared to Hampshire. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HvLUX1 is a candidate gene underlying the early maturity 10 locus in barley: phylogeny, diversity, and interactions with the circadian clock and photoperiodic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Campoli, Chiara; Pankin, Artem; Drosse, Benedikt; Casao, Cristina M; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Photoperiodic flowering is a major factor determining crop performance and is controlled by interactions between environmental signals and the circadian clock. We proposed Hvlux1, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis circadian gene LUX ARRHYTHMO, as a candidate underlying the early maturity 10 (eam10) locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The link between eam10 and Hvlux1 was discovered using high-throughput sequencing of enriched libraries and segregation analysis. We conducted functional, phylogenetic, and diversity studies of eam10 and HvLUX1 to understand the genetic control of photoperiod response in barley and to characterize the evolution of LUX-like genes within barley and across monocots and eudicots. We demonstrate that eam10 causes circadian defects and interacts with the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1 to accelerate flowering under long and short days. The results of phylogenetic and diversity analyses indicate that HvLUX1 was under purifying selection, duplicated at the base of the grass clade, and diverged independently of LUX-like genes in other plant lineages. Taken together, these findings contribute to improved understanding of the barley circadian clock, its interaction with the photoperiod pathway, and evolution of circadian systems in barley and across monocots and eudicots. PMID:23731278

  10. Early IL-6 signalling promotes IL-27 dependent maturation of regulatory T cells in the lungs and resolution of viral immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Chloe J; Uwadiae, Faith I; Swieboda, David P; Harker, James A

    2017-09-01

    Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic, pro-inflammatory cytokine that can promote both innate and adaptive immune responses. In humans with respiratory virus infections, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), elevated concentrations of IL-6 are associated with more severe disease. In contrast the polymorphisms in the Il6 promoter which favour lower IL-6 production are associated with increased risk of both RSV and Rhinovirus infections. To determine the precise contribution of IL-6 to protection and pathology we used murine models of respiratory virus infection. RSV infection resulted in increased IL-6 production both in the airways and systemically which remained heightened for at least 2 weeks. IL-6 depletion early, but not late, during RSV or Influenza A virus infection resulted in significantly increased disease associated with an influx of virus specific TH1 and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, whilst not affecting viral clearance. IL-6 acted by driving production of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-27 by macrophages and monocytes, which in turn promoted the local maturation of regulatory T cells. Concordantly IL-27 was necessary to regulate TH1 responses in the lungs, and sufficient to limit RSV induced disease. Overall we found that during respiratory virus infection the prototypic inflammatory cytokine IL-6 is a critical anti-inflammatory regulator of viral induced immunopathology in the respiratory tract through its induction of IL-27.

  11. Early IL-6 signalling promotes IL-27 dependent maturation of regulatory T cells in the lungs and resolution of viral immunopathology

    PubMed Central

    Swieboda, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic, pro-inflammatory cytokine that can promote both innate and adaptive immune responses. In humans with respiratory virus infections, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), elevated concentrations of IL-6 are associated with more severe disease. In contrast the polymorphisms in the Il6 promoter which favour lower IL-6 production are associated with increased risk of both RSV and Rhinovirus infections. To determine the precise contribution of IL-6 to protection and pathology we used murine models of respiratory virus infection. RSV infection resulted in increased IL-6 production both in the airways and systemically which remained heightened for at least 2 weeks. IL-6 depletion early, but not late, during RSV or Influenza A virus infection resulted in significantly increased disease associated with an influx of virus specific TH1 and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, whilst not affecting viral clearance. IL-6 acted by driving production of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-27 by macrophages and monocytes, which in turn promoted the local maturation of regulatory T cells. Concordantly IL-27 was necessary to regulate TH1 responses in the lungs, and sufficient to limit RSV induced disease. Overall we found that during respiratory virus infection the prototypic inflammatory cytokine IL-6 is a critical anti-inflammatory regulator of viral induced immunopathology in the respiratory tract through its induction of IL-27. PMID:28953978

  12. Early responses of mature Arabidopsis thaliana plants to reduced water potential in the agar-based polyethylene glycol infusion drought model.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Andrej; Bilova, Tatiana; Paudel, Gagan; Berger, Robert; Balcke, Gerd U; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important environmental stressors resulting in increasing losses of crop plant productivity all over the world. Therefore, development of new approaches to increase the stress tolerance of crop plants is strongly desired. This requires precise and adequate modeling of drought stress. As this type of stress manifests itself as a steady decrease in the substrate water potential (ψ w ), agar plates infused with polyethylene glycol (PEG) are the perfect experimental tool: they are easy in preparation and provide a constantly reduced ψ w , which is not possible in soil models. However, currently, this model is applicable only to seedlings and cannot be used for evaluation of stress responses in mature plants, which are obviously the most appropriate objects for drought tolerance research. To overcome this limitation, here we introduce a PEG-based agar infusion model suitable for 6-8-week-old A. thaliana plants, and characterize, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the early drought stress responses of adult plants grown on PEG-infused agar. We describe essential alterations in the primary metabolome (sugars and related compounds, amino acids and polyamines) accompanied by qualitative and quantitative changes in protein patterns: up to 87 unique stress-related proteins were annotated under drought stress conditions, whereas further 84 proteins showed a change in abundance. The obtained proteome patterns differed slightly from those reported for seedlings and soil-based models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Early life exposure to 2.45GHz WiFi-like signals: effects on development and maturation of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Sambucci, Manolo; Laudisi, Federica; Nasta, Francesca; Pinto, Rosanna; Lodato, Rossella; Lopresto, Vanni; Altavista, Pierluigi; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    The development of the immune system begins during embryogenesis, continues throughout fetal life, and completes its maturation during infancy. Exposure to immune-toxic compounds at levels producing limited/transient effects in adults, results in long-lasting or permanent immune deficits when it occurs during perinatal life. Potentially harmful radiofrequency (RF) exposure has been investigated mainly in adult animals or with cells from adult subjects, with most of the studies showing no effects. Is the developing immune system more susceptible to the effects of RF exposure? To address this question, newborn mice were exposed to WiFi signals at constant specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.08 or 4 W/kg, 2h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 consecutive weeks, starting the day after birth. The experiments were performed with a blind procedure using sham-exposed groups as controls. No differences in body weight and development among the groups were found in mice of both sexes. For the immunological analyses, results on female and male newborn mice exposed during early post-natal life did not show any effects on all the investigated parameters with one exception: a reduced IFN-γ production in spleen cells from microwaves (MW)-exposed (SAR 4 W/kg) male (not in female) mice compared with sham-exposed mice. Altogether our findings do not support the hypothesis that early post-natal life exposure to WiFi signals induces detrimental effects on the developing immune system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Adolescent MK-801 Exposure Impairs the Maturation of Ventral Hippocampal Control of Basolateral Amygdala Drive in the Adult Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Thomases, Daniel R.; Cass, Daryn K.; Meyer, Jacqueline D.; Caballero, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent susceptibility to the onset of psychiatric disorders is only beginning to be understood when factoring in the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The functional maturation of the PFC is dependent upon proper integration of glutamatergic inputs from the ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Here we assessed how transient NMDAR blockade during adolescence alters the functional interaction of vHipp–BLA inputs in regulating PFC plasticity. Local field potential recordings were used to determine changes in long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of PFC responses resulting from vHipp and BLA high-frequency stimulation in adult rats that received repeated injections of saline or the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 from postnatal day 35 (P35) to P40. We found that early adolescent MK-801 exposure elicited an age- and input-specific dysregulation of vHipp–PFC plasticity, characterized by a shift from LTD to LTP without altering the BLA-induced LTP. Data also showed that the vHipp normally resets the LTP state of BLA transmission; however, this inhibitory regulation is absent following early adolescent MK-801 treatment. This deficit was reminiscent of PFC responses seen in drug-naive juveniles. Notably, local prefrontal upregulation of GABAAα1 function completely restored vHipp functionality and its regulation of BLA plasticity in MK-801-treated rats. Thus, NMDAR signaling is critical for the periadolescent acquisition of a GABA-dependent hippocampal control of PFC plasticity, which enables the inhibitory control of the prefrontal output by the vHipp. A dysregulation of this pathway can alter PFC processing of other converging afferents such as those from the BLA. PMID:24990926

  15. Comparison of throughfall chemistry in a mature hemlock forest and an early-successional deciduous forest resulting from salvage logging in Whately, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukswert, J. M.; Rhodes, A. L.; Dwyer, C. H.; Sweezy, T.

    2012-12-01

    Removal of foundation species as a result of disturbance events such as exotic species invasions can alter community composition and ecosystem function. The current hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation in eastern North America that threatens the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), a foundation species, has motivated salvage logging efforts. Ecological succession resulting from salvage logging of hemlock would eventually produce a deciduous hardwood forest. The chemistry of throughfall beneath a mature hemlock forest canopy is expected to be more acidic than throughfall from a mature deciduous forest canopy because hemlock foliage releases more organic acids and fewer base cations. The chemical composition of throughfall during the early successional transition from hemlock to deciduous is less understood. We hypothesize that throughfall chemistry in a deciduous forest consisting primarily of juvenile trees may be more similar to direct precipitation because leaf area index is smaller. Differences between hemlock throughfall and direct precipitation may be larger due to the denser canopy of these mature trees. We compared the chemical composition of precipitation, hemlock throughfall, and black birch throughfall for 26 precipitation events from 4 March to 30 July 2012. The black birch (Betula lenta) forest patch resulted from salvage logging of hemlocks twenty years ago at the MacLeish Field Station in Whately, MA. From the three plots we measured the volume of water collected and pH, acid neutralizing capacity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and concentrations of cations (Ca2+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, NH4+), anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), and dissolved silica. Precipitation totaled 405 mm during the course of the study. Throughfall totaled 347 mm in the black birch plot and 315 mm in the hemlock plot. The proportion of precipitation passing through the forest canopy was smaller in hemlock throughfall than black birch throughfall during small precipitation events

  16. Delayed Maturation in Brain Electrical Activity Partially Explains the Association Between Early Environmental Deprivation and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Marshall, Peter; Nelson, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children raised in institutional settings are exposed to social and environmental circumstances that may deprive them of expected environmental inputs during sensitive periods of brain development that are necessary to foster healthy development. This deprivation is thought to underlie the abnormalities in neurodevelopment that have been found in previously institutionalized children. It is unknown whether deviations in neurodevelopment explain the high rates of developmental problems evident in previously institutionalized children, including psychiatric disorders. Methods We present data from a sample of children raised in institutions in Bucharest, Romania (n = 117) and an age- and sex-matched sample of community control subjects (n = 49). Electroencephalogram data were acquired following entry into the study at age 6 to 30 months, and a structured diagnostic interview of psychiatric disorders was completed at age 54 months. Results Children reared in institutions evidenced greater symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavior disorders than community controls. Electroencephalogram revealed significant reductions in alpha relative power and increases in theta relative power among children reared in institutions in frontal, temporal, and occipital regions, suggesting a delay in cortical maturation. This pattern of brain activity predicted symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity at age 54 months, and significantly mediated the association between institutionalization and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Electroencephalogram power was unrelated to depression, anxiety, or disruptive behaviors. Conclusions These findings document a potential neurodevelopmental mechanism underlying the association between institutionalization and psychiatric morbidity. Deprivation in social and environmental conditions may perturb early patterns of neurodevelopment and manifest as psychiatric problems

  17. The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of early-rearing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, Thomas; Summerfelt, Steven T.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Good, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Swimming exercise, typically measured in body-lengths per second (BL/s), and dissolved oxygen (DO), are important environmental variables in fish culture. While there is an obvious physiological association between these two parameters, their interaction has not been adequately studied in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Because exercise and DO are variables that can be easily manipulated in modern aquaculture systems, we sought to assess the impact of these parameters, alone and in combination, on the performance, health and welfare of juvenile Atlantic salmon. In our study, Atlantic salmon fry were stocked into 12 circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5–2 BL/s) or low (<0.5 BL/s) swimming speeding and high (100% saturation) or low (70% saturation) DO while being raised from 10 g to approximately 350 g in weight. Throughout the study period, we assessed the impacts of exercise and DO concentration on growth, feed conversion, survival and fin condition. By study's end, both increased swimming speed and higher DO were independently associated with a statistically significant increase in growth performance (p < .05); however, no significant differences were noted in survival and feed conversion. Caudal fin damage was associated with low DO, while right pectoral fin damage was associated with higher swimming speed. Finally, precocious male sexual maturation was associated with low swimming speed. These results suggest that providing exercise and dissolved oxygen at saturation during Atlantic salmon early rearing can result in improved growth performance and a lower incidence of precocious parr.

  18. Expression of the Nitrate Transporter Gene OsNRT1.1A/OsNPF6.3 Confers High Yield and Early Maturation in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Bin; Liu, Yongqiang; Che, Ronghui; Hu, Yingchun; Zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Hongru; Li, Hua; Jiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Zhengli; Gao, Xiaokai; Qiu, Yahong; Meng, Xiangbing; Liu, Yongxin; Bai, Yang; Liang, Yan; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Lianhe; Li, Legong; Sodmergen; Jing, Haichun

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major driving force for crop yield improvement, but application of high levels of N delays flowering, prolonging maturation and thus increasing the risk of yield losses. Therefore, traits that enable utilization of high levels of N without delaying maturation will be highly desirable for crop breeding. Here, we show that OsNRT1.1A (OsNPF6.3), a member of the rice (Oryza sativa) nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family, is involved in regulating N utilization and flowering, providing a target to produce high yield and early maturation simultaneously. OsNRT.1A has functionally diverged from previously reported NRT1.1 genes in plants and functions in upregulating the expression of N utilization-related genes not only for nitrate but also for ammonium, as well as flowering-related genes. Relative to the wild type, osnrt1.1a mutants exhibited reduced N utilization and late flowering. By contrast, overexpression of OsNRT1.1A in rice greatly improved N utilization and grain yield, and maturation time was also significantly shortened. These effects were further confirmed in different rice backgrounds and also in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our study paves a path for the use of a single gene to dramatically increase yield and shorten maturation time for crops, outcomes that promise to substantially increase world food security. PMID:29475937

  19. The presence of acylated ghrelin during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes induces cumulus cell DNA damage and apoptosis, and impairs early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sirini, Matias A; Anchordoquy, Juan Mateo; Anchordoquy, Juan Patricio; Pascua, Ana M; Nikoloff, Noelia; Carranza, Ana; Relling, Alejandro E; Furnus, Cecilia C

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acylated ghrelin supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes. IVM medium was supplemented with 20, 40 or 60 pM acylated ghrelin concentrations. Cumulus expansion area and oocyte nuclear maturation were studied as maturation parameters. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were assessed with the comet, apoptosis and viability assays. The in vitro effects of acylated ghrelin on embryo developmental capacity and embryo quality were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that acylated ghrelin did not affect oocyte nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion area. However, it induced cumulus cell (CC) death, apoptosis and DNA damage. The damage increased as a function of the concentration employed. Additionally, the percentages of blastocyst yield, hatching and embryo quality decreased with all acylated ghrelin concentrations tested. Our study highlights the importance of acylated ghrelin in bovine reproduction, suggesting that this metabolic hormone could function as a signal that prevents the progress to reproductive processes.

  20. Bone Marrow Concentrate Improves Early Cartilage Phase Maturation of a Scaffold Plug in the Knee: A Comparative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis to Platelet-Rich Plasma and Control.

    PubMed

    Krych, Aaron J; Nawabi, Danyal H; Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Jones, Kristofer J; Maak, Travis G; Potter, Hollis G; Williams, Riley J

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists on the clinical use of a synthetic osteochondral scaffold plug for cartilage restoration in the knee. The purpose of this study was to compare the early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance, including quantitative T2 values, between cartilage defects treated with a scaffold versus a scaffold with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC). The hypothesis was that the addition of PRP or BMAC would result in an improved cartilage appearance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-six patients with full-thickness cartilage defects of the femur were surgically treated with a control scaffold (n = 11), scaffold with PRP (n = 23), or scaffold with BMAC (n = 12) and were followed prospectively. Patients underwent MRI with a qualitative assessment and quantitative T2 mapping at 12 months after surgery. An image assessment was performed retrospectively by a blinded musculoskeletal radiologist. The cartilage phase was measured by cartilage fill and quantitative T2 values on MRI. A comparison between groups after cartilage repair was performed. The control scaffold group consisted of 8 male and 3 female patients (mean age, 38 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 25 kg/m(2)), the PRP group had 15 male and 8 female patients (mean age, 39 years; mean BMI, 26 kg/m(2)), and the BMAC group consisted of 8 male and 4 female patients (mean age, 36 years; mean BMI, 26 kg/m(2)). The PRP-treated (P = .002) and BMAC-treated (P = .03) scaffolds had superior cartilage fill compared with the control group. With quantitative methods, the PRP group demonstrated a mean T2 value (49.1 ms) that was similar to that of the control scaffold group (42.7 ms; P = .07), but the BMAC group demonstrated a mean T2 value (60.5 ms) closer to that of superficial hyaline cartilage (P = .01). The stratification of T2 values between the deep and superficial zones was not observed in any of the groups. In this comparative study, patients treated with

  1. Traditional growing rod versus magnetically controlled growing rod for treatment of early onset scoliosis: Cost analysis from implantation till skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carlos King Ho; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2017-01-01

    To compare the yearly cost involved per patient in the use of magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) and traditional growing rods (TGRs) in the treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS) and to assess the overall cost burden of MCGR with reference to patient and health-care infrastructure. For a hypothetical case of a 5-year-old girl with a diagnosis of EOS, a decision-tree model using TreeAge Software was developed to simulate annual health state transitions and compare the 8-year accumulative direct, indirect, and total cost among the four groups: (1) dual MCGRs with exchange every 2 years, (2) dual MCGRs with exchange every 3 years, (3) TGR with surgical distraction every year, and (4) TGR with surgical distraction every 6 months. Base-case values and ranges of clinical parameters reflecting complication rate after each type of surgical distraction were determined from a review of literature and expert opinion. Government gazette and expert opinion provided cost estimation of growing rods, surgeries, surgical complications, and routine follow-up. Microsimulation of 1000 individuals was conducted to test the variation in total direct costs (in 2016 Hong Kong dollars (HKD)) between individuals, and estimated the standard deviations of total direct costs for each group. Over the projected treatment period, indirect costs incurred by patients and family were higher for the MCGR as compared to the TGR. However, the total costs incurred by MCGR groups (group 1: HKD164k; group 2: HKD138k) were lower than those incurred by TGR groups (group 3: HKD191k; group 4: HKD290k). Although the accumulative costs of three groups (TGR with distraction every year and MCGR replacing every 2 and 3 years) were approaching each other in the first 2 years after initial implantation, at year 3 the accumulative cost of MCGR exchange every 2 years was HKD36k more than the yearly TGR surgery due to the cost of implant exchange. The cost incurred by both the MCGR groups was less than that

  2. Population parameters for resistance to Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides ear rot among large sets of early, mid-late and late maturing European maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Martin; Kessel, Bettina; Ouzunova, Milena; Miedaner, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Infection of maize ears with Fusarium graminearum (FG) and Fusarium verticillioides (FV) reduces yield and quality by mycotoxin contamination. Breeding and growing varieties resistant to both Fusarium spp. is the best alternative to minimize problems. The objectives of our study were to draw conclusions on breeding for ear rot resistance by estimating variance components, heritabilities and correlations between resistances to FV and FG severity and to investigate different inoculation methods. In 2007 and 2008, three maturity groups (early, mid-late, late) each comprising about 150 inbred lines were tested in Germany, France, Italy, and Hungary according to their maturity group. They were silk channel inoculated by FG (early) and FV (all groups). In the late maturity group, additionally kernel inoculation was applied in a separate trial. The percentage of mycelium coverage on the ear was rated at harvest (0-100%). Significant (P < 0.01) genotypic variances of ear rot severity were found in all groups. Inoculation was superior to natural infection because of higher disease severities and heritabilities. In early maturing flints and dents, FG caused significantly (P < 0.01) higher ear rot severity than FV (61.7 and 55.1% FG vs. 18.2 and 11.1% FV ear rot severity, respectively). FV inoculation in Southern Europe (mid-late, late) resulted in similar means between 10.3 and 14.0%. Selection is complicated by significant (P < 0.01) genotype x environment interactions. Correlation between FG and FV severity was moderate in flints and dents (r = 0.59 and 0.49, respectively) but lines resistant to both fungi exist. We conclude that chances for selecting improved European elite maize material within the existing germplasms is promising by multi-environmental inoculation trials.

  3. Ordovician Jeleniów Claystone Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland - Reconstruction of Redox Conditions Using Pyrite Framboid Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolarek, Justyna; Marynowski, Leszek; Trela, Wiesław

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this research is to reconstruct palaeoredox conditions during sedimentation of the Jeleniów Claystone Formation deposits, using framboid pyrite diameter measurements. Analysis of pyrite framboids diameter distribution is an effective method in the palaeoenvironmental interpretation which allow for a more detailed insight into the redox conditions, and thus the distinction between euxinic, dysoxic and anoxic conditions. Most of the samples is characterized by framboid indicators typical for anoxic/euxinic conditions in the water column, with average (mean) values ranging from 5.29 to 6.02 urn and quite low standard deviation (SD) values ranging from 1.49 to 3.0. The remaining samples have shown slightly higher values of framboid diameter typical for upper dysoxic conditions, with average values (6.37 to 7.20 um) and low standard deviation (SD) values (1.88 to 2.88). From the depth of 75.5 m till the shallowest part of the Jeleniów Claystone Formation, two samples have been examined and no framboids has been detected. Because secondary weathering should be excluded, the lack of framboids possibly indicates oxic conditions in the water column. Oxic conditions continue within the Wólka Formation based on the lack of framboids in the ZB 51.6 sample.

  4. Ordovician Jeleniów Claystone Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland - Reconstruction of redox conditions using pyrite framboid study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolarek, Justyna; Marynowski, Leszek; Trela, Wiesław

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this research is to reconstruct palaeoredox conditions during sedimentation of the Jeleniów Claystone Formation deposits, using framboid pyrite diameter measurements. Analysis of pyrite framboids diameter distribution is an effective method in the palaeoenvironmental interpretation which allow for a more detailed insight into the redox conditions, and thus the distinction between euxinic, dysoxic and anoxic conditions. Most of the samples is characterized by framboid indicators typical for anoxic/euxinic conditions in the water column, with average (mean) values ranging from 5.29 to 6.02 μm and quite low standard deviation (SD) values ranging from 1.49 to 3.0. The remaining samples have shown slightly higher values of framboid diameter typical for upper dysoxic conditions, with average values (6.37 to 7.20 μm) and low standard deviation (SD) values (1.88 to 2.88). From the depth of 75.5 m till the shallowest part of the Jeleniów Claystone Formation, two samples have been examined and no framboids has been detected. Because secondary weathering should be excluded, the lack of framboids possibly indicates oxic conditions in the water column. Oxic conditions continue within the Wólka Formation based on the lack of framboids in the ZB 51.6 sample

  5. Physical Activity, Physical Self-Concept, and Health-Related Quality of Life of Extreme Early and Late Maturing Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Smart, Joanna E. Hunter; Rodrigues, Aristides M. M.; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested for differences in physical activity (PA), physical self-concept, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between the least and most biologically mature adolescent females within their respective chronological and academic year groups. A total of 222 British female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years (X[bar] age = 12.7…

  6. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  7. MCS-18, a natural product isolated from Helleborus purpurascens, inhibits maturation of dendritic cells in ApoE-deficient mice and prevents early atherosclerosis progression.

    PubMed

    Dietel, Barbara; Muench, Rabea; Kuehn, Constanze; Kerek, Franz; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Achenbach, Stephan; Garlichs, Christoph D; Zinser, Elisabeth

    2014-08-01

    Inflammation accelerates both plaque progression and instability in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The inhibition of dendritic cell (DC) maturation is a promising approach to suppress excessive inflammatory immune responses and has been shown to be protective in several autoimmune models. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune modulatory effects of the natural substance MCS-18, an inhibitor of DC maturation, regarding the progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. ApoE-deficient mice were fed for twelve weeks with a Western-type diet (n = 32) or normal chow (control group; n = 16). Animals receiving high-fat diet were treated with MCS-18 (500 μg/kg body weight, n = 16) or saline (n = 16) twice a week. After 12 weeks, animals were transcardially perfused and sacrificed. The percentage of mature DCs (CD3(-)/CD19(-)/CD14(-)/NK1.1(-)/CD11c(+)/MHCII(+)/CD83(+)/CD86(+)) and T cell subpopulations (CD4(+)/CD25(+)/Foxp3(+), CD3/CD4/CD8) was analyzed in peripheral blood and in the spleen using flow cytometry. Plaque size was determined in the aortic root and the thoracoabdominal aorta using en-face staining. Immunohistochemical stainings served to detect inflammatory cells in the aortic root. Several cytokines and chemokines were determined in serum using multiplex assays. In splenic cells derived from saline-treated atherosclerotic mice an increased DC maturation, reflected by the upregulation of CD83 and CD86 expression, was observed. The enhanced expression of both maturation markers was absent in MCS-18 treated atherosclerotic mice. While the percentage of splenic Foxp3 expressing Treg was increased in animals receiving MCS-18 compared to saline-treated atherosclerotic mice, cytotoxic T cells were reduced in the spleen and in atherosclerotic lesions of the aortic root. Furthermore, proatherogenic cytokines (e.g. IL-6 and IFN-γ) and chemokines (e.g. MIP-1β) were decreased in serum of MCS-18-treated animals when compared to saline

  8. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scuderi, Gaetano J.; Butcher, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte maturation. This

  9. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C 37 and n-C 38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmans, Martin P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Lewan, Michael D.; Maxwell, James R.; Schaeffer, Philippe; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1997-06-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature ( Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330°C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C 37 and n-C 38 di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260°C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S- and O-bound n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons, saturated n-C 37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C 37 and C 38 mid-chain 2,5-di- n-alkylthiophenes, C 37 and C 38 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes, and C 37 and C 38n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S- and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons.

