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Sample records for early menarche results

  1. Menarche: Responses of Early Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrory, Arlene

    1990-01-01

    Investigated responses of menarcheal age females to menarche. Results from 95 girls indicated that premenarcheal girls thought menses was more debilitating than did postmenarcheal girls. Subjects who had been menstruating longer considered menses natural event but denied its effects. Found no significant difference in overall self-esteem and…

  2. Association Between Early Menarche and School Bullying.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiru; Chen, Zhengyang; Li, Ruili; Elgar, Frank J; Liu, Zhihao; Lian, Qiguo

    2018-04-25

    Early pubertal onset may relate to more involvement in bullying in adolescent girls, both as a target and as a perpetrator. However, the few studies of the association between early menarche and school bullying have shown mixed findings. The present study examined whether early menarche is associated with bullying victimization and perpetration. We obtained survey data on adolescent girls from the 2001-2002, 2005-2006, and 2009-2010 cycles of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study in 35 European and North American countries. We identified school bullying in the past 2 months using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. We defined early menarche as a reported onset of menarche before 11 years and tested the associations between early menarche and bullying victimization and perpetration using three-level logistic regression models. The sample included 227,443 adolescent girls with a mean age of 13.64 (standard deviation [SD] 1.63) years, of which 10,172 (4.47%) were early matured; 62,528 (28.33%) and 56,582 (25.67%) were occasional victims and perpetrators, respectively; and 21,985 (9.96%) and 14,115 (6.40%) were frequent victims and perpetrators, respectively. Early menarche related to occasional victimization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 [1.12-1.31]) and perpetration (aOR [95% CI] = 1.19 [1.11-1.27]) and to frequent victimization (aOR [95% CI] = 1.35 [1.22-1.50]) and perpetration (aOR [95% CI] = 1.46 [1.31-1.63]). Early menarche in European and North American adolescent girls positively relates to bullying victimization and perpetration. Early-maturing girls should not be neglected in antibullying programs. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus at First Live Birth.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yun; Hu, Hui; D Taylor, Brandie; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Xiaohui

    2017-03-01

    To examine the association between early menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012 were used to investigate the association between age at menarche and the risk of GDM at first birth among 5914 women. A growth mixture model was used to detect distinctive menarche onset patterns based on self-reported age at menarche. Logistic regression models were then used to examine the associations between menarche initiation patterns and GDM after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, family history of diabetes mellitus, lifetime greatest Body Mass Index, smoking status, and physical activity level. Among the 5914 first-time mothers, 3.4 % had self-reported GDM. We detected three groups with heterogeneous menarche onset patterns, the Early, Normal, and Late Menarche Groups. The regression model shows that compared to the Normal Menarche Group, the Early Menarche Group had 1.75 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.79) times the odds of having GDM. No statistically significant difference was observed between the Normal and the Late Menarche Group. This study suggests that early menarche may be a risk factor of GDM. Future studies are warranted to examine and confirm this finding.

  4. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche12

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. Design: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9–10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche. Results: Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Conclusion: Consumption of

  5. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p < .001) ranging from a high of 12.9 years in the oldest cohort (age 59 or older at the time of interview) to a low of 12.4 in the second youngest cohort (age 28-37). Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly

  6. Early menarche, nulliparity and the risk for premature and early natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gita D; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Anderson, Debra; Kuh, Diana; Sandin, Sven; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Lee, Jung Su; Mizunuma, Hideki; Cade, Janet E; Burley, Victoria; Greenwood, Darren C; Goodman, Alissa; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld; Adami, Hans-Olov; Demakakos, Panayotes; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-03-01

    Are parity and the timing of menarche associated with premature and early natural menopause? Early menarche (≤11 years) is a risk factor for both premature menopause (final menstrual period, FMP <40 years) and early menopause (FMP 40-44 years), a risk that is amplified for nulliparous women. Women with either premature or early menopause face an increased risk of chronic conditions in later life and of early death. Findings from some studies suggest that early menarche and nulliparity are associated with early menopause, however overall the evidence is mixed. Much of the evidence for a direct relationship is hampered by a lack of comparability across studies, failure to adjust for confounding factors and inadequate statistical power. This pooled study comprises 51 450 postmenopausal women from nine observational studies in the UK, Scandinavia, Australia and Japan that contribute to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE). Age at menarche (categorized as ≤11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 or more years) and parity (categorized as no children, one child and two or more children) were exposures of interest. Age at FMP was confirmed by at least 12 months of cessation of menses where this was not the result of an intervention (such as surgical menopause due to bilateral oophorectomy or hysterectomy) and categorized as premature menopause (FMP before age 40), early menopause (FMP 40-44 years), 45-49 years, 50-51 years, 52-53 years and 54 or more years. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression models to estimate relative risk ratio (RRR) and 95% CI for associations between menarche, parity and age at FMP adjusting for within-study correlation. The median age at FMP was 50 years (interquartile range 48-53 years), with 2% of the women experiencing premature menopause and 7.6% early menopause. Women with early menarche (≤11 years, compared with 12-13 years) were at higher risk of premature

  7. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  8. Age at Menarche Is Associated with Divergent Alcohol Use Patterns in Early Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…

  9. Early menarche: A systematic review of its effect on sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cecilia; Tai, Hina; Lee, Grace; Sommer, Marni

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls aged 15–19 bear a disproportionate burden of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Research from several high-income countries suggests that early age at menarche is an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health. We conducted this systematic review to better understand whether and how early menarche is associated with various negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries and the implications of such associations. Methods We systematically searched eight health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed literature on menarche and sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for inclusion, overall quality and risk of bias, and performed data extraction on all included studies. Results Twenty-four articles met all inclusion criteria–nine of moderate quality and fifteen with several methodological weaknesses. Our review of the minimal existing literature showed that early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries, similar to what has been observed in high-income countries. Early menarche is also associated with early marriage–an association that may have particularly important implications for countries with high child marriage rates. Conclusions Early age at menarche may be an important factor affecting the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to confirm the existence of the identified associations across different settings and to better understand the process through which early menarche and other markers of early pubertal development may contribute to the increased vulnerability of girls to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle

  10. Early and late menarche are associated with oligomenorrhea and predict metabolic syndrome 26 years later.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Wang, Ping; Woo, Jessica G

    2013-11-01

    We determined whether simple, clinical information on late and early menarche could help identify adult women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and oligomenorrhea. We carried out a 26-year prospective follow-up of 272 suburban schoolgirls from ages 5-22 to 30-46. Early menarche (≤10 years, 5.2% of girls) and late menarche (≥16 years, 6.7% of girls) were both associated with oligomenorrhea (≥42 days) in adulthood, 29% and 11%, vs. 5% for normal menarche (11-15 years), p=.004. Early menarche was characterized by high childhood BMI (LS mean±SE: 21.2 ±1.0 kg/m2) and by high childhood and adult MetS (15%, 36%). Girls with late menarche had the lowest childhood BMI (18.1±1.0), no childhood MetS, and the highest adult MetS (47%). Increasing age at menarche was associated with uniformly decreasing childhood BMI and MetS, but with a U-shaped pattern of BMI (p = .05), MetS (p=.008), and oligomenorrhea (p=.02) in adulthood. Change to MetS from median ages 13 to 38 was associated with early-late menarche (OR=3.11, 95% CI 1.37-7.07, p=.007). MetS in adulthood was associated with childhood MetS (OR=8.03, 95% CI 2.57-25.08, p=.0003) and with early-late menarche (OR =3.43, 95% CI 1.44-8.15, p=.005). Menarche age had a curvilinear ('U' shaped) relationship with MetS and oligomenorrhea in adulthood. Late menarche and early menarche are risk factors for adult oligomenorrhea, MetS, and cardiometabolic abnormalities. Girls with early (≤ age 10) and with late menarche (≥ 16) represent a group at high risk for adult cardiometabolic abnormalities and oligomenorrhea that is easily identifiable by physicians. © 2013.

  11. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9-10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche. Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks was

  12. Secure Infant-Mother Attachment Buffers the Effect of Early-Life Stress on Age of Menarche.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sooyeon; Simpson, Jeffry A; Griskevicius, Vladas; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Prior research indicates that being reared in stressful environments is associated with earlier onset of menarche in girls. In this research, we examined (a) whether these effects are driven by exposure to certain dimensions of stress (harshness or unpredictability) during the first 5 years of life and (b) whether the negative effects of stress on the timing of menarche are buffered by secure infant-mother attachment. Results revealed that (a) exposure to greater harshness (but not unpredictability) during the first 5 years of life predicted earlier menarche and (b) secure infant-mother attachment buffered girls from this effect of harsh environments. By connecting attachment research to its evolutionary foundations, these results illuminate how environmental stressors and relationships early in life jointly affect pubertal timing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839

  14. Early menarche: A systematic review of its effect on sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Choi, Cecilia; Tai, Hina; Lee, Grace; Sommer, Marni

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent girls aged 15-19 bear a disproportionate burden of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Research from several high-income countries suggests that early age at menarche is an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health. We conducted this systematic review to better understand whether and how early menarche is associated with various negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries and the implications of such associations. We systematically searched eight health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed literature on menarche and sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for inclusion, overall quality and risk of bias, and performed data extraction on all included studies. Twenty-four articles met all inclusion criteria-nine of moderate quality and fifteen with several methodological weaknesses. Our review of the minimal existing literature showed that early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries, similar to what has been observed in high-income countries. Early menarche is also associated with early marriage-an association that may have particularly important implications for countries with high child marriage rates. Early age at menarche may be an important factor affecting the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to confirm the existence of the identified associations across different settings and to better understand the process through which early menarche and other markers of early pubertal development may contribute to the increased vulnerability of girls to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Given the association of early

  15. Micronutrient status in middle childhood and age at menarche: results from the Bogotá School Children Cohort.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Marín, Constanza; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Oliveros, Henry

    2017-12-01

    Childhood intake of animal foods is associated with age at first menstrual period (menarche). It is unknown whether the micronutrients present in these foods could explain this association. Our objective was to investigate the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers in middle childhood with age at menarche. We quantified circulating Hb, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, Zn, vitamin B12, erythrocyte folate and retinol in 1464 pre-menarcheal girls aged 5-12 years in Bogotá, Colombia, and followed them for a median 5·7 years for the occurrence and date of menarche. We estimated median age at menarche and hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % CI by levels of each biomarker with use of Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities and Cox regression, respectively. Median age at menarche was 12·4 years. Middle childhood Hb was inversely related to age at menarche whereas plasma ferritin was positively associated with this outcome in a linear manner. HR of menarche for every 1 sd of Hb (11 g/l) and ferritin (23·2 µg/l) were 1·11 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·18; P=0·001) and 0·94 (95 % CI 0·88, 0·99; P=0·02), respectively, after adjustment for baseline age, C-reactive protein concentration, maternal age at menarche and parity and socioeconomic status. The association with ferritin was stronger in girls aged 9-10 years at baseline. Additional adjustment for baseline height- and BMI-for-age did not change the results. We conclude that higher Fe status in middle childhood is related to later age at menarche whereas Hb concentrations are inversely associated with age at onset of menses.

  16. Early Menarche and Menstrual Problems Are Associated with Sleep Disturbance in a Large Sample of Chinese Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Chen, Hua; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Fan, Fang; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the association between menstruation and sleep disturbance in adolescent girls. This study examined sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, and sleep quality in relation to age at menarche and menstrual problems in a large sample of Chinese adolescent girls. This report represents the baseline data of an ongoing longitudinal study of the Shandong Adolescent Behavior & Health Cohort in Shandong, China. A total of 5800 girls aged 12-18 years (mean age = 15.0, standard deviation = 1.4) participated in the baseline survey. A structured questionnaire was used to assess participants' age at menarche, menstrual cycle interval, menstrual flow length, period irregularity, period pain, body weight and height, and demographics. Internalizing and externalizing problems were measured by the Youth-Self Report of Child Behavioral Checklist. Sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, and sleep quality were assessed by the items adapted from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. After adjusting for age, school, body mass index, internalizing and externalizing problems, and family covariates, irregular periods (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.02), period pain (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.44-2.76), and menstrual flow length ≥7 days (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.00-1.48) were significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. Irregular periods (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.30-2.27) and period pain (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.34-2.37) were significantly associated with poor sleep quality. Age at menarche ≤11 years (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.05-2.50) was significantly associated with insomnia symptoms in 12- to 14-year-old girls. Our results suggest that irregular periods and period pain appear to be associated with sleep disturbance and that early menarche may have short-term impact on sleep in adolescent girls. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  17. Age at menarche, reactions to menarche and attitudes towards menstruation among Mexican adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationships between menarcheal timing and both menarcheal experience and attitudes toward menstruation in Mexican girls. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 10 different public schools. Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 11-16 years. Participants answered 1 questionnaire about menarcheal experience and another about attitudes towards menstruation. Early maturers (menarche before 11 years) were more likely than average (menarche at 11 or 12 years) or late maturers (menarche at 13 or more years) to state they had not known what they should do at the moment they got their first period (P < .01), that they had not felt prepared to start menstruating (P < .05), and that they thought they must keep secret the fact of already having had their first period (P < .05). Concerning their emotional reactions to menarche, early maturers were the most likely to have felt scared (P < .05), worried (P < .05) and sad (P < .05) and were the least likely to have felt calm (P < .05). They were also the most likely to show current secretive attitudes towards menstruation (P < .01). Finally, late maturers showed more positive attitudes toward menstruation than their peers (P < .01). These results could be useful for developing resources to help early maturing girls manage menstruation. Since these girls have limited or in some cases no time for preparation, they need special support. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Height Growth and Percentage of Body Fat in Relation to Early Menarche in Girls from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Mendez, Nina; Dickinson, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Early menarche (EM) (i.e., age at menarche [AAM] <12 years of age) is related to short height and higher body fatness. In a mixed-longitudinal study done in Merida, Yucatan, height, body mass index (BMI), and percentage of body fat (BF%) were recorded at a one-year interval among 258 postmenarcheal (EM = 94) girls. Anthropometric measurements were recorded of the age cohorts in 2008-09 when participants were 13-17 years of age (baseline), and in the one-year follow-up study (± 6 days) the girls were 14-18 years of age. The BF% was estimated through bioelectrical impedance analysis. Mean AAM was 10.59 years in EM girls and 12.54 years in not early menarche (NEM) girls. Height growth (cm/year) was greater in NEM girls. Mean values of BMI, BF%, and frequencies of stunting (low height-for-age) and excess weight (overweight + obesity) were higher in EM girls than in their NEM age peers.

  19. Pre-menarcheal physical activity predicts post-menarcheal lean mass and core strength, but not fat mass

    PubMed Central

    Day, M.A.; Dowthwaite, J.N.; Rosenbaum, P.F.; Roedel, G.G.; Brocker, A.A.; Scerpella, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Youth exercise is associated with improved body composition, but details regarding timing and persistence are limited. We examined pre- and circum-menarcheal organized physical activity exposure (PA) as a factor in development of early post-menarcheal lean mass, fat mass and muscle strength. Methods: Participants in a longitudinal study of musculoskeletal growth using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included based on: 1) Whole body DXA scans: 0.5-1.5 years pre-menarche, 0.5-1.5 years post-menarche; 2) PA records for ≥6 months preceding the first DXA (PREPA) and for the inter-DXA interval (CIRCUMPA). Dominant arm grip strength and sit-ups tests coincided with DXA scans; PA, height and maturity were recorded semi-annually. Regressions correlated PA with lean mass/fat mass/strength, accounting for maturity, body size, and baseline values. Results Seventy girls [baseline: 11.8 yrs (sd 1.0), follow-up: 13.9 years (sd 1.0)] demonstrated circum-menarcheal gains of 25-29% for lean and fat mass and 33% for grip strength. PREPA correlated with pre- and post-menarcheal lean mass, sit-ups and pre-menarcheal fat mass (p<0.05), but not grip strength. CIRCUMPA correlated with only post-menarcheal sub-head lean mass (p=0.03). Conclusions: Lean mass and core strength at 1-year post-menarche were more strongly predicted by pre-menarcheal organized PA than by recent circum-menarcheal PA. PMID:26636280

  20. Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

    2013-09-01

    Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (p<0.05) and negatively associated with BMI (p<0.001). Students from urban areas attained menarche earlier than those from rural areas (p<0.05). Students from small-sized families attained menarche earlier than those from larger families (p<0.05). First-born students experienced menarche earlier than those who were seventh-born or later. Obese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.

  1. Genetic and environmental effects on age at menarche, and its relationship with reproductive health in twins.

    PubMed

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy S

    2013-04-01

    Menarche or first menstrual period is a landmark in reproductive life span and it is the most prominent change of puberty. The timing of menarche can be under the influence of genes as well as individual environmental factors interacting with genetic factors. Our study objectives were (a) to investigate the heritability of age of menarche in twins, (b) to obtain the association between age of menarche and childhood factors, and reproductive events/behavior, (c) to examine whether or not having a male co-twin affects early/late menarche. A group of female-female identical (n = 108, 54 pairs), non-identical twins (n = 68, 34 pairs) and 17 females from opposite-sex twin sets were identified from twin registries of Malaysia and Iran. Genetic analysis was performed via two methods of Falconers' formula and maximum likelihood. Heritability was found to be 66% using Falconers' formula and 15% using univariate twin analysis. Model analysis revealed that shared environmental factors have a major contribution in determining the age of menarche (82%) followed by non-shared environment (18%). Result of this study is consistent with that of the literature. Timing of menarche could be under the influence of shared and non-shared environmental effects. Hirsutism was found to have a higher frequency among subjects with late menarche. There was no significant difference in age of menarche between females of opposite-sex twins and females of same-sex twins. It is concluded that twin models provide a powerful means of examining the total genetic contribution to age of menarche. Longitudinal studies of twins may clarify the type of environmental effects that determine the age of menarche.

  2. Is age of menarche among school girls related to academic performance?

    PubMed

    Al-Mathkoori, Radhia; Nur, Ula; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2017-06-17

    Background There is strong evidence that the mean age of menarche has declined over the last few decades in developed and developing countries. This is of a major concern because of its enormous public health implications. This study aimed to estimate the age of menarche in Kuwait and investigate the association between menarcheal age and academic performance among high school girls in Kuwait. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected female high school students from private and public high schools in all governorates in Kuwait. Data on the age of menarche were collected by self-administered questionnaire from the students, while data on academic performance were extracted from the students' academic records. Results Of the 907 students we selected, 800 (88.2%) responded. The mean age of menarche was 12.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.18-12.49] years. There was no evidence for significant association between age of menarche and students' academic performance before or after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion The calculated age of menarche among contemporary girls in Kuwait is similar to that of the girls in industrialized countries. Early menarcheal age is unlikely to lead to adverse behavior that may affect academic performance in our setting.

  3. Association of timing of menarche with depressive symptoms and depression in adolescence: Mendelian randomisation study

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Maija-Eliina; Lewis, Sarah J.; Bonilla, Carolina; Smith, George Davey; Joinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational studies report associations between early menarche and higher levels of depressive symptoms and depression. However, no studies have investigated whether this association is causal. Aims To determine whether earlier menarche is a causal risk factor for depressive symptoms and depression in adolescence. Method The associations between a genetic score for age at menarche and depressive symptoms at 14, 17 and 19 years, and depression at 18 years, were examined using Mendelian randomisation analysis techniques. Results Using a genetic risk score to indicate earlier timing of menarche, we found that early menarche is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms at 14 years (odds ratio per risk allele 1.02, 95% CI 1.005–1.04, n = 2404). We did not find an association between the early menarche risk score and depressive symptoms or depression after age 14. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a causal effect of age at menarche on depressive symptoms at age 14. PMID:27491534

  4. Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lindstrom, David; Getachew, Yehenew; Duchateau, Luc; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2011-09-13

    Age at menarche is the reflection of cumulative pre-adolescent exposure of girls to either adverse environment such as food insecurity or affluent living conditions. Food insecurity could result in inadequate nutrient intake and stress, both of which are hypothesized to have opposing effects on the timing of menarche through divergent pathways. It is not known whether food insecure girls have delayed menarche or early menarche compared with their food secure peers. In this study we test the competing hypothesis of the relationship between food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in the Southwest Ethiopia. We report on 900 girls who were investigated in the first two rounds of the five year longitudinal survey. The semi-parametric frailty model was fitted to determine the effect of adolescent food insecurity on time to menarche after adjusting for socio-demographic and economic variables. Food insecure girls have menarche one year later than their food secure peer (median age of 15 years vs 14 years). The hazard of menarche showed a significant decline (P = 0.019) as severity of food insecurity level increased, the hazard ratio (HR) for mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity were 0.936 and 0.496, respectively compared to food secure girls. Stunted girls had menarche nearly one year later than their non-stunted peers (HR = 0.551, P < 0.001). Food insecurity is associated with delay of age at menarche by one year among girls in the study area. Stunted girls had menarche one year later than their non-stunted peers. Age at menarche reflects the development of girls including the timing of sexual maturation, nutritional status and trajectory of growth during the pre-pubertal periods. The findings reflect the consequence of chronic food insecurity on the development and well-being of girls in the study area.

  5. Nutritional status and menarche in a rural community in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Osteria, T S

    1983-01-01

    To examine the relationship between nutritional status and onset of menarche, anthropometric measurements and information on age at menarche were obtained from 1844 females aged 6-17 years in a rural community in the Philippines. The mean age at the initiation of the growth spurt in height was 13.5 years, while the spurt in weight occurred at the age of 11.5 years. 25.2% of respondents had attained menarche by age 11.5 years, 43.6% by age 13.5 years, 88.2% by age 14.5 years, and 96.6% by age 15.5 years. This contrasts with data from Bangladesh, where only 3.5% of girls attain menarche by age 13.5 years and only 35.1% reach this point by age 15.5 years. Further analysis indicated that both age and weight are related to the proportion achieving menarche. The effect of height is not as marked as that of body weight. A minimum level of fatness (about 17% of body weight) is associated with the onset of menstruation and its continued maintenance. Malnutrition results in a shorter reproductive span, later age at menarche, and early menopause. Since improvements in nutritional status in developing countries can be expected to result in a pattern of early menarche, late menopause, short birth intervals, and shorter periods of adolescent subfecundity, increasing attention must be given to family planning counseling of adolescents.

  6. Menstruation across time: menarche, menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Korfine, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between early and current menstrual experiences. The primary hypothesis was that women who reported positive menarcheal experiences (including menstrual education and menarche) would tend to report positive current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and/or behaviors, and vice versa for women who reported negative menarcheal experiences. In this survey-based study, college-aged women (n = 327) were screened by completing a questionnaire concerning their menarcheal experiences. Women who had extremely negative ("negative group," n = 46) or extremely positive ("positive group," n = 38) early menstrual experiences returned to complete questionnaires concerning current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors. Early and current menstrual experiences were most strongly associated in the domain of menstrual attitudes. Women in the negative group reported more negative menstrual attitudes than did women in the positive group. There were additional associations between early menstrual experiences and measures of body image and health behaviors. Positive group participants reported more positive body image and better general health behaviors. Results suggest that early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life. This study invites further investigation of the psychology of menstruation and suggests connecting menstruation with other women's health issues.

  7. The Diagnostic Value of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Early Post Menarche Adolescent Girls with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kocaay, Pınar; Siklar, Zeynep; Buyukfirat, Sema; Berberoglu, Merih

    2018-02-17

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation, which affects 5%-10% of reproductive-age women. Diagnosis of adult patients with PCOS is made easily with clinical and laboratory methods and the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level are accepted as a good indicator. However, there is still no complete consensus on the diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents. Prospective cohort study, December 2013 to November 2014. The study was conducted on adolescent girls with oligomenorrhea, with at least 2 years since menarche. The study group consisted of adolescent girls with complete PCOS and incomplete PCOS. A control group was formed of healthy adolescent girls. Complete PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria, as the presence of all the following characteristics: oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovarian morphology on ultrasound image. Incomplete PCOS was accepted as "oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovarian morphology," or "oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenism." All patients underwent a physical examination and the anthropometric assessments, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans were recorded. It was also noted whether or not the patient had an acne score. The Ferriman-Gallwey score was applied to evaluate hirsutism. The results of this study showed that no statistically significant difference was found between the PCOS and incomplete PCOS groups and the control group with respect to AMH levels. The use of adult-specific diagnostic methods in adolescence might result in an incomplete diagnosis and inadequate treatment plan. Although the serum AMH level clearly facilitates the diagnosis of PCOS, the use of the AMH level in adolescence in PCOS diagnosis is still controversial and further studies are needed. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche123

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Methods: Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9–14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996–1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. Results: During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1–4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: −3%, −23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1–4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged ≥9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. PMID:26136590

  9. The Experience of Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruble, Diane N.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Examines reactions to menarche and the subsequent effects of this experience as a function of preparation for and timing of menarche. A questionnaire including measures of responses about first menstruation, current symptoms, and self-image was completed by 639 girls in fifth through twelfth grades. (Author/MP)

  10. Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Neves, Amanda Gonçalves; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Godoy-Miranda, Ana Carolina; Oshika, Flávio Hideki; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain) were increased in women with morbid obesity. Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age.

  11. [Parity and menarche as risk factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, María Cleofas; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; Nieva-de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    At the moment the studies lead at world-wide level and even in our country have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. A retrospective and analytical cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sampling technique in women rightful claimants of the IMSS, San Luis Potosi. In all of them the bone mineral density was measured with X-ray dual absorptiometry in the distal forearm. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche (< 13 yrs) and late menarche (> or = 13 yrs). 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria of the World Health Organization, 18% of postmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 43% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of pregnancies and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had four or more children were older than the other women, average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. We found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46, p: 0.035). In postmenopausal women a menarche older than 13 years is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  12. [Parity and menarche as risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, Mariá Cleofás; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; de Jesús, Rafael Natividad Nieva; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide studies, even in our country, have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. Transversal, retrospective and analytical study. Non-probabilistic sampling technique was performing with users women of the IMSS in San Luis Potosí. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche (before the age of 13) and late menarche (at 13 years of age or after). It was measured bone mineral density with dual distal forearm x-ray absorptiometry to all patients. 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria, of the World Health Organization, 18% of posmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 41% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of deeds and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had 4 or more children were older than the other women. average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. In addition we found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46; p = 0.035). In posmenopausal women a menarche at the age of 13 years or after is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  13. Impact of breastfeeding duration on age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Al-Sahab, Ban; Adair, Linda; Hamadeh, Mazen J; Ardern, Chris I; Tamim, Hala

    2011-05-01

    The study aims to assess the relation between breastfeeding duration and age at menarche. Analysis was based on a cohort of 994 Filipino girls born in 1983-1984 and followed up from infancy to adulthood by the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. The main outcome was self-reported age at menarche. Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding with age at menarche with adjustment sequentially for specific sets of known socioeconomic, maternal, genetic, and prenatal confounders. The estimated median of age at menarche was 13.08 years. After adjustment for potential confounders of the association of breastfeeding with age at menarche, exclusive breastfeeding duration retained an independent and significant association with age at menarche. An increase in 1 month of exclusive breastfeeding decreases the hazard of attaining earlier menarche by 6% (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 0.98). Any breastfeeding duration was not associated with age at menarche. Although this is the first longitudinal study that reveals a negative association between exclusive breastfeeding and early menarche, the relation is still elusive. Further longitudinal studies within different contexts are warranted to assess the generalizability of these findings.

  14. Menstruation in schoolgirls--1: The normal menarche.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P

    2000-01-01

    The mean age for onset of menstruation (menarche) is 12.8 years. Many schools teach girls about puberty and menstruation and prepare them for the menarche. The school nurse has a valuable part to play in all aspects of menstruation in schoolgirls, psychological as well as physical. The early periods may be irregular and vary markedly in the amount of blood loss. It can take up a year or more for a steady pattern to develop. Dysmenhorrhoea may occur, which may be mild or of the severe spasmodic type. Premenstrual tension syndrome is less common in schoolgirls. Girls should be taught about the importance of hygiene, especially if tampons are used.

  15. Heterosexual Romantic Involvement and Depressive Symptoms in Black Adolescent Girls: Effects of Menarche and Perceived Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls. PMID:25678429

  16. The Decreasing Age at Menarche in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marván, M Luisa; Catillo-López, Rosa Lilia; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica; Callejo, Diana Del

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the current age at menarche in 2 urban areas from Mexico and to analyze secular trends in the age at menarche in Mexico City. Cross-sectional survey and secondary data analyses. (1) Samples of female students from Mexico City and from the city of Xalapa; and (2) national health surveys. (1) Pre- and postmenarcheal students, aged 8-17 years; and (2) data for women born between 1904 and 1999 who grew up in Mexico City were obtained from 3 relevant national health surveys. (1) Students were asked if they had had their first period and when it occurred; (2) information on year of birth and age at menarche for the remaining women was obtained from the national surveys; data were divided in groups according to the decade in which the women were born. (1) The estimated mean age at menarche was 11.40 and 11.34 years in Mexico City and Xalapa respectively. (2) There were significant differences in age at menarche among women who were born in the different decades analyzed. Women who were born in the 1990s or later reported an earlier age at menarche than those who were born from the 1940s to 1980s (P < .0001). These results could be helpful to health and education professionals who should take into account that because there is currently a widening gap between the physical and psychosocial maturity of girls, they might need special support. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

  18. Girls' Understanding and Social Construction of Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan M.

    1995-01-01

    Assessed Australian girls' (n=87) beliefs and feelings about menarche and menstruation. Results revealed limited knowledge about menstruation, accompanied by incorrect and negative myths. Attitudes to menstruation were characterized by embarrassment, discomfort, and ambivalence about growing up. Themes in story completion results reflected these…

  19. Menarche: Prior Knowledge and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandhan, K. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Recorded menstruation information among 305 young women in India, assessing the differences between those who did and did not have knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. Those with prior knowledge considered menarche to be a normal physiological function and had a higher rate of regularity, lower rate of dysmenorrhea, and earlier onset of…

  20. Early physics results.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Peter

    2012-02-28

    For the past year, experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have started exploring physics at the high-energy frontier. Thanks to the superb turn-on of the LHC, a rich harvest of initial physics results have already been obtained by the two general-purpose experiments A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), which are the subject of this report. The initial data have allowed a test, at the highest collision energies ever reached in a laboratory, of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles, and to make early searches Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). Significant results have already been obtained in the search for the Higgs boson, which would establish the postulated electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism in the SM, as well as for BSM physics such as Supersymmetry (SUSY), heavy new particles, quark compositeness and others. The important, and successful, SM physics measurements are giving confidence that the experiments are in good shape for their journey into the uncharted territory of new physics anticipated at the LHC.

  1. Age at menarche, total mortality and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke: the Adventist Health Study, 1976–88

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, B K; Oda, K; Knutsen, S F; Fraser, G E

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship between age at menarche and total mortality and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Methods A cohort study of 19 462 Californian Seventh-Day Adventist women followed-up from 1976 to 1988. A total of 3313 deaths occurred during follow-up, of which 809 were due to ischaemic heart disease and 378 due to stroke. Results An early menarche was associated with increased total mortality (P-value for linear trend <0.001), ischaemic heart disease (P-value for linear trend = 0.01) and stroke (P-value for linear trend = 0.02) mortality. There were, however, also some indications of an increased ischaemic heart disease mortality in women aged 16–18 at menarche (5% of the women). When assessed as a linear relationship, a 1-year delay in menarche was associated with 4.5% (95% CI 2.3–6.7) lower total mortality. The association was stronger for ischaemic heart disease [6.0% (95% CI 1.2–10.6)] and stroke [8.6% (95% CI 1.6–15.1)] mortality. Conclusions The results suggest that there is a linear, inverse relationship between age at menarche and total mortality as well as with ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality. PMID:19188208

  2. Menarcheal age of girls from dysfunctional families.

    PubMed

    Toromanović, Alma; Tahirović, Husref

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine median age at menarche and the influence of familial instability on maturation. The sample included 7047 girls between the ages of 9 and 17 years from Tuzla Canton. The girls were divided into two groups. Group A (N=5230) comprised girls who lived in families free of strong traumatic events. Group B (N=1817) included girls whose family dysfunction exposed them to prolonged distress. Probit analysis was performed to estimate mean menarcheal age using the Probit procedure of SAS package. The mean menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis for all the girls studied was 13.07 years. In girls from dysfunctional families a very clear shift toward earlier maturation was observed. The mean age at menarche for group B was 13.0 years, which was significantly lower that that for group A, 13.11 years (t=2.92, P<0.01). The results surveyed here lead to the conclusion that girls from dysfunctional families mature not later but even earlier than girls from normal families. This supports the hypothesis that stressful childhood life events accelerate maturation of girls.

  3. The effects of high altitude on age at menarche and menopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, A. K.; Kapoor, Satwanti

    1986-03-01

    The age at menarche and menopause of three groups of Bhotia females living at high altitude, Himalayan region — Uttar Pradesh, North India, were studied. The Johari Bhotia women had earliest menarche (¯X=15.1±1.1 years) as compared to Rang Bhotias, settled (¯X=15.6±0.9 years) and Rang Bhotias, migratory (¯X=16.0±1.0 years). The differences between all these three groups for age at menarche were significant. A trend towards increase in age at menarche with an increase in altitude has been observed, but the total fertility period in the three groups remained similar as early menarche has been found to be associated with early onset of menopause and late menarche with late menopause.

  4. Age at menarche, total mortality and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke: the Adventist Health Study, 1976-88.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, B K; Oda, K; Knutsen, S F; Fraser, G E

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the relationship between age at menarche and total mortality and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke. A cohort study of 19 462 Californian Seventh-Day Adventist women followed-up from 1976 to 1988. A total of 3313 deaths occurred during follow-up, of which 809 were due to ischaemic heart disease and 378 due to stroke. An early menarche was associated with increased total mortality (P-value for linear trend <0.001), ischaemic heart disease (P-value for linear trend = 0.01) and stroke (P-value for linear trend = 0.02) mortality. There were, however, also some indications of an increased ischaemic heart disease mortality in women aged 16-18 at menarche (5% of the women). When assessed as a linear relationship, a 1-year delay in menarche was associated with 4.5% (95% CI 2.3-6.7) lower total mortality. The association was stronger for ischaemic heart disease [6.0% (95% CI 1.2-10.6)] and stroke [8.6% (95% CI 1.6-15.1)] mortality. The results suggest that there is a linear, inverse relationship between age at menarche and total mortality as well as with ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality.

  5. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Vásquez, Sofía; Bustos, Patricia; Ortiz, Guillermo; Lara, Macarena

    2012-05-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6 ± 10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6 ± 10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche.

  6. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  7. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  8. Brief Report: Autistic-Like Traits in Childhood Predict Later Age at Menarche in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Hickey, Martha; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between autistic-like traits in early childhood and age at menarche in typically developing girls. Autistic-like symptoms were measured at age 2 years using the Child Behaviour Checklist, and age at menarche (AAM) was determined prospectively using self-report questionnaires at age 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. Girls…

  9. Early Results from SOLIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Giampapa, M.; Henney, C.; Keller, C.; Jones, H.

    2004-05-01

    SOLIS (Synoptic Optical Long-Term Investigations of the Sun) is a project that is replacing antiquated synoptic observing equipment at the National Solar Observatory. SOLIS consists of a suite of three instruments on an equatorial mount that will be installed on Kitt Peak in April 2004. The major SOLIS instrument is a vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) that maps magnetic fields across the full solar disk using a slit spectrograph and one arc sec pixels. Limited daily observations started at a temporary site in August, 2003 and include line-of-sight component magnetograms in the photosphere and chromosphere and, for the first time, full-disk vector magnetograms. At a medium scan speed ( ˜ 10 minutes for the full disk) noise is less than 1 Mx/cm2. This low noise, combined with negligible instrumental polarization and well resolved spectral line profiles, yields moderate resolution magnetograms of unprecedented quality. Observations show magnetic flux nearly everywhere in the photosphere from the disk center to the solar limb. Weak, intranetwork fields are now routinely observed and show a tendency to be of opposite polarity to the stronger surrounding fields. Diffuse fields surround decaying active regions and appear to be distinct from canopy fields. Vector magnetograms easily show the radial orientation of network fields, and the diffuse component surrounding decaying active regions. Near the disk center, the transverse magnetic fields of network elements change on a time scale of minutes. Detailed quantitative calibration of the observations is in progress. Good results have been obtained from the other SOLIS instruments: a full-disk filter imager at several narrow wavelengths and a double-pass grating spectrograph that provides high-accuracy line spectra of integrated sunlight. SOLIS data are freely available via the Internet and users are invited to submit observing time requests for special observations. The National Solar Observatory is operated by AURA, Inc

  10. The Association of Increased Total Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels with Delayed Age at Menarche in Young Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Kirstie K.; Palta, Mari; Allen, Catherine; D’Alessio, Donn J.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed menarche is associated with subsequent reproductive and skeletal complications. Previous research has found delayed growth and pubertal maturation with type 1 diabetes and with poor glycemic control. The effect of diabetes management on menarche is important to clarify because tighter control might prevent these complications. Objective: To investigate age at menarche in young women with type 1 diabetes, and examine the effect of diabetes management (e.g. total glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) level, number of blood glucose checks, insulin therapy intensity, insulin dose) on age at menarche in those diagnosed before menarche. Design: The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Project is a follow-up study of a type 1 diabetes population-based incident cohort initially enrolled 1987 – 1992. Setting: Twenty-eight counties in south-central Wisconsin. Patients or Other Participants: Recruited through referrals, self-report, and hospital/clinic ascertainment. Individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, <30 years old, were invited to participate. Of 288 young women enrolled, 188 reported menarche by 2002; 105 were diagnosed before menarche. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Age at menarche. Results: Mean age at menarche was 12.78 years, compared to 12.54 years in the United States (p = 0.01). Ages at menarche and diagnosis were not associated. For those diagnosed before menarche, age at menarche was delayed 1.3 months with each one percent increase in mean total GHb level in the three years prior to menarche. Conclusions: Age at menarche was moderately delayed in young women with type 1 diabetes. Delayed menarche could potentially be minimized with improved GHb levels. PMID:16204372

  11. Age of onset, nutritional determinants, and seasonal variations in menarche in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2009-12-01

    Menarche is an important milestone in the development of female adolescents. The study assessed the age at menarche using recall, its seasonality, and association with marital and nutritional status (using mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC]) among 3,923 female adolescents aged 12-19 years in a rural area of Bangladesh. At the time of assessment, most (88%) adolescents had attained menarche at the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 12.8 (1.4) years. Age of onset of menarche among married adolescents (13%) occurred earlier than in those who were unmarried (12.6 +/- 1.3 years vs 12.9 +/- 1.4 years, p < 0.01). Age at menarche was negatively associated with MUAC after adjusting for age and marital status (beta = -0.10, p < 0.01). More than 50% of the adolescents had an onset of menarche during winter (chi2 = 634.97; p < 0.001), with peaks in December and January. In this rural population, the current age at menarche was found to be slightly lower than the previous estimates of 13.0 years in Bangladesh. An early onset of menarche was associated with season and better nutritional status of the female adolescents and may be associated with early marriage.

  12. Post-migration adaptation and age at menarche in the second generation of migrants.

    PubMed

    Gomula, Aleksandra; Koziel, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    Age at menarche is one of the most important measures of sexual maturation in girls. Since it has a high level of ecosensitivity, early environmental stress may trigger early puberty. One of these stress factors may be parental stress caused by the change of living conditions related to migration and adaptation to the new environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental migration status and the timing of sexual maturity in second generation, i.e. migrants' daughters. Data were collected during the 2(nd) Polish Anthropological Survey carried out in 1966 - 1969. The information on age at menarche as well as demographic and social characteristics were collected by the use of a questionnaire. The results show that the age at menarche has been accelerated in girls from low socioeconomic status (low-SES) migrant families in comparison to low-SES non-migrant families. This study provides new biosocial evidence on the impact of the parental long-lasting post-migration adaptation on the timing of maturation in the second generation of migrants.

  13. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Johnson, Dayna A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  14. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy.

  15. African-American/white differences in the age of menarche: accounting for the difference.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Fang, Muriel Z; Gardner, William P; Pajer, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    Lifetime health disparity between African-American and white females begins with lower birthweight and higher rates of childhood overweight. In adolescence, African-American girls experience earlier menarche. Understanding the origins of these health disparities is a national priority. There is growing literature suggesting that the life course health development model is a useful framework for studying disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of explanatory factors from key developmental stages on the age of menarche and to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche they could explain. The factors were maternal age of menarche, birthweight, poverty during early childhood (age 0 through 5 years), and child BMI z-scores at 6 years. The sample, drawn from the US National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Child-Mother file, consisted of 2337 girls born between 1978 and 1998. Mean age of menarche in months was 144 for African-American girls and 150 for whites. An instrumental variable approach was used to estimate a causal effect of child BMI z-score on age of menarche. The instrumental variables were pre-pregnancy BMI, high gestational weight gain and smoking during pregnancy. We found strong effects of maternal age of menarche, birthweight, and child BMI z-score (-5.23, 95% CI [-7.35,-3.12]) for both African-Americans and whites. Age of menarche declined with increases in exposure to poverty during early childhood for whites. There was no effect of poverty for African-Americans. We used Oaxaca decomposition techniques to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche was attributable to race differences in observable factors and how much was due to race dependent responses. The African-American/white difference in childhood BMI explained about 18% of the overall difference in age of menarche and birthweight differences explained another 11%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between age at menarche and skeletal maturation stages in Taiwanese female orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Jane Yao, Chung-Chen; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-07-01

    The age at menarche reflects a pubertal girl's physiologic maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the age at menarche and skeletal maturation in female orthodontic patients. Hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs from 304 adolescent female subjects (age, 8-18.9 years) were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Hand-wrist bone maturation stages were assessed using the NTUH Skeletal Maturation Index (NTUH-SMI). Cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS) were determined using the latest CVMS Index. Menarcheal ages were self-reported by the patients and verified by the patients' mothers. The relationships between the NTUH-SMI or CVM stages and menarcheal status were investigated. More than 90% of the 148 subjects who had already attained menstruation had skeletal maturation beyond the NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III. However, the subjects who had never experienced menarche mostly had skeletal maturation before NTUH-SMI stage five or CVMS IV. During the period of orthodontic treatment, 19 females experienced their menarche. The mean age at menarche for the 167 female patients in total was 11.97 years. In average, menarche occurred between NTUH-SMI stages four and five or between CVM stages III and IV. The percentage of girls with menses increased from 1.2% at age 9 to 6.6% at age 10, 39.5% at age 11, 81.4% at age 12, 97% at age 13, and 100% at age 14. Compared with the results obtained 20 years previously, we found a downward shift of 0.47 years per decade for the mean age at menarche in female orthodontic patients. The majority of female orthodontic patients have passed the pubertal growth spurt when they experience their menarche. Menarche usually follows the pubertal growth spurt by about 1 year and occurs after NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III.

  17. [The importance of memory bias in obtaining age of menarche by recall method in Brazilian adolescents].

    PubMed

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Assuino, Samanta Ramos; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan

    2014-06-01

    To compare the age at menarche obtained by recall method according to the time elapsed since the event, in order to verify the importance of the recall bias. Were evaluated 1,671 girls (7-18 years) at schools in Campinas-SP regarding the occurrence of menarche by the status quo method (menarche: yes or no) and the recall method (date of menarche, for those who mentioned it). The age at menarche obtained by the status quo method was calculated by logit, which considers the whole group, and the age obtained by the recall method was calculated as the average of the mentioned age at menarche. In this group, the age at menarche was obtained by the difference between the date of the event and the date of birth. Girls who reported menarche (883, 52.8%) were divided into four groups according to the time elapsed since the event. To analyze the results, we used ANOVA and logistic regression for the analysis, with a significance level of 0.05. The age at menarche calculated by logit was 12.14 y/o (95% CI 12.08 to 12.20). Mean ages obtained by recall were: for those who experienced menarche within the previous year 12.26 y/o (±1.14), between > 1-2 years before, 12.29 y (±1.22); between > 2-3 years before, 12.23 y/o (±1.27); and more than 3 years before, 11.55y/o (±1.24), p < 0.001. The age at menarche obtained by the recall method was similar for girls who menstruated within the previous 3 years (and approaches the age calculated by logit); when more than 3 years have passed, the recall bias was significant.

  18. Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Influencing Expectations of Menarche: A Study on Chinese Premenarcheal Teenage Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Tang, Catherine So-kum; Lee, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial and cultural factors influenced expectations of menarche among 476 Chinese premenarcheal teenage girls. Results showed that participants' expectations of menarche were largely negative and heavily influenced by cultural beliefs about menstruation. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…

  19. Malnutrition, menarche, and marriage in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A K; Huffman, S L; Curlin, G T

    1977-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of nutritional status on the onset of menarche and the association between age at menarche and age at marriage, a survey of 1155 girls, ages 10 through 20, was conducted in a rural area of Bangladesh in March 1976. In order to obtain an estimated mean of age of menarche, probit analysis was used. The mean age of menarche using this technique is estimated at 15.65 for Muslims and 15.91 for Hindus. It was learned that in recent years the age of menarche has increased in a rural area. This increase seems to be associated with malnutrition caused by the war, postwar inflation, floods and famines during the 1971-75 period. When age is controlled for, the prominent effect of weight on menstrual status is evident. 98% of the girls whose weights were 88 pounds or greater had reached menarche compared to only 1% of those weighing less than 66 pounds. Body weight appears to be 1 of the most important factors for the determination of onset of menarche. There exists a seasonality of onset of menarche with a peak in winter. Age of marriage among this rural population has increased and may be associated with the increasing age of menarche. Since both age of menarche and age of marriage have increased, fertility among females age 15-19 may be expected to decrease in the future if this pattern continues.

  20. Higher Childhood Red Meat Intake Frequency Is Associated with Earlier Age at Menarche.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Marín, Constanza; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Villamor, Eduardo

    2016-03-09

    Early age at menarche is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Red meat consumption in adolescence predicts breast cancer risk, but it is unknown whether it is also related to earlier menarche. We studied the association between intake of red meat at ages 5-12 y and age at menarche in a prospective study. We assessed usual diets with a food-frequency questionnaire in a group of 456 girls aged 8.4 ± 1.7 y and followed them for a median 5.6 y in Bogotá, Colombia. Girls were asked periodically about the occurrence and date of menarche. Median age at menarche was estimated with use of Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities by categories of red meat intake frequency. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the incidence of menarche by red meat intake frequency, adjusting for potential sociodemographic and dietary confounders including total energy intake and intake frequency of other animal food groups (dairy, poultry, freshwater fish, tuna/sardines, eggs, and innards). Median age at menarche was 12.4 y. After adjustment for total energy intake, maternal parity, and socioeconomic status, red meat intake frequency was inversely associated with age at menarche. When compared with girls with red meat intake <4 times/wk, those consuming it ≥2 times/d had a significantly earlier age at menarche (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.41; P-trend = 0.0009). Incidentally, we found that girls with tuna/sardine intake >1 time/wk had a significantly later age at menarche (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.90; P = 0.01) than those with intake <1 time/mo. Intake frequency of other animal food groups was not significantly associated with age at menarche. Higher red meat intake frequency during childhood is associated with an earlier age at menarche, whereas greater fatty fish intake frequency is associated with a later menarcheal age. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group. PMID:26220757

  2. Childhood hair product use and earlier age at menarche in a racially diverse study population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18-77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used before age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (<12 vs. ≥12), adjusting for potential confounders. African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors related to the occurrence of precocious menarche in female primary school students in Makassar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renjani, Rizky Swastika; Mappaware, Nasrudin A.; Nontji, Werna; Marniati

    2017-09-01

    Precocious menarche currently affects 1 in 5000 girls and likely to occur as many as 10 times and possess greater risk to the emergence of cancer in women. The aim of this research is to determine the relationship of nutrition status and lipid profile with precocious menarche occurrence onstudents of primary school in Makassar city. The design of this research was cross sectional design. The samples werethe students of grades IV, V and VI who have already menarche occurrence as many as 20 studentscollected with purposive sampling. The data were analyzed with Mann Whitney U test. The results indicate that there are 17 students (85%) do not undergoprecocious menarche, normal nutrition status is 11 persons (55%), normal cholesterol levelis 12 persons (60%), and level of normal LDL = 19 persons (95%). While the respondents who undergo precocious menarche is 3 persons (15%), fat nutrition status is 9 persons (45%), cautious cholesterol level is 8 persons (40%) and cautious LDL level is 1 person (5%). Based on Mann Whitney U test, there is relationship between nutrition status and precocious menarche occurrence (p = 0.043) and there is correlation of total cholesterol and LDLcholesterollevelswith precocious menarche (p = 0.025) and (p = 0.017). The decrease of knowledge about health of reproduction can be promoted in school by making cooperation with nutritionist to give information to parents and students of primary schools about good and healthy food.

  4. Flashbulb Memories of Menarche and Adult Menstrual Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, David B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Female college students (N=99) recounted memories of menarche, described menarcheal circumstances, and completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). Found inadequate emotional preparation for menstruation to be associated with negative feelings at menarche. Menarcheal circumstances were not strongly predictive of adult MDQ scores. (Author)

  5. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10−8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  6. Association Between Age at Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 22-27 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age ≤11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. CALIPSO Overview and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.

    2008-05-01

    The CALIPSO spacecraft was co-manifested with the CloudSat spacecraft and launched by a Boeing Delta~II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California on April~28,~2006. CALIPSO is the acronym for Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) is a three-channel lidar on board that uses a Nd:YAG laser emitting pulses at 1064 and 532~nm. The receiver uses a 1-meter diameter telescope and photomultipliers in the two 532~nm channels; one for parallel-polarized backscatter, and the other for perpendicular-polarized backscatter. The 1064~nm channel uses an APD for measuring the total backscatter at this wavelength. CALIPSO is in a near-circular sunsynchronous polar 705-km orbit with a 1:30~PM ascending node, and is flying in formation with CloudSat, Aura, Aqua and PARASOL. CALIPSO and CloudSat are flying 15~seconds apart in the formation. This talk will present an overview of the CALIPSO mission and details of CALIOP and the rest of the payload. It will show typical results from measurements of clouds, details on cirrus cloud statistics for the first year of data, a characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds over the Artic and Antarctic during local winters and early springs, and some general atmospheric events like hurricanes and aerosols from minor volcanic eruptions, desert dust events, and smoke from fires and their transport. The presentation will end with a look toward the future of spaceborne lidars.

  8. Relationships between age at menarche, walking gait base of support, and stance phase frontal plane knee biomechanics in adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Grannis, Kimberly A.; Sherwood, Richard J.; Duren, Dana L

    2016-01-01

    Background Age at menarche impacts patterns of pubertal growth and skeletal development. These effects may carry over into variation in biomechanical profiles involved in sports-related traumatic and overuse knee injuries. The present study investigated whether age at menarche is a potential indicator of knee injury risk through its influence on knee biomechanics during normal walking. Objective To test the hypothesis that earlier menarche is related to post-pubertal biomechanical risk factors for knee injuries, including a wider, more immature gait base of support, and greater valgus knee angles and moments. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting University research facility. Participants Healthy, post-menarcheal, adolescent females. Methods Age at menarche was obtained by recall questionnaire. Pubertal growth and anthropometric data were collected using standard methods. Biomechanical data were taken from tests of walking gait at self-selected speed. Reflective marker position data were collected using a three-dimensional quantitative motion analysis system, and three force plates recorded kinetic data. Main Outcome Measures Age at menarche; growth and anthropometric measurements; base of support; static knee frontal plane angle; dynamic knee frontal plane angles and moments during stance. Results Earlier menarche was significantly correlated with abbreviated pubertal growth and post-pubertal retention of immature traits, including a wider base of support. Earlier menarche and wider base of support were both correlated with more valgus static knee angles, more valgus knee abduction angles and moments at foot-strike, and a more valgus peak knee abduction angle during stance. Peak knee abduction moment during stance was not correlated with age at menarche or base of support. Conclusions Earlier menarche and its effects on growth are associated with retention of a relatively immature gait base of support and a tendency for static and dynamic valgus knee

  9. Prenatal smoking and age at menarche: influence of the prenatal environment on the timing of puberty.

    PubMed

    Behie, A M; O'Donnell, M H

    2015-04-01

    Do prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking and birthweight influence age at menarche (AAM) in a cohort of Australian girls? We find that prenatal smoke exposure and lower birthweight increase the chance of earlier menarche in accordance with theoretical predictions as do confounding factors of maternal AAM and higher BMI of the girls. Much prior research focuses on the role of the early childhood environment in determining AAM but fewer studies consider the role of the prenatal environment. Those studies that examine the prenatal period find an acceleration of maturation associated with maternal smoking and low birthweight. Life history theory predicts that early life exposure to stressful environments should promote more rapid maturation and that this timing can be established before birth, making the prenatal environment particularly important. Statistical analysis of longitudinal survey data collected from a large cohort (n = 2446) of Australian children using data from birth to 12-13 years of age. Owing to missing data, 1493 girls were included in the final analysis. Using cox regression, we examine how (i) maternal cigarette smoking during gestation and (ii) birthweight influence girls' AAM. Cox regression was used because not all girls had reached menarche. We find that older maternal AAM (hazards ratio (HR): 0.75, confidence interval (CI) (95%): 0.71-0.79) and higher birthweight (HR: 0.86, CI (95%): 0.75-0.97) lower the chance of earlier menarche; while higher girls' BMI at 8-9 years (HR: 1.12, CI (95%): 1.10-1.15), and maternal cigarette smoking on 'most days' during gestation (HR: 1.40, CI (95%): 1.10-1.79 with 'no smoking' as the reference level) increased the chance of earlier menarche. All factors were statistically significant at P = 0.05. Not all girls had reached menarche, necessitating the use of cox regression. As with other longitudinal studies, there was study sample attrition and some missing data, particularly in reports of maternal smoking. In

  10. Menarche and menstruation: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Swenson, I; Havens, B

    1987-01-01

    Puberty initiation rites heralding menarche are common across cultures. Paige (1973) reflected that societies with the highest levels of social rigidity and male solidarity also have the strongest codification of menstrual taboos. This may reflect a need to maintain clear sex roles, often by controlling women and their fertility. Social and cultural factors impact on adjustment to menses and have an effect on the early menarcheal experience. Certain common features, however, were observed in that most girls reported their mothers as a principal source of information and received some limited education about menses in school with frequent emphasis on hygienic aspects of menstruation. A more positive attitude toward menses can be achieved if girls are physically and emotionally prepared. The most current evaluation of educational materials on menses dates back to 1975 and reveals a preponderance of emphasis on hygiene to the exclusion of issues of emotional and psychological development. Women perceive themselves as being very knowledgeable but cannot accurately answer physiological questions. A content analysis of advertisements for sanitary products and medications for the relief of menstrual symptoms in a popular teen magazine indicated that advertisements conveyed the image that hygienic aspects of migration could be dealt with effectively. There were no significant relationships between reported incidence of menstrual symptoms and adequacy of preparation for menarche. Nurses involved in the planning or implementing of educational programs for girls regarding the menarche should be sensitive to the adolescent's desire for control of the learning environment and a need for selective sharing of the event. Strategies for coping with the "inconvenience" may be usefully developed with the girls as a part of the learning situation.

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and age at menarche in a prospective study of US girls.

    PubMed

    Carwile, J L; Willett, W C; Spiegelman, D; Hertzmark, E; Rich-Edwards, J; Frazier, A L; Michels, K B

    2015-03-01

    menarche. The effect of SSB consumption on age at menarche was observed in every tertile of baseline BMI. Diet soda and fruit juice consumption were not associated with age at menarche. Although we adjusted for a variety of suspected confounders, residual confounding is possible. We did not measure SSB consumption during early childhood, which may be an important window of exposure. More frequent SSB consumption may predict earlier menarche through mechanisms other than increased BMI. Our findings provide further support for public health efforts to reduce SSB consumption. The Growing up Today Study is supported by grant R03 CA 106238. J.L.C. was supported by the Breast Cancer Research Foundation; Training Grant T32ES007069 in Environmental Epidemiology from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health; and Training Grant T32HD060454 in Reproductive, Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. A.L.F. is supported by the American Cancer Society, Research Scholar Grant in Cancer Control. K.B.M. was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (Public Health Service grants R01CA158313 and R03CA170952). There are no conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Secular Trends in Menarcheal Age in India-Evidence from the Indian Human Development Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Tripathi, Niharika; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified. Methods We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15–49 years) in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey. Results The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77) in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85) among women born prior to 1955–1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67) among women born during late 1985–1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955–1964 (95% CI: 14.89–15.11) to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63–12.56) during 1985–1989. Conclusion The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women. PMID:25369507

  13. Age at Menarche and Factors that Influence It: A Study among Female University Students in Tamale, Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by nutritional status and prevailing environmental conditions. This study measured the menarcheal age of female undergraduate students in northern Ghana and explored factors that could impact on the onset of menarche. Method GraphPad 5.01 was used to analyze data collected from 293 randomly selected female university students in a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Association between different variables was tested using appropriate statistical tests. Results The mean recall age at menarche of participants in this study was 13.66 ±1.87 years for a female population of mean age, 23.04±5.07 years. Compared to female students who lived in rural settings, urban and suburban areas dwellers significantly recorded earlier menarche (p = 0.0006). Again, females from high income earning families experienced menarche earlier than those who were born to or lived with lower income earners (p = 0.003). Lower menarcheal age increased risk of experiencing menstrual pain prior to menses rather than during menstrual flow for dysmenorrhic females. (13.52±2.052 vrs 13.63±1.582 year; χ2 = 7.181, df = 2, p = 0.028). Conclusion Mean menarcheal age of female university students in northern Ghana was 13.66 years. Females from urban areas and high income families had earlier menarche. Compared to the very first Ghanaian study reported in 1989, the menarcheal age decline was 0.11 year per decade. PMID:27171234

  14. Is soy intake related to age at onset of menarche? A cross-sectional study among adolescents with a wide range of soy food consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early onset of menarche may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Several factors affect the timing of menarche but it is not clear if soy foods consumption around pubertal years plays a role; thus, we examined its relation to age at onset of menarche (AOM) in a high soy-consuming population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 339 girls ages 12–18 years attending middle and high schools near two Seventh-day Adventist universities in California and Michigan using a web-based dietary questionnaire and physical development tool. Soy consumption (categorized as total soy, meat alternatives, tofu/traditional soy, and soy beverages) was estimated from the questionnaire, while AOM was self-reported. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cox proportional hazards ratios, Kaplan-Meier curves and Poisson regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results Mean (SD) intakes were: total soy,12.9 (14.4) servings/week; meat alternatives, 7.0 (8.9) servings/week; tofu/traditional soy foods, 2.1 (3.8) servings/week; soy beverages, 3.8 (6.3) servings/week. Mean AOM was 12.5 (1.4) y for those who reached menarche. Consumption of total soy and the 3 types of soy foods was not significantly associated with AOM and with the odds for early- or late-AOM. Adjustment for demographic and dietary factors did not change the results. Conclusion Soy intake is not associated with AOM in a population of adolescent girls who have a wide range of, and relatively higher, soy intake than the general US population. Our finding suggests that the increasing popularity of soy in the US may not be associated with AOM. PMID:24889551

  15. Is soy intake related to age at onset of menarche? A cross-sectional study among adolescents with a wide range of soy food consumption.

    PubMed

    Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Pribis, Peter; Messina, Mark; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-06-03

    Early onset of menarche may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Several factors affect the timing of menarche but it is not clear if soy foods consumption around pubertal years plays a role; thus, we examined its relation to age at onset of menarche (AOM) in a high soy-consuming population. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 339 girls ages 12-18 years attending middle and high schools near two Seventh-day Adventist universities in California and Michigan using a web-based dietary questionnaire and physical development tool. Soy consumption (categorized as total soy, meat alternatives, tofu/traditional soy, and soy beverages) was estimated from the questionnaire, while AOM was self-reported. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cox proportional hazards ratios, Kaplan-Meier curves and Poisson regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Mean (SD) intakes were: total soy,12.9 (14.4) servings/week; meat alternatives, 7.0 (8.9) servings/week; tofu/traditional soy foods, 2.1 (3.8) servings/week; soy beverages, 3.8 (6.3) servings/week. Mean AOM was 12.5 (1.4) y for those who reached menarche. Consumption of total soy and the 3 types of soy foods was not significantly associated with AOM and with the odds for early- or late-AOM. Adjustment for demographic and dietary factors did not change the results. Soy intake is not associated with AOM in a population of adolescent girls who have a wide range of, and relatively higher, soy intake than the general US population. Our finding suggests that the increasing popularity of soy in the US may not be associated with AOM.

  16. Age at menarche in urban Argentinian girls: association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Orden, Alicia B; Vericat, Agustina; Apezteguía, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    Age at menarche is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological, and psychosocial environment. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors in girls from Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina). An observational cross-sectional study was carried out on 1,221 schoolgirls aged 9-15 years. Menarche data were obtained by the status-quo method. Height, sitting height, weight, arm circumference, tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were measured. We also calculated body mass index, measures of body composition and proportions, and fat distribution. To assess socioeconomic factors, parents completed a self-administered questionnaire about their occupation and education, family size, household, and other family characteristics. The median age at menarche - estimated by the logit method--was 12.84 years (95% CI: 12.71, 12.97). Compared with their premenarcheal age peers, postmenarcheal girls had greater anthropometric dimensions through age 12. After this age, only height was higher in the latter group. Data were processed by fitting two logistic regressions, both including age. The first model included anthropometric variables and birth weight, while the second model included the socioeconomic variables. The significant variables derived from each model were incorporated into a new regression: height, sitting height ratio (first model), and maternal education (second model). These three variables remained significantly associated with menarche. The results suggest a relationship between linear growth and menarche and agree with those found in other populations where the advancement of menarche is associated with improved living conditions. In relatively uniform urban contexts, maternal education may be a good proxy for the standard of living.

  17. Latitude and ultraviolet radiation dose in the birthplace in relation to menarcheal age in a large cohort of French women.

    PubMed

    Dossus, Laure; Kvaskoff, Marina; Bijon, Anne; Engel, Pierre; Verdebout, Jean; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    Age at menarche is an important determinant of hormonal-related neoplasia and other chronic diseases. Spatial and temporal variations in age at menarche have been observed in industrialised countries and several environmental factors were reported to have an influence. We examined geographical variations in self-reported age at menarche and explored the effects of both latitude and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dose on the onset of menarche in 88,278 women from the French E3N cohort (aged 40-65 years at inclusion). The mean age at menarche was 12.8 years. After adjustment for potential confounders (birth cohort, prematurity, birth weight and length, father's income index, body silhouette in childhood, food deprivation during World War II, population of birthplace, number of siblings, breastfeeding exposure and indoor exposure to passive smoking during childhood), latitude and UVR dose (annual or spring/summer) in county of birth were significantly associated with age at menarche (P(trend) < 0.0001). Women born at lower latitudes or in regions with higher annual or spring/summer UVR dose had a 3- to 4-month earlier menarche than women born at higher latitudes or in regions with lower UVR. On a continuous scale, a 1° increment in latitude resulted in a 0.04-year older age at menarche [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.05], whereas a 1-kJ/m(2) increment in annual UVR dose resulted in a 0.42-year younger age at menarche (95% CI: -0.55, -0.29). These data further suggest that light exposure in childhood may influence sexual maturation in women.

  18. Earlier Mother's Age at Menarche Predicts Rapid Infancy Growth and Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Ken K; Northstone, Kate; Wells, Jonathan CK; Rubin, Carol; Ness, Andy R; Golding, Jean; Dunger, David B

    2007-01-01

    Background Early menarche tends to be preceded by rapid infancy weight gain and is associated with increased childhood and adult obesity risk. As age at menarche is a heritable trait, we hypothesised that age at menarche in the mother may in turn predict her children's early growth and obesity risk. Methods and Findings We tested associations between mother's age at menarche, mother's adult body size and obesity risk, and her children's growth and obesity risk in 6,009 children from the UK population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort who had growth and fat mass at age 9 y measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A subgroup of 914 children also had detailed infancy and childhood growth data. In the mothers, earlier menarche was associated with shorter adult height (by 0.64 cm/y), increased weight (0.92 kg/y), and body mass index (BMI, 0.51 kg/m2/y; all p < 0.001). In contrast, in her children, earlier mother's menarche predicted taller height at 9 y (by 0.41 cm/y) and greater weight (0.80 kg/y), BMI (0.29 kg/m2/y), and fat mass index (0.22 kg/m2/year; all p < 0.001). Children in the earliest mother's menarche quintile (≤11 y) were more obese than the oldest quintile (≥15 y) (OR, 2.15, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.17; p < 0.001, adjusted for mother's education and BMI). In the subgroup, children in the earliest quintile showed faster gains in weight (p < 0.001) and height (p < 0.001) only from birth to 2 y, but not from 2 to 9 y (p = 0.3–0.8). Conclusions Earlier age at menarche may be a transgenerational marker of a faster growth tempo, characterised by rapid weight gain and growth, particularly during infancy, and leading to taller childhood stature, but likely earlier maturation and therefore shorter adult stature. This growth pattern confers increased childhood and adult obesity risks. PMID:17455989

  19. Age at menarche in relation to nutritional status and critical life events among rural and urban secondary school girls in post-conflict Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Menarche age is an important indicator of reproductive health of a woman or a community. In industrial societies, age at menarche has been declining over the last 150 years with a secular trend, and similar trends have been reported in some developing countries. Menarche age is affected by genetic and environmental cues, including nutrition. The study was designed to determine the age at menarche and its relation to childhood critical life events and nutritional status in post-conflict northern Uganda. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study of rural and urban secondary school girls in northern Uganda. Structured questionnaires were administered to 274 secondary school girls, aged 12 – 18 years to determine the age at menarche in relation to home location, nutritional status, body composition and critical life events. Results The mean age at menarche was 13.6 ± 1.3 for rural and 13.3 ± 1.4 years for urban dwelling girls (t = -1.996, p = 0.047). Among the body composition measures, hip circumference was negatively correlated with the age at menarche (r = -0.109, p = 0.036), whereas height, BMI and waist circumference did not correlate with menarche. Paternal (but not maternal) education was associated with earlier menarche (F = 2.959, p = 0.033). Childhood critical life events were not associated with age at menarche. Conclusions Age at menarche differed among urban and rural dwelling school girls and dependent on current nutritional status, as manifested by the hip circumference. It was not associated with extreme stressful childhood critical life events. PMID:24885913

  20. The Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Q63R Variant Modulates the Relationship between Childhood Obesity and Age at Menarche.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Giulia; Grandone, Anna; Torella, Marco; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Nobili, Bruno; Perrone, Laura; Maione, Sabatino; Rossi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The ovary is an important site where gene variants modulate pubertal timing. The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed in the ovary, plays a role in folliculogenesis and ovulation, and can be modulated by estrogens. Obesity is strictly associated with early menarche and is characterized by sex hormone and endocannabinoid derangement. In this study, we investigated the role of the CB2 receptor in determining the age at menarche in obese girls. We studied a cohort of 240 obese girls (age 11.9±3 years; BMI z-score 2.8±0.8). The age at menarche (if it had already occurred) was recorded at the time of the visit or via phonecall. The CNR2 rs35761398 polymorphism, which leads to the CB2 Q63R variant, was detected by the TaqMan assay. In total, 105 patients were homozygous for the R63-coding allele (RR), 113 were QR and 22 were QQ. Variance analysis revealed a significantly earlier age of menarche in subjects carrying the Q63 allele, which was also found after adjusting for BMI z-score (11±1.2 vs. 11.6±1.2 years, p = 0.0003). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients homozygous for the Q allele had a 2.2-fold higher risk (odds ratio = 2.2; CI1.1-3.4; p = 0.02) of presenting with an early menarche (age at menarche <12 years). We demonstrated for the first time the association between the CB2 Q63R functional variant and the age at menarche in a cohort of Italian obese girls.

  1. Menarche as a predictor of risk-taking behavior in a sample of Hungarian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Varga-Tóth, Andrea; Maróti-Nagy, Ágnes; Németh, Gábor; Paulik, Edit

    2017-05-24

    Background The age at the time of the first sexual intercourse is declining, and the prevalence of smoking is increasing in adolescent girls in developed countries. Objective To assess the relationship between menarche and tobacco smoking and sexual activity in adolescent girls. Subjects Girls between 14 and 18 years, attending primary or secondary school. Methods Socio-demographic characteristics (age, living place, educational level of parents, self-estimated financial background), onset and parameters of periods, and risk behaviors (smoking, sexual activity) were measured by self-administered questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between tobacco use and sexual activity and socio-demographic characteristics, menarche and presence of other risk behaviors. Results Adolescent girls who had an earlier onset of their periods were about twice as likely to smoke as girls with later onset of their first period [odds ratio (OR): 2.28, confidence interval (CI): 1.14-4.55]. Being sexually active meant more than 7-fold odds of being a regular tobacco user (OR: 7.24, CI: 4.39-11.94). Regarding sexual activity, increasing age (OR: 4.42, CI: 3.45-5.67) and regular smoking (OR: 7.07, CI: 4.24-11.80) increased, while poor financial status decreased (OR: 0.35, CI: 0.13-0.97) the odds of being sexually active. Conclusion In light of these findings, the reconsideration of health and sexual education in Hungary is needed. Implementation of these programs at an earlier age should be desirable to avoid unfavorable consequences, such as early pregnancy.

  2. Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Michele R; Mangini, Lauren D; Thelus-Jean, Rosenie; Hayward, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A woman’s age at menarche (first menstrual period) and her age at menopause are the alpha and omega of her reproductive years. The timing of these milestones is critical for a woman’s health trajectory over her lifespan, as they are indicators of ovarian function and aging. Both early and late timing of either event are associated with risk for adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. Thus, the search for a relationship between age at menarche and menopause has consequences for chronic disease prevention and implications for public health. This article is a review of evidence from the fields of developmental biology, epidemiology, nutrition, demography, sociology, and psychology that examine the menarche–menopause connection. Trends in ages at menarche and menopause worldwide and in subpopulations are presented; however, challenges exist in constructing trends. Among 36 studies that examine the association between the two sentinel events, ten reported a significant direct association, two an inverse association, and the remainder had null findings. Multiple factors, including hormonal and environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and stress throughout the life course are hypothesized to influence the tempo of growth, including body size and height, development, menarche, menopause, and the aging process in women. The complexity of these factors and the pathways related to their effects on each sentinel event complicate evaluation of the relationship between menarche and menopause. Limitations of past investigations are discussed, including lack of comparability of socioeconomic status indicators and biomarker use across studies, while minority group differences have received scant attention. Suggestions for future directions are proposed. As research across endocrinology, epidemiology, and the social sciences becomes more integrated, the confluence of perspectives will yield a richer understanding of the influences on the tempo of a woman

  3. Age of menarche and nutritional status of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents in the Araucanía Region of Chile.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Muzzo, Santiago; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio

    2010-08-01

    Early onset of menarche has been linked to prevalence of obesity; however, this may differ for indigenous females. To analyse the relationship between age of menarche and nutritional status among indigenous and non-indigenous girls. The design of this study was cross-sectional. Date of menarche was determined through interviews, and all responses were confirmed by the girls' mothers. A total of 8504 adolescents were screened for recent menarche. One hundred and thirty-one girls of Mapuche (indigenous) and 143 girls of Chilean-Spanish background were identified and evaluated by anthropometric measurements. Median age of menarche was 150 months, interquartile range (IR) 143-157 in indigenous, and 145.5 months, IR 139-153 in non-indigenous girls (p = 0.04). The indigenous females showed a higher prevalence of overweight (36.4% vs 23.1%), although the frequency of obesity was similar (16.8% vs 16.3%). For indigenous girls, age of menarche was delayed by 2.69 months (confidence intervals (CI) -0.38 to 5.77). It was observed that girls with overweight experienced age of menarche 7.59 months earlier than those with normal weight, CI -10.78 to -4.41. In the analysis of obesity, the effect on age of menarche was similar, with onset 7.53 months earlier than for the normal weight, CI -11.34 to -3.72. Age of menarche is younger than has been previously reported and occurs earlier in girls with overweight and obesity, while being indigenous was not related.

  4. Surreptitious learning: menarche and menstrual product advertisements.

    PubMed

    Simes, M R; Berg, D H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the messages conveyed in menstrual product advertisements with specific concern given to information that could be learned about menstruation and the female body by menarcheal girls. Over 200 advertisements from popular women's magazines were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. The core variable was Heightening Insecurities. The themes identified in menstrual product advertisements function to heighten insecurities in the female adolescent reader. The findings revealed that the advertisements were a reflection of the negative societal views of menstruation and, because the advertisements function to heighten insecurities, they also function to perpetuate and maintain the silence and shame which surrounds menstruation in our society.

  5. Secular trend of menarche in Zagreb (Croatia) adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veček, Nenad; Veček, Andrea; Zajc Petranović, Matea; Tomas, Zeljka; Arch-Veček, Branka; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Miličić, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    To study the secular trend of menarche in high-school urban adolescent girls (Zagreb, Croatia) over the last two decades, and to evaluate the possible impact of worsening of socio-economic conditions on age at menarche during the Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995). Three surveys of female adolescents aged 15-19 years: (a) 523 girls interviewed in 1990, (b) 888 girls interviewed in 1997, and (c) 399 girls interviewed in 2010. Self-reported age at menarche (in decimal years) was presented by age groups and year of interview. Differences in mean age at menarche between adolescent age groups as well as between surveys were tested using One-way ANOVA. The mean age at menarche was 12.82 years in 1990, 12.92 years in 1997 and 12.31 years in 2010. It increased by 0.10 years from 1990 to 1997 (p=0.290) and then declined by 0.61 years from 1997 to 2010 (p<0.001). Over the 20-year period, the overall mean age at menarche declined by 0.51 years (p<0.001). The age at menarche in Zagreb adolescents continued to decline significantly from 1990 to 2010 (p<0.001), in spite of a statistically insignificant initial increase between 1990 and 1997. When put in broader context, age at menarche mirrored socio-economic changes in the war period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Menarche Experience in Twenty-Three Foreign Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Deana Dorman

    1980-01-01

    Ninety-five women (18-26 years of age) from 23 countries were interviewed regarding (1) their preparation for menarche, (2) messages from others at the time of menarche, and (3) their emotional responses to the first period. Mothers were the source of information for most girls. Others' reactions were primarily hygiene-centered. Comparisons with…

  7. Early Puberty, School Context, and Delinquency Among South Korean Girls.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Sook; Yun, Ilhong; Walsh, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Compared with chronological age, criminologists have paid less attention to the biological sense of age typically expressed by pubertal development. Studies that have examined pubertal timing's effects on delinquency have almost exclusively been conducted in Western countries using mostly White samples. To our knowledge, no study has ever examined this issue in the Asian context. The current study is the first attempt to bridge this research gap by examining the association among menarcheal timing, the sex composition of schools, and delinquency in a representative sample of 1,108 ninth-grade girls in South Korea. The results show that significant association between early menarche and delinquency exists only in mixed-sex schools but not in all-girls schools. In addition, the significant linkage between early menarche and delinquency in mixed-sex schools is mediated by delinquent peer associations.

  8. ERICA: age at menarche and its association with nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Barros, Bruna de Siqueira; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Maria Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da

    2018-01-18

    To estimate the mean age at menarche and its association with nutritional status in Brazilian adolescents. The study sample included female adolescents aged 12-17 who participated in a multicenter, school-based, country-wide, cross-sectional study entitled The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes [ERICA]). Mean and median ages at menarche in Brazil were estimated. The association of age at menarche with sociodemographic data and nutritional status were described as means and their respective 95% confidence intervals. Survival analysis was used to assess the age at menarche according to nutritional status categories and the log-rank test was used to compare the medians. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox regression to verify the association between menarche and other variables. A total of 73,624 students were evaluated, comprising 40,803 girls, of whom 37,390 reported menarche at a mean age of 11.71 years and a median of 12.41 years. Median age at menarche was lower in overweight and obese girls (p<0.001). The multivariate analysis showed that excess weight (HR=1.28; 95% CI 1.21-1.36; p<0.001) and studying in a private school (HR=1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.10; p=0.003) were associated with menarche. This is a pioneering study in Brazil with national and regional representativeness to estimate the mean and the median age of occurrence of menarche. Adolescents with excess weight had an earlier menarche than their peers, even after adjustment for confounding factors. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential impacts of serum vitamin D levels and age at menarche on metabolic syndrome in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: findings from the Korea national cohort.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Mok, Ji-Oh; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Bora; Jang, Ji Hyon; Kang, Sukho; Jung, Sang Hee

    2018-07-01

    It is suggested that vitamin D level and age at menarche are related to each other, and the prevalence of low vitamin D status and early menarche in women is increasing worldwide. Moreover, several studies revealed that both of them are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we hypothesized that there are significant associations among vitamin D status, age at menarche, and MetS and that the relationships differ according to menstrual state. We assessed whether the association among MetS, vitamin D, and menarche age is different between premenopausal and postmenopausal women and whether there is a change in risk of MetS according to vitamin D level in different age-at-menarche groups. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using 1:1 age-matching for this cross-sectional study. Individuals were stratified into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels (deficient, <10 ng/mL; insufficient, 10-19 ng/mL; and sufficient, ≥20 ng/mL) and categorized as having either early, average, or late menarche (<13, 13-16, and ≥17 years). In premenopausal women, early menarche, not vitamin D level, was associated with risk of MetS (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.65 [1.18-2.33]). In contrast, in postmenopausal women, vitamin D deficiency, not age at menarche, was associated with risk of MetS (1.39 [1.03-1.87]). In a stratified analysis regarding interactions of a change in risk of MetS according to vitamin D level in different ages at menarche, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with the risk of MetS (1.36 [1.01-1.86]), but this was only in the average-age-at-menarche group. This study suggests that the time of entry into puberty for women may be an important factor in the development of MetS in adulthood, and vitamin D status in women at average menarche age may contribute to the development of MetS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between menarche and psychosis onset in women with first episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Abadal, Elena; Usall, Judith; Barajas, Anna; Carlson, Janina; Iniesta, Raquel; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Baños, Iris; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age at menarche and age at first episode of psychosis, as well as clinical severity and outcome, in a population of women with first-episode psychosis. Clinical and socio-demographical data, age at menarche and at first-episode psychosis, parental history of psychosis and cannabis-use habits were obtained from 42 subjects with a first episode of psychosis. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Global Assessment Function, Disability Assessment Schedule, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, European Quality of Life, and Lewis and Murray Obstetric Complication Scales were administered. Statistical analysis was performed by means of zero-order correlations and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests using SPSS version 17.0. We found no significant correlation between age at menarche and age at first-episode psychosis, or with the clinical scores performed. We observed that subjects with earlier age at menarche had more parental history of psychosis. Our negative results do not support the theory of a possible protective role of oestrogen, which seems to be more complex than previously thought. We would suggest that further research is needed to investigate developmental influences of sex steroids on the onset of psychosis and potentially therapeutic benefits based upon oestrogen. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Hair product use, age at menarche and mammographic breast density in multiethnic urban women.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Tehranifar, Parisa; Flom, Julie D; Terry, Mary Beth; James-Todd, Tamarra

    2018-01-04

    Select hair products contain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that may affect breast cancer risk. We hypothesize that, if EDCs are related to breast cancer risk, then they may also affect two important breast cancer risk factors: age at menarche and mammographic breast density. In two urban female cohorts (N = 248): 1) the New York site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project and 2) the New York City Multiethnic Breast Cancer Project, we measured childhood and adult use of hair oils, lotions, leave-in conditioners, root stimulators, perms/relaxers, and hair dyes using the same validated questionnaire. We used multivariable relative risk regression models to examine the association between childhood hair product use and early age at menarche (defined as <11 years of age) and multivariable linear regression models to examine the association between childhood and adult hair product use and adult mammographic breast density. Early menarche was associated with ever use of childhood hair products (RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1, 4.8) and hair oil use (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2, 5.2); however, additional adjustment for race/ethnicity, attenuated associations (hair products RR 1.8, 95% CI 0.8, 4.1; hair oil use RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0, 5.5). Breast density was not associated with adult or childhood hair product or hair oil use. If confirmed in larger prospective studies, these data suggest that exposure to EDCs through hair products in early life may affect breast cancer risk by altering timing of menarche, and may operate through a mechanism distinct from breast density.

  12. Results of an early hearing detection program.

    PubMed

    Borkoski Barreiro, Silvia A; Falcón González, Juan C; Bueno Yanes, Jorge; Pérez Bermúdez, José L; López Cano, Zoraida; Ramos Macías, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal hearing loss is a public health problem that meets the requirements for submission to universal screening. Our objective was to analyse the results of the early hearing detection and intervention program implemented at our centre between January 2007 and December 2010. We studied 26,717 newborns during the period mentioned, using transient otoacoustic emissions (TOAEs) for the screening. The diagnostic phase was carried out at the hearing loss department. In our area, there were 27,935 births between January 2007 and December 2010. The screening was performed on 26,717 children. Of these, 24,173 had positive TOAEs, 1,040 had no TOAEs and 1,504 presented TOAEs in 1 ear with absence of TOAEs in the contralateral ear. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were found in 4,674 infants. In a second phase of the program, TOAEs were given to 5,156 children, of whom 4,626 had positive otoacoustic emissions in both ears, 323 had no TOAEs in 1 ear and 207 failed this second phase. Of all children studied, 3.8% were referred to auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and 26 children entered the cochlear implant program. The program reached coverage of 95.64%. The early hearing detection and intervention program at our hospital is suitable for our environment, reaching 95.64% of coverage. We consider the relationship between effectiveness and efficiency to be positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Age at menarche, androgen concentrations, and midlife obesity: findings from the Midlife Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Flaws, Jodi A; Smith, Rebecca L

    2016-11-01

    Studies have shown that earlier age at menarche is associated with a higher risk of midlife obesity; however, the mechanism underlying this association is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the association between age at menarche and midlife obesity is due to variation in circulating androgen concentrations. Baseline data were analyzed from 748 women aged 45 to 54 years enrolled in the Midlife Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study conducted in the Baltimore, MD region. Information on age at menarche was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using height and weight measured at a clinic visit. Obesity was defined as a BMI between 30 and 34.9 kg/m; super obesity was defined as a BMI greater than 35 kg/m. Testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in blood samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated using the formula: (testosterone × 3.467)/sex hormone-binding globulin × 100. After adjustment for covariates, for each year increase in age at menarche, the odds of obesity and super obesity decreased by 31% (odds ratio (OR) 0.69; 95% confidence limits (CL) 0.59, 0.81) and 34% (OR 0.66; 95% CL 0.52, 0.83), respectively. Addition of the FAI into the models did not attenuate the observed estimates. The results of this study indicate that age at menarche is associated with midlife obesity independent of free testosterone concentrations measured in adulthood.

  14. Age at menarche and the reproductive performance of Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Babay, Zainab A; Addar, Mohammed H; Shahid, Khalida; Meriki, Naema

    2004-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has undergone substantial development in the recent past with concomitant changes in living conditions, and economic and general health status that have affected the age at menarche in Saudi women. We evaluated the current age at menarche and reproductive events among Saudi women. Age, age at menarche, age at marriage, age of first pregnancy, number of children, and number of abortions were collected for Saudi women attending King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) over a 3-month period in 2002. For 989 Saudi women, the mean age at menarche was 13.05 years. There was a decrease in the age of menarche over the past 20 years, an increase in the age of marriage, age of first pregnancy, and a decrease in the number of children and abortions. Compared with data from two decades, the age at menarche decreased significantly from 13.22 to 13.05 years. The decrease in the age of menarche among Saudi women indicates better socioeconomic status and improvements in health.

  15. Genome-wide association study of sexual maturation in males and females highlights a role for body mass and menarche loci in male puberty

    PubMed Central

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Berry, Diane J.; Ang, Wei; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Körner, Antje; Siitonen, Niina; Ntalla, Ioanna; Marinelli, Marcella; Perry, John R.B.; Kettunen, Johannes; Jansen, Rick; Surakka, Ida; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ring, Susan; Mcmahon, George; Power, Chris; Wang, Carol; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimäki, Terho; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Neef, Madlen; Weise, Sebastian; Pahkala, Katja; Niinikoski, Harri; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Bustamante, Mariona; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Murabito, Joanne; Torrent, Maties; Dedoussis, George V.; Kiess, Wieland; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pennell, Craig E.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hyppönen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Ripatti, Samuli; McCarthy, Mark I.; Widén, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about genes regulating male puberty. Further, while many identified pubertal timing variants associate with age at menarche, a late manifestation of puberty, and body mass, little is known about these variants' relationship to pubertal initiation or tempo. To address these questions, we performed genome-wide association meta-analysis in over 11 000 European samples with data on early pubertal traits, male genital and female breast development, measured by the Tanner scale. We report the first genome-wide significant locus for male sexual development upstream of myocardin-like 2 (MKL2) (P = 8.9 × 10−9), a menarche locus tagging a developmental pathway linking earlier puberty with reduced pubertal growth (P = 4.6 × 10−5) and short adult stature (p = 7.5 × 10−6) in both males and females. Furthermore, our results indicate that a proportion of menarche loci are important for pubertal initiation in both sexes. Consistent with epidemiological correlations between increased prepubertal body mass and earlier pubertal timing in girls, body mass index (BMI)-increasing alleles correlated with earlier breast development. In boys, some BMI-increasing alleles associated with earlier, and others with delayed, sexual development; these genetic results mimic the controversy in epidemiological studies, some of which show opposing correlations between prepubertal BMI and male puberty. Our results contribute to our understanding of the pubertal initiation program in both sexes and indicate that although mechanisms regulating pubertal onset in males and females may largely be shared, the relationship between body mass and pubertal timing in boys may be complex and requires further genetic studies. PMID:24770850

  16. A systematic review and meta-ethnography of the qualitative literature: experiences of the menarche.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Wu, Shu-Chen

    2010-02-01

    This article is a report of a systematic review and meta-ethnography of women's experience of menarche. Adolescents may experience menarche at different ages, but menarche remains an important milestone in the female maturation process, representing the transition from childhood to womanhood. Systematic review and meta-ethnography. Electronic databases were systematically searched and supplemented with reference lists searching. Qualitative studies of women's experience of menarche were purposely selected and questions proposed by the critical appraisal skills programme was adapted and used to assess papers prior to synthesis. Key themes and concepts were extracted and synthesised using meta-ethnography. Fourteen studies on menarche experience were identified. The majority of studies were descriptive. Five key concepts were identified from all 14 papers as being descriptive of women's experience of menarche. These included: menarche preparation, significant others' response to menarche, physical experience of menarche, psychological experience of menarche and social-cultural perspective of menarche. Menarche experience had a major impact on women. Women went through physical, psychological and social-culture changes when their first menstrual flow came. Menarche preparation has been shown to have a beneficial impact on the menarcheal woman. School nurses have accurate knowledge about sexual health; they can and should provide appropriate menstrual education. The findings can be used by school nurses working with adolescents as the basis for a framework of intervention strategies directed towards helping adolescents to better accept their menarche and transition into womanhood.

  17. Menarche and Fatness: Reexamination of the Critical Body Composition Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, James

    1978-01-01

    Examines the credibility of the theory that, menarche and fecundity require a certain level of fat in the body. Concludes that the evidence does not totally support this hypothesis and that further investigation is warranted. (GA)

  18. Depressive Symptomatology among Very Early Maturing Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between very early menarche and depression was studied in a sample of 488 girls (336 sixth graders and 152 seventh graders), less than 10 percent of whom were very early maturers. Very early menarche was associated with higher levels of depression than was more normative development. (SLD)

  19. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  20. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls.

    PubMed

    Denham, Melinda; Schell, Lawrence M; Deane, Glenn; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2005-02-01

    have reached menarche. However, at the 75th percentile of lead levels, only 10% of 12-year-old Mohawk girls were predicted to have reached menarche; at the 75th percentile of E-PCB levels, 86% of 12-year-old Mohawk girls were predicted to have reached menarche. No association was observed between mirex, p,p'-DDE, or HCB and menarcheal status. Although BMI was not a significant predictor, we tested BMI in the logistic regression model; it had little effect on the relationships between menarcheal status and either lead or E-PCB. In models testing toxicant interactions, age, SES, lead levels, and PCB levels continued to be significant predictors of menarcheal status. When each toxicant was tested in a logistic regression model correcting only for age and SES, we observed little change in the effects of lead or E-PCB on menarcheal status. The analysis of multichemical exposure among Akwesasne Mohawk Nation adolescent girls suggests that the attainment of menarche may be sensitive to relatively low levels of lead and certain PCB congeners. This study is distinguished by the ability to test many toxicants simultaneously and thus to exclude effects from unmeasured but coexisting exposures. By testing several PCB congener groupings, we were able to determine that specifically a group of potentially estrogenic PCB congeners affected the odds of reaching menarche. The lead and PCB findings are consistent with the literature and are biologically plausible. The sample size, cross-sectional study design, and possible occurrence of confounders beyond those tested suggest that results should be interpreted cautiously. Additional investigation to determine whether such low toxicant levels may affect reproduction and disorders of the reproductive system is warranted.

  1. Is obesity at individual and national level associated with lower age at menarche? Evidence from 34 countries in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study.

    PubMed

    Currie, Candace; Ahluwalia, Naman; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Due, Pernille; Currie, Dorothy B

    2012-06-01

    A unique standardized international data set from adolescent girls in 34 countries in Europe and North America participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) is used to investigate the contribution of body mass index (BMI) at individual and country level to cross-national differences in age at menarche. Two independent nationally representative survey data sets from 15-year-olds (n = 27,878, in 34 countries, year = 2005/2006) and 11-year-olds (n = 18,101, in 29 countries, year = 2001/2002) were analyzed. The survey instrument is a self-report questionnaire. Median age at menarche and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Hierarchical models were used to assess the relationship between BMI and age at menarche (months). "Country-level obesity" was measured by prevalence of overweight/obesity (%) in each country. Country-level median age at menarche ranged between 12 years and 5 months and 13 years and 5 months. Country-level prevalence of overweight among 15-year-old girls ranged from 4% to 28%. Age at menarche was inversely associated with individual BMI (unstandardized regression coefficient beta = -1.01; 95% CI, -1.09 to -.94) and country-level aggregate overweight at age 11 (unstandardized regression coefficient beta = -.25; 95% CI, -.43 to -.08). Individual- and country-level measures of BMI account for 40% of the country-level variance in age at menarche. The findings add to the evidence that obesity in childhood is a risk factor for early puberty in girls and accounts for much of the cross-national variation in age at menarche. Future HBSC surveys can track this relationship in the wake of the obesity "epidemic." Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Age at menarche and its influencing factors in North Korean female refugees.

    PubMed

    Ku, Seung-Yup; Kang, Jong Won; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong Dae; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2006-03-01

    Age at menarche is known to be regulated by genetic and environmental factors. To date, no menarcheal data are available on North Korean women. In this cross-sectional survey, we investigated age at menarche and its possible influencing factors in North Korean refugees. Four hundred and eleven North Korean refugees were surveyed at a North Korean female refugee camp using a structured questionnaire within 3 months of immigration. Menarcheal age was requested and the data obtained were analysed with respect to age at interview, region of residence in North Korea, education, food preference and sleep duration. Mean age at menarche was 16.0+/-2.1 years (mean+/-SD). Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant difference in the menarcheal age among the different food preference groups (P=0.0236). Sleep duration was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with age at menarche (R=-0.23, P<0.0001). However, generalized linear model (GLM) analysis revealed that region of residence at menarche (P=0.0209) and sleep duration (P=0.0007) were significant determinants. Food preference played a role as an effect modifier in the relationship between the region of residence at menarche and age at menarche. Age at menarche seemed to be delayed in North Korean refugees. GLM analysis showed that sleep duration and region of residence at menarche were significant influencing factors of age at menarche in this study population.

  3. Biological maturity at birth, the course of the subsequent ontogenetic stages and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Szwed, A; Kosińska, M

    2012-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to assess the influence of biological maturity at birth on growth processes in the subsequent years and during puberty in girls. The material of this study comes from the outpatient clinic cards and cross-sectional research on girls from the province of Wielkopolska in Poland. It includes data of 527 girls. The influence of perinatal maturity on body weight in the later stages of ontogeny was determined with the use of the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. In order to determine the relationship between perinatal maturity and age at menarche, the survival analysis module was used. The results show a diverse influence of perinatal maturity on the values of body weight achieved in later years of life. The indicated predictive factors included both birth weight and gestational age. In the examined girls menarche occurred between the 10th year and the 17th year of life (X¯=12.87, s=1.26; Me=13 years). The comparison showed a significant variation in age at menarche depending on the length of pregnancy (log-rank χ(2)(2)=27.068, p<0.0001) and birth weight (log-rank χ(2)(2)=23.241, p<0.0001). There was no variation in maturation of the examined girls conditioned by the occurrence of intra-uterine growth retardation (log-rank χ(2)(2)=2.046, p>0.05). Remote prognoses as to the postnatal development of preterm-born children and/or children with low birth weight indicate adverse influence of these variables on age at menarche. Perinatal biological maturity of a newborn conditions the course of postnatal development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation Association Analyses for Age at Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Pan, Rong; Shen, Hui; Tian, Qing; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Context: Menarche is a significant physiological event for women. Age at menarche (AAM) is a heritable trait associated with many common female diseases. The genetic basis and the mechanism for AAM are largely unknown. Copy number variation (CNV) is a common type of genetic variation underlying human complex traits. The importance of CNV to AAM variation is unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify CNV important to AAM variation. Design: We performed the first genome-wide CNV study of AAM in 1654 Caucasian females using Affymetrix human single-nucleotide polymorphism 6.0 array. We also replicated our findings in another Chinese cohort containing 752 women. Results: We identified a CNV, variation_38399, in the 2q14.2 region, for association with AAM (P = 1.03 × 10−3). The CNV has two variants (one copy and two copy), with a mean AAM of 14.00 yr and 12.90 yr, respectively. Interestingly, in a Chinese sample containing 752 women, this CNV has been replicated both with a marginally significant P = 0.090 and with a same direction of effect (a lower copy number for a later AAM). The CNV is located approximately 75 kb upstream of the diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI), a gene known to regulate estrogen levels, a key factor for menarche. Conclusion: Our findings for the first time identified a novel CNV and suggested the DBI-mediated endocrinological pathway as a potential mechanism for AAM regulation. PMID:22904172

  5. Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ritte, Rebecca; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure; Teucher, Birgit; Steindorf, Karen; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra Hm; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2013-06-01

    Associations of breast cancer overall with indicators of exposures during puberty are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the associations of height, leg length, sitting height and menarcheal age with hormone receptor-defined malignancies. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of adult height, leg length and sitting height and age at menarche with risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-) (n = 990) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,524) breast tumors. Height as a single risk factor was compared to a model combining leg length and sitting height. The possible interactions of height, leg length and sitting height with menarche were also analyzed. Risk of both ER-PR- and ER+PR+ malignancies was positively associated with standing height, leg length and sitting height and inversely associated with increasing age at menarche. For ER+PR+ disease, sitting height (hazard ratios: 1.14[95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.20]) had a stronger risk association than leg length (1.05[1.00-1.11]). In comparison, for ER-PR- disease, no distinct differences were observed between leg length and sitting height. Women who were tall and had an early menarche (≤13 years) showed an almost twofold increase in risk of ER+PR+ tumors but no such increase in risk was observed for ER-PR- disease. Indicators of exposures during rapid growth periods were associated with risks of both HR-defined breast cancers. Exposures during childhood promoting faster development may establish risk associations for both HR-positive and -negative malignancies. The stronger associations of the components of height with ER+PR+ tumors among older women suggest possible hormonal links that could be specific for postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  6. Effect of family disintegration on age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Toromanović, Alma; Tahirović, Husref

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of psychosocial factors on the age at menarche of girls in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBH). A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2002 to May 2003 in all Cantons of the FBH. The random stratified sample included 19.803 girls aged 9.0 to 17.5 years. Data were collected using the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to estimate median age at menarche and 95% confidence intervals. The present study shows that menarche occurred significantly earlier (p<0.05) in girls from dysfunctional families (median: 12.99 years, 95% confidence interval: 12.93-13.05) than in girls who grew up in intact families (median: 13.04 years, 95% confidence interval: 13.01-13.07). Analyzing separately the impact of each of family stressors on age at menarche, we found that menarcheal age was significantly lower in girls from single-mother families, whose parents are divorced, whose one parent is died and where alcoholism in family is present than in girls from intact families. Maturation was found to be earlier in girls from dysfunctional families then in those from intact families after the influence of place of residence and sibship size was eliminated. From our research we can conclude that the girls from dysfunctional families reached earlier age at menarche than their peers who grew up in normal families, and that this effect did not disappear after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Copyright © 2015 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  7. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  8. Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-α gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-α SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted.

  9. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androic, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Birchall, J.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cornejo, J. C.; Covrig, S.; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finn, J. M.; Forest, T.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hoskins, J. R.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J.; McHugh, M. J.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Myers, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roche, J.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Young, R. D.; Zhamkochyan, S.

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e{{p}} scattering to provide the first determination of the proton's weak charge Q_w^p. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e{{p}} to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(θw) at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world's highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment's data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  10. Landsat-7 Mission and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, S. Kenneth; Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, James R.; Barker, John L.; Markham, Brian L.; Bolek, Joseph T.; Scott, Steven S.; Thompson, R. J.; Rapp, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    The Landsat-7 mission has the goal of acquiring annual data sets of reflective band digital imagery of the landmass of the Earth at a spatial resolution of 30 meters for a period of five years using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imager on the Landsat-7 satellite. The satellite was launched on April 15, 1999. The mission builds on the 27-year continuous archive of thematic images of the Earth from previous Landsat satellites. This paper will describe the ETM+ instrument, the spacecraft, and the ground processing system in place to accomplish the mission. Results from the first few months in orbit will be given, with emphasis on performance parameters that affect image quality, quantity, and availability. There will also be a discussion of the Landsat Data Policy and the user interface designed to make contents of the archive readily available, expedite ordering, and distribute the data quickly. Landsat-7, established by a Presidential Directive and a Public Law, is a joint program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Enterprise and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observing System (EROS) Data Center.

  11. Early Calibration Results of CYGNSS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Ruf, C. S.; McKague, D. S.; Clarizia, M. P.; Gleason, S.

    2017-12-01

    The first of its kind, GNSS-R complete orbital mission, CYGNSS was successfully launched on Dec 15 2016. The goal of this mission is to accurately forecast the intensification of tropical cyclones by modelling its inner core. The 8 micro observatories of CYGNSS carry a passive instrument called Delay Doppler Mapping Instrument (DDMI). The DDMIs form a 2D representation called the Delay-Doppler Map (DDM) of the forward scattered power signal. Each DDMI outputs 4 DDMs per second which are compressed and sent to the ground resulting in a total of 32 sea-surface measurements produced by the CYGNSS constellation per second. These are subsequently used in the Level-2 wind retrieval algorithm to extract wind speed information. In this paper, we perform calibration and validation of CYGNSS measurements for accurate extraction of wind speed information. The calibration stage involves identification and correction for dependence of the CYGNSS observables namely Normalised Bistatic Radar Cross Section and Leading Edge Slope of the Integrated Delay Waveform over instrument parameters, geometry etc. The validation stage involves training of the Geophysical Model Function over a multitude of ground truth sources during the Atlantic hurricane season and also refined validation of high wind speed data products.

  12. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  13. An Exploration of Mothers' Attitudes towards Their Daughters' Menarche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Clare; Harden, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Menarche is a significant milestone for young women, representing an important juncture between girlhood and maturation. The limited literature that exists suggests that a mother's reaction to her daughter's first periods can shape her experiences and perceptions of menstruation which, in turn, may impact on her self-image and, consequently,…

  14. "A Kotex and a Smile": Mothers and Daughters at Menarche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the menarche or first-period narratives of 155 young women, focusing on their relationships with their mothers at this time. It finds that maternal scripts are changing as young women of this cohort, most of whom started their periods around the new millennium, recalled supportive mothers who were emotionally engaged with…

  15. Age at menarche: the influence of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, E.; Shalev, C.; Dalal, I.; Sod-Moriah, U. A.

    1988-03-01

    Age at menarche was studied by the recollection method in two groups of Causasian Jewish high school girls, inhabitants of two towns in Israel, Safad and Elat. The two towns differ mainly in climatic conditions. The age at menarche was found to be significantly lower ( P<0.02) in the hot town of Elat than in the temperate town of Safad: 13.30±1.21 and 13.58±0.9 years, respectively (mean ±SD). A significant association was found between the age at menarche and the town in which the girls lived. Accordingly, in the hot town of Elat, the percentage of girls who had their first menstrual cycle by the age of 12 years and earlier, was more than double that of the girls in Safad (17.9% and 7.1%, respectively). It is concluded that the environmental temperature, with or without any possible interaction of humidity, is probably responsible for the tendency for an earlier onset of menarche in girls living in the hot town of Elat.

  16. Association of Age at Menarche with Anthropometric Measures in Punjabi Bania Girls.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pratibha; Singh, Zora; Sethi, Gurmeet Kaur

    2016-11-01

    Menarcheal age is the age at which menstruation begins. Menarcheal age is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological and psychological environment. 1) To determine the menarcheal age and to examine the relationship between current age at menarche with anthropometric measures in Punjabi bania girls. 2) To develop maturity standards for Bania girls. The present cross-sectional survey was carried out on 200 bania girls at the age of onset of menarche. Menarcheal data was obtained by status quo method by asking about whether menarche has been experienced or not. In the present survey adolescent girls were interviewed with the help of pre-designed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS software, version 16.0. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for correlation studies. A total of 200 Punjabi bania girls were examined in the study. The median age of onset of menarche in these girls was 12.3 years. Menarcheal age was positively associated with bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span. The present research has revealed secular trend in the age of onset of menarche as indicated by median age of 12.3 years in Bania girls. The bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span were also correlated with the age of menarche.

  17. Menarche, menstrual problems and suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Wang, Xin-Ting; Bo, Qi-Gui; Zhang, Dao-Ming; Qi, Zhen-Biao; Liu, Xianchen; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2017-02-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual cycle. Menstrual problems, such as dysmenorrheal menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, and irregular cycle are common in female adolescents. This research aims to examine the associations between age at menarche and menstrual problems and suicidal behavior among Chinese female adolescents. An epidemiological survey of 5831 female adolescents from eight high schools of three counties of Shandong province, China, was conducted. A self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire was used to collect information. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between menstruation and suicidality. The mean age of the sample was 15.02 (SD=1.44) years. Of the sample, 5,231 (90.0%) had experienced their first menstrual cycle, and 23.2%, 10.4%, and 4.5% of the sample reported having had suicidal ideation, plan and attempt, respectively. In multivariate models, menarche at ≤11 years was associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation (OR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.10-1.81) and menarche at 12 years was associated with suicide plan (OR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.00-1.51). Irregular menstrual cycle was significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation (OR=1.40, 95%CI: 1.05-1.86) and menstrual period less than or equal to 4 days was significantly associated with increased risk of suicide plan (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.06-1.66). This cross-sectional study cannot establish the causal directions between menstrual problems and suicidality in adolescents. Our study suggests that earlier menarche, irregular menstrual cycle and short menstrual period are associated with suicidal behavior in female adolescents. Further research is warranted to examine the causal relationship between menstrual problems and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  19. Father absence and timing of menarche in adolescent girls from a UK cohort: the mediating role of maternal depression and major financial problems.

    PubMed

    Culpin, Iryna; Heron, Jon; Araya, Ricardo; Melotti, Roberto; Lewis, Glyn; Joinson, Carol

    2014-04-01

    In a prospective birth cohort study of 5295 girls from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we examined the association between biological father absence in childhood and age at menarche whilst adjusting for antenatal indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage and maternal characteristics. We also examined whether exposure to maternal depression and financial problems during middle childhood mediate the association between father absence and age at menarche. There was stronger evidence for an association between father absence during the first 5 years of life and early timing of menarche compared with father absence between 5 and 10 years. There was evidence that maternal depression and major financial problems explained some of the association between early childhood father absence and age at menarche. Although father absence cannot be a direct target of prevention, family-based programs to address family processes influenced by maternal depression and socioeconomic disadvantage may be effective. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  1. Age at menarche in relation to adult height: the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Onland-Moret, N C; Peeters, P H M; van Gils, C H; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Key, T; Tjønneland, A; Trichopoulou, A; Kaaks, R; Manjer, J; Panico, S; Palli, D; Tehard, B; Stoikidou, M; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H B; Boeing, H; Overvad, K; Lenner, P; Quirós, J R; Chirlaque, M D; Miller, A B; Khaw, K T; Riboli, E

    2005-10-01

    In the last two centuries, age at menarche has decreased in several European populations, whereas adult height has increased. It is unclear whether these trends have ceased in recent years or how age at menarche and height are related in individuals. In this study, the authors first investigated trends in age at menarche and adult height among 286,205 women from nine European countries by computing the mean age at menarche and height in 5-year birth cohorts, adjusted for differences in socioeconomic status. Second, the relation between age at menarche and height was estimated by linear regression models, adjusted for age at enrollment between 1992 and 1998 and socioeconomic status. Mean age at menarche decreased by 44 days per 5-year birth cohort (beta = -0.12, standard error = 0.002), varying from 18 days in the United Kingdom to 58 days in Spain and Germany. Women grew 0.29 cm taller per 5-year birth cohort (standard error = 0.007), varying from 0.42 cm in Italy to 0.98 cm in Denmark. Furthermore, women grew approximately 0.31 cm taller when menarche occurred 1 year later (range by country: 0.13-0.50 cm). Based on time trends, more recent birth cohorts have their menarche earlier and grow taller. However, women with earlier menarche reach a shorter adult height compared with women who have menarche at a later age.