  10. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C37 and n-C38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Maxwell, J.R.; Schaeffer, P.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature (Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330??C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C37 and n-C38 di-and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260??C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S-and O-bound n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons, saturated n-C37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C37 and C38 mid-chain 2,5-di-n-alkylthiophenes, C37 and C38 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes, and C37 and C38 n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S-and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C37 and n-C38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. The organic geochemical characterization: An indication of type of kerogen and maturity of early - Mid Jurassic shale in the Blue Nile formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoieba, Monera Adam; Sum, Chow Weng; Abidin, Nor Syazwani Zainal; Bhattachary, Swapan Kumar

    2018-06-01

    The heterogeneity and complexity of shale gas has become clear as the development of unconventional resources have improved. The Blue Nile Basin, is one of the many Mesozoic rift basins in Sudan associated with the Central African Rift System (CARS). It is located in the eastern part of the Republic of Sudan and has been the major focus for shale gas exploration due to the hydrocarbon found in the basin. But so far no success of discovery has been achieved because the shale gas potentiality of the study area is still unknown. The objective of this study is to assess the type of kerogen and maturity of the shale samples from the Blue Nile Formation within the Blue Nile Basin. This was done by employing organic geochemical methods such as pyrolysis gas chromatography (Py-GC) and petrographic analysis such as vitrinite reflectance (Ro%). Ten representative shale samples from TW-1 well in the Blue Nile Formation have been used to assess the quality of the source rock. Pyrolysis GC analysis indicate that all the selected shale samples contain Type II kerogen that produces oil and gas. The Blue Nile Formation possesses vitrinite reflectance (Ro%) of 0.60-0.65%, indicating that the shale samples are mature in the oil window.

  12. Evidence of Late-Summer Mating Readiness and Early Sexual Maturation in Migratory Tree-Roosting Bats Found Dead at Wind Turbines

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul M.; Jameson, Joel W.; Baerwald, Erin F.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Barclay, Robert M. R.; Snider, E. Apple; Crichton, Elizabeth G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), eastern red bats (L. borealis), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines to learn more about when they mate. We evaluated 103 L. cinereus, 18 L. borealis, and 47 Ln. noctivagans from wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada. Histological analysis revealed that most male L. cinereus and L. borealis, as well as over half the Ln. noctivagans examined had sperm in the caudae epididymides by late August, indicating readiness to mate. Testes regression in male hoary bats coincided with enlargement of seminal vesicles and apparent growth of keratinized spines on the glans penis. Seasonality of these processes also suggests that mating could occur during August in L. cinereus. Spermatozoa were found in the uterus of an adult female hoary bat collected in September, but not in any other females. Ovaries of all females sampled had growing secondary or tertiary follicles, indicating sexual maturity even in first-year females. Lasiurus cinereus, L. borealis, and Ln. noctivagans are the only North American temperate bats in which most first-year young of both sexes are known to sexually mature in their first autumn. Our findings provide the first detailed information published on the seasonal timing of mating readiness in these species most affected by wind turbines. PMID:23094065

  13. Evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Jameson, Joel W; Baerwald, Erin F; Willis, Craig K R; Barclay, Robert M R; Snider, E Apple; Crichton, Elizabeth G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), eastern red bats (L. borealis), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines to learn more about when they mate. We evaluated 103 L. cinereus, 18 L. borealis, and 47 Ln. noctivagans from wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada. Histological analysis revealed that most male L. cinereus and L. borealis, as well as over half the Ln. noctivagans examined had sperm in the caudae epididymides by late August, indicating readiness to mate. Testes regression in male hoary bats coincided with enlargement of seminal vesicles and apparent growth of keratinized spines on the glans penis. Seasonality of these processes also suggests that mating could occur during August in L. cinereus. Spermatozoa were found in the uterus of an adult female hoary bat collected in September, but not in any other females. Ovaries of all females sampled had growing secondary or tertiary follicles, indicating sexual maturity even in first-year females. Lasiurus cinereus, L. borealis, and Ln. noctivagans are the only North American temperate bats in which most first-year young of both sexes are known to sexually mature in their first autumn. Our findings provide the first detailed information published on the seasonal timing of mating readiness in these species most affected by wind turbines.

  14. Evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, P.M.; Jameson, J.W.; Baerwald, E.F.; Willis, C.K.R.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Snider, E.A.; Crichton, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), eastern red bats (L. borealis), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines to learn more about when they mate. We evaluated 103 L. cinereus, 18 L. borealis, and 47 Ln. noctivagans from wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada. Histological analysis revealed that most male L. cinereus and L. borealis, as well as over half the Ln. noctivagans examined had sperm in the caudae epididymides by late August, indicating readiness to mate. Testes regression in male hoary bats coincided with enlargement of seminal vesicles and apparent growth of keratinized spines on the glans penis. Seasonality of these processes also suggests that mating could occur during August in L. cinereus. Spermatozoa were found in the uterus of an adult female hoary bat collected in September, but not in any other females. Ovaries of all females sampled had growing secondary or tertiary follicles, indicating sexual maturity even in first-year females. Lasiurus cinereus, L. borealis, and Ln. noctivagans are the only North American temperate bats in which most first-year young of both sexes are known to sexually mature in their first autumn. Our findings provide the first detailed information published on the seasonal timing of mating readiness in these species most affected by wind turbines.

  15. Insulin resistance does not affect early embryo development but lowers implantation rate in in vitro maturation-in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycle.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eun M; Han, Ji E; Seok, Hyun H; Lee, Dong R; Yoon, Tae K; Lee, Woo S

    2013-07-01

    Although extensive evidence indicates the hyperinsulinemia directly contributes to reproductive dysfunction in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), influence of insulin resistance (IR) on assisted reproductive technology outcomes is poorly understood. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of IR on in vitro maturation-in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVM-IVF-ET) in patients with PCOS. Prospective observational study. Women with PCOS (n = 115) commencing IVM. IR (n = 51) and non-IR (n = 64) women with PCOS ready to commence an IVM cycle were recruited. IR was diagnosed using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Patients with an abnormal GTT and/or HOMA index >2·4 were considered IR. Patients underwent 115 cycles of unstimulated hCG-primed IVM. Maturation, fertilization, cleavage rates, the number of good-quality embryo, and blastocyst formation rates were not significantly different between groups. However, implantation (11·6% vs 28·7%, P = 0·001, respectively), clinical pregnancy (23·5% vs 53·1%, P = 0·002, respectively), and ongoing pregnancy rates (21·6% vs 46·9%. P = 0·006, respectively) were significantly decreased in the IR group. The negative effect of IR on pregnancy outcomes remained after controlling for age, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profiles (OR 4·928, 95% CI 1·735-13·991, P = 0·003). Pregnancy rate after IVM is impaired in IR patients with PCOS. Oocyte development and embryo quality are not affected, suggesting that the effects of hyperinsulinemia on endometrial function and implantation process underlie the decreased pregnancy rate. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The international society for developmental psychobiology Sackler symposium: early adversity and the maturation of emotion circuits--a cross-species analysis.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Bridget L; Sullivan, Regina M; Howell, Brittany; Tottenham, Nim

    2014-12-01

    Early-life caregiving shapes the architecture and function of the developing brain. The fact that the infant-caregiver relationship is critically important for infant functioning across all altricial species, and that the anatomical circuits supporting emotional functioning are highly preserved across different species, suggests that the results of studies examining the role of early adversity and emotional functioning should be translatable across species. Here we present findings from four different research laboratories, using three different species, which have converged on a similar finding: adversity accelerates the developmental trajectory of amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and modifies emotional behaviors. First, a rodent model of attachment learning associated with adversity is presented showing precocial disruption of attachment learning and emergence of heightened fear learning and emotionality. Second, a model of infant-mother separation is presented in which early adversity is shown to accelerate the developmental emergence of adult-like fear retention and extinction. Third, a model of early life adversity in Rhesus monkeys is presented in which a naturally occurring variation in maternal-care (abuse) is shown to alter the functioning of emotion circuits. Finally, a human model of maternal deprivation is presented in which children born into orphanages and then adopted abroad exhibit aberrant development of emotion circuits. The convergence of these cross-species studies on early life adversity suggests that adversity targets the amygdala and PFC and has immediate impact on infant behavior with the caregiver, and emotional reactions to the world. These results provide insight into mechanisms responsible for caregiver induced mental health trajectory alterations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Redefining "Mature Writing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee

    Although certain features have been identified as most indicative of "syntactic maturity," these only partially answer the question, "What is mature writing?" Mature thought on the part of the author is reflected in writing in the following ways: recognizing that the audience is different from himself or herself; providing an appropriate context…

  18. Mature Teachers Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berl, Patricia Scallan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the consequences of losing mature teachers due to voluntary separation or retirement and the mindset of a mature teacher that is different from younger teachers in a number of ways. Mature teachers are colleagues over 45 years of age possessing significant experience in the field. Future trends in teacher…

  19. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  20. Correlation among chronologic age, skeletal maturity, and dental age.

    PubMed

    Sukhia, Rashna H; Fida, Mubassar

    2010-01-01

    To determine the correlation among chronologic age, skeletal maturity, and dental age in reference to both sexes. In 380 subjects (147 males and 233 females) between 7 and 17 years of age, skeletal maturity was assessed using the cervical vertebral maturation stages described by Baccetti et al. Dental age was determined using the Demirjian method. The correlation between skeletal maturity and chronologic age on one side and between skeletal maturity and dental age on the other was assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between chronologic and dental age. For both sexes, significant correlations among chronologic age, skeletal maturity, and dental age were found. The mandibular first premolar had the highest correlation with skeletal maturation in both sexes. As skeletal maturity and dental age are significantly correlated, tooth development may be used to assess a patient's skeletal maturity at an early age. © 2011 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  1. [Effects of noopept and cortexin on the behavior of matured rats treated with corticoliberin or 70-kDa heat shock proteins in early ontogeny].

    PubMed

    Shabanov, P D; Lebedev, A A; Stetsenko, V P; Lavrov, N V; Sablina, G V; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovaskaia, R U

    2007-01-01

    Young Wistar rats aged 4 days were injected intraperitoneally with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), which is an agent activating the stress system, or 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP-70)--intracellular shaperons, possessing antistress properties. In grown adult rats aged 90-100 days, the effects of nootropic drugs noopept and cortexin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were assessed. The activation of stress or antistress systems with CRH or HSP-70 significantly altered the drug action. The effects were different in males and females and depended on animal gender. The spectrum of pharmacological activity of noopept and cortexin changed: noopept demonstrated preferable psychoactivating and antiaggressive effects, whereas cortexin showed mild anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. It is suggested that the behavioral effects of nootropes depend on the conditions of the stress system formation in early ontogeny.

  2. Central anatomy of individual rapidly adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors innervating the "hairy" skin of newborn mice: early maturation of hair follicle afferents.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, C J; Ritter, A M; Koerber, H R

    2001-07-30

    Adult skin sensory neurons exhibit characteristic projection patterns in the dorsal horn of the spinal gray matter that are tightly correlated with modality. However, little is known about how these patterns come about during the ontogeny of the distinct subclasses of skin sensory neurons. To this end, we have developed an intact ex vivo somatosensory system preparation in neonatal mice, allowing single, physiologically identified cutaneous afferents to be iontophoretically injected with Neurobiotin for subsequent histological analyses. The present report, centered on rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors, represents the first study of the central projections of identified skin sensory neurons in neonatal animals. Cutaneous afferents exhibiting rapidly adapting responses to sustained natural stimuli were encountered as early as recordings were made. Well-stained representatives of coarse (tylotrich and guard) and fine-diameter (down) hair follicle afferents, along with a putative Pacinian corpuscle afferent, were recovered from 2-7-day-old neonates. All were characterized by narrow, uninflected somal action potentials and generally low mechanical thresholds, and many could be activated via deflection of recently erupted hairs. The central collaterals of hair follicle afferents formed recurrent, flame-shaped arbors that were essentially miniaturized replicas of their adult counterparts, with identical laminar terminations. The terminal arbors of down hair afferents, previously undescribed in rodents, were distinct and consistently occupied a more superficial position than tylotrich and guard hair afferents. Nevertheless, the former extended no higher than the middle of the incipient substantia gelatinosa, leaving a clear gap more dorsally. In all major respects, therefore, hair follicle afferents display the same laminar specificity in neonates as they do in adults. The widely held misperception that their collaterals extend exuberant projections into pain

  3. Safety-relevant hydrogeological properties of the claystone barrier of a Swiss radioactive waste repository: An evaluation using multiple lines of evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    In Switzerland, the Opalinus Clay - a Jurassic (Aalenian) claystone formation - has been proposed as the first-priority host rock for a deep geological repository for both low- and intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. An extensive site and host rock investigation programme has been carried out during the past 30 years in Northern Switzerland, comprising extensive 2D and 3D seismic surveys, a series of deep boreholes within and around potential geological siting regions, experiments in the international Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, compilations of data from Opalinus Clay in railway and motorway tunnels and comparisons with similar rocks. The hydrogeological properties of the Opalinus Clay that are relevant from the viewpoint of long-term safety are described and illustrated. The main conclusions are supported by multiple lines of evidence, demonstrating consistency of conclusions based on hydraulic properties, porewater chemistry, distribution of natural tracers across the Opalinus Clay as well as small- and large-scale diffusion models and the derived conceptual understanding of solute transport.

  4. Maturation of Black Cherry Fruits in Central Mississippi

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner

    1975-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in central Mississippi grew in size and weight from early May until maturity in late June. In early June, crude fat, protein-nitrogen, and calcium concentrations increased; moisture content decreased; endocarps hardened; and embryo tissues became firm. From mid-June to maturity mesocarp growth was prominent as...

  5. Early in situ changes in chondrocyte biomechanical responses due to a partial meniscectomy in the lateral compartment of the mature rabbit knee joint.

    PubMed

    Fick, J M; P Ronkainen, A; Madden, R; Sawatsky, A; Tiitu, V; Herzog, W; Korhonen, R K

    2016-12-08

    We determined the biomechanical responses of chondrocytes to indentation at specific locations within the superficial zone of cartilage (i.e. patellar, femoral groove, femoral condylar and tibial plateau sites) taken from female New Zealand white rabbits three days after a partial meniscectomy in the lateral compartment of a knee joint. Confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with a custom indentation system was utilized to image chondrocyte responses at sites taken from ten contralateral and experimental knee joints. Cell volume, height, width and depth changes, global, local axial and transverse strains and Young׳s moduli were determined. Histological assessment was performed and proteoglycan content from the superficial zone of each site was determined. Relative to contralateral group cells, patellar, femoral groove and lateral femoral condyle cells in the experimental group underwent greater volume decreases (p < 0.05), due to smaller lateral expansions (with greater decreases in cell height only for the lateral femoral condyle cells; p < 0.05) whereas medial femoral and medial tibial plateau cells underwent smaller volume decreases (p < 0.05), due to less deformation in cell height (p < 0.05). Proteoglycan content was reduced in the patellar (p > 0.05), femoral groove, medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau experimental sites (p < 0.05). The findings suggest: (i) cell biomechanical responses to cartilage loading in the rabbit knee joint can become altered as early as 3 days after a partial meniscectomy, (ii) are site-specific, and (iii) occur before alterations in tissue mechanics or changes detectable with histology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 Lipopolysaccharide Is Not Only Relevant at Early Soybean Nodulation Stages but Also for Symbiosome Stability in Mature Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Margaret, Isabel; Lucas, M. Mercedes; Acosta-Jurado, Sebastián; Buendía-Clavería, Ana M.; Fedorova, Elena; Hidalgo, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Navarro, Dulce N.; Ruiz-Sainz, José E.; Vinardell, José M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have characterised the Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 greA lpsB lpsCDE genetic region and analysed for the first time the symbiotic performance of Sinorhizobium fredii lps mutants on soybean. The organization of the S. fredii HH103 greA, lpsB, and lpsCDE genes was equal to that of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. S. fredii HH103 greA, lpsB, and lpsE mutant derivatives produced altered LPS profiles that were characteristic of the gene mutated. In addition, S. fredii HH103 greA mutants showed a reduction in bacterial mobility and an increase of auto-agglutination in liquid cultures. RT-PCR and qPCR experiments demonstrated that the HH103 greA gene has a positive effect on the transcription of lpsB. Soybean plants inoculated with HH103 greA, lpsB or lpsE mutants formed numerous ineffective pseudonodules and showed severe symptoms of nitrogen starvation. However, HH103 greA and lps mutants were also able to induce the formation of a reduced number of soybean nodules of normal external morphology, allowing the possibility of studying the importance of bacterial LPS in later stages of the S. fredii HH103-soybean symbiosis. The infected cells of these nodules showed signs of early termination of symbiosis and lytical clearance of bacteroids. These cells also had very thick walls and accumulation of phenolic-like compounds, pointing to induced defense reactions. Our results show the importance of bacterial LPS in later stages of the S. fredii HH103-soybean symbiosis and their role in preventing host cell defense reactions. S. fredii HH103 lpsB mutants also showed reduced nodulation with Vigna unguiculata, although the symbiotic impairment was less pronounced than in soybean. PMID:24098345

  7. Early decreased TLR2 expression on monocytes is associated with their reduced phagocytic activity and impaired maturation in a porcine polytrauma model

    PubMed Central

    Schimunek, Lukas; Serve, Rafael; Teuben, Michel P. J.; Störmann, Philipp; Auner, Birgit; Woschek, Mathias; Pfeifer, Roman; Horst, Klemens; Simon, Tim-P.; Kalbitz, Miriam; Sturm, Ramona; Pape, Hans-C.; Hildebrand, Frank; Marzi, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    immediately and remained lower during the first 3.5 h after trauma, but increased after 24 h. Antagonizing TLR2 significantly decreased the phagocytizing activity of monocytes. Both, decreased percentage of activated as well as TLR2 expressing monocytes persisted as long as the reduced phagocytosis was observed. Moreover, neutralizing TLR2 led to a reduced capability of phagocytosis as well. Therefore, we assume that reduced TLR2 expression may be responsible for the decreased phagocytizing capacity of circulating monocytes in the early post-traumatic phase. PMID:29125848

  8. Education Practices and Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froumin, I. D.

    2018-01-01

    The article briefly discusses the question of how we should establish special educational practices that could help students mature. In identifying such practices, the author looks to a number of empirical studies that allow us to understand what significance the concept of "maturation" has for children and teenagers. In conclusion, the…

  9. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  10. A multiscale approach to determine hydraulic conductivity in thick claystone aquitards using field, laboratory, and numerical modeling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.; Barbour, S. L.; Hendry, M. J.; Novakowski, K.; van der Kamp, G.

    2016-07-01

    Characterizing the hydraulic conductivity (K) of aquitards is difficult due to technical and logistical difficulties associated with field-based methods as well as the cost and challenge of collecting representative and competent core samples for laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to produce a multiscale comparison of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kv and Kh, respectively) of a regionally extensive Cretaceous clay-rich aquitard in southern Saskatchewan. Ten vibrating wire pressure transducers were lowered into place at depths between 25 and 325 m, then the annular was space was filled with a cement-bentonite grout. The in situ Kh was estimated at the location of each transducer by simulating the early-time pore pressure measurements following setting of the grout using a 2-D axisymmetric, finite element, numerical model. Core samples were collected during drilling for conventional laboratory testing for Kv to compare with the transducer-determined in situ Kh. Results highlight the importance of scale and consideration of the presence of possible secondary features (e.g., fractures) in the aquitard. The proximity of the transducers to an active potash mine (˜1 km) where depressurization of an underlying aquifer resulted in drawdown through the aquitard provided a unique opportunity to model the current hydraulic head profile using both the Kh and Kv estimates. Results indicate that the transducer-determined Kh estimates would allow for the development of the current hydraulic head distribution, and that simulating the pore pressure recovery can be used to estimate moderately low in situ Kh (<10-11 m s-1).

  11. Maturity status of youth football players: a noninvasive estimate.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Cumming, Sean P; Morano, Peter J; Barron, Mary; Miller, Susan J

    2005-06-01

    To estimate the biological maturity status of youth football players 9-14 yr old using a noninvasive method and to compare the body size of players of contrasting status. Subjects were members of youth football teams in two central Michigan communities. Height and weight were measured on 653 boys 8.7-14.6 yr. Heights of biological parents of 582 boys were reported and subsequently adjusted for overestimation. Decimal age, height, and weight of the player and midparent height were used to predict mature (adult) height for the boy. Current height of each player was expressed as a percentage of his predicted mature height to provide an estimate of biological maturity status. Percentage of predicted mature height of each boy was expressed as a z-score to classify players into maturity groups. ANCOVA, controlling for age, was used to compare body size in contrasting maturity groups. Mean percentages of predicted mature height of the players matched those of longitudinal reference samples, but there was a trend for higher percentages among older players, suggesting advanced maturation. Overall, 405 boys were classified as on time/average in maturity status (69.6% [95%CI 65.7-73.3]), 154 were classified as early/advanced (25.5% [95%CI 23.0-30.3]), and only 23 were classified as late/delayed (3.9% [95%CI 2.6-6.0]). The gradient for height, weight, and BMI was as follows: early > on time > late, and differences were greater for weight and the BMI than for height. Percentage of predicted mature height attained at a given age appears to be a reasonable indicator of maturity status. The method needs to be validated with other more direct indicators (skeletal age, sexual maturation) and applied to other samples.

  12. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  13. [Maturation diagnosis in full term hypotrophic fetuses].

    PubMed

    Scharnke, H D; Gartzke, J; Fleischer, G; Isbruch, E

    1977-01-01

    Foam-Test by Clements is a valuable method for determining the foetus maturity of lungs. We introduce this test along with other parameters for the maturity-diagnosis since one year. In 15% result, the Foam-Test was not applicable because of blood, or meconic amniotic fluid, other wise wrong negative and in 0% wrong positive results. By unmatured child, there was doubtable results with Foam-Test. Since it is important to determine the early delivery of unmatured children, particularly the case of foetus maturity of lungs must be exact, we therefore decided to use the Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotients in some cases. The results of Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotient in unmatured children are almost with the approximated date under two. From this, one must deduce from these children, that the intrauterine unmatured lungs lately took place.

  14. Capability maturity models for offshore organisational management.

    PubMed

    Strutt, J E; Sharp, J V; Terry, E; Miles, R

    2006-12-01

    The goal setting regime imposed by the UK safety regulator has important implications for an organisation's ability to manage health and safety related risks. Existing approaches to safety assurance based on risk analysis and formal safety assessments are increasingly considered unlikely to create the step change improvement in safety to which the offshore industry aspires and alternative approaches are being considered. One approach, which addresses the important issue of organisational behaviour and which can be applied at a very early stage of design, is the capability maturity model (CMM). The paper describes the development of a design safety capability maturity model, outlining the key processes considered necessary to safety achievement, definition of maturity levels and scoring methods. The paper discusses how CMM is related to regulatory mechanisms and risk based decision making together with the potential of CMM to environmental risk management.

  15. [The maturation steps of human immunodeficiency virus and the role of proteolysis].

    PubMed

    Bukrinskaia, A G; Grigor'ev, V B; Korablina, E V; Gur'ev, E L; Vorkunova, G K

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 virions are as immature noninfectious particles lacking a central core. Shortly after budding, virions temporally mature and acquire cores and infectious activity. The cause of maturation remains poorly studied. We have revealed that the virions produced early after infection following 24-36 hours, never mature and remain noninfectious, and only virions produced 48-72 hours after infection mature. The mature virions contain 3 times more genomic viral RNA than "early" virus. The "early" virions contain the same proteolytically cleaved Gag proteins as mature virions in contrast to the accepted version. The virus protease inhibitor Indinavir sulfate (IS) fully blocks infectivity when added early after infection. The early proteolysis of Gag precursor in the infected cells and inclusion into the virions of cellularly cleaved matrix protein (cMA) are shown in the IS-treated cells. cMA is associated with genomic viral RNA.

  16. Vocational Maturity and Self Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Hans

    The relationship between separate dimensions of vocational maturity and different self-concept and identity variables were examined. Subjects were Dutch students, age 14-18 years. The vocational maturity dimensions were measured by Dutch adaptations of American vocational maturity scales. Instruments for self-concept and identity measurement were…

  17. A Socioanalytic Model of Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; Roberts, Brent W.

    2004-01-01

    K0 describes a point of view on maturity that departs from earlier treatments in two ways. First, it rejects the popular assumption from humanistic psychology that maturity is a function of self-actualization and stipulates that maturity is related to certain performance capacities--namely, the ability to form lasting relationships and to achieve…

  18. The science behind the proposed maturity standard change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current maturity standard for navel oranges in California has been in place for nearly 100 years yet does not always do a good job of ensuring that consumers obtain good-tasting fruit during the early season. Early work that was performed which supported adoption of the standard may have been ad...

  19. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P < 0.05). In girls, the mandibular second molar had the highest and the canine the lowest correlation. In boys, the canine had the highest and the first premolar the lowest correlation. Tooth calcification stage was significantly correlated with cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecosystem maturity and performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2005-01-01

    Arising from: Bai, Y., Han, X., Wu, J., Chen, Z. & Li, L. Nature, 431, 181–184 (2004); see also communication from Wang et al.; Bai, Y., Han, X., Wu, J., Chen, Z. & Li, L. reply.The effect of maturity, or successional stage, on ecosystem performance (measured as productivity or stability, for example) is important for both basic ecology and ecosystem management. On the basis of the results of a long-term study of two different plant communities at two sites in the Inner Mongolia grassland1, Bai et al. claim that these communities simultaneously achieve high species richness, productivity and ecosystem stability at the late successional stage1. However, I question their interpretation of the data and suggest that this claim is undermined by evidence from other empirical and theoretical studies.

  1. CFD - Mature Technology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, numerical methods and simulation tools for fluid dynamic problems have advanced as a new discipline, namely, computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Although a wide spectrum of flow regimes are encountered in many areas of science and engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to a large demand for predicting the aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, such as commercial, military, and space vehicles. As flow analysis is required to be more accurate and computationally efficient for both commercial and mission-oriented applications (such as those encountered in meteorology, aerospace vehicle development, general fluid engineering and biofluid analysis) CFD tools for engineering become increasingly important for predicting safety, performance and cost. This paper presents the author's perspective on the maturity of CFD, especially from an aerospace engineering point of view.