  2. The influence of strenuous muscle stimulation on the menarche.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, F; Ichikawa, Y; Arakawa, M; Chiba, G

    1984-03-01

    Nowadays, the average age at which menarche begins is lowering by three to four years every century, that is, four months every decade, according to both Japanese, and European and American annual changes of the average age. It emerged that the menarche shows a tendency to occur later in female gymnasts, because of the influence of strenuous muscle stimulation, and the fact that a higher level of technic is required in gymnastic games each year. These conclusions have been drawn from replies submitted to a questionnaire distributed among a relatively small number of gymnasts who participated in the competitions including the Inter High School Championship and the World Cup Championship. For example, at the age of 14, the percentage of women who had menstruated is almost 100% among women in general, but only 24% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, the average age at menarche of the latter being later than that of the former by as many as 3 years. At the age of 16, the percentage of women who had menstruated is 100% among women in general, but on the other hand, it is only 60% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, in other words, only a low percentage of women, of the latter group, had menstruated. Finally in our study, we established that the age at menarche of gymnasts is three or five years later than that of women in general. From our study, we concluded that the excessive burden imposed on muscles might cause an abnormal menstrual cycle, and the influence on menstruation would be considerable.

  3. Vaginal microbiota of adolescent girls prior to the onset of menarche resemble those of reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Roxana J; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A; Shew, Marcia L; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Forney, Larry J

    2015-03-24

    Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. This study addresses longitudinal changes in vaginal and vulvar microbial communities prior to and immediately following menarche. The research is significant because microbial ecology of the vagina is an integral aspect of health, including resistance to infections. The physiologic changes of puberty and initiation of cyclic menstruation are likely to have profound effects on vaginal microbiota, but almost nothing is known about changes that normally occur during this time. Our understanding has been especially hampered by the lack of thorough characterization of microbial communities using techniques

  4. Early results from the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1995-01-01

    Data extraction and analysis of the LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment is continuing. Almost twice the pre LDEF world sample has been investigated and some details of the charge spectrum in the region from Z approximately 70 up to and including the actinides are presented. The early results indicate r process enhancement over solar system source abundances.

  5. Early meteorological results from the viking 2 lander.

    PubMed

    Hess, S L; Henry, R M; Leovy, C B; Mitchell, J L; Ryan, J A; Tillman, J E

    1976-12-11

    Early results from the meteorological instruments on the Viking 2 lander are presented. As on lander 1, the daily patterns of temperature, wind, and pressure have been highly repetitive during the early summer period. The average daily maximum temperature was 241 degrees K and the diurnal minimum was 191 degrees K. The wind has a vector mean of 0.7 meter per second from the southeast with a diurnal amplitude of 3 meters per second. Pressure exhibits both diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations, although of substantially smaller amplitude than those of lander 1. Departures from the repetitive diurnal patterns begin to appear on sol 37.

  6. Epidemiology of Uterine Fibroids – From Menarche to Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL) have a substantial impact on women's health, but relatively few studies have identified opportunities for primary prevention of these neoplasms. Most established risk factors are not modifiable, including premenopausal age, African ancestry, age at menarche, and childbearing history. The main challenge in studying UL is that a large proportion of tumors are asymptomatic. Herein, we review the epidemiology of UL from published studies to date. We highlight the advantages of ultrasound screening studies and the ways in which their innovative methods have helped clarify the etiology of disease. We conclude with a discussion of promising new hypotheses. PMID:26744813

  7. From menarche to menopause: the fertile life span of celiac women.

    PubMed

    Santonicola, Antonella; Iovino, Paola; Cappello, Carmelina; Capone, Pietro; Andreozzi, Paolo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated menopause-associated disorders and fertile life span in women with celiac disease (CD) under untreated conditions and after long-term treatment with a gluten-free diet. The participants were 33 women with CD after menopause (untreated CD group), 25 celiac women consuming a gluten-free diet at least 10 years before menopause (treated CD group), and 45 healthy volunteers (control group). The Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire was used to gather information on menopause-associated disorders. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to acquire information on physical activity. Untreated celiac women had a shorter duration of fertile life span than did the control women because of an older age of menarche and a younger age of menopause (P < 0.01). The scores for hot flushes, muscle/joint problems, and irritability were higher in untreated celiac women than in the control women (higher by 49.4%, 121.4%, and 58.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). In comparison with untreated CD, long-lasting treatment of CD was not associated with a significant difference in the duration of fertile life span, but was only associated with a significant reduction in muscle/joint problems (a reduction of 47.1%; P < 0.05). Late menarche and early menopause causes a shorter fertile period in untreated celiac women compared with control women. A gluten-free diet that started at least 10 years before menopause prolongs the fertile life span of celiac women. The perception of intensity of hot flushes and irritability is more severe in untreated celiac women than in controls. Low physical exercise and/or poorer quality of life frequently reported by untreated celiac women might be the cause of reduced discomfort tolerance, thus increasing the subjective perception of menopausal symptoms.

  8. Age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among female students in an urban area in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Serajul; Hussain, Md Altaf; Islam, Saimul; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among urban female students (n=680) in Bangladesh. The mean age of the respondents was 14±1.43years. Majority of the respondents were unmarried (98.4%). The mean age at menarche was 11.6±3.6years, median 12years. Almost one-third (35.7%) of the participants had menarche at the age of 12years. There was no statistically significant difference between age at menarche before and after 12years with the socio-economic characteristics, except education (p=<0.001). In the multivariate model, only higher education was statistically significant predictor of age at menarche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Skeletal Benefits of Pre-Menarcheal Gymnastics Are Retained After Activity Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Scerpella, Tamara A.; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.; Gero, Nicole M.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical loading during childhood and adolescence may yield skeletal benefits that persist beyond activity cessation and menarche. At 1 year pre- and 2 years post-menarche, non-dominant forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and projected area (area) were compared in gymnasts (n=9), ex-gymnasts (n=8) and non-gymnasts (n=13). At both observations, gymnasts and ex-gymnasts had higher forearm aBMD, BMC and area than non-gymnasts. gymnasts had higher post-menarcheal means than ex-gymnasts for all three parameters. Childhood mechanical loading yields skeletal advantages that persist at least 24 months after loading cessation and menarche. Continued post-menarcheal loading yields additional benefit. PMID:20332537

  10. Impact cratering calculations. Part 1: Early time results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, J. M.; Sauer, F. N.; Austin, M. G.; Ruhl, S. F.; Shultz, P. H.; Orphal, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Early time two dimensional finite difference calculations of laboratory scale hypervelocity impact of 0.3 g spherical 2024 aluminum projectiles into homogeneous plasticene clay targets were performed. Analysis of resulting material motions showed that energy and momentum were coupled quickly from the aluminum projectile to the target material. In the process of coupling, some of the plasticene clay target was vaporized while the projectile become severely deformed. The velocity flow field developed within the target was shown to have features similar to those found in calculations of near surface explosion cratering. Specific application of Maxwell's analytic Z-Model showed that this model can be used to describe the early time flow fields resulting from the impact cratering calculations as well, provided the flow field centers are located beneath the target surface and most of the projectile momentum is dissipated before the model is applied.

  11. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. Methods We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. Results We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (Ptrend = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (Ptrend = 0.005) but not cases (Ptrend = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (Phet = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age ≥15 years (ORhet = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; ORhom = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; Ptrend = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age ≤11 years (ORhet = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, ORhom = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; Ptrend = 0.29). Conclusions To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at

  12. [Age at menarche and indigenous ancestry: a population study in Chile].

    PubMed

    Ossa, Ximena; Bustos, Patricia; Muñoz, Sergio; Amigo, Hugo

    2012-08-01

    The age at menarche may influence decisively health and disease in women. It also indicates the beginning of the reproductive period and, as a consequence, the possibility of biological continuity for the human species. Genetic and environmental determinants define the age of menarche and can explain differences found among different populations. To determine the age at menarche among adolescents with different levels of indigenous descent (parental indigenous surnames), considering the effect of socioeconomic and demographic factors. An observational study of historic cohorts of 8.624 girls from the Araucanía Region (central-southern Chile) was carried out. Data were collected by health professionals using a previously validated questionnaire. Occurrence of menarche was estimated through survival analysis and compared between groups (according to indigenous parental surnames) adjusted for parents' income and educational level and provenance (rural/urban). Estimated median age of menarche was 151 months (95% Cl: 150-151). In female with four indigenous surnames, menarche occurred two months later than girls without indigenous surnames and with two indigenous surnames (p < 0,001). In girls whose parents had lowest level of schooling, the difference increased to eight months later (p < 0,005). Age at menarche in the group with higher indigenous descent is later even if socio-economic conditions remain stable. Genetic factors might play an important role, however conditions of vulnerability can influence and further delay the onset of reproductive competency.

  13. The Eole experiment - Early results and current objectives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Eole experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon, floating freely at approximately the 200-mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an rms uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the Eole wind data are given for describing the mean 200-mb zonal and meridional circulations.

  14. Early Results from NICER Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Bult, Peter; Cackett, Ed; Chenevez, Jerome; Fabian, Andy; Guillot, Sebastien; Guver, Tolga; Homan, Jeroen; Keek, Laurens; Lamb, Frederick; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig B.; Miller, Jon M.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) offers significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neuton stars relative to previous X-ray missions including large effective area, low background, and greatly improved low-energy response. The NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group has designed a 2 Ms observation program to study a number of phenomena in accreting neutron stars including type-I X-ray bursts, superbursts, accretion-powered pulsations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and accretion disk reflection spectra. We present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission.

  15. Early on-orbit calibration results from Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, William L.

    2003-04-01

    Aqua MODIS, also known as the MODIS Flight Model 1 (FM1), was launched on May 4, 2002. It opened its nadir aperture door (NAD) on June 24, 2002, beginning its Earth observing mission. In this paper, we present early results from Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization and assess the instrument's overall performance. MODIS has 36 spectral bands located on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs). Bands 1-19, and 26 with wavelengths from 0.412 to 2.1 microns are the reflective solar bands (RSB) that are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD). The degradation of the SD is tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The bands 20-25, and 27-36 with wavelengths from 3.75 to 14.5 microns are the thermal emissive bands (TEB) that are calibrated on-orbit by a blackbody (BB). Early results indicate that the on-orbit performance has been in good agreement with the predications determined from pre-launch measurements. Except for band 21, the low gain fire band, band 6, known to have some inoperable detectors from pre-launch characterization, and one noisy detector in band 36, all of the detectors' noise characterizations are within their specifications. Examples of the sensor's short-term and limited long-term responses in both TEB and RSB will be provided to illustrate the sensor's on-orbit stability. In addition, we will show some of the improvements that Aqua MODIS made over its predecessor, Terra MODIS (Protoflight Model - PFM), such as removal of the optical leak into the long-wave infrared (LWIR) photoconductive (PC) bands and reduction of electronic crosstalk and out-of-band (OOB) thermal leak into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands.

  16. Experiences and Constructions of Menarche and Menstruation Among Migrant and Refugee Women.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Alexandra J; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Metusela, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation are shaped by the sociocultural environment in which women are embedded. We explored experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation among migrant and refugee women resettled in Sydney, Australia, and Vancouver, Canada. Seventy-eight semistructured individual interviews and 15 focus groups comprised of 82 participants were undertaken with women from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and varying South American countries. We analyzed the data using thematic decomposition, identifying the overall theme "cycles of shame" and two core themes. In "becoming a woman," participants constructed menarche as a marker of womanhood, closely linked to marriage and childbearing. In "the unspeakable," women conveyed negative constructions of menstruation, positioning it as shameful, something to be concealed, and polluting. Identifying migrant and refugee women's experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation is essential for culturally safe medical practice, health promotion, and health education.

  17. Mexican adolescents' experience of menarche and attitudes toward menstruation: role of communication between mothers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Marván, M L; Molina-Abolnik, M

    2012-12-01

    First, to explore the kind of information that Mexican mothers give their daughters about menstruation before their menarche, and to study the impact of this communication on how prepared the daughters felt when they experienced their menarche. Second, to investigate the influence of the menarcheal experience on attitudes toward menstruation. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 3 different public schools. 405 Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 12-15 years. Participants answered a questionnaire that had 3 parts: (a) General data, (b) topics related to menses that participants had discussed with their mothers prior to menarche, and (c) menarcheal experience. They also answered a questionnaire about menstrual attitudes. Although most of the participants knew what they should do when they experienced their menarche, only 39% stated they had felt prepared to start menstruating. Regarding menstrual attitudes, adolescents scored highest on Negative Feelings and Secrecy rather than on Positive Feelings. Participants who had previously discussed the emotional aspects of menses with their mothers were more likely to claim they had felt prepared to start menstruating when they got their first period (OR = 3.45). The fact that adolescents felt prepared to start menstruating predicted positive attitudes toward menstruation (β = .19) Discussing the emotional aspects of menses prior to menarche is crucial to being prepared for menarche, and to holding positive attitudes toward menstruation. Information on biological knowledge and practical aspects of menses needs to be supplemented with emotional issues. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Age at Menarche and Time Spent in Education: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    PubMed

    Gill, D; Del Greco M, F; Rawson, T M; Sivakumaran, P; Brown, A; Sheehan, N A; Minelli, C

    2017-09-01

    Menarche signifies the primary event in female puberty and is associated with changes in self-identity. It is not clear whether earlier puberty causes girls to spend less time in education. Observational studies on this topic are likely to be affected by confounding environmental factors. The Mendelian randomization (MR) approach addresses these issues by using genetic variants (such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) as proxies for the risk factor of interest. We use this technique to explore whether there is a causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education. Instruments and SNP-age at menarche estimates are identified from a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 182,416 women of European descent. The effects of instruments on time spent in education are estimated using a GWAS meta-analysis of 118,443 women performed by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium (SSGAC). In our main analysis, we demonstrate a small but statistically significant causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education: a 1 year increase in age at menarche is associated with 0.14 years (53 days) increase in time spent in education (95% CI 0.10-0.21 years, p = 3.5 × 10 -8 ). The causal effect is confirmed in sensitivity analyses. In identifying this positive causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education, we offer further insight into the social effects of puberty in girls.

  19. Cultural practices relating to menarche and menstruation among adolescent girls in Taiwan--qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-L; Chen, K-H; Peng, N-H

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively record the cultural attitudes and practices associated with menarche and menstruation in Taiwanese girls, particularly with respect to coping mechanisms. Forty-eight adolescent girls participated. Adolescent girls were individually interviewed to investigate the effects of their cultural practices, coping mechanisms, and physiological symptoms during menarche and menstruation. The qualitative investigation revealed mixed reactions to menstruation, such as eating chocolate, using sanitary napkins, and feeling irritable or embarrassed. Cluster construction suggested that adolescents were prepared for menarche but required emotional support; in addition, the new generation employed the Internet to learn how to cope. A phenomenological approach showed that menarche and menstrual attitudes among Taiwanese adolescents were comprised in 4 dimensions: self-perception, information, and cultural practices with regard to menarche; physiological symptoms and psychological reactions during menstruation; coping mechanisms during menarche and menstruation; and methods for coping and cultural practices for menstruation. Cultural beliefs and the Internet have changed cross-cultural contacts. Educators and health professionals should seek to understand this generation of girls, who perceive the world as more flexible and available and have more creativity and new eating behaviors and hobbies. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Menarche, Menopause, Years of Menstruation, and the Incidence of Osteoporosis: The Influence of Prenatal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol

    PubMed Central

    Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994–2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Main Outcome Measure: Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. Results: The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. PMID:24248183

  1. The EOLE experiment: Early results and current objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The EOLE experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon floating freely at approximately the 200 mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an RMS uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the EOLE wind data are given for describing the mean 200 mb zonal and meridional circulations. The effect of the small scale eddies of two-dimensional turbulence has been studied with respect to the relative eddy diffusion of pairs of balloons and the relative dispersion of triangular clusters. New estimates of the RMS divergence of the 200 mb flow are given, together with their scale dependence which was found to be a logarithmic law.

  2. HST Observations of the Uranian Ring Plane Crossing: Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Lissauer, J. J.; French, R. G.; Hamilton, D. P.; Nicholson, P. D.; de Pater, I.

    2007-10-01

    Between early May and mid-August 2007, Earth was on the north side of the Uranian ring plane while the Sun was still shining on the rings’ southern face. This has provided an exceedingly rare opportunity to view the ring system via transmitted light. The ɛ ring, which typically out-shines every other component of the inner ring-moon system, has been rendered essentially invisible. We have been conducting regular imaging of the Uranian system throughout this period with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera on HST to address numerous scientific goals. (1) To search the inner Uranian system for the "shepherding” moons long believed to confine the narrow rings; (2) to study the packing density of the main rings via direct observations of their vertical thickness; (3) to search for the inner dust rings that appeared in a few Voyager images; (4) to determine the vertical thickness of the faint outer rings μ and ν (5) to obtain the most sensitive determinations of the outer rings’ colors and try to understand why ring ν is red but ring μ is blue; (6) to search for additional outer dust rings under optimal viewing geometry; and (7) to continue monitoring the seemingly chaotic orbital variations of the inner Uranian moons, particularly Mab. HST observations span mid-May to mid-September. We will present our initial results from this observing program.

  3. Early Results from the RAIDS Experiment on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) is a suite of three photometers, three spectrometers, and two spectrographs which span the wavelength range 55-874 nm and remotely sense the thermosphere and ionosphere by scanning and imaging the limb. RAIDS was scheduled to fly to the Japanese Experiment Module—Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. RAIDS along with a companion hyperspectral imaging experiment will serve as the first US payload on the JEM-EF. The scientific objectives of the new RAIDS experiment are to study the temperature of the lower thermosphere (100-200 km), to measure composition and chemistry of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere, and to measure the initial source of OII 83.4 nm emission. RAIDS will provide valuable data useful for exploring tidal effects in the thermosphere and ionosphere system, validating dayside ionospheric remote sensing methods, and studying local time variations in important chemical and thermal processes. Early observational results from the RAIDS experiment will be presented. The RAIDS sensor suite performs multispectral limb scanning from the open end of the HICO-RAIDS Experiment Payload aboard the ISS.

  4. Experience of Menarche Among Jordanian Adolescent Girls: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Omar; Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Fooladi, Marjaneh M

    2016-06-01

    Menarche is a significant physical and emotional experience for adolescent girls, especially in certain cultures, where it is viewed as a rite of passage, affecting the meaning of lived experiences. The purpose of the study was to explore the menarche experience among Jordanian adolescent girls when they reach menarche. Interpretive phenomenological analysis. Az-Zarqa City, Jordan. A homogenous sample of 7 Jordanian girls, ages 12-14 years, who had their first menstruation within the past 6 months. Participants were asked to narrate their experiences through journal writing; their reports to be used for interpretive phenomenological analyses by 2 independent researchers, to ensure the findings' trustworthiness. Three major themes emerged as: (1) menstruation as a forbidden topic; (2) keeping the "topic" to oneself; and (3) no more secrets. Each theme was characterized according to distinct sets of emotions and knowledge-seeking patterns because Jordanian culture and Islamic teachings had greatly influenced the girls' experience of menarche. Menarche was considered a social taboo; not to be openly discussed. At the first signs of menarche, participants were shocked, scared, confused, and anxious. They had limited information and support from their family or school system. Therefore, they relied on self-perceptions about menarche, and viewed the experience of menstruation with profound negative emotions. Participants hesitated to share their experiences with their mothers and close friends. They felt alone and experienced their emotional turmoil in isolation and without support. Jordanian adolescent girls need formal health education to understand and manage the reproductive changes that occur in their bodies. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between age at menarche and infertility among Chinese rural women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianping; Zhong, Chunli; Liang, Hong; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Ou; Gao, Ersheng; Chen, Aimin; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jian; Sun, Fei; Miao, Maohua

    2015-11-01

    To explore the relationship between age at menarche and infertility. The cross-sectional study investigated 6906 couples from the communities in Sandu Shui Autonomous County of Guizhou Province, China. Face to face interviews were conducted to collect information on age at menarche and time to first pregnancy, as well as demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Infertility was defined as being unable to become pregnant after attempting for ≥12 months. Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between age at menarche and infertility of first attempt. The prevalence rate of infertility for the first pregnancy attempt of the study population was 11.87%. There is an obvious monotonic, almost linear, trend of prevalence rate of infertility with increasing age at menarche (P for trend: <0.001). Compared with wives with age at menarche of 13 years, the prevalence ratios of infertility were 0.71 (95%CI: 0.42, 1.20), 1.33 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.68), 1.47 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.85), 1.57 (95%CI: 1.20, 2.04), 1.41 (95%CI: 1.00, 1.99) and 1.73 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.52) for wives with age at menarche of ≤12, 14, 15, 16, 17 and ≥18 years, respectively, after adjusting for wife's year at birth, age at marriage, ethnic group, education and occupation, and husband's smoking and drinking habits before marriage. The present community-based study indicated that increasing age at menarche was associated with an increased risk of infertility in the study population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Western gulf culture-density study-early results

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher; Alan B. Wilson; Nick Chappell; Conner Fristoe; Larry Anderson

    2006-01-01

    The Western Gulf Culture-Density Study is a collaborative research effort between Texas A&M University and five forest products companies to examine the effects of early silvicultural treatment intensity and a wide range of both densities and soil types on performance of loblolly pine. The study tests 2 silvicultural intensities, 5 planting densities (200 to 1,200...

  7. [Menarche, menstrual and sociodemographic characteristics of Puerto Rican female athletes in the XV and XVI Central American and Caribbean Games].

    PubMed

    Rivera, M A; Mendez Zamora, I; Matos, R M; Rivera, A

    1993-09-01

    This investigation described maturation, menstrual and socio-demographic characteristics of 65 Puerto Rican women athletes that were interviewed during the XVI Central American and Caribbean Games (CACG), Mexico City in 1990. The results were compared with those of Puerto Rican women athletes (n = 52) at the XV CACG, Santiago Dominican Republic, 1986. The quantitative variables (age, age at initiation of training, years of training, age at menarche, birth order, and family size) were not statistically different (t-independent, p > or = 0.05). The observed frequencies for the qualitative variables (menstrual characteristics, degree of certainty in the recall of age of menarche, use of oral contraceptives, and marital status) were very similar. the women at the XVI CAC in Mexico demonstrated similar maturational, menstrual and socio-demographic characteristics to the those athletes evaluated four years earlier in Santiago and based on their long history of training, both samples were representative of athletically mature athletes. The findings were very similar to those reported for olympic athletes and such data expands the available information on Puerto Rican women athletes.

  8. Secular trend in age at menarche in indigenous and nonindigenous women in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ossa, X M; Munoz, S; Amigo, H; Bangdiwala, S I

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the secular trend in age at menarche, comparing indigenous and nonindigenous women, and its relationship with socio-demographic, family and nutritional factors. A study (historical cohorts) of 688 indigenous and nonindigenous women, divided into four birth cohorts (1960-69, 1970-79, 1980-89, and 1990-96) in an area in central southern Chile was carried out. Data and measurements were collected by health professionals using a previously validated questionnaire. Age at menarche was self-reported (recall). Adjusted differences among cohorts were estimated using a multivariate regression model. A secular trend (P < 0.001) in age at menarche was found in both ethnic groups, with no significant differences between them (P > 0.05). In an adjusted model, a reduction in age at menarche was estimated at 3.7 months per decade between 1960 and 1990. This trend was moderated by higher socio-economic level, smaller number of siblings, and cohabitation with a single parent during infancy. The trend has occurred in a steady progression over time in indigenous women, whereas in nonindigenous women, it was slow initially but has accelerated in recent years. Nonindigenous women have maintained a slightly lower age of menarche than their indigenous counterparts. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Early results from NASA's SnowEx campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Gatebe, Charles; Hall, Dorothy; Misakonis, Amy; Elder, Kelly; Marshall, Hans Peter; Hiemstra, Chris; Brucker, Ludovic; Crawford, Chris; Kang, Do Hyuk; De Marco, Eugenia; Beckley, Matt; Entin, Jared

    2017-04-01

    SnowEx is a multi-year airborne snow campaign with the primary goal of addressing the question: How much water is stored in Earth's terrestrial snow-covered regions? Year 1 (2016-17) focuses on the distribution of snow-water equivalent (SWE) and the snow energy balance in a forested environment. The year 1 primary site is Grand Mesa and the secondary site is the Senator Beck Basin, both in western, Colorado, USA. Ten core sensors on four core aircraft will make observations using a broad suite of airborne sensors including active and passive microwave, and active and passive optical/infrared sensing techniques to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of these potential satellite remote sensing techniques, along with models, to measure snow under a range of forest conditions. SnowEx also includes an extensive range of ground truth measurements—in-situ samples, snow pits, ground based remote sensing measurements, and sophisticated new techniques. A detailed description of the data collected will be given and some early results will be presented. Seasonal snow cover is the largest single component of the cryosphere in areal extent (covering an average of 46M km2 of Earth's surface (31 % of land areas) each year). This seasonal snow has major societal impacts in the areas of water resources, natural hazards (floods and droughts), water security, and weather and climate. The only practical way to estimate the quantity of snow on a consistent global basis is through satellites. Yet, current space-based techniques underestimate storage of snow water equivalent (SWE) by as much as 50%, and model-based estimates can differ greatly vs. estimates based on remotely-sensed observations. At peak coverage, as much as half of snow-covered terrestrial areas involve forested areas, so quantifying the challenge represented by forests is important to plan any future snow mission. Single-sensor approaches may work for certain snow types and certain conditions, but not for others

  10. Aquarius Radiometer Performance: Early On-Orbit Calibration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Wentz, Frank; Ruf, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched into a 657-km altitude, 6-PM ascending node, sun-synchronous polar orbit from Vandenberg, California, USA on June 10, 2011. The Aquarius instrument was commissioned two months after launch and began operating in mission mode August 25. The Aquarius radiometer meets all engineering requirements, exhibited initial calibration biases within expected error bars, and continues to operate well. A review of the instrument design, discussion of early on-orbit performance and calibration assessment, and investigation of an on-going calibration drift are summarized in this abstract.

  11. A Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Age at Menarche in Three Populations of European Descent

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Carl A.; Zhu, Gu; Falchi, Mario; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Treloar, Susan A.; Spector, Timothy D.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Visscher, Peter M.; Montgomery, Grant W.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Age at menarche (AAM) is an important trait both biologically and socially, a clearly defined event in female pubertal development, and has been associated with many clinically significant phenotypes. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify genetic loci influencing variation in AAM in large population-based samples from three countries. Design/Participants: Recalled AAM data were collected from 13,697 individuals and 4,899 pseudoindependent sister-pairs from three different populations (Australia, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) by mailed questionnaire or interview. Genome-wide variance components linkage analysis was implemented on each sample individually and in combination. Results: The mean, sd, and heritability of AAM across the three samples was 13.1 yr, 1.5 yr, and 0.69, respectively. No loci were detected that reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis, but a suggestive locus was detected on chromosome 12 (logarithm of the odds = 2.0). Three loci of suggestive significance were seen in the U.K. sample on chromosomes 1, 4, and 18 (logarithm of the odds = 2.4, 2.2 and 3.2, respectively). Conclusions: There was no evidence for common highly penetrant variants influencing AAM. Linkage and association suggest that one trait locus for AAM is located on chromosome 12, but further studies are required to replicate these results. PMID:18647812

  12. Longitudinal Reliability of Self-Reported Age at Menarche in Adolescent Girls: Variability across Time and Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Pabst, Stephanie; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche is critical in research and clinical settings, yet there is a dearth of studies examining its reliability in adolescents. We examined age at menarche during adolescence, specifically, (a) average method reliability across 3 years, (b) test-retest reliability between time points and methods, (c) intraindividual variability of…

  13. Influence of menarche on the relation between diurnal cortisol production and ventral striatum activity during reward anticipation

    PubMed Central

    LeMoult, Joelle; Colich, Natalie L.; Sherdell, Lindsey; Hamilton, J. Paul; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by an increase in risk-taking and reward-seeking behaviors. In other populations, increased risk taking has been associated with tighter coupling between cortisol production and ventral striatum (VS) activation during reward anticipation; this relation has not yet been examined, however, as a function of adolescent development. This study examined the influence of pubertal development on the association between diurnal cortisol production and VS activity during reward anticipation. Pre- and post-menarcheal girls collected diurnal cortisol and completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging-based monetary incentive delay task, from which we extracted estimates of VS activity during the anticipation of reward, anticipation of loss and anticipation of non-incentive neutral trials. Post-menarcheal girls showed greater coupling between the cortisol awakening response and VS activation during anticipation of reward and loss than did their pre-menarcheal counterparts. Post-menarcheal girls did not differ from pre-menarcheal girls in their cortisol-VS coupling during anticipation of neutral trials, suggesting that puberty-related changes in cortisol-VS coupling are specific to affective stimuli. Interestingly, behavioral responses during the task indicate that post-menarcheal girls are faster to engage with affective stimuli than are pre-menarcheal girls. Thus, post-menarcheal girls exhibit neurobiological and behavioral patterns that have been associated with risk taking and that may underlie the dramatic increase in risk-taking behavior documented during adolescence. PMID:25678549

  14. Going through the Rites of Passage: Timing and Transition of Menarche, Childhood Sexual Abuse, and Anxiety Symptoms in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Menarche is a discrete, transitional event that holds considerable personal, social, biological, and developmental significance. The present longitudinal study examined both the transition and timing of menarche on the trajectory of anxiety in girls with histories of childhood maltreatment (N = 93; 63% European American, 14% multiracial, 10%…

  15. Early surgical management for giant omphalocele: Results and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Roux, Nathalie; Jakubowicz, Déborah; Salomon, Laurent; Grangé, Gilles; Giuseppi, Agnès; Rousseau, Véronique; Khen-Dunlop, Naziha; Beaudoin, Sylvie

    2018-05-23

    Giant omphalocele often represents a major surgical challenge and is reported with high mortality and morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of neonates with giant omphalocele managed with early operative surgical treatment, and subsequently to identify possible factors that could alter the prognosis. We reviewed the medical records of 29 consecutive newborns with prenatally diagnosed giant omphalocele. In these cases one of two procedures had been performed: either staged closure after silo, or immediate closure with a synthetic patch. The cases were separated into 2 groups: Isolated giant omphalocele (IO group) and giant omphalocele associated with malformation (NIO group). Infants in the IO group had a lower size of the omphalocele (p<0,001), a shorter hospital stay (95 days [45-915] vs. 41.5 days [10-110] p= 0, 02), and a shorter median ventilation length (10 days [1-33] vs. 27, 5 [6-65] p = 0, 05). In the NIO group, 5 cases displayed a significantly more difficult course than the others. They were compared to the remaining cases for prenatal and anatomic features. Four factors associated with greater morbidity were identified: CONCLUSIONS: Isolated omphalocele, even containing the whole liver, has a very good prognosis with early surgical treatment. Without associated anomalies, 95% of giant omphaloceles can be discharged with a median of 41.5 days in hospital. However, associated anomalies (especially cardiopathies) may burden the prognosis and should be both carefully assessed during pregnancy and taken into account in parental information. Retrospective Study LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Nutritional status in telarche and menarche in indigenous and non indigenous Chilean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Costa Machado, Thais; Bustos, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    A compensatory effect of chronic malnutrition that influences excess of weight has been reported. This effect would be more evident in indigenous populations. The aim of this study was to find out the association between ethnic group (mapuche) and body composition in the telarche and menarche of indigenous and non indigenous adolescents. This was a cross sectional design. At the beginning, a screening of 10,121 girls from 168 schools in the Araucania Region, Chile was done. 230 adolescent in telarche (grade II of the development of the mammary gland): 112 indigenous and 118 non indigenous and 239 in menarche (113 indigenous and 126 non indigenous) were identified. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were evaluated. BMI, WC and LM were higher in the indigenous adolescent in telarche. For those with menarche, the differences decreased, reaching with higher values for indigenous girls only in BMI and FM (p=0,04 and 0,02, respectively). Belonging to the indigenous group increased the BMI in 0.37 z scores in telarche (95% CI: 0,17-0,58) and 0,44 in menarche (95% CI:0,18-0,70). Being mapuche was also associated to higher WC: 3.33 cm (CI 1,67 - 4,99) in telarche and 3,17 cm (CI 0,73-5,60) in menarche and to higher lean mass only for those adolescents with telarche (1,3 CI: 0,11-2,43) and to fat mass only for those with menarche (2,4 CI: 1,02-3,77). The body composition indicators in indigenous adolescents are of concern and underscores the importance of programs to promote healthy lifestyles that take into account resources from the indigenous communities.

  17. Persistent osteopenia in ballet dancers with amenorrhea and delayed menarche despite hormone therapy: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Warren, Michelle P; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Fox, Richard P; Holderness, Claire C; Hyle, Emily P; Hamilton, William G; Hamilton, Linda

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the role of estrogen deprivation and replacement in amenorrheic and nonamenorrheic dancers on hormone therapy and calcium. Clinical, placebo-controlled, randomized trial study.Healthy volunteers in an academic research environment. Fifty-five dancers (mean age: 22.0 +/- 4.6, age at menarche: 14.7 +/- 2.3 years), including 24 amenorrheics. Amenorrheics were randomized in a controlled trial to receive placebo or Premarin, 0.625 mg for 25 days monthly, with Provera, 10 mg, for 10 of these 25 days (hormone therapy) for 2 years. These women were compared to normally menstruating controls. The study participants also received 1250 mg of calcium per day. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the foot, wrist, and lumbar spine. Our overall results showed no difference in BMD between the treated or placebo groups, indicating that hormone therapy did not change or normalize BMD when compared to normals. Five patients (all on placebo) who resumed menses during the study showed an increase in BMD without normalization. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than hypoestrogenism may be involved with the osteopenia associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea.

  18. Relationships Between Age at Menarche, Walking Gait Base of Support, and Stance Phase Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Froehle, Andrew W; Grannis, Kimberly A; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2017-05-01

    Age at menarche impacts patterns of pubertal growth and skeletal development. These effects may carry over into variation in biomechanical profiles involved in sports-related traumatic and overuse knee injuries. The present study investigated whether age at menarche is a potential indicator of knee injury risk through its influence on knee biomechanics during normal walking. To test the hypothesis that earlier menarche is related to postpubertal biomechanical risk factors for knee injuries, including a wider, more immature gait base of support, and greater valgus knee angles and moments. Cross-sectional observational study. University research facility. Healthy, postmenarcheal, adolescent girls. Age at menarche was obtained by recall questionnaire. Pubertal growth and anthropometric data were collected by using standard methods. Biomechanical data were taken from tests of walking gait at self-selected speed. Reflective marker position data were collected with a 3-dimensional quantitative motion analysis system, and 3 force plates recorded kinetic data. Age at menarche; growth and anthropometric measurements; base of support; static knee frontal plane angle; and dynamic knee frontal plane angles and moments during stance. Earlier menarche was correlated significantly with abbreviated pubertal growth and postpubertal retention of immature traits, including a wider base of support. Earlier menarche and wider base of support were both correlated with more valgus static knee angles, more valgus knee abduction angles and moments at foot-strike, and a more valgus peak knee abduction angle during stance. Peak knee abduction moment during stance was not correlated with age at menarche or base of support. Earlier menarche and its effects on growth are associated with retention of a relatively immature gait base of support and a tendency for static and dynamic valgus knee alignment. This biomechanical profile may put girls with earlier menarche at greater risk for sports

  19. Age at Menarche and Factors that Influence It: A Study among Female University Students in Tamale, Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by nutritional status and prevailing environmental conditions. This study measured the menarcheal age of female undergraduate students in northern Ghana and explored factors that could impact on the onset of menarche. GraphPad 5.01 was used to analyze data collected from 293 randomly selected female university students in a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Association between different variables was tested using appropriate statistical tests. The mean recall age at menarche of participants in this study was 13.66 ±1.87 years for a female population of mean age, 23.04±5.07 years. Compared to female students who lived in rural settings, urban and suburban areas dwellers significantly recorded earlier menarche (p = 0.0006). Again, females from high income earning families experienced menarche earlier than those who were born to or lived with lower income earners (p = 0.003). Lower menarcheal age increased risk of experiencing menstrual pain prior to menses rather than during menstrual flow for dysmenorrhic females. (13.52±2.052 vrs 13.63±1.582 year; χ2 = 7.181, df = 2, p = 0.028). Mean menarcheal age of female university students in northern Ghana was 13.66 years. Females from urban areas and high income families had earlier menarche. Compared to the very first Ghanaian study reported in 1989, the menarcheal age decline was 0.11 year per decade.

  20. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  1. The WHAM Hα Magellanic Stream Survey: Progress and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kat; Krishnarao, Dhanesh

    2017-01-01

    We present early analysis of the Hα survey of the Magellanic Stream using the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM). The neutral component of the Stream extends some 200° across the sky (Nidever et al. 2010). However, the full extent of the ionized gas has not been mapped in detail. Previous studies (e.g., Putman et al. 2003; Weiner & Williams 1996) suggest that ionized gas is likely to be found all along the length of the Stream, and may extend beyond the current neutral boundaries as traced by 21 cm. Barger et al. (2013) used WHAM to map ionized gas throughout the Magellanic Bridge between the Magellanic Clouds. Although ionized emission tracks the neutral emission for the most part, it often spans a few degrees away from the H I at slightly offset velocities. Additionally, Fox et al. (2014) find evidence in an absorption line study that the tidal debris in the Magellanic System contains twice as much ionized gas as neutral material and may extend 30° away from 21-cm sensitivity boundaries. We are now compiling the first comprehensive picture of the ionized component of the Magellanic Stream using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to trace diffuse emission (~tens of mR), its velocity resolution (12 km/s) to separate the Stream from the Milky Way, and its multiwavelength capabilities (e.g., [S II] and [N II]) to examine the physical conditions of the gas. Much of the data along the primary axis of the Stream has been collected for the first phase of this extensive study, a complete kinematic Hα survey of the Stream. We present survey progress, challenges in extracting Stream emission, and first-look kinematic maps at select positions along the Stream.

  2. FRONTIER FIELDS: HIGH-REDSHIFT PREDICTIONS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciT

    Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Zitrin, Adi, E-mail: DCoe@STScI.edu

    2015-02-20

    The Frontier Fields program is obtaining deep Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope images of new ''blank'' fields and nearby fields gravitationally lensed by massive galaxy clusters. The Hubble images of the lensed fields are revealing nJy sources (AB mag > 31), the faintest galaxies yet observed. The full program will transform our understanding of galaxy evolution in the first 600 million years (z > 9). Previous programs have yielded a dozen or so z > 9 candidates, including perhaps fewer than expected in the Ultra Deep Field and more than expected in shallower Hubble images. In this paper, we present high-redshift (z >more » 6) number count predictions for the Frontier Fields and candidates in three of the first Hubble images. We show the full Frontier Fields program may yield up to ∼70 z > 9 candidates (∼6 per field). We base this estimate on an extrapolation of luminosity functions observed between 4 < z < 8 and gravitational lensing models submitted by the community. However, in the first two deep infrared Hubble images obtained to date, we find z ∼ 8 candidates but no strong candidates at z > 9. We defer quantitative analysis of the z > 9 deficit (including detection completeness estimates) to future work including additional data. At these redshifts, cosmic variance (field-to-field variation) is expected to be significant (greater than ±50%) and include clustering of early galaxies formed in overdensities. The full Frontier Fields program will significantly mitigate this uncertainty by observing six independent sightlines each with a lensing cluster and nearby blank field.« less

  3. Planck early results. XXV. Thermal dust in nearby molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Abergel, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Dobashi, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, A.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Verstraete, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2011-12-01

    Planck allows unbiased mapping of Galactic sub-millimetre and millimetre emission from the most diffuse regions to the densest parts of molecular clouds. We present an early analysis of the Taurus molecular complex, on line-of-sight-averaged data and without component separation. The emission spectrum measured by Planck and IRAS can be fitted pixel by pixel using a single modified blackbody. Some systematic residuals are detected at 353 GHz and 143 GHz, with amplitudes around -7% and +13%, respectively, indicating that the measured spectra are likely more complex than a simple modified blackbody. Significant positive residuals are also detected in the molecular regions and in the 217 GHz and 100 GHz bands, mainly caused by the contribution of the J = 2 → 1 and J = 1 → 0 12CO and 13CO emission lines. We derive maps of the dust temperature T, the dust spectral emissivity index β, and the dust optical depth at 250 μm τ250. The temperature map illustrates the cooling of the dust particles in thermal equilibrium with the incident radiation field, from 16 - 17 K in the diffuse regions to 13 - 14 K in the dense parts. The distribution of spectral indices is centred at 1.78, with a standard deviation of 0.08 and a systematic error of 0.07. We detect a significant T - β anti-correlation. The dust optical depth map reveals the spatial distribution of the column density of the molecular complex from the densest molecular regions to the faint diffuse regions. We use near-infrared extinction and Hi data at 21-cm to perform a quantitative analysis of the spatial variations of the measured dust optical depth at 250 μm per hydrogen atom τ250/NH. We report an increase of τ250/NH by a factor of about 2 between the atomic phase and the molecular phase, which has a strong impact on the equilibrium temperature of the dust particles. Corresponding author: A. Abergel, e-mail: alain.abergel@ias.u-psud.fr

  4. Early Science Results from the Williams College Eclipse Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Dantowitz, Ron; Lockwood, Christian A.; Nagle-McNaughton, Tim; Meadors, Erin N.; Perez, Cielo C.; Marti, Connor J.; Yu, Ross; Rosseau, Brendan; Daly, Declan M.; Ide, Charles A.; Davis, Allen B.; Lu, Muzhou; Sliski, David; Seiradakis, John; Voulgaris, Aris; Rusin, Vojtech; Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Roman, Michael; Seaton, Daniel B.; Steele, Amy; Lee, Duane M.; Freeman, Marcus J.

    2018-01-01

    We describe our first cut of data reduction on a wide variety of observations of the solar corona and of the effect of the penumbra and umbra on the terrestrial atmosphere, carried out from our eclipse site on the campus of Willamette University in Salem, Oregon. Our team of faculty, undergraduate students, graduate students, and other colleagues observed the eclipse, taking images and spectra with a variety of sensors and telescopes. Equipment included frame-transfer cameras observing at 3 Hz in 0.3 nm filters at the coronal green and red lines to measure the power spectrum of oscillations in coronal loops or elsewhere in the lower corona; 3 spectrographs; a variety of telescopes and telephotos for white-light imaging; a double Lyot system tuned at Fe XIV 530.3 nm (FWHM 0.4 nm) and Fe X 637.4 nm (FWHM 0.5 nm); and a weather station to record changes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We are comparing our observations with predictions based on the previous mapping of the photospheric magnetic field, and preparing wide-field complete coronal imaging incorporating NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI and NRL/NASA/LASCO for the corona outside our own images (which extend, given the completely clear skies we had, at least 4 solar radii), and NASA SDO/AIA and NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI for the solar disk. One of our early composites appeared as Astronomy Picture of the Day for September 27: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap170927.htmlOur expedition was supported in large part by grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation, with additional student support from the STP/AGS of NSF, the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Sigma Xi honorary scientific society, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation studentship and the Freeman Foote Expeditionary Fund at Williams College, other Williams College funds, and U. Pennsylvania funds.

  5. Mathematical Rigor vs. Conceptual Change: Some Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, W. R.

    2003-05-01

    Results from two different pedagogical approaches to teaching introductory astronomy at the college level will be presented. The first of these approaches is a descriptive, conceptually based approach that emphasizes conceptual change. This descriptive class is typically an elective for non-science majors. The other approach is a mathematically rigorous treatment that emphasizes problem solving and is designed to prepare students for further study in astronomy. The mathematically rigorous class is typically taken by science majors. It also fulfills an elective science requirement for these science majors. The Astronomy Diagnostic Test version 2 (ADT 2.0) was used as an assessment instrument since the validity and reliability have been investigated by previous researchers. The ADT 2.0 was administered as both a pre-test and post-test to both groups. Initial results show no significant difference between the two groups in the post-test. However, there is a slightly greater improvement for the descriptive class between the pre and post testing compared to the mathematically rigorous course. There was great care to account for variables. These variables included: selection of text, class format as well as instructor differences. Results indicate that the mathematically rigorous model, doesn't improve conceptual understanding any better than the conceptual change model. Additional results indicate that there is a similar gender bias in favor of males that has been measured by previous investigators. This research has been funded by the College of Science and Mathematics at James Madison University.

  6. External-environmental and internal-health early life predictors of adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.

  7. Age at Menarche and Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescent Girls with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris

    2010-01-01

    The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…

  8. Age at menarche, age at menopause and duration of fertility as risk factors for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sioka, C; Fotopoulos, A; Georgiou, A; Xourgia, X; Papadopoulos, A; Kalef-Ezra, J A

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the relationship of osteopenia and osteoporosis in apparently healthy postmenopausal patients with age at menarche, age at menopause and duration of fertility. One hundred and twenty-four apparently healthy Greek postmenopausal women underwent spinal and hip X-ray absorptiometry scans. Among them, 47 were classified as normal (control group), 52 as osteopenic, and 25 as having osteoporosis. These groups were compared according to their age at menarche (three subgroups of 10-12, 13 and 14-16 years old), at menopause (three subgroups of 40-45, 46-50 and > or = 51 years old) and duration of fertility (four subgroups of < or = 30, 31-35, 36-40 and 41-45 years). The groups were not found to differ statistically according to age and age at menarche. However, decreased bone mineral density was found in patients with duration of fertility not exceeding 30 years (p = 0.034) and age at menopause less than 45 years (p = 0.034). No association was found between bone mineral density in Greek postmenopausal women and either number of live births or lactation. In postmenopausal females, the cumulative exposure to endogenous estrogens, measured as years of menstruation, seems to be a significant protective factor against the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age at menopause between 40 and 45 years, but not age at menarche, correlated with low bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

  9. Growth pattern and age at menarche of obese girls in a transitional society.

    PubMed

    Jaruratanasirikul, S; Mo-suwan, L; Lebel, L

    1997-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing problem in a transitional society such as Thailand. To study physical growth and puberty in obese children, a cross-sectional survey of growth and age at menarche was carried out in schoolgirls aged between 8 and 16 years old. The 3,120 girls were divided into two groups based on weight-for-height criteria. Girls with weight-for-height between 80 and 120% were classified as normal stature (2,625; 84.1%) and those more than 120% were obese (495; 15.9%). Using probit analysis, age at menarche in obese girls was 0.9 year earlier than normal stature girls (11.5 years vs 12.4 years). At age 12, obese girls were reaching menarche 2.8 times more when compared with the normal stature girls. In terms of growth pattern, obese girls were taller and grew faster during the prepubertal period, and then reached their final height earlier than the normal stature girls (13 years vs 15 years). The final height in obese girls was significantly shorter (153.0 cm and 155.0 cm, p = 0.01). We conclude that: 1) obese girls grow faster, have earlier menarche and then stop growing earlier, and 2) obese girls tend to be shorter as adults, compared with normal stature girls.

  10. Interactive Effects of Menarcheal Status and Dating on Dieting and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Steinberg, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    Examined effects of three different aspects of heterosocial activity--mixed-sex activities, dating, and physical involvement with boys--on the diet patterns of adolescent girls. Found interaction between dating and menarcheal status in the prediction of dieting and disordered eating, with dating more strongly linked to dieting and disordered…

  11. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  12. The Gravity Probe B experiment and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John W.; Gravity Probe B Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Gravity Probe B orbiting gyroscope test of General Relativity, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 April, 2004 tests two consequences of Einstein's theory: 1) the predicted 6.6 arcs/yr geodetic effect due to the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth; 2) the predicted 0.039 arcs/yr frame-dragging effect due to the rotating Earth. The mission required the development of many technologies that did not exist when experiment was conceived in 1960. Cryogenic gyroscopes with drift-rates 7 orders of magnitude better than the best inertial navigation gyroscopes, a < 1 marcs star tracking telescope, and other essential technologies were developed as a result of an intensive collaboration between Stanford physicists and engineers, NASA and industry. Gravity Probe B collected science data from August 27, 2004 through September 29, 2005. Analysis of the data began during the mission and is on-going. This paper describes the main features and challenges of the experiment and presents the preliminary results to date.

  13. Lidar In-space Technology Experiment: Overview and early results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, M. Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The September 1994 Shuttle flight of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) brought to fruition 10 years of effort at NASA's Langley Research Center where it was built. Being the first flight of a spaceborne lidar to measure atmospheric constituents and parameters and surface properties, it culminates the efforts of many worldwide over the last 20 years to usher in this new remote sensing technique from space. This paper will describe the LITE instrument, the in-orbit performance, and initial results. In addition, the global correlative measurements program will be outlined which involved 60 groups in 20 countries who made various simultaneous ground-based or aircraft measurements as LITE flew overhead.

  14. Early results from the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Isaacman, R. B.; Fixsen, D. J.; Read, S. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mapped 98 percent of the sky, 60 percent of it twice, before the liquid helium coolant was exhausted. The FIRAS covers the frequency region from 1 to 100/cm with a 7 deg angular resolution. The spectral resolution is 0.2/cm for frequencies less than 20/cm and 0.8/cm for higher frequencies. Preliminary results include: a limit on the deviations from a Planck curve of 1 percent of the peak brightness from 1 to 20/cm, a temperature of 2.735 +/- 0.06 K, a limit on the Comptonization parameter y of 0.001, on the chemical potential parameter mu of 0.01, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy spectrum is that of a Doppler shifted blackbody.

  15. Early Results from NASA's Assessment of Satellite Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Reed, Benjamin B.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Whipple, Arthur O.; Oegerle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Following recommendations by the NRC, NASA's FY 2008 Authorization Act and the FY 2009 and 2010 Appropriations bills directed NASA to assess the use of the human spaceflight architecture to service existing/future observatory-class scientific spacecraft. This interest in satellite servicing, with astronauts and/or with robots, reflects the success that NASA achieved with the Shuttle program and HST on behalf of the astronomical community as well as the successful construction of ISS. This study, led by NASA GSFC, will last about a year, leading to a final report to NASA and Congress in autumn 2010. We will report on its status, results from our March satellite servicing workshop, and recent concepts for serviceable scientific missions.

  16. The Whole Heliosphere Interval: Campaign Summaries and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Kozyra, Janet U.

    2008-01-01

    The Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) is an internationally coordinated observing and modeling effort to characterize the 3-dimensional interconnected solar-heliospheric-planetary system - a.k.a. the "heliophysical" system. The heart of the WHI campaign is the study of the interconnected 3-D heliophysical domain, from the interior of the Sun, to the Earth, outer planets, and into interstellar space. WHI observing campaigns began with the 3-0 solar structure from solar Carrington Rotation 2068, which ran from March 20 - April 16, 2008. Observations and models of the outer heliosphere and planetary impacts extended beyond those dates as necessary; for example, the solar wind transit time to outer planets can take months. WHI occurs during solar minimum, which optimizes our ability to characterize the 3-D heliosphere and trace the structure to the outer limits of the heliosphere. A summary of some of the key results from the WHI first workshop in August 2008 will be given.

  17. LSNR Airborne LIDAR Mapping System Design and Early Results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, K.; Carter, W. E.; Slatton, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    Low signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR) detection techniques allow for implementation of airborne light detection and range (LIDAR) instrumentation aboard platforms with prohibitive power, size, and weight restrictions. The University of Florida has developed the Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS), a prototype LSNR LIDAR system capable of single photon laser ranging. CATS is designed to operate in a fixed-wing aircraft flying 600 m above ground level, producing 532 nm, 480 ps, 3 μJ output pulses at 8 kHz. To achieve continuous coverage of the terrain with 20 cm spatial resolution in a single pass, a 10x10 array of laser beamlets is scanned. A Risley prism scanner (two rotating V-coated optical wedges) allows the array of laser beamlets to be deflected in a variety of patterns, including conical, spiral, and lines at selected angles to the direction of flight. Backscattered laser photons are imaged onto a 100 channel (10x10 segmented-anode) photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a micro-channel plate (MCP) amplifier. Each channel of the PMT is connected to a multi-stop 2 GHz event timer. Here we report on tests in which ranges for known targets were accumulated for repeated laser shots and statistical analyses were applied to evaluate range accuracy, minimum separation distance, bathymetric mapping depth, and atmospheric scattering. Ground-based field test results have yielded 10 cm range accuracy and sub-meter feature identification at variable scan settings. These experiments also show that a secondary surface can be detected at a distance of 15 cm from the first. Range errors in secondary surface identification for six separate trials were within 7.5 cm, or within the timing resolution limit of the system. Operating at multi-photon sensitivity may have value for situations in which high ambient noise precludes single-photon sensitivity. Low reflectivity targets submerged in highly turbid waters can cause detection issues. CATS offers the capability to adjust the

  18. Early Science Results from SOFIA, the Worlds Largest Airborne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buizer, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the largest flying observatory ever built, consisting of a 2.7-meter diameter telescope embedded in a modified Boeing 747-SP aircraft. SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und-Raumfahrt. By flying at altitudes up to 45000 feet, the observatory gets above 99.9% of the infrared-absorbing water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere. This opens up an almost uninterrupted wavelength range from 0.3-1600 microns that is in large part obscured from ground based observatories. Since its 'Initial Science Flight' in December 2010, SOFIA has flown several dozen science flights, and has observed a wide array of objects from Solar System bodies, to stellar nurseries, to distant galaxies. This talk will review some of the exciting new science results from these first flights which were made by three instruments: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the optical occultation photometer HIPO.

  19. HUNTING THE COOLEST DWARFS: METHODS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciT

    Schneider, A.; Song, Inseok; Melis, Carl

    2011-12-20

    We present the methods and first results of a survey of nearby high proper motion main-sequence stars to probe for cool companions with the Gemini camera at Lick Observatory. This survey uses a sample of old (age > 2 Gyr) stars as targets to probe for companions down to temperatures of 500 K. Multi-epoch observations allow us to discriminate comoving companions from background objects. So far, our survey has successfully rediscovered the wide T8.5 companion to GJ 1263 and has discovered a companion to the nearby M0V star GJ 660.1. The companion to GJ 660.1 (GJ 660.1B) is {approx}4 magmore » fainter than its host star in the J-band and is located at a projected separation of {approx}120 AU. Known trigonometric parallax and Two Micron All Sky Survey magnitudes for the GJ 660.1 system indicate a spectral type for the companion of M9 {+-} 2.« less

  20. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  1. Early Results from Swift AGN and Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xinyu; Griffin, Rhiannon; Nugent, Jenna; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-04-01

    The Swift AGN and Cluster Survey (SACS) uses 125 deg^2 of Swift X-ray Telescope serendipitous fields with variable depths surrounding gamma-ray bursts to provide a medium depth (4 × 10^-15 erg cm^-2 s^-1) and area survey filling the gap between deep, narrow Chandra/XMM-Newton surveys and wide, shallow ROSAT surveys. Here, we present the first two papers in a series of publications for SACS. In the first paper, we introduce our method and catalog of 22,563 point sources and 442 extended sources. SACS provides excellent constraints on the AGN and cluster number counts at the bright end with negligible uncertainties due to cosmic variance, and these constraints are consistent with previous measurements. The depth and areal coverage of SACS is well suited for galaxy cluster surveys outside the local universe, reaching z > 1 for massive clusters. In the second paper, we use SDSS DR8 data to study the 203 extended SACS sources that are located within the SDSS footprint. We search for galaxy over-densities in 3-D space using SDSS galaxies and their photometric redshifts near the Swift galaxy cluster candidates. We find 103 Swift clusters with a > 3σ over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmations as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, BCG magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, X-ray luminosity and red sequences. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≤ 0.3 and 80% complete for z ≤ 0.4, consistent with the survey depth of SDSS. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm presented in our first paper has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further studying cluster evolution and cosmology. In the end, we will discuss our ongoing optical identification of z>0.5 cluster

  2. Ages at Menarche and Menopause and Reproductive Lifespan As Predictors of Exceptional Longevity in Women: The Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Shadyab, Aladdin H.; Macera, Caroline A.; Shaffer, Richard A.; Jain, Sonia; Gallo, Linda C.; Gass, Margery L.S.; Waring, Molly E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between reproductive factors and survival to age 90 years. Methods This was a prospective study of postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative recruited from 1993-1998 and followed until the last outcomes evaluation on August 29, 2014. Participants included 16,251 women born on or before August 29, 1924 for whom survival to age 90 during follow-up was ascertained. Women were classified as having survived to age 90 (exceptional longevity) or died before age 90. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of ages at menarche and menopause (natural or surgical) and reproductive lifespan with longevity, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive characteristics. Results Participants were on average aged 74.7 years (range, 69-81 years) at baseline. Of 16,251 women, 8,892 (55%) survived to age 90. Women aged ≥12 years at menarche had modestly increased odds of longevity (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.19). There was a significant trend toward increased longevity for later age at menopause (natural or surgical; Ptrend =0.01), with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.19 (1.04-1.36) and 1.18 (1.02-1.36) for 50-54 and ≥55 compared with <40 years, respectively. Later age at natural menopause as a separate exposure was also significantly associated with increased longevity (Ptrend =0.02). Longer reproductive lifespan was significantly associated with increased longevity (Ptrend=0.008). The odds of longevity were 13% (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.25) higher in women with >40 compared with <33 reproductive years. Conclusions Reproductive characteristics were associated with late-age survival in older women. PMID:27465713

  3. Sibling composition and household room sharing are associated with menarcheal status among rural Bengalee girls of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Koziel, Slawomir; Chakraborty, Raja; Bose, Kaushik

    2013-08-01

    Menarche, the first menstruation, is one of the most important events in a woman's reproductive life. The timing of menarche varies across populations and depends upon social interaction and family environment. It is also associated with several biological as well as social factors. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between sibling composition and age at menarche (AAM) and to assess the association between the pattern of room sharing with family members of different sexes and menarcheal occurrence among rural Bengalee girls from West Bengal, India. The total sample comprised 577 Bengalee girls, 6-17 years of age, from various schools and madrasas in two blocks of the Nadia District of West Bengal State in India. The effects of room sharing on the occurrence of menarche, and of sibling composition on the menarcheal age, were assessed by analyses of covariance. The room-sharing pattern had a significant effect on menarcheal status (yes÷no): a significantly higher percentage of girls who shared a room with the mother and÷or sisters were postmenarcheal compared with those who shared a room with male family members. AAM did not differ significantly between girls having brothers or sisters. However, sibling order had a significant impact on AAM. Girls who had a younger sibling only (brother or sister) had a higher mean AAM, and girls who had both younger brothers and younger sisters had significantly higher mean AAM, than did the girls who had no younger sibling (singletons or having only elder siblings). There was no difference in AAM between the girls who had younger sister(s) and those who had younger brother(s). These differences were also independent of body mass index. In conclusion, the room sharing characteristics and the sibling sex composition, particularly their order, had significant effect on menarche in adolescent rural Bengalee girls. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  4. Influence of menarche on the relation between diurnal cortisol production and ventral striatum activity during reward anticipation.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Colich, Natalie L; Sherdell, Lindsey; Hamilton, J Paul; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-09-01

    Adolescence is characterized by an increase in risk-taking and reward-seeking behaviors. In other populations, increased risk taking has been associated with tighter coupling between cortisol production and ventral striatum (VS) activation during reward anticipation; this relation has not yet been examined, however, as a function of adolescent development. This study examined the influence of pubertal development on the association between diurnal cortisol production and VS activity during reward anticipation. Pre- and post-menarcheal girls collected diurnal cortisol and completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging-based monetary incentive delay task, from which we extracted estimates of VS activity during the anticipation of reward, anticipation of loss and anticipation of non-incentive neutral trials. Post-menarcheal girls showed greater coupling between the cortisol awakening response and VS activation during anticipation of reward and loss than did their pre-menarcheal counterparts. Post-menarcheal girls did not differ from pre-menarcheal girls in their cortisol-VS coupling during anticipation of neutral trials, suggesting that puberty-related changes in cortisol-VS coupling are specific to affective stimuli. Interestingly, behavioral responses during the task indicate that post-menarcheal girls are faster to engage with affective stimuli than are pre-menarcheal girls. Thus, post-menarcheal girls exhibit neurobiological and behavioral patterns that have been associated with risk taking and that may underlie the dramatic increase in risk-taking behavior documented during adolescence. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Early Pregnancy Diabetes Screening and Diagnosis: Prevalence, Rates of Abnormal Test Results, and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.

  6. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  7. Outcome of Isolated Premature Menarche: A Retrospective and Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sehar; Lane, Andrew; Wilson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Isolated premature menarche is isolated or recurrent vaginal bleeding in a female in the absence of appropriate secondary sexual characters. Retrospective chart review of patients with premature menarche, followed by a telephone questionnaire. Charts of patients evaluated in the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for premature vaginal bleeding from 1982-2013 were reviewed. Of 21 patients identified, 17 could be contacted. Five newly diagnosed patients were recruited during the course of the study. The median age at initial presentation was 7 years. Most patients presented with Tanner I sexual development. Some had more advanced breast staging, which regressed later. All had prepubertal baseline and stimulated gonadotropins. Most of the patients reported a single or few episodes of menses. Two reported continuation of irregular bleeding into adulthood. All reported an adult height within the midparental target height. Premature menarche in the absence of other appropriate secondary sexual characteristics is a benign entity. Most patients have a few isolated episodes of menses that stop spontaneously; some may continue to have periods into adulthood. Unlike true puberty, these patients do not demonstrate advanced skeletal maturation, and the adult height is normal. Fertility appears to be normal. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Parent-of-origin specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J. Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D’adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco EJ; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul DP; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth JF; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality1. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation2,3, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P<5×10−8) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1/WDR25, MKRN3/MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signaling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  9. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Perry, John Rb; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco Ej; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul Dp; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce Hr; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth Jf; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

    2014-10-02

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition.

  10. Important Role of Menarche in Development of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; Hong, Chi-Chen; Yao, Song; Troester, Melissa A; Bandera, Elisa V; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N; Borges, Virginia; Park, Song-Yi; Chandra, Dhyan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R

    2015-09-01

    Menarche is a critical time point for diverging fates of mammary cells of origin. African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. In the AMBER Consortium, using harmonized data from 4426 African American women with breast cancer and 17 474 controls, we used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ages at menarche and first live birth (FLB), and the interval between, in relation to ER+ and ER- breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Risk of ER- breast cancer was reduced with later age at menarche among both parous and nulliparous women (≥15 vs <11 years OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.81 and OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.29 to 1.10, respectively), with no effect of age at FLB. For ER+ breast cancer, the inverse association was weaker among nulliparous women. While longer intervals between menarche and FLB were associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in a dose-response fashion (OR for 20 year interval = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.79, P trend = .003), ER- risk was only increased for intervals up to 14 years and not beyond (P trend = .33). While ER- breast cancer risk was markedly reduced in women with a late age at menarche, there was not a clear pattern of increased risk with longer interval between menarche and FLB, as was observed for ER+ breast cancer. These findings indicate that etiologic pathways involving adolescence and pregnancy may differ for ER- and ER+ breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Age at menarche in Polish University students born before, during and after World War II: Economic effects.

    PubMed

    Liczbińska, Grażyna; Czapla, Zbigniew; Piontek, Janusz; Malina, Robert M

    2018-02-01

    Although the relationships between economic conditions and biological variables over the past two centuries in Poland are reasonably well-documented, the influence of economic and political disruptions, including nutritional privation, during the years immediately before, during and shortly after World War II (WWII) has received less attention. This paper considers the association between age at menarche and body size of university students born before, during and after WWII and father's level of education, a commonly used indicator of family economic status in Poland. Subjects were 518 university students surveyed between 1955 and 1972, birth years 1931 through 1951. The sample was divided into three birth cohorts: before (n=237), during (n=247) and after (n=34) WWII. Age at menarche was compared among birth cohorts, and by weight status and father's level of education. Age at menarche increased slightly but significantly among women born during WWII (14.4 yrs) compared to those born before (14.2 yrs) and after (13.9 yrs) the war. Controlling for year of birth and age of the student, age at menarche was significantly earlier in overweight (13.42±0.35 yrs) than in normal weight (14.33±0.06 yrs) and thin (14.54±0.21 yrs) women. Adjusted mean ages at menarche in small samples of overweight women did not differ by father's level of education, and were earlier than corresponding ages of thin and normal weight women. Adjusted mean ages at menarche did not differ between thin and normal weight women with fathers having primary or no education, but were slightly later in thin than in normal weight women with fathers having a vocational, secondary or higher education. Although age at menarche was associated with father's level of education, young adult weight status was a somewhat more important correlate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Age at menarche in relation to nutritional status and critical life events among rural and urban secondary school girls in post-conflict northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Odongkara Mpora, Beatrice; Piloya, Thereza; Awor, Sylvia; Ngwiri, Thomas; Laigong, Paul; Mworozi, Edison A; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2014-05-09

    Menarche age is an important indicator of reproductive health of a woman or a community. In industrial societies, age at menarche has been declining over the last 150 years with a secular trend, and similar trends have been reported in some developing countries. Menarche age is affected by genetic and environmental cues, including nutrition. The study was designed to determine the age at menarche and its relation to childhood critical life events and nutritional status in post-conflict northern Uganda. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of rural and urban secondary school girls in northern Uganda. Structured questionnaires were administered to 274 secondary school girls, aged 12 - 18 years to determine the age at menarche in relation to home location, nutritional status, body composition and critical life events. The mean age at menarche was 13.6 ± 1.3 for rural and 13.3 ± 1.4 years for urban dwelling girls (t = -1.996, p = 0.047). Among the body composition measures, hip circumference was negatively correlated with the age at menarche (r = -0.109, p = 0.036), whereas height, BMI and waist circumference did not correlate with menarche. Paternal (but not maternal) education was associated with earlier menarche (F = 2.959, p = 0.033). Childhood critical life events were not associated with age at menarche. Age at menarche differed among urban and rural dwelling school girls and dependent on current nutritional status, as manifested by the hip circumference. It was not associated with extreme stressful childhood critical life events.

  13. Final visual acuity results in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study.

    PubMed

    Good, William V; Hardy, Robert J; Dobson, Velma; Palmer, Earl A; Phelps, Dale L; Tung, Betty; Redford, Maryann

    2010-06-01

    To compare visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with conventionally managed eyes. Infants with symmetrical, high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye randomized to earlier treatment at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (n = 84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either early treatment or conventional management. The main outcome measure was ETDRS visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers. Retinal structure was assessed as a secondary outcome. Analysis of all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant benefit for early treatment (24.3% vs 28.6% [corrected] unfavorable outcome; P = .15). Analysis of 6-year visual acuity results according to the Type 1 and 2 clinical algorithm showed a benefit for Type 1 eyes (25.1% vs 32.8%; P = .02) treated early but not Type 2 eyes (23.6% vs 19.4%; P = .37). Early-treated eyes showed a significantly better structural outcome compared with conventionally managed eyes (8.9% vs 15.2% unfavorable outcome; P < .001), with no greater risk of ocular complications. Early treatment for Type 1 high-risk prethreshold eyes improved visual acuity outcomes at 6 years of age. Early treatment for Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes did not. Application to Clinical Practice Type 1 eyes, not Type 2 eyes, should be treated early. These results are particularly important considering that 52% of Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes underwent regression of ROP without requiring treatment. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222.

  14. Early loosening of a press-fit cup with ceramic-on-ceramic articulation: our early results.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, Daniël; Westerbos, Stijn; Campo, Martin M; Boonstra, Ritsert H; Rob Albers, G H; van der Vis, Harm M

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we present the short-term results of the Selexys TH+ cup with the Ceramys inlay which is a press-fit cup with a ceramic-on-ceramic articulation. (Mathys, Bettlach, Switzerland). We compared the results with a retrospective-matched control group with a Delta PF cup (Lima, Udine, Italy), which is also a press-fit cup with a ceramic-on-ceramic articulation. 257 elective hip arthroplasties with the Selexys TH+ cup in 250 patients placed in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed and compared with a control group retrospective analysis of the uncemented Delta PF cup (Lima, Udine, Italy) placed in 2007 and 2008 in 208 patients (222 hips). Surgical technique and surgeons were identical in both groups. During a follow-up period of 3-21 months, 19 aseptic loosenings (7.4 %) were found for the Selexys TH+ cup. The survival plotted by a Kaplan-Meier curve shows a 1-year survival of 87.4 %. The Lima Delta PF cup showed a 1-year survival of 99.5 %. Failure analysis showed no clear explanation for this early loosening. The Selexys TH+ cup combined with the Ceramys ceramic-on-ceramic inlay coupling show an unacceptable high early revision rate. Therefore, we advice against using this combination.

  15. Early Blindness Results in Developmental Plasticity for Auditory Motion Processing within Auditory and Occipital Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G. Christopher; Boynton, Geoffrey M.; Fine, Ione

    2016-01-01

    Early blind subjects exhibit superior abilities for processing auditory motion, which are accompanied by enhanced BOLD responses to auditory motion within hMT+ and reduced responses within right planum temporale (rPT). Here, by comparing BOLD responses to auditory motion in hMT+ and rPT within sighted controls, early blind, late blind, and sight-recovery individuals, we were able to separately examine the effects of developmental and adult visual deprivation on cortical plasticity within these two areas. We find that both the enhanced auditory motion responses in hMT+ and the reduced functionality in rPT are driven by the absence of visual experience early in life; neither loss nor recovery of vision later in life had a discernable influence on plasticity within these areas. Cortical plasticity as a result of blindness has generally be presumed to be mediated by competition across modalities within a given cortical region. The reduced functionality within rPT as a result of early visual loss implicates an additional mechanism for cross modal plasticity as a result of early blindness—competition across different cortical areas for functional role. PMID:27458357

  16. Menstrual and menarche experience among pubescent female students in Taiwan: implications for health education and promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the menarche and menstruation experiences of young females aged 10-12 years in elementary education in Taiwan. Menarche is a significant milestone in a woman's life and for female adolescents it is a sharply defined biological event that can be a traumatic and uncomfortable time. If used, school nurses can make a significant contribution in educating young people and help to ameliorate these problems. Understanding how young women feel about menstruation is a central element to sexual health education practice. A qualitative research design was employed using focus groups. Data were collected from 20 female students, aged between 10-12 years. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and subject to a thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data analysis reflecting the menstrual experience of participants. These were: 'Changing bodies: the physical effects of menarche and menstruation', 'Emotional issues: the psychological impact of menarche and menstruation' and 'Social dimensions of the menarche and menstruation'. Our findings show that young females can experience significant physical and emotional difficulties around menstruation - many of which stem from poor information and the reactions of their peer group to menstrual activity. The potential for school nurses to contribute to this education is significant and schools should explore the manner in which nurses can contribute to this area of health education. Nurses involved in health education work with young people and ensure that menstruation education addresses the social and psychological impact of the menarche as well as the physical elements of menstruation. Boys should not be absent from this education and the impact of their attitudes towards menstruation upon their female peers should be addressed in health education work.

  17. Results of paleomagnetic study of Early Proterozoic rocks in the Baikal Range of the Siberian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodovozov, V. Yu.; Didenko, A. N.; Gladkochub, D. P.; Mazukabzov, A. M.; Donskaya, T. V.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents paleomagnetic results obtained from the study of Early Proterozoic rocks in the Baikal Range of the Siberian craton, namely, the 1850 1880-Ma volcanicalstic rocks of the Akitkanskian series of the North Baikal volcanic-plutonic belt) and 1674-Ma basic dikes of the Chaya complex within the massif. The data of this work are used to reconstruct the development of the Siberian craton structure in the Early Precambrian. The projections of the inferred paleomagnetic directions onto a sphere form S (southern) and W (western) groups of vectors of characteristic magnetization components. The S group consists of three clusters representing primary magnetization components belonging to different time levels of the end of the Early Proterozoic. The W group is represented by directions associated with a metachronous magnetization probably acquired during the Riphean. Four paleomagnetic poles are obtained. Two of them that can be regarded as key poles correspond to time levels of 1875 and 1670 Ma (the Early Proterozoic). The two other poles can be used for a detailed reconstruction of the Proterozoic segment of the Siberian apparent polar wander path. The data presented in the paper indicate that the formation of the southern Siberian craton structure was accomplished at the end of the Early Proterozoic, which resulted in a synchronous motion of different blocks composing the southern flank of the craton (in particular, the Sharyzhalgai and Baikal Ranges).

  18. Early Puberty, Negative Peer Influence, and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend’s deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls’ race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend’s deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend’s deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the “other” racial/ethnic minority group only. CONCLUSIONS: Early puberty and friends’ deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences. PMID:24324002

  19. The association between menarche, intensity of training and passive joint ROM in young pre-professional female dancers: A longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nili, Steinberg; Shay, Tenenbaum; Myriam, Stern; Aviva, Zeev; Itzhak, Siev-Ner

    2018-05-05

    To determine the association between the status of menarche (yes/no), the intensity of training and the potential to improve passive joint range of motion (ROM) over a 12-month period of dance training. Prospective cohort study. Dance studio. Fifty-nine female dancers aged 12.8 ± 0.5. The dancers were asked about their dance intensity and screened for anthropometric parameters and passive joint ROM in Grades 7 and 8. Along the 12 months of dance training, we found significantly increased ankle-foot en-pointe, hip abduction, and hip external rotation (ER); significantly decreased hip internal rotation (IR); and significant increased hip ER:IR ratio. In Grade 7, 26 dancers (44.1%) reached menarche (Yes menarche); in Grade 8 an additional 23 dancers (39.0%) reached menarche (No/Yes menarche); and 10 dancers (16.9%) had not reached menarche (No menarche). MANOVA (mixed models) with repeated measures to compare joint ROM between the three menarche groups (Yes; No/Yes; No), with h/week dance practice as a co-variant, showed that hip ER, ankle-foot en-pointe, and ER:IR were significantly correlated with h/week in all three menarche groups. Most passive joint ROM can be improved over 12 months of dancing around the age onset of menarche. H/week of dance practice is a main factor contributing to improved hip ER, ankle-foot en-pointe and ER/IR ratio. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NOSE laparoscopic gastrectomies for early gastric cancer may reduce morbidity and hospital stay: early results from a prospective nonrandomized study.

    PubMed

    Hüscher, Cristiano G S; Lirici, Marco Maria; Ponzano, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    Natural orifice specimen extraction - NOSE laparoscopy is a promising technique that avoids mini-laparotomy, possibly reducing postoperative pain, wound infections and hospital stay. Recent systematic reviews have shown that postoperative morbidity associated with laparoscopically assisted gastrectomies is similar to that after open gastrectomies. More specifically, there is no difference in wound infection rate. The study objective was to evaluate whether postoperative morbidity and hospital stay may be reduced by transoral specimen extraction after laparoscopically assisted gastrectomy for early gastric cancer (EGC). A prospective, nonrandomized study was carried out starting in August 2012. Data from all patients operated on during the first year, with minimum 18 months follow-up, were collected to assess feasibility, oncologic results, postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and functional results. Overall, 14 patients were included and followed-up. After gastric resection, a 3 cm opening was created on the gastric stump, and the specimen, divided into three segments stitched one to each other, was sutured to the gastric tube and retrieved through the mouth. Postoperative morbidity was 7.14% (1/14): one case of pneumonia. No wound infection occurred. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.7 ± 1.0 days. NOSE laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy is feasible and safe, with similar oncologic results as LAG, but decreased morbidity and hospital stay.

  1. Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Patel, Sheila Vipul

    2017-03-01

    Menstruation is a natural physiological process that requires proper management. Unlike other normal bodily processes, menstruation is linked with religious and cultural meanings that can affect the perceptions of young girls as well as the ways in which the adults in the communities around them respond to their needs. This review aims to answer the following questions: (1) how knowledgeable are adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries about menstruation and how prepared are they for reaching menarche, (2) who are their sources of information regarding menstruation, (3) how well do the adults around them respond to their information needs, (4) what negative health and social effects do adolescents experience as a result of menstruation, and (5) how do adolescents respond when they experience these negative effects and what practices do they develop as a result? Using a structured search strategy, articles that investigate young girls' preparedness for menarche, knowledge of menstruation and practices surrounding menstrual hygiene in LMIC were identified. A total of 81 studies published in peer-reviewed journals between the years 2000 and 2015 that describe the experiences of adolescent girls from 25 different countries were included. Adolescent girls in LMIC are often uninformed and unprepared for menarche. Information is primarily obtained from mothers and other female family members who are not necessarily well equipped to fill gaps in girls' knowledge. Exclusion and shame lead to misconceptions and unhygienic practices during menstruation. Rather than seek medical consultation, girls tend to miss school, self-medicate and refrain from social interaction. Also problematic is that relatives and teachers are often not prepared to respond to the needs of girls. LMIC must recognize that lack of preparation, knowledge and poor practices surrounding menstruation are key impediments not only to girls' education, but also to self-confidence and personal

  2. Early results from Magsat. [studies of near-earth magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.; Mayhew, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented at the May 27, 1981 meeting of the American Geophysical Union concerning early results from the Magsat satellite program, which was designed to study the near-earth magnetic fields originating in the core and lithosphere, are discussed. The satellite was launched on October 30, 1979 into a sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit, and re-entered the atmosphere on June 11, 1980. Instruments carried included a cesium vapor magnetometer to measure field magnitudes, a fluxgate magnetometer to measure field components and an optical system to measure fluxgate magnetometer orientation. Early results concerned spherical harmonic models, fields due to ionospheric and magnetospheric currents, the identification and interpretation of fields from lithospheric sources. The preliminary results confirm the possibility of separating the measured field into core, crustal and external components, and represent significant developments in analytical techniques in main-field modelling and the physics of the field sources.

  3. POSNA Quality Safety Value Initiative: From Vision to Implementation to Early Results.

    PubMed

    Waters, Peter M; Flynn, John M

    2015-01-01

    The POSNA Quality, Safety and Value Initiative (QSVI) formally started with POSNA board approval in early 2011. The initial vision statement was: "To lead in defining our members' value based clinical care. To partner with hospital based and orthopedic organizational efforts to guarantee safe, high quality outcomes for our patients. To communicate our initiatives and results cooperatively with payer, credentialing, and compliance organizations to improve pediatric orthopedic care in North America."

  4. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  5. Can the observed association between serum perfluoroalkyl substances and delayed menarche be explained on the basis of puberty-related changes in physiology and pharmacokinetics?

    PubMed

    Wu, Huali; Yoon, Miyoung; Verner, Marc-André; Xue, Jianping; Luo, Man; Andersen, Melvin E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Clewell, Harvey J

    2015-09-01

    An association between serum levels of two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and delayed age at menarche was reported in a cross-sectional study of adolescents. Because perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have half-lives of years, growth dilution and the development of a new route of excretion (menstruation) could account for some or all of the reported association. To assess how much of the epidemiologic association between PFAS and delayed menarche can be explained by the correlation of growth and maturation with PFAS body burden. We developed a Monte Carlo (MC) physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of PFAS to simulate plasma PFAS levels in a hypothetical female population aged 2 to 20years old. Realistic distributions of physiological parameters as well as timing of growth spurts and menarche were incorporated in the model. The association between PFAS level and delayed menarche in the simulated data was compared with the reported association. The prevalence of menarche, distributions of age-dependent physiological parameters, and quartiles of serum PFAS concentrations in the simulated subjects were comparable to those reported in the epidemiologic study. The delay of menarche in days per natural log increase in PFAS concentrations in the simulated data were about one third as large as the observed values. The reported relationship between PFAS and age at menarche appears to be at least partly explained by pharmacokinetics rather than a toxic effect of these substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of osteoarthritis on early exit from work: results from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Laires, Pedro A; Canhão, Helena; Rodrigues, Ana M; Eusébio, Mónica; Gouveia, Miguel; Branco, Jaime C

    2018-04-11

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of pain and disability, which may be a source of productivity losses. The objectives of this study were to describe the impact of OA, namely through pain and physical disability, on early exit from work and to calculate its economic burden. We analysed data from the national, cross-sectional, population-based EpiReumaPt study (Sep2011-Dec2013) in which 10,661 individuals were randomly surveyed in order to capture all cases of rheumatic diseases. We used all participants aged 50-64, near the official retirement age, who were clinically validated by experienced rheumatologists (n = 1286), including OA cases. A national database was used to calculate productivity values by gender, age and region, using the human capital approach. The impact of OA on the likelihood of early exit from work and the population attributable fractions used to calculate due economic burden (indirect costs) were obtained at the individual level by logistic regression. All results were based on weighted data. Almost one third of the Portuguese population aged 50-64 had OA (29.7%; men: 16.2% and women: 43.5%) and more than half were out of paid work (51.8%). Only knee OA is associated with early exit from work (OR: 2.25; 95%CI: 1.42-3.59; p = 0.001), whereas other OA locations did not reach any statistical difference. Furthermore, we observed an association between self-reported longstanding musculoskeletal pain (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.07-2.23; p = 0.02) and pain interference (OR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.13-1.62; p = 0.001) with early exit from work. We also detected a clear relationship between levels of disability, measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the probability of work withdrawal. The estimated annual cost of early exit from work attributable to OA was €656 million (€384 per capita; €1294 per OA patient and €2095 per OA patient out-of-work). In this study, we observed an association between OA and early exit from

  7. Early Results from the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, David; Eldering, Annmarie

    2015-04-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is NASA's first satellite designed to collect the measurements needed to estimate the column-averaged carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction, XCO2, with the sensitivity, accuracy, and resolution needed to characterize the CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales over the globe. OCO-2 was successfully launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on July 2, 2014 and joined the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train) on August 3, 2014. The three-channel imaging grating spectrometer was then cooled to its operating temperatures and a comprehensive series of characterization and calibration activities were initiated. Since early October 2014, the observatory has been routinely collecting almost 1 million soundings over the sunlit hemisphere each day. Early cloud screening results indicate that 15-30% of these measurements may be sufficiently cloud free to yield precise estimates of XCO2. Initial deliveries of calibrated, geo-located OCO-2 spectra to the NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) began on December 30, 2014. Preliminary estimates of XCO2 retrieved from these data are currently being validated against observations from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and other standards. Routine deliveries XCO2 and other products, including surface pressure and chlorophyll fluorescence, to the GES DISC are expected to begin before the end of March, 2015. This presentation will summarize the status of the OCO-2 mission and the coverage, resolution, and accuracy of its early results.

  8. Urethral Caruncle Presented as Premature Menarche in a 4-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Manori; Beneragama, D

    2018-01-01

    Urethral caruncle (UC) is a benign fleshy outgrowth at the urethral meatus. It was first described by Samuel Sharp in 1750 and occurs mainly at the posterior lip of the urethra, and the exact aetiology is still uncertain. More often it was seen in the postmenopausal women, and only few cases are reported in young girls. Patients may be asymptomatic and could find this as an incidental finding or they may present with symptoms such as dysuria, bleeding per vagina, haematuria, a mass protruding through vagina, and acute retention of urine. Here, we report the case history of a 4-year-old girl presented with vaginal bleeding which was taken as she has attended menarche and found to have urethral caruncle which was the cause for bleeding. Histology confirmed the diagnosis, and girl was completely cured following surgical excision.

  9. Cultural perceptions and practices around menarche and adolescent menstruation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Margaret L

    2008-01-01

    This overview details the persistence of negative characterizations of the menstrual cycle as a feature of the current cultural context in which girls begin menstrual life in the United States. In addition, research on girls' current menstrual attitudes and experiences within this context are reviewed. Current research suggests that girls are not very knowledgeable about menstruation, and that menstrual education continues to provide girls with mixed messages, such as: menstruation is a normal, natural event, but it should be hidden. Girls' attitudes and expectations about menstruation are negatively biased and have been found to contribute to self-objectification, body shame, and lack of agency in sexual decision-making. Although preparation has been found to be associated with more positive menarcheal and menstrual experiences, specificity about what constitutes "good" preparation has not been well articulated. Implications for promoting the menstrual cycle among young girls as a vital sign in service of monitoring their health are discussed.

  10. [Associated factors related to first spermatorrhea and menarche among high and primary school students, in Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Li, K Q; Wang, H; Guo, J; Yuan, B C; Guan, P Y

    2016-02-01

    To understand the status and correlative factors on menarche and first spermatorrhea among children and adolescents, in Chongqing, in order to provide theoretical basis for carrying out sex and health education in this population. By random stratified and cluster sampling, 10 498 students (5 372 boys and 5 126 girls), 5 to 18 years old and living in Chongqing urban districts, were enrolled. General situation and physical features of the population were studied. Statistics analysis system included logistic regression methods, t-test and chi-square test. For urban kids, first experience of spermatorrhea was 0.218 years later than those living in the rural areas (Z=-73.287,P<0.001), but median age for girls in urban areas was 0.073 years earlier than in rural areas (Z=-71.589,P<0.001). Except for factor as mother's education level in the family (χ(2)=21.564, P<0.001), other family or environment related factors did not show significant difference between the two groups of boys (P>0.05). However, significant difference appeared in average family income (χ(2)=6.175,P=0.046) between two groups of girls. Data from the logistic analysis showed that BMI, hip circumference, height, weight, number of children in the family, time of sleep and the diet structure were associated with menarche. Correlative factors of boys' first spermatorrhea would include: high-energy snacks, hip circumference, weight, height, school type and mother' s education level (P<0.05). First spermatorrhea and menstruation of boys and girls were closely related to environment of the family, diet and the time of sleep.

  11. Study design and early result of a phase I study of SABR for early-stage glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tosol; Wee, Chan Woo; Choi, Noorie; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Jin Ho; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Chung, Eun-Jae

    2018-05-14

    Avoidance of organs at risk has become possible with advances in image-guided volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for early stage glottic cancer. This report presents the preliminary result of the first and second dose level. Fraction size was increased from 3.5 gray (Gy) (total dose 59.5 Gy) to 9 Gy (total dose 45 Gy). Dose-limiting toxicities were defined as grade 3 or higher treatment-related toxicities. Voice outcome was assessed with electroglottography, and quality of life (QoL) was measured with the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory (HNCI). Seven patients received 59.5 Gy at 3.5 Gy per fraction as the first dose level, and five patients received 55 Gy at 5 Gy per fraction as the second dose level. None of the patients developed grade 3+ toxicity throughout a median follow-up of 17.5 months (range, 1.7-30.6 months). One patient in the second dose level recurred in the primary site at 4 months after radiotherapy (RT) and received total laryngectomy. The rest of participants were disease-free at locoregional and distant sites. Jitter, shimmer, mean phonation time, and noise-to-harmony ratio did not change significantly at 6 months after RT. HNCI scores between pretreatment and posttreatment were not significantly different (P = 0.221). This study revealed acceptable toxicity, voice outcome, and QoL in patients treated with hypofractionated VMAT of 3.5 Gy and 5 Gy per fraction. This phase I study is currently ongoing with a dose of 55 Gy in 11 fractions and 45 Gy in five fractions. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Early Flood Warning in Africa: Results of a Feasibility study in the JUBA, SHABELLE and ZAMBEZI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, F. P.; de Roo, A. D.; Buizza, Roberto; Bodis, Katalin; Thiemig, Vera

    2009-04-01

    Building on the experiences gained with the European Flood Alert System (EFAS), pilot studies are carried out in three river basins in Africa. The European Flood Alert System, pre-operational since 2003, provides early flood alerts for European rivers. At present, the experiences with the European EFAS system are used to evaluate the feasibility of flood early warning for Africa. Three case studies are carried in the Juba and Shabelle rivers (Somalia and Ethiopia), and in the Zambesi river (Southern Africa). Predictions in these data scarce regions are extremely difficult to make as records of observations are scarce and often unreliable. Meteorological and Discharge observations are used to calibrate and test the model, as well as soils, landuse and topographic data available within the JRC African Observatory. ECMWF ERA-40, ERA-Interim data and re-forecasts of flood events from January to March 1978, and in March 2001 are evaluated to examine the feasibility for early flood warning. First results will be presented.

  13. Grating visual acuity results in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Velma; Quinn, Graham E; Summers, C Gail; Hardy, Robert J; Tung, Betty; Good, William V

    2011-07-01

    To compare grating (resolution) visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment (ET) for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with that in eyes that underwent conventional management (CM). In a randomized clinical trial, infants with bilateral, high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye undergo ET and the other eye undergo CM, with treatment only if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (n = 84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to ET or CM. Grating visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers using Teller acuity cards. Monocular grating acuity results were obtained from 317 of 370 surviving children (85.6%). Analysis of grating acuity results for all study participants with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant overall benefit of ET (18.1% vs 22.8% unfavorable outcomes; P = .08). When the 6-year grating acuity results were analyzed according to a clinical algorithm (high-risk types 1 and 2 prethreshold ROP), a benefit was seen in type 1 eyes (16.4% vs 25.2%; P = .004) undergoing ET, but not in type 2 eyes (21.3% vs 15.9%; P = .29). Early treatment of eyes with type 1 ROP improves grating acuity outcomes, but ET for eyes with type 2 ROP does not. APPLICATION TO CLINICAL MEDICINE: Type 1 eyes should be treated early; however, based on acuity results at 6 years of age, type 2 eyes should be cautiously monitored for progression to type 1 ROP. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222.

  14. Assessment of renal perfusion with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: Preliminary results in early diabetic nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Lin, Pan; Fan, Peili; Mao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We performed a prospective study to evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in quantitative evaluation of renal cortex perfusion in patients suspected of early diabetic nephropathies (DN), with the estimated GFR (MDRD equation) as the gold standard. The study protocol was approved by the hospital review board; each patient gave written informed consent. Our study included 46 cases (21 males and 25 females, mean age 55.6 ± 4.14 years) of clinical confirmed early DN patients. After intravenous bolus injection of 1 ml sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles of ultrasound contrast agent, real time CEUS of renal cortex was performed successively using a 2-5 MHz convex probe. Time-intensity curves (TICs) and quantitative indexes were created with Qlab software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to predict the diagnostic criteria of CEUS quantitative indexes, and their diagnostic efficiencies were compared with resistance index (RI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) of renal segmental arteries by chi square test. Our control group included forty-five healthy volunteers. Difference was considered statistically significant with P <  0.05. Changes of area under curve (AUC), derived peak intensity (DPI) were statistically significant (P <  0.05). DPI less than 12 and AUC greater than 1400 had high utility in DN, with 71.7% and 67.3% sensitivity, 77.8% and 80.0% specificity. These results were significantly better than those obtained with RI and PSV which had no significant difference in early stage of DN (P > 0.05). CEUS might be helpful to improve early diagnosis of DN by quantitative analyses. AUC and DPI might be valuable quantitative indexes.

  15. The Use of Cryotherapy for Papilloma and Early Laryngeal Cancers: Long-term Results.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Michael S; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Milstein, Claudio F

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective chart review. To determine the efficacy of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of early glottic cancer and laryngeal papillomatosis. The use of cryotherapy in conjunction with traditional modalities has recently been proposed to improve voice outcomes in patients with early laryngeal cancer as compared to pretreatment conditions. This study investigates its utility in improving oncological outcomes and decreasing recurrences of laryngeal papillomatosis. Patients with either early glottic cancer or laryngeal papillomatosis that received cryotherapy as part of their surgical regimen were investigated. All patients were seen at a large tertiary care center within a 10-year window. Demographic data were collected and all postoperative notes were reviewed. Recurrences of the laryngeal cancer were noted, as was the duration of time between successive papillomatosis operations. The charts of 54 glottic cancer and 29 papillomatosis patients that received cryotherapy were reviewed. One patient from the papillomatosis cohort was excluded from statistical analysis due to lack of follow-up. Overall, 16 (30%) of the laryngeal cancer patient experienced a malignant recurrence. The overall 5-year survival of these patients was 98% and the 5-year disease-free survival was 74%. The use of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis extended the duration of time between surgeries by an average of 79 days (P=.23). The use of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of early glottic cancer does not improve the rate of carcinoma recurrences. Additionally, cryotherapy does not result in a statistically significant increase in the duration of disease-free period for laryngeal papillomatosis patients, although the observed increase may be clinically important. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Effective treatment of haemorrhoids: early complication and late results after 150 consecutive stapled haemorrhoidectomies.

    PubMed

    Bove, Aldo; Bongarzoni, Giuseppe; Palone, Gino; Chiarini, Stella; Calisesi, Enrico Maria; Corbellini, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Haemorrhoidectomy according to Longo potentially reduces post-operative pain and allows an early return to work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the technique, the early and especially late complications, and recurrences, in 150 patients. Between January 2005 and December 2006, we performed 150 consecutive haemorrhoidectomies with the Longo technique: 82 for third degree haemorrhoids and 68 for fourth degree haemorrhoids. The mean age of patients was 42 years. Every patient had a pre-operative proctoscopy and endoscopy KIT PPH01 (Ethicon Endo Surgery) was used. We evaluated the length of the operation, the post-operative pain, the early and late complications, and the recurrence of the disease. The mean follow up was 52 months (range 36-72). There was no mortality. The mean length of the operation was 25 minutes with a range of 15 to 45 minutes. Pain, evaluated using the V.A.S. scale, was very light in 114 patients (V.A.S. 2,1) and light in 36 (V.A.S. 3.2). Only 11 (7.5%) patients took painkillers, on demand, for a week after discharge from hospital and 2 patients (1,3%) for more than one month. Early complications (6.6%) were: 5 bleeding (2 after seven days), 4 acute urinary retentions, 1 external haemorrhoid thrombosis and 1 haematoma of the rectus wall. Mean Hospital stay was 2.1 days. Late complications (10%) were: 5 "faecal urgency" which disappeared after six months, 6 moderate asymptomatic strictures, and 4 persistent skin tags. There were 8 recurrences (5.1%), 2 for haemorrhoids of grade 3 e 6 for haemorrhoids of grade 4. All the recurrences appeared within the first 24 months. The stapled procedure according to Longo is an effective treatment for haemorrhoids. The results for postoperative pain and early return to work are very good. However, special care for haemostasis is essential in order to avoid bleeding. An effective surgical technique prevents late complications, but results after long term follow up show a not insignificant

  17. Targeted deletion of p97 (VCP/CDC48) in mouse results in early embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Müller, J M M; Deinhardt, K; Rosewell, I; Warren, G; Shima, D T

    2007-03-09

    The highly conserved AAA ATPase p97 (VCP/CDC48) has well-established roles in cell cycle progression, proteasome degradation and membrane dynamics. Gene disruption in Saccromyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Trypanosoma brucei demonstrated that p97 is essential in unicellular and multicellular organisms. To explore the requirement for p97 in mammalian cell function and embryogenesis, we disrupted the p97 locus by gene targeting. Heterozygous p97+/- mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates, whereas homozygous mutants did not survive to birth and died at a peri-implantation stage. These results show that p97 is an essential gene for early mouse development.

  18. The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Mission: Overview and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. M.; Bailey, S. M.; Thomas, G.; Rusch, D.; Gordley, L. L.; Hervig, M.; Horanyi, M.; Randall, C.; McClintock, W.; Siskind, D. E.; Stevens, M.; Englert, C.; Taylor, M.; Summeers, M.; Merkel, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 1:26:03 PDT on April 25, 2007 becoming the first satellite mission dedicated to the study of noctilucent clouds. A Pegasus XL rocket launched the satellite into a near perfect 600 km sun synchronous circular orbit. AIM carries three instruments - a nadir imager, a solar occultation instrument and in-situ cosmic dust detectors - that were specifically selected because of their ability to provide key measurements needed to address the six AIM science objectives. Brief descriptions of the science, instruments and observation scenario will be presented along with early science results.

  19. Early cessation of pressure garment therapy results in scar contraction and thickening

    PubMed Central

    DeBruler, Danielle M.; Zbinden, Jacob C.; Baumann, Molly E.; Blackstone, Britani N.; Malara, Megan M.; Bailey, J. Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Pressure garment therapy is often prescribed to improve scar properties following full-thickness burn injuries. Pressure garment therapy is generally recommended for long periods of time following injury (1–2 years), though it is plagued by extremely low patient compliance. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early cessation of pressure garment therapy on scar properties. Full-thickness burn injuries were created along the dorsum of red Duroc pigs. The burn eschar was excised and wound sites autografted with split-thickness skin. Scars were treated with pressure garments within 1 week of injury and pressure was maintained for either 29 weeks (continuous pressure) or for 17 weeks followed by cessation of pressure for an additional 12 weeks (pressure released); scars receiving no treatment served as controls. Scars that underwent pressure garment therapy were significantly smoother and less contracted with decreased scar height compared to control scars at 17 weeks. These benefits were maintained in the continuous pressure group until week 29. In the pressure released group, grafts significantly contracted and became more raised, harder and rougher after the therapy was discontinued. Pressure cessation also resulted in large changes in collagen fiber orientation and increases in collagen fiber thickness. The results suggest that pressure garment therapy effectively improves scar properties following severe burn injury; however, early cessation of the therapy results in substantial loss of these improvements. PMID:29897933

  20. Early cessation of pressure garment therapy results in scar contraction and thickening.

    PubMed

    DeBruler, Danielle M; Zbinden, Jacob C; Baumann, Molly E; Blackstone, Britani N; Malara, Megan M; Bailey, J Kevin; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    Pressure garment therapy is often prescribed to improve scar properties following full-thickness burn injuries. Pressure garment therapy is generally recommended for long periods of time following injury (1-2 years), though it is plagued by extremely low patient compliance. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early cessation of pressure garment therapy on scar properties. Full-thickness burn injuries were created along the dorsum of red Duroc pigs. The burn eschar was excised and wound sites autografted with split-thickness skin. Scars were treated with pressure garments within 1 week of injury and pressure was maintained for either 29 weeks (continuous pressure) or for 17 weeks followed by cessation of pressure for an additional 12 weeks (pressure released); scars receiving no treatment served as controls. Scars that underwent pressure garment therapy were significantly smoother and less contracted with decreased scar height compared to control scars at 17 weeks. These benefits were maintained in the continuous pressure group until week 29. In the pressure released group, grafts significantly contracted and became more raised, harder and rougher after the therapy was discontinued. Pressure cessation also resulted in large changes in collagen fiber orientation and increases in collagen fiber thickness. The results suggest that pressure garment therapy effectively improves scar properties following severe burn injury; however, early cessation of the therapy results in substantial loss of these improvements.

  1. Early Motherhood in an Intergenerational Perspective: The Experiences of a British Cohort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Uses nationally representative, longitudinal data from Great Britain to examine the fertility patterns of daughters (N=2,183) of teen mothers. Explores how early motherhood is reproduced across generations, including an earlier inherited age of menarche, poor family and educational environments, and an early ideal age of childbearing. (RJM)

  2. Early results of patellofemoral inlay resurfacing arthroplasty using the HemiCap Wave prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akash; Haider, Zakir; Anand, Amarjit; Spicer, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Common surgical treatment options for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis include arthroscopic procedures, total knee replacement and patellofemoral replacement. The HemiCap Wave patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis is a novel inlay design introduced in 2009 with scarce published data on its functional outcomes. We aim to prospectively evaluate early functional outcomes and complications, for patients undergoing a novel inlay resurfacing arthroplasty for isolated patellofemoral arthrosis in an independent centre. From 2010 to 2013, 16 consecutive patients underwent patellofemoral resurfacing procedures using HemiCap Wave (Arthrosurface Inc., Franklin, Massachusetts, USA) for anterior knee pain with confirmed radiologically and/or arthroscopically isolated severe patellofemoral arthrosis. Standardized surgical technique, as recommended by the implant manufacturer, was followed. Outcome measures included range of movement, functional knee scores (Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36)), radiographic disease progression, revision rates and complications. Eight men and eight women underwent patellofemoral HemiCap Wave resurfacing, with an average age of 63 years (range: 46-83). Average follow-up was 24.1 months (6-34). Overall, post-operative scores were excellent. There was a statistically significant improvement in the post-operative OKS, KOOS and SF-36 scores ( p < 0.01). One patient had radiological disease progression. One patient underwent revision for deep infection. Two other minor complications were observed and treated conservatively. The HemiCap Wave patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis has excellent early results in terms of functional outcomes, radiological outcomes and low complication rates. At the very least, early results show that the HemiCap Wave is comparable to more established onlay prostheses. The HemiCap Wave thus provides a safe and effective surgical option in the treatment

  3. Migration characteristics and early clinical results of the NANOS® short-stem hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kaipel, Martin; Grabowiecki, Phillip; Sinz, Katrina; Farr, Sebastian; Sinz, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Femoral short stems promise essential advantages in total hip arthroplasty. Up to now, only short- and midterm clinical studies exist. Data on early stem migration that could predict later aseptic loosening at an early stage are rare. The purpose of this study was to assess migration patterns and clinical outcome 2 years after hip replacement by a metaphyseal anchored cementless short stem. Migration data and clinical results were prospectively assessed in 49 patients. Clinical outcome was measured using the Harris Hip Score (HHS). Migration analyses were performed using the computer-assisted Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA) system. At 2 years after surgery, none of the implants needed revision, and HHS increased from 47.9 up to 98.1. Of 49 patients, 5 (10%) showed increased vertical stem migration (1.5 mm/2a) that might predict late aseptic loosening. Of 49 stems, 44 (90%) showed stable migration patterns indicating a beneficial long-term outcome. Results of this study confirm the excellent clinical data of previous works. Migration patterns strongly suggest that short-stem arthroplasty is not only an innovative but also a reliable strategy in total hip replacement.

  4. Surgical management of anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava - early results

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Dinesh; Gupta, Anubhav; Nath, Ranjit K.; kazmi, Aamir; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The anatomical variability in patients with anomalous pulmonary venous connection to superior vena cava presents a surgical challenge. The problem is further compounded by the common occurrence of postoperative complications like arrhythmias and obstruction of the superior vena cava or pulmonary veins. We present our experience of managing this subset using the two patch and Warden's techniques. Patients and methods Between June 2011 and September 2012, 7 patients with APVC to the SVC were operated in our institute. After delineating the anatomy, five of them had a two patch repair and two were managed with Warden's technique. Results There was no in-hospital mortality or early mortality over a mean follow-up of 9.66 ± 3.88 months (range 6–15 months). All the patients on follow-up had unobstructed pulmonary venous and SVC drainage on echocardiography and all of them were in normal sinus rhythm. Conclusions Anomalous pulmonary venous connection to superior vena cava is a challenging subset of patients in whom the surgical management needs to be individualized. The detailed anatomy must be delineated using echocardiography with or without CT angiography before deciding the surgical plan. This entity can be repaired with excellent immediate and early results. However, these patients must be closely followed up for complications like systemic and pulmonary venous obstruction and sinus node dysfunction. PMID:24206880

  5. Early allograft dysfunction in liver transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors results in inferior survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, David D; Singh, Amandeep; Burns, Justin M; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Taner, C Burcin

    2014-12-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver allografts have been associated with increased morbidity from primary nonfunction, biliary complications, early allograft failure, cost, and mortality. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation has been found to be associated with inferior patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 205 consecutive liver-only transplant patients with allografts from DCD donors at a single center, the incidence of EAD was found to be 39.5%. The patient survival rates for those with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 97% and 89%, 79% and 79%, and 61% and 54%, respectively (P = 0.009). Allograft survival rates for recipients with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90% and 75%, 72% and 64%, and 53% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the development of EAD and the cold ischemia time [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.56, P = 0.037] and hepatocellular cancer as a secondary diagnosis in recipients (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.11-4.58, P = 0.025). There was no correlation between EAD and the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. In conclusion, EAD results in inferior patient and graft survival in recipients of DCD liver allografts. Understanding the events that cause EAD and developing preventive or early therapeutic approaches should be the focus of future investigations. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Regression model estimation of early season crop proportions: North Dakota, some preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    To estimate crop proportions early in the season, an approach is proposed based on: use of a regression-based prediction equation to obtain an a priori estimate for specific major crop groups; modification of this estimate using current-year LANDSAT and weather data; and a breakdown of the major crop groups into specific crops by regression models. Results from the development and evaluation of appropriate regression models for the first portion of the proposed approach are presented. The results show that the model predicts 1980 crop proportions very well at both county and crop reporting district levels. In terms of planted acreage, the model underpredicted 9.1 percent of the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the county level. It predicted almost exactly the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the crop reporting district level and overpredicted the planted acreage by just 0.92 percent.

  7. Review of early clinical results and complications associated with oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF).

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Maharaj, Monish; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-09-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion represents an effective surgical intervention for patients with lumbar degenerative diseases, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation, pseudoarthrosis and spinal deformities. Traditionally, conventional open anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion techniques have been employed with excellent results, but each with their own advantages and caveats. Most recently, the antero-oblique trajectory has been introduced, providing yet another corridor to access the lumbar spine. Termed the oblique lumbar interbody fusion, this approach accesses the spine between the anterior vessels and psoas muscles, avoiding both sets of structures to allow efficient clearance of the disc space and application of a large interbody device to afford distraction for foraminal decompression and endplate preparation for rapid and thorough fusion. This review aims to summarize the early clinical results and complications of this new technique and discusses potential future directions of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Arthroscopic coracoid transfer in the treatment of recurrent shoulder instability: a systematic review of early results.