  2. Diagnostic performance of skeletal maturity for the assessment of midpalatal suture maturation.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H S; McNamara, James A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method in estimating accurately the stages of maturation of the midpalatal suture. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from 142 subjects (84 female, 58 male; mean age, 14.8 ± 9.7 years) were analyzed by 2 calibrated examiners to define, by visual analysis, the maturational stages of the cervical vertebrae and the midpalatal suture. These CBCT images were required by orthodontists and surgeons for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Positive likelihood ratios (LHRs) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the CVM stages in identifying the maturational stages of the midpalatal suture. Positive LHRs greater than 10 were found for several cervical vertebral stages (CSs), including CS1 and CS2 for the identification of midpalatal suture stages A and B, CS3 for the diagnosis of midpalatal suture stage C, and CS5 for the assessment of midpalatal suture stages D and E. These positive LHRs indicated large and often conclusive increases in the likelihood that the CVM stages were associated with specific stages of midpalatal suture maturation. At CS4, there were a moderate positive LHR for stage C and low positive LHRs for stages D and E. Most CVM stages can be used for the diagnosis of the stages of maturation of the midpalatal suture, so that CBCT imaging may not be necessary in these patients. In the postpubertal period, however, an assessment of the midpalatal suture maturation using CBCT images may be indicated in deciding between conventional rapid maxillary expansion and surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. On the other hand, if the CVM stage cannot be assessed, chronologic age may be a viable alternative to predict some midpalatal suture stages (particularly the early stages). Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Postradiation atrophy of mature bone

    SciTech Connect

    Erguen, H.; Howland, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The growing number of oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy require the diagnostic radiologist to be aware of expected bone changes following irradiation and the differentiation of this entity from metastasis. The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographicmore » evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing, mainly because of the relative insensitivity of radiographs in detecting demineralization. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. In vivo midrodensitometric analysis and radionuclide bone and bone marrow scans can reveal early changes following irradiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.« less

  4. Postradiation atrophy of mature bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun, H.; Howland, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The growing number of oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy require the diagnostic radiologist to be aware of expected bone changes following irradiation and the differentiation of this entity from metastasis. The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographicmore » evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing, mainly because of the relative insensitivity of radiographs in detecing demineralization. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. In vivo midrodensitometric analysis and radionuclide bone and bone marrow scans can reveal early changes following irradiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.« less

  5. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    PubMed

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  6. Isolated Learners: Young Mature-Age Students, University Culture, and Desire for Academic Sociality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallman, Mark; Lee, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The differentiated experiences of "young" mature-age students are under-researched and often unacknowledged in higher education literature and university policy. This article contends that, due to their age (early 20s to early 30s), many younger mature-age students feel "out of the loop" and "alienated" from…

  7. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    People Capability Maturity Model SM .^^^^_ -——’ Bill Curtis William E. ] Sally Mille] Hefley r Accesion For t NTIS DTIC...People CMM The P-CMM adapts the architecture and the maturity framework underlying the CMM for use with people-related improvement issues. The CMM...focuses on helping organizations improve their software development processes. By adapting the maturity framework and the CMM architecture

  8. Mature neurons dynamically restrict apoptosis via redundant premitochondrial brakes.

    PubMed

    Annis, Ryan P; Swahari, Vijay; Nakamura, Ayumi; Xie, Alison X; Hammond, Scott M; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is critical for the early development of the nervous system, but once the nervous system is established, the apoptotic pathway becomes highly restricted in mature neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased resistance to apoptosis in these mature neurons are not completely understood. We have previously found that members of the miR-29 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are induced with neuronal maturation and that overexpression of miR-29 was sufficient to restrict apoptosis in neurons. To determine whether endogenous miR-29 alone was responsible for the inhibition of cytochrome c release in mature neurons, we examined the status of the apoptotic pathway in sympathetic neurons deficient for all three miR-29 family members. Unexpectedly, we found that the apoptotic pathway remained largely restricted in miR-29-deficient mature neurons. We therefore probed for additional mechanisms by which mature neurons resist apoptosis. We identify miR-24 as another miRNA that is upregulated in the maturing cerebellum and sympathetic neurons that can act redundantly with miR-29 by targeting a similar repertoire of prodeath BH3-only genes. Overall, our results reveal that mature neurons engage multiple redundant brakes to restrict the apoptotic pathway and ensure their long-term survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Early Mesozoic history and petroleum potential of formations in Wyoming and northern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, M.D.

    1993-08-01

    During the Triassic and Jurassic, over what is now Wyoming and northern Utah, roughly equal amounts of sediment were being deposited in continental settings-lake, stream, and eolian-and in shallow-marine or deltaic-plain settings-delta, beach, marsh, tidal flat, and shallow shelf. Clastic rocks dominate. In order of decreasing abundance, the rocks are fine-grained clastics (siltstone, claystone, mudstone), sandstone, carbonates, evaporites, and claystone- and carbonate-pebble conglomerate. Approximately four-fifths of the succession contains red beds or variegated layers-purple, maroon, lavender, olive, green. Unconformities bound Jurassic formations in Wyoming-Nugget, Gypsum Spring, Sundance, and Morrison. Unconformities also bound the continental Upper Triassic section-unnamed red bed unit,more » Jelm, Popo Agie-separating it from the underlying shallow-marine formations-Dinwoody, Red Peak, Alcova, Crow Mountain. Within the marine sequence, an unconformity occurs at the top of the Alcova and, quite likely, shorter periods of erosion took place at the top and below the base of the sandy faces that underlies the Alcova. The postulate duration of the principal unconformities totals about 18 m.y., at least one-sixth of early Mesozoic time. The bulk of the remaining 80-100 m.y. may be represented by a large number of smaller unconformities. For the lower Mesozoic, as for most stratigraphic intervals, a few beds contain the story of what has taken place during the abyss of geologic time. Like other places in the world where evaporites occur in the Triassic, the Wyoming section produces little crude oil. No significant sequence in the early Mesozoic shows source-bed characteristics. The Crow Mountain Sandstone contains the best reservoirs. The Lower( ) Jurassic Nugget Sandstone produces the most oil and gas in the thrust belt of southwestern Wyoming and northern Utah. Cretaceous claystones below the thrusts contain the source beds.« less

  10. Interrelationships among invasive and non-invasive indicators of biological maturation in adolescent male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Coelho E Silva, Manuel J; Figueiredo, António J; Carling, Christopher; Beunen, Gaston P

    2012-01-01

    The relationships among indicators of biological maturation were evaluated and concordance between classifications of maturity status in two age groups of youth soccer players examined (11-12 years, n = 87; 13-14 years, n = 93). Data included chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA, Fels method), stage of pubic hair, predicted age at peak height velocity, and percent of predicted adult height. Players were classified as on time, late or early in maturation using the SA-CA difference, predicted age at peak height velocity, and percent of predicted mature height. Factor analyses indicated two factors in players aged 11-12 years (maturity status: percent of predicted mature height, stage of pubic hair, 59% of variance; maturity timing: SA/CA ratio, predicted age at peak height velocity, 26% of variance), and one factor in players aged 13-14 years (68% of variance). Kappa coefficients were low (0.02-0.23) and indicated poor agreement between maturity classifications. Spearman rank-order correlations between categories were low to moderate (0.16-0.50). Although the indicators were related, concordance of maturity classifications between skeletal age and predicted age at peak height velocity and percent predicted mature height was poor. Talent development programmes call for the classification of youth as early, average, and late maturing for the purpose of designing training and competition programmes. Non-invasive indicators of maturity status have limitations for this purpose.

  11. Treating mature stands for wildlife

    Treesearch

    William H. Healy; Gary F. Houf

    1989-01-01

    Stands older than 60 years or that are medium to large sawtimber size generally provide good wildlife habitat. Mature trees usually produce abundant mast and provide den sites (see fig. 1 in Note 9.04 Treating Immature Stands). The undergrowth in these stands produces moderate amounts of browse and herbage. Mature stands also provide opportunities for management...

  12. Financial maturity of yellow birch

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    1969-01-01

    The methods used to compute financial maturity of yellow birch sawtimber are similar to those used for paper birch sawtimber, except for minor differences in detail. The procedure followed for yellow-birch veneer-log trees was also similar, except that local veneer grades and local veneer-log prices were used as the basis for the financial maturity computations.

  13. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical (THM) Coupled Simulation of a Generic Site for Disposal of High Level Nuclear Waste in Claystone in Germany: Exemplary Proof of the Integrity of the Geological Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, J.; Ziefle, G.; Jobmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    Claystone is investigated as a potential host rock for the disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). In Germany, DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, the BGR and the "Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS)" are developing an integrated methodology for safety assessment within the R&D project "ANSICHT". One part herein is the demonstration of integrity of the geological barrier to ensure safe containment of radionuclides over 1 million years. The mechanical excavation of an underground repository, the ex­po­si­tion of claystone to at­mos­pheric air, the insertion of backfill, buffer, sealing and supporting material as well as the deposition of heat producing waste constitute a sig­nif­i­cant disturbance of the underground system. A complex interacting scheme of thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (THM) processes can be expected. In this work, the finite element software OpenGeoSys, main­ly de­vel­oped at the "Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH (UFZ)", is used to simulate and evaluate several THM coupled effects in the repository surroundings up to the surface over a time span of 1 million years. The numerical setup is based on two generic geological models inspired by the representative geology of potentially suitable regions in North- and South Germany. The results give an insight into the evolution of temperature, pore pressure, stresses as well as deformation and enables statements concerning the extent of the significantly influenced area. One important effect among others is the temperature driven change in the densities of the solid and liquid phase and its influence on the stress field. In a further step, integrity criteria have been quantified, based on specifications of the German federal ministry of the environment. The exemplary numerical evaluation of these criteria demonstrates, how numerical simulations can be used to prove the integrity of the geological barrier and detect potential vulnerabilities. Fig.: Calculated zone of

  14. Validation of a noninvasive maturity estimate relative to skeletal age in youth football players.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Dompier, Thomas P; Powell, John W; Barron, Mary J; Moore, Marguerite T

    2007-09-01

    To validate a non-invasive measure of biological maturity (percentage of predicted mature height at a given age) with an established indicator of maturity [skeletal age (SA)] in youth American football players. Cross-sectional. Two communities in central Michigan. 143 youth football players 9.27 to 14.24 years. Height and weight were measured, and hand-wrist radiographs were taken. SA assessed with the Fels method was the criterion measure of maturity status. Chronological age (CA), height, and weight of the player and midparent height were used to predict mature height; current height of the player was expressed as a percentage of his predicted mature height as a noninvasive estimate of biological maturity status. Boys' maturation was classified as late, on time, or early maturing on the basis of the difference between SA and CA and of present height expressed as a percentage of predicted mature height. Kappa coefficients and Spearman rank-order correlations were calculated. Characteristics of players concordant and discordant for maturity classification with SA and percentage of predicted mature height were compared with MANCOVA. Concordance between methods of maturity classification was 62%. The Kappa coefficient, 0.46 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.59) and Spearman rank-order correlation, rs = 0.52 (P < 0.001) were moderate. Players discordant for maturity status varied in midparent height and percentage of predicted mature height, but not in predicted mature height. Percentage of predicted mature height is a reasonably valid estimate of biological maturity status in this sample of youth football players.

  15. Aging: compensation or maturation?

    PubMed

    Aine, Cheryl J; Woodruff, Chad C; Knoefel, Janice E; Adair, John C; Hudson, David; Qualls, Clifford; Bockholt, Jeremy; Best, Elaine; Kovacevic, Sanja; Cobb, Wayne; Padilla, Denise; Hart, Blaine; Stephen, Julia M

    2006-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies of healthy aging often reveal differences in neural activation patterns between young and elderly groups for episodic memory tasks, even though there are no differences in behavioral performance. One explanation typically offered is that the elderly compensate for their memory deficiencies through the recruitment of additional prefrontal regions. The present study of healthy aging compared magnetoencephalographic (MEG) time-courses localized to specific cortical regions in two groups of subjects (20-29 years and >or=65 years) during a visual delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) task. MR morphometrics and neuropsychological test results were also examined with the hope of providing insight into the nature of the age-related differences. The behavioral results indicated no differences in performance between young and elderly groups. Although there was a main effect of age on the latency of the initial peak in primary/secondary visual cortex, these longer latencies were not correlated with the performance of elderly on the DMS task. The lateral occipital gyrus (LOG) revealed qualitatively different patterns of activity for the two age groups corroborated by neuropsychological test results. Morphometric results for the young versus elderly groups revealed less white (WM) and gray matter (GM) volumes in the frontal lobes of the elderly. When a group of middle-aged subjects (33-43 years) was included in the morphometric analyses, the middle-aged subjects revealed statistically greater WM volumes in frontal and parietal cortex suggesting immature WM tracts in the young. Perhaps our elderly utilized a different strategy compared to the young due to the different brain maturation levels of these groups.

  16. [MALIGNANT TUMORS IN OVARIAN MATURE CYSTIC TERATOMAS INTRAOPERATIVE DIAGNOSTIC BASIS].

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, A

    2016-11-01

    Extremely rare ovarian primary tumors formed in a mature cystic teratomaare described in the literature. This research work studies the frequency of malignant mature cystic teratoma, as well as their clinical and morphological features and necessity of intraoperative histological examination of all teratomas. Cases histories of 56 patients, suffering from ovarian mature cystic teratomahave been studied in MC Shengavit in the period of 2003 - 2015. Among them 4 patients with the somatic malignancies were identified. Morphological methods, which are considered to be "gold standard" of tumor investigation, were used in staining the slides with hematoxylin - eosin. According to the literature the secondary malignant transformation rarely occurs and is typical in postmenopausal women, with a frequency of 0.17-3%. According to the results of our study, malignant tumors in mature cystic teratomas were observed in 4 (7,14%) from the total number of mature cystic teratomas (n=56). There was not revealed a correlation between the duration of the complaints, age of the patients, sizes of ovarian mature teratoma and malignization degree. Thus, the greatest difficulties of clinical diagnosis of malignant tumors in the ovarian mature cystic teratomas were in the early stage of the disease, because of a variety of clinical manifestations, not pathognomonic for malignization. All mentioned symptoms may be observed in the patients with usual mature cystic teratomas. Тhis cases confirm the necessity to take tissue samples from the other ovary for intraoperative histopathological evaluation in each case of mature cystic teratomas. It is necessary to examine a large number of tumor sites, to prevent errors in the assessment of the maturity degree of teratoma.

  17. Objectives and Design of the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study

    PubMed Central

    Dember, Laura M.; Imrey, Peter B.; Beck, Gerald J.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Huber, Thomas S.; Kusek, John W.; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Vazquez, Miguel A.; Alpers, Charles E.; Robbin, Michelle L.; Vita, Joseph A.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2014-01-01

    ) evaluate a broad range of mechanistic hypotheses, 2) identify clinical practices associated with maturation outcomes, 3) assess the predictive utility of early indicators of fistula outcome, and 4) establish targets for novel therapeutic interventions to improve fistula maturation. PMID:23992885

  18. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1313 Section 51.1313 Agriculture... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1313 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. (b) Before a mature...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1313 Section 51.1313 Agriculture... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1313 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. (b) Before a mature...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1313 Section 51.1313 Agriculture... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1313 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. (b) Before a mature...

  1. Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM).

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Urbina, Angel

    2010-10-01

    Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a communication tool that must include a dicussion of the supporting evidence. PCMM is a tool for managing risk in the use of modeling and simulation. PCMM is in the service of organizing evidence to help tell the modeling and simulation (M&S) story. PCMM table describes what activities within each element are undertaken at each of the levels of maturity. Target levels of maturity can be established based on the intended application. The assessment is to inform what level has been achieved compared to the desired level, to help prioritize the VU activities &more » to allocate resources.« less

  2. Retroviral proteases and their roles in virion maturation.

    PubMed

    Konvalinka, Jan; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Proteolytic processing of viral polyproteins is essential for retrovirus infectivity. Retroviral proteases (PR) become activated during or after assembly of the immature, non-infectious virion. They cleave viral polyproteins at specific sites, inducing major structural rearrangements termed maturation. Maturation converts retroviral enzymes into their functional form, transforms the immature shell into a metastable state primed for early replication events, and enhances viral entry competence. Not only cleavage at all PR recognition sites, but also an ordered sequence of cleavages is crucial. Proteolysis is tightly regulated, but the triggering mechanisms and kinetics and pathway of morphological transitions remain enigmatic. Here, we outline PR structures and substrate specificities focusing on HIV PR as a therapeutic target. We discuss design and clinical success of HIV PR inhibitors, as well as resistance development towards these drugs. Finally, we summarize data elucidating the role of proteolysis in maturation and highlight unsolved questions regarding retroviral maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  4. LFC: A maturing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, John

    1987-01-01

    The existence of both turbulent and laminar flow was known for a long time, but it was not until the middle of the last century that the first systematic tests with fluids were conducted to establish the physical relationships and governing laws. The importance of turbulent and laminar airflows in aeronautics was recognized as early as the 1930's, but actual laminar flow control (LFC) investigations were not undertaken until the 1940's. This overview briefly touches on some of the historical development of LFC leading up to current activities. It then examines the technical problems being addressed and potential long-term LFC applications. Past and current Douglas activities are examined and the required future testing involving hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) is discussed.

  5. Stay Fit as You Mature

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Reporters Meetings & Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Weight Management Stay Fit as You Mature Related Topics Section ... at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  6. Maturity method demonstration : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-07-01

    The concrete maturity method is a quality control/quality assurance tool that can be used to assist contractors and transportation officials in producing cost-efficient, durable concrete structures. This report documents the findings of an investigat...

  7. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  8. Mature Drivers: Traffic Safety Tips

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This fact sheet, NHTSA Facts: Summer 1996, discusses safety tips for drivers aged 70 and older. It notes that mature drivers: rank lower in aggressive actions; tend to make necessary safety adjustments in their driving, based on their own experience;...

  9. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  10. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Treesearch

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  11. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the normal...

  12. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the normal...

  13. A total petroleum system of the Browse Basin, Australia; Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Browse Basin Province 3913, offshore northern Australia, contains one important petroleum system, Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic. It is comprised of Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous source rocks deposited in restricted marine environments and various Mesozoic reservoir rocks deposited in deep-water fan to fluvial settings. Jurassic age intraformational shales and claystones and Cretaceous regional claystones seal the reservoirs. Since 1967, when exploration began in this 105,000 km2 area, fewer than 40 wells have been drilled and only one recent oil discovery is considered potentially commercial. Prior to the most recent oil discovery, on the eastern side of the basin, a giant gas field was discovered in 1971, under a modern reef on the west side of the basin. Several additional oil and gas discoveries and shows were made elsewhere. A portion of the Vulcan sub-basin lies within Province 3913 where a small field, confirmed in 1987, produced 18.8 million barrels of oil (MMBO) up to 1995 and has since been shut in.

  14. Maturation of Acorns of Cherrybark, Water, and Willow Oaks

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1974-01-01

    Acorns of cherrybark, water, and willow oaks grew slowly but steadily in July and August and reached maximum size in September, when fats and carbohydrates, the major storage foods, accumulated rapidly. At physiological maturity in late October or early November, crude fat levels were 15 to 20 percent of seed dry weight and carbohydrates totaled 25 percent.

  15. Determinants of relative skeletal maturity in South African children.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Nicola L; Rousham, Emily K; Johnson, William; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Cameron, Noël

    2012-01-01

    The variation of skeletal maturity about chronological age is a sensitive indicator of population health. Age appropriate or advanced skeletal maturity is a reflection of adequate environmental and social conditions, whereas delayed maturation suggests inadequate conditions for optimal development. There remains a paucity of data, however, to indicate which specific biological and environmental factors are associated with advancement or delay in skeletal maturity. The present study utilises longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty (Bt20) study to indentify predictors of relative skeletal maturity (RSM) in early adolescence. A total of 244 black South African children (n=131 male) were included in this analysis. Skeletal maturity at age 9/10 years was assessed using the Tanner and Whitehouse III RUS technique. Longitudinal data on growth, socio-economic position and pubertal development were entered into sex-specific multivariable general linear regression models with relative skeletal maturity (skeletal age-chronological age) as the outcome. At 9/10 years of age males showed an average of 0.66 years delay in skeletal maturation relative to chronological age. Females showed an average of 1.00 year delay relative to chronological age. In males, being taller at 2 years (p<0.01) and heavier at 2 years (p<0.01) predicted less delay in RSM at age 9/10 years, independent of current size and body composition. In females, both height at 2 years and conditional weight at 2 years predicted less delay in RSM at 9/10 years (p<0.05) but this effect was mediated by current body composition. Having greater lean mass at 9/10 years was associated with less delayed RSM in females (p<0.01) as was pubertal status at the time of skeletal maturity assessment (p<0.01). This study identifies several predictors of skeletal maturation at 9/10 years, indicating a role for early life exposures in determining the rate of skeletal maturation during childhood independently of

  16. Biological maturity-associated variance in peak power output and momentum in academy rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Howard, Sean M A; Cumming, Sean P; Atkinson, Mark; Malina, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the mediating effect of biological maturation on anthropometrical measurements, performance indicators and subsequent selection in a group of academy rugby union players. Fifty-one male players 14-17 years of age were assessed for height, weight and BMI, and percentage of predicted mature status attained at the time of observation was used as an indicator of maturity status. Following this, initial sprint velocity (ISV), Wattbike peak power output (PPO) and initial sprint momentum (ISM) were assessed. A bias towards on-time (n = 44) and early (n = 7) maturers was evident in the total sample and magnified with age cohort. Relative to UK reference values, weight and height were above the 90th and 75th centiles, respectively. Significant (p ≤ .01) correlations were observed between maturity status and BMI (r = .48), weight (r = .63) and height (r = .48). Regression analysis (controlling for age) revealed that maturity status and height explained 68% of ISM variance; however, including BMI in the model attenuated the influence of maturity status below statistical significance (p = .72). Height and BMI explained 51% of PPO variance, while no initial significant predictors were identified for ISV. The sample consisted of players who were on-time and early in maturation with no late maturers represented. This was attributable, in part, to the mediating effect of maturation on body size, which, in turn, predicted performance variables.

  17. Maturation of metabolic connectivity of the adolescent rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hongyoon; Choi, Yoori; Kim, Kyu Wan; Kang, Hyejin; Hwang, Do Won; Kim, E Edmund; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has been used to examine developmental changes of the brain. While PET studies revealed maturation-related changes, maturation of metabolic connectivity of the brain is not yet understood. Here, we show that rat brain metabolism is reconfigured to achieve long-distance connections with higher energy efficiency during maturation. Metabolism increased in anterior cerebrum and decreased in thalamus and cerebellum during maturation. When functional covariance patterns of PET images were examined, metabolic networks including default mode network (DMN) were extracted. Connectivity increased between the anterior and posterior parts of DMN and sensory-motor cortices during maturation. Energy efficiency, a ratio of connectivity strength to metabolism of a region, increased in medial prefrontal and retrosplenial cortices. Our data revealed that metabolic networks mature to increase metabolic connections and establish its efficiency between large-scale spatial components from childhood to early adulthood. Neurodevelopmental diseases might be understood by abnormal reconfiguration of metabolic connectivity and efficiency. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11571.001 PMID:26613413

  18. Mammalian enamel maturation: Crystallographic changes prior to tooth eruption.

    PubMed

    Kallistová, Anna; Horáček, Ivan; Šlouf, Miroslav; Skála, Roman; Fridrichová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Using the distal molar of a minipig as a model, we studied changes in the microstructural characteristics of apatite crystallites during enamel maturation (16-23 months of postnatal age), and their effects upon the mechanical properties of the enamel coat. The slow rate of tooth development in a pig model enabled us to reveal essential heterochronies in particular components of the maturation process. The maturation changes began along the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of the trigonid, spreading subsequently to the outer layers of the enamel coat to appear at the surface zone with a 2-month delay. Correspondingly, at the distal part of the tooth the timing of maturation processes is delayed by 3-5 month compared to the mesial part of the tooth. The early stage of enamel maturation (16-20 months), when the enamel coat is composed almost exclusively of radial prismatic enamel, is characterized by a gradual increase in crystallite thickness (by a mean monthly increment of 3.8 nm); and an increase in the prism width and thickness of crystals composed of elementary crystallites. The late stage of maturation (the last two months prior to tooth eruption), marked with the rapid appearance of the interprismatic matrix (IPM) during which the crystals densely infill spaces between prisms, is characterized by an abrupt decrease in microstrain and abrupt changes in the micromechanical properties of the enamel: a rapid increase in its ability to resist long-term load and its considerable hardening. The results suggest that in terms of crystallization dynamics the processes characterizing the early and late stage of mammalian enamel maturation represent distinct entities. In regards to common features with enamel formation in the tribosphenic molar we argue that the separation of these processes could be a common apomorphy of mammalian amelogenetic dynamics in general.

  19. Mammalian enamel maturation: Crystallographic changes prior to tooth eruption

    PubMed Central

    Kallistová, Anna; Horáček, Ivan; Šlouf, Miroslav; Skála, Roman; Fridrichová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Using the distal molar of a minipig as a model, we studied changes in the microstructural characteristics of apatite crystallites during enamel maturation (16-23 months of postnatal age), and their effects upon the mechanical properties of the enamel coat. The slow rate of tooth development in a pig model enabled us to reveal essential heterochronies in particular components of the maturation process. The maturation changes began along the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of the trigonid, spreading subsequently to the outer layers of the enamel coat to appear at the surface zone with a 2-month delay. Correspondingly, at the distal part of the tooth the timing of maturation processes is delayed by 3-5 month compared to the mesial part of the tooth. The early stage of enamel maturation (16-20 months), when the enamel coat is composed almost exclusively of radial prismatic enamel, is characterized by a gradual increase in crystallite thickness (by a mean monthly increment of 3.8 nm); and an increase in the prism width and thickness of crystals composed of elementary crystallites. The late stage of maturation (the last two months prior to tooth eruption), marked with the rapid appearance of the interprismatic matrix (IPM) during which the crystals densely infill spaces between prisms, is characterized by an abrupt decrease in microstrain and abrupt changes in the micromechanical properties of the enamel: a rapid increase in its ability to resist long-term load and its considerable hardening. The results suggest that in terms of crystallization dynamics the processes characterizing the early and late stage of mammalian enamel maturation represent distinct entities. In regards to common features with enamel formation in the tribosphenic molar we argue that the separation of these processes could be a common apomorphy of mammalian amelogenetic dynamics in general. PMID:28196135

  20. Maturation and Collection of Yellow-Poplar Seeds in the Midsouth

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1976-01-01

    Yellow-poplar fruits are best collected in late October when their color changes from green to yellow-green or yellow. There were no other obvious physical or chemical changes indicating maturity. The seeds are physiologically mature as early as September 1, although high fruit moisture contents make special handling necessary if fruits are collected at this time....