    PubMed

    Butt, Usman; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2013-04-01

    Systematic review of the literature to characterize safety profile and complication rates associated with arthroscopic coracoid transfer procedures. We conducted a combined search of Medline, EMBASE, and the CINAHL databases from 1985 to November 2012. Articles were selected and data extracted according to standard criteria. Only 3 studies met the inclusion criteria, and these originated from the pioneers of this technique. These studies described the results of 172 arthroscopic coracoid transfer procedures with an overall complication rate of 19.8% ± 5.6%. Conversion to open surgery was necessary in 6/172 (3.5%) patients. Repeated surgery was described in 5/172 (2.9% ± 2.5%) cases, all for screw removal. The overall rate of recurrent instability was 3/172 cases (1.7% ± 2%). Hardware-related complications occurred in 4/172 patients (2.3% ± 2.3%). Coracoid grafts failed to unite in 14/172 patients (8.1% ± 4.1%); graft osteolysis was seen in 7/172 patients (4.1% ± 2.6%). The coracoid graft fractured in 2/172 cases (1.2% ± 1.6%); one of these occurred intraoperatively and one occurred early postoperatively. There was one transient nerve palsy (0.6% ± 1.1%). Results of arthroscopic coracoid transfer surgery for anterior shoulder instability are sparse, with the available studies originating from the pioneers of this technique. Early results suggest that arthroscopic coracoid transfer is a technically feasible procedure that is able to restore shoulder stability. However, this technique seems to be associated with a high complication rate and a steep learning curve. Results from the wider orthopaedic shoulder arthroscopic community are awaited. Extensive cadaveric training and experience with the open technique is recommended before performing the arthroscopic procedure. Systematic review of Level IV studies. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of menarcheal age on the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors during single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kew-Wan; Lim, Bee-Oh

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between maturation and lower extremity biomechanics during landing in team sport athletes, we are presently uninformed of any research that examined the single-legged drop landing biomechanics of gymnasts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the menarcheal age on the lower extremity biomechanics during a single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts. Twenty-two female artistic elite gymnasts, between 9 and 36 years of age, participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups pre- (n = 11) and post- (n = 11) menarche and asked to perform a single-legged drop landing on top of a 30 cm platform and land on a force plate. The statistical analysis consisted of the multivariate analysis with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The post-menarche group showed a decrease in their maximum knee flexion angle and increase in their maximum knee abduction angle, maximum internal tibial rotation angle, maximum knee abduction moment, and hamstring-quadriceps muscle activity ratio compared with the pre-menarche group during the single-legged drop landing. The post-menarche group showed an increased noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, due to their greater knee loads, compared with the pre-menarche group.

  10. Comparison of endoscopic and microscopic trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery: early results in a single centre.

    PubMed

    Razak, Adam A; Horridge, Michelle; Connolly, Daniel J; Warren, Daniel J; Mirza, Showkat; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Sinha, Saurabh

    2013-02-01

    Pituitary surgery has seen a recent shift from a microscopic to an endoscopic trans-sphenoidal approach. We present our early experience with endoscopic surgery and compare the outcome with our recent microscopic experience. From January 2008 until present time, 80 consecutive patients underwent trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery in our institution. Until September 2009, all patients had a microscopic trans-septal approach. After this time, the patients underwent endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery. All patients underwent pre- and post-operative MRI and full endocrinological evaluation. Data was collected prospectively including tumour volume, endocrine function, visual function, length of stay and complications. There were 40 patients in each group. In the microscopic group, there were 26 non-functioning tumours and 14 functioning tumours. In the endoscopic group, there were 24 non-functioning and 16 functioning tumours. There were significantly better results in terms of tumour resection (p = 0.002) and remission (p = 0.018) in the endoscopic group. In this group there was also a lower incidence of CSF leaks and a shorter length of stay for secreting tumours (p = 0.005). 1 patient in the endoscopic group died at day 43 post-operatively, having initially presented in a poor clinical state with pituitary apoplexy. Microscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery remains the benchmark for future surgical techniques. Our early results suggest that endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery provides favourable results in both tumour resection and control of secreting tumours in comparison with microscopic surgery. Further longer-term evaluation is required to ensure the outcome of endoscopic surgery.

  11. Photodynamic therapy of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and bronchi: instrumentation and clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagnières, G.

    1990-01-01

    A complete instrumentation has been developed for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and combined PDT- hyperthermia in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi. These instruments consist of several light distributors which permit optimal light dosage to "superficial" tumors, as well as an injector for laser beams into an optical fiber and a fiberoptic coupler for cw laser beam powers at least 100 Watts. PDT is carried out with HpD and Photofrin II at 630 nm, whereas occasional simultaneous hyperthermia is at 1.06 microns. PDT of 41 cases of "early" squamous cell carcinoma is reported with follow-up between 5 and 62 months. In the oesophagus and bronchi the results are good for cancers staged in situ or microinvasive at endoscopy (2 recurrences for 23 lesions treated). For more advanced cancers (submucosal in the oesopha- gus or invading the bronchial cartilage) the results are less satisfactory with 3 recurrences for 8 lesions treated. In the bronchi (1 case) and the oesophagus (1 case) the largest disease - free survival is now more than 5 years. We encountered 6 complications (3 cicatrical stenosis, 2 fistulae, 1 severe sunburn), most of them resulting from the lack of selectivity of PDT with these porphyrin mixtures at the applied conditions. These experiments show that PDT is efficient at destroying early squamous cell carcinomas in the pharynx, oesophagus and bronchi. Tumour selectivity of HpD and photofrin II is poor in the aerodigestive tract lined with squamous cell epithelium. The future lies in the synthesis of a more selective efficient photosensitizer.

  12. Age at menarche and age at natural menopause in East Asian women: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiajun; Zhang, Ben; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Wei; Long, Jirong; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Park, Sue K; Ye, Xingwang; Noh, Dong-Young; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Yiqin; Chung, Seokang; Lin, Xu; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-12-01

    Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) are complex traits with a high heritability. Abnormal timing of menarche or menopause is associated with a reduced span of fertility and risk for several age-related diseases including breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. To identify novel genetic loci for AM or ANM in East Asian women and to replicate previously identified loci primarily in women of European ancestry by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we conducted a two-stage GWAS. Stage I aimed to discover promising novel AM and ANM loci using GWAS data of 8073 women from Shanghai, China. The Stage II replication study used the data from another Chinese GWAS (n = 1230 for AM and n = 1458 for ANM), a Korean GWAS (n = 4215 for AM and n = 1739 for ANM), and de novo genotyping of 2877 additional Chinese women. Previous GWAS-identified loci for AM and ANM were also evaluated. We identified two suggestive menarcheal age loci tagged by rs79195475 at 10q21.3 (beta = -0.118 years, P = 3.4 × 10 -6 ) and rs1023935 at 4p15.1 (beta = -0.145 years, P = 4.9 × 10 -6 ) and one menopausal age locus tagged by rs3818134 at 22q12.2 (beta = -0.276 years, P = 8.8 × 10 -6 ). These suggestive loci warrant a further validation in independent populations. Although limited by low statistical power, we replicated 19 of the 98 menarche loci and 5 of the 20 menopause loci previously identified in women of European ancestry in East Asian women, suggesting a shared genetic architecture for these two traits across populations.

  13. Early Scientific Results and Future Prospects for the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm B.

    2010-01-01

    Following the extraordinarily successful Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009, the Observatory is now fully equipped with a broad array of powerful science instruments that put it at the pinnacle of its scientific power. Relevant to the subject matter of the Beyond 2010 Conference, HST will be well-placed over the next five-plus years to advance our knowledge of the formation of high-redshift galaxies and their growth with cosmic time; the emergence of structure in the early universe via Dark Matter-driven gravitational instability; and the universe's expansion history and any resulting implications for the temporal character of Dark Energy. These are fitting projects for the iconic facility now celebrating its 20th anniversary in orbit.

  14. Recondensation of chondritic material in the early solar system: Results of thermodynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorofeyeva, V. A.; Makalkin, A. B.; Mironenko, M. V.; Vityazev, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    We have performed a thermodynamic simulation of the recondensation of evaporated meteoritic material. We suggest that evaporation and recondensation occurred in impact events during the intercollision of planetesimals during the early evolution of the solar system. The source materials adopted for our model are the chondrites CI Orgueil and H5 Richardton. These chondrites are representative examples of the two extremes regarding volatile content and oxidation state. We calculated equilibrium mineral compositions of the closed systems of the Orgueil's and Richardton's elemental composition at the P-T conditions characteristic of the explosion cloud formed at a planetesimal collision. The P-T conditions are as follows: 10(exp -4) bar, and 1500 and 2000 K. The results are presented.

  15. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Elks, Cathy E.; Perry, John R.B.; Sulem, Patrick; Chasman, Daniel I.; Franceschini, Nora; He, Chunyan; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Visser, Jenny A.; Byrne, Enda M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Esko, Tõnu; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lin, Peng; Mangino, Massimo; Marongiu, Mara; McArdle, Patrick F.; Smith, Albert V.; Stolk, Lisette; van Wingerden, Sophie W.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Albrecht, Eva; Corre, Tanguy; Ingelsson, Erik; Hayward, Caroline; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Smith, Erin N.; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Zgaga, Lina; Alavere, Helen; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barroso, Ines; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bergmann, Sven; Blackburn, Hannah; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buring, Julie E.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D.; d’Adamo, Pio; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Deloukas, Panos; Döring, Angela; Smith, George Davey; Easton, Douglas F.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Emilsson, Valur; Eriksson, Johan; Ferrucci, Luigi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Foroud, Tatiana; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Geller, Frank; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Ferreli, Liana; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Andrew D.; Karasik, David; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraft, Peter; Launer, Lenore J.; Laven, Joop S.E.; Li, Shengxu; Liu, Jianjun; Levy, Daniel; Martin, Nicholas G.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Melbye, Mads; Mooser, Vincent; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael A.; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; Ness, Andrew R.; Northstone, Kate; Oostra, Ben A.; Peacock, Munro; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Peltonen, Leena; Pennell, Craig E.; Pharoah, Paul; Polasek, Ozren; Plump, Andrew S.; Pouta, Anneli; Porcu, Eleonora; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schork, Nicholas J.; Scuteri, Angelo; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Soranzo, Nicole; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Strachan, David P.; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tikkanen, Emmi; Toniolo, Daniela; Tsui, Kim; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tyrer, Jonathon; Uda, Manuela; van Dam, Rob M.; van Meurs, Joyve B.J.; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Weedon, Michael N.; Wichmann, H. Erich; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Young, Lauren; Zhai, Guangju; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Boyd, Heather A.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Econs, Michael J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hunter, David J.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Metspalu, Andres; Montgomery, Grant W.; Ridker, Paul M.; Spector, Tim D.; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uitterlinden, André G.; Widen, Elisabeth; Murabito, Joanne M.; Ong, Ken K.; Murray, Anna

    2011-01-01

    To identify loci for age at menarche, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies in 87,802 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,731 women. In addition to the known loci at LIN28B (P=5.4×10−60) and 9q31.2 (P=2.2×10−33), we identified 30 novel menarche loci (all P<5×10−8) and found suggestive evidence for a further 10 loci (P<1.9×10−6). New loci included four previously associated with BMI (in/near FTO, SEC16B, TRA2B and TMEM18), three in/near other genes implicated in energy homeostasis (BSX, CRTC1, and MCHR2), and three in/near genes implicated in hormonal regulation (INHBA, PCSK2 and RXRG). Ingenuity and MAGENTA pathway analyses identified coenzyme A and fatty acid biosynthesis as biological processes related to menarche timing. PMID:21102462

  16. [Results after distraction arthroplasty according to Bufalini and Perugia in early stages of trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Fatzer, Lukas; Soleman, E; Sanchez, T

    2015-02-01

    A distraction arthroplasty of the trapeziometacarpal joint was introduced by Bufalini and Perugia for the treatment of the early stages of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis. Our retrospective study presents the results of this technique. Thereby, a tendon graft anchored to the distal second metacarpal is fixed at the base of the first metacarpal, keeping it in distraction. 10 distraction arthroplasties were performed in 9 patients with carpometacarpal osteoarthritis stage I and II of the thumb after unsuccessful conservative therapy. In 2 cases, which were excluded from our study, trapeziectomy had to be performed because of persisting pain. Patient satisfaction, pain measurement, range of motion, and tip, key and grip strength were evaluated at a follow-up of 46.5 (29-63) months in the remaining 7 patients (8 operations overall). Strengh measurement was taken in an absolute value and compared to the opposite side. Thumb range of motion was measured with the combined flexion-opposition of the thumb with the Kapandij index and also the angle of abduction of the metacarpal I to metacarpal II. Assessment included a DASH score evaluation and an X-ray control. All of the 7 evaluated patients were satisfied with the operation results. Compared to the opposite side, patients achieved 80.1% (5.9 kg±1.1 kg) of key pinch strength, 86.3% (4.8 kg±0.9 kg) of oppositional tip pinch strength, and 86.1% (23.1 kg±4.8 kg) of grip strength. In combined flexion and opposition a Kapandij index of 8.5 (94.4%) compared to 9 on the opposite side was achieved. Thumb radial abduction was 48.2°±2.8°, compared to 51.0°±2.9° on the contralateral hand. At follow-up, the mean DASH score was 17.8 (±10.0). Radiological control showed no progression of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis of the thumb. The collected data after distraction arthroplasty according to Bufalini and Perugia confirm the efficacy of the technique in the early stage of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis of the

  17. Results of early thyroidectomy for medullary thyroid carcinoma in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Telander, R L; Zimmerman, D; van Heerden, J A; Sizemore, G W

    1986-12-01

    Children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) often develop medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) or its precursor, C-cell hyperplasia. Survival results are improved if malignancy is diagnosed early from the results of plasma immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) measurement. The effect of early detection and thyroidectomy in children with MEN2 syndrome was determined by reviewing the experience between 1975 and 1985. Seventeen children with MEN2 who were 12 years old or younger underwent a total thyroidectomy for MCT or C-cell hyperplasia. iCT was measured in all patients preoperatively and postoperatively. Of the 17 children, 14 (82%) had MEN2a and 3 (18%) had MEN2b. There were 14 (82%) female and three (18%) male patients; their mean age was 6.97 years (range 1.5 to 12 years). In all patients, the diagnosis of MCT was made from initial elevated levels of iCT after stimulation with pentagastrin. Three patients had clinical evidence of disease preoperatively. All patients underwent a total thyroidectomy and lymph nodes were removed from the central zone; a neck dissection was performed in the three with clinically obvious disease. MCT with C-cell hyperplasia was found in 11 children and C-cell hyperplasia alone in six. Of the 11 with carcinoma, eight had bilateral disease and three unilateral. Six children had bilateral C-cell hyperplasia. All 17 children were alive and feeling well at the time of this report; however, three had evidence of metastatic disease according to iCT measurements. None of the children had recurrent nerve injuries; one had evidence of hypoparathyroidism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. [Personalized cell therapy for early postoperative bullous keratopathy (experimental proof and clinical results)].

    PubMed

    Kasparov, A A; Kasparova, Evg A; Fadeeva, L L; Subbot, A M; Borodina, N V; Kasparova, E A; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M; Pavliuk, A S

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of a long-term research on development and clinical application of personalized cell therapy (PCT) for treatment of early postoperative (manifesting within the first 3 months after surgery) bullous keratopathy (BK). The method of intracameral PCT implies in vitro incubation of the patient's blood sample with poly(A:U) stimulator, separation of the serum with activated leukocytes, and injection of the final cell preparation into the anterior chamber. The fundamental part of the research was aimed at a detailed description of the cell preparation and investigation of its possible mechanisms of action. Cytokine and growth factor level in the cell preparation suggested that its high clinical efficacy might be due to its ability to improve regeneration of damaged corneal endothelium. The clinical study was conducted on a group of 52 patients with early BK. A significant effect (smoothing of the Descement's membrane folds, complete resorption of corneal edema, improvement of corneal transparency, reduction of corneal thickness and increase of visual acuity by 0.49 +/- 0.27) was achieved in 44.2% of patients, while partial effect was seen in 21.1% of patients. There was no clinical effect in 34.6% of patients. In those patients who developed significant or partial clinical effect after the PCT, many endotheliocytes appeared to have multiple nuclei (2 and more). In some patients polyploid nuclei persisted for 3-5 years after the treatment. Polyploidy results from incomplete mitosis which might be due to regenerative processes in the endothelium stimulated by the PCT. Obviously, high efficacy and relative simplicity of the method should promote its further clinical introduction.

  19. Riociguat in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: results from an early access study.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Jansa, Pavel; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens E; Halank, Michael; Simonneau, Gérald; Grünig, Ekkehard; Ulrich, Silvia; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gómez Sánchez, Miguel A; Pulido, Tomás; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Barberá, Joan Albert; Hoeper, Marius M; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Lang, Irene; Carvalho, Francine; Meier, Christian; Mueller, Katharina; Nikkho, Sylvia; D'Armini, Andrea M

    2017-12-28

    Following positive results from the Phase III CHEST-1 study in patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the Phase IIIb CTEPH early access study (EAS) was designed to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat in real-world clinical practice, as well as to provide patients with early access to riociguat before launch. Riociguat is approved for the treatment of inoperable and persistent/recurrent CTEPH. We performed an open-label, uncontrolled, single-arm, early access study in which 300 adult patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent CTEPH received riociguat adjusted from 1 mg three times daily (tid) to a maximum of 2.5 mg tid. Patients switching from unsatisfactory prior pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapy (n = 84) underwent a washout period of at least 3 days before initiating riociguat. The primary aim was to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat, with World Health Organization functional class and 6-min walking distance (6MWD) as exploratory efficacy endpoints. In total, 262 patients (87%) completed study treatment and entered the safety follow-up (median treatment duration 47 weeks). Adverse events were reported in 273 patients (91%). The most frequently reported serious adverse events were syncope (6%), right ventricular failure (3%), and pneumonia (2%). There were five deaths, none of which was considered related to study medication. The safety and tolerability of riociguat was similar in patients switched from other PAH-targeted therapies and those who were treatment naïve. In patients with data available, mean ± standard deviation 6MWD had increased by 33 ± 42 m at Week 12 with no clinically relevant differences between the switched and treatment-naïve subgroups. Riociguat was well tolerated in patients with CTEPH who were treatment naïve, and in those who were switched from other PAH-targeted therapies. No new safety signals were

  20. Early Postoperative Results of Percutaneous Needle Fasciotomy in 451 Patients with Dupuytren Disease.

    PubMed

    Molenkamp, Sanne; Schouten, Tanneke A M; Broekstra, Dieuwke C; Werker, Paul M N; Moolenburgh, J Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Percutaneous needle fasciotomy is a minimally invasive treatment modality for Dupuytren disease. In this study, the authors analyzed the efficacy and complication rate of percutaneous needle fasciotomy using a statistical method that takes the multilevel structure of data, regarding multiple measurements from the same patient, into account. The data of 470 treated rays from 451 patients with Dupuytren disease that underwent percutaneous needle fasciotomy were analyzed retrospectively. The authors described the early postoperative results of percutaneous needle fasciotomy and applied linear mixed models to compare mean correction of passive extension deficit between joints and efficacy of primary versus secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Mean preoperative passive extension deficits at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints were 37, 40, and 31 degrees, respectively. Mean preoperative total passive extension deficit was 54 degrees. Results were excellent, with a mean total passive extension deficit correction of 85 percent. Percutaneous needle fasciotomy was most effective for metacarpophalangeal joints and less effective for proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. Secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy was as effective as primary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Complications were rare and mostly minor. The results of this study confirm that percutaneous needle fasciotomy is an effective and safe treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate disease who prefer a minimally invasive procedure. Therapeutic, IV.

  1. [Assessment of results in the early diagnosis of breast cancer program in Asturias Community].

    PubMed

    Natal, Carmen; Suárez, María Teresa; Serrano, Susana; Díaz, Concepción; González, Cristina; Menéndez, Primitiva; Castañón, Rubén; García, María Luisa; Blázquez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate and disseminate the intermediate results of a breast cancer early detection program in the Asturias Community. We report the results of screening examinations performed between 2005 and 2009, using the indicators proposed in the European Guidelines on Quality Assurance in Mammography Screening. The information sources for breast cancer cases diagnosed were the pathology information system and the information on the characteristics of the tumour from the pathology report. The classification of the diagnostic features of the program was from its own information system. A total of 1,384 breast cancers were diagnosed in the program target population during the study period, of which 49% were diagnosed in the program, 13% were interval cancers, 17% were diagnosed in women who chose not to participate in the program, and 22% in women who for various reasons had not been invited to participate. The most advanced diagnoses were made in the group of interval cancers and the earliest diagnoses were made in the uninvited population. When the healthcare system is directed towards the asymptomatic population to provide a measure of prevention, it must ensure that there is a favourable balance. The results of this evaluation are consistent with accepted standards and with those found in other assessments. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Media consumption and sleep quality in early childhood: results from the Ulm SPATZ Health Study.

    PubMed

    Genuneit, Jon; Brockmann, Pablo E; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2018-05-01

    Media use is increasingly becoming common in preschoolers and starting before the age of three years. While several studies have documented the effects of screen time on sleep duration in this age group, investigations including sleep quality are scarce and mainly cross-sectional. Moreover, they are limited by investigating sleep across broader age ranges or in older preschoolers, which may blur early effects and the ideal time for intervention. The current study analyzed data from the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, a birth cohort study in which 1006 live newborns were recruited from the general population shortly after delivery at the University Medical Center Ulm, Southern Germany, from April 2012 to May 2013. Longitudinal data on child sleep were parent reported on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) at ages two and three years. Child media consumption was assessed at three years of age with different questions on electronic media and books. Statistical analyses included Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Electronic media consumption had a moderate prevalence and dose, and prevalence of never using books appeared to be high (39%). The preliminary results indicated strong statistically significant inverse cross-sectional associations between electronic media consumption and overall sleep quality and, using longitudinal data, with worsening indicators of bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, and daytime sleepiness. This was the first larger-scale study to comprehensively investigate the effects of electronic media consumption and book reading on all CSHQ items in three-year-olds. Considering the risk of chronification, preventive efforts (eg, by effective sleep-oriented training programs) already seem necessary in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The selection system of silviculture in spruce-fir stands - procedures, early results, and comparisons with unmanaged stands

    Robert M. Frank; Barton M. Blum

    1978-01-01

    Early results after 20 years of record keeping indicate that spruce-fir stands will respond to the selection system of silviculture. Stand quality is improved, species composition can be altered, diameter-class distribution approaches a stated goal, stand density is controlled, and yields are increased. Selection silviculture in spruce-fir can now be compared to early...

  4. Feminizing genitoplasty in adult transsexuals: early and long-term surgical results.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Jonathan C; Vickery, Richard M; Qureshi, Assad; Summerton, Duncan J; Khoosal, Deenesh; Terry, Tim R

    2007-09-01

    To examine the early and late surgical outcomes of feminizing genitoplasty (FG) in adult transsexuals in a UK single surgeon practice over a 10-year period. Computerized and manual databases were searched over the period 1994-2004 to identify patients who had undergone male to female FG. Case-notes were retrieved and analysed to identify epidemiological data, the number and type of perioperative problems, early results at outpatient review, late occurring problems and patient satisfaction. A telephone questionnaire was then conducted targeting all FG patients in our series. The questions were directed at identifying surgical complications, outcome and patient satisfaction. In all, 233 case-notes were identified and 222 (95%) were retrieved. All patients had penectomy, urethroplasty and labiaplasty, 207 (93%) had formation of a neoclitoris, and 202 (91%) had a skin-lined neovagina. The median (range) age was 41 (19-76) years. The median hospital stay was 10 (6-21) days. A record of the first outpatient visit was available in 197 (84.5%) cases. The median time to follow up was 56 (8-351) days. Over all, 82.2% had an adequate vaginal depth, with a median depth of 13 (5-15) cm and 6.1% had developed vaginal stenosis. Three (1.7%) patients had had a vaginal prolapse, two (1.1%) had a degree of vaginal skin flap necrosis and one (0.6%) was troubled with vaginal hair growth. In 86.3% of the patients the neoclitorizes were sensitive. There was urethral stenosis in 18.3% of the patients and 5.6% complained of spraying of urine. Minor corrective urethral surgery was undertaken in 36 patients including 42 urethral dilatations, and eight meatotomies were performed. At the first clinic visit 174 (88.3%) patients were 'happy', 13 (6.6%) were 'unhappy' and 10 (5.1%) made no comment. Of the 233 patients, we successfully contacted 70 (30%). All had had penectomy and labioplasty, 64 (91%) had a clitoroplasty and 62 (89%) a neovagina. The median age was 43 (19-76) years and the

  5. Early life environmental and pharmacological stressors result in persistent dysregulations of the serotonergic system

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peiyan; Sze, Ying; Gray, Laura Jane; Chang, Cecilia Chin Roei; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulations in the brain serotonergic system and exposure to environmental stressors have been implicated in the development of major depressive disorder. Here, we investigate the interactions between the stress and serotonergic systems by characterizing the behavioral and biochemical effects of chronic stress applied during early-life or adulthood in wild type (WT) mice and mice with deficient tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) function. We showed that chronic mild stress applied in adulthood did not affect the behaviors and serotonin levels of WT and TPH2 knock-in (KI) mice. Whereas, maternal separation (MS) stress increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors of WT mice, with no detectable behavioral changes in TPH2 KI mice. Biochemically, we found that MS WT mice had reduced brain serotonin levels, which was attributed to increased expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A). The increased MAO A expression was detected in MS WT mice at 4 weeks old and adulthood. No change in TPH2 expression was detected. To determine whether a pharmacological stressor, dexamethasone (Dex), will result in similar biochemical results obtained from MS, we used an in vitro system, SH-SY5Y cells, and found that Dex treatment resulted in increased MAO A expression levels. We then treated WT mice with Dex for 5 days, either during postnatal days 7–11 or adulthood. Both groups of Dex treated WT mice had reduced basal corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptors expression levels. However, only Dex treatment during PND7–11 resulted in reduced serotonin levels and increased MAO A expression. Just as with MS WT mice, TPH2 expression in PND7–11 Dex-treated WT mice was unaffected. Taken together, our findings suggest that both environmental and pharmacological stressors affect the expression of MAO A, and not TPH2, when applied during the critical postnatal period. This leads to long-lasting perturbations in the serotonergic system, and results in anxiety- and depressive

  6. A new UKIDSS proper motion survey and key early results, including new benchmark systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L.; Lucas, P.; Burningham, B.; Jones, H.; Pinfield, D.; Smart, R.; Andrei, A.

    We present a proper motion catalogue for the 1500 deg2 of 2 epoch J-band UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) data, which includes 120,000 stellar sources with motions detected above the 5sigma level. Our upper limit on proper motion detection is 3\\farcs3 yr-1 and typical uncertainties are of order 10 mas yr-1 for bright sources from data with a modest 1.8-7.0 year epoch baseline. We developed a bespoke proper motion pipeline which applies a source-unique second order polynomial transformation to UKIDSS array coordinates to counter potential local non-uniformity in the focal plane. Our catalogue agrees well with the proper motion data supplied in the current WFCAM Science Archive (WSA) tenth data release (DR10) catalogue where there is overlap, and in various optical catalogues, but it benefits from some improvements, such as a larger matching radius and relative to absolute proper motion correction. We present proper motion results for 128 T dwarfs in the UKIDSS LAS and key early results of projects utilising our catalogue, in particular searches for brown dwarf benchmark systems through cross matches with existing proper motion catalogues. We report the discovery of two new T dwarf benchmark systems.

  7. Neuronal redox imbalance results in altered energy homeostasis and early postnatal lethality.

    PubMed

    Maity-Kumar, Gandhari; Thal, Dietmar R; Baumann, Bernd; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Redox imbalance is believed to contribute to the development and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. Our aim was to develop an animal model that exhibits neuron-specific oxidative stress in the CNS to study the consequences and eventually find clues regarding the pathomechanisms of oxidative insults in neuronal homeostasis. We therefore generated a novel neuron-specific superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)-deficient mouse by deleting exon 3 of the SOD2 gene using CamKIIα promoter-driven Cre expression. These neuron-specific SOD2 knockout (SOD2(nko)) mice, although born at normal frequencies, died at the age of 4 weeks with critical growth retardation, severe energy failure, and several neurologic phenotypes. In addition, SOD2(nko) mice exhibited severe neuronal alterations such as reactive astrogliosis, neuronal cell cycle inhibition, and induction of apoptosis. JNK activation and stabilization of p53, as a result of reactive oxygen species accumulation, are most likely the inducers of neuronal apoptosis in SOD2(nko) mice. It is remarkable that hypothalamic regulation of glucose metabolism was affected, which in turn induced necrotic brain lesions in SOD2(nko) mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that exclusive deficiency of SOD2 in neurons results in an impaired central regulation of energy homeostasis that leads to persistent hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia-related neuropathology, and an early lethality of the mutant mice. © FASEB.

  8. Early versus delayed loading of mandibular implant-supported overdentures: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Tözüm, Tolga F; Tumer, Celal

    2010-05-01

    Because of poor retention of complete removable dentures for edentulous patients, implant-supported mandibular overdentures have lately become a popular alternative for them. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate treatment outcomes of mandibular overdentures supported by two unsplinted early-loaded implants and compare these results with those for delayed-loaded implants. A total of 26 edentulous patients were treated with two unsplinted implants supporting a mandibular overdenture. All implants were placed in the canine regions of each mandible according to the one-stage surgical protocol. There were two groups: test group, in which the overdenture was connected 1 week after surgery, and control group, in which the overdenture was connected 3 months after surgery. Standardized clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded at surgery, and after 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, and 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. No implants were lost, and 0.93 +/- 0.3 mm marginal bone resorption was noted for all implants after 5 years. Clinical implant stability measurements, clinical peri-implant parameters, and marginal bone resorptions showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups over 5 years. The results of this prospective clinical study suggest that there is no significant difference in the clinical and radiographic state of patients treated with implant supported mandibular overdentures loaded either 1 week or 3 months after surgery.

  9. Ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract: early results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abcarian, Ariane M; Estrada, Joaquin J; Park, John; Corning, Cybil; Chaudhry, Vivek; Cintron, Jose; Prasad, Leela; Abcarian, Herand

    2012-07-01

    needed to validate the early favorable results.

  10. Genomics-Driven Precision Medicine for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: Early Results from the COMPASS Trial.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw L; Fischer, Sandra E; Denroche, Robert E; Jang, Gun-Ho; Dodd, Anna; Creighton, Sean; Southwood, Bernadette; Liang, Sheng-Ben; Chadwick, Dianne; Zhang, Amy; O'Kane, Grainne M; Albaba, Hamzeh; Moura, Shari; Grant, Robert C; Miller, Jessica K; Mbabaali, Faridah; Pasternack, Danielle; Lungu, Ilinca M; Bartlett, John M S; Ghai, Sangeet; Lemire, Mathieu; Holter, Spring; Connor, Ashton A; Moffitt, Richard A; Yeh, Jen Jen; Timms, Lee; Krzyzanowski, Paul M; Dhani, Neesha; Hedley, David; Notta, Faiyaz; Wilson, Julie M; Moore, Malcolm J; Gallinger, Steven; Knox, Jennifer J

    2018-03-15

    Purpose: To perform real-time whole genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA sequencing (RNASeq) of advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) to identify predictive mutational and transcriptional features for better treatment selection. Experimental Design: Patients with advanced PDAC were prospectively recruited prior to first-line combination chemotherapy. Fresh tumor tissue was acquired by image-guided percutaneous core biopsy for WGS and RNASeq. Laser capture microdissection was performed for all cases. Primary endpoint was feasibility to report WGS results prior to first disease assessment CT scan at 8 weeks. The main secondary endpoint was discovery of patient subsets with predictive mutational and transcriptional signatures. Results: Sixty-three patients underwent a tumor biopsy between December 2015 and June 2017. WGS and RNASeq were successful in 62 (98%) and 60 (95%), respectively. Genomic results were reported at a median of 35 days (range, 19-52 days) from biopsy, meeting the primary feasibility endpoint. Objective responses to first-line chemotherapy were significantly better in patients with the classical PDAC RNA subtype compared with those with the basal-like subtype ( P = 0.004). The best progression-free survival was observed in those with classical subtype treated with m-FOLFIRINOX. GATA6 expression in tumor measured by RNA in situ hybridization was found to be a robust surrogate biomarker for differentiating classical and basal-like PDAC subtypes. Potentially actionable genetic alterations were found in 30% of patients. Conclusions: Prospective genomic profiling of advanced PDAC is feasible, and our early data indicate that chemotherapy response differs among patients with different genomic/transcriptomic subtypes. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1344-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Management strategies, early results, benefits, and risk factors of laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Lunevicius, Raimundas; Morkevicius, Matas

    2005-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to describe epidemiology and management strategies of the perforated duodenal ulcer, as well as the most common methods of laparoscopic perforated duodenal ulcer repair. The secondary goal was to demonstrate the value of prospective and retrospective studies regarding the early results of surgery and the risk factors. The tertiary goal was to emphasize the benefits of this operation, and the fourth goal was to clarify the possible risk factors associated with laparoscopic repair of the duodenal ulcer. The Medline/Pubmed database was used. Review was done after evaluation of 96 retrieved full-text articles. Thirteen prospective and twelve retrospective studies were selected, grouped, and summarized. The spectrum of the retrospective studies' results are as follows: median overall morbidity rate 10.5 %, median conversion rate 7%, median hospital stay 7 days, and median postoperative mortality rate 0%. The following is the spectrum of results of the prospective studies: median overall morbidity rate was slightly less (6%); the median conversion rate was higher (15%); the median hospital stay was shorter (5 days) and the postoperative mortality was higher (3%). The risk factors identified were the same. Shock, delayed presentation (> 24 hours), confounding medical condition, age > 70 years, poor laparoscopic expertise, ASA III-IV, and Boey score should be considered preoperative laparoscopic repair risk factors. Each of these factors independently should qualify as a criterion for open repair due to higher intraoperative risks as well as postoperative morbidity. Inadequate ulcer localization, large perforation size (defined by some as > 6 mm diameter, and by others as > 10 mm), and ulcers with friable edges are also considered as conversion risk factors.

  12. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    SciT

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A.

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergenmore » (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)« less

  13. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Camus, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Eng, P.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Longval, Y.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Mansoux, B.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pons, R.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of cosmic rays due to historically low levels of solar activity. As a result of the redundancy of Planck's observation strategy, theremoval of a few percent of data contaminated by glitches does not significantly affect the instrumental sensitivity. The cosmic ray flux represents a significant and variable heat load on the sub-Kelvin stage. Temporal variation and the inhomogeneous distribution of the flux results in thermal fluctuations that are a probable source of low frequency noise. The removal of systematic effects in the time ordered data provides a signal with an average noise equivalent power that is 70% of the goal in the 0.6-2.5 Hz range. This is slightly higher than was achieved during the pre-launch characterization but better than predicted in the early phases of the project. The improvement over the goal is a result of the low level of instrumental background loading achieved by the optical and thermal design of the HFI. Corresponding author: J.-M. Lamarre, jean-michel.lamarre@obspm.fr

  14. Migration characteristics and early clinical results of a novel-finned press-fit acetabular cup.

    PubMed

    Kaipel, Martin; Prenner, Anton; Bachl, Sebastian; Farr, Sebastian; Sinz, Günter

    2014-04-01

    Ana Nova® is a novel-finned press-fit acetabular cup which showed superior biomechanical characteristics in an experimental set-up. Using Einzel Bild Röntgen Analyse (EBRA) measurements should offer the opportunity to predict implant survival at an early stage. The purpose of this study was to assess migration and clinical outcome 2 years after total hip replacement by a novel-finned press-fit acetabular cup. In this study, migration and clinical results of the implant were prospectively assessed in 67 patients. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris hip score (HHS). Migration analyses were performed using the computer assisted EBRA system. Data were analyzed for normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Group comparisons were performed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. At 2 years after surgery, none of the implants needed revision and HHS increased from 39.7 up to 92.2. In contrast to the beneficial clinical outcome, 17 of 44 patients showed increased total migration ( 1 mm/2a). Adverse migration data in this study might predict aseptic loosening and decreased survival of the implant. According to previous studies, it is possible that this effect occurred because of limited accuracy of the EBRA system. In our opinion, migration analyses may not be recommended as a screening tool in a 2 year follow-up.

  15. Early Results from the First Year of Observations by the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sara M.; ABS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    The Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) instrument, which began observation in February of 2012, is a crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5100 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile. The primary scientific goal of ABS is to measure the B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from multipole moments of about l=50 to l=500, a range that includes the primordial B-mode peak. Unlike most current polarization experiments, ABS features a cryogenic telescope and a warm half-wave plate used to modulate the polarization of the incoming light. The ABS focal plane array consists of 240 pixels designed for observation at 150 GHz by the TRUCE collaboration. Each pixel has its own individual, single-moded feedhorn and contains two transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers sensitive to orthogonal polarizations. The detectors are read out using time domain multiplexing so that the thermal loading of the readout electronics does not heat the focal plane. I will present early results from the first year of ABS data.

  16. VCE early acoustic test results of General Electric's high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Bhutiani, P. K.; Majjigi, R. K.; Doyle, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of variable cycle engine (VCE) early acoustic engine and model scale tests are presented. A summary of an extensive series of far field acoustic, advanced acoustic, and exhaust plume velocity measurements with a laser velocimeter of inverted velocity and temperature profile, high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles on a YJ101 VCE static engine test vehicle are reviewed. Select model scale simulated flight acoustic measurements for an unsuppressed and a mechanical suppressed coannular plug nozzle are also discussed. The engine acoustic nozzle tests verify previous model scale noise reduction measurements. The engine measurements show 4 to 6 PNdB aft quadrant jet noise reduction and up to 7 PNdB forward quadrant shock noise reduction relative to a fully mixed conical nozzle at the same specific thrust and mixed pressure ratio. The influences of outer nozzle radius ratio, inner stream velocity ratio, and area ratio are discussed. Also, laser velocimeter measurements of mean velocity and turbulent velocity of the YJ101 engine are illustrated. Select model scale static and simulated flight acoustic measurements are shown which corroborate that coannular suppression is maintained in forward speed.

  17. Adaptive multi-sensor biomimetics for unsupervised submarine hunt (AMBUSH): Early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouin, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Underwater surveillance is inherently difficult because acoustic wave propagation and transmission are limited and unpredictable when targets and sensors move around in the communication-opaque undersea environment. Today's Navy underwater sensors enable the collection of a massive amount of data, often analyzed offtine. The Navy of tomorrow will dominate by making sense of that data in real-time. DRDC's AMBUSH project proposes a new undersea-surveillance network paradigm that will enable such a real-time operation. Nature abounds with examples of collaborative tasks taking place despite limited communication and computational capabilities. This publication describes a year's worth of research efforts finding inspiration in Nature's collaborative tasks such as wolves hunting in packs. This project proposes the utilization of a heterogeneous network combining both static and mobile network nodes. The military objective is to enable an unsupervised surveillance capability while maximizing target localization performance and endurance. The scientific objective is to develop the necessary technology to acoustically and passively localize a noise-source of interest in shallow waters. The project fulfills these objectives via distributed computing and adaptation to changing undersea conditions. Specific research interests discussed here relate to approaches for performing: (a) network self-discovery, (b) network connectivity self-assessment, (c) opportunistic network routing, (d) distributed data-aggregation, and (e) simulation of underwater acoustic propagation. We present early results then followed by a discussion about future work.

  18. The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission: Overview and early science results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James M., III; Bailey, Scott M.; Gordley, Larry L.; Rusch, David W.; Horányi, Mihály; Hervig, Mark E.; Thomas, Gary E.; Randall, Cora E.; Siskind, David E.; Stevens, Michael H.; Summers, Michael E.; Taylor, Michael J.; Englert, Christoph R.; Espy, Patrick J.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee W.

    2009-03-01

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 1:26:03 PDT on April 25, 2007 becoming the first satellite mission dedicated to the study of polar mesospheric clouds. A Pegasus XL rocket launched the satellite into a near perfectly circular 600 km sun synchronous orbit. AIM carries three instruments selected because of their ability to provide key measurements needed to address the AIM goal which is to determine why these clouds form and vary. The instrument payload includes a nadir imager, a solar occultation instrument and an in-situ cosmic dust detector. Detailed descriptions of the science, instruments and observation scenario are presented. Early science results from the first northern and southern hemisphere seasons show a highly variable cloud morphology, clouds that are ten times brighter than measured by previous space-based instruments, and complex features that are reminiscent of tropospheric weather phenomena. The observations also confirm a previously theorized but never before directly observed population of small ice particles in the altitude region above the main Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) layer that are widely believed to be the indirect cause of summertime radar echoes.

  19. Early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project

    Brock, John C.; Lavoie, Dawn L.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2011-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region and its diverse ecosystems are threatened by population and development pressure and by the impacts of rising sea level and severe storms such as the series of hurricanes that has impacted the northern Gulf in recent years. In response to the complex management issues facing the region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) organized a multidisciplinary research program to coordinate the activities of USGS and other scientists working in the northern Gulf of Mexico region (fig. 1). The Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project aims to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic coastal ecosystems on the northern Gulf coast, the impact of human activities on these ecosystems, and the vulnerability of ecosystems and human communities to more frequent and more intense hurricanes in the future. A special issue of Geo-Marine Letters published in December 2009 is devoted to early results of studies completed as part of this project. These studies, which have been conducted at sites throughout the northern Gulf region, from the Chandeleur Islands to Apalachicola Bay, have focused on three themes: (1) The underlying geologic framework that exerts controls over coastal processes (2) The impact of human activities on nearshore water quality (3) Hurricanes and associated effects

  20. Complications and early results after operative fixation of 68 pilon fractures of the distal tibia.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Adam; Singh, Anjani; N Jane, Madeley; C Senthil, Kumar

    2015-05-01

    In this cohort study, we present comprehensive injury specific and surgical outcome data from one of the largest reported series of pilon fractures of the distal tibia treated in a UK tertiary referral centre. A series of 68 closed pilon fractures were retrospectively reviewed from case notes, plain radiographs and computed tomography imaging. Patient demographics, injury and fracture patterns, methods and timing of fixation and clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed over a mean follow-up period of 7.7 months (1.5-30). Overall, deep infection occurred in 1.6% with superficial infection and wound breakdown occurring in 6.3% of cases. Rates of nonunion and malunion were 7.8%. Radiological posttraumatic arthritis was present in 26.6%, which was symptomatic and requiring orthopaedic management in 9.4%. Further surgery for all causes occurred in 26.6% of cases. Fixation of these complex fractures in subspecialist units can achieve overall low rates of wound complications, with definitive fixation of selected fractures within 48 h of initial presentation achieving comparable results to those fixed in a delayed fashion. However, this injury continues to have a significant overall complication rate with a high chance of developing early posttraumatic arthritis and of requiring further surgery. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Comparison of Early-period Results of Nasal Splint and Merocel Nasal Packs in Septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bingöl, Fatih; Budak, Ali; Şimşek, Eda; Kılıç, Korhan; Bingöl, Buket Özel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several types of nasal packs are used postoperatively in septoplasty. In this study, we compared two commonly used nasal packing materials, the intranasal septal splint with airway and Merocel tampon, in terms of pain, bleeding, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, discomfort in sleep, and pain and bleeding during removal of packing in the early period. Methods The study group included 60 patients undergoing septoplasty. Patients were divided into two groups (n=30 in each group). An intranasal splint with airway was used for the patients in the first group after septoplasty, while Merocel nasal packing was used for the second group. Patients were investigated in terms of seven different factors - pain, bleeding while the tampon was in place, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, night sleep, pain during removal of the nasal packing, and bleeding after removal of packing. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pain 24 hours after operation (p=0.05), while visual analog scale (VAS) scores for nasal obstruction, night sleep, eating difficulties, and pain during packing removal were lower in the nasal splint group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative bleeding (p=0.23). Significantly less bleeding occurred during removal of the packing in the nasal splint group (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study indicates that the nasal splint was more comfortable and effective in terms of causing lesser bleeding and pain during removal of packing. PMID:29392071

  2. Ocriplasmin for treatment of stage 2 macular holes: early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Miller, John B; Kim, Leo A; Wu, David M; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Eliott, Dean; Husain, Deeba

    2014-01-01

    To review clinical and structural outcomes of ocriplasmin for treatment of stage 2 macular holes. A retrospective review of the first patients with stage 2 macular holes to be treated with ocriplasmin at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. All patients were imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Eight patients with stage 2 macular holes received a single injection of 125 μg of ocriplasmin. One patient (12.5%) demonstrated macular hole closure. The posterior hyaloid separated from the macula in six eyes (75%). All seven holes that remained open showed enlargement in hole diameters (narrowest, apical, and basal) at 1 week and 1 month. All seven were successfully closed with surgery. Ellipsoid zone disruptions were observed by OCT in four eyes (50%) and persisted throughout follow-up (more than 6 months on average). In early clinical results, the authors found a lower macular hole closure rate with ocriplasmin than previously reported. Enlargement was observed in all holes that failed to close with ocriplasmin. The authors found ellipsoid zone disruptions that persisted through 6 months of follow-up after ocriplasmin injection. Further work is needed to investigate the cause for these ellipsoid zone changes. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Early and Late Retrieval of the ALN Removable Vena Cava Filter: Results from a Multicenter Study

    SciT

    Pellerin, O., E-mail: olivier.pellerin@egp.aphp.f; Barral, F. G.; Lions, C.

    Retrieval of removable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in selected patients is widely practiced. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate the feasibility and results of percutaneous removal of the ALN removable filter in a large patient cohort. Between November 2003 and June 2006, 123 consecutive patients were referred for percutaneous extraction of the ALN filter at three centers. The ALN filter is a removable filter that can be implanted through a femoral/jugular vein approach and extracted by the jugular vein approach. Filter removal was attempted after an implantation period of 93 {+-} 15 days (range, 6-722 days)more » through the right internal jugular vein approach using the dedicated extraction kit after control inferior vena cavography. Following filter removal, vena cavograms were obtained in all patients. Successful extraction was achieved in all but one case. Among these successful retrievals, additional manipulation using a femoral approach was needed when the apex of the filter was close to the IVC wall in two patients. No immediate IVC complications were observed according to the postimplantation cavography. Neither technical nor clinical differences between early and late filter retrieval were noticed. Our data confirm the safety of ALN filter retrieval up to 722 days after implantation. In infrequent cases, additional endovenous filter manipulation is needed to facilitate extraction.« less

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    SciT

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang

    2015-01-10

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capturemore » elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.« less

  5. Early Results of Endovascular Treatment of the Thoracic Aorta Using the Valiant Endograft

    SciT

    Thompson, Matt, E-mail: matt.thompson@stgeorges.nhs.uk; Ivaz, Stella; Cheshire, Nicholas

    Endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta has been adopted as the first-line therapy for much pathology. Initial results from the early-generation endografts have highlighted the potential of this technique. Newer-generation endografts have now been introduced into clinical practice and careful assessment of their performance should be mandatory. This study describes the initial experience with the Valiant endograft and makes comparisons with similar series documenting previous-generation endografts. Data were retrospectively collected on 180 patients treated with the Valiant endograft at seven European centers between March 2005 and October 2006. The patient cohort consisted of 66 patients with thoracic aneurysms, 22 withmore » thoracoabdominal aneurysms, 19 with an acute aortic syndrome, 52 with aneurysmal degeneration of a chronic dissection, and 21 patients with traumatic aortic transection. The overall 30-day mortality for the series was 7.2%, with a stroke rate of 3.8% and a paraplegia rate of 3.3%. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that mortality differed significantly between different indications; thoracic aneurysms (6.1%), thoracoabdominal aneurysms (27.3%), acute aortic syndrome (10.5%), chronic dissections (1.9%), and acute transections (0%). Adjunctive surgical procedures were required in 63 patients, and 51% of patients had grafts deployed proximal to the left subclavian artery. Comparison with a series of earlier-generation grafts demonstrated a significant increase in complexity of procedure as assessed by graft implantation site, number of grafts and patient comorbidity. The data demonstrate acceptable results for a new-generation endograft in series of patients with diverse thoracic aortic pathology. Comparison of clinical outcomes between different endografts poses considerable challenges due to differing case complexity.« less

  6. The JCMT Plane Survey: early results from the ℓ = 30° field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. J. T.; Plume, R.; Thompson, M. A.; Parsons, H.; Urquhart, J. S.; Eden, D. J.; Dempsey, J. T.; Morgan, L. K.; Thomas, H. S.; Buckle, J.; Brunt, C. M.; Butner, H.; Carretero, D.; Chrysostomou, A.; deVilliers, H. M.; Fich, M.; Hoare, M. G.; Manser, G.; Mottram, J. C.; Natario, C.; Olguin, F.; Peretto, N.; Polychroni, D.; Redman, R. O.; Rigby, A. J.; Salji, C.; Summers, L. J.; Berry, D.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Traficante, A.; Bastien, P.; diFrancesco, J.; Davis, C. J.; Evans, A.; Friberg, P.; Fuller, G. A.; Gibb, A. G.; Gibson, S.; Hill, T.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Longmore, S. N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martin, P. G.; Nguyen Lu'o'ng, Q.; Pineda, J. E.; Purcell, C.; Richer, J. S.; Schieven, G. H.; Shipman, R.; Spaans, M.; Taylor, A. R.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present early results from the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) Plane Survey (JPS), which has surveyed the northern inner Galactic plane between longitudes ℓ = 7° and ℓ = 63° in the 850-μm continuum with SCUBA-2 (Submm Common-User Bolometer Array 2), as part of the JCMT Legacy Survey programme. Data from the ℓ = 30° survey region, which contains the massive-star-forming regions W43 and G29.96, are analysed after approximately 40 per cent of the observations had been completed. The pixel-to-pixel noise is found to be 19 mJy beam-1 after a smooth over the beam area, and the projected equivalent noise levels in the final survey are expected to be around 10 mJy beam-1. An initial extraction of compact sources was performed using the FELLWALKER method, resulting in the detection of 1029 sources above a 5σ surface-brightness threshold. The completeness limits in these data are estimated to be around 0.2 Jy beam-1 (peak flux density) and 0.8 Jy (integrated flux density) and are therefore probably already dominated by source confusion in this relatively crowded section of the survey. The flux densities of extracted compact sources are consistent with those of matching detections in the shallower APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) survey. We analyse the virial and evolutionary state of the detected clumps in the W43 star-forming complex and find that they appear younger than the Galactic-plane average.

  7. Survival of Implants in Immediate Extraction Sockets of Anterior Teeth: Early Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims and objectives of this study were placement of implants in freshly extracted sockets of anterior teeth and to evaluate the implant stability, peri-implant radiolucency and gingival inflammation around implant over a short period of 30 months. Materials and Methods A total of 12 patients (8 male and 4 female), ranging in the age from 20 to 50 years, from March 2007 to June 2007, were evaluated for immediate implant placement into 22 fresh extraction sockets. Only maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth/roots (central incisors, lateral incisors and canines) were considered for replacement with implants. One piece implant with integrated abutment and integrated surface, non-submerged, threaded and tapered at apical 5 mm, sand-blasted and acid etched surfaced implants (HI-TEC TRX-OP Implants of Life Care Company) were used. Results The mobility was not present in any of the implants at all the follow up visits. There were 2 implants at 6 month, 1 implant at 12 month, 1 implant at 18 month visits, showing peri-implant radiolucency at some sites at bone to implant contact site. Severe gingival inflammation was not observed in any of the implant site. At every follow-up visit, every implant met the criteria of success and none was found to be failed over a 30 months duration i.e. 100% success rate was achieved by implants in immediate extraction socket. Conclusion The success rate of implant survival in this study was found 100%. These implants have fulfilled all the criteria of implant success and based on the defined criteria, the success rate of implants placed in immediate extraction sockets of anterior teeth compared favorably with the conventional implants. The early results of the present study showed that high survival rates with the implants in immediate extraction sockets can be achieved. PMID:26266220

  8. Titan: Preliminary results on surface properties and photometry from VIMS observations of the early flybys

    Buratti, B.J.; Sotin, Christophe; Brown, R.H.; Hicks, M.D.; Clark, R.N.; Mosher, J.A.; McCord, T.B.; Jaumann, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Momary, T.; Simonelli, D.P.; Sicardy, B.

    2006-01-01

    Cassini observations of the surface of Titan offer unprecedented views of its surface through atmospheric windows in the 1-5 ??m region. Images obtained in windows for which the haze opacity is low can be used to derive quantitative photometric parameters such as albedo and albedo distribution, and physical properties such as roughness and particle characteristics. Images from the early Titan flybys, particularly T0, Ta, and T5 have been analyzed to create albedo maps in the 2.01 and 2.73 ??m windows. We find the average normal reflectance at these two wavelengths to be 0.15??0.02 and 0.035??0.003, respectively. Titan's surface is bifurcated into two albedo regimes, particularly at 2.01 ??m. Analysis of these two regimes to understand the physical character of the surface was accomplished with a macroscopic roughness model. We find that the two types of surface have substantially different roughness, with the low-albedo surface exhibiting mean slope angles of ???18??, and the high-albedo terrain having a much more substantial roughness with a mean slope angle of ???34??. A single-scattering phase function approximated by a one-term Henyey-Greenstein equation was also fit to each unit. Titan's surface is back-scattering (g???0.3-0.4), and does not exhibit substantially different backscattering behavior between the two terrains. Our results suggest that two distinct geophysical domains exist on Titan: a bright region cut by deep drainage channels and a relatively smooth surface. The two terrains are covered by a film or a coating of particles perhaps precipitated from the satellite's haze layer and transported by eolian processes. Our results are preliminary: more accurate values for the surface albedo and physical parameters will be derived as more data is gathered by the Cassini spacecraft and as a more complete radiative transfer model is developed from both Cassini orbiter and Huygens Lander measurements. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early results of an endoscopic nipple-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Naomi; Fukuma, Eisuke; Higa, Kuniki; Ozaki, Shinji; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Abe, Satoko; Kurihara, Terumasa; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro

    2009-12-01

    Endoscopic mastectomy has been reportedly associated with smaller scars and greater patient satisfaction; however, few reports on this topic have been made. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the early results of endoscopic nipple-sparing mastectomy (E-NSM) and to investigate the safety of this procedure. Between January 2002 and December 2005, a total of 87 patients with breast cancer but without skin and nipple involvement, including two cases of bilateral breast cancer, underwent E-NSM. In case of bloody nipple discharge and suspicious extension near the nipple as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, the major ducts within the nipple were cored (nipple coring). In other cases, nipple coring was not performed. Of the 89 breasts in 87 patients, 42 had tumors of >2 cm and 80 were diagnosed as having invasive carcinoma. Lymph node involvement was observed in 36 procedures. The overall rate of nipple necrosis was 18% (16 of 89). The rate of nipple necrosis among the procedures with nipple coring was statistically higher than that among those without nipple coring (7 of 17, 41%, vs. 9 of 72, 13%) (P = .01). Nipple involvement was observed in 2.2% (2 of 89). After a median follow-up period of 52 months, distant metastasis was observed in nine cases; no local recurrences occurred in this series. E-NSM is an oncologically safe procedure and an acceptable method in selected patients requiring a mastectomy. The higher rate of nipple necrosis may have been the result of a technical problem, indicating the need for continued improvement in nipple coring procedures.

  10. Single-Fraction Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Early Cosmetic Results

    SciT

    Beal, Kathryn; McCormick, Beryl; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cosmetic outcome of patients treated with wide local excision and intraoperative radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 women were treated on a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy at wide local excision. The eligibility criteria included age >60, tumor size {<=}2.0 cm, clinically negative lymph nodes, and biopsy-established diagnosis. After wide local excision, a custom breast applicator was placed in the excision cavity, and a dose of 20 Gy was prescribed to a depth of 1 cm. After 18 patients were treated, the dose was constrained laterallymore » to 18 Gy. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated by photographs at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Four examiners graded the photographs for symmetry, edema, discoloration, contour, and scarring. The grades were evaluated in relationship to the volume of irradiated tissue, tumor location, and dose at the lateral aspects of the cavity. Results: The median volume of tissue receiving 100% of the prescription dose was 47 cm{sup 3} (range, 20-97 cm{sup 3}). Patients with {<=}47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue had better cosmetic outcomes than did the women who had >47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue. Women who had received 18 Gy at the lateral aspects of their cavities had better cosmetic outcomes than did women who had received 20 Gy at the lateral aspects. When comparing the 6- and 12-month results, the scores remained stable for 63%, improved for 17%, and worsened for 20%. Conclusion: Intraoperative radiotherapy appears feasible for selected patients. A favorable cosmetic outcome appears to be related to a smaller treatment volume. The cosmetic outcome is acceptable, although additional follow-up is necessary.« less

  11. Confocal microendoscopy: Characterization of imaging bundles, fluorescent contrast agents, and early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovich, Joshua Anthony

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Early detection improves the chances of survival following diagnosis, and new imaging modalities have the potential to reduce deaths due to this disease. The confocal microendoscope (CME) is a non-destructive in-vivo imaging device for visualization of the ovaries that operates in real-time. Two components of the CME system are evaluated in this paper, and initial results from an ongoing clinical trial are presented. Fiber-optic imaging bundles are used in the CME imaging catheter to relay images over distances of up to 20 feet. When detecting fluorescent signals from investigated tissue, any fluorescence in the system can potentially reduce contrast in images. The emission and transmission properties of three commercially available fiber optic imaging bundles were evaluated. Emission maps of fluorescence from bundles were generated at multiple excitation wavelengths to determine the profile and amount of fluorescence present in bundles manufactured by Sumitomo, Fujikura, and Schott. Results are also presented that show the variation of transmittance as a function of illumination angle in these bundles. Users of high-resolution fiber-optic imaging bundles should be aware of these properties and take them into account during system design. Contrast is improved in images obtained with the CME through the application of topical dyes. Acridine orange (AO) and SYTO 16 are two fluorescent stains that are used to show the size, shape, and distribution of cell nuclei. Unfortunately, little is known about the effects of these dyes on living tissues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dye treatment on peritoneal tissues in mice. Seventy-five Balb/c mice were split into five groups of fifteen and given peritoneal injections of dye or saline. The proportions of negative outcomes for the control and test groups were compared using confidence intervals and the Fisher's exact test

  12. Survival of Implants in Immediate Extraction Sockets of Anterior Teeth: Early Clinical Results.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Nazish

    2015-06-01

    The aims and objectives of this study were placement of implants in freshly extracted sockets of anterior teeth and to evaluate the implant stability, peri-implant radiolucency and gingival inflammation around implant over a short period of 30 months. A total of 12 patients (8 male and 4 female), ranging in the age from 20 to 50 years, from March 2007 to June 2007, were evaluated for immediate implant placement into 22 fresh extraction sockets. Only maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth/roots (central incisors, lateral incisors and canines) were considered for replacement with implants. One piece implant with integrated abutment and integrated surface, non-submerged, threaded and tapered at apical 5 mm, sand-blasted and acid etched surfaced implants (HI-TEC TRX-OP Implants of Life Care Company) were used. The mobility was not present in any of the implants at all the follow up visits. There were 2 implants at 6 month, 1 implant at 12 month, 1 implant at 18 month visits, showing peri-implant radiolucency at some sites at bone to implant contact site. Severe gingival inflammation was not observed in any of the implant site. At every follow-up visit, every implant met the criteria of success and none was found to be failed over a 30 months duration i.e. 100% success rate was achieved by implants in immediate extraction socket. The success rate of implant survival in this study was found 100%. These implants have fulfilled all the criteria of implant success and based on the defined criteria, the success rate of implants placed in immediate extraction sockets of anterior teeth compared favorably with the conventional implants. The early results of the present study showed that high survival rates with the implants in immediate extraction sockets can be achieved.

  13. SADI-S WITH RIGHT GASTRIC ARTERY LIGATION: TECHNICAL SYSTEMATIZATION AND EARLY RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    GEBELLI, Jordi Pujol; de GORDEJUELA, Amador Garcia Ruiz; RAMOS, Almino Cardoso; NORA, Mario; PEREIRA, Ana Marta; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; BASTOS, Eduardo Lemos de Souza; MARCHESINI, João Batista

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Bariatric surgery is performed all over the world with close to 500.000 procedures per year. The most performed techniques are Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Despite this data, the most effective procedure, biliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch, represents only no more than 1.5% of the procedures. Technical complexity, morbidity, mortality, and severe nutritional adverse effects related to the procedure are the main fears that prevent most universal acceptance. Aim: To explain the technical aspects and the benefits of the SADI-S with right gastric artery ligation as an effective simplification from the original duodenal switch. Methods: Were included all patients undergoing this procedure from the November 2014 to May 2016, describing and analysing aspects of this technique, the systematization and early complications associated with the procedure. Results: A series of 67 patients were operated; 46 were women (68.7%); mean age of the group was 44 years old (33-56); and an average BMI of 53.5 kg/m2 (50-63.5). Surgical time was 115 min (80-180). A total of five patients (7.5%) had any complication and two (2.9%) had to be reoperated. There were two patients with leak, one at the duodenal stump and other at the esophagogastric angle. There was no mortality. Patients stayed at the hospital a median of 2.5 days (1-25). Conclusions: SADI-S with right gastric artery ligation is a safe procedure with few preliminary complications. The technical variations introduced to the classical duodenal switch are reproducible and may allow this procedure to be more popular. All the complications in this series were not related to the ligation of the right gastric artery. PMID:27683784

  14. [Cholecystectomy in the elderly: early results of open versus laparoscopic approach].

    PubMed

    Régo, Ronaldo Elias Carnut; de Campos, Tércio; de Moricz, André; Silva, Rodrigo Altenfelder; Pacheco Júnior, Adhemar Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    The rise of elderly population is due to the improvement of life expectancy. The biliary lithiasis is the most common condition requiring intra-abdominal surgery. Half of these patients sustain associated diseases and frequently develops acute and complicated forms of cholelithiasis. Therefore, cholecystectomy is indicated for patients with chronic symptomatic disease. During a long period open cholecystectomy has been practiced, with low complications and mortality rates. Videolaparoscopy has been recently proposed as an option in these cases, however, few studies compared its advantages over open cholecystectomy for elderly patients. To access the early results of the surgical treatment for cholelithiasis in the elderly submitted to an open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. retrospective study with 246 patients > 65 years old, who underwent elective cholecystectomy through a subcostal incision (group I) or laparoscopic approach (group II). We employed Student's t test and Spearman's correlation for statistical analysis, considering p < 0,05 as significant. A hundred and twenty patients were arranged in group I and 126 in group II. Associated diseases were present in 155 cases (63). There were no differences between the groups regarding both the distribution of comorbid conditions. Conversion was evaluated in 10 patients (8.3%). The mean operative time was 133 minutes in group I and 112 minutes in group II (p=0.001). The mean hospital stay in group I was 3,3 days and in group II was 3.2 days p=0.698. Thirteen patients in each group developed complications: group I (10.8%) and group II (10.3%) p=0,896. There was no statistis significance in complication rate related to gender, age, associated diseases and ASA when the both groups were compared. There were two deaths, both in group II, although the mortality rate was not statiscally significant between the groups (p=0.158). Both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be practiced in the elderly with low and

  15. Early results of percutaneous arteriovenous fistula creation with the Ellipsys Vascular Access System.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Jennings, William C; Boura, Benoit; Costanzo, Alessandro; Bourquelot, Pierre; Combes, Myriam

    2018-04-18

    We reviewed our initial experience creating a percutaneous arteriovenous fistula (pAVF) using a thermal resistance anastomosis device with proximal radial artery inflow. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent a pAVF creation procedure between May 2017 and October 2017. Primary end points of the study were technical success, patency by Doppler ultrasound examination or angiography, flow levels achieved, time to first use, and pAVF-related complications. A pAVF was attempted in 34 patients with technical success in 33 individuals (97%). Patency of the pAVF was 94%. Mean access flow was 946 mL/min (brachial artery measurement) at the latest follow-up visit (53-229 days; average, 141 days). At 6 weeks, all fistulas have been used or were ready for dialysis by clinical examination or ultrasound examination. Only one patient required superficialization of the upper arm cephalic vein by lipectomy. There were no adverse events related to the pAVF creation or use, nor was there need for further interventions. Successful pAVFs with proximal radial artery inflow were created with excellent initial results regarding technical success, patency, and safety. Advantages include avoidance of a surgical incision, short procedure times, good acceptance by patients, prompt access maturation, moderate flow, and low-pressure access, with possible reduction of risk for ischemic complications. Avoidance of vessel manipulation and side branch ligation might reduce risk of thrombosis and improve long-term patency and reduce need for further interventions. These early findings need to be confirmed in larger and longer follow-up studies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of gender on early and intermediate results of endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Nordness, Paul J; Carter, Glen; Tonnessen, Britt; Charles Sternbergh, W; Money, Samuel R

    2003-11-01

    Results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) may be gender dependent. Between September 1997 and September 2001, 118 AneuRx aortic grafts were placed for aneurysmal disease. During this period, 17 females and 101 males were treated with this device. A prospective database was maintained and supplemented with retrospectively gathered information to evaluate early and mid-term end points. A total of 113 devices were deployed in 118 attempts. Length of procedure was greater for females (3.3 +/- 1.75 vs. 2.3 +/- 0.8 hr, p = 0.05) and they were more likely to have significant arterial dissections (12% vs. 1%, p = 0.05). The mortality rates at 1 month were 12% for females and 0% for males ( p = 0.02); the complication rates at 1 month were 41% for females and 15% for males ( p = 0.02). Although technical success was not significantly different between the sexes, assisted primary technical success (requiring endovascular assistance) and assisted secondary technical success (requiring open surgical assistance) were significantly different (71% vs. 96%, p = 0.003; and 76% vs. 98%, p = 0.004, respectively). Clinical success at 1 month was 59% for females and 84% for males ( p = 0.02). This difference was also significant when assessing 1-month assisted primary clinical success (59% vs. 90%, p = 0.003) and assisted secondary clinical success as well (71% vs. 96%, p = 0.003). Clinical success and assisted primary clinical success were not different at 6- or 12-month intervals, however, assisted secondary clinical successes differed at both time intervals (56% vs. 83%, p = 0.02; and 56% vs. 81%, p = 0.05, respectively). As-yet undetermined factors appear to predispose females to complications and technical difficulties in the short term. Endovascular and open procedures required to achieve ongoing clinical success in the following months appear to favor males to a greater degree than females.

  17. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is available on its use in routine case finding. TB REACH is a multi-country initiative focusing on innovative ways to improve case notification. Methods We selected a convenience sample of nine TB REACH projects for inclusion to cover a range of implementers, regions and approaches. Standard quarterly reports and machine data from the first 12 months of MTB/RIF implementation in each project were utilized to analyze patient yields, rifampicin resistance, and failed tests. Data was collected from September 2011 to March 2013. A questionnaire was implemented and semi-structured interviews with project staff were conducted to gather information on user experiences and challenges. Results All projects used MTB/RIF testing for people with suspected TB, as opposed to testing for drug resistance among already diagnosed patients. The projects placed 65 machines (196 modules) in a variety of facilities and employed numerous case-finding strategies and testing algorithms. The projects consumed 47,973 MTB/RIF tests. Of valid tests, 7,195 (16.8%) were positive for MTB. A total of 982 rifampicin resistant results were found (13.6% of positive tests). Of all tests conducted, 10.6% failed. The need for continuous power supply was noted by all projects and most used locally procured solutions. There was considerable heterogeneity in how results were reported and recorded, reflecting the lack of standardized guidance in some countries. Conclusions The findings of this study begin to fill the gaps among guidelines, research findings, and real-world implementation of MTB/RIF testing. Testing with Xpert MTB/RIF detected a large number of people with TB that routine services failed to

  18. Direct anterior versus miniposterior THA with the same advanced perioperative protocols: surprising early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Poehling-Monaghan, Kirsten L; Kamath, Atul F; Taunton, Michael J; Pagnano, Mark W

    2015-02-01

    Although some surgeons strongly advocate for one approach over the other, there are few data directly comparing the direct anterior approach with a miniposterior approach for total hip arthroplasty (THA). Using the same advanced pain and rapid rehabilitation protocols for both groups, we compared the direct anterior and miniposterior approaches with respect to (1) return to activities of daily living at 2 days, 2 weeks, or 2 months; (2) risk of intraoperative or early postoperative complications; and (3) component position. Over a 1-year period we identified all consecutive, primary direct anterior and miniposterior THAs performed by two surgeons at our institution, totaling 242 patients. Of those, 20 did not meet inclusion criteria as a result of prior trauma or surgery about the hip. A total of 222 patients, 126 direct anterior and 96 miniposterior, were retrospectively evaluated. All cases were done by one of two surgeons, one of whom performs THA exclusively through the direct anterior approach and the other who only uses the miniposterior approach. Groups did not differ demographically with mean±SD age 64±12 years, mean body mass index 30±5.7 kg/m2, and 50% female. The same rapid rehabilitation protocols were used with no postoperative hip positioning precautions. No differences were seen between the two groups in mean length of stay (2.2 days; range, 1-9 days), operative or in-hospital complications, intravenous breakthrough analgesia, stairs, maximum feet walked in-hospital, or percent discharged to home (80% [177 of 222]; all p>0.2). The direct anterior patients had longer mean operative times (114 minutes; range, 60-251 minutes) than the miniposterior patients (mean, 60 minutes; range, 41-113 minutes; p<0.001). The direct anterior group had a higher maximum visual analog scale pain score (5.3 direct anterior; ±2, versus 3.8 MP; ±2; p<0.0001). At 2 weeks, more direct anterior patients required gait aids (92% [116 of 126]) than miniposterior (68% [62 of

  19. Massage therapy decreases cancer-related fatigue: Results from a randomized early phase trial.

    PubMed

    Kinkead, Becky; Schettler, Pamela J; Larson, Erika R; Carroll, Dedric; Sharenko, Margaret; Nettles, James; Edwards, Sherry A; Miller, Andrew H; Torres, Mylin A; Dunlop, Boadie W; Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Rapaport, Mark Hyman

    2018-02-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a prevalent and debilitating symptom experienced by cancer survivors, yet treatment options for CRF are limited. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of weekly Swedish massage therapy (SMT) versus an active control condition (light touch [LT]) and waitlist control (WLC) on persistent CRF in breast cancer survivors. This early phase, randomized, single-masked, 6-week investigation of SMT, LT, and WLC enrolled 66 female stage 0-III breast cancer survivors (age range, 32-72 years) who had received surgery plus radiation and/or chemotherapy/chemoprevention with CRF (Brief Fatigue Inventory > 25). The primary outcome was the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), with the National Institutes of Health PROMIS Fatigue scale secondary. Mean baseline MFI scores for 57 evaluable subjects were 62.95 for SMT, 55.00 for LT, and 60.41 for WLC. SMT resulted in a mean (standard deviation) 6-week reduction in MFI total scores of -16.50 (6.37) (n = 20) versus -8.06 (6.50) for LT (n = 20) and an increase of 5.88 (6.48) points for WLC (n = 17) (treatment-by-time P < .0001). The mean baseline PROMIS Fatigue scores were SMT, 22.25; LT, 22.05; and WLC, 23.24. The mean (standard deviation) reduction in PROMIS Fatigue scores was -5.49 (2.53) points for SMT versus -3.24 (2.57) points for LT and -0.06 (1.88) points for WLC (treatment-by-time P = .0008). Higher credibility, expectancy, and preference for SMT than for LT did not account for these results. SMT produced clinically significant relief of CRF. This finding suggests that 6 weeks of a safe, widely accepted manual intervention causes a significant reduction in fatigue, a debilitating sequela for cancer survivors. Cancer 2018;124:546-54. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Jacob; Codlin, Andrew J; Andre, Emmanuel; Micek, Mark A; Bedru, Ahmed; Carter, E Jane; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Mosneaga, Andrei; Rai, Bishwa; Banu, Sayera; Brouwer, Miranda; Blok, Lucie; Sahu, Suvanand; Ditiu, Lucica

    2014-01-02

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is available on its use in routine case finding. TB REACH is a multi-country initiative focusing on innovative ways to improve case notification. We selected a convenience sample of nine TB REACH projects for inclusion to cover a range of implementers, regions and approaches. Standard quarterly reports and machine data from the first 12 months of MTB/RIF implementation in each project were utilized to analyze patient yields, rifampicin resistance, and failed tests. Data was collected from September 2011 to March 2013. A questionnaire was implemented and semi-structured interviews with project staff were conducted to gather information on user experiences and challenges. All projects used MTB/RIF testing for people with suspected TB, as opposed to testing for drug resistance among already diagnosed patients. The projects placed 65 machines (196 modules) in a variety of facilities and employed numerous case-finding strategies and testing algorithms. The projects consumed 47,973 MTB/RIF tests. Of valid tests, 7,195 (16.8%) were positive for MTB. A total of 982 rifampicin resistant results were found (13.6% of positive tests). Of all tests conducted, 10.6% failed. The need for continuous power supply was noted by all projects and most used locally procured solutions. There was considerable heterogeneity in how results were reported and recorded, reflecting the lack of standardized guidance in some countries. The findings of this study begin to fill the gaps among guidelines, research findings, and real-world implementation of MTB/RIF testing. Testing with Xpert MTB/RIF detected a large number of people with TB that routine services failed to detect. The study demonstrates the

  1. Early and Long-Term Results of Subclavian Angioplasty in Aortoarteritis (Takayasu Disease): Comparison with Atherosclerosis

    SciT

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Verma, Puneet K.; Gambhir, Daljeet S.

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: To compare the early andlong-term outcomes of subclavian artery angioplasty in patients with aortoarteritis and atherosclerosis. Methods: Sixty-one subclavian artery angioplasties were performed in 55 consecutive patients with aortoarteritis (n= 32) and atherosclerosis (n= 23) between 1986 and 1995. An arch aortogram followed by a selective subclavian artery angiogram was done to profile the site and extent of the lesion, its relation to the vertebral artery, and the distal circulation. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed via the femoral route for 56 stenotic lesions and 5 total occlusions. Results: PTA was successful in 52 (92.8%) stenotic lesions and 3more » (60%) total occlusions. Three patients (5.4%) had complications, that could be effectively managed nonsurgically. Compared with atherosclerosis, patients with aortoarteritis were younger (27.4 {+-} 9.3 years vs 54.5 {+-} 10.5 years; p < 0.001), more often female (75% vs 17.4%; p < 0.001), gangrene was uncommon (0% vs 17.4%; p < 0.05), and diffuse involvement was seen more often (43.8% vs 4.4%; p < 0.001). The luminal diameter stenoses were similar before PTA (88.6 {+-} 9.7% vs 89.0 {+-} 9.1%; p= NS). Higher balloon inflation pressure was required to dilate the lesions of aortoarteritis (9.9 {+-} 4.6 ATM vs 5.5 {+-} 1.0 ATM; p < 0.001). This group had more residual stenosis (15.5 {+-} 12.4% vs 8.3 {+-} 9.4%; p < 0.05) after PTA. There were no neurological sequelae, even in PTA of prevertebral lesions. On 3-120 months (mean 43.3 {+-} 28.9 months) follow-up of 40 patients, restenosis was more often observed in patients with aortoarteritis, particularly in those with diffuse arterial narrowing. These lesions could be effectively redilated. Clinical symptoms showed marked improvement after successful angioplasty. Conclusion: Subclavian PTA is safe and can be performed as effectively in aortoarteritis as in atherosclerosis, with good long-term results. Long-term follow-up shows that

  2. Early results after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: effect of the learning curve

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Christopher G.; Hanna, Wael; Look, Didier; McLean, Alexander P.H.; Christou, Nicolas V.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction This study was performed to evaluate the safety and short-term efficacy of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for morbid obesity and to describe the relation between learning curve and short-term outcomes. Methods We collected a prospective database on the first 201 consecutive patients who underwent LRYGB by a single university-based, experienced bariatric surgeon over 24 months. We divided patients into 3 consecutive groups of 67 patients for analysis (Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3). Results The mean patient age was 37 (standard deviation [SD] 9) years; mean body mass index (BMI) was 49.2 (SD 8.3) kg/m2. BMI was similar in Groups 1 and 2 (mean 47.1, SD 5.9 and mean 48.7, SD 8.9 kg/m2) but increased in Group 3 (mean 52, SD 9.7 kg/m2, p < 0.01). Operative time decreased from 145 (SD 30) minutes in Group 1 to 114 (SD 24) minutes in Group 2 (p < 0.01) and was maintained at 119 (SD 23) minutes in Group 3. Early and late complication rates were 14.9% and 12.4%, respectively. Leak rates decreased from 6.0% in the first group to 1.5% in Groups 2 and 3, but they did not reach statistical significance. Anastomotic stricture rates decreased from 11.9% in Group 1 to 3.0% in Group 2 (p < 0.01). Overall excess weight loss for the entire series was 31.5% (SD 11.9%), 54.5% (SD 14.1%), 77.1% (SD 18.5%) and 82.1% (SD 17.5%) at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively. Conclusion LRYGB can be performed with acceptable morbidity and short-term results during the learning curve. In our series, operative time and anastomotic stricture rates decreased with experience, despite an increase in mean BMI. PMID:17234071

  3. Menarche, menopause, years of menstruation, and the incidence of osteoporosis: the influence of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Parker, Samantha E; Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C; Hatch, Elizabeth E

    2014-02-01

    Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994-2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown.

  4. Long term results of early density management of a third growth redwood stand

    Lynn A. Webb; John-Pascal Berrill; James L. Lindquist

    2017-01-01

    Precommercial or early thinning of regenerating redwood forests can support management objectives including maximizing yield, forest structure restoration, and promoting carbon sequestration. We present data collected over 30 years following a precommercial thinning (PCT) in a 19 year-old naturally regenerated and planted coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens ...

  5. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  6. Early generation selection results from a two year, six location study

    In potato breeding programs, early generation selections are rarely evaluated in multiple environments because of limited seed quantities. By the time seed quantities are available, few clones remain from the original population. The purpose of this study was to allow multiple locations to select ...

  7. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  8. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project Early Results from Four Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Hendra, Richard; Martinson, Karin; Scrivener, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Millions of welfare recipients have entered the labor force in the past decade, but surveys show that many remain in unstable, low-paying jobs that offer few opportunities for advancement. This report presents early evidence on the effectiveness of four diverse programs designed to help current or former welfare recipients work more steadily and…

  9. Effect of Formative and Ability Test Results on Early Learning of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadir, Abdul; Ardi, Muhammad; Nurhayati, B.; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of formative tests to early learning ability of students in the science learning style. This research used an experimental method with a 2 x 2 factorial design. The participants comprised all the students in class VII of the Islamic Junior High School State of Kolaka, a total of 343…

  10. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  11. Project Early Kindergarten Evaluation: Results through 2009-10 of a Saint Paul Public Schools Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Jennifer; Gozali-Lee, Edith; Mueller, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Project Early Kindergarten (PEK) aims to improve the school-readiness of Saint Paul children and help close the achievement gap through offering high-quality educational experiences for preschool children. This report comes at the conclusion of the sixth year of PEK. Following an initial planning year (2004-05), PEK has served children through the…

  12. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

    SciT

    Huang, Chen; Tang, Hanfei; Qiao, Tong

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zonemore » 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling.« less

  13. [Factors associated with reported vaccination coverage in early infancy: results of a telephone survey].

    PubMed

    Nebot, M; Muñoz, E; Figueres, M; Rovira, G; Robert, M; Minguell, D

    2001-01-01

    Barcelona's Continuing Immunization Plan affords the possibility Of monitoring the immunization coverage of the population by means of the voluntary family postal notification system. Prior studies have revealed that some families fail to provide notification while being correctly vaccinated, which can lead to actual coverage being underestimated. The objectives of this study are to estimate the early childhood immunization coverage of the population and to ascertain the factors associated with failure to provide notification of immunization. A phone survey was conducted on a sample of 500 children regarding whom there was no record of any notification of the first three childhood vaccine doses (diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and oral polio), in addition to a sample of 500 children who were on record as having been immunized. To estimate the actual immunization coverage, all children were considered to have been properly immunized when their family members did provide notification. As regards those who failed to reply, it was considered in the worst of cases that these were cases of children who had not be immunized. In the best of cases scenario, a coverage similar to those of the responses was assumed. The response to the questionnaire was higher among those who had previously provided notification of immunization by way of the postal notification system (79.1%) than among those who had failed to provide notification of immunization (67%). The leading factors associated with failure to report immunization status were the size of the families, the use of private health care services and the place of birth of the parents. Solely six (6) cases of those who had failed to report immunization admitted to not having immunized their children, totaling 1.9% of the responses. The immunization coverage of the population in question would total 99.7% in the best of cases and 93.7% in the worst of cases scenario. Immunization coverage of the population in question is

  14. Parotid gland sparing in patients undergoing bilateral head and neck irradiation: techniques and early results.

    PubMed

    Eisbruch, A; Ship, J A; Martel, M K; Ten Haken, R K; Marsh, L H; Wolf, G T; Esclamado, R M; Bradford, C R; Terrell, J E; Gebarski, S S; Lichter, A S

    1996-09-01

    To minimize xerostomia in patients receiving bilateral head and neck irradiation (RT) by using conformal RT planning to spare a significant volume of one parotid gland from radiation. The study involved 15 patients with head and neck tumors in whom bilateral neck radiation was indicated. The major salivary glands and the targets (tumor, surgical bed, metastases to lymph nodes, and the locations of lymph nodes at risk for metastases) were outlined on axial computed tomography images. Beam's-eye view (BEV) displays were used to construct conformal beams that delivered the prescribed doses to the targets while sparing from direct radiation most of one parotid gland. The gland that was planned to be spared resided in the neck side that was judged in each patient to be at a lesser risk of metastatic disease. Major salivary gland flow rates and the responses to a subjective xerostomia questionnaire were assessed before, during, and after radiation. Radiation planning for patients with central oropharyngeal tumors required the generation of multiple axial nonopposed beams. The resulting isodoses encompassed the targets, including the retropharyngeal nodes and the jugular nodes up to the base of skull bilaterally, while limiting the dose to the oral cavity, spinal cord, and one parotid gland. For patients with lateralized tumors, the ipsilateral neck side was treated up to the base of the skull; in the contralateral neck side, the treatment included the subdigastric nodes but excluded the jugular nodes at the base of the skull and most of the parotid gland. This was accomplished by a moderate gantry angle that was chosen using the BEV displays. Three months following the completion of radiation, the spared parotid glands retained on average 50% of their unstimulated and stimulated flows. In contrast, no saliva flow was measured from the unspared glands in any of the patients. Subjective xerostomia was absent, mild, or not different from that reported before radiation in 10

  15. Enceladus-Mimas paradox: a result of different early evolutions of satellites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek; Witek, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    the coefficient of the heat conduction in the considered layer, i.e.: kconv =Nu k. This approach is used successfully in parameterized theory of convection for SSC in the Earth and other planets (e.g. [3], [4]). Parameterization of liquid state convection (LSC) is even simpler. Ra in molten region is very high (usually higher than 1016). The LSC could be very intensive resulting in almost adiabatic temperature gradient given by: dT-= gαmT-, dr cpm where αm and cpm are thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat in molten region, g is the local gravity. In Enceladus and Mimas the adiabatic gradient is low and therefore LSC region is almost isothermal. 2. Results: Comparison of thermal models of Mimas and Enceladus indicates that conditions favorable for starting tidal heating (interior hot enough) lasted for short time (~107yr) in Mimas and for ~108 yr in Enceladus. This could explain Mimas-Enceladus paradox. 3. Conclusions: The Mimas-Enceladus paradox is probably the result of short time when Mimas was hot enough to allow for substantial tidal heating. The Mimas-Tethys resonance formed later when Mimas was already cool. (see also [1, 4]) The full text of the paper will be published in Acta Geophysica [5]. Acknowledgements: The research is partly supported by National Science Centre (grant 2011/ 01/ B/ ST10/06653). References : [1] Czechowski, L. (2014) Some remarks on the early evolution of Enceladus. Planet. Sp. Sc. 104, 185-199. [2] Merk, R., Breuer, D., Spohn, T. (2002). Numerical modeling of 26Al induced radioactive melting of asteroids concerning accretion. Icarus 199, 183-191. [3] Sharpe, H.N., Peltier, W.R., (1978) Parameterized mantle convection and the Earth's thermal history. Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 737-740. [4] Czechowski, L. (2006) Parameterized model of convection driven by tidal and radiogenic heating. Adv. Space Res. 38, 788-793. [5] Czechowski, L., Witek, P. (2015) Comparisons of early evolutions of Mimas and Enceladus. Submitted to Acta

  16. Genome-wide association studies and epistasis analyses of candidate genes related to age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Jung-A; Kim, Sunshin; Cho, Nam H; Koh, InSong; Lee, Jong-Young; Shin, Chol; Kwack, KyuBum

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions that are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at menopause in a Korean population. A total of 3,452 and 1,827 women participated in studies of age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively. Linear regression analyses adjusted for residence area were used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate gene association studies, and interactions between the candidate genes for age at menarche and age at natural menopause. In GWAS, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs7528241, rs1324329, rs11597068, and rs6495785) were strongly associated with age at natural menopause (lowest P = 9.66 × 10). However, GWAS of age at menarche did not reveal any strong associations. In candidate gene association studies, SNPs with P < 0.01 were selected to test their synergistic interactions. For age at natural menopause, there was a significant interaction between intronic SNPs on ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif 9 (ADAMTS9) and SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) genes (P = 9.52 × 10). For age at menarche, there were three significant interactions between three intronic SNPs on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene and one SNP located at the 3' flanking region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene (lowest P = 1.95 × 10). Novel SNPs and synergistic interactions between candidate genes are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

  17. Conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD powerplant. Report of task 2 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    The conceptual design of one of the potential early commercial MHD power plants was studied. The plant employs oxygen enrichment of the combustion air and preheating of this oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1200 F attainable with a tubular type recuperative heat exchanger. Conceptual designs of plant componets and equipment with performance, operational characteristics, and costs are reported. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. The projected performance and estimated cost of this early MHD plant are compared to conventional power plants, although it does not offer the same high efficiency and low costs as the mature MHD power plant. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen are reviewed.

  18. Conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD powerplant. Report of task 2 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The conceptual design of one of the potential early commercial MHD power plants was studied. The plant employs oxygen enrichment of the combustion air and preheating of this oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1200 F attainable with a tubular type recuperative heat exchanger. Conceptual designs of plant componets and equipment with performance, operational characteristics, and costs are reported. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. The projected performance and estimated cost of this early MHD plant are compared to conventional power plants, although it does not offer the same high efficiency and low costs as the mature MHD power plant. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen are reviewed.

  19. Results from a pediatric surgical centre justify early intervention in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jennifer M; Warne, Garry; Grover, Sonia; Southwell, Bridget R; Hutson, John M

    2009-02-01

    Controversy persists surrounding early management of disorders of sex development. We assessed genital appearance, gender identity, and quality of life in prepubertal children who have had early surgical intervention. Children treated for disorders of sex development who were 5 to 10 years of age were eligible (n = 54). Children were scored (modified Creighton scale) for anatomical and cosmetic outcome, and both patients and parents completed PedsQL quality-of-life and gender identity questionnaires, with ethics approval. Of 54 patients, 41 presented for review. Treatment began at 13.2 (1.8-250.1) months (median; range) and were reviewed at 7.5 +/- 2.1 (mean +/- SD) years of age. Nineteen were raised as girls and 22 as boys. Girls had good (85%) or satisfactory (15%) anatomical/cosmetic outcome, whereas 52% boys had good, 38% satisfactory, and 10% poor cosmetic outcomes. On gender identity questionnaire, boys scored 3.9 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) and girls 3.6 +/- 0.5; 1 of 19 boys and 3 of 19 girls had lower scores, suggesting risk of gender identity disorder. Quality-of-life scores were 80+ for physical and 65 to 80 for psychosocial scores. Early intervention is generally associated with positive outcomes for patients and parents. Girls had better anatomical outcomes than boys, and gender dysphoria risks were low in both sexes.

  20. Early results of a prospective study on the pyrolytic carbon (pyrocarbon) Amandys® for osteoarthritis of the wrist

    PubMed Central

    Daruwalla, ZJ; Davies, KL; Shafighian, A; Gillham, NR

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The preliminary results of a pyrocarbon interpositional radiocarpal implant in a small cohort of patients were reviewed. As it is currently only a limited release product, we describe to potential users early complications and negative outcomes. METHODS Patients were assessed using pain levels, ranges of motion, grip strength, type of and time to return to work as well as pre-operative and post-operative DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) scores. Radiographs were taken and patient satisfaction was recorded. RESULTS All six patients were contacted. One was not satisfied. Three had reduced motion. None experienced squeaking. There were no immediate or late post-operative complications. There was one early volar displacement of an implant. CONCLUSIONS Although our early results are somewhat encouraging, further and longer studies are warranted before supporting the use of this particular pyrocarbon implant as a primary procedure. PMID:23031769

  1. Attitudes of the German General Population toward Early Diagnosis of Dementia – Results of a Representative Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; Sieber, Jennifer; Schomerus, Georg; Werner, Perla; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Early detection of dementia has clearly improved. Even though none of the currently available treatments for the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer’s dementia, promises a cure, early diagnosis provides several benefits for patients, caregivers, and health care systems. This study aimed to describe attitudes toward early diagnosis of dementia in the German general population. Methods A representative telephone survey of the German population aged 18+ years (n = 1,002) was conducted in 2011. Results The majority of respondents (69%) would be willing to be examined for early diagnosis of dementia. Almost two thirds reported that they would prefer their general practitioner (GP) as the first source of professional help. More than half of the respondents (55%) stated their belief that dementia could be prevented. Respondents mostly indicated psychosocial prevention options. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the general population in Germany is very open to early diagnosis of dementia; however, this seems connected with large expectations on the effectiveness of prevention options. Dementia awareness campaigns may be employed to carefully inform the public about the prevention options currently available and their efficacy. To exploit GPs’ potential as a gatekeeper for early detection of dementia, their ability to identify patients with antecedent and mild stages of the disease must be improved. PMID:23209827

  2. Menarche and menstruation through the eyes of pubescent students in eastern Taiwan: implications in sociocultural influence and gender differences issues.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2013-03-01

    Menstruation is a significant part of women's lives. It has been studied from many perspectives to draw various conclusions about biological and physiological development, gender differences, and sociocultural environments. The purpose of this study was to explore how male and female pubescent students perceive and interpret menarche and menstruation and how their perceptions reflect gender differences and the sociocultural environment in eastern Taiwan. This was an exploratory qualitative study that employed focus group interviews. Data were collected from 20 girls and 27 boys, aged 10-12 years, who were recruited from two elementary schools. Participants engaged in 19 focus group discussions, which lasted 45-60 minutes each. Discussion transcripts were collected, encoded, categorized, and analyzed using the Atlas V 5.0 software. The central theme in menarche and menstruation experiences among pubescent students in eastern Taiwan can be summarized as, "Struggling to grow up amidst contradictions," an attitude that reflects gender divisions and sociocultural representations and practices. Generally, participants' views on menstruation fell within five subthemes: "Ambiguous," "Disregarded," "Dirty," "Personal," and "Transitional." These themes were analyzed within the contexts of society, school, and family. In line with previous research, this study shows the need for more individual reproductive health consultations, reliable sex education, and well-planned health policies to assist pubescent students manage menstruation. In addition, this study suggests that the subjugation of girls and women remains a critical issue that must be addressed and challenged.

  3. Widespread Magmatism as a Result of Impact Related Decompression Melting on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Rogers, D.

    2012-12-01

    Flat-floored craters on Mars have been observed since early spacecraft viewed the surface. Early work characterized these craters as infilled by sedimentary materials [e.g. Christensen, 1983] but later work using THEMIS thermal inertia determined these craters contain some of the rockiest materials on the planet and not sedimentary materials [Edwards et al., 2009]. Here we investigate the distribution, physical properties (morphology and thermal inertia), and composition of these craters over the entire planet. We find the majority of rocky crater floors identified (~3300) are concentrated in the low albedo (0.1-0.17), cratered southern highlands. These craters are associated with the highest thermal inertia values (e.g. > 500 to 2000 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), some of the most mafic materials on the planet (enriched in olivine/pyroxene vs. high-Si phases/plagioclase, often with >10-15% olivine areal abundance), and formed ~3.5 billion years ago. Based on the properties of the crater fill materials described, three mechanisms are considered for the formation of flat-floored, high thermal inertia crater floors on Mars including: 1) the lithification/induration of sediments, 2) the ponding of crustal melt material related to the heat generated during the impact process, and 3) infilling by volcanic materials. We find the only likely scenario is volcanic infilling through fractures created in the impact event. Furthermore, we find the generation of the primitive magma would be directly sourced from the decompression melting of the martian mantle due to the removal of several kilometers of overlying crustal material by the impactor. As the ancient martian crust was likely thin and the geothermal gradients were significantly higher than present day [e.g. Zuber, 2001], the decompression melting of the mantle [Bertka and Holloway, 1994] would be more likely to occur on early Mars then under present day conditions. This is borne out by the ancient ages (~3-4Ga) of the crater floors

  4. Lipid raft disarrangement as a result of neuropathological progresses: a novel strategy for early diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Marin, R; Rojo, J A; Fabelo, N; Fernandez, C E; Diaz, M

    2013-08-15

    Lipid rafts are the preferential site of numerous membrane signaling proteins which are involved in neuronal functioning and survival. These proteins are organized in multiprotein complexes, or signalosomes, in close contact with lipid classes particularly represented in lipid rafts (i.e. cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids), which may contribute to physiological responses leading to neuroprotection. Increasing evidence indicates that alteration of lipid composition in raft structures as a consequence of neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), causes a dramatic increase in lipid raft order. These phenomena may correlate with perturbation of signalosome activities, likely contributing to neurodegenerative progression. Interestingly, significant disruption of stable raft microenvironments has been already observed in the first stages of either AD or PD, suggesting that these alterations may represent early events in the neuropathological development. In this regard, the search for biochemical markers, such as specific metabolic products altered in the brain at the first steps of the disease, presently represents an important challenge for early diagnostic strategies. Alterations of these biomarkers may be reflected in either plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, thus representing a potential strategy to predict an accurate diagnosis. We propose that pathologically-linked lipid raft markers may be interesting candidates to be explored at this level, although it has not been studied so far to what extent alteration of different signalosome components may be reflected in peripheral fluids. In this mini-review, we will discuss on relevant aspects of lipid rafts that contribute to the modulation of neuropathological events related to AD and PD. An interesting hypothesis is that anomalies on raft biomarkers measured at peripheral fluids might mirror the lipid raft pathology observed in early stages of AD and PD. Copyright

  5. Outpatient follow-up after treatment for early breast cancer: updated results after 5 years.

    PubMed

    Churn, M; Kelly, V

    2001-01-01

    The value of frequent outpatient follow-up in the first few years after primary treatment for early breast cancer is a controversial issue. Schedules involving 3-4 monthly visits in the first 2-3 years and 6-monthly from years 3-5 are still commonplace. In this study we audited such a policy from a single cancer centre, identifying a cohort of all 612 patients with early breast cancer (pT(1-3)pN(0-1)NxM0) referred for adjuvant therapy in 1993. The hospital records were reviewed to ascertain patient and tumour characteristics, the surgical and adjuvant treatment received, the timing and sequencing of recurrences and their mode of detection. Five hundred and five patients had breast conservation surgery. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival rate at 5 years in this group was 94.5%. Twenty-five of the 31 local recurrences that occurred were the first site of relapse. Eight (32%) of these were detected at routine clinic appointments, seven (28%) by routine mammography, and nine (36%) were interim referrals. Significant risk factors for local recurrence identified were lymph node status (P = 0.03) and tumour grade (P = 0.04). One hundred and four patients underwent mastectomy. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival at 5 years in this group was 85.4%. Nine of the 13 local recurrences were the first site of relapse. Six (66.7%) of these were detected at routine appointments. The significant risk factor for local recurrence identified was tumour grade (P = 0.03). Overall, 60.1% of metastases presented as interim referrals. Nodal status, tumour grade and tumour stage were confirmed as significant risk factors for metastasis (P < or = 0.001). Hazard rate analysis demonstrated a peak incidence of both local and metastatic recurrences in the second year, diminishing thereafter. This peak was largely confined to patients with tumours with poor prognostic features. We identified only eight patients out of a total of 612 followed up as outpatients for 5 years who had

  6. Early add-on lacosamide in a real-life setting: results of the REALLY study.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Vicente; Garcés, Mercedes; López-Gomáriz, Elena; Serratosa, José María; González-Giráldez, Beatriz; Parra, Jaime; Rodríguez-Uranga, Juan; Toledo, Manuel; López González, Francisco Javier; Bermejo, Pedro; Giner, Pau; Castillo, Ascensión; Molins, Albert; Campos, Dulce; Mauri, José Ángel; Muñoz, Rosario; Bonet, Macarena; Serrano-Castro, Pedro; del Villar, Ana; Saiz-Díaz, Rosa Ana

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with epilepsy are treated with antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy. Several factors influence the choice of early add-on therapy, and deciding on the most appropriate drug can be difficult. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide as early add-on therapy in patients with partial-onset seizures. REALLY (REtrospective study of lAcosamide as earLy add-on aLong one Year) was a multicenter, retrospective, 1-year, real-life study. Patients included were aged older than 16 years, had partial-onset seizures, and were treated with lacosamide as add-on therapy after one or two prior AEDs. Data were collected retrospectively from clinical records. The primary study objective was to assess the efficacy of lacosamide over 12 months (seizure-free and responder rates), and the secondary objective was to assess the tolerability of lacosamide at 3, 6, and 12 months [adverse events (AEs) and discontinuation]. One hundred and ninety-nine patients were enrolled in the study; 89 patients (44.7 %) had tried one AED and 110 patients (55.3 %) had tried two AEDs before lacosamide. At 12 months, the proportion of patients who were seizure free was 44.9 %, and 76 % of patients were responders. The seizure-free rate at 12 months for patients who had previously received one or two AEDs was 58 and 34.3 %, and the responder rate at 12 months was 83.0 and 70.4 %, respectively. The AE rate was 21.5 % at 3 months, 27.1 % at 6 months, and 31.2 % at 12 months, with 7.0 % of patients discontinuing treatment because of an AE. The most common AE reported was dizziness (11.6 %). Cryptogenic epilepsy, a higher number of prior AEDs, and the use of a sodium channel blocker at onset were associated with a worse outcome. The number of concomitant AEDs decreased over 1 year (Z = 5.89; p < 0.001). Twenty-two patients were converted to lacosamide monotherapy with at least one evaluation ≥6 months from the beginning of monotherapy conversion

  7. Results of a prospective randomized controlled trial of early ambulation for patients with lower extremity autografts.

    PubMed

    Lorello, David John; Peck, Michael; Albrecht, Marlene; Richey, Karen J; Pressman, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to keep those patients with lower extremity autografts immobile until post-operative day (POD) 5. There is however inherent risks associated with even short periods of immobility. As of now there are no randomized controlled trials looking at early ambulation of patients with lower extremity autografts in the burn community.The objective of this study was to show that patients who begin ambulation within 24 hours of lower extremity autografting will have no increased risk of graft failure than those patients who remain immobile until POD 5. Thirty-one subjects who received autografts to the lower extremity were randomized after surgery into either the early ambulation group (EAG;17 subjects) or the standard treatment group (STG;14 subjects). Those subjects randomized to the EAG began ambulating with physical therapy on POD 1. Subjects in the STG maintained bed rest until POD 5. There was no difference in the number of patients with graft loss in either the EAG or STG on POD 5, and during any of the follow-up visits. No subjects required regrafting. There was a significant difference in the mean minutes of ambulation, with the EAG ambulating longer than the STG (EAG 23.4 minutes [SD 12.03], STG 14.1 [SD 9.00], P=.0235) on POD 5. Burn patients with lower extremity autografts can safely ambulate on POD 1 without fear of graft failure compared with those patients that remain on bed rest for 5 days.

  8. Predictors of severity of acne vulgaris in young adolescent girls: results of a five-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Biro, F M; Simbartl, L A; Morrison, J A; Sorg, N W

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine which factors in early pubertal girls might be predictive of later, severe facial acne. The study was a 5-year longitudinal cohort study, with yearly visits from 1987 through 1991, in a volunteer sample of 439 black and 432 white fourth- and fifth-grade girls with consent from their legal guardians. The subjects were recruited from public and parochial schools in Cincinnati, Ohio. The degree of facial acne was classified annually as mild, moderate, or severe. Blood samples were obtained at the first, third, and fifth years of the study. Using the acne status during the fifth year of the study as the outcome variable, we determined the contributions from the prior acne status and the serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, free testosterone (FT), estradiol (E2), progesterone, and testosterone-estrogen binding globulin (TEBG) and compared the results at various ages and at times before and after menarche. No racial differences in acne or hormone levels were found. There was a progressive increase in the number of acne lesions with age and maturation. The girls exhibited many more comedonal than inflammatory acne lesions, regardless of age. The girls in whom severe acne developed by the fifth year of the study had significantly more comedones and inflammatory lesions than girls with mild or moderate acne, as early as age 10 years, approximately 2 h years before menarche, a time when their degree of acne was mild. Girls with mild comedonal acne had significantly later onset of menarche (12.5 compared with 12.2 years) than girls with severe comedonal acne. Girls in whom severe comedonal acne developed had significantly higher levels of serum DHEAS and, in a longitudinal analysis, somewhat higher levels of testosterone and FT in comparison with girls who had mild or moderate comedonal acne. Serum E2, testosterone/E2, progesterone, and TEBG values were no different in girls with severe compared

  9. Early predictors of occupational back reinjury: results from a prospective study of workers in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Benjamin J; Turner, Judith A; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M

    2013-01-15

    Prospective population-based cohort study. To identify early predictors of self-reported occupational back reinjury within 1 year after work-related back injury. Back injuries are the costliest and most prevalent disabling occupational injuries in the United States. A substantial proportion of workers with back injuries have reinjuries after returning to work, yet there are few studies of risk factors for occupational back reinjuries. We aimed to identify the incidence and early (in the claim) predictors of self-reported back reinjury by approximately 1 year after the index injury among Washington State workers with new work disability claims for back injuries. The Washington Workers' Compensation Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort provided a large, population-based sample with information on variables in 7 domains: sociodemographic, employment-related, pain and function, clinical status, health care, health behavior, and psychological. We conducted telephone interviews with workers 3 weeks and 1 year after submission of a time-loss claim for the injury. We first identified predictors (P < 0.10) of self-reported reinjury within 1 year in bivariate analyses. Those variables were then included in a multivariate logistic regression model predicting occupational back reinjury. A total of 290 (25.8%) of 1123 (70.0% response rate) workers who completed the 1-year follow-up interview and had returned to work reported having reinjured their back at work. Baseline variables significantly associated with reinjury (P < 0.05) in the multivariate model included male sex, constant whole-body vibration at work, previous similar injury, 4 or more previous claims of any type, possessing health insurance, and high fear-avoidance scores. Baseline obesity was associated with reduced odds of reinjury. No other employment-related or psychological variables were significant. One-fourth of the workers who received work disability compensation for a back injury self

  10. Rewarding Progress, Reducing Debt: Early Results from Ohio's Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration for Low-Income Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Paulette; Patel, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    This report presents early results from a rigorous evaluation of a performance-based scholarship program that was implemented at three community colleges in Ohio during the 2008-2009 academic year. The program in Ohio that is the subject of this report is part of MDRC's national Performance-Based Scholarship (PBS) Demonstration, which was launched…

  11. Enhancing Student Services at Lorain County Community College: Early Results from the Opening Doors Demonstration in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrivener, Susan; Au, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, MDRC and a consortium of funders launched the Opening Doors demonstration to test reforms in six community colleges aimed at helping students stay in school and earn credentials. This report presents early results from the Opening Doors program at Lorain County Community College in Elyria, Ohio. The program provided intensive advising and…

  12. Creative reminiscence as an early intervention for depression: results of a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Bohlmeijer, E; Valenkamp, M; Westerhof, G; Smit, F; Cuijpers, P

    2005-07-01

    Reminiscence may help in resolving conflicts from the past and making up the balance of one's life. Life-review may be further enhanced by the creative expression of memories in stories, poems or drawings. In this way people are encouraged to create and discover metaphors, images and stories that symbolically represent the subjective and inner meaning of their lives. In this article, a new intervention, which combines reminiscence and creative expression aimed at early treatment of depression, is described. A pilot project showed that the intervention Searching for the meaning in life may generate small-sized effects in reducing depression. Additionally, it appears to generate effects of medium size in enhancing mastery. Several possible ways to improve the effectiveness of the intervention are described.

  13. Early Results from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Southern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. Matthew; Reynolds, R. J.; Madsen, G. J.; Hill, A. S.; Barger, K. A.; Jaehnig, K. P.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Percival, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    After a successful eleven-year campaign at Kitt Peak, we moved the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) to Cerro Tololo in early 2009. Here we present some of the early data after the first nine months under southern skies. These maps begin to complete the first all-sky, kinematic survey of the diffuse Hα emission from the Milky Way. Much of this emission arises from the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM), a significant component of the ISM that extends a few kiloparsecs above the Galactic disk. The WHAM instrument consists of a 0.6 m primary lens housed in a steerable siderostat coupled to a 15 cm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The optical configuration delivers a spatially integrated spectrum from a one-degree beam on the sky covering 200 km/s with 12 km/s spectral resolution. Short, 30-second exposures allow us to cover the observable sky in about two years at sensitivity levels of about 0.1 R (EM 0.2 pc cm-6). While this first look at the data focuses on the Hα survey, WHAM is also capable of observing many other optical emission lines, revealing fascinating trends in the temperature and ionization state of the WIM. Our ongoing studies of the physical conditions of diffuse ionized gas will continue in the south following the Hα survey. In addition, future observations using our survey mode will cover the full velocity range of the Magellanic Stream, Bridge, and Clouds to trace the ionized gas associated with these neighboring systems. WHAM is supported by NSF award AST-0607512 and has made this smooth relocation south due to the excellent staff at KPNO and CTIO.