  1. Mature Age Professionals: Factors Influencing Their Decision to Make a Career Change into Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Carmel; Thomas, Sue; Sim, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the early findings from a study that addresses the topic of mature age professionals making a career change into the secondary teaching profession by undertaking a postgraduate coursework initial teacher education program. The paper specifically addresses the factors that affect the decision for mature age professionals to make…

  2. Skeletal maturation in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Giuca, Maria Rita; Pasini, Marco; Tecco, Simona; Marchetti, Enrico; Giannotti, Laura; Marzo, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare skeletal maturation in obese patients and in subjects of normal weight to evaluate the best timing for orthopedic and orthodontic treatment. The null hypothesis was that obese and normal-weight patients show similar degrees of skeletal maturation. The sample for this retrospective study consisted of 50 white patients (28 boys, 22 girls) whose x-rays (hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs) were already available. The test group included 25 obese patients (11 girls, 14 boys; average age, 9.8 ± 2.11 years), and the control group included 25 subjects of normal weight (11 girls, 14 boys; average age, 9.9 ± 2.5 years). Skeletal maturation was determined by using the carpal analysis method and the cervical vertebral maturation method. According to the carpal analysis, there was a significant difference between skeletal and chronologic ages between the test group (11.8 ± 11.4 months) and the control group (-2.9 ± 3.1 months). Furthermore, the obese subjects exhibited a significantly higher mean cervical vertebral maturation score (2.8 ± 0.7) than did the control subjects (2 ± 0.6) (P <0.05). Compared with the normal-weight subjects, the obese subjects showed a higher mean discrepancy between skeletal and chronologic ages according to the carpal analysis and had a significantly higher cervical vertebral maturation score. Thus, to account for the growth in obese patients with skeletal discrepancies, it might be necessary to perform examinations and dentofacial and orthopedic treatments earlier than in normal-weight subjects. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1313 Section 51.1313 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1313 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.2841 Section 51.2841 Agriculture... Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2841 Mature. Mature means well cured. Midseason onions which are not customarily held in storage shall be considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1272 Section 51.1272 Agriculture... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1272 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has... a mature pear becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.2841 Section 51.2841 Agriculture... Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2841 Mature. Mature means well cured. Midseason onions which are not customarily held in storage shall be considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.3746 Section 51.3746 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.2841 Section 51.2841 Agriculture... Mature. Mature means well cured. Midseason onions which are not customarily held in storage shall be considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial practice at a stage which will not result...

  9. 7 CFR 51.484 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.484 Section 51.484 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.484 Mature. Mature means that the cantaloup has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1272 Section 51.1272 Agriculture... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1272 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has... a mature pear becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1313 Section 51.1313 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1313 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of...

  12. 7 CFR 51.484 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.484 Section 51.484 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.484 Mature. Mature means that the cantaloup has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1272 Section 51.1272 Agriculture... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1272 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has... a mature pear becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1272 Section 51.1272 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1272 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.2841 Section 51.2841 Agriculture... Mature. Mature means well cured. Midseason onions which are not customarily held in storage shall be considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial practice at a stage which will not result...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1272 Section 51.1272 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1272 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper...

  17. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.3746 Section 51.3746 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure...

  18. Fluid therapy in mature cattle.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Allen J

    2014-07-01

    Fluid therapy for mature cattle differs from that for calves because the common conditions that result in dehydration and the metabolic derangements that accompany these conditions are different. The veterinarian needs to know which problem exists, what to administer to correct the problem, in what quantity, by what route, and at what rate. Mature cattle more frequently suffer from alkalosis; therefore, acidifying solutions containing K(+) and Cl(-) in concentrations greater than that of plasma are frequently indicated. The rumen provides a large-capacity reservoir into which oral rehydration solutions may be administered, which can save time and money. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent Maturation in Transitioning Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.

    This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…

  20. Vineland Social Maturity Scale Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS), despite its limitations, is an excellent clinical technique and includes psychometric and questionnaire characteristics. It is a good single measure of adaptive behavior. The VSMS Profile in this paper uses content categories different from the original Scale, but based upon the same items. It lends…

  1. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  2. Financial maturity of paper birch

    Treesearch

    Joseph J. Mendel

    1969-01-01

    One objective in forestry is to earn the greatest possible return on the capital invested in growing timber. To do this, the forester not only must know which silvicultural methods to use, but also ought to know the methods of economic analysis that will help him make the decisions that will lead to the greatest return. The financial maturity concept provides a method...

  3. Leadership Development and Organizational Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannuzzi, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Urges the design and implementation of strategies in academic libraries for the development of leadership potential. Discusses the components of organizations that lead to organizational maturity, and calls for library leaders with vision, skill, and commitment to nurture an organizational culture that emphasizes leadership development. (20…

  4. The People Capability Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wademan, Mark R.; Spuches, Charles M.; Doughty, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The People Capability Maturity Model[R] (People CMM[R]) advocates a staged approach to organizational change. Developed by the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, this model seeks to bring discipline to the people side of management by promoting a structured, repeatable, and predictable approach for improving an…

  5. The Role of Capsid Maturation on Adenovirus Priming for Sequential Uncoating*

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; Ortega-Esteban, Alvaro; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; Winkler, Dennis C.; Menéndez, Margarita; Steven, Alasdair C.; Flint, S. Jane; de Pablo, Pedro J.; San Martín, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus assembly concludes with proteolytic processing of several capsid and core proteins. Immature virions containing precursor proteins lack infectivity because they cannot properly uncoat, becoming trapped in early endosomes. Structural studies have shown that precursors increase the network of interactions maintaining virion integrity. Using different biophysical techniques to analyze capsid disruption in vitro, we show that immature virions are more stable than the mature ones under a variety of stress conditions and that maturation primes adenovirus for highly cooperative DNA release. Cryoelectron tomography reveals that under mildly acidic conditions mimicking the early endosome, mature virions release pentons and peripheral core contents. At higher stress levels, both mature and immature capsids crack open. The virus core is completely released from cracked capsids in mature virions, but it remains connected to shell fragments in the immature particle. The extra stability of immature adenovirus does not equate with greater rigidity, because in nanoindentation assays immature virions exhibit greater elasticity than the mature particles. Our results have implications for the role of proteolytic maturation in adenovirus assembly and uncoating. Precursor proteins favor assembly by establishing stable interactions with the appropriate curvature and preventing premature ejection of contents by tightly sealing the capsid vertices. Upon maturation, core organization is looser, particularly at the periphery, and interactions preserving capsid curvature are weakened. The capsid becomes brittle, and pentons are more easily released. Based on these results, we hypothesize that changes in core compaction during maturation may increase capsid internal pressure to trigger proper uncoating of adenovirus. PMID:22791715

  6. [Myonuclear domain and microtubule proteome during skeletal muscle maturation].

    PubMed

    Couturier, Nathalie; Gache, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    In the normal course of muscle fiber development, myonuclei actively position and adapt a precise localization in mature fibers, shaping MyoNuclear Domains (MNDs). Myonuclei positioning in fibers appears to be essential for muscle function as defects in MNDs settings are always associated with dysfunction (i.e., centronuclear myopathy, sarcopenia). Previous studies have shown that myonuclei positioning in fibers is reversible, suggesting that in pathologies presenting MNDs impairment, myonuclei could be re-addressed to the "correct" position in fibers and this could benefit to muscle function. Cytoskeleton networks, and particularly microtubules, have been implicated in early nuclei localization in myotubes. As the microtubule network is completely redesigned during muscle maturation, we hypothesized that "microtubules associated proteomes" would change between immature and mature fibers and contribute to a microtubule-dependent process resulting in MNDs setting and maintenance in mature fibers. We performed an in vitro biochemical approach to isolate microtubules partners in immature (myotubes) and mature myofibers. Using mass-spectrometry identification, we selected 244 candidates, differentially associated/expressed with microtubules during myofiber maturation and potentially controlling MNDs settings. We are currently conducting a siRNA screen approach on these candidates to decipher their respective implication in early and late phases of MNDs establishment, using an unbiased assay developed by our team allowing statistical analysis of MNDs regarding myonuclei content. This approach will lead to the identification of new pathways related to nuclear positioning and MNDs setting in normal condition and in myopathies associated to MNDs impairment such as CNMs. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  7. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  8. Cervical vertebral maturation as a biologic indicator of skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rodrigo César; de Miranda Costa, Luiz Felipe; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-11-01

    To identify and review the literature regarding the reliability of cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) staging to predict the pubertal spurt. The selection criteria included cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive studies in humans that evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively the accuracy and reproducibility of the CVM method on lateral cephalometric radiographs, as well as the correlation with a standard method established by hand-wrist radiographs. The searches retrieved 343 unique citations. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Six articles had moderate to high scores, while 17 of 23 had low scores. Analysis also showed a moderate to high statistically significant correlation between CVM and hand-wrist maturation methods. There was a moderate to high reproducibility of the CVM method, and only one specific study investigated the accuracy of the CVM index in detecting peak pubertal growth. This systematic review has shown that the studies on CVM method for radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages suffer from serious methodological failures. Better-designed studies with adequate accuracy, reproducibility, and correlation analysis, including studies with appropriate sensitivity-specificity analysis, should be performed.

  9. Changes in polyphenolics during maturation of Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.).

    PubMed

    Lestario, Lydia Ninan; Howard, Luke R; Brownmiller, Cindi; Stebbins, Nathan B; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O

    2017-10-01

    Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.) is a rich source of polyphenolics with many purported health benefits, but the effect of maturation on polyphenolic content is unknown. Freeze-dried samples of Java plum from seven different maturity stages were analyzed for anthocyanin, flavonol, flavanonol and hydrolysable tannin composition by HPLC. Anthocyanins were first detected at the green-pink stage of maturity and increased throughout maturation with the largest increase occurring from the dark purple to black stages of maturation. Levels of gallotannins, ellagitannins, flavonols, gallic acid and ellagic acid were highest at early stages of maturation and decreased as the fruit ripened. For production of antioxidant-rich nutraceutical ingredients, fruit should be harvested immature to obtain extracts rich in hydrolysable tannins and flavonols. The exceptional anthocyanin content of black fruit may prove useful as a source of a natural colorant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Allorecognition maturation in the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora millepora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puill-Stephan, E.; Willis, B. L.; Abrego, D.; Raina, J.-B.; van Oppen, M. J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Many sessile marine invertebrates discriminate self from non-self with great precision, but maturation of allorecognition generally takes months to develop in juveniles. Here, we compare the development of allorecognition in full-sibling, half-sibling and non-sibling contact reactions between newly settled juveniles of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Absence of a rejection response showed that A. millepora lacks a mature allorecognition system in the first 2 months post-settlement. From thereon, incompatibilities were observed between juveniles, their level of relatedness (i.e. full-, half- and non-sibling status) governing the rate of allorecognition maturation. All contact reactions between non-siblings resulted in rejections by 3 months post-settlement, whereas the expression of allorecognition took at least 5 months between half-siblings and longer than 13 months for some full-siblings. Approximately 74 % of fused full-siblings ( n = 19) persisted as chimeras at 11 months, thus maturation of allorecognition in this spawning coral appeared to be slower (>13 months) than in brooding corals (~4 months). We hypothesize that late maturation of allorecognition may contribute to flexibility in Symbiodinium uptake in corals with horizontal transmission, and could allow fusions and chimera formation in early ontogeny, which potentially enable rapid size increase through fusion.

  11. Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hayoun; Deem, Michael W.

    2002-03-01

    We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system to response to distant, but related epidemic strains.

  12. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David

    2015-01-01

    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  13. Association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of body weight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Florianópolis city, Brazil, in 2007, with 2339 school children, aged 8–14 years (1107 males). Selection was based on a probabilistic, cluster-stratified sampling technique. School children were classified according to the presence of excess body weight, using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoff points. Z-scores were calculated from height and BMI data. Sexual maturation was self-assessed according to Tanner stages of development. Subjects were ranked based on tertiles of sexual maturation (early, normal and late) for each stage of development. Poisson and linear regression models were used. Results Compared to the reference group (normal sexual maturation), early maturing females had higher prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.33) and increased height-for-age (adjusted β: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59), while late maturing females had lower prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.87) and decreased height-for-age (adjusted β: −0.38; 95% CI: −0.56 to −0.20). In males, early and late sexual maturation were associated with increased (adjusted β: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59) and decreased (adjusted β: −0.38; 95% CI: −0.56 to −0.20) height-for-age, respectively. Conclusion Early sexual maturation is associated with excess body weight in females and with greater height-for-age in both sexes. PMID:24625111

  14. Personality maturation around the world: a cross-cultural examination of social-investment theory.

    PubMed

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Klimstra, Theo A; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-12-01

    During early adulthood, individuals from different cultures across the world tend to become more agreeable, more conscientious, and less neurotic. Two leading theories offer different explanations for these pervasive age trends: Five-factor theory proposes that personality maturation is largely determined by genetic factors, whereas social-investment theory proposes that personality maturation in early adulthood is largely the result of normative life transitions to adult roles. In the research reported here, we conducted the first systematic cross-cultural test of these theories using data from a large Internet-based sample of young adults from 62 nations (N = 884,328). We found strong evidence for universal personality maturation from early to middle adulthood, yet there were significant cultural differences in age effects on personality traits. Consistent with social-investment theory, results showed that cultures with an earlier onset of adult-role responsibilities were marked by earlier personality maturation.

  15. Late maturation of visual spatial integration in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Ilona; Kozma, Petra; Fehér, Ákos; Benedek, György

    1999-01-01

    Visual development is thought to be completed at an early age. We suggest that the maturation of the visual brain is not homogeneous: functions with greater need for early availability, such as visuomotor control, mature earlier, and the development of other visual functions may extend well into childhood. We found significant improvement in children between 5 and 14 years in visual spatial integration by using a contour-detection task. The data show that long-range spatial interactions—subserving the integration of orientational information across the visual field—span a shorter spatial range in children than in adults. Performance in the task improves in a cue-specific manner with practice, which indicates the participation of fairly low-level perceptual mechanisms. We interpret our findings in terms of a protracted development of ventral visual-stream function in humans. PMID:10518600

  16. Micropropagation of juvenile and mature american beech

    Treesearch

    Melanie J. Barker; Paula M. Pijut; Michael E. Ostry; David R. Houston

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to micropropagate juvenile and mature American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) resistant to beech bark disease. Shoot tips (from juvenile seedlings and root sprouts of mature trees) and buds from branches of mature trees, were cultured and multiplied on aspen culture medium supplemented with 0.89 ?M 6-benzyladenine, 0.27 ?M a-...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1554 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1554 Section 51.1554 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1554 Mature. Mature means that the skins of the potatoes...

  18. 7 CFR 51.631 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.631 Section 51.631 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.631 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned that term in the laws and...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1907 Section 51.1907 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2930 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.2930 Section 51.2930 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2930 Mature. Mature means having reached the stage of...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1554 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1554 Section 51.1554 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1554 Mature. Mature means that the skins of the potatoes are generally firmly set and not more than 5 percent of the...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1238 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1238 Section 51.1238 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1238 Mature. Mature means that the...

  3. 7 CFR 51.3058 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.3058 Section 51.3058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3058 Mature. Mature means that the avocado has reached a...

  4. 7 CFR 51.693 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.693 Section 51.693 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.693 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1823 Section 51.1823 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601...

  6. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.767 Section 51.767 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1585 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1585 Section 51.1585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1585 Mature. Mature means that the outer skin (epidermis...

  8. 7 CFR 51.631 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.631 Section 51.631 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.631 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning...

  9. 7 CFR 51.3058 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.3058 Section 51.3058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3058 Mature. Mature...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1238 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1238 Section 51.1238 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1238 Mature. Mature means that the...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1907 Section 51.1907 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1238 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1238 Section 51.1238 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.1238 Mature. Mature means that the shells are firm and well developed. ...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2930 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.2930 Section 51.2930 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2930 Mature. Mature means having reached the stage of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1554 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1554 Section 51.1554 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1554 Mature. Mature means that the skins of the potatoes are generally firmly set and not more than 5 percent of the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1585 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1585 Section 51.1585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1585 Mature. Mature means that the outer skin (epidermis...

  16. 7 CFR 51.631 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.631 Section 51.631 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.631 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2930 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.2930 Section 51.2930 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2930 Mature. Mature means having reached the stage of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1530 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1530 Section 51.1530 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mature. “Mature” means that the fruit has reached the stage of maturity which will insure a proper...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1585 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1585 Section 51.1585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1585 Mature. Mature means that the outer skin (epidermis...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1351 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1351 Section 51.1351 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1351 Mature. Mature...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1823 Section 51.1823 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1823 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1158 Section 51.1158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1158 Section 51.1158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code...

  4. 7 CFR 51.693 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.693 Section 51.693 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.693 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned that term in the laws and...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1158 Section 51.1158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the...

  6. 7 CFR 51.484 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.484 Section 51.484 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.484 Mature. Mature means that the cantaloup has...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.3746 Section 51.3746 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1554 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1554 Section 51.1554 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1554 Mature. Mature means that the skins of the potatoes...

  9. 7 CFR 51.3058 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3058 Section 51.3058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3058 Mature. Mature means that the avocado has reached a...

  10. 7 CFR 51.693 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.693 Section 51.693 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.693 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned that term in the laws and...

  11. 7 CFR 51.484 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.484 Section 51.484 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.484 Mature. Mature means that the cantaloup has...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1238 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1238 Section 51.1238 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.1238 Mature. Mature means that the shells are firm and well developed. ...

  13. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.767 Section 51.767 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.767 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1907 Section 51.1907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has...

  15. 7 CFR 51.3203 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.3203 Section 51.3203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3203 Mature. Mature means that the...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1823 Section 51.1823 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1823 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1907 Section 51.1907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has...

  18. 7 CFR 51.3203 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.3203 Section 51.3203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.3203 Mature. Mature means that the onion is fairly well cured, and at least fairly firm. ...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1238 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1238 Section 51.1238 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1238 Mature. Mature means that the...

  20. 7 CFR 51.3203 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3203 Section 51.3203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3203 Mature. Mature means that the...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1585 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1585 Section 51.1585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1585 Mature. Mature...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1351 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1351 Section 51.1351 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1351 Mature. Mature means that the pear has reached the...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1907 Section 51.1907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has...

  4. 7 CFR 51.631 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.631 Section 51.631 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.631 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned that term in the laws and...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1351 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1351 Section 51.1351 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1351 Mature. Mature means that the pear has reached the...

  6. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.767 Section 51.767 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.767 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3203 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.3203 Section 51.3203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.3203 Mature. Mature means that the onion is fairly well cured, and at least fairly firm. ...

  8. 7 CFR 51.484 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.484 Section 51.484 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.484 Mature. Mature means that the cantaloup has...

  9. 7 CFR 51.3058 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.3058 Section 51.3058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3058 Mature. Mature means that the avocado has reached a...

  10. 7 CFR 51.631 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.631 Section 51.631 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.631 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned that term in the laws and...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1158 Section 51.1158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2651 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.2651 Section 51.2651 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2651 Mature. Mature means that the cherries have...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2651 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.2651 Section 51.2651 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mature. Mature means that the cherries have reached the stage of growth which will insure the proper...

  14. 7 CFR 51.3203 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.3203 Section 51.3203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3203 Mature. Mature means that the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1823 Section 51.1823 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601...

  16. 7 CFR 51.693 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.693 Section 51.693 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.693 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2930 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.2930 Section 51.2930 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2930 Mature. Mature means having reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2930 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.2930 Section 51.2930 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2930 Mature. Mature means having reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2651 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.2651 Section 51.2651 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2651 Mature. Mature means that the cherries have...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1585 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1585 Section 51.1585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1585 Mature. Mature...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1554 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1554 Section 51.1554 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1554 Mature. Mature means that the skins of the potatoes...

  2. 7 CFR 51.3058 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.3058 Section 51.3058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3058 Mature. Mature...

  3. 7 CFR 51.693 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.693 Section 51.693 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.693 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned that term in the laws and...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1351 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1351 Section 51.1351 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1351 Mature. Mature means that the pear has reached the...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2651 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.2651 Section 51.2651 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mature. Mature means that the cherries have reached the stage of growth which will insure the proper...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2651 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.2651 Section 51.2651 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2651 Mature. Mature means that the cherries have...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1351 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1351 Section 51.1351 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1351 Mature. Mature...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1530 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1530 Section 51.1530 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mature. “Mature” means that the fruit has reached the stage of maturity which will insure a proper...

  9. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.767 Section 51.767 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when...

  13. Toward a Concept of Psychosocial Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen; Sorensen, Aage B.

    The first in a series of related reports (see TM 000 775), this paper attempts to define a concept of psychosocial maturity which would be appropriate as a comprehensive educational goal. Biological, sociological, psychological and temporal formulations of maturity are discussed and compared. Am interdisciplinary model of maturity is evolved which…

  14. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  16. Amorphous silica maturation in chemically weathered clastic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesegang, Moritz; Milke, Ralf; Berthold, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    A detailed understanding of silica postdepositional transformation mechanisms is fundamental for its use as a palaeobiologic and palaeoenvironmental archive. Amorphous silica (opal-A) is an important biomineral, an alteration product of silicate rocks on the surface of Earth and Mars, and a precursor material for stable silica phases. During diagenesis, amorphous silica gradually and gradationally transforms to opal-CT, opal-C, and eventually quartz. Here we demonstrate the early-stage maturation of several million year old opal-A from deeply weathered Early Cretaceous and Ordovician sedimentary rocks of the Great Artesian Basin (central Australia). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalyses show that the mineralogical maturation of the nanosphere material is decoupled from its chemical properties and begins significantly earlier than micromorphology suggests. Non-destructive and locally highly resolved X-ray microdiffraction (μ-XRD2) reveals an almost linear positive correlation between the main peak position (3.97 to 4.06 Å) and a new asymmetry parameter, AP. Heating experiments and calculated diffractograms indicate that nucleation and growth of tridymite-rich nanodomains induce systematic peak shifts and symmetry variations in diffraction patterns of morphologically juvenile opal-A. Our results show that the asymmetry parameter traces the early-stage maturation of amorphous silica, and that the mineralogical opal-A/CT stage extends to smaller d-spacings and larger FWHM values than previously suggested.

  17. Maturing Thalamocortical Functional Connectivity Across Development

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Damien A.; Bathula, Deepti; Mills, Kathryn L.; Dias, Taciana G. Costa; Blythe, Michael S.; Zhang, Dongyang; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Stevens, Alexander A.; Nigg, Joel T.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a surge of investigations examining functional brain organization using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI). To date, this method has been used to examine systems organization in typical and atypical developing populations. While the majority of these investigations have focused on cortical–cortical interactions, cortical–subcortical interactions also mature into adulthood. Innovative work by Zhang et al. (2008) in adults have identified methods that utilize rs-fcMRI and known thalamo-cortical topographic segregation to identify functional boundaries in the thalamus that are remarkably similar to known thalamic nuclear grouping. However, despite thalamic nuclei being well formed early in development, the developmental trajectory of functional thalamo-cortical relations remains unexplored. Thalamic maps generated by rs-fcMRI are based on functional relationships, and should modify with the dynamic thalamo-cortical changes that occur throughout maturation. To examine this possibility, we employed a strategy as previously described by Zhang et al. to a sample of healthy children, adolescents, and adults. We found strengthening functional connectivity of the cortex with dorsal/anterior subdivisions of the thalamus, with greater connectivity observed in adults versus children. Temporal lobe connectivity with ventral/midline/posterior subdivisions of the thalamus weakened with age. Changes in sensory and motor thalamo-cortical interactions were also identified but were limited. These findings are consistent with known anatomical and physiological cortical–subcortical changes over development. The methods and developmental context provided here will be important for understanding how cortical–subcortical interactions relate to models of typically developing behavior and developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20514143

  18. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  19. Validation of endoscopy for determination of maturity in small salmonids and sex of mature individuals

    Treesearch

    Erica A. Swenson; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Philip J. Howell

    2007-01-01

    Fish maturity status, sex ratio, and age and size at first maturity are important parameters in population assessments and life history studies. In most empirical studies of these variables, fish are sacrificed and dissected to obtain data. However, maturity status and the sex of mature individuals can be determined by inserting an endoscope through a small incision in...

  20. Advanced skeletal maturity in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Roiz, Ronald; Mueske, Nicole M; Van Speybroeck, Alexander; Ryan, Deirdre D; Gilsanz, Vicente; Wren, Tishya A L

    2017-12-11

    Atypical skeletal development is common in youth with myelomeningocele (MM), though the underlying reasons have not been fully elucidated. This study assessed skeletal maturity in children and adolescents with MM and examined the effects of sex, age, sexual development, ethnicity, anthropometrics and shunt status. Forty-three males and 35 females with MM, 6-16 years old, underwent hand radiographs for bone age determination. The difference between bone age and chronological age was evaluated using Wilcoxon sign rank tests. Relationships between age discrepancy (skeletal-chronological) and participant characteristics were assessed using multiple linear regression with forward selection. Overall, forty percent (31/78) of MM participants had an advanced bone age of 1 year or greater (median: 2.5 years), while 47% (37/78) were within 1 year above or below their chronological age (-0.001 years) and 13% (10/78) were delayed by more than 1 year (-1.4 years). Bone age was advanced compared to chronologic age in both males and females (p⩽ 0.024). Advanced bone age was observed in early to late puberty and after maturation (p⩽ 0.07), as well as in Hispanic participants (p= 0.003) and in those with a shunt (p= 0.0004). Advanced bone age was positively correlated with height, weight and body mass index (BMI) percentiles (p= 0.004). In multiple linear regression analysis, advanced bone age was most strongly associated with higher Tanner stage of sexual development, and higher weight, height or BMI percentile. Advanced skeletal maturity is common in children/adolescents with MM over 8 years of age who have reached puberty (65%), particularly those who are overweight (80%). Hormonal effects associated with adiposity and sexual maturity likely influence skeletal maturation. Clinicians may use Tanner stage and weight or BMI to gain insight into skeletal maturity.

  1. Characterising the proximal patellar tendon attachment and its relationship to skeletal maturity in adolescent ballet dancers

    PubMed Central

    Rudavsky, Aliza; Cook, Jillianne; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Kjaer, Michael; Docking, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background It is unknown how and when the proximal attachment of the patellar tendon matures; puberty may be key in ensuring normal tendon formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the features of the proximal patellar tendon attachment at different stages of skeletal maturity, to help gain an understanding of how and when the tendon attachment matures. Methods Sixty adolescent elite ballet students (ages 11–18) and eight mature adults participated. Peak height velocity (PHV) estimated skeletal maturity. Ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) scan was taken of the left knee and analysed for stability of echopattern. An image-based grading scale for greyscale ultrasound was developed to describe the tendon appearance. Anterior-posterior thickness was measured at the inferior pole of the patella, 1 and 2 centimetres distally. Outcomes were compared with skeletal maturity. Results Mid-portion patellar tendon thickness increased with skeletal maturity (p=0.001 at 1 cm and p=0.007 at 2 cm). There was more variance in structural appearance (greyscale classification and UTC echopattern) in pre and peri-PHV participants. Tendon attachment one-year post PHV appeared similar to mature tendons. Conclusions Early adolescence was associated with highly variable tendon appearance, whereas the tendon appeared mature after PHV. Adolescence may be a critical time for the formation of normal tendon attachment. Level of evidence IIb individual cohort study. PMID:29264342

  2. Maturation of Executive Functioning Skills in Early Sequential Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Mattock, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being bilingual from birth is advantageous for the development of skills of social cognition, executive functioning, and metalinguistic awareness due to bilingual children's extensive experience of processing and manipulating two linguistic systems. The present study investigated whether these cognitive…

  3. 'Sunrise': A new early maturing fire blight resistant pear cultivar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Sunrise' is a new pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. It combines a high degree of resistance to fire blight with excellent fruit quality. The sources of resistance in the pedigree are the old American cultivar, 'Seckel'...

  4. Neural networks predict tomato maturity stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1999-03-01

    Almost 40% of the total horticultural produce exported from Mexico the USA is tomato, and quality is fundamental for maintaining the market. Many fruits packed at the green-mature stage do not mature towards a red color as they were harvested before achieving its physiological maturity. Tomato gassed for advancing maturation does not respond on those fruits, and repacking is necessary at terminal markets, causing losses to the producer. Tomato spectral signatures are different on each maturity stage and tomato size was poorly correlated against peak wavelengths. A back-propagation neural network was used to predict tomato maturity using reflectance ratios as inputs. Higher success rates were achieved on tomato maturity stage recognition with neural networks than with discriminant analysis.

  5. Terminal Maturation of Orthochromatic Erythroblasts Is Impaired in Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shirin; Mosier, Michael J; Conrad, Peggie; Szilagyi, Andrea; Gamelli, Richard L; Muthumalaiappan, Kuzhali

    2018-02-20

    Mechanisms of erythropoietin (Epo)-resistant anemia in burn patients are poorly understood. We have recently found that administering a nonselective beta 1,2-adrenergic blocker propranolol (PR) was effective in reversing myelo-erythroid commitment through MafB regulation and increase megakaryocyte erythrocyte progenitors in burn patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived ex vivo culture system. Having known that Epo-dependent proliferation of early erythroblasts is intact after burn injury, here we inquired whether or not Epo-independent maturation stage of erythropoiesis is affected by burn injury and the relative role of PR on late-stage erythropoiesis. While majority of erythropoiesis occurs in the bone marrow, maturation into reticulocytes is crucial for their release into sinusoids to occupy the peripheral circulation for which enucleation is vital. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from burn patients were extended beyond commitment and proliferation stages to late maturation stage in ex vivo culture to understand the role of PR in burn patients. Burn impedes late maturation of orthochromatic erythroblasts into reticulocytes by restricting the enucleation step. Late-stage erythropoiesis is impaired in burn patients irrespective of PR treatment. Further, substituting the microenvironment with control plasma (homologous) in place of autologous plasma rescues the conversion of orthochromatic erythroblasts to reticulocytes. Results show promise in formulating interventions to regulate late-stage erythropoiesis, which can be used in combination with PR to reduce the number of transfusions.

  6. Intellectual maturity and physical fitness in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Mora-López, David; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    There is an important connection between body growth, physical fitness and cognition. The association between physical fitness and cognitive function has been investigated in some studies, but little is known about the relationship between physical and motor performance and intellectual maturity in preschool children. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the association between intellectual maturity and physical and motor fitness in preschool children. A total of 1012 children aged 3-6 years participated voluntarily. A fitness test battery and the Goodenough-Harris drawing test (GHDT) were used. Boys did better in the standing broad jump and 20 m sprint (P < 0.001), and girls had a better crude GHDT score (P = 0.001). With regard to age group, there were significant differences (P < 0.01) between all groups in all fitness test variables and GHDT. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between crude GHDT score and the fitness test variables. From an early age, physical-motor performance and intellectual maturity are linked. Fitness condition is able to predict intellectual maturity. Increasing the amount of time devoted to physical education can promote cognitive benefits in preschool children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  8. Face recognition ability matures late: evidence from individual differences in young adults.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Germine, Laura; Duchaine, Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Does face recognition ability mature early in childhood (early maturation hypothesis) or does it continue to develop well into adulthood (late maturation hypothesis)? This fundamental issue in face recognition is typically addressed by comparing child and adult participants. However, the interpretation of such studies is complicated by children's inferior test-taking abilities and general cognitive functions. Here we examined the developmental trajectory of face recognition ability in an individual differences study of 18-33 year-olds (n = 2,032), an age interval in which participants are competent test takers with comparable general cognitive functions. We found a positive association between age and face recognition, controlling for nonface visual recognition, verbal memory, sex, and own-race bias. Our study supports the late maturation hypothesis in face recognition, and illustrates how individual differences investigations of young adults can address theoretical issues concerning the development of perceptual and cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Modified Maturity Offset Prediction Equations: Validation in Independent Longitudinal Samples of Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Sławomir M; Malina, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Predicted maturity offset and age at peak height velocity are increasingly used with youth athletes, although validation studies of the equations indicated major limitations. The equations have since been modified and simplified. The objective of this study was to validate the new maturity offset prediction equations in independent longitudinal samples of boys and girls. Two new equations for boys with chronological age and sitting height and chronological age and stature as predictors, and one equation for girls with chronological age and stature as predictors were evaluated in serial data from the Wrocław Growth Study, 193 boys (aged 8-18 years) and 198 girls (aged 8-16 years). Observed age at peak height velocity for each youth was estimated with the Preece-Baines Model 1. The original prediction equations were included for comparison. Predicted age at peak height velocity was the difference between chronological age at prediction and maturity offset. Predicted ages at peak height velocity with the new equations approximated observed ages at peak height velocity in average maturing boys near the time of peak height velocity; a corresponding window for average maturing girls was not apparent. Compared with observed age at peak height velocity, predicted ages at peak height velocity with the new and original equations were consistently later in early maturing youth and earlier in late maturing youth of both sexes. Predicted ages at peak height velocity with the new equations had reduced variation compared with the original equations and especially observed ages at peak height velocity. Intra-individual variation in predicted ages at peak height velocity with all equations was considerable. The new equations are useful for average maturing boys close to the time of peak height velocity; there does not appear to be a clear window for average maturing girls. The new and original equations have major limitations with early and late maturing boys and girls.

  10. Postradiation atrophy of mature bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun, H.; Howland, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. The differentiationmore » of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.« less

  11. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  12. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  13. Retrovirus maturation-an extraordinary structural transformation.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Simone; Schur, Florian Km; Briggs, John Ag

    2016-06-01

    Retroviruses such as HIV-1 assemble and bud from infected cells in an immature, non-infectious form. Subsequently, a series of proteolytic cleavages catalysed by the viral protease leads to a spectacular structural rearrangement of the viral particle into a mature form that is competent to fuse with and infect a new cell. Maturation involves changes in the structures of protein domains, in the interactions between protein domains, and in the architecture of the viral components that are assembled by the proteins. Tight control of proteolytic cleavages at different sites is required for successful maturation, and the process is a major target of antiretroviral drugs. Here we will describe what is known about the structures of immature and mature retrovirus particles, and about the maturation process by which one transitions into the other. Despite a wealth of available data, fundamental questions about retroviral maturation remain unanswered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of skeletal maturity and growth.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Luciano; Gasser, Theo; Largo, Remo

    2013-07-01

    Somatic and bone development have each been studied in detail, but rarely in conjunction. The aim of this study was to determine what somatic and bone development have in common and how they differ. A second aim was to check for a pubertal spurt in bone age (BA) and to quantify it in a similar way as has been done for height. The Preece-Baines model is used to fit longitudinal data for BA. The data analysed are from the 1st Zurich Longitudinal Growth Study comprising 120 boys and 112 girls with almost complete data from birth to adulthood. Variability of somatic milestones was reduced in terms of BA and there was an aftergrowth after reaching adult RUS score 1000. A strong increase in the RUS score was seen at a late stage of the pubertal spurt (PS). Somatic milestones correlated with the RUS score attained at these ages and more so at an early stage of the PS. A PS for BA was clearly identified with a location at 14.2 years for boys and 12.2 years for girls. Age of peak bone development correlated highly with age of peak velocity of somatic variables. BA can be successfully modelled as a semi-quantitative entity. Bone development shows marked associations with somatic development, despite the fact that the latter reflects changes in size, while the former is essentially a maturity index and reflects changes in biochemical composition of tissues.

  16. Correlation of skeletal maturation stages determined by cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist evaluations.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Burgess, Corr A; Champney, Mitchell; Jensen, Robert J; Pitcher, Micheal R; Major, Paul W

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the Fishman maturation prediction method (FMP) and the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for skeletal maturation stage determination. Hand-wrist and lateral cephalograms from 79 subjects (52 females and 27 males) were used. Hand-wrist radiographs were analyzed using the FMP to determine skeletal maturation level (advanced, average, or delayed) and stage (relative position of the individual in the pubertal growth curve). Cervical vertebrae (C2, C3, and C4) outlines obtained from lateral cephalograms were analyzed using the CVM to determine skeletal maturation stage. Intraexaminer reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) for both methods was calculated from 10 triplicate hand-wrist and lateral cephalograms from the same patients. An ICC coefficient of 0.985 for FMP and an ICC of 0.889 for CVM were obtained. A Spearman correlation value of 0.72 (P < .001) was found between the skeletal maturation stages of both methods. When the sample was subgrouped according to skeletal maturation level, the following correlation values were found: for early mature adolescents 0.73, for average mature adolescents 0.70, and for late mature adolescents 0.87. All these correlation values were statistically different from zero (P < .024). Correlation values between both skeletal maturation methods were moderately high. This may be high enough to use either of the methods indistinctively for research purposes but not for the assessment of individual patients. Skeletal level influences the correlation values and, therefore, it should be considered whenever possible.

  17. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S.; Conner, James M.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. PMID:25505106

  18. Biotic association and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the "Loma del Pterodaustro" fossil site (Early Cretaceous, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiappe, L.; Rivarola, D.; Cione, A.; Fregenal-Martinez, M.; Sozzi, H.; Buatois, L.; Gallego, O.; Laza, J.; Romero, E.; Lopez-Arbarello, A.; Buscalioni, A.; Marsicano, C.; Adamonis, S.; Ortega, F.; McGehee, S.; Di, Iorio O.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the basal section of the Early Cretaceous, lacustrine Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" (San Luis, Argentina) and a summary of its biological components are presented. Three sedimentological facies can be recognized in the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation. Fossil remains are particularly abundant in laminated claystones of a facies interpreted as deposits formed in offshore areas of the lake. The preservation of delicate structures allows recognition of these deposits as a Konservat Lagersta??tte. Up to now, rocks at "Loma del Pterodaustro" have yielded plants, conchostracans, semionotid and pleuropholid fishes, pterodactyloid pterosaurs, and a variety of invertebrate traces. The chronology of the Lagarcito Formation is discussed and it is concluded that this unit is of Albian age. The palaeoenvironment of deposition of the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" is interpreted as a perennial, shallow lake developed within an alluvial plain, under semiarid climatic conditions.

  19. The Physiology of Moral Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemming, James

    1991-01-01

    Discusses an evolutionary approach to human morality. Emphasizes the rapid development of brain weight, neural circuits, and synaptic systems during early childhood. Concludes that the human brain has resources for generating responsible, caring behavior but must be nurtured and educated. Urges that moral training in a proper social climate be…

  20. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  1. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizationalmore » alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.« less

  2. 24 CFR 201.11 - Loan maturities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan maturities. 201.11 Section 201... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.11 Loan maturities. (a...

  3. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  4. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the stage of development which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. Before a mature apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness...

  5. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the stage of development which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. Before a mature apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness...

  6. A Developmental Model of Intercultural Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of intercultural maturity, which is frequently cited as a desired collegiate outcome. We position our work on intercultural maturity in the context of a holistic approach to human development using Kegan's (1994) model as a foundation and relating this outcome to other collegiate learning outcomes. We…

  7. 7 CFR 51.3153 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.3153 Section 51.3153 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3153 Mature. “Mature” means that the nectarine has reached the stage of growth which will insure a proper completion of...

  8. 7 CFR 51.3153 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.3153 Section 51.3153 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3153 Mature. “Mature” means that the nectarine has...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1530 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1530 Section 51.1530 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1530 Mature. “Mature” means that the fruit...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1218 Section 51.1218 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mature. 51.1218 Section 51.1218 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the stage of growth which will ensure a proper completion of the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.3153 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.3153 Section 51.3153 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3153 Mature. “Mature” means that the nectarine has reached the stage of growth which will insure a proper completion of...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1218 Section 51.1218 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1530 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1530 Section 51.1530 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1530 Mature. “Mature” means that the fruit...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mature. 51.1218 Section 51.1218 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the stage of growth which will ensure a proper completion of the...

  16. 7 CFR 51.3153 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.3153 Section 51.3153 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3153 Mature. “Mature” means that the nectarine has...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1530 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1530 Section 51.1530 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1530 Mature. “Mature” means that the fruit...

  18. 7 CFR 51.3153 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3153 Section 51.3153 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3153 Mature. “Mature” means that the nectarine has...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mature. 51.1218 Section 51.1218 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the...

  20. Canopy temperature and maturity in cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat units are a widely used indicator of maturity in cotton. It is generally assumed that it takes approximately 2200°F (1222°C) heat units for a cotton plant on the South High Plains of Texas to mature. This value is based on a typical planting date of May 15 with ample irrigation. As water for c...

  1. Maturation of Sweetgum and American Sycamore Seeds

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1972-01-01

    Over three consecutive years in central Mississippi, sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) fruits had nearly reached full-size by late June. Sweetgum seeds were physiologically mature by mid-August, but dry weight increased until late September. As sweetgum seeds matured, the crude fat level rose to 27 percent of seed dry weight...

  2. New definitions for cotton fiber maturity ratio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton fiber maturity affects fiber physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, as well as the processability and qualities of yarn and fabrics. New definitions of cotton fiber maturity ratio are introduced. The influences of sampling, sample preparation, measurement method, and correlations am...

  3. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  4. Quantifying Semantic Linguistic Maturity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to quantify "semantic linguistic maturity" (SELMA) based on a high dimensional semantic representation of words created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0-12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human…

  5. Maturity and medical students' ease of transition into the clinical environment.

    PubMed

    Shacklady, Jaine; Holmes, Eileen; Mason, Graham; Davies, Ioan; Dornan, Tim

    2009-07-01

    Medical education has been characterized in terms of points of transition, which are accentuated by lack of relevant prior experience and can lead to extreme positive and negative emotions. Quantify the effect of maturity on medical students' transitions into the clinical environment and identify how experiences of transition might be improved. Eleven weeks after entering the clinical environment, 29 mature students (age over 21 at entry, median age 22) in a horizontally-integrated, predominantly undergraduate entry, problem-based curriculum offering little early clinical exposure and 58 matched non-mature students (median age 18 years) rated their experiences of transition and wrote free text comments about them. 62% of mature students compared with 24% of controls described 'good transitions' (odds ratio [OR] for a good transition 6.1; p = 0.002) and mature students were more likely than controls to describe how they drew on their previous years in medical school (OR 2.7, p = 0.04) and their wider life experiences in making the transition (OR 3.9, p = 0.01). They were less likely to feel confused or daunted. Whether mature or not, prior workplace experience, having learned the theory of medicine by PBL, and being confident in their knowledge and skills helped students' transitions. Both mature and non-mature students valued the support of teachers and peers and would have valued clinical experience earlier. The fact that just a few extra years of life experience made such a large difference to students' experiences of transition illustrates how important social factors are in the personal development of medical students. In respondents' views, early clinical experience and early skills training could ease students' passage into the clerkship phase of their education.

  6. Acoustic and Petrophysical Evolution of Organic-Rich Chalk Following Maturation Induced by Unconfined Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitrit, Omri; Hatzor, Yossef H.; Feinstein, Shimon; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal maturation is known to influence the rock physics of organic-rich rocks. While most studies were performed on low-porosity organic-rich shales, here we examine the effect of thermal maturation on a high-porosity organic-rich chalk. We compare the physical properties of native state immature rock with the properties at two pyrolysis-simulated maturity levels: early-mature and over-mature. We further evaluate the applicability of results from unconfined pyrolysis experiments to naturally matured rock properties. Special attention is dedicated to the elastic properties of the organic phase and the influence of bitumen and kerogen contents. Rock physics is studied based on confined petrophysical measurements of porosity, density and permeability, and measurements of bedding-normal acoustic velocities at estimated field stresses. Geochemical parameters like total organic carbon (TOC), bitumen content and thermal maturation indicators are used to monitor variations in density and volume fraction of each phase. We find that porosity increases significantly upon pyrolysis and that P wave velocity decreases in accordance. Solids density versus TOC relationships indicate that the kerogen increases its density from 1.43 to 1.49 g/cc at the immature and early-mature stages to 2.98 g/cc at the over-mature stage. This density value is unusually high, although increase in S wave velocity and backscatter SEM images of the over-mature samples verify that the over-mature kerogen is significantly denser and stiffer. Using the petrophysical and acoustic properties, the elastic moduli of the rock are estimated by two Hashin-Shtrikman (HS)-based models: "HS + BAM" and "HS kerogen." The "HS + BAM" model is calibrated to the post-pyrolysis measurements to describe the mechanical effect of the unconfined pyrolysis on the rock. The absence of compaction in the pyrolysis process causes the post-pyrolysis samples to be extremely porous. The "HS kerogen" model, which simulates a

  7. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh; Wilson, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) development effort was initiated by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with contractor Sunpower Inc. to develop high efficiency thermal-to-electric power conversion technology for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems. Early successful performance demonstrations led to the expansion of the project as well as adoption of the technology by the Department of Energy (DOE) and system integration contractor Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company as part of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight project. The ASRG integrates a pair of ASCs to convert the heat from a pair of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into electrical power. The expanded NASA ASC effort included development of several generations of ASC prototypes or Engineering Units to help prepare the ASC technology and Sunpower for flight implementation. Sunpower later had two parallel contracts allowing the last of the NASA Engineering Units called ASC-E3 to serve as pathfinders for the ASC-F flight convertors being built for DOE. The ASC-E3 convertors utilized the ASC-F flight specifications and were built using the ASC-F design and process documentation. Shortly after the first ASC-F Pair achieved initial operation, due to budget constraints, the DOE ASRG flight development contract was terminated. NASA continues to invest in the development of Stirling RPS technology including continued production of the ASC-E3 convertors, seven of which have been delivered with one additional unit in production. Starting in FY2015, Stirling Convertor Technology Maturation has been reorganized as an element of the RPS Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project and long-term plans for continued Stirling technology advancement are in reformulation. This paper provides a status on the ASC project, an overview of advancements made in the design and production of the ASC at Sunpower, and a summary of acceptance tests, reliability tests, and tactical tests at NASA

  8. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh; Wilson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) development effort was initiated by NASA Glenn Research Center with contractor Sunpower, Inc., to develop high-efficiency thermal-to-electric power conversion technology for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs). Early successful performance demonstrations led to the expansion of the project as well as adoption of the technology by the Department of Energy (DOE) and system integration contractor Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company as part of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight project. The ASRG integrates a pair of ASCs to convert the heat from a pair of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into electrical power. The expanded NASA ASC effort included development of several generations of ASC prototypes or engineering units to help prepare the ASC technology and Sunpower for flight implementation. Sunpower later had two parallel contracts allowing the last of the NASA engineering units called ASC-E3 to serve as pathfinders for the ASC-F flight convertors being built for DOE. The ASC-E3 convertors utilized the ASC-F flight specifications and were built using the ASC-F design and process documentation. Shortly after the first ASC-F pair achieved initial operation, due to budget constraints, the DOE ASRG flight development contract was terminated. NASA continues to invest in the development of Stirling RPS technology including continued production of the ASC-E3 convertors, seven of which have been delivered with one additional unit in production. Starting in fiscal year 2015, Stirling Convertor Technology Maturation has been reorganized as an element of the RPS Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project and long-term plans for continued Stirling technology advancement are in reformulation. This paper provides a status on the ASC project, an overview of advancements made in the design and production of the ASC at Sunpower, and a summary of acceptance tests, reliability tests, and tactical

  9. Do Secular Trends in Skeletal Maturity Occur Equally in Both Sexes?

    PubMed

    Duren, Dana L; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Sherwood, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal maturity assessment provides information on a child's physical development and expectations based on chronological age. Given recently recognized trends for earlier maturity in a variety of systems, most notably puberty, examination of sex-specific secular trends in skeletal maturation is important. For the orthopaedist, recent trends and changes in developmental timing can affect clinical management (eg, treatment timing) if they are currently based on outdated sources. (1) Has the male or female pediatric skeleton experienced a secular trend for earlier maturation over the past 80 years? (2) Do all indicators of maturity trend in the same direction (earlier versus later)? In this retrospective study, a total of 1240 children were examined longitudinally through hand-wrist radiographs for skeletal maturity based on the Fels method. All subjects participate in the Fels Longitudinal Study based in Ohio and were born between 1930 and 1964 for the "early" cohort and between 1965 and 2001 for the "recent" cohort. Sex-specific secular trends were estimated for (1) mean relative skeletal maturity through linear mixed models; and (2) median age of maturation for individual maturity indicators through logistic regression and generalized estimating equations. Overall relative skeletal maturity was significantly advanced in the recent cohort (maximum difference of 5 months at age 13 years for girls, 4 months at age 15 years for boys). For individual maturity indicators, the direction and magnitude of secular trends varied by indicator type and sex. The following statistically significant secular trends were found: (1) earlier maturation of indicators of fusion in both sexes (4 months for girls, 3 months for boys); (2) later maturation of indicators of projection in long bones in both sexes (3 months for girls, 2 months for boys); (3) earlier maturation of indicators of density (4 months) and projection (3 months) in carpals and density in long bones (6

  10. Thermal maturity of northern Appalachian Basin Devonian shales: Insights from sterane and terpane biomarkers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Alimi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    To better estimate thermal maturity of Devonian shales in the northern Appalachian Basin, eleven samples of Marcellus and Huron Shale were characterized via multiple analytical techniques. Vitrinite reflectance, Rock–Eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography (GC) of whole rock extracts, and GC–mass spectrometry (GCMS) of extract saturate fractions were evaluated on three transects that lie across previously documented regional thermal maturity isolines. Results from vitrinite reflectance suggest that most samples are immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. However, bulk geochemical data and sterane and terpane biomarker ratios from GCMS suggest that almost all samples are in the oil window. This observation is consistent with the presence of thermogenic gas in the study area and higher vitrinite reflectance values recorded from overlying Pennsylvanian coals. These results suggest that vitrinite reflectance is a poor predictor of thermal maturity in early mature areas of Devonian shale, perhaps because reported measurements often include determinations of solid bitumen reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance interpretations in areas of early mature Devonian shale should be supplanted by evaluation of thermal maturity information from biomarker ratios and bulk geochemical data.

  11. Visualisation of macropinosome maturation by the recruitment of sorting nexins.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Markus C; Lindsay, Margaret R; Luetterforst, Robert; Hamilton, Nicholas; Simpson, Fiona; Parton, Robert G; Gleeson, Paul A; Teasdale, Rohan D

    2006-10-01

    We report that phosphoinositol-binding sorting nexin 5 (SNX5) associates with newly formed macropinosomes induced by EGF stimulation. We used the recruitment of GFP-SNX5 to macropinosomes to track their maturation. Initially, GFP-SNX5 is sequestered to discrete subdomains of the macropinosome; these subdomains are subsequently incorporated into highly dynamic, often branched, tubular structures. Time-lapse videomicroscopy revealed the highly dynamic extension of SNX5-labelled tubules and their departure from the macropinosome body to follow predefined paths towards the perinuclear region of the cell, before fusing with early endosomal acceptor membranes. The extension and departure of these tubular structures occurs rapidly over 5-10 minutes and is dependent upon intact microtubules. As the tubular structures depart from the macropinosome there is a reduction in the surface area and an increase in tension of the limiting membrane of the macropinosome. In addition to the recruitment of SNX5 to the macropinosome, Rab5, SNX1 and EEA1 are also recruited by newly formed macropinosomes, followed by the accumulation of Rab7. SNX5 forms heterodimers with SNX1 and this interaction is required for endosome association of SNX5. We propose that the departure of SNX5-positive tubules represents a rapid mechanism of recycling components from macropinosomes thereby promoting their maturation into Rab7-positive structures. Collectively these findings provide a detailed real-time characterisation of the maturation process of the macropinocytic endosome.

  12. Maturation inhibitors: a new therapeutic class targets the virus structure.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Karl; Martin, David E; Sakalian, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The current standard of care for HIV/AIDS in the developed world is HAART therapy, usually a combination of two reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a protease inhibitor. Despite the success of this regimen, there is a continuing need for new drug options to overcome problems with tolerability and the emergence of viral resistance. In this review we discuss the discovery of a potential new class of antiretroviral therapeutics, known as maturation inhibitors, and the development of the first-in-class compound, bevirimat. Bevirimat is distinguished from the currently available antiretrovirals by its unique target and mode of action. While the specific interactions responsible for activity have yet to be fully characterized, it is clear that the target for bevirimat is the Gag polyprotein precursor, the main structural protein responsible for assembly and budding of virion particles. As basic research continues on the precise mechanism of action of bevirimat, clinical development is progressing, with demonstration of both safety and efficacy in early-stage trials. These encouraging results, coupled with the discovery and development of future generations of maturation inhibitors, suggest that maturation inhibitors may be added to the growing set of tools available to control HIV/AIDS.

  13. Mycobacterium avium subspecies impair dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Basler, Tina; Brumshagen, Christina; Beineke, Andreas; Goethe, Ralph; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic, granulomatous enteritis of ruminants. Dendritic cells (DC) of the gut are ideally placed to combat invading mycobacteria; however, little is known about their interaction with MAP. Here, we investigated the interaction of MAP and the closely related M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) with murine DC and the effect of infected macrophages on DC maturation. The infection of DC with MAP or MAA induced DC maturation, which differed to that of LPS as maturation was accompanied by higher production of IL-10 and lower production of IL-12. Treatment of maturing DC with supernatants from mycobacteria-infected macrophages resulted in impaired DC maturation, leading to a semi-mature, tolerogenic DC phenotype expressing low levels of MHCII, CD86 and TNF-α after LPS stimulation. Though the cells were not completely differentiated they responded with an increased IL-10 and a decreased IL-12 production. Using recombinant cytokines we provide evidence that the semi-mature DC phenotype results from a combination of secreted cytokines and released antigenic mycobacterial components of the infected macrophage. Our results indicate that MAP and MAA are able to subvert DC function directly by infecting and indirectly via the milieu created by infected macrophages.