  14. Results of a Coordinated Specialty Care Program for Early Psychosis and Predictors of Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nossel, Ilana; Wall, Melanie M; Scodes, Jennifer; Marino, Leslie A; Zilkha, Sacha; Bello, Iruma; Malinovsky, Igor; Lee, Rufina; Radigan, Marleen; Smith, Thomas E; Sederer, Lloyd; Gu, Gyojeong; Dixon, Lisa

    2018-05-15

    This study prospectively evaluated outcomes of OnTrackNY, a statewide coordinated specialty care (CSC) program for treatment of early psychosis in community settings, as well as predictors of outcomes. The sample included 325 individuals ages 16-30 with recent-onset nonaffective psychosis who were enrolled in OnTrackNY and who had at least one three-month follow-up. Clinicians provided data at baseline and quarterly up to one year. Domains assessed included demographic and clinical characteristics, social and occupational functioning, medications, suicidality and violence, hospitalization, and time to intervention. Primary outcomes included the symptoms, occupational functioning, and social functioning scales of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), as adapted by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center; education and employment status; and psychiatric hospitalization rate. Education and employment rates increased from 40% to 80% by six months, hospitalization rates decreased from 70% to 10% by three months, and improvement in GAF scores continued for 12 months. Female gender, non-Hispanic white race-ethnicity, and more education at baseline predicted better education and employment status at follow-up. Individuals with early psychosis receiving CSC achieved significant improvements in education and employment and experienced a decrease in hospitalization rate. Demographic variables and baseline education predicted education and employment outcomes. CSC teams should make particular effort to support the occupational goals of individuals at increased risk of not engaging in work or school, including male participants and participants from racial and ethnic minority groups.

  15. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results From a Two-Year Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control and treated for two years. Comprehensive data on cognition and employment were collected annually. Results Individuals treated with CET were significantly more likely to be competitively employed, had greater earnings from employment, and were more satisfied with their employment status by the end of treatment compared to EST recipients. Mediator analyses revealed that improvements in both social and non-social cognition mediated the CET effects on employment. Conclusion CET can help facilitate employment in early schizophrenia, by addressing the cognitive impairments that limit functioning in the disorder. Inclusion of cognitive rehabilitation in social work practice can support more optimal functional recovery from schizophrenia. PMID:23885163

  16. Planck Early Results. XV. Spectral Energy Distributions and Radio Continuum Spectra of Northern Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  17. Emergent categorical representation of natural, complex sounds resulting from the early post-natal sound environment

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shaowen; Chang, Edward F.; Teng, Ching-Ling; Heiser, Marc A.; Merzenich, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical sensory representations can be reorganized by sensory exposure in an epoch of early development. The adaptive role of this type of plasticity for natural sounds in sensory development is, however, unclear. We have reared rats in a naturalistic, complex acoustic environment and examined their auditory representations. We found that cortical neurons became more selective to spectrotemporal features in the experienced sounds. At the neuronal population level, more neurons were involved in representing the whole set of complex sounds, but fewer neurons actually responded to each individual sound, but with greater magnitudes. A comparison of population-temporal responses to the experienced complex sounds revealed that cortical responses to different renderings of the same song motif were more similar, indicating that the cortical neurons became less sensitive to natural acoustic variations associated with stimulus context and sound renderings. By contrast, cortical responses to sounds of different motifs became more distinctive, suggesting that cortical neurons were tuned to the defining features of the experienced sounds. These effects lead to emergent “categorical” representations of the experienced sounds, which presumably facilitate their recognition. PMID:23747304

  18. Linking parent perceptions of children's weight to early coronary risk factors: results from the CARDIAC Project.

    PubMed

    Stabler, M E; Cottrell, L; Lilly, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health threat because of the increasing prevalence in childhood and its causal relationship to the leading cause of death in America, heart disease. Detecting early signs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children and appropriately intervening to reverse the unhealthy trajectory associated with childhood obesity is of great importance. The objective of this study is to observe parental perception of their child's body mass index (BMI) and find associations between inaccurately estimated children and CVD risk factors. This study analyzed the association between 147 rural fifth grade students' lipid profiles and parents' self-reported survey who participated in the 2008-2011 Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities study. After controlling for covariates, underestimated children were more likely to have higher log-transformed triglyceride and systolic blood pressure values and overestimated children were more likely to have lower systolic blood pressure. Underestimating a child's BMI is associated with coronary risk-related factors, while overestimating a child's BMI is associate with a protective CVD marker. A follow-up study examining the development of CVD risk factors in children of parents who inaccurately estimate their BMI would help clarify this relationship. Knowledge of how parental perceptions directly influence higher lipid levels in children could have an impact on public health efforts in the fight against childhood obesity in rural environments.

  19. Controlled multicenter trial of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty vs Shouldice herniorrhaphy. Early results.

    PubMed

    Tschudi, J; Wagner, M; Klaiber, C; Brugger, J; Frei, E; Krähenbühl, L; Inderbitzi, R; Hüsler, J; Hsu Schmitz, S

    1996-08-01

    In February 1993 a prospective randomized multicenter trial was initiated to compare laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty to Shouldice herniorrhaphy as performed by surgeons of nonspecialized clinics. Until January 1994, 87 patients with 108 hernias took part in the trial (43 Shouldice and 44 laparoscopic repairs). The laparoscopic procedure took significantly longer than did the open operation but caused less pain as measured by pain analogue score and consumption of paracetamol and narcotics. The postoperative complication rate was 26% in the open and 16% in the laparoscopic group. The patients in the laparoscopic group were discharged earlier and their convalescence was shorter than after open hernia repair. There has been one early recurrence in the laparoscopic and two in the open group to date with a mean follow-up of 201 days. Laparoscopic hernia repair causes less pain than the conventional operation and enables the patient to return to full work and usual activities earlier. The recurrence rate will not be known for 5 years.

  20. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P < 0.001). PCT was more sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of upper versus lower UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  1. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DOE PAGES

    Aatrokoski, J.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativisticmore » jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper, physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.« less

  2. Disease management of early childhood caries: results of a pilot quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai; Torresyap, Gay; White, Alex; Melvin, Patrice; Graham, Dionne; Kane, Daniel; Scoville, Richard; Ohiomoba, Henry

    2012-08-01

    The purpose is to report findings of a quality improvement (QI) project implemented at two hospital-based dental clinics that care for children with early childhood caries (ECC). We tested a disease management (DM) approach in children younger than age 60 months with ECC. After 30 months, for the 403 and 234 DM patients at Children's Hospital Boston (CHB) and Saint Joseph Hospital (SJH) who returned for at least two visits, rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR were 26.1, 13.4 and 10.9% for CHB and 41.0, 7.3 and 14.9% for SJH. Rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR for historical controls were 75.2, 21.7, and 20.9% for CHB and 71.3, 31.3, and 25.0% for SJH. A risk-based DM approach utilizing QI strategies to address ECC can be implemented into practice and has the potential to improve care and health outcomes.

  3. Early benefit assessment of new drugs in Germany - results from 2011 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Hörn, Helmut; Nink, Katrin; McGauran, Natalie; Wieseler, Beate

    2014-06-01

    Rising drug costs in Germany led to the Act on the Reform of the Market for Medicinal Products (AMNOG) in January 2011. For new drugs, pharmaceutical companies have to submit dossiers containing all available evidence to demonstrate an added benefit versus an appropriate comparator therapy. The Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), the main decision-making body of the statutory healthcare system, is responsible for the overall procedure of "early benefit assessment". The Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) largely conducts the dossier assessments, which inform decisions by the G-BA on added benefit and support price negotiations. Of the 25 dossiers (excluding orphan drugs) assessed until 31 December 2012, 14 contained sufficient data from randomized active-controlled trials investigating patient-relevant outcomes or at least acceptable surrogates; 11 contained insufficient data. The most common indications were oncology (6) and viral infections (4). For the 14 drugs assessed, the extent of added benefit was rated as minor, considerable, and non-quantifiable in 3, 8, and 2 cases; the remaining drug showed no added benefit. Despite some shortcomings, for the first time it has been possible in Germany to implement a systematic procedure for assessing new drugs at market entry, thus providing support for price negotiations and informed decision-making for patients, clinicians and policy makers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Results and survival after photodynamic therapy in early-stage esophageal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Mancini, Andrea; Dal Fante, Marco; Meroni, Emmanuele; Jasinskas, Algirdas

    1996-01-01

    From January 1985 to December 1994, 23 early stage carcinomas of the esophagus were treated by photodynamic therapy in 21 patients. The stage of the tumors was assessed by esophagoscopy with multiple biopsies, CT scan and, from June 1991, also by endoscopic ultrasonography: 7 lesions were classified as carcinoma in situ (Tis) and 16 as invasive (T1). The photosensitizers used for PDT were hematoporphyrin derivative 3 mg/kg in 4 patients and dihematoporphyrin ether 2 mg/kg in 17. Light irradiation was performed using an Argon-dye laser system at a wavelength of 630 nm with an average energy of 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. A complete response was achieved in 17/23 (74%) tumors, 15/21 (71%) patients. In the follow-up period from 6 to 78 months (median 36 months) 3 recurrences occurred 6, 12, and 14 months after PDT, respectively. Seven patients died due to concomitant diseases, not related to tumor progression. The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 75% and 37% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications included 1 case of sunburn and 2 cases of esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage.

  5. Very early predictors of conduct problems and crime: results from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A J

    2010-11-01

      Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children born in 1970. Pregnancy, birth, child, parent, and socioeconomic characteristics were measured from medical records, parent interviews, and child assessments at birth and age 5. Conduct problems were reported by parents at age 10, and criminal convictions were self-reported by study members at ages 30-34.   Early (up to age 5) psychosocial risk factors were strong predictors of conduct problems and criminal conviction. Among pregnancy and birth measures, only prenatal maternal smoking was strongly predictive. Risk factors were similar for girls and boys. Additive risk scores predicted antisocial behaviour quite strongly.   Risk factors from pregnancy to age 5 are quite strong predictors of conduct problems and crime. New risk assessment tools could be developed to identify young children at high risk for later antisocial behaviour. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nichola; Dudbridge, Frank; Orr, Nick; Gibson, Lorna; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Folkerd, Elizabeth J; Haynes, Ben P; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Atsma, Femke; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Renner, Stefan P; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Cordina, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger; Zamora, M Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Benitez, Javier; Bernstein, Leslie; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke Dur, Christina; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Meindl, Alfons; Heil, Joerg; Bartram, Claus R; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Lindblom, Annika; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Wu, Anna H; Van den Berg, David; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Pensotti, Valeria; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Chris; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Teo, Soo; Yip, Cheng Har; Phuah, Sze Yee; Cornes, Belinda K; Kristensen, Vessela N; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Devillee, Peter; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Hall, Per; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Oldenburg, Rogier A; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angie; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Cross, Simon S; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Kang, Daehee; Noh, Dong-Young; Park, Sue K; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Tang, Anthony; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Vachon, Celine; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; González-Neira, Anna; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Jean; Easton, Douglas F; García-Closas, Montserrat; Dowsett, Mitch; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia

    2014-05-26

    We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (P(trend) = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (P(trend) = 0.005) but not cases (P(trend) = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (P(het) = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age ≥15 years (OR(het) = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; OR(hom) = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; P(trend) = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age ≤11 years (OR(het) = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, OR(hom) = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; P(trend) = 0.29). To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at menarche and a reduction in

  7. Hormonal replacement therapy may reduce the risk for RA in women with early arthritis who carry HLA-DRB1 *01 and/or *04 alleles by protecting against the production of anti-CCP: results from the ESPOIR cohort.

    PubMed

    Salliot, Carine; Bombardier, Claire; Saraux, Alain; Combe, Bernard; Dougados, Maxime

    2010-09-01

    To assess the effect of reproductive factors, especially hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and its interaction with HLA-DRB1 *01 and/or *04 alleles on the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies in women included in the ESPOIR cohort (early arthritis cohort). 568 patients were included in the analyses, which were performed using logistic regression. HRT reduced the risk of RA due to the HLA-DRB1 *01 and/or *04 alleles from OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.68, p<0.000) for HLA-DRB1 *01 and/or *04 alleles alone to OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.51 to 2.26, p=0.85) in women with HLA-DRB1 *01 and/or *04 alleles who received HRT. One explanation might be the protective effect of HRT on the presence of anti-CCP antibodies (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.77, p<0.006). Other reproductive factors such as the number of pregnancies, menopause and age at menopause, age at menarche and a history of pregnancy with poor outcome were not associated with the diagnosis of RA and the presence of anti-CCP antibodies. HRT may reduce the risk of RA due to HLA-DRB1 *01 and/or *04 alleles by protecting against the production of anti-CCP antibodies.

  8. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early – Prevention must also

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413

  9. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1−/− mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1−/− mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1−/− callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  10. Complete major amputation of the upper extremity: Early results and initial treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Märdian, Sven; Krapohl, Björn D; Roffeis, Jana; Disch, Alexander C; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Schwabe, Philipp

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic major amputations of the upper extremity are devastating injuries. These injuries have a profound impact on patient's quality of life and pose a burden on social economy. The aims of the current study were to report about the initial management of isolated traumatic major upper limb amputation from the time of admission to definitive soft tissue closure and to establish a distinct initial management algorithm. We recorded data concerning the initial management of the patient and the amputated body part in the emergency department (ED) (time from admission to the operation, Injury Severity Score [ISS], cold ischemia time from injury to ED, and total cold ischemia time). The duration, amount of surgical procedures, the time to definitive soft tissue coverage, and the choice of flap were part of the documentation. All intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. All patients were successfully replanted (time from injury to ED, 59 ± 4 minutes; ISS16; time from admission to operating room 57 ± 10 minutes; total cold ischemia time 203 ± 20 minutes; total number of procedures 7.3 ± 2.5); definitive soft tissue coverage could be achieved 23 ± 14 days after injury. Two thromboembolic complications occurred, which could be treated by embolectomy during revision surgery, and we saw one early infection, which could be successfully managed by serial debridements in our series. The management of complete major amputations of the upper extremity should be reserved for large trauma centers with enough resources concerning technical, structural, and personnel infrastructure to meet the demands of surgical reconstruction as well as the postoperative care. Following a distinct treatment algorithm is mandatory to increase the rate of successful major replantations, thus laying the foundation for promising secondary functional reconstructive efforts. Therapeutic study, level V.

  11. Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.

  12. [Results of applying a paediatric early warning score system as a healthcare quality improvement plan].

    PubMed

    Rivero-Martín, M J; Prieto-Martínez, S; García-Solano, M; Montilla-Pérez, M; Tena-Martín, E; Ballesteros-García, M M

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) into our daily clinical practice, as well as to evaluate its ability to detect clinical deterioration in children admitted, and to train nursing staff to communicate the information and response effectively. An analysis was performed on the implementation of PEWS in the electronic health records of children (0-15 years) in our paediatric ward from February 2014 to September 2014. The maximum score was 6. Nursing staff reviewed scores >2, and if >3 medical and nursing staff reviewed it. Monitoring indicators: % of admissions with scoring; % of complete data capture; % of scores >3; % of scores >3 reviewed by medical staff, % of changes in treatment due to the warning system, and number of patients who needed Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission, or died without an increased warning score. The data were collected from all patients (931) admitted. The scale was measured 7,917 times, with 78.8% of them with complete data capture. Very few (1.9%) showed scores >3, and 14% of them with changes in clinical management (intensifying treatment or new diagnostic tests). One patient (scored 2) required PICU admission. There were no deaths. Parents or nursing staff concern was registered in 80% of cases. PEWS are useful to provide a standardised assessment of clinical status in the inpatient setting, using a unique scale and implementing data capture. Because of the lack of severe complications requiring PICU admission and deaths, we will have to use other data to evaluate these scales. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    PubMed

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing the Role of Impacts in Warming Early Mars: Comparisons Between 1-D and GCM Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steakley, K.; Kahre, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.; Haberle, R. M.; Kling, A.

    2017-12-01

    Comet and asteroid impacts have been explored as a potential mechanism for producing warmer and wetter conditions for early Mars and possibly contributing to valley network formation. However, criticisms have been made regarding the timing of large impacts compared to valley network activity and the ability of such impacts to induce long lasting climate changes and the appropriate amount of precipitation. We test the impact heating hypothesis for the late Noachian Mars atmosphere by revisiting the scenarios described in Segura et al. (2008, JGR Planets 113, E11007) with a 3D global climate model (GCM). Segura et al. (2008) showed with a 1-D model that impacts ranging 30-100 km in diameter could in certain cases induce months to years of above-freezing temperatures and tens of cm to meters of rainfall in atmospheres with 150-mbar, 1-bar, or 2-bar surface pressures. We impose the same initial conditions into the Ames Research Center Mars GCM with updated water cycle physics that includes bulk cloud formation, sedimentation, precipitation (liquid or snow), a Manabe moist convection scheme, and the radiative effects of both liquid and ice clouds. Initial conditions in the GCM match those described in Segura et al. (2008) as closely as possible and include a hot post-impact debris layer, a warm atmosphere, and water vapor profiles consistent with the water abundances mobilized by the impact. Scenarios with 30-, 50- and 100- km impactors in 150-mbar, 1-bar, and 2-bar surface pressure cases are explored both with and without radiatively active water clouds. Our goals are to determine how global rainfall totals and global surface temperatures from the GCM compare with the simpler 1-D Segura et al. (2008) model, to examine what rainfall patterns emerge in the GCM and how they compare to the observed valley network distribution, and to more carefully assess the role of cloud microphysics and radiative effects on the duration and intensity of post-impact climates.

  15. Early Results from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Kubota, Takuji; Masaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Yuki; Kanemaru, Kaya; Oki, Riko; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2015-04-01

    of gauge-calibrated GSMaP algorithm (Ushio et al., 2013). In addition to those improvements in the algorithms number of passive microwave imagers and/or sounders used in the GPM-GSMaP was increased compared to the previous version. After the early calibration and validation of the products and evaluation that all products achieved the release criteria, all GPM standard products and the GPM-GSMaP product has been released to the public since September 2014. The GPM products can be downloaded via the internet through the JAXA G-Portal (https://www.gportal.jaxa.jp).

  16. Study of the mesosphere using wide-field twilight polarization measurements: Early results beyond the polar circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolnikov, O. S.; Kozelov, B. V.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the results of early measurements of temperature and dust in the mesosphere on the basis of wide-field twilight sky polarimetry, which began in 2015 in Apatity (North of Russia, 67.6° N, 33.4° E) using the original entire-sky camera. These measurements have been performed for the first time beyond the Polar Circle in the winter and early spring period. The general polarization properties of the twilight sky and the procedure for identifying single scattering are described. The key results of the study include the Boltzmann temperature values at altitudes higher than 70 km and the conclusion on a weak effect of dust on scattering properties of the mesosphere during this period.

  17. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for th legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU's).

  18. Early Results from the Advanced Radiation Protection Thick GCR Shielding Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Clowdsley, Martha; Slaba, Tony; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Zeitlin, Cary; Kenny, Sean; Crespo, Luis; Giesy, Daniel; Warner, James; McGirl, Natalie; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Radiation Protection Thick Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Shielding Project leverages experimental and modeling approaches to validate a predicted minimum in the radiation exposure versus shielding depth curve. Preliminary results of space radiation models indicate that a minimum in the dose equivalent versus aluminum shielding thickness may exist in the 20-30 g/cm2 region. For greater shield thickness, dose equivalent increases due to secondary neutron and light particle production. This result goes against the long held belief in the space radiation shielding community that increasing shielding thickness will decrease risk to crew health. A comprehensive modeling effort was undertaken to verify the preliminary modeling results using multiple Monte Carlo and deterministic space radiation transport codes. These results verified the preliminary findings of a minimum and helped drive the design of the experimental component of the project. In first-of-their-kind experiments performed at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, neutrons and light ions were measured between large thicknesses of aluminum shielding. Both an upstream and a downstream shield were incorporated into the experiment to represent the radiation environment inside a spacecraft. These measurements are used to validate the Monte Carlo codes and derive uncertainty distributions for exposure estimates behind thick shielding similar to that provided by spacecraft on a Mars mission. Preliminary results for all aspects of the project will be presented.

  19. Ages at menarche and menopause and reproductive lifespan as predictors of exceptional longevity in women: the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Shadyab, Aladdin H; Macera, Caroline A; Shaffer, Richard A; Jain, Sonia; Gallo, Linda C; Gass, Margery L S; Waring, Molly E; Stefanick, Marcia L; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and survival to age 90 years. This was a prospective study of postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative recruited from 1993 to 1998 and followed until the last outcomes evaluation on August 29, 2014. Participants included 16,251 women born on or before August 29, 1924 for whom survival to age 90 during follow-up was ascertained. Women were classified as having survived to age 90 (exceptional longevity) or died before age 90. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of ages at menarche and menopause (natural or surgical) and reproductive lifespan with longevity, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive characteristics. Participants were on average aged 74.7 years (range, 69-81 y) at baseline. Of 16,251 women, 8,892 (55%) survived to age 90. Women aged at least 12 years at menarche had modestly increased odds of longevity (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.19). There was a significant trend toward increased longevity for later age at menopause (natural or surgical; Ptrend = 0.01), with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.19 (1.04-1.36) and 1.18 (1.02-1.36) for 50 to 54 and at least 55 compared with less than 40 years, respectively. Later age at natural menopause as a separate exposure was also significantly associated with increased longevity (Ptrend = 0.02). Longer reproductive lifespan was significantly associated with increased longevity (Ptrend = 0.008). The odds of longevity were 13% (OR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.25) higher in women with more than 40 compared with less than 33 reproductive years. Reproductive characteristics were associated with late-age survival in older women.

  20. Host resistance screening for balsam woolly adelgid: early results from 12 fir species

    Leslie Newton; Fred Hain; John. Frampton

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) Christmas trees produced in North Carolina need to be treated one or more times during their 5- to 10-year rotation to prevent or lessen damage caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) (Adelges piceae Ratz.). These pesticide applications result in an annual cost to the industry...

  1. An early look at forest regeneration indicator results for the Midwest and Northeast United States

    William H. McWilliams; James A. Westfall

    2015-01-01

    Interacting regeneration stressors create challenges for policy makers and managers who are tasked with making decisions for restoring forest following major disturbances, such as harvest or catastrophic mortality. Concern over an aging forest, dwindling young forest habitat, and restoration of native forests in the midwest and northeast United States has resulted in...

  2. Ponderosa pine seeding trials in west-side Sierra Nevada clearcuts: some early results

    Robert L. Neal

    1975-01-01

    In direct-seeding trials on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Yuba County, California, 27 combinations of seeding rates, aspect, and site treatment were tested. The best results were obtained on northerly aspects on unburned mechanically disturbed seedbeds with a high proportion of exposed mineral soil when seed application rates were high. Sowing at least 1 pound of...

  3. The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant Universe a few hundred million years after the big bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial haloes with Tvir ≥ 104 K provides the most promising way to assemble massive black holes. In this study, we aim to determine the characteristic mass scale of seed black holes and the time evolution of the accretion rates resulting from the direct collapse model. We explore the formation of supermassive black holes via cosmological large eddy simulations (LES) by employing sink particles and following their evolution for 20 000 yr after the formation of the first sink. As the resulting protostars were shown to have cool atmospheres in the presence of strong accretion, we assume here that UV feedback is negligible during this calculation. We confirm this result in a comparison run without sinks. Our findings show that black hole seeds with characteristic mass of 105 M⊙ are formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner flux which leads to an isothermal collapse. The characteristic mass is about two times higher in LES compared to the implicit large eddy simulations. The accretion rates increase with time and reach a maximum value of 10 M⊙ yr-1 after 104 yr. Our results show that the direct collapse model is clearly feasible as it provides the expected mass of the seed black holes.

  4. Early results of a chestnut planting in eastern Kentucky illustrate reintroduction challenges

    Cornelia C. Pinchot; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Jennifer A. Franklin; David S. Buckley; Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer; Arnold M. Saxton; Frederick V. Hebard

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the first year results from a silvicultural study of American, hybrid (BC2F3) and Chinese chestnut seedlings (Castanea spp. Mill.) on the Daniel Boone National Forest in southeastern Kentucky. After one year, no significant differences in growth were found among the silvicultural...

  5. Competitive Employment for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Early Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul H.; Schall, Carol M.; McDonough, Jennifer; Kregel, John; Brooke, Valerie; Molinelli, Alissa; Ham, Whitney; Graham, Carolyn W.; Riehle, J. Erin; Collins, Holly T.; Thiss, Weston

    2014-01-01

    For most youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), employment upon graduation from high school or college is elusive. Employment rates are reported in many studies to be very low despite many years of intensive special education services. This paper presented the preliminary results of a randomized clinical trial of Project SEARCH plus ASD…

  6. Managing Herbicide Drift and Early Results of Simulated Glyphosate Drift to Potato Study

    The off target movement of herbicides can injure sensitive crops. Off target movement of spray droplets results from displacement by wind, poor application techniques, or improper settings or operation of application equipment. Applicators should be aware of wind speed and direction, use nozzles and...

  7. The national fire and fire surrogate study: early results and future challenges

    Thomas A. Waldrop; James McIver

    2006-01-01

    Fire-adapted ecosystems today have dense plant cover and heavy fuel loads as a result of fire exclusion and other changes in land use practices. Mechanical fuel treatments and prescribed fire are powerful tools for reducing wildfire potential, but the ecological consequences of their use is unknown. The National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study examines the effects of...

  8. SADI-S WITH RIGHT GASTRIC ARTERY LIGATION: TECHNICAL SYSTEMATIZATION AND EARLY RESULTS.

    PubMed

    Gebelli, Jordi Pujol; Gordejuela, Amador Garcia Ruiz de; Ramos, Almino Cardoso; Nora, Mario; Pereira, Ana Marta; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Bastos, Eduardo Lemos de Souza; Marchesini, João Batista

    Bariatric surgery is performed all over the world with close to 500.000 procedures per year. The most performed techniques are Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Despite this data, the most effective procedure, biliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch, represents only no more than 1.5% of the procedures. Technical complexity, morbidity, mortality, and severe nutritional adverse effects related to the procedure are the main fears that prevent most universal acceptance. To explain the technical aspects and the benefits of the SADI-S with right gastric artery ligation as an effective simplification from the original duodenal switch. Were included all patients undergoing this procedure from the November 2014 to May 2016, describing and analysing aspects of this technique, the systematization and early complications associated with the procedure. A series of 67 patients were operated; 46 were women (68.7%); mean age of the group was 44 years old (33-56); and an average BMI of 53.5 kg/m2 (50-63.5). Surgical time was 115 min (80-180). A total of five patients (7.5%) had any complication and two (2.9%) had to be reoperated. There were two patients with leak, one at the duodenal stump and other at the esophagogastric angle. There was no mortality. Patients stayed at the hospital a median of 2.5 days (1-25). SADI-S with right gastric artery ligation is a safe procedure with few preliminary complications. The technical variations introduced to the classical duodenal switch are reproducible and may allow this procedure to be more popular. All the complications in this series were not related to the ligation of the right gastric artery. Cerca de 500.000 cirurgias bariátricas são realizadas a cada ano em todo o mundo. As técnicas mais realizadas são o bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux e a gastrectomia vertical. A derivação biliopancreática, com ou sem duodenal switch, é considerada técnica mais eficaz no tratamento cirúrgico do paciente obeso

  9. [Early results of proximal femoral fractures treated with FENIX modular hemiarthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Görski, Radosław; Górecki, Andrzej; Olszewski, Paweł; Biedrzycki, Jerzy; Skowronek, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses preliminary clinical results in patients with proximal femoral fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty using a FENIX implant. The study group comprised 41 subjects aged 69 to 97 (median age 82.3 year). The follow-up study provided data on 26 subjects (63.4%), among which 15 attended the check-up, 5 subjects refused to visit at the Department and 6 subjects were reported as deceased. Median follow-up period amounted to 6.8 month (1 to 22 months). General hospitalization-related complications occurred in 8 patients (19.5%). During hospitalization no deaths occurred, in the deceased group 3 patients died within 12 months after surgery, while another 3 died after the twelve-month postoperative period (median of 13.3%). According to Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score favorable long-term results were observed in 9 patients (59.9%), 13 patients regained the level of motor function similar to the functional ability prior to fracture. The need to postpone the surgery due to general health status and impaired pre-operative motor function are significant negative prognostic factors. The results obtained were compared with previous efficacy studies on femoral fracture treatment using an Austin-Moore implant. Functional ability and self-reliance was higher in the FENIX group. FENIX arthroplasty effectively helps patients regain self-reliance and motor function thanks to its modular characteristics and anatmoical construction.

  10. Single-incision (with multi-input single-port) laparoscopic colorectal procedures: Early results

    PubMed Central

    Ertem, Metin; Gök, Hakan; Özveri, Emel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a “scar-less” new surgical technique which has been gaining popularity over recent years. In comparison to conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery, SILS is introduced as a less invasive method. This technique has also been applied to colorectal surgery. The aim of the presenting study is to investigate the applicability of SILS and report short term results. Material and Methods: We evaluated prospectively collected data of 24 patients who had been operated with “Single Incision Laparoscopic Colon Resection (SILCR)” in our clinic between June 2011–June 2013. Informed consent was obtained from all patients before surgery. Patient data such as ASA and BMI values, need for additional surgery, tumors, number of lymph nodes resected, length of hospital stay, length of surgery, timing of flatus, time to start oral feeding and complications were recorded. Results: SILCR was performed in 24 patients. In 13 patients, SILCR was performed for cancer treatment. There was no need for extra ports, conversion to open surgery and stoma creation was also not necessary. Drain was placed in 4 patients. Overall complication rate was 12.5%. The mean number of lymph nodes in 13 patients who underwent SILCR for tumor was found to be 23 (14–33). The mean operative time and length of hospital stay was 177 minutes (110–363) and 5.35 days (4–11) respectively. Anastomotic leakage was not seen in any of the patients. In one patient, urinoma formation due to ureteral leakage was seen which resulted from thermal injury. Conclusion: When we compare other series with almost the same number of patients’ reported SILS results in the literature, we believe that we could draw conclusions from our data. SILS appears to have comparable results to conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery in the hands of experienced surgeons. It seems advantegous as it can be done with conventional laparoscopic instruments in a

  11. Initiation rites at menarche and self-reported dysmenorrhoea among indigenous women of the Colombian Amazon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zuluaga, Germán; Andersson, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between self-reported dysmenorrhoea and patterns of female initiation rites at menarche among Amazonian indigenous peoples of Vaupés in Colombia. Design A cross-sectional study of all women in seven indigenous communities. Questionnaire administered in local language documented female initiation rites and experience of dysmenorrhoea. Analysis examined 10 initiation components separately, then together, comparing women who underwent all rites, some rites and no rites. Settings Seven indigenous communities belonging to the Tukano language group in the Great Eastern Reservation of Vaupés (Colombia) in 2008. Participants All women over the age of 13 years living in the seven communities in Vaupés, who had experienced at least two menstruations (n=185), aged 13–88 years (mean 32.5; SD 15.6). Primary and secondary outcome measures The analysis rested on pelvic pain to define dysmenorrhoea as the main outcome. Women were also asked about other disorders present during menstruation or the precedent days, and about the interval between two menstruations and duration of each one. Results Only 17.3% (32/185) completed all initiation rites and 52.4% (97/185) reported dysmenorrhoea. Women not completing the rites were more likely to report dysmenorrhoea than those who did so (p=0.01 Fisher exact), taking into account age, education, community, parity and use of family planning. Women who completed less than the full complement of rites had higher risk than those who completed all rites. Those who did not complete all rites reported increased severity of dysmenorrhoea (p=0.00014). Conclusions Our results are compatible with an association between traditional practices and women's health. We could exclude indirect associations with age, education, parity and use of family planning as explanations for the association. The study indicates feasibility, possible utility and limits of intercultural epidemiology in small groups. PMID

  12. Total enbloc spondylectomy for metastatic high grade spinal tumors: Early results

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sanganagouda S; Nene, Abhay M

    2016-01-01

    Background: High grade metastatic spinal tumors are most common and are invasive. These patients can succumb to disease progression if not treated timely. Although considered as invasive and morbid, total enbloc spondylectomy (TES) in selected cases has better survival rates. The authors describe the results of TES for high grade metastatic spinal tumors. Materials and Methods: Five patients (four females and one male) underwent TES for solitary metastatic vertebral lesion between November 2012 and January 2014. These patients presented to us with spinal instability, unrelenting severe spinal pain and/or with severe progressive radiculopathy. Average age was 46.2 years (range 39–62 years). After complete investigations, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scan, it was confirmed that these patients had high grade solitary vertebral metastatic tumor. Results: Average duration of followup was 18 months (range 16–20 months). The average preoperative visual analog scale score of 9.4 (range 9–10) improved to 2 (range 1–4) at last followup. Average blood loss was 1440 mL (range 1000–2000 mL). Average duration of surgery was 198 min (range 180–240 min). Significant pain relief was noticed in each patient in the immediate postoperative period and during followups. These patients attained complete functional activities of daily living with in a month. The imaging showed implants in situ, no recurrence of tumor, and no activity on PET scan at the final followup. Conclusion: The present series shows favorable short term results of TES for solitary, metastatic, high grade vertebral body tumors by a team approach. PMID:27512215

  13. The effect of gender on the early results of coronary artery bypass surgery in the younger patients' group

    PubMed Central

    Uncu, Hasan; Acipayam, Mehmet; Altinay, Levent; Doğan, Pinar; Davarcı, Isil; Özsöyler, İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients under 45 years of age, and evaluate the early postoperative results and the effect of gender. Methods A total of 324 patients under 45 years of age who undergone on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery between April 12, 2004 and January 10, 2012 were included to the study. Patients divided into groups as follows: Group 1 consisted of 269 males (mean age 41.3), Group 2 consisted of 55 females (mean age 41.6). Preoperative risk factors, intraoperative and postoperative data and early mortality rates of the groups were compared. Results Smoking rate was significantly higher in Group 1. Diabetes mellitus incidence and body mass index were significantly higher in Group 2 (P values P=0.01; P=0.0001; P=0.04 respectively). The aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass time and number of grafts per patient were significantly higher in Group 1 (P values P=0.04; P=0.04; P=0.002 respectively). There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion We found that gender has no effect on early mortality rates of the coronary bypass surgery patients under 45 years. PMID:25714211

  14. Early results of an in vivo trial of ESS in thyroid cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Jennifer E.; Goukassian, Ilona D.; A'Amar, Ousama M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Lee, Stephanie L.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. The current gold standard for diagnosis, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, yields 10-25% of indeterminate cytology results, leading to patients undergoing thyroidectomy for diagnosis. We assessed the technical potential of a miniaturized in vivo ESS (elastic light scattering spectroscopy) probe, built into an FNA needle assembly, to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Under IRB approval, 15 patients in the endocrine clinic undergoing FNAB of a thyroid nodule had collection of ESS data using our novel miniaturized FNA probe. Using final surgical pathology as our gold standard, data post processing and visual inspection was completed. Results: 225 spectra were grouped and analyzed (120 benign, 30 malignant and 75 from indeterminate cytology). ESS probes demonstrated excellent reproducibility in use. Initial analysis of these preliminary data is promising, indicating distinction of spectral ESS features between malignant and benign conditions. Conclusion(s): An in vivo trial of an invasive miniaturized integrated ESS biopsy probe is acceptable to patients, and collection of ESS data is feasible and reliable. With development of a disease-specific algorithm, ESS could potentially be used as an in-situ real time intra-operative diagnostic tool or as a minimally invasive adjunct to conventional FNA cytology.

  15. Pilot evaluation of a media literacy program for tobacco prevention targeting early adolescents shows mixed results.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p < .05); results for other tobacco-specific media literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p < .05). Mixed results indicated that improvements in media literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.

  16. Hearing taboo words can result in early talker effects in word recognition for female listeners.

    PubMed

    Tuft, Samantha E; MᶜLennan, Conor T; Krestar, Maura L

    2018-02-01

    Previous spoken word recognition research using the long-term repetition-priming paradigm found performance costs for stimuli mismatching in talker identity. That is, when words were repeated across the two blocks, and the identity of the talker changed reaction times (RTs) were slower than when the repeated words were spoken by the same talker. Such performance costs, or talker effects, followed a time course, occurring only when processing was relatively slow. More recent research suggests that increased explicit and implicit attention towards the talkers can result in talker effects even during relatively fast processing. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether word meaning would influence the pattern of talker effects in an easy lexical decision task and, if so, whether results would differ depending on whether the presentation of neutral and taboo words was mixed or blocked. Regardless of presentation, participants responded to taboo words faster than neutral words. Furthermore, talker effects for the female talker emerged when participants heard both taboo and neutral words (consistent with an attention-based hypothesis), but not for participants that heard only taboo or only neutral words (consistent with the time-course hypothesis). These findings have important implications for theoretical models of spoken word recognition.

  17. Ciprofloxacin and furagin in acute cystitis: comparison of early immune and microbiological results.

    PubMed

    Dybowski, Bartosz; Jabłońska, Olga; Radziszewski, Piotr; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-01

    Furagin (a nitrofurantoin analogue) has the same efficacy in treating acute cystitis as ciprofloxacin, however the duration of therapy is longer. We established a hypothesis that therapy with ciprofloxacin results in faster resolution of mucosal inflammation in comparison with furagin. Rates of urinary secretion of immunoglobulins class A, M and G and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were evaluated before and after initiation of therapy in adult women presenting with acute cystitis confirmed by urine culture. Women were randomised into two groups receiving either ciprofloxacin 250mg twice a day for 3 days (n=13) or furagin 100mg three times a day for 7 days (n=14). Median lengths of follow-up were 4 days and 5 days in the ciprofloxacin and furagin groups, respectively. Treatment with ciprofloxacin resulted in faster eradication of pathogens. No bacteria or nitrates were detected in the ciprofloxacin group, whilst leukocyte esterase was positive in only one case. In the furagin group there were four positive cultures, seven cases with positive nitrates and five cases with positive esterase. Secretion rates of all four substances dropped significantly, but the changes over time were similar in both groups.

  18. A summary of selected early results from the ERTS-1 menhaden experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Benigno, J. A.; Reese, G. B.; Minkler, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Imagery from ERTS-1 satellite was used in conjunction with aerial photographically-sensed menhaden distribution information, sea truth oceanographic measurements, and commercial fishing information from a 8685 square kilometer study area in the north-central portion of the Gulf of Mexico to demonstrate relationships between selected oceanographic parameters and menhaden distribution, ERTS-1 imagery and menhaden distribution, and ERTS-1 imagery and oceanographic parameters. ERTS-1, MSS band 5 imagery density levels correlated with photographically detected menhaden distribution patterns and could be explained based on sea truth Secchi disc transparency and water depth measurements. These two parameters, together with surface salinity, Forel-Ule color, and chlorophyll-a also were found to correlate significantly with menhaden distribution. Eight empirical models were developed which provided menhaden distribution predictions for the study area on combinations of Secchi disc transparency, water depth, surface salinity, and Forel-Ule color measurements.

  19. Human amyloidogenic light chain proteins result in cardiac dysfunction, cell death, and early mortality in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shikha; Guan, Jian; Plovie, Eva; Seldin, David C; Connors, Lawreen H; Merlini, Giampaolo; Falk, Rodney H; MacRae, Calum A; Liao, Ronglih

    2013-07-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is associated with rapidly progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy resulting from the direct cardiotoxic effects of circulating AL light chain (AL-LC) proteins and the indirect effects of AL fibril tissue infiltration. Cardiac amyloidosis is resistant to standard heart failure therapies, and, to date, there are limited treatment options for these patients. The mechanisms underlying the development of cardiac amyloidosis and AL-LC cardiotoxicity are largely unknown, and their study has been limited by the lack of a suitable in vivo model system. Here, we establish an in vivo zebrafish model of human AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity. AL-LC isolated from AL cardiomyopathy patients or control nonamyloidogenic LC protein isolated from multiple myeloma patients (Con-LC) was directly injected into the circulation of zebrafish at 48 h postfertilization. AL-LC injection resulted in impaired cardiac function, pericardial edema, and increased cell death relative to Con-LC, culminating in compromised survival with 100% mortality within 2 wk, independent of AL fibril deposition. Prior work has implicated noncanonical p38 MAPK activation in the pathogenesis of AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity, and p38 MAPK inhibition via SB-203580 rescued AL-LC-induced cardiac dysfunction and cell death and attenuated mortality in zebrafish. This in vivo zebrafish model of AL-LC cardiotoxicity demonstrates that antagonism of p38 MAPK within the AL-LC cardiotoxic signaling response may serve to improve cardiac function and mortality in AL cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, this in vivo model system will allow for further study of the molecular underpinnings of AL cardiotoxicity and identification of novel therapeutic strategies.

  20. Optimal Geoid Modelling to determine the Mean Ocean Circulation - Project Overview and early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecher, Thomas; Knudsen, Per; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Gruber, Thomas; Maximenko, Nikolai; Pie, Nadege; Siegismund, Frank; Stammer, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    The ESA project GOCE-OGMOC (Optimal Geoid Modelling based on GOCE and GRACE third-party mission data and merging with altimetric sea surface data to optimally determine Ocean Circulation) examines the influence of the satellite missions GRACE and in particular GOCE in ocean modelling applications. The project goal is an improved processing of satellite and ground data for the preparation and combination of gravity and altimetry data on the way to an optimal MDT solution. Explicitly, the two main objectives are (i) to enhance the GRACE error modelling and optimally combine GOCE and GRACE [and optionally terrestrial/altimetric data] and (ii) to integrate the optimal Earth gravity field model with MSS and drifter information to derive a state-of-the art MDT including an error assessment. The main work packages referring to (i) are the characterization of geoid model errors, the identification of GRACE error sources, the revision of GRACE error models, the optimization of weighting schemes for the participating data sets and finally the estimation of an optimally combined gravity field model. In this context, also the leakage of terrestrial data into coastal regions shall be investigated, as leakage is not only a problem for the gravity field model itself, but is also mirrored in a derived MDT solution. Related to (ii) the tasks are the revision of MSS error covariances, the assessment of the mean circulation using drifter data sets and the computation of an optimal geodetic MDT as well as a so called state-of-the-art MDT, which combines the geodetic MDT with drifter mean circulation data. This paper presents an overview over the project results with focus on the geodetic results part.

  1. Early and mid-term results of lung transplantation with donors 60 years and older.

    PubMed

    López, Iker; Zapata, Ricardo; Solé, Juan; Jaúregui, Alberto; Deu, María; Romero, Laura; Pérez, Javier; Bello, Irene; Wong, Manuel; Ribas, Montse; Masnou, Nuria; Rello, Jordi; Roman, Antonio; Canela, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    There are doubts about the age limit for lung donors and the ideal donor has traditionally been considered to be one younger than 55 years. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes in lung transplantation between organs from donors older and younger than 60 years. We performed a retrospective observational study comparing the group of patients receiving organs from donors 60 years or older (Group A) or younger than 60 years (Group B) between January 2007 and December 2011. Postoperative evolution and mortality rates, short-term and mid-term postoperative complications, and global survival rate were evaluated. We analysed a total of 230 lung transplants, of which 53 (23%) involved lungs from donors 60 years of age or older (Group A), and 177 (77%) were from donors younger than 60 years (Group B). Three (5.7%) patients from Group A and 14 patients (7.9%) from Group B died within 30 days (P = 0.58). The percentage of patients free from chronic lung allograft dysfunction at 1-3 years was 95.5, 74.3 and 69.3% for Group A, and 94.5, 84.8 and 73.3% for Group B, respectively (P = 0.47). There were no statistically significant differences between Groups A and B in terms of survival at 3 years, (69.4 vs 68.8%; P = 0.28). Our results support the idea that lungs from donors aged 60-70 years can be used safely for lung transplantation with comparable results to lungs from younger donors in terms of postoperative mortality and mid-term survival. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. [Early prediction of the neurological result at 12 months in newborns at neurological risk].

    PubMed

    Herbón, F; Garibotti, G; Moguilevsky, J

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Amiel-Tison neurological examination (AT) and cranial ultrasound at term for predicting the neurological result at 12 months in newborns with neurological risk. The study included 89 newborns with high risk of neurological damage, who were discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care of the Hospital Zonal Bariloche, Argentina. The assessment consisted of a neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term, and neurological examination and evaluation of development at 12 months. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictor value was calculated. The relationship between perinatal factors and neurodevelopment at 12 month of age was also calculated using logistic regression models. Seventy children completed the follow-up. At 12 months of age, 14% had an abnormal neurological examination, and 17% abnormal development. The neurological examination and the cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity to predict abnormal neurodevelopment. At 12 months, 93% of newborns with normal AT showed normal neurological results, and 86% normal development. Among newborns with normal cranial ultrasound the percentages were 90 and 81%, respectively. Among children with three or more perinatal risk factors, the frequency of abnormalities in the neurological response was 5.4 times higher than among those with fewer risk factors, and abnormal development was 3.5 times more frequent. The neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity but high negative predictive value for the neurodevelopment at 12 months. Three or more perinatal risk factors were associated with neurodevelopment abnormalities at 12 months of age. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory: Early results from the crowd sourcing competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Hilkhuijsen, Tanja; Hut, Rolf; Andreini, Marc; Selker, John

    2013-04-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an international initiative with the objective to develop, build, and operate 20,000 hydro-meteorological measurement stations in sub-Saharan Africa. TAHMO tries to integrate science with education. At the same time, we try to make the initiative financially sustainable by developing and rolling out viable business development. Estimated total costs for establishing the network will be in the order of US 20 million, whereas operational costs will be around US 2 million per year. The stations need to be designed in accordance to a set of rules that serves easy deployment and operation, such as absence of moving parts and cavities, self- and cross calibration of sensors, and low cost (€ 200-300 per station). There are some promising first results in this respect. The presentation will focus on recent activities, specifically concerning crowd sourcing activities at African universities. This competition (http://tahmo.info/sensor-design-competition) consists of two rounds. The first round is open to any academic or research group in Africa and asks for the design of an innovative robust sensor in line with the TAHMO design criteria. The top twenty teams with the best designs will receive a "Maker Package" that will allow them to build and test the sensors. The final top ten design teams will meet in Nairobi in August 2013 to tinker and collaborate for one week and to integrate the sensors into a standard weather station. The deadline for the first round is 1 March 2013 and the results from this round will be presented.

  4. New Early and Late Carboniferous paleomagnetic results from the Qaidam Block, NW China: Implications for the paleogeography of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yong; Sun, Zhiming; Li, Haibing; Pei, Junling; Xu, Wei; Pan, Jiawei; Zhang, Lei; Ye, Xiaozhou; Huang, Baochun; Wang, Zongxiu

    2017-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the paleogeographic evolution of the Qaidam Block (37.3 °N/96.4 °E) in northwest China during the late Paleozoic. To provide a reliable constraint on the paleogeographic reconstruction and to determine the relationship with the adjacent area, we performed a paleomagnetic investigation of Early and Late Carboniferous sediments from the Qaidam Block. Stepwise thermal demagnetization successfully isolated high unblocking-temperature characteristic directions from the samples. The tilt-corrected mean direction of the Early Carboniferous sediments is Ds/Is = 298.6°/- 46.4° with α95 = 4.7° and N = 15 sites, corresponding to a paleopole at - 3.2 °N, 147.5 °E with A95 = 4.8°. The Late Carboniferous paleomagnetic direction is Ds/Is = 320.1°/- 46.1° with α95 = 5.3° and N = 8 sites, corresponding to a paleopole at - 15.1 °N, 132.2 °E with A95 = 5.4°. A positive fold test for the Early Carboniferous paleomagnetic directions, and consistency with the Kiaman reversed superchron for the Late Carboniferous paleomagnetic directions, indicates the primary origin of the characteristic remanence of the studied section. The new paleomagnetic results suggest that the Qaidam Block was located at about 27 °N and did not undergo significant N-S movement during the Carboniferous. However, the Qaidam Block experienced a counter-clockwise rotation of about 21° during this period. Comparisons of the paleomagnetic results from the major blocks of Central Asia suggest that the Qaidam Block may have experienced a relatively rapid northward movement and collided with the Tarim Block after the Late Permian. Based on the paleomagnetic poles of the Qaidam Block and adjacent blocks, we present a tentative paleogeographic reconstruction for central Asia during the Early and Late Carboniferous.

  5. Cancer early detection program based on awareness and clinical breast examination: Interim results from an urban community in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, Anita; Sauvaget, Catherine; Roy, Nobhojit; Muwonge, Richard; Kantharia, Surita; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Bantwal, Kanchan; Haldar, Indrani; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-02-01

    Indian women with breast cancer are usually diagnosed in advanced stages leading to poor survival. Improving breast awareness and increasing access to early diagnosis and adequate treatment has been advocated for breast cancer control. We implemented a program to increase awareness on breast cancer and access to its early detection in an occupational health care scheme in Mumbai, India. Breast awareness brochures were mailed annually between June 2013 and June 2016 to a cohort of 22,500 eligible women aged 30-69 years old receiving universal health care from an occupational health care scheme comprising of primary health centres and a referral secondary care hospital in Mumbai. Women with suspected breast cancers were provided with diagnostic investigations and treatment. Socio-demographic information and tumour characteristics were compared between the breast awareness pre-intervention period (Jan 2005-May 2013) and the breast awareness intervention period after four rounds of mailers (June 2013-June 2016). The proportion of women with early tumours and axillary lymph node negative cancers increased from 74% to 81% and 46% to 53% respectively, between the two periods. While the proportion of patients receiving breast conserving surgery increased from 39% to 51%, the proportion receiving chemotherapy decreased from 84% to 56%. Interim results following efforts to improve breast awareness and access to care in a cohort of women in an occupational health care scheme indicate early detection and more conservative treatment of breast cancers. Creating awareness and improving access to care may result in cancer down-staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early experience with stretch polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for haemodialysis access surgery: results of a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Tordoir, J H; Hofstra, L; Leunissen, K M; Kitslaar, P J

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of standard ePTFE versus stretch ePTFE AV fistulas. Prospective randomised trial. University Hospital. During a 2-year period 37 patients received 17 stretch and 20 standard ePTFE graft AV fistulas. Patients were evaluated for the occurrence of complications and graft patency. Regular Duplex scans were performed to detect stenoses in the fistula circuit. Thrombotic events occurred in 40% of the standard ePTFE grafts, compared to 12% of the stretch ePTFE prostheses (p < 0.001). The incidence of puncture complications was similar in both groups. The cumulative primary patency rate in the stretch ePTFE group was significantly higher compared to the standard ePTFE group (1-year patency rates of 59% and 29%, respectively; p < 0.01). No differences in the duration of puncture site bleeding were observed. Duplex scanning showed a significantly greater number of stenoses in the standard ePTFE grafts. The new stretch ePTFE prosthesis has better primary patency rates and less stenoses due to intimal hyperplasia as compared to standard ePTFE grafts.

  7. Early Results of a Helmetless-Tackling Intervention to Decrease Head Impacts in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Broglio, Steven P.; Cook, Summer B.; Cantu, Robert C.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Myers, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a helmetless-tackling behavioral intervention for reducing head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Football field. Patients or Other Participants Fifty collegiate football players (intervention = 25, control = 25). Intervention(s) The intervention group participated in a 5-minute tackling drill without their helmets and shoulder pads twice per week in the preseason and once per week through the season. During this time, the control group performed noncontact football skills. Main Outcome Measure(s) Frequency of head impacts was recorded by an impact sensor for each athlete-exposure (AE). Data were tested with a 2 × 3 (group and time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant interactions and main effects (P < .05) were followed with t tests. Results Head impacts/AE decreased for the intervention group compared with the control group by the end of the season (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 13.84 ± 7.27, respectively). The intervention group had 30% fewer impacts/AE than the control group by season's end (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 14.32 ± 8.45, respectively). Conclusion A helmetless-tackling training intervention reduced head impacts in collegiate football players within 1 season. PMID:26651278

  8. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, W. H.; Daeschner, C. W.; Files, B. A.; McConnell, M. E.; Strandjord, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated. PMID:11688916

  9. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed

    Waugh, W H; Daeschner, C W; Files, B A; McConnell, M E; Strandjord, S E

    2001-10-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated.

  10. Early results of sarcomeric gene screening from the Egyptian National BA-HCM Program.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Heba Sh; Azer, Remon S; Saber-Ayad, Maha; Ayad, Maha S; Moharem-Elgamal, Sarah; Magdy, Gehan; Elguindy, Ahmed; Cecchi, Franco; Olivotto, Iacopo; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2013-02-01

    The present study comprised sarcomeric genotyping of the three most commonly involved sarcomeric genes: MYBPC3, MYH7, and TNNT2 in 192 unrelated Egyptian hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) index patients. Mutations were detected in 40 % of cases. Presence of positive family history was significantly (p=0.002) associated with a higher genetic positive yield (49/78, 62.8 %). The majority of the detected mutations in the three sarcomeric genes were novel (40/62, 65 %) and mostly private (47/62, 77 %). Single nucleotide substitution was the most frequently detected mutation type (51/62, 82 %). Over three quarters of these substitutions (21/27, 78 %) involved CpG dinucleotide sites and resulted from C>T or G>A transition in the three analyzed genes, highlighting the significance of CpG high mutability within the sarcomeric genes examined. This study could aid in global comparative studies in different ethnic populations and constitutes an important step in the evolution of the integrated clinical, translational, and basic science HCM program.