  14. Early Silurian Foraminifera from Gondwana - an early origin of the multichambered globothalamids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Early Silurian foraminifera until now have been regarded to consist of simple single-chambered monothalamids and two-chambered tubothalamids with an agglutinated wall. Although pseudo-multichambered agglutinated foraminifera first appeared in the mid-Ordovician (Kaminski et al. 2009), the origin of true multichambered forms was not believed to have taken place until the early or middle Devonian at the earliest (Holcová, 2002). New discoveries from the Lower Silurian Qusaiba Shale Member in Saudi Arabia point to an earlier origin of the multichambered globothalamid Foraminifera than the currently accepted estimate of 350 Ma (Pawlowski et al. 2003). The agglutinated foraminiferal genera Ammobaculites and Sculptobaculites have been recovered from dark graptolite-bearing claystones of Telychian age, from the transitional facies between the Qusaiba and Sharawa Members of the Qasim Formation at the type locality near Qusaiba town, Saudi Arabia. The multichambered lituolids occur as rare components in a foraminiferal assemblage consisting mostly of monothalamids. This new finding revises our understanding of the early evolution of the multichambered globothalamid foraminifera. The fossil record now shows that the globothalamids were already present in Gondwana by 435 m.y. Holcová, K. 2002. Silurian and Devonian foraminifers and other acid-resistant microfossils from the Barrandian area. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Historia Naturalis, 58 (3-4), 83-140. Kaminski, M.A., Henderson, A.S., Cetean, C.G. & Waskowska-Oliwa, A. 2009. A new family of agglutinated foraminifera: the Ammolagenidae n.fam., and the evolution of multichambered tests. Micropaleontology, 55 (5), 487-494. Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Fahrni, J.F., Gooday, Aj., Cedhagen, T., Habura, A., & Bowser, SS. 2003. The evolution of early Foraminifera. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100 (20), 11494-11498

  15. The postcranial skeletal maturation of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Noel; Bogin, Barry; Bolter, Debra; Berger, Lee R

    2017-07-01

    In 2008, an immature hominin defined as the holotype of the new species Australopithecus sediba was discovered at the 1.9 million year old Malapa site in South Africa. The specimen (MH1) includes substantial post-cranial skeletal material, and provides a unique opportunity to assess its skeletal maturation. Skeletal maturity indicators observed on the proximal and distal humerus, proximal ulna, distal radius, third metacarpal, ilium and ischium, proximal femur and calcaneus were used to assess the maturity of each bone in comparison to references for modern humans and for wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In comparison to humans the skeletal maturational ages for Au. sediba correspond to between 12.0 years and 15.0 years with a mean (SD) age of 13.1 (1.1) years. In comparison to the maturational pattern of chimpanzees the Au. sediba indicators suggest a skeletal maturational age of 9-11 years. Based on either of these skeletal maturity estimates and the body length at death of MH1, an adult height of 150-156 cm is predicted. We conclude that the skeletal remains of MH1 are consistent with an ape-like pattern of maturity when dental age estimates are also taken into consideration. This maturity schedule in australopiths is consistent with ape-like estimates of age at death for the Nariokotome Homo erectus remains (KMN-WT 15000), which are of similar postcranial immaturity to MH1. The findings suggest that humans may have distinctive and delayed post-cranial schedules from australopiths and H. erectus, implicating a recent evolution of somatic and possibly life history strategies in human evolution. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Graphic representation of skeletal maturity determinations.

    PubMed

    Boechat, M Ines; Lee, David Choen

    2007-10-01

    Skeletal maturation determinations are usually reported as numeric data indicating accordance with chronologic age. However, significant changes in skeletal maturation can occur without falling outside two SDs. The purpose of our study was to design simple computer-generated sex-based charts to enhance the evaluation of skeletal maturation, especially when frequent assessments are made. The graphic representation of successive reports clearly depicts whether values retain their position in relation to the mean. In addition, the report includes computation of the exact SD score.

  17. Game Maturity Model for Health Care.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan C; Adriani, Paul; van Houwelingen, Jan Willem; Geerts, A

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Game Maturity Model for the healthcare industry as an extension to the general Game Maturity Model and describes the usage by two case studies of applied health games. The Game Maturity Model for healthcare provides a practical and value-adding method to assess existing games and to determine strategic considerations for application of applied health games. Our forecast is that within 5 years the use and development of applied games will have a role in our daily lives and the way we organize health care that will be similar to the role social media has today.

  18. Centrioles initiate cilia assembly but are dispensable for maturation and maintenance in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Serwas, Daniel; Su, Tiffany Y; Roessler, Max; Wang, Shaohe; Dammermann, Alexander

    2017-06-05

    Cilia are cellular projections that assemble on centriole-derived basal bodies. While cilia assembly is absolutely dependent on centrioles, it is not known to what extent they contribute to downstream events. The nematode C. elegans provides a unique opportunity to address this question, as centrioles do not persist at the base of mature cilia. Using fluorescence microscopy and electron tomography, we find that centrioles degenerate early during ciliogenesis. The transition zone and axoneme are not completely formed at this time, indicating that cilia maturation does not depend on intact centrioles. The hydrolethalus syndrome protein HYLS-1 is the only centriolar protein known to remain at the base of mature cilia and is required for intraflagellar transport trafficking. Surprisingly, targeted degradation of HYLS-1 after initiation of ciliogenesis does not affect ciliary structures. Taken together, our results indicate that while centrioles are essential to initiate cilia formation, they are dispensable for cilia maturation and maintenance. © 2017 Serwas et al.

  19. Centrioles initiate cilia assembly but are dispensable for maturation and maintenance in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Max

    2017-01-01

    Cilia are cellular projections that assemble on centriole-derived basal bodies. While cilia assembly is absolutely dependent on centrioles, it is not known to what extent they contribute to downstream events. The nematode C. elegans provides a unique opportunity to address this question, as centrioles do not persist at the base of mature cilia. Using fluorescence microscopy and electron tomography, we find that centrioles degenerate early during ciliogenesis. The transition zone and axoneme are not completely formed at this time, indicating that cilia maturation does not depend on intact centrioles. The hydrolethalus syndrome protein HYLS-1 is the only centriolar protein known to remain at the base of mature cilia and is required for intraflagellar transport trafficking. Surprisingly, targeted degradation of HYLS-1 after initiation of ciliogenesis does not affect ciliary structures. Taken together, our results indicate that while centrioles are essential to initiate cilia formation, they are dispensable for cilia maturation and maintenance. PMID:28411189

  20. Influence of breast milk polyamines on suckling rat immune system maturation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; González-Castro, Ana; Castellote, Cristina; Franch, Angels; Castell, Margarida

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the supplementation of polyamines present in breast milk, i.e. spermine (SPM) and spermidine (SPD), influenced the post-natal maturation of the systemic and intestinal immune system in rats. From birth, pups daily received SPM or SPD. At 5, 11 and 18 days old, small intestine intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) and splenocytes were phenotypically characterized. SPM and, less evidently, SPD accelerated the maturation of CD8+ IEL, and enhanced the presence of intraepithelial NK cells and IEL related with specific immune responses on the proximal and distal small intestine, respectively. Polyamines increased the percentage of more mature CD4+ LPL and enhanced the early presence of splenic B cells and, later, that of NK cells. However, no effect on Ig-secretory function was detected. These results suggest that breast milk polyamines improve the maturation of the rat intestinal and systemic immune system.

  1. Pet-1 Switches Transcriptional Targets Postnatally to Regulate Maturation of Serotonin Neuron Excitability.

    PubMed

    Wyler, Steven C; Spencer, W Clay; Green, Noah H; Rood, Benjamin D; Crawford, LaTasha; Craige, Caryne; Gresch, Paul; McMahon, Douglas G; Beck, Sheryl G; Deneris, Evan

    2016-02-03

    Newborn neurons enter an extended maturation stage, during which they acquire excitability characteristics crucial for development of presynaptic and postsynaptic connectivity. In contrast to earlier specification programs, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that control neuronal maturation. The Pet-1 ETS (E26 transformation-specific) factor is continuously expressed in serotonin (5-HT) neurons and initially acts in postmitotic precursors to control acquisition of 5-HT transmitter identity. Using a combination of RNA sequencing, electrophysiology, and conditional targeting approaches, we determined gene expression patterns in maturing flow-sorted 5-HT neurons and the temporal requirements for Pet-1 in shaping these patterns for functional maturation of mouse 5-HT neurons. We report a profound disruption of postmitotic expression trajectories in Pet-1(-/-) neurons, which prevented postnatal maturation of 5-HT neuron passive and active intrinsic membrane properties, G-protein signaling, and synaptic responses to glutamatergic, lysophosphatidic, and adrenergic agonists. Unexpectedly, conditional targeting revealed a postnatal stage-specific switch in Pet-1 targets from 5-HT synthesis genes to transmitter receptor genes required for afferent modulation of 5-HT neuron excitability. Five-HT1a autoreceptor expression depended transiently on Pet-1, thus revealing an early postnatal sensitive period for control of 5-HT excitability genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing revealed that Pet-1 regulates 5-HT neuron maturation through direct gene activation and repression. Moreover, Pet-1 directly regulates the 5-HT neuron maturation factor Engrailed 1, which suggests Pet-1 orchestrates maturation through secondary postmitotic regulatory factors. The early postnatal switch in Pet-1 targets uncovers a distinct neonatal stage-specific function for Pet-1, during which it promotes maturation of 5-HT neuron excitability. The regulatory mechanisms

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging assessment of brain white matter maturation during the first postnatal year.

    PubMed

    Provenzale, James M; Liang, Luxia; DeLong, David; White, Leonard E

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate the status of cerebral white matter (WM) at term gestation and the rate of WM maturation throughout the first year of life in healthy infants. Fifty-three children (35 boys) ranging in age from 1.5 weeks premature to 51.5 weeks (mean age, 22.9 weeks) underwent conventional MRI, diffusion imaging in three directions (b = 1,000 s/mm2), and diffusion tensor imaging with gradient encoding in six directions, all on a 1.5-T MRI system. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in three deep WM structures (posterior limb of internal capsule, genu, and splenium of corpus callosum) and two peripheral WM regions (associational WM underlying prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex) with a standard region of interest (44 +/- 4 cm2). ADC and FA were expressed as a percentage of corresponding values measured in a group of healthy young adults. Mean ADC and FA values for deep and peripheral WM were plotted against gestational age normalized to term. The data were fit best with a broken-line linear regression model with a breakpoint at 100 days. ADC and FA values at term were estimated according to the intercept of the initial linear period (before day 100) with day 0. The slope of the linear fits was used to determine the rate of WM maturation in both the early and the late (after day 100) periods. Multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to compare deep and peripheral WM structures at term and at representative early and late ages (days 30 and 200) and to compare rates of ADC and FA maturation in early and late periods within the first year. At term, peripheral WM was less mature than deep WM according to results of extrapolation of ADC and FA values in the first 100 days of life to day 0 (p < 0.01). Mean ADC and FA value (percentage of mean adult value) for peripheral WM were 1.32 x 10(-3) mm2/s (163%) and 0.16 (32%), respectively

  3. Chlorogenic acid supplementation during in vitro maturation improves maturation, fertilization and developmental competence of porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T-V; Tanihara, F; Do, Ltk; Sato, Y; Taniguchi, M; Takagi, M; Van Nguyen, T; Otoi, T

    2017-12-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a quinic acid conjugate of caffeic acid, and a phytochemical found in many fruits and beverages that acts as an antioxidant. The present study investigated the effects of CGA supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM), on in vitro development of porcine oocytes, to improve the porcine in vitro production (IVP) system. Oocytes were matured either without (control) or with CGA (10, 50, 100 and 200 μM). Subsequently, the matured oocytes were fertilized and cultured in vitro for 7 day. The rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst formation of oocytes matured with 50 μM CGA were significantly (p < .05) higher than those of the control oocytes. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is one of the reactive oxygen species and induces DNA damage in porcine oocytes. When oocytes were matured with 1 mM H 2 O 2 to assess the protective effect of CGA, 50 μM CGA supplementation improved the maturation rate and the proportion of DNA-fragmented nuclei in oocytes compared with control oocytes matured without CGA. Moreover, when oocytes were matured with either 50 μM CGA (control) or caffeic acid (10, 50 and 100 μM), the rates of maturation, fertilization and the blastocyst formation of oocytes matured with 50 μM CGA were similar to those of oocytes matured with 10 and 50 μM caffeic acid. Our results suggest that CGA has comparable effects to caffeic acid, and IVM with 50 μM CGA is particularly beneficial to IVP of porcine embryos and protects oocytes from DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. Supplementation of CGA to the maturation medium has a potential to improve porcine IVP system. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1710.115 Final maturity. (a) RUS is authorized to make loans and loan guarantees with a... due, in part, to obsolescence. Operating loans to finance working capital required for the initial...

  5. Quantifying Semantic Linguistic Maturity in Children.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker

    2016-10-01

    We propose a method to quantify semantic linguistic maturity (SELMA) based on a high dimensional semantic representation of words created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0-12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human raters we found that SELMA predicted the rating of semantic maturity made by human raters over and above the prediction made using a child's age and number of words produced. We conclude that the semantic content of narratives changes in a predictable pattern with children's age and argue that SELMA is a measure quantifying semantic linguistic maturity. The study opens up the possibility of using quantitative measures for studying the development of semantic representation in children's narratives, and emphasizes the importance of word co-occurrences for understanding the development of meaning.

  6. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-06-01

    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  7. 38 CFR 7.7 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... policy as a death claim or otherwise (SSCRA, as amended) will not include a termination or maturity of a... approval by the Department of Veterans Affairs. The statement of account will include the rate of interest...

  8. Morphogenesis and maturation of the embryonic and postnatal intestine.

    PubMed

    Chin, Alana M; Hill, David R; Aurora, Megan; Spence, Jason R

    2017-06-01

    The intestine is a vital organ responsible for nutrient absorption, bile and waste excretion, and a major site of host immunity. In order to keep up with daily demands, the intestine has evolved a mechanism to expand the absorptive surface area by undergoing a morphogenetic process to generate finger-like units called villi. These villi house specialized cell types critical for both absorbing nutrients from food, and for protecting the host from commensal and pathogenic microbes present in the adult gut. In this review, we will discuss mechanisms that coordinate intestinal development, growth, and maturation of the small intestine, starting from the formation of the early gut tube, through villus morphogenesis and into early postnatal life when the intestine must adapt to the acquisition of nutrients through food intake, and to interactions with microbes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  10. Nutrient signaling and developmental timing of maturation.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Thomas; Moeller, Morten E; Rewitz, Kim F

    2013-01-01

    In animals, developmental timing of sexual maturation is tightly linked to nutrition and growth. Maturation only occurs once the juvenile has acquired sufficient nutrients and completed enough growth to produce a reproductively mature adult with a genetically predefined body size. Animals therefore adjust the duration of juvenile development to the dietary conditions. When nutrients are scarce the juvenile growth phase is extended to compensate for slow growth. Conversely, development is accelerated in nutrient rich environments where animals rapidly reach their genetic target size. To achieve such flexibility, nutrient-dependent growth regulators must feed into the endocrine system that controls the timing of maturation. Work on the fruit fly Drosophila has revealed a central role of secreted signal molecules with similarity to the conserved insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the decision making process. These molecules are involved in checkpoints that allow the endocrine system to decide whether to release the steroid hormone, ecdysone, that triggers maturation or extent development, depending on nutrient levels and growth status. Importantly, different dietary components influence timing of maturation in Drosophila, with proteins having the greatest impact; fat and sugar play a minor role, at least within the limits of what can be considered a balanced diet. Remarkably, excess dietary sugar concentrations that mimic physiological conditions associated with diabetes, negatively affect growth and delays maturation. Altogether, this shows that the source of energy in the diet is important for timing and may provide a paradigm for understanding the emerging links between diet, obesity and diabetes, and the onset of puberty. Here, we provide an overview of the system underlying developmental timing of maturation in Drosophila and review recent success in understanding its coupling to nutrition and growth. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ascription of Maturity to Human Figure Drawings by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Harvey

    1973-01-01

    Although Ss generally distinguished more mature from less mature figures on the basis of body proportions, the proportions of immature individuals nonetheless tended to be assimilated to those of the mature individual. (Author)

  12. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core ismore » more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.« less

  13. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  14. Control of Spine Maturation and Pruning through ProBDNF Synthesized and Released in Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Orefice, Lauren L.; Shih, Chien-Cheng; Xu, Haifei; Waterhouse, Emily G.; Xu, Baoji

    2015-01-01

    Excess synapses formed during early postnatal development are pruned over an extended period, while the remaining synapses mature. Synapse pruning is critical for activity-dependent refinement of neuronal connections and its dysregulation has been found in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders; however, the mechanism underlying synapse pruning remains largely unknown. As dendritic spines are the postsynaptic sites for the vast majority of excitatory synapses, spine maturation and pruning are indicators for maturation and elimination of these synapses. Our previous studies have found that dendritically localized mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates spine maturation and pruning. Here we investigated the mechanism by which dendritic Bdnf mRNA, but not somatically restricted Bdnf mRNA, promotes spine maturation and pruning. We found that neuronal activity stimulates both translation of dendritic Bdnf mRNA and secretion of its translation product mainly as proBDNF. The secreted proBDNF promotes spine maturation and pruning, and its effect on spine pruning is in part mediated by the p75NTR receptor via RhoA activation. Furthermore, some proBDNF is extracellularly converted to mature BDNF and then promotes maturation of stimulated spines by activating Rac1 through the TrkB receptor. In contrast, translation of somatic Bdnf mRNA and the release of its translation product mainly as mature BDNF are independent of action potentials. These results not only reveal a biochemical pathway regulating synapse pruning, but also suggest that BDNF synthesized in the soma and dendrites is released through distinct secretory pathways. PMID:26705735

  15. Differential requirement for satellite cells during overload-induced muscle hypertrophy in growing versus mature mice.

    PubMed

    Murach, Kevin A; White, Sarah H; Wen, Yuan; Ho, Angel; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-07-10

    Pax7+ satellite cells are required for skeletal muscle fiber growth during post-natal development in mice. Satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion also appears to persist into early adulthood. Given the important role of satellite cells during muscle development, we hypothesized that the necessity of satellite cells for adaptation to an imposed hypertrophic stimulus depends on maturational age. Pax7 CreER -R26R DTA mice were treated for 5 days with vehicle (satellite cell-replete, SC+) or tamoxifen (satellite cell-depleted, SC-) at 2 months (young) and 4 months (mature) of age. Following a 2-week washout, mice were subjected to sham surgery or 10 day synergist ablation overload of the plantaris (n = 6-9 per group). The surgical approach minimized regeneration, de novo fiber formation, and fiber splitting while promoting muscle fiber growth. Satellite cell density (Pax7+ cells/fiber), embryonic myosin heavy chain expression (eMyHC), and muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Myonuclei (myonuclei/100 mm) were counted on isolated single muscle fibers. Tamoxifen treatment depleted satellite cells by ≥90% and prevented myonuclear accretion with overload in young and mature mice (p < 0.05). Satellite cells did not recover in SC- mice after overload. Average muscle fiber CSA increased ~20% in young SC+ (p = 0.07), mature SC+ (p < 0.05), and mature SC- mice (p < 0.05). In contrast, muscle fiber hypertrophy was prevented in young SC- mice. Muscle fiber number increased only in mature mice after overload (p < 0.05), and eMyHC expression was variable, specifically in mature SC+ mice. Reliance on satellite cells for overload-induced hypertrophy is dependent on maturational age, and global responses to overload differ in young versus mature mice.

  16. Yield response to planting date among soybean maturity groups for irrigated production in the US Midsouth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Planting date is one of the main factors affecting soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.)) yield. Environmental conditions in the US Midsouth allow for planting dates from late March through early July, and maturity groups (MGs) ranging from 3 to 6. However, the complexity of the interaction among planting...

  17. Development of sunflower oil and composition with respect to seed moisture and physiological maturity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Desiccants/harvest aids are becoming more commonly used to hasten sunflower harvest. The current recommendation is to apply a desiccant (e.g., glyphosate and paraquat) at 35% or less seed moisture at physiological maturity (PM). Desiccating as early as possible without sacrificing yield may be a des...

  18. Implementation of Maturity for Concrete Strength Measurement and Pay : Tech Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-10-01

    Using the maturity to determine concrete strength has been done for more than four decades. The concept was originally conceived in the late 1940s and early 1950s. More and more state and municipal DOTs are implementing its use every year, with some ...

  19. Aquatic insect emergence from headwater streams flowing through regeneration and mature forests in western Oregon

    Treesearch

    Robert Progar; Andrew R. Moldenke

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect of canopy cover on adult aquatic insect emergence by collecting bi-weekly samples from twelve headwater stream reaches flowing either under a mature conifer canopy or streams flowing through ten-year-old regeneration in western Oregon from February to November 1997. Density and biomass generally followed a bimodal curve with peaks during early...

  20. Mapping Subcortical Brain Maturation during Adolescence: Evidence of Hemisphere-and Sex-Specific Longitudinal Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Kline, Alexandria; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Early to mid-adolescence is an important developmental period for subcortical brain maturation, but longitudinal studies of these neurodevelopmental changes are lacking. The present study acquired repeated magnetic resonance images from 60 adolescent subjects (28 female) at ages 12.5 and 16.5 years to map changes in subcortical structure volumes.…

  1. MatureP: prediction of secreted proteins with exclusive information from their mature regions.

    PubMed

    Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Markaki, Maria; Chatzi, Katerina; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Economou, Anastassios

    2017-06-12

    More than a third of the cellular proteome is non-cytoplasmic. Most secretory proteins use the Sec system for export and are targeted to membranes using signal peptides and mature domains. To specifically analyze bacterial mature domain features, we developed MatureP, a classifier that predicts secretory sequences through features exclusively computed from their mature domains. MatureP was trained using Just Add Data Bio, an automated machine learning tool. Mature domains are predicted efficiently with ~92% success, as measured by the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC). Predictions were validated using experimental datasets of mutated secretory proteins. The features selected by MatureP reveal prominent differences in amino acid content between secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. Amino-terminal mature domain sequences have enhanced disorder, more hydroxyl and polar residues and less hydrophobics. Cytoplasmic proteins have prominent amino-terminal hydrophobic stretches and charged regions downstream. Presumably, secretory mature domains comprise a distinct protein class. They balance properties that promote the necessary flexibility required for the maintenance of non-folded states during targeting and secretion with the ability of post-secretion folding. These findings provide novel insight in protein trafficking, sorting and folding mechanisms and may benefit protein secretion biotechnology.

  2. Effect of sericin supplementation in maturation medium on cumulus cell expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Aghaz, F; Hajarian, H; Shabankareh, H Karami; Abdolmohammadi, A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sericin with different concentrations (0% [control], 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5%) added to the IVM medium on cumulus cell expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season. The resumption of meiosis was assessed by the frequency of germinal vesicle breakdown and the first polar body extrusion. After IVF with fresh ram semen, presumptive zygotes were cultured 8 days in potassium simplex optimization medium supplemented by amino acids, and the percentages developing to the two-cell and blastocyst stages were measured as the indicators of early embryonic developmental competence. More cumulus-oocyte complexes matured with 0.5% sericin underwent germinal vesicle breakdown and reached metaphase II stage compared with the control cumulus-oocyte complexes matured without sericin (P ≤ 0.05). The present findings indicated that supplementation with 0.5% sericin during the maturation culture may improve the nuclear maturation and the cumulus cell expansion. Furthermore, the percentage of blastocysts obtained from 0.5% and 0.1% sericin (37.8 ± 1.76% and 34.8 ± 1.09%, respectively) was higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the control medium (29.60 ± 1.67%). However, addition of 1% and 2.5% of sericin to the IVM medium oocytes had a negative effect on nuclear maturation and cumulus cell expansion. Furthermore, the percentage of cleavage and blastocyst rate was significantly lower in the 1% and 2.5% sericin groups than in the control group. These findings showed that supplementation of IVM medium with 0.5% sericin may improve the meiotic competence of oocytes and early embryonic development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distinct Physiological Maturation of Parvalbumin-Positive Neuron Subtypes in Mouse Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Takeaki; Chen, Kehui; Lewis, David A; Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo

    2017-05-10

    layers of the mouse PFC, and found that, from early postnatal age, ChCs and BCs differ in laminar location. Excitatory synapses and fast-spiking properties matured before the onset of puberty in both cell types, but following cell type-specific developmental trajectories. Hence, the physiological maturation of ChCs and BCs may contribute to the emergence of cognitive function differentially, and predominantly during prepubertal development. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/374883-20$15.00/0.

  4. Mandibular dimensional changes and skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Naidu, Premila

    2010-10-01

    Growth and development of the human face provides a fascinating interplay of form and function. Among the various facial bones, the mandible plays a very important role during various growth-modification therapies. These treatment modalities will yield a better result in less time if properly correlated with skeletal maturity. It is very essential to know where the site of growth occurs and also the time when it occurs or ceases to occur. This study was conducted to assess the mandibular dimensions at various stages of skeletal maturation. The subjects included 6 to 18-year-old children who were grouped according to their middle phalanx of the third finger stages of skeletal maturity. Lateral cephalographs were taken and, from their cephalometric tracings, linear and angular measurements of the mandible were made. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that the mandibular height, length and symphysis thickness increased with skeletal maturity. An increase in angles SNB (Sella, Nasion, Supramentale) and L1-MP (Long axis lower incisors- Mandibular plane) and a decrease in the gonial angle and ANB (Subspinale, Nasion, Supramentale) angle were observed. The study showed a significant correlation between mandibular growth and skeletal maturity.

  5. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met withmore » process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.« less

  6. Maturation of high-density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Amy Y.; Sligar, Stephen G.; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Human high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are involved in the transport of cholesterol. The mechanism by which HDL assembles and functions is not well understood owing to a lack of structural information on circulating spherical HDL. Here, we report a series of molecular dynamics simulations that describe the maturation of discoidal HDL into spherical HDL upon incorporation of cholesterol ester as well as the resulting atomic level structure of a mature circulating spherical HDL particle. Sixty cholesterol ester molecules were added in a stepwise fashion to a discoidal HDL particle containing two apolipoproteins wrapped around a 160 dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer. The resulting matured particle, captured in a coarse-grained description, was then described in a consistent all-atom representation and analysed in chemical detail. The simulations show that maturation results from the formation of a highly dynamic hydrophobic core comprised of cholesterol ester surrounded by phospholipid and protein; the two apolipoprotein strands remain in a belt-like conformation as seen in the discoidal HDL particle, but with flexible N- and C-terminal helices and a central region stabilized by salt bridges. In the otherwise flexible lipoproteins, a less mobile central region provides an ideal location to bind lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, the key enzyme that converts cholesterol to cholesterol ester during HDL maturation. PMID:19570799

  7. Sugars levels of four sugarcane genotypes in different stem portions during the maturation phase.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Laís F M; Ferreira, Vilma M; Oliveira, Nelson G DE; Sarmento, Pedro L V S; Endres, Laurício; Teodoro, Iêdo

    2017-01-01

    Maturation is a characteristic of sugarcane plant (Saccharum spp.) and even when grown under the same soil and climate conditions the varieties differ on the maturation curve. Thus, studies that allow establishing maturation curves of different sugarcane genotypes in the local soil and climate may indicate the proper harvesting period to ensure better quality of the raw material. This study aimed to analyze the levels of soluble sugars during the maturation phase and assess the technological and productivity indexes of four irrigated sugarcane genotypes in the region of Rio Largo, Alagoas. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks in a 4 x 2 x 5 factorial: four genotypes (RB92579, RB98710, RB99395 and RB961003), two stem portions (internodes 1-4 and internodes 5-8) and five seasons (82, 49, 25, 13 and 3 days before harvesting), each treatment with three replications. Internodes 1-4 showed the highest levels of reducing sugars, while the largest accumulation of sucrose and total soluble solids occurred in internodes 5-8. RB99395 genotype showed more stability in the sugar levels during sugarcane maturation, which can indicate early maturation and high agricultural yield.

  8. Identical twins with mature cystic teratomas treated with laparoscopic surgery: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Yasushi; Ota, Nami; Kobayashi, Aya; Tanizaki, Yuko; Minami, Sawako; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Mature cystic teratomas are the most common among all ovarian neoplasms, representing 30-40% of the cases. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been only two reports of mature cystic teratomas occurring in identical twins to date. We herein report a case of identical twins with mature cystic teratomas who were treated with laparoscopic surgery. A 32-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a tumor in the right ovary. The patient underwent laparoscopic resection of the ovarian tumor and the pathological diagnosis was benign mature cystic teratoma. Two years later, the identical twin of the abovementioned patient was referred to our hospital also due to a right ovarian tumor. The patient underwent laparoscopic resection of the ovarian tumor and the pathological diagnosis was benign mature cystic teratoma. Therefore, for early diagnosis, it may be important to consider the possibility of mature cystic teratoma in the identical twin of a patient, even in the absence of symptoms.

  9. D/H ratios and hydrogen exchangeability of type-II kerogens with increasing thermal maturity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lis, G.P.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of non-exchangeable hydrogen (??Dn) and of carbon were measured in type-II kerogens from two suites of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian black shale, one from the New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin) and the other from the Exshaw Formation (Alberta Basin). The largely marine-derived organic matter had similar original stable isotope ratios, but today the suites of kerogens express gradients in thermal maturity that have altered their chemical and isotopic compositions. In both suites, ??D n values increase with maturation up to a vitrinite reflectance of Ro 1.5%, then level out. Increasing ??Dn values suggest isotopic exchange of organic hydrogen with water-derived deuterium and/or preferential loss of 1H-enriched chemical moieties from kerogen during maturation. The resulting changes in ??Dn values are altering the original hydrogen isotopic paleoenvironmental signal in kerogen, albeit in a systematic fashion. The specific D/H response of each kerogen suite through maturation correlates with H/C elemental ratio and can therefore be corrected to yield paleoenvironmentally relevant information for a calibrated system. With increasing thermal maturity, the abundance of hydrogen in the kerogen that is isotopically exchangeable with water hydrogen (expressed as Hex, in % of total hydrogen) first decreases to reach a minimum at Ro ??? 0.8-1.1%, followed by a substantial increase at higher thermal maturity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protease-Mediated Maturation of HIV: Inhibitors of Protease and the Maturation Process.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Catherine S

    2012-01-01

    Protease-mediated maturation of HIV-1 virus particles is essential for virus infectivity. Maturation occurs concomitant with immature virus particle release and is mediated by the viral protease (PR), which sequentially cleaves the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins into mature protein domains. Maturation triggers a second assembly event that generates a condensed conical capsid core. The capsid core organizes the viral RNA genome and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication in the next round of infection. The fundamental role of proteolytic maturation in the generation of mature infectious particles has made it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Development of small molecules that target the PR active site has been highly successful and nine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been approved for clinical use. This paper provides an overview of their development and clinical use together with a discussion of problems associated with drug resistance. The second-half of the paper discusses a novel class of antiretroviral drug termed maturation inhibitors, which target cleavage sites in Gag not PR itself. The paper focuses on bevirimat (BVM) the first-in-class maturation inhibitor: its mechanism of action and the implications of naturally occurring polymorphisms that confer reduced susceptibility to BVM in phase II clinical trials.

  11. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16231.001 PMID:27542195

  12. Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tina; Motan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, advances in cancer treatment have led to a dramatic improvement in long term survival. This has led to an increasing focus on quality of life after surviving cancer treatment, with fertility being an important aspect. Given the known reproductive risks of cancer therapies, there has been a growing interest in the field of fertility preservation (also referred to as oncofertility). Mature oocyte cryopreservation is no longer considered experimental and has become a realistic option for reproductive aged women prior to undergoing cancer treatment. Additionally, as cryopreservation techniques improve, mature oocyte cryopreservation is increasing being marketed to healthy women without cancer wishing to delay child bearing, also termed "social egg freezing". This chapter provides a review of the current technology, use, and outcomes of mature oocyte cryopreservation. It also outlines the ethical debate surrounding social egg freezing and directions for future research in female fertility preservation.

  13. Calcium Signaling enhancement during oocyte maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Peter; Ullah, Ghanim; Machaca, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    A Ca2+ signal with a special spatial and temporal characteristic universally removes cell-cycle arrest after fertilization of a mature egg cell. The Ca2+ signal is characterized by a fast rise of intracellular Ca2+ and a slow decay on the time scale of minutes. We use computational modeling of Ca2+ release on the microscale (Ca2+ puffs) and cell-scale in conjunction with experimental knowledge of the changes in the Ca2+ signaling apparatus during oocyte maturation and changing signaling patterns to explore the relationship between organization and sensitivity of IP3 receptors and SERCA pumps and the resulting signaling patterns. We hypothesize that potentiation of the IP3 receptors during oocyte maturation is the main cause for the differentiation in the signaling patterns.

  14. Genetic transformation of mature citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Magdalena; Juárez, José; Navarro, Luis; Peña, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    Most woody fruit species have long juvenile periods that drastically prolong the time required to analyze mature traits. Evaluation of characteristics related to fruits is a requisite to release any new variety into the market. Because of a decline in regenerative and transformation potential, genetic transformation procedures usually employ juvenile material as the source of plant tissue, therefore resulting in the production of juvenile plants. Direct transformation of mature material could ensure the production of adult transgenic plants, bypassing in this way the juvenile phase. Invigoration of the source adult material, establishment of adequate transformation and regeneration conditions, and acceleration of plant development through grafting allowed us to produce transgenic mature sweet orange trees flowering and bearing fruits in a short time period.

  15. An unexpected twist in viral capsid maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsman, Ilya; Gan, Lu; Guttman, Miklos

    2009-04-14

    Lambda-like double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. Capsid shells are complex organizations of hundreds of protein subunits that assemble into intricate quaternary complexes that ultimately are able to withstand over 50 atm of pressure during genome packaging. The extensive integration between subunits in capsids requires the formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. Although various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsidmore » structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage. Here we present a procapsid X-ray structure at 3.65 {angstrom} resolution, termed prohead II, of the lambda-like bacteriophage HK97, the mature capsid structure of which was previously solved to 3.44 {angstrom}. A comparison of the two largely different capsid forms has unveiled an unprecedented expansion mechanism that describes the transition. Crystallographic and hydrogen/deuterium exchange data presented here demonstrate that the subunit tertiary structures are significantly different between the two states, with twisting and bending motions occurring in both helical and -sheet regions. We also identified subunit interactions at each three-fold axis of the capsid that are maintained throughout maturation. The interactions sustain capsid integrity during subunit refolding and provide a fixed hinge from which subunits undergo rotational and translational motions during maturation. Previously published calorimetric data of a closely related bacteriophage, P22, showed that capsid maturation was an exothermic process that resulted in a release of 90 kJ mol{sup -1} of energy. We propose that the major tertiary changes presented in this study reveal a structural basis for an

  16. Genomic profiling of bovine corpus luteum maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wigoda, Noa; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Orr, Irit; Meidan, Rina

    2018-01-01

    To unveil novel global changes associated with corpus luteum (CL) maturation, we analyzed transcriptome data for the bovine CL on days 4 and 11, representing the developing vs. mature gland. Our analyses revealed 681 differentially expressed genes (363 and 318 on day 4 and 11, respectively), with ≥2 fold change and FDR of <5%. Different gene ontology (GO) categories were represented prominently in transcriptome data at these stages (e.g. days 4: cell cycle, chromosome, DNA metabolic process and replication and on day 11: immune response; lipid metabolic process and complement activation). Based on bioinformatic analyses, select genes expression in day 4 and 11 CL was validated with quantitative real-time PCR. Cell specific expression was also determined in enriched luteal endothelial and steroidogenic cells. Genes related to the angiogenic process such as NOS3, which maintains dilated vessels and MMP9, matrix degrading enzyme, were higher on day 4. Importantly, our data suggests day 11 CL acquire mechanisms to prevent blood vessel sprouting and promote their maturation by expressing NOTCH4 and JAG1, greatly enriched in luteal endothelial cells. Another endothelial specific gene, CD300LG, was identified here in the CL for the first time. CD300LG is an adhesion molecule enabling lymphocyte migration, its higher levels at mid cycle are expected to support the transmigration of immune cells into the CL at this stage. Together with steroidogenic genes, most of the genes regulating de-novo cholesterol biosynthetic pathway (e.g HMGCS, HMGCR) and cholesterol uptake from plasma (LDLR, APOD and APOE) were upregulated in the mature CL. These findings provide new insight of the processes involved in CL maturation including blood vessel growth and stabilization, leucocyte transmigration as well as progesterone synthesis as the CL matures. PMID:29590145

  17. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Treesearch

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  18. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Marjorie; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Levy, Rachel; Drevet, Joël R; Saez, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia) affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa. PMID:26067871

  19. Induced maturation of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Simone; Anders, Maria; Konvalinka, Jan; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G; Müller, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    HIV-1 assembles at the plasma membrane of virus-producing cells as an immature, noninfectious particle. Processing of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins by the viral protease (PR) activates the viral enzymes and results in dramatic structural rearrangements within the virion--termed maturation--that are a prerequisite for infectivity. Despite its fundamental importance for viral replication, little is currently known about the regulation of proteolysis and about the dynamics and structural intermediates of maturation. This is due mainly to the fact that HIV-1 release and maturation occur asynchronously both at the level of individual cells and at the level of particle release from a single cell. Here, we report a method to synchronize HIV-1 proteolysis in vitro based on protease inhibitor (PI) washout from purified immature virions, thereby temporally uncoupling virus assembly and maturation. Drug washout resulted in the induction of proteolysis with cleavage efficiencies correlating with the off-rate of the respective PR-PI complex. Proteolysis of Gag was nearly complete and yielded the correct products with an optimal half-life (t(1/2)) of ~5 h, but viral infectivity was not recovered. Failure to gain infectivity following PI washout may be explained by the observed formation of aberrant viral capsids and/or by pronounced defects in processing of the reverse transcriptase (RT) heterodimer associated with a lack of RT activity. Based on our results, we hypothesize that both the polyprotein processing dynamics and the tight temporal coupling of immature particle assembly and PR activation are essential for correct polyprotein processing and morphological maturation and thus for HIV-1 infectivity. Cleavage of the Gag and Gag-Pol HIV-1 polyproteins into their functional subunits by the viral protease activates the viral enzymes and causes major structural rearrangements essential for HIV-1 infectivity. This proteolytic maturation occurs concomitant with virus release

  20. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  1. The beneficial effects of cumulus cells and oocyte-cumulus cell gap junctions depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Wu, Sha-Na; Shen, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Kong, Xiang-Wei; Lu, Angeleem; Li, Yan-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Yue-Fang; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Cumulus cells are a group of closely associated granulosa cells that surround and nourish oocytes. Previous studies have shown that cumulus cells contribute to oocyte maturation and fertilization through gap junction communication. However, it is not known how this gap junction signaling affects in vivo versus in vitro maturation of oocytes, and their subsequent fertilization and embryonic development following insemination. Therefore, in our study, we performed mouse oocyte maturation and insemination using in vivo- or in vitro-matured oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs, which retain gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes), in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes co-cultured with cumulus cells (DCs, which lack gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes), and in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes without cumulus cells (DOs). Using these models, we were able to analyze the effects of gap junction signaling on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. We found that gap junctions were necessary for both in vivo and in vitro oocyte maturation. In addition, for oocytes matured in vivo, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization and blastocyst formation, and this improvement was strengthened by gap junctions. Moreover, for oocytes matured in vitro, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization, but not blastocyst formation, and this improvement was independent of gap junctions. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the beneficial effect of gap junction signaling from cumulus cells depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods.

  2. Does controlling for biological maturity improve physical activity tracking?

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Marta C; Sherar, Lauren B; Mosewich, Amber D; Kowalski, Kent C; Bailey, Donald A; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G

    2011-05-01

    Tracking of physical activity through childhood and adolescence tends to be low. Variation in the timing of biological maturation within youth of the same chronological age (CA) might affect participation in physical activity and may partially explain the low tracking. To examine the stability of physical activity over time from childhood to late adolescence when aligned on CA and biological age (BA). A total of 91 males and 96 females aged 8-15 yr from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS) were assessed annually for 8 yr. BA was calculated as years from age at peak height velocity. Physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children/Adolescents. Tracking was analyzed using intraclass correlations for both CA and BA (2-yr groupings). To be included in the analysis, an individual required a measure at both time points within an interval; however, not all individuals were present at all tracking intervals. Physical activity tracking by CA 2-yr intervals were, in general, moderate in males (r=0.42-0.59) and females (r=0.43-0.44). However, the 9- to 11-yr CA interval was low and nonsignificant (r=0.23-0.30). Likewise, tracking of physical activity by BA 2-yr intervals was moderate to high in males (r=0.44-0.60) and females (r=0.39-0.62). Accounting for differences in the timing of biological maturity had little effect on tracking physical activity. However, point estimates for tracking are higher in early adolescence in males and to a greater extent in females when aligned by BA versus CA. This suggests that maturity may be more important in physical activity participation in females than males. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  3. Maturation experiments reveal bias in the fossil record of feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Maria; Field, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary history of birds and feathers is a major focus in palaeobiology and evolutionary biology. Diverse exceptionally preserved birds and feathered dinosaurs from Jurassic and Cretaceous biotas in China have provided pivotal evidence of early feathers and feather-like integumentary features, but the true nature of many of these fossil soft tissues is still debated. Interpretations of feathers at intermediate developmental stages (i.e. Stages II, III and IV) and of simple quill-like (Stage I) feathers are particularly controversial. This reflects key uncertainties relating to the preservation potential of feathers at different evolutionary-developmental stages, and to the relative preservation potential of diagnostic features of Stage I feathers and hair. To resolve these issues, we used high pressure-high temperature autoclave experiments to simulate the effects of burial on modern feathers from the Black Coucal (Centropus grilii) and Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), and on human hair. Our results reveal profound differences in the recalcitrance of feathers of different types during maturation: Stage I and Stage V feathers retain diagnostic morphological and ultrastructural details following maturation, whereas other feather types do not. Further, the morphology and arrangement of certain ultrastructural features diagnostic of Stages III and IV, e.g. barbules, are preferentially lost during maturation. These results indicate a pervasive bias in the fossil record of feathers, whereby preservation of feathers at Stages I and V is favored. Critical stages in the evolution of feathers, i.e. Stages II, III and IV, are less likely to be preserved and more likely to be misinterpreted as feathers at earlier developmental stages. Our discovery has major implications for our understanding of the fidelity of the fossil record of feathers and provides a framework for testing the significance of putative examples of fossil feathers at different developmental

  4. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2∼50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2∼55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km∼26 °C/km and 12 °C/km∼30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  5. Age, psychological maturity, and the transition to motherhood among English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A; Gibson, Frances L; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-08-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area expecting their 1st baby (mean age = 32.81 years; 41% conceived after fertility treatment) completed measures of psychological maturity (hardiness, ego development, and ego resiliency) and pregnancy adaptation (maternal fetal attachment and formation of a maternal identity) in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and a measure of postnatal adjustment at 4-6 months postpartum. Structural equation modeling showed age was positively associated with a latent construct of psychological maturity, and psychological maturity was associated with more optimal adaptation in pregnancy and early motherhood. Both psychological maturity and pregnancy adaptation predicted positive postnatal adjustment. Age was indirectly related to adaptation through its relationship with psychological maturity. The relationships in the model applied regardless of mode of conception (fertility treatment or spontaneous). Potentially confounding contextual factors associated with older age at motherhood, higher education, and maternal and child health were included in the model. These results suggest that psychological maturity is a benefit of motherhood at older ages. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    PubMed

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  7. Toxic effects of theobromine on mature and immature male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Soffietti, M G; Nebbia, C; Valenza, F; Amedeo, S; Re, G

    1989-01-01

    Mature and immature male rabbits were fed for 120 and 20 days, respectively, a commercial diet containing theobromine in amounts of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 per cent. Clinical, haematological, histopathological and histoenzymological examinations were performed. Mortality, which appeared dose- and time-related, was severe and rapid, mostly in the 1 and 1.5 per cent groups and was attributed to cardiac failure. Theobromine administration resulted in marked changes in thymus and testes and the severity of lesions appeared to be related to the amounts of the ingested methylxanthine. The earliest thymic alterations in immature rabbits consisted of a blurring of demarcation between cortex and medulla accompanied, in the more advanced stages, by a decreased lymphocyte density. Similar lesions were observed in mature animals which had died in the earlier phase of the study. Testicular alterations ranged from vacuolation of spermatids and spermatocytes to multinucleated cell formation and oligospermia or aspermia with extensive degeneration of tubule cells. Some necrotic and post-necrotic myocardial foci were also recorded. The increase in testicular activity of beta-glucuronidase in immature rabbits compared to the untreated animals provided further evidence of an early theobromine-induced damage of the testes.

  8. Tcf21 regulates the specification and maturation of proepicardial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Panna; Miteva, Yana V.; Kuchenbrod, Lauren M.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Conlon, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    The epicardium is a mesothelial cell layer essential for vertebrate heart development and pertinent for cardiac repair post-injury in the adult. The epicardium initially forms from a dynamic precursor structure, the proepicardial organ, from which cells migrate onto the heart surface. During the initial stage of epicardial development crucial epicardial-derived cell lineages are thought to be determined. Here, we define an essential requirement for transcription factor Tcf21 during early stages of epicardial development in Xenopus, and show that depletion of Tcf21 results in a disruption in proepicardial cell specification and failure to form a mature epithelial epicardium. Using a mass spectrometry-based approach we defined Tcf21 interactions and established its association with proteins that function as transcriptional co-repressors. Furthermore, using an in vivo systems-based approach, we identified a panel of previously unreported proepicardial precursor genes that are persistently expressed in the epicardial layer upon Tcf21 depletion, thereby confirming a primary role for Tcf21 in the correct determination of the proepicardial lineage. Collectively, these studies lead us to propose that Tcf21 functions as a transcriptional repressor to regulate proepicardial cell specification and the correct formation of a mature epithelial epicardium. PMID:23637334

  9. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the... apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples: (a...

  10. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the... apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples: (a...

  11. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the... apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples: (a...

  12. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  13. Job Search Manual for Mature Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Fred L.

    This document is designed to help mature persons find the "right" professional, managerial, or technical jobs. Section 1 introduces the materials. Section 2 shows job seekers how to write a general statement that defines the nature of the position desired and how to assess their skills, abilities, interests, work values, and personal qualities…

  14. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or Packing... Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  15. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Florida Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial practice at a stage which will not result...

  18. Prenatal Antecedents of Newborn Neurological Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Rubin, Suzanne E.; Shiffler, Dorothy E.; Henderson, Janice L.; Pillion, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal neurobehavioral development was modeled longitudinally using data collected at weekly intervals from 24 to 38 weeks gestation in a sample of 112 healthy pregnancies. Predictive associations between 3 measures of fetal neurobehavioral functioning and their developmental trajectories to neurological maturation in the first weeks after birth…

  19. Growth Goals, Maturity, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Jack J.; McAdams, Dan P.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of…

  20. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... implementation of programs for demand side management and energy resource conservation and on and off grid renewable energy sources not owned by the borrower will be determined by RUS. Due to the uncertainty of... operation of a new system are a separate class of loans and usually have a final maturity of less than 10...

  1. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... implementation of programs for demand side management and energy resource conservation and on and off grid renewable energy sources not owned by the borrower will be determined by RUS. Due to the uncertainty of... operation of a new system are a separate class of loans and usually have a final maturity of less than 10...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... implementation of programs for demand side management and energy resource conservation and on and off grid renewable energy sources not owned by the borrower will be determined by RUS. Due to the uncertainty of... operation of a new system are a separate class of loans and usually have a final maturity of less than 10...

  3. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maturities for loans for the implementation of programs for demand side management and energy resource conservation and on and off grid renewable energy sources not owned by the borrower will be determined by RUS... finance working capital required for the initial operation of a new system are a separate class of loans...

  4. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  5. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  6. Teaching Copywriting Students about the Mature Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewniany, Bonnie

    Advertising educators have a responsibility to make students aware of the importance of the mature market (older people) and to teach them methods to reach this group. An assignment in a copywriting class asked students to write and design ads to promote blue jeans to adults over 50. The assignment accomplished three things: (1) helped students…

  7. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun...

  8. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun...

  9. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun...

  10. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun...

  11. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun...

  12. Effects of clinostat rotation on mouse meiotic maturation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wolgemuth, D J; Grills, G S

    1984-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on meiosis, fertilization, and early embryonic development in mammals are being examined by using a clinostat to reorient the cells with respect to the gravity vector. A clinostat capable of supporting mammalian cells in tissue culture has been developed. Initial studies have focused on examining the effects of clinostat rotation on meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Oocytes recovered from ovarian follicles were subjected to clinostat rotation on a horizontal or vertical axis or to static conditions for a 16 hr period. No gross morphological changes and no effects on germinal vesicle breakdown were observed under any rotation conditions (1/4, 1, 10, 30, 100 RPM). Success of meiotic progression to Metaphase II was comparable among experimental and control groups except at 100 RPM, where a slight inhibition was observed.

  13. Hippocampal Maturation Drives Memory from Generalization to Specificity.

    PubMed

    Keresztes, Attila; Ngo, Chi T; Lindenberger, Ulman; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Newcombe, Nora S

    2018-06-14

    During early ontogeny, the rapid and cumulative acquisition of world knowledge contrasts with slower improvements in the ability to lay down detailed and long-lasting episodic memories. This emphasis on generalization at the expense of specificity persists well into middle childhood and possibly into adolescence. During this period, recognizing regularities, forming stable representations of recurring episodes, predicting the structure of future events, and building up semantic knowledge may be prioritized over remembering specific episodes. We highlight recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence suggesting that maturational differences among subfields within the hippocampus contribute to the developmental lead-lag relation between generalization and specificity, and lay out future research directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of clinostat rotation on mouse meiotic maturation in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Grills, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on meiosis, fertilization, and early embryonic development in mammals are being examined by using a clinostat to reorient the cells with respect to the gravity vector. A clinostat capable of supporting mammalian cells in tissue culture has been developed. Initial studies have focused on examining the effects of clinostat rotation on meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Oocytes recovered from ovarian follicles were subjected to clinostat rotation on a horizontal or vertical axis or to static conditions for a 16 hr period. No gross morphological changes and no effects on germinal vesicle breakdown were observed under any rotation conditions (1/4, 1, 10, 30, 100 RPM). Success of meiotic progression to Metaphase II was comparable among experimental and control groups except at 100 RPM, where a slight inhibition was observed.

  15. Maturity-associated variation in physical activity and health-related quality of life in British adolescent girls: moderating effects of peer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Pindus, Dominika M; Cumming, Sean P; Sherar, Lauren B; Gammon, Catherine; Coelho e Silva, Manuel; Malina, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Using a Biocultural Model of Maturity-Associated Variance in physical activity (PA) as a conceptual framework, the main and interactive effects of biological maturity status and perceived peer acceptance on PA and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescent girls were examined. Three hundred forty-two female British students in years 7 to 9 (13.2±0.83 years) participated in the study. All participants completed the PA Questionnaire for Adolescents and KIDSCREEN-10, a measure of HRQoL. Self-reported perceptions of peer acceptance were measured by items from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.Maturity status was estimated as the percentage of predicted adult (mature) height attained at the time of observation. Analysis of covariance suggested an influence of peer acceptance on maturity-associated differences in PA, but not on HRQoL. Girls early and "on time" in maturation with higher perceptions of peer acceptance reported greater involvement in PA than girls early and "on time" in maturation with lower perceptions of peer acceptance. A reverse association was observed for late-maturing girls. Peer acceptance is an important moderator of maturity-associated variation in PA.

  16. Physical Activity-Related Injury Profile in Children and Adolescents According to Their Age, Maturation, and Level of Sports Participation.

    PubMed

    Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Maria Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    Physical activity (PA) is beneficial, enhancing healthy development. However, one-third of school-age children practicing sports regularly suffer from an injury. These injuries are associated with sex, chronological age, and PA level. To identify the importance of age, PA level, and maturity as predictors of injury in Portuguese youth. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 3. Information about injury and PA level was assessed via 2 questionnaires (LESADO RAPIL II) from 647 subjects aged 10 to 17 years. Maturity offset according to Mirwald (time before or after peak height velocity) and Tanner-Whitehouse III bone age estimates were used to evaluate maturation. Binary logistic regression and gamma regression were used to determine significant predictors of injury and injury rate. Injury occurrence was higher for both sexes in recreational, school, and federated athletes (athletes engaged in sports that are regulated by their respective federations, with formal competition). These injuries also increased with age in boys and in the higher maturity offset group in girls. Injury rate was higher for both sexes in the no sports participation group. Early-maturing girls, with higher bone age and lower maturity offset, showed higher injury rate. Injuries in Portuguese youth were related to PA level, age, and biological maturation. Recreational, school, and federated athletes had more injury ocurrences while subjects with no sports participation had higher injury risk. Older subjects had more injuries. Early-maturing girls that had just passed peak height velocity may be particularly vulnerable to risk of sports injury because of the growing process. Increased knowledge about injury with specific PA exposure data is important to an overall risk management strategy. This study has deepened the association between injury and biological maturation variables.

  17. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  18. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  19. Interventions for Hip Pain in the Maturing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Gomberawalla, M. Mustafa; Kelly, Bryan T.; Bedi, Asheesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) alters hip mechanics, results in hip pain, and may lead to secondary osteoarthritis (OA) in the maturing athlete. Hip impingement can be caused by osseous abnormalities in the proximal femur or acetabulum. These impingement lesions may cause altered loads within the hip joint, which result in repetitive collision damage or sheer forces to the chondral surfaces and acetabular labrum. These anatomic lesions and resultant abnormal mechanics may lead to early osteoarthritic changes. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles from the years 1995 to 2013 were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the bibliographies of reviewed publications. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Improvements in hip arthroscopy have allowed FAI to be addressed utilizing the arthroscope. Adequately resecting the underlying osseous abnormalities is essential to improving hip symptomatology and preventing further chondral damage. Additionally, preserving the labrum by repairing the damaged tissue and restoring the suction seal may theoretically help normalize hip mechanics and prevent further arthritic changes. The outcomes of joint-preserving treatment options may be varied in the maturing athlete due to the degree of underlying OA. Irreversible damage to the hip joint may have already occurred in patients with moderate to advanced OA. In the presence of preexisting arthritis, these patients may only experience fair or even poor results after hip arthroscopy, with early conversion to hip replacement. For patients with advanced hip arthritis, total hip arthroplasty remains a treatment option to reliably improve symptoms with good to excellent outcomes and return to low-impact activities. Conclusion: Advances in the knowledge base and treatment techniques of intra-articular hip pain have allowed surgeons to address this complex clinical problem with promising outcomes. Traditionally, open surgical dislocations for hip preservation surgery have shown good

  20. Cervical vertebral maturation and dental age in coeliac patients.

    PubMed

    Costacurta, M; Condò, R; Sicuro, L; Perugia, C; Docimo, R

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the cervical vertebral maturation and dental age, in group of patients with coelic disease (CD), in comparison with a control group of healthy subjects. At the Paediatric Dentistry Unit of PTV Hospital, "Tor Vergata" University of Rome, 120 female patients, age range 12.0-12.9 years were recruited. Among them, 60 subjects (Group 1) were affected by CD, while the control group (Group 2) consisted of 60 healthy subjects, sex and age-matched. The Group 1 was subdivided, according to the period of CD diagnosis, in Group A (early diagnosis) and Group B (late diagnosis). The skeletal age was determined by assessing the cervical vertebral maturation, while the dental age has been determined using the method codified by Demirjiyan. STATISTICS.: The analyses were performed using the SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). In all the assessments a significant level of alpha = 0.05 was considered. There are no statistically significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 as for chronological age (p=0.122). Instead, from the assessment of skeletal-dental age, there are statistically significant differences between Group 1 - Group 2 (p<0.001) and Group A - Group B (p<0.001). The statistical analysis carried out to assess the differences between chronological and skeletal-dental age within the single groups, show a statistically significant difference in Group 1 (p<0.001) and in Group B (p<0.001), while there are no statistically significant differences in Group 2 (p=0.538) and in Group A (p=0.475). A correlation between skeletal and dental age was registered; for Groups 1-2 and for Groups A-B the Pearson coefficient was respectively equal to 0.967 and 0.969, with p<0.001. Through the analysis of data it is possible to assess that the percentage of subjects with skeletal and dental age delay corresponds to 20% in healthy subjects, 56.7% in coeliac subjects, 23% in coeliac subjects with early diagnosis and 90% in coeliac

  1. Diagnostic performance of dental maturity for identification of skeletal maturation phase.

    PubMed

    Perinetti, G; Contardo, L; Gabrieli, P; Baccetti, T; Di Lenarda, R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the diagnostic performance of the circumpubertal dental maturation phases for the identification of individual-specific skeletal maturation phases. A total of 354 healthy subjects, 208 females and 146 males (mean age, 11.1 ± 2.4 years; range, 6.8-17.1 years), were enrolled in the study. Dental maturity was assessed through the calcification stages from panoramic radiographs of the mandibular canine, the first and second premolars, and the second molar. Determination of skeletal maturity was according to the cervical vertebra maturation (CVM) method on lateral cephalograms. Diagnostic performances were evaluated according to the dental maturation stages for each tooth for the identification of the CVM stages and growth phases (as pre-pubertal, pubertal, and post-pubertal) using positive likelihood ratios (LHRs). A positive LHR threshold of 10 or more was considered for satisfactory reliability of any dental maturation stage for the identification of any of the CVM stages or growth phases. The positive LHRs were generally less than 2.0, with a few exceptions. These four teeth showed positive LHRs greater than 10 only for the identification of the pre-pubertal growth phase, with values from 10.8 for the second molar (stage E) to 39.3 for the first premolar (stage E). Dental maturation assessment is only useful for diagnosis of the pre-pubertal growth phase, and thus, precise information in relation to the timing of the onset of the growth spurt is not provided by these indices.

  2. Intimal Hyperplasia, Stenosis, and Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation Failure in the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alfred K; Imrey, Peter B; Alpers, Charles E; Robbin, Michelle L; Radeva, Milena; Larive, Brett; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Allon, Michael; Dember, Laura M; Greene, Tom; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Terry, Christi M; Vazquez, Miguel A; Kusek, John W; Feldman, Harold I

    2017-10-01

    Intimal hyperplasia and stenosis are often cited as causes of arteriovenous fistula maturation failure, but definitive evidence is lacking. We examined the associations among preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia, fistula venous stenosis after creation, and clinical maturation failure. The Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study prospectively observed 602 men and women through arteriovenous fistula creation surgery and their postoperative course. A segment of the vein used to create the fistula was collected intraoperatively for histomorphometric examination. On ultrasounds performed 1 day and 2 and 6 weeks after fistula creation, we assessed fistula venous stenosis using pre-specified criteria on the basis of ratios of luminal diameters and peak blood flow velocities at certain locations along the vessel. We determined fistula clinical maturation using criteria for usability during dialysis. Preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia, expressed per 10% increase in a hyperplasia index (range of 0%-100%), modestly associated with lower fistula blood flow rate (relative change, -2.5%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -4.6% to -0.4%; P =0.02) at 6 weeks but did not significantly associate with stenosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.16; P =0.07) at 6 weeks or failure to mature clinically without procedural assistance (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.15; P =0.07). Fistula venous stenosis at 6 weeks associated with maturation failure (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.25 to 3.12; P =0.004) after controlling for case mix factors, dialysis status, and fistula location. These findings suggest that postoperative fistula venous stenosis associates with fistula maturation failure. Preoperative venous hyperplasia may associate with maturation failure but if so, only modestly. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Activation-Dependent Rapid Postsynaptic Clustering of Glycine Receptors in Mature Spinal Cord Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Kei; Murakoshi, Hideji; Watanabe, Miho; Hirata, Hiromi; Moorhouse, Andrew J.; Ishibashi, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Inhibitory synapses are established during development but continue to be generated and modulated in strength in the mature nervous system. In the spinal cord and brainstem, presynaptically released inhibitory neurotransmitter dominantly switches from GABA to glycine during normal development in vivo. While presynaptic mechanisms of the shift of inhibitory neurotransmission are well investigated, the contribution of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors to this shift is not fully elucidated. Synaptic clustering of glycine receptors (GlyRs) is regulated by activation-dependent depolarization in early development. However, GlyR activation induces hyperpolarization after the first postnatal week, and little is known whether and how presynaptically released glycine regulates postsynaptic receptors in a depolarization-independent manner in mature developmental stage. Here we developed spinal cord neuronal culture of rodents using chronic strychnine application to investigate whether initial activation of GlyRs in mature stage could change postsynaptic localization of GlyRs. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrate that chronic blockade of GlyR activation until mature developmental stage resulted in smaller clusters of postsynaptic GlyRs that could be enlarged upon receptor activation for 1 h in the mature stage. Furthermore, live cell-imaging techniques show that GlyR activation decreases its lateral diffusion at synapses, and this phenomenon is dependent on PKC, but neither Ca2+ nor CaMKII activity. These results suggest that the GlyR activation can regulate receptor diffusion and cluster size at inhibitory synapses in mature stage, providing not only new insights into the postsynaptic mechanism of shifting inhibitory neurotransmission but also the inhibitory synaptic plasticity in mature nervous system. PMID:28197549

  4. Activation-Dependent Rapid Postsynaptic Clustering of Glycine Receptors in Mature Spinal Cord Neurons.

    PubMed

    Nakahata, Yoshihisa; Eto, Kei; Murakoshi, Hideji; Watanabe, Miho; Kuriu, Toshihiko; Hirata, Hiromi; Moorhouse, Andrew J; Ishibashi, Hitoshi; Nabekura, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Inhibitory synapses are established during development but continue to be generated and modulated in strength in the mature nervous system. In the spinal cord and brainstem, presynaptically released inhibitory neurotransmitter dominantly switches from GABA to glycine during normal development in vivo . While presynaptic mechanisms of the shift of inhibitory neurotransmission are well investigated, the contribution of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors to this shift is not fully elucidated. Synaptic clustering of glycine receptors (GlyRs) is regulated by activation-dependent depolarization in early development. However, GlyR activation induces hyperpolarization after the first postnatal week, and little is known whether and how presynaptically released glycine regulates postsynaptic receptors in a depolarization-independent manner in mature developmental stage. Here we developed spinal cord neuronal culture of rodents using chronic strychnine application to investigate whether initial activation of GlyRs in mature stage could change postsynaptic localization of GlyRs. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrate that chronic blockade of GlyR activation until mature developmental stage resulted in smaller clusters of postsynaptic GlyRs that could be enlarged upon receptor activation for 1 h in the mature stage. Furthermore, live cell-imaging techniques show that GlyR activation decreases its lateral diffusion at synapses, and this phenomenon is dependent on PKC, but neither Ca 2+ nor CaMKII activity. These results suggest that the GlyR activation can regulate receptor diffusion and cluster size at inhibitory synapses in mature stage, providing not only new insights into the postsynaptic mechanism of shifting inhibitory neurotransmission but also the inhibitory synaptic plasticity in mature nervous system.

  5. Late Maturation of Adult-Born Neurons in the Temporal Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jason S.; Ferrante, Sarah C.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal function varies along its septotemporal axis, with the septal (dorsal) pole more frequently involved in spatial learning and memory and the temporal (ventral) pole playing a greater role in emotional behaviors. One feature that varies across these subregions is adult neurogenesis. New neurons are more numerous in the septal hippocampus but are more active in the temporal hippocampus during water maze training. However, many other aspects of adult neurogenesis remain unexplored in the context of septal versus temporal subregions. In addition, the dentate gyrus contains another functionally important anatomical division along the transverse axis, with the suprapyramidal blade showing greater experience-related activity than the infrapyramidal blade. Here we ask whether new neurons differ in their rates of survival and maturation along the septotemporal and transverse axes. We found that neurogenesis is initially higher in the infrapyramidal than suprapyramidal blade, but these cells are less likely to survive, resulting in similar densities of neurons in the two blades by four weeks. Across the septotemporal axis, neurogenesis was higher in septal than temporal pole, while the survival rate of new neurons did not differ. Maturation was assessed by immunostaining for the neuronal marker, NeuN, which increases in expression level with maturation, and for the immediate-early gene, Arc, which suggests a neuron is capable of undergoing activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Maturation occurred approximately 1–2 weeks earlier in the septal pole than in the temporal pole. This suggests that septal neurons may contribute to function sooner; however, the prolonged maturation of new temporal neurons may endow them with a longer window of plasticity during which their functions could be distinct from those of the mature granule cell population. These data point to subregional differences in new neuron maturation and suggest that changes in neurogenesis could

  6. Interleukin-7 negatively regulates the development of mature T cells in fetal thymus organ cultures.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, Dominick; Clark, Dawn R

    2002-05-01

    We added antibody specific for interleukin-7 (IL-7) to chimeric fetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) to investigate the involvement of this cytokine at distinct stages of T cell development. We report that the neutralization of IL-7 early in fetal T cell development results in a decrease in the production of mature CD4 or CD8 ('single positive', SP) or CD4/8 negative ('double negative', DN) T cell phenotypes, as defined by their expression of CD3. This loss of T cell development was not complete, but it did include the development of gammadelta T cells. However, if IL-7 was neutralized at later stages of FTOC, the production of CD4/8 positive ('double positive', DP) T cells was increased, and if the addition of the antibody was delayed further, the production of mature SP T cells was increased. This last result could be extended to both alphabeta and gammadelta T cells. These data suggested that IL-7 played a negative regulatory role in the development of progressively mature T cells. Tissue sections of FTOC showed that IL-7 was expressed in the subcapsular region of the tissue where immature T cells reside. However, IL-7 was not detected in the medullary region where mature T cells are located. These data suggest that IL-7 not only supports the development of immature fetal T cells, but it may inhibit the development of mature T cells. The production of mature fetal T cells may, therefore, be delayed until their precursors enter the medullary microenvironment, where IL-7 production is low. In this way, T cells may be prevented from maturing until negative selection or anergy events eliminate or inactivate autoreactive clones.

  7. Development and validation of the Eating Maturity Questionnaire: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Potocka, Adrianna; Najder, Anna

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the development of the Eating Maturity Questionnaire, a self-reported measurement of eating maturity that initiates and gives direction to human eating behaviors. The Eating Maturity Questionnaire was designed to study individuals' biological and psychosocial motives for eating. The Eating Maturity Questionnaire is a 21-item tool with satisfactory psychometric values (Cronbach's α coefficients between 0.83 and 0.88) consisting of two subscales: Rational Eating and Psychosocial Maturity Eating Maturity Questionnaire results may be used to design programs that target eating behaviors and body mass modification. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Comparison of dental maturity in children of different ethnic origins: international maturity curves for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chaillet, Nils; Nyström, Marjatta; Demirjian, Arto

    2005-09-01

    Dental maturity was studied with 9577 dental panoramic tomograms of healthy subjects from 8 countries, aged between 2 and 25 years of age. Demirjian's method based on 7 teeth was used for determining dental maturity scores, establishing gender-specific tables of maturity scores and development graphs. The aim of this study was to give dental maturity standards when the ethnic origin is unknown and to compare the efficiency and applicability of this method to forensic sciences and dental clinicians. The second aim was to compare the dental maturity of these different populations. We noted an high efficiency for International Demirjian's method at 99% CI (0.85% of misclassified and a mean accuracy between 2 to 18 years +/- 2.15 years), which makes it useful for forensic purposes. Nevertheless, this international method is less accurate than Demirjian's method developed for a specific country, because of the inter-ethnic variability obtained by the addition of 8 countries in the dental database. There are inter-ethnic differences classified in three major groups. Australians have the fastest dental maturation and Koreans have the slowest.

  9. Viewing pre-60S maturation at a minute’s timescale

    PubMed Central

    Zisser, Gertrude; Ohmayer, Uli; Mauerhofer, Christina; Mitterer, Valentin; Klein, Isabella; Rechberger, Gerald N; Wolinski, Heimo; Prattes, Michael; Pertschy, Brigitte; Milkereit, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The formation of ribosomal subunits is a highly dynamic process that is initiated in the nucleus and involves more than 200 trans-acting factors, some of which accompany the pre-ribosomes into the cytoplasm and have to be recycled into the nucleus. The inhibitor diazaborine prevents cytoplasmic release and recycling of shuttling pre-60S maturation factors by inhibiting the AAA-ATPase Drg1. The failure to recycle these proteins results in their depletion in the nucleolus and halts the pathway at an early maturation step. Here, we made use of the fast onset of inhibition by diazaborine to chase the maturation path in real-time from 27SA2 pre-rRNA containing pre-ribosomes localized in the nucleolus up to nearly mature 60S subunits shortly after their export into the cytoplasm. This allows for the first time to put protein assembly and disassembly reactions as well as pre-rRNA processing into a chronological context unraveling temporal and functional linkages during ribosome maturation. PMID:29294095

  10. CTCF counter-regulates cardiomyocyte development and maturation programs in the embryonic heart

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Badia-Careaga, Claudio; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Nieto-Arellano, Rocio; Rollan, Isabel; Alvarez, Alba; Torroja, Carlos; Caceres, Eva F.; Roy, Anna R.; Galjart, Niels; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart. Inactivation of Ctcf in cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives in vivo during development caused severe cardiac defects and death at embryonic day 12.5. Genome wide expression analysis in Ctcf mutant hearts revealed that genes controlling mitochondrial function and protein production, required for cardiomyocyte maturation, were upregulated. However, mitochondria from mutant cardiomyocytes do not mature properly. In contrast, multiple development regulatory genes near predicted heart enhancers, including genes in the IrxA cluster, were downregulated in Ctcf mutants, suggesting that CTCF promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation by facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions. Accordingly, loss of CTCF disrupts gene expression and chromatin interactions as shown by chromatin conformation capture followed by deep sequencing. Furthermore, CRISPR-mediated deletion of an intergenic CTCF site within the IrxA cluster alters gene expression in the developing heart. Thus, CTCF mediates local regulatory interactions to coordinate transcriptional programs controlling transitions in morphology and function during heart development. PMID:28846746

  11. On gonadic maturation and reproductive strategy in deep-sea benthic octopus Graneledone macrotyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Ángel; Sieiro, María Pilar; Roura, Álvaro; Portela, Julio M.; del Río, José Luís

    2013-09-01

    The new information reported in this paper is based on five maturing and mature females of the large-tuberculate octopus Graneledone macrotyla. These specimens were caught in bottom trawl surveys ATLANTIS 2009 (February 24 to April 1, 2009) and ATLANTIS 2010 (March 9 to April 5, 2010) carried out off the Argentinean Economic Exclusive Zone. Capture depth ranged from 475 to 921 m and sea bottom temperature between 2.8 and 3.1 °C. Development of the complex ovary, oviducts, and oviducal glands during gonadic maturation is described. The absence of spermathecae in the oviducal glands and the presence of fertilized eggs inside the ovary suggested that fertilization took place within the ovary. Histological techniques showed the presence of four types of oocytes. Maturing oocyte size-frequency distribution was polymodal. Fluorescence reaction showed that atresia occurred in both early and later oocyte maturation stages. Atresia affected 48-55 % of the initial number of oocytes. The maximum observed potential fecundity was estimated at 250-300 eggs. G. macrotyla showed a group-synchronous ovulation pattern, regulative atresia, and a batching spawning pattern with a few egg batches spawned intermittently over an extended period of spawning.

  12. CTCF counter-regulates cardiomyocyte development and maturation programs in the embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Badia-Careaga, Claudio; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Nieto-Arellano, Rocio; Tena, Juan J; Rollan, Isabel; Alvarez, Alba; Torroja, Carlos; Caceres, Eva F; Roy, Anna R; Galjart, Niels; Delgado-Olguin, Paul; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Manzanares, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart. Inactivation of Ctcf in cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives in vivo during development caused severe cardiac defects and death at embryonic day 12.5. Genome wide expression analysis in Ctcf mutant hearts revealed that genes controlling mitochondrial function and protein production, required for cardiomyocyte maturation, were upregulated. However, mitochondria from mutant cardiomyocytes do not mature properly. In contrast, multiple development regulatory genes near predicted heart enhancers, including genes in the IrxA cluster, were downregulated in Ctcf mutants, suggesting that CTCF promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation by facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions. Accordingly, loss of CTCF disrupts gene expression and chromatin interactions as shown by chromatin conformation capture followed by deep sequencing. Furthermore, CRISPR-mediated deletion of an intergenic CTCF site within the IrxA cluster alters gene expression in the developing heart. Thus, CTCF mediates local regulatory interactions to coordinate transcriptional programs controlling transitions in morphology and function during heart development.

  13. Remotely sensing wheat maturation with radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering properties of wheat were studied in the 8-18 GHz band as a function of frequency, polarization, incidence angle, and crop maturity. Supporting ground truth was collected at the time of measurement. The data indicate that the radar backscattering coefficient is sensitive to both radar system parameters and crop characteristics particularly at incidence angles near nadir. Linear regression analyses of the radar backscattering coefficient on both time and plant moisture content result in rather good correlation. Furthermore, by calculating the average time rate of change of the radar backscattering coefficient it is found that it undergoes rapid variations shortly before and after the wheat is harvested. Both of these analyses suggest methods for estimating wheat maturity and for monitoring the progress of harvest.

  14. Growth goals, maturity, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2004-01-01

    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA

  15. Prenatal Antecedents of Newborn Neurological Maturation

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Rubin, Suzanne E.; Shiffler, Dorothy E.; Henderson, Janice L.; Pillion, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Fetal neurobehavioral development was modeled longitudinally using data collected at weekly intervals from 24- to -38 weeks gestation in a sample of 112 healthy pregnancies. Predictive associations between 3 measures of fetal neurobehavioral functioning and their developmental trajectories to neurological maturation in the 1st weeks after birth were examined. Prenatal measures included fetal heart rate variability, fetal movement, and coupling between fetal motor activity and heart rate patterning; neonatal outcomes include a standard neurologic examination (n = 97) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP; n = 47). Optimality in newborn motor activity and reflexes was predicted by fetal motor activity; fetal heart rate variability and somatic-cardiac coupling predicted BAEP parameters. Maternal pregnancy-specific psychological stress was associated with accelerated neurologic maturation. PMID:20331657

  16. Do physical maturity and birth date predict talent in male youth ice hockey players?

    PubMed

    Sherar, Lauren B; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Faulkner, Robert A; Russell, Keith W

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among biological maturity, physical size, relative age (i.e. birth date), and selection into a male Canadian provincial age-banded ice hockey team. In 2003, 619 male ice hockey players aged 14-15 years attended Saskatchewan provincial team selection camps, 281 of whom participated in the present study. Data from 93 age-matched controls were obtained from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-1997). During the initial selection camps, birth dates, heights, sitting heights, and body masses were recorded. Age at peak height velocity, an indicator of biological maturity, was determined in the controls and predicted in the ice hockey players. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance, logistic regression, and a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The ice hockey players selected for the final team were taller, heavier, and more mature (P < 0.05) than both the unselected players and the age-matched controls. Furthermore, age at peak height velocity predicted (P < 0.05) being selected at the first and second selection camps. The birth dates of those players selected for the team were positively skewed, with the majority of those selected being born in the months January to June. In conclusion, team selectors appear to preferentially select early maturing male ice hockey players who have birth dates early in the selection year.

  17. Repression of Osteoblast Maturation by ERRα Accounts for Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gallet, Marlène; Saïdi, Soraya; Haÿ, Eric; Photsavang, Johann; Marty, Caroline; Sailland, Juliette; Carnesecchi, Julie; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Forcet, Christelle; Birling, Marie-Christine; Sorg, Tania; Chassande, Olivier; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    ERRα is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family, the complete inactivation of which confers resistance to bone loss induced by ageing and estrogen withdrawal to female mice in correlation with increased bone formation in vivo. Furthermore ERRα negatively regulates the commitment of mesenchymal cells to the osteoblast lineage ex vivo as well as later steps of osteoblast maturation. We searched to determine whether the activities of ERRα on osteoblast maturation are responsible for one or both types of in vivo induced bone loss. To this end we have generated conditional knock out mice in which the receptor is normally present during early osteoblast differentiation but inactivated upon osteoblast maturation. Bone ageing in these animals was similar to that observed for control animals. In contrast conditional ERRαKO mice were completely resistant to bone loss induced by ovariectomy. We conclude that the late (maturation), but not early (commitment), negative effects of ERRα on the osteoblast lineage contribute to the reduced bone mineral density observed upon estrogen deficiency. PMID:23359549

  18. Repression of osteoblast maturation by ERRα accounts for bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Marlène; Saïdi, Soraya; Haÿ, Eric; Photsavang, Johann; Marty, Caroline; Sailland, Juliette; Carnesecchi, Julie; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Forcet, Christelle; Birling, Marie-Christine; Sorg, Tania; Chassande, Olivier; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    ERRα is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family, the complete inactivation of which confers resistance to bone loss induced by ageing and estrogen withdrawal to female mice in correlation with increased bone formation in vivo. Furthermore ERRα negatively regulates the commitment of mesenchymal cells to the osteoblast lineage ex vivo as well as later steps of osteoblast maturation. We searched to determine whether the activities of ERRα on osteoblast maturation are responsible for one or both types of in vivo induced bone loss. To this end we have generated conditional knock out mice in which the receptor is normally present during early osteoblast differentiation but inactivated upon osteoblast maturation. Bone ageing in these animals was similar to that observed for control animals. In contrast conditional ERRαKO mice were completely resistant to bone loss induced by ovariectomy. We conclude that the late (maturation), but not early (commitment), negative effects of ERRα on the osteoblast lineage contribute to the reduced bone mineral density observed upon estrogen deficiency.

  19. Maturation of Fetal Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Hains, S. M. J.; Jacquet, A.-Y.; Granier-Deferre, C.; Lecanuet, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Maturation of fetal response to music was characterized over the last trimester of pregnancy using a 5-minute piano recording of Brahms' Lullaby, played at an average of 95, 100, 105 or 110 dB (A). Within 30 seconds of the onset of the music, the youngest fetuses (28-32 weeks GA) showed a heart rate increase limited to the two highest dB levels;…

  20. Regulation of oocyte maturation in fish.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Masakane

    2008-06-01

    A period of oocyte growth is followed by a process called oocyte maturation (the resumption of meiosis) which occurs prior to ovulation and is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. Our studies using fish models have revealed that oocyte maturation is a three-step induction process involving gonadotropin (LH), maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), and maturation-promoting factor (MPF). LH acts on the ovarian follicle layer to produce MIH (17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 17alpha, 20beta-DP, in most fishes). The interaction of ovarian thecal and granulosa cell layers (two-cell type model), is required for the synthesis of 17alpha,20beta-DP. The dramatic increase in the capacity of postvitellogenic follicles to produce 17alpha,20beta-DP in response to LH is correlated with decreases in P450c17 (P450c17-I) and P450 aromatase (oP450arom) mRNA and increases in the novel form of P450c17 (P450c17-II) and 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD) mRNA. Transcription factors such as Ad4BP/SF-1, Foxl2, and CREB may be involved in the regulation of expression of these steroidogenic enzymes. A distinct family of G-protein-coupled membrane-bound MIH receptors has been shown to mediate non-genomic actions of 17alpha, 20beta-DP. The MIH signal induces the de novo synthesis of cyclin B from the stored mRNA, which activates a preexisting 35 kDa cdc2 kinase via phosphorylation of its threonine 161 by cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase, thus producing the 34 kDa active cdc2 (active MPF). Upon egg activation, MPF is inactivated by degradation of cyclin B. This process is initiated by the 26S proteasome through the first cut in its NH(2) terminus at lysine 57.