  11. Initial Experience and Early Results of Mitral Valve Repair with Cardiocel Pericardial Patch.

    PubMed

    Tomšič, Anton; Bissessar, Daniella D; van Brakel, Thomas J; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Klautz, Robert J M; Palmen, Meindert

    2018-06-07

    To assess the performance of a tissue engineering process-treated bovine pericardium patch (CardioCel) in the setting of reconstructive mitral valve surgery. Between 3/2014 and 4/2016, 30 patients (57.2±14.3 years, 27% female) underwent mitral valve leaflet repair with a CardioCel patch. Perioperative mortality was 7% (2 patients, non-graft-related). In 28 remaining patients, pre-discharge echocardiography demonstrated good repaired valve function. At a mean follow-up of 1.7±0.9 years, 3 additional deaths occurred (2 due to infective endocarditis, 1 non-cardiac related). On follow-up echocardiography [follow-up time 1.7±0.8 years, available for 26/28 (93%) hospital survivors], recurrent regurgitation was seen in 2 patients (both infective endocarditis) and 1 underwent reoperation (no infection at the level of patch repair was observed). In the remaining patients, the most recent echocardiogram demonstrated ≤mild regurgitation and stable gradients. The thickness and echodensity of the implanted patch on follow-up echocardiograms were comparable with postoperative echocardiograms. Initial results of the CardioCel patch in mitral valve repair surgery are satisfactory. The resistance to infection and late degeneration will need to be assessed in the future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Biodegradable fixation of mandibular fractures in children: stability and early results.

    PubMed

    Yerit, Kaan C; Hainich, Sibylle; Enislidis, Georg; Turhani, Dritan; Klug, Clemens; Wittwer, Gert; Ockher, Michael; Undt, Gerhard; Kermer, Christian; Watzinger, Franz; Ewers, Rolf

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficiency of biodegradable self-reinforced (SR-PLDLA) bone plates and screws in open reduction and internal fixation of mandible fractures in children. Thirteen patients (5 female, 8 male; mean age 12 years, range 5-16 years) were operated on various fractures of the mandible (2 symphyseal, 6 parasymphyseal, 4 body, 3 angle, 1 ramus, 2 condylar fractures). The mean follow-up time was 26.4 months (range 10.9-43.4 months). Intermaxillary fixation was applied in cases with concomitant condylar fractures up to 3 weeks. Primary healing of the fractured mandible was observed in all patients. Postoperative complications were minor and transient. The outcome of the operations was not endangered. Adverse tissue reactions to the implants, malocclusion, and growth restrictions did not occur during the observation period. Pediatric patients benefit from the advantages of resorbable materials, especially from faster mobilization and the avoidance of secondary removal operations. Based on these preliminary results, self-reinforced fixation devices are safe and efficient in the treatment of pediatric mandible fractures. However, further clinical investigations are necessary to evaluate the long-term reliability.

  13. Deletion of Mecom in mouse results in early-onset spinal deformity and osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Subhash C; Vonica, Alin; Zeiss, Caroline; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Yatsula, Bogdan; Sell, David R; Monnier, Vincent M; Lin, Sharon; Ardito, Thomas; Eyre, David; Reynolds, David; Yao, Zhenqiang; Awad, Hani A; Yu, Hongbo; Wilson, Michael; Honnons, Sylvie; Boyce, Brendan F; Xing, Lianping; Zhang, Yi; Perkins, Archibald S

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have indicated a role for a MECOM allele in susceptibility to osteoporotic fractures in humans. We have generated a mutation in Mecom in mouse (termed ME(m1)) via lacZ knock-in into the upstream transcription start site for the gene, resulting in disruption of Mds1 and Mds1-Evi1 transcripts, but not of Evi1 transcripts. We demonstrate that ME(m1/m1) mice have severe kyphoscoliosis that is reminiscent of human congenital or primary kyphoscoliosis. ME(m1/m1) mice appear normal at birth, but by 2weeks, they exhibit a slight lumbar lordosis and narrowed intervertebral space. This progresses to severe lordosis with disc collapse and synostosis, together with kyphoscoliosis. Bone formation and strength testing show that ME(m1/m1) mice have normal bone formation and composition but are osteopenic. While endochondral bone development is normal, it is markedly dysplastic in its organization. Electron micrographs of the 1week postnatal intervertebral discs reveals marked disarray of collagen fibers, consistent with an inherent weakness in the non-osseous connective tissue associated with the spine. These findings indicate that lack of ME leads to a complex defect in both osseous and non-osseous musculoskeletal tissues, including a marked vertebral osteopenia, degeneration of the IVD, and disarray of connective tissues, which is likely due to an inherent inability to establish and/or maintain components of these tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early results of one-stage correction for hip instability in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui Taek; Jang, Jae Hoon; Ahn, Jae Min; Lee, Jong Seo; Kang, Dong Joon

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiological results of one-stage correction for cerebral palsy patients. We reviewed clinical outcomes and radiologic indices of 32 dysplastic hips in 23 children with cerebral palsy (13 males, 10 females; mean age, 8.6 years). Ten hips had dislocation, while 22 had subluxation. Preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) scores of the patients were as follows; level V (13 patients), level IV (9), and level III (1). Acetabular deficiency was anterior in 5 hips, superolateral in 7, posterior in 11 and mixed in 9, according to 3 dimensional computed tomography. The combined surgery included open reduction of the femoral head, release of contracted muscles, femoral shortening varus derotation osteotomy and the modified Dega osteotomy. Hip range of motion, GMFCS level, acetabular index, center-edge angle and migration percentage were measured before and after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 28.1 months. Hip abduction (median, 40°), sitting comfort and GMFCS level were improved after surgery, and pain was decreased. There were two cases of femoral head avascular necrosis, but no infection, nonunion, resubluxation or redislocation. All radiologic indices showed improvement after surgery. A single event multilevel surgery including soft tissue, pelvic and femoral side correction is effective in treating spastic dislocation of the hip in cerebral palsy.

  15. Planck early results. XXIV. Dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Abergel, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Blagrave, K.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Joncas, G.; Jones, A.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lockman, F. J.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pinheiro Gonçalves, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the first results from a comparison of Planck dust maps at 353, 545 and 857GHz, along with IRAS data at 3000 (100 μm) and 5000GHz (60 μm), with Green Bank Telescope 21-cm observations of Hi in 14 fields covering more than 800 deg2 at high Galactic latitude. The main goal of this study is to estimate the far-infrared to sub-millimeter (submm) emissivity of dust in the diffuse local interstellar medium (ISM) and in the intermediate-velocity (IVC) and high-velocity clouds (HVC) of the Galactic halo. Galactic dust emission for fields with average Hi column density lower than 2 × 1020 cm-2 is well correlated with 21-cm emission because in such diffuse areas the hydrogen is predominantly in the neutral atomic phase. The residual emission in these fields, once the Hi-correlated emission is removed, is consistent with the expected statistical properties of the cosmic infrared background fluctuations. The brighter fields in our sample, with an average Hi column density greater than 2 × 1020 cm-2, show significant excess dust emission compared to the Hi column density. Regions of excess lie in organized structures that suggest the presence of hydrogen in molecular form, though they are not always correlated with CO emission. In the higher Hi column density fields the excess emission at 857 GHz is about 40% of that coming from the Hi, but over all the high latitude fields surveyed the molecular mass faction is about 10%. Dust emission from IVCs is detected with high significance by this correlation analysis. Its spectral properties are consistent with, compared to the local ISM values, significantly hotter dust (T ~ 20K), lower submm dust opacity normalized per H-atom, and a relative abundance of very small grains to large grains about four times higher. These results are compatible with expectations for clouds that are part of the Galactic fountain in which there is dust shattering and fragmentation. Correlated dust emission in HVCs is not detected

  16. Development and preliminary results of an in vivo Raman probe for early lung cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Michael A.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2008-02-01

    Our previous results from Raman spectroscopy studies on ex vivo lung tissue showed the technique had great potential to differentiate between samples with different pathologies. In this work, a fast dispersive-type near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy system was developed to collect real-time, noninvasive, in vivo human lung spectra. The 785 nm excitation, and the collection of tissue emission were accomplished by using a reusable fiber optic catheter which passed down the instrument channel of a bronchoscope. Filters in two stages blocked laser emission other than 785 nm from reaching the tissue surface, and reduced fiber fluorescence and elastically scattered excitation light from being passed to the spectrometer. The spectrometer itself consisted of one of two holographic gratings with usable frequency ranges of: 700 to 2000 cm -1 and 1500 to 3400 cm -1. The dispersed light was detected by a cooled CCD array consisting of 400 by 1340 pixels. To increase the resolution of the system, while maximizing the throughput, a second fiber bundle, consisting of 54×100 μm diameter fibers connected the catheter to the spectrometer. The fibers in this second bundle were spread out to form a parabolic arc which replaced the conventional entrance slit. This geometry corrected for image aberrations, permitting complete CCD vertical binning, thereby yielding up to a 20-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated spectral resolution of the system was 9 cm -1 for both gratings. So far we have measured spectra from 20 patients and have seen clear differences between spectra from tumor and normal tissue.

  17. Early cow's milk consumption among Brazilian children: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    to assess the intake, frequency, and type of milk consumed by Brazilian children younger than 60 months of age. this was a cross-sectional study, which used secondary data from the National Demographic and Health Survey of 2006-2007. Data from 4,817 children under the age of 60 months were used. All analyses were performed with expanded samples. The dietetic survey assessed the previous day's consumption, and estimates were made through univariate analysis, presented as a percentage. on the day prior to the survey, breast milk was consumed by 91% of the children younger than six months of age, by 61.5% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by 34.8% of the children aged 13 to 24 months. Among the children who had received other types of milk, cow's milk was consumed by 62.4% of the children younger than six months, by 74.6% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by approximately 80% of the children older than 12 months. Infant formulas were consumed by 23% of the children younger than six months of age, by 9.8% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by less than 1% of the older children. Soy milk consumption varied from 14.6% to 20% among the investigated ages. Non-breast milk consumption before the age of six months was more frequent in children living in the Northeastern and Southern regions. the results of the present study demonstrated that most children received cow's milk prematurely as a substitute for breast milk, highlighting the importance of the development of public policies to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding in all regions of Brazil, aiming at reversing the observed scenario. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Early myocardial revascularization for postinfarction angina: results and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Rivera, R; Cooper, G N; Karlson, K E

    1985-11-01

    Within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction, 108 consecutive patients underwent urgent surgical myocardial revascularization for postinfarction angina between July 1976 and March 1983. There were 84 men and 24 women whose mean age was 59.6 +/- 9.5 years (range 34 to 80). Group I (15 patients, 14%) underwent surgery within 48 hours, Group II (47 patients, 43%) between 3 and 7 days and Group III (46 patients, 43%) within 30 days. Fifty-nine patients (55%) had transmural infarction. The ejection fraction was less than 40% in 21 patients (19%). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 20 mm Hg or greater in 42 patients (39%). The incidence of single, double, triple vessel and 70% or greater left main coronary artery stenosis was 4, 20, 59 and 17%, respectively. There were two deaths (1.8%) within 30 days of operation. The incidence of intraaortic balloon pumping was higher in patients operated on earlier after myocardial infarction (53% of Group I versus 22% of Group III). Statistically, there were no differences in the use of inotropic agents or the occurrence of arrhythmias or postoperative myocardial infarction in the three groups. Late follow-up (mean 35 months, range 18 to 98) is complete for all patients (100%). There were four late myocardial infarctions and eight deaths. Actuarial survival was 87% at 5 years. Seventy-three percent of the 108 patients were free of angina and the condition of 14% improved. These results indicate that myocardial revascularization in the first 30 days after myocardial infarction can be accomplished with morbidity and mortality rates similar to those of an elective operation for chronic angina refractory to medical management.

  19. Endoscopic management of traumatic posterior urethral stricture: early results and followup.

    PubMed

    Goel, M C; Kumar, M; Kapoor, R

    1997-01-01

    We assessed the outcome of core through internal urethrotomy for traumatic posterior urethral stricture, and reviewed the followup results of these patients. During the last 4 years 13 patients with a stricture up to 2 cm. long underwent core through internal urethrotomy with C-arm fluoroscopy guidance and an orientation in 2 planes. Retrograde urethrotomy was performed and an 18F Foley catheter was left indwelling for 4 weeks, after which urethrotomy was repeated. All patients were advised to perform clean intermittent self-catheterization for urethral calibration and dilation. Outcome was defined as class 1-3 patients who required 2 or fewer urethrotomies with clean intermittent self-catheterization discontinued after the primary procedure, class 2-5 who required 2 or fewer urethrotomies with clean intermittent self-catheterization and class 3-5 who required 3 or more urethrotomies. Of the 13 patients 8 (61%) did well after a mean followup of 17.7 months. The 3 patients with a class 1 outcome did well, while 2 of 5 with a class 2 outcome required repeat urethrotomy during followup. Of the 5 patients (39%) with a class 3 outcome in whom core through internal urethrotomy failed 3 required open surgery and 2 were lost to followup. Recurrence rate was 69% at 3 months and 25% at 12 months after the initial procedure. No patient was incontinent at last followup. Two patients had significant hematuria postoperatively, which resolved with conservative treatment. Endoscopic treatment should be considered the first line procedure for all post-traumatic posterior urethral strictures. The morbidity of open surgery can be avoided in 61% of patients. Hospital stay, loss of work, morbidity and related complications are also markedly decreased with endoscopic therapy.

  20. Manchester iStent study: early results from a prospective UK case series.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ilesh; de Klerk, Timothy A; Au, Leon

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the 6-month efficacy and safety of the iStent microtrabecular bypass stent in patients with open-angle glaucoma. A prospective, uncontrolled, interventional case series. Forty-four eyes with open-angle glaucoma were reported. All subjects underwent ab interno implantation of a single iStent together with (n = 40) or without (n = 4) cataract surgery. Patients were assessed at postoperative week 1, months 1 and 3, and quarterly, thereafter. Data collected included visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann tonometry, number of glaucoma medications, and number and type of complications. The mean age of the sample was 76.8 years. The mean duration since glaucoma diagnosis was 5.3 years (standard deviation 2.9 years). The mean visual acuity was 0.53 logMAR at baseline that improved to 0.23 at 6 months postoperatively. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 21.1 mmHg, and this decreased significantly to 16.7 mmHg at 6 months (P < 0.01). The mean number of drops prescribed preoperatively was 2.3, which decreased to 0.6 at 6 months (P < 0.01). Sixty-six per cent of patients were drop-free at 6 months. One patient developed an hyphaema following surgery; no other adverse events were recorded. The iStent proved to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with open-angle glaucoma over our 6-month follow up period. Insertion resulted in a significant decrease in intraocular pressure as well as the number of topical antiglaucoma medications required for adequate intraocular pressure control. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. The Design of a Remote Sensing Data Acquisition Campaign for Precision Agriculture and Some Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickmanl, D.; Luvall, J. C.; Wersinger, J. M.; Mask, P.; Kissel, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    harvest! Soil images show significant within field variation in clay, soil brightness and emissivity. Light wind has been found to effect the reflectance and temperature of broad leaf crops, including soybeans, cotton and peanuts. Clearly, this work has already demonstrated some very important results. With continued development of the remote sensing technology there is good reason to believe this research will soon be able to help the individual farmer.

  2. Early perioperative results and surgical recurrence after strictureplasty and miniresection for complicated Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, G M; Cristaldi, M; Porretta, T; Montecamozzo, G; Danelli, P; Taschieri, A M

    2000-01-01

    recurrence rate results support the efficacy and safety of SP and MR surgery in the treatment of complicated CD. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Early Spring in Europe: A Result of More Dominant North-Atlantic Southwesterlies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Atlas, R.; Chase, T. N.; Chou, S.-H.; Jusem, J. C.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.; Rogers, J.; Russell, G. L.; Schubert, S. D.; Sud, Y. C.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A 1999 study reports an advancement of spring in Europe by 0.2 days per year in the 30 years since 1960. Our analysis indicates that this trend results directly from a change in the late-winter surface winds over the eastern North Atlantic: the southwesterly direction became more dominant, and the speed of these southwesterlies increased slightly. Splitting the 52-year NCEP reanalysis dataset into the First Half, FH (1948-1973)), and the Second Half, SH (1974-1999), we analyze the wind direction for the February mean at three sites at 45N: site A at 30W, site B at 20W, and site C at 10W. The incidence (number of years) of the southwesterlies in SH Vs. (FH) at these sites respectively increased in SH as follows: 24(18), 19(12), 14(l 1); whereas the incidence of northeasterlies decreased: 0(2), 1(2), and 1(6). When the February mean wind is southwesterly, the monthly mean sensible heat flux from the ocean at these sites takes zero or slightly negative values, that is, the surface air is warmer than the ocean. Analyzing the scenario in the warm late winter 1990, we observe that the sensible heat flux from the ocean surface in February 1990 shows a "tongue" of negative values extending southwest from southern England to 7N. This indicates that the source of the maritime air advected into Europe lies to the south of the "tongue." Streamline analysis suggests that the Southwestern or southcentral North Atlantic is the source. For February 1990, we find strong, ascending motions over Europe at 700 mb, up to -0.4 Pa/s as monthly averages. Associated with the unstable low-levels of the troposphere are positive rain and cloud anomalies. Thus, positive in situ feedback over land in late winter (when shortwave absorption is not significant) apparently further enhances the surface temperature through an increase in the greenhouse effect due to increased water vapor and cloudiness.

  4. The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. Methods The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP) aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004–2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. Results The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95) years. 689(34.9%) are men and 1284(65.1%) are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20) kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003). The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952) had highest level gait disorders. 39.5% of 1964 subjects

  5. Maternal Early Life Factors Associated with Hormone Levels and the Risk of Having a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Nurses Health Study II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L.; Santangelo, Susan; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    It is not known whether reproductive factors early in the mother's life influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed maternal age at menarche, menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence, oral contraceptive use prior to first birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI) in association with ASD using binomial regression in…

  6. The effects of patient and physician characteristics on early outpatient satisfaction with substance dependence care: results of the SUBUSQOL study

    PubMed Central

    Bourion-Bédès, Stéphanie; Schwan, Raymund; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Vlamynck, Guillaume; Viennet, Sarah; Schvartz, Maxime; Gaunard, Anne; Bédès, Alex; Clerc-Urmès, Isabelle; Baumann, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Background Although patient perceptions of health care have increasingly been explored in the literature, little is known about care satisfaction among individuals with substance dependence. This exploratory study assessed the relationships between patient and physician characteristics and early outpatient satisfaction with care for alcohol and opioid dependence. Methods Satisfaction was assessed using a multidimensional, self-administered and validated questionnaire during the early care process among a prospective outpatient cohort. In addition to measuring satisfaction and obtaining sociodemographic and clinical data, this study collected data on the self-reported health status and physician characteristics at inclusion. Cross-sectional analysis with multiple linear regression was performed to identify the variables associated with satisfaction level. Results A total of 249 outpatients were included, and 63.8% completed the satisfaction questionnaire. Patients without a history of previous care for substance dependence were more satisfied with the appointment-making process (β=7.2; P=0.029) and with the doctor consultation (β=10.3; P=0.003) than those who had received care previously. Neither sociodemographic characteristics nor self-reported health status was associated with outpatient satisfaction. Conclusion The factors that affect patients’ ratings of early satisfaction with the care that they receive should be studied further because increased understanding of the factors that negatively affect these ratings might enable caregivers and outpatient management facilities to improve the patient experience during the early stages of care, which might in turn improve treatment adherence, continuity of care, and other health-related outcomes. PMID:28507432

  7. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  8. Conventional early infant diagnosis in Lesotho from specimen collection to results usage to manage patients: Where are the bottlenecks?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Heather J.; Isavwa, Anthony; Mokone, Mafusi; Foso, Matokelo; Safrit, Jeffrey T.; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Early infant diagnosis is an important step in identifying children infected with HIV during the perinatal period or in utero. Multiple factors contribute to delayed antiretroviral treatment initiation for HIV-infected children, including delays in the early infant HIV diagnosis cascade. Methods We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate early infant diagnosis turnaround times in Lesotho. Trained staff reviewed records of HIV-exposed infants (aged-6-8 weeks) who received an HIV test during 2011. Study sites were drawn from Highlands, Foothills and Lowlands regions of Lesotho. Central laboratory database data were linked to facility and laboratory register information. Turnaround time geometric means (with 95% CI) were calculated and compared by region using linear mixed models. Results 1,187 individual infant records from 25 facilities were reviewed. Overall, early infant diagnosis turnaround time was 61.7 days (95%CI: 55.3–68.7). Mean time from specimen collection to district laboratory was 14 days (95%CI: 12.1–16.1); from district to central laboratory, 2 days (95%CI 0.8–5.2); results from central laboratory to district hospital, 23.3 days (95%CI: 18.7–29.0); from district hospital to health facility, 3.2 days (95%CI 1.9–5.5); and from health facility to caregiver, 10.4 days (95%CI, 7.9–13.5). Mean times from specimen transfer to the central laboratory and for result transfer from central laboratory to district hospital were significantly shorter in the Lowlands Region (0.9 and 16.2 days, respectively), compared to Highlands Region (6.0 [P = 0.030] and 34.3 days [P = 0.0099]. Turnaround time from blood draw to receipt of results was significantly shorter for HIV infected infants compared to HIV uninfected infants [p = 0.0036] at an average of 47.1 days (95%CI: 38.9–56.9) and 62 days (95%CI: 55.9–68.7) respectively. Of 47 HIV-infected infants, 36 were initiated on antiretroviral therapy at an average of 1.3 days (95%CI: 0.3, 5

  9. ICESat Laser Altimeter Pointing, Ranging and Timing Calibration from Integrated Residual Analysis: A Summary of Early Mission Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutchke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Harding, David J.; Bufton, Jack L.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    On January 12, 2003 the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was successfUlly placed into orbit. The ICESat mission carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which consists of three near-infrared lasers that operate at 40 short pulses per second. The instrument has collected precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLAS's surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earth's surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. Early mission ICESat data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps along with dynamic crossovers resulting in a preliminary calibration of laser pointing, ranging and timing. The calibration methodology and early mission analysis results are summarized in this paper along with future calibration activities

  10. Preoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Preliminary Results of a Prospective, Phase 2 Trial

    SciT

    Nichols, Elizabeth, E-mail: Enichols1@umm.edu; Kesmodel, Susan B.; Bellavance, Emily

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of utilizing 3-dimensional conformal accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) in the preoperative setting followed by standard breast-conserving therapy. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective trial testing the feasibility of preoperative APBI followed by lumpectomy for patients with early-stage invasive ductal breast cancer. Eligible patients had T1-T2 (<3 cm), N0 tumors. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions delivered twice daily. Surgery was performed >21 days after radiation therapy. Adjuvant therapy was given as per standard of care. Results: Twenty-seven patients completed treatment. With a median follow-up of 3.6 years (range, 0.5-5 years), there have been no local or regional failures.more » A complete pathologic response according to hematoxylin and eosin stains was seen in 4 patients (15%). There were 4 grade 3 seromas. Patient-reported cosmetic outcome was rated as good to excellent in 79% of patients after treatment. Conclusions: Preoperative 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy−APBI is feasible and well tolerated in select patients with early-stage breast cancer, with no reported local recurrences and good to excellent cosmetic results. The pathologic response rates associated with this nonablative APBI dose regimen are particularly encouraging and support further exploration of this paradigm.« less

  11. The Breast International Group 1-98 trial: big results for women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monnier, Alain M

    2007-05-01

    As there is a risk for relapse in early breast cancer, especially at 1-3 years post surgery, the need for adjuvant therapy is clear. In terms of disease-free survival, aromatase inhibitors have emerged as superior to tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in several Phase III clinical trials. Of these trials, the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial stands out as unique in design, as it is the only trial to address whether an aromatase inhibitor is more effective as initial adjuvant therapy or as sequential therapy with an aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen in either order and in rigor of end points and safety evaluations. When compared with tamoxifen, letrozole has been shown to significantly reduce recurrence risk in the overall population by 19% and also significantly reduced recurrence risk in the patient subgroups at increased risk: node-positive and previously chemotherapy-treated patients. Letrozole is the only aromatase inhibitor to demonstrate a significant 27% reduction in the risk of distant metastases (p = 0.001) in the clinically relevant, hormone receptor-positive population in the initial adjuvant setting. Recent results also suggest that letrozole in particular reduces the risk of distant metastases early on after initial surgery for breast cancer. This is important, as early distant metastatic events compose the majority of early recurrences and are a well-recognized predictor of breast cancer death. Letrozole has been found to be well tolerated in the initial adjuvant treatment setting, and these data have been confirmed by long-term safety data from the monotherapy analysis in the BIG 1-98 study. Thus far, the results from the BIG 1-98 trial provide clear support for the use of letrozole in the initial adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Future studies will provide the definitive answer to questions of which initial adjuvant therapy is superior (i.e., anastrozole or letrozole) and information as to the

  12. Lava heating and loading of ice sheets on early Mars: Predictions for meltwater generation, groundwater recharge, and resulting landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanelli, James P.; Head, James W.

    2016-06-01

    Recent modeling studies of the early Mars climate predict a predominantly cold climate, characterized by the formation of regional ice sheets across the highland areas of Mars. Formation of the predicted "icy highlands" ice sheets is coincident with a peak in the volcanic flux of Mars involving the emplacement of the Late Noachian - Early Hesperian ridged plains unit. We explore the relationship between the predicted early Mars "icy highlands" ice sheets, and the extensive early flood volcanism to gain insight into the surface conditions prevalent during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian transition period. Using Hesperia Planum as a type area, we develop an ice sheet lava heating and loading model. We quantitatively assess the thermal and melting processes involved in the lava heating and loading process following the chronological sequence of lava emplacement. We test a broad range of parameters to thoroughly constrain the lava heating and loading process and outline predictions for the formation of resulting geological features. We apply the theoretical model to a study area within the Hesperia Planum region and assess the observed geology against predictions derived from the ice sheet lava heating and loading model. Due to the highly cratered nature of the Noachian highlands terrain onto which the volcanic plains were emplaced, we predict highly asymmetrical lava loading conditions. Crater interiors are predicted to accumulate greater thicknesses of lava over more rapid timescales, while in the intercrater plains, lava accumulation occurs over longer timescales and does not reach great thicknesses. We find that top-down melting due to conductive heat transfer from supraglacial lava flows is generally limited when the emplaced lava flows are less than ∼10 m thick, but is very significant at lava flow thicknesses of ∼100 m or greater. We find that bottom-up cryosphere and ice sheet melting is most likely to occur within crater interiors where lavas

  13. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  14. Do Diagnosis Delays Impact Receipt of Test Results? Evidence from the HIV Early Infant Diagnosis Program in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugambi, Melissa Latigo; Deo, Sarang; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Kiyaga, Charles; Singer, Mendel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is scant evidence on the association between diagnosis delays and the receipt of test results in HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) programs. We determine the association between diagnosis delays and other health care system and patient factors on result receipt. Methods We reviewed 703 infant HIV test records for tests performed between January 2008 and February 2009 at a regional referral hospital and level four health center in Uganda. The main outcome was caregiver receipt of the test result. The primary study variable was turnaround time (time between sample collection and result availability at the health facility). Additional variables included clinic entry point, infant age at sample collection, reported HIV status and receipt of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We conducted a pooled analysis in addition to separate analyses for each facility. We estimated the relative risk of result receipt using modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Results Overall, the median result turnaround time, was 38 days. 59% of caregivers received infant test results. Caregivers were less likely to receive results at turnaround times greater than 49 days compared to 28 days or fewer (ARR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70–0.98). Caregivers were more likely to receive results at the PMTCT clinic (ARR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.40–2.33) and less likely at the pediatric ward (ARR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37–0.81) compared to the immunization clinic. At the level four health center, result receipt was half as likely among infants older than 9 months compared to 3 months and younger (ARR= 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25–0.93). Conclusion In this study setting, we find evidence that longer turnaround times, clinic entry point and age at sample collection may be associated with receipt of infant HIV test results. PMID:24282502

  15. Early Childhood Teachers' Perceived Competence during Transition from Teacher Education to Work: Results from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mischo, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The transition from education to work is a challenge for early childhood teachers. In this study, competence self-ratings of 348 German early childhood teachers were investigated one year before, at the end of and four months after early childhood teacher education at universities and vocational schools. Perceived competence was assessed by means…

  16. Early life exposure to PCB126 results in delayed mortality and growth impairment in the zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Groh, Ksenia J; Zennegg, Markus; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Murk, Albertinka J; Eggen, Rik I L; Hollert, Henner; Werner, Inge; Schirmer, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity resulting from the exposure to sublethal chemical concentrations is an increasing concern in environmental risk assessment. The Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test with zebrafish provides a reliable prediction of acute toxicity in adult fish, but it cannot yet be applied to predict the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity. Identification of sublethal FET endpoints that can assist in predicting the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity would be advantageous. The present study characterized the occurrence of delayed toxicity in zebrafish larvae following early exposure to PCB126, previously described to cause delayed effects in the common sole. The first aim was to investigate the occurrence and temporal profiles of delayed toxicity during zebrafish larval development and compare them to those previously described for sole to evaluate the suitability of zebrafish as a model fish species for delayed toxicity assessment. The second aim was to examine the correlation between the sublethal endpoints assessed during embryonal and early larval development and the delayed effects observed during later larval development. After exposure to PCB126 (3-3000ng/L) until 5 days post fertilization (dpf), larvae were reared in clean water until 14 or 28 dpf. Mortality and sublethal morphological and behavioural endpoints were recorded daily, and growth was assessed at 28 dpf. Early life exposure to PCB126 caused delayed mortality (300 ng/L and 3000 ng/L) as well as growth impairment and delayed development (100 ng/L) during the clean water period. Effects on swim bladder inflation and cartilaginous tissues within 5 dpf were the most promising for predicting delayed mortality and sublethal effects, such as decreased standard length, delayed metamorphosis, reduced inflation of swim bladder and column malformations. The EC50 value for swim bladder inflation at 5 dpf (169 ng/L) was similar to the LC50 value at 8 dpf (188 and 202 ng/L in

  17. Changes in bacterioplankton community structure during early lake ontogeny resulting from the retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Hannes; Jeppesen, Erik; De Meester, Luc; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Retreating glaciers and ice sheets are among the clearest signs of global climate change. One consequence of glacier retreat is the formation of new meltwater-lakes in previously ice-covered terrain. These lakes provide unique opportunities to understand patterns in community organization during early lake ontogeny. Here, we analyzed the bacterial community structure and diversity in six lakes recently formed by the retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The lakes represented a turbidity gradient depending on their past and present connectivity to the GrIS meltwaters. Bulk (16S rRNA genes) and putatively active (16S rRNA) fractions of the bacterioplankton communities were structured by changes in environmental conditions associated to the turbidity gradient. Differences in community structure among lakes were attributed to both, rare and abundant community members. Further, positive co-occurrence relationships among phylogenetically closely related community members dominate in these lakes. Our results show that environmental conditions along the turbidity gradient structure bacterial community composition, which shifts during lake ontogeny. Rare taxa contribute to these shifts, suggesting that the rare biosphere has an important ecological role during early lakes ontogeny. Members of the rare biosphere may be adapted to the transient niches in these nutrient poor lakes. The directionality and phylogenetic structure of co-occurrence relationships indicate that competitive interactions among closely related taxa may be important in the most turbid lakes. PMID:29087379

  18. Risk and protective factors in early child development: Results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sheila; Kehler, Heather; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Fraser-Lee, Nonie; Tough, Suzanne

    2016-11-01

    Understanding factors that protect against early developmental delay among children who are experiencing adversity can inform prevention and early intervention strategies. To identify risk factors for development delay at one year and protective factors for developmental delay in 'at risk' environments (poor maternal mental health and socio-demographic risk). Data was analyzed from 3360 mother-child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort. Participants completed four questionnaires spanning pregnancy to one year postpartum and provided access to medical records. Risk factors for developmental delay at age one were identified using bivariate methods and multivariable modeling. Protective factors for child development in 'at risk' family environments were identified using bivariate analyses. At one year, 17% of children were developmentally delayed, defined as scoring in the monitoring zone on at least 2 of the 5 developmental domains of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Prenatal depression, preterm birth, low community engagement, and non-daily parent-child interaction increased the risk of delay. Protective factors for children in 'at risk' environments included relationship happiness, parenting self-efficacy, community engagement, higher social support, and daily parent-child interaction. The study results suggest that maternal and infant outcomes would be improved, even for vulnerable women, through identification and intervention to address poor mental health and through normalizing engagement with low cost, accessible community resources that can also support parent-child interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blastomere biopsy influences epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development, which impacts neural development and function in resulting mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yibo; Lv, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Dong, Guoying; Yu, Yang; Cui, Yiqiang; Tong, Man; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Zuomin; Zhu, Hui; Zhou, Qi; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-05-01

    Blastomere biopsy is used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis; however, the long-term implications on the offspring are poorly characterized. We previously reported a high risk of memory defects in adult biopsied mice. Here, we assessed nervous function of aged biopsied mice and further investigated the mechanism of neural impairment after biopsy. We found that aged biopsied mice had poorer spatial learning ability, increased neuron degeneration, and altered expression of proteins involved in neural degeneration or dysfunction in the brain compared to aged control mice. Furthermore, the MeDIP assay indicated a genome-wide low methylation in the brains of adult biopsied mice when compared to the controls, and most of the genes containing differentially methylated loci in promoter regions were associated with neural disorders. When we further compared the genomic DNA methylation profiles of 7.5-days postconception (dpc) embryos between the biopsy and control group, we found the whole genome low methylation in the biopsied group, suggesting that blastomere biopsy was an obstacle to de novo methylation during early embryo development. Further analysis on mRNA profiles of 4.5-dpc embryos indicated that reduced expression of de novo methylation genes in biopsied embryos may impact de novo methylation. In conclusion, we demonstrate an abnormal neural development and function in mice generated after blastomere biopsy. The impaired epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development may be the latent mechanism contributing to the impairment of the nervous system in the biopsied mice, which results in a hypomethylation status in their brains.

  20. Changes in bacterioplankton community structure during early lake ontogeny resulting from the retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Peter, Hannes; Jeppesen, Erik; De Meester, Luc; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2017-10-31

    Retreating glaciers and ice sheets are among the clearest signs of global climate change. One consequence of glacier retreat is the formation of new meltwater-lakes in previously ice-covered terrain. These lakes provide unique opportunities to understand patterns in community organization during early lake ontogeny. Here, we analyzed the bacterial community structure and diversity in six lakes recently formed by the retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The lakes represented a turbidity gradient depending on their past and present connectivity to the GrIS meltwaters. Bulk (16S rRNA genes) and putatively active (16S rRNA) fractions of the bacterioplankton communities were structured by changes in environmental conditions associated to the turbidity gradient. Differences in community structure among lakes were attributed to both, rare and abundant community members. Further, positive co-occurrence relationships among phylogenetically closely related community members dominate in these lakes. Our results show that environmental conditions along the turbidity gradient structure bacterial community composition, which shifts during lake ontogeny. Rare taxa contribute to these shifts, suggesting that the rare biosphere has an important ecological role during early lakes ontogeny. Members of the rare biosphere may be adapted to the transient niches in these nutrient poor lakes. The directionality and phylogenetic structure of co-occurrence relationships indicate that competitive interactions among closely related taxa may be important in the most turbid lakes.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.191.

  1. A Multi-Institutional Study of Feasibility, Implementation, and Early Clinical Results With Noninvasive Breast Brachytherapy for Tumor Bed Boost

    SciT

    Hamid, Subarna, E-mail: shamid@tuftsmedicalcenter.org; Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI; Rocchio, Kathy

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, implementation, and early results of noninvasive breast brachytherapy (NIBB) for tumor bed boost with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: NIBB is a commercially available (AccuBoost, Billerica, MA) mammography-based, brachytherapy system in which the treatment applicators are centered on the planning target volume (PTV) to direct {sup 192}Ir emissions along orthogonal axes. A privacy-encrypted online data registry collected information from 8 independent academic and community-based institutions. Data were from 146 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer after lumpectomy and WBRT receiving boost with NIBB between July 2007 and March 2010. Toxicity and cosmesismore » were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (v. 3.0) and the Harvard scale. Median follow-up was 6 months (1-39 months). Results: Grade 1-2 skin toxicity was observed in 64%, 48%, and 21% during the acute (1-3 weeks), intermediate (4-26 weeks), and late-intermediate (>26 weeks) periods. There was no Grade 4 toxicity. At 6 months, for the entire cohort, cosmesis was excellent/good in 62%/38%. The subset receiving NIBB before WBRT had cosmetic scores of 32% and 63%, whereas during WBRT, 58% and 37% were rated as excellent and good, respectively. Breast compression was scored as 'uncomfortable' in 12%, 29%, and 59% when NIBB was delivered before, during, or after WBRT. For each patient, the fraction-to-fraction variability in PTV was low. Skin flash was associated with a higher proportion of excellent cosmesis (58% vs. 42%) relative to having the applicator all within breast tissue. Conclusions: These data indicate that NIBB is feasible and can be consistently implemented in a broad array of practice settings. Preliminary evaluation suggests that NIBB is associated with acceptably mild normal tissue toxicity and favorable early cosmesis. The application of NIBB before WBRT may be associated with better patient tolerance at

  2. The effect of early pregnancy on the formation of obstetric fistula.

    PubMed

    Browning, Andrew; Mbise, Frederick; Foden, Phil

    2017-09-01

    To assess the effect of early pregnancy on obstetric fistula. A prospective observational study was conducted among patients with obstetric fistula caused by a long obstructed labor who presented at Selian Lutheran Hospital, Tanzania, or Kitovu Hospital, Uganda, between January 1, 2015, and January 31, 2016. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated. Among 270 patients, 162 (60.0%) experienced their first pregnancy up to 2 years after menarche (early group) and 108 (40.0%) experienced their first pregnancy more than 2 years after menarche (late group). No significant differences between the early and late groups were found for median age at presentation (30.0 vs 28.0 years), median parity (both 2.0), stillbirth (n=145 [89.5%] vs n=95 [88.0%]), median duration of labor (both 2.0 days), home delivery (n=31 [19.1%] vs n=17 [15.7%]), cesarean delivery (n=79 [48.8%] vs 58 [53.7%]), median time from obstetric fistula formation to presentation (48.0 vs 24.0 months), and obstetric fistula classifications. Obstetric fistula occurred during the first pregnancy in 99 (61.1%) women in the early group and 71 (65.7%) in the late group (P=0.440). Frequency of obstetric fistula during the first pregnancy is not increased among women who experience their first pregnancy within 2 years of menarche. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Early Integration of Palliative Care in Oncology Practice: Results of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zagonel, Vittorina; Torta, Riccardo; Franciosi, Vittorio; Brunello, Antonella; Biasco, Guido; Cattaneo, Daniela; Cavanna, Luigi; Corsi, Domenico; Farina, Gabriella; Fioretto, Luisa; Gamucci, Teresa; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Magarotto, Roberto; Maltoni, Marco; Mastromauro, Cataldo; Melotti, Barbara; Meriggi, Fausto; Pavese, Ida; Piva, Erico; Sacco, Cosimo; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trentin, Leonardo; Ermacora, Paola; Varetto, Antonella; Merlin, Federica; Gori, Stefania; Cascinu, Stefano; Pinto, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early integration of palliative care in oncology practice (“simultaneous care”, SC) has been shown to provide better care resulting in improved quality-of-life and also survival. We evaluated the opinions of Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) members. Patients and methods: A 37-item questionnaire was delivered to 1119 AIOM members. Main areas covered were: social, ethical, relational aspects of disease and communication, training, research, organizational and management models in SC. Three open questions explored the definition of Quality of Life, Medical Oncologist and Palliative Care. Results: Four hundred and forty-nine (40.1%) medical oncologists returned the questionnaires. Forty-nine percent stated they address non-curability when giving a diagnosis of metastatic tumor, and 43% give the information only to patients who clearly ask for it. Fifty-five percent say the main formative activity in palliative medicine came from attending meetings and 90% agree that specific palliative care training should be part of the core curriculum in oncology. Twenty-two percent stated they consulted guidelines for symptom management, 45% relied upon personal experience and 26% make a referral to a palliative care specialist. Seventy-four percent were in favor of more research in palliative medicine. An integration between Units of Oncology and Palliative Care Services early in the course of advanced disease was advocated by 86%. Diverse and multifaceted definitions were given for the concepts of Quality of Life, Palliative Care and Medical Oncologist. Conclusion: SC is felt as an important task, as well as training of medical oncologists in symptom management and research in this field. PMID:27877212

  4. Prospective Single-Arm, Multi-Center Trial of a Patient-Specific Interpositional Knee Implant: Early Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Koeck, F.X; Luring, C; Goetz, J; Handel, M; Tingart, M; Grifka, J; Beckmann, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The treatment of unicompartmental arthritis in younger patients is challenging. The aim of this study is to report final safety and efficacy analysis results for the iForma patient–specific interpositional device, which is designed for the treatment of isolated medial or lateral compartment arthritis of the knee. Methods: From June 2005 to June 2008 78 subjects (42 men, 36 women) received an iForma implant. The mean age was 53 years, the mean Body Mass Index 29.0. We surveyed the WOMAC scores, the visual analog pain scale and the Knee Society Scores. Results: The mean follow up was 16.4 months. The mean WOMAC knee scores increased from 48.3 before surgery to 71.3 after 24 months. A reduction in pain was achieved for all five pain measures using a standard visual analog scale (VAS). Knee Society Knee Score improved from 39.2 before to 61.9 24 month after surgery. The Knee Society Function Scores improved form preoperative 64.5 to 82.5 2 years postoperative. The preoperative range of motion could be restored. The overall revision rate was 24%. 15 implants were removed early, 4 knees were revised without implant removal. Conclusion: Within narrow indication of patients with unicompartmental disease, the iForma device can provide improvement in knee function and reduction in pain, however, with a significant higher risk of early revision compared to traditional arthroplasty. Respecting this limitation it may be an alternative option for arthritic patients with unicompartmental disease who have contraindications to High Tibial Osteotomy or are too young for knee replacement; the iForma device further has the distinct advantage of time and cost saving compared to those procedures. PMID:21552462

  5. Capturing Early Changes in the Marine Bacterial Community as a Result of Crude Oil Pollution in a Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Krolicka, Adriana; Boccadoro, Catherine; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Baussant, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The results of marine bacterial community succession from a short-term study of seawater incubations at 4°C to North Sea crude oil are presented herein. Oil was used alone (O) or in combination with a dispersant (OD). Marine bacterial communities resulting from these incubations were characterized by a fingerprinting analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with the aim of 1) revealing differences in bacterial communities between the control, O treatment, and OD treatment and 2) identifying the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of early responders in order to define the bacterial gene markers of oil pollution for in situ monitoring. After an incubation for 1 d, the distribution of the individual ribotypes of bacterial communities in control and oil-treated (O and OD) tanks differed. Differences related to the structures of bacterial communities were observed at later stages of the incubation. Among the early responders identified (Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Glaciecola, Neptunomonas, Methylophaga, and Pseudofulvibacter), genera that utilize a disintegrated biomass or hydrocarbons as well as biosurfactant producers were detected. None of these genera included obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB). After an incubation for 1 d, the abundances of Glaciecola and Pseudofulvibacter were approximately 30-fold higher in the OD and O tanks than in the control tank. OTUs assigned to the Glaciecola genus were represented more in the OD tank, while those of Pseudofulvibacter were represented more in the O tank. We also found that 2 to 3% of the structural community shift originated from the bacterial community in the oil itself, with Polaribacter being a dominant bacterium. PMID:29187706

  6. Capturing Early Changes in the Marine Bacterial Community as a Result of Crude Oil Pollution in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Krolicka, Adriana; Boccadoro, Catherine; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Baussant, Thierry

    2017-12-27

    The results of marine bacterial community succession from a short-term study of seawater incubations at 4°C to North Sea crude oil are presented herein. Oil was used alone (O) or in combination with a dispersant (OD). Marine bacterial communities resulting from these incubations were characterized by a fingerprinting analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with the aim of 1) revealing differences in bacterial communities between the control, O treatment, and OD treatment and 2) identifying the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of early responders in order to define the bacterial gene markers of oil pollution for in situ monitoring.After an incubation for 1 d, the distribution of the individual ribotypes of bacterial communities in control and oil-treated (O and OD) tanks differed. Differences related to the structures of bacterial communities were observed at later stages of the incubation. Among the early responders identified (Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Glaciecola, Neptunomonas, Methylophaga, and Pseudofulvibacter), genera that utilize a disintegrated biomass or hydrocarbons as well as biosurfactant producers were detected. None of these genera included obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB). After an incubation for 1 d, the abundances of Glaciecola and Pseudofulvibacter were approximately 30-fold higher in the OD and O tanks than in the control tank. OTUs assigned to the Glaciecola genus were represented more in the OD tank, while those of Pseudofulvibacter were represented more in the O tank. We also found that 2 to 3% of the structural community shift originated from the bacterial community in the oil itself, with Polaribacter being a dominant bacterium.

  7. Sleep Deprivation During Early-Adult Development Results in Long-Lasting Learning Deficits in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff M.; Gottschalk, Laura; Shaw, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Multiple lines of evidence indicate that sleep is important for the developing brain, although little is known about which cellular and molecular pathways are affected. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the early adult life of Drosophila, which is associated with high amounts of sleep and critical periods of brain plasticity, could be used as a model to identify developmental processes that require sleep. Subjects: Wild type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. Design; Intervention: Flies were sleep deprived on their first full day of adult life and allowed to recover undisturbed for at least 3 days. The animals were then tested for short-term memory and response-inhibition using aversive phototaxis suppression (APS). Components of dopamine signaling were further evaluated using mRNA profiling, immunohistochemistry, and pharmacological treatments. Measurements and Results: Flies exposed to acute sleep deprivation on their first day of life showed impairments in short-term memory and response inhibition that persisted for at least 6 days. These impairments in adult performance were reversed by dopamine agonists, suggesting that the deficits were a consequence of reduced dopamine signaling. However, sleep deprivation did not impact dopaminergic neurons as measured by their number or by the levels of dopamine, pale (tyrosine hydroxylase), dopadecarboxylase, and the Dopamine transporter. However, dopamine pathways were impacted as measured by increased transcript levels of the dopamine receptors D2R and dDA1. Importantly, blocking signaling through the dDA1 receptor in animals that were sleep deprived during their critical developmental window prevented subsequent adult learning impairments. Conclusions: These data indicate that sleep plays an important and phylogenetically conserved role in the developing brain. Citation: Seugnet L; Suzuki Y; Donlea JM; Gottschalk L; Shaw PJ. Sleep deprivation during early-adult development results in

  8. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes from Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Belsky, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during…

  9. "Big Bang" as a result result of the curvature-driven first-order phase transition in the early cold Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashitskii, E. A.; Pentegov, V. I.

    We suggest that the "Big Bang" may be a result of the first-order phase transition driven by changing scalar curvature of the 4D space-time in the expanding cold Universe, filled with nonlinear scalar field φ and neutral matter with equation of state p = vɛ (where p and ɛ are pressure and energy density of matter). We consider a Lagrangian for scalar field in curved space-time with nonlinearity φ, which along with the quadratic term -ΣR|φ|2 (where Σ is interaction constant and R is scalar curvature) contains a term ΣR(φ +φ+) linear in φ. Due to this term the condition for the extrema of the potential energy of the scalar field is given by a cubic equation. Provided v > 1/3 the scalar curvature R = [κ(3v-1)ɛ - 4Γ (where κ and Γ are Einstein's gravitational and cosmological constants) decreases along with decreasing " in the process of the Universe's expansion, and at some critical value Rc < 0 a first-order phase transition occurs, driven by an "external field" parameter proportional to R. Given certain conditions the critical radius of the early Universe at the point of the first-order phase transition may reach arbitrary large values, so this scenario of unrestricted "inflation" of the Universe may be called "hyperinflation". Beyond the point of phase transition the system is rolling down into the potential minimum releasing the potential energy of scalar field with subsequent powerful heating of the Universe playing the role of "Big Bang".

  10. Early Feasibility Study of a Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Annuloplasty: SCOUT Trial 30-Day Results.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Rebecca T; Meduri, Christopher U; Davidson, Charles J; Lim, Scott; Nazif, Tamim M; Ricciardi, Mark J; Rajagopal, Vivek; Ailawadi, Gorav; Vannan, Mani A; Thomas, James D; Fowler, Dale; Rich, Stuart; Martin, Randy; Ong, Geraldine; Groothuis, Adam; Kodali, Susheel

    2017-04-11

    The SCOUT (Percutaneous Tricuspid Valve Annuloplasty System for Symptomatic Chronic Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation) trial is a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, early feasibility study of a novel transcatheter device to plicate the tricuspid annulus (TA) and reduce tricuspid regurgitation (TR). This study tested the feasibility and safety of a novel transcatheter device and assessed its early performance and functional outcomes. Between November 2015 and June 2016, 15 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class ≥II and moderate or greater functional TR were enrolled. Primary performance and safety endpoint outcomes were technically successful at 30 days with no reintervention. Echocardiographic measurements (TA diameter, effective regurgitant orifice area [EROA], left ventricular stroke volume [LVSV]) and quality-of-life (QoL) measurements (NYHA functional class, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire [MLHFQ], and 6-min walk test [6MWT]) were performed at baseline and 30 days. All patients (mean 73.2 ± 6.9 years of age, 87% female) underwent successful device implantation with no deaths, strokes, bleeding, tamponade, or valve reintervention. Technical success rate at 30 days was 80%, with 3 single-pledget annular detachments without reintervention. In the remaining 12 patients, there were significant reductions in TA (12.3 ± 3.1 cm 2 to 11.3 ± 2.7 cm 2 , respectively; p = 0.019) and EROA (0.51 ± 0.18 cm 2 vs. 0.32 ± 0.18 cm 2 , respectively; p = 0.020), with significant increase in LVSV (63.6 ± 17.9 ml vs. 71.5 ± 25.7 ml, respectively; p = 0.021). In the intention-to-treat cohort, there were significant improvements in NYHA functional class (≥1 class, p = 0.001), MLHFQ (47.4 ± 17.6 to 20.9 ± 14.8; p < 0.001), and 6MWT (245.2 ± 110.1 to 298.0 m ± 107.6 m; p = 0.008). The 30-day results of the SCOUT trial confirmed the safety of the novel transcatheter device, which reduced TA and EROA, increased LVSV

  11. Early Predictors of Occupational Back Re-Injury: Results from a Prospective Study of Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Benjamin J.; Turner, Judith A.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective population-based cohort study Objective To identify early predictors of self-reported occupational back re-injury within 1 year after work-related back injury Summary of Background Data Back injuries are the costliest and most prevalent disabling occupational injuries in the United States. A substantial proportion of workers with back injuries have re-injuries after returning to work, yet there are few studies of risk factors for occupational back re-injuries. Methods We aimed to identify the incidence and early (in the claim) predictors of self-reported back re-injury by approximately 1 year after the index injury among Washington State workers with new work disability claims for back injuries. The Washington Workers’ Compensation Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort (D-RISC) provided a large, population-based sample with information on variables in seven domains: sociodemographic, employment-related, pain and function, clinical status, health care, health behavior, and psychological. We conducted telephone interviews with workers 3 weeks and 1 year after submission of a time-loss claim for the injury. We first identified predictors (p-values < 0.10) of self-reported re-injury within 1 year in bivariate analyses. Those variables were then included in a multivariate logistic regression model predicting occupational back re-injury. Results 290 (25.8%) of 1,123 (70.0% response rate) workers who completed the one-year follow-up interview and had returned to work reported having re-injured their back at work. Baseline variables significantly associated with re-injury (p-value < 0.05) in the multivariate model included male gender, constant whole body vibration at work, a history of previous similar injury, 4 or more previous claims of any type, possessing health insurance, and high fear-avoidance scores. Baseline obesity was associated with reduced odds of re-injury. No other employment-related or psychological variables were

  12. Management of Symphysis and Parasymphysis Mandibular Fractures in Children Treated with MacLennan Splint: Stability and Early Results

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohar; Sharma, Anupama; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficiency of MacLennan splint in symphysis and parasymphysis mandibular fractures in children. Study design: Six patients (four boys and two girls, mean age 3 years, range between 2 and 5 years) were operated on parasymphysis fractures of children. The mean follow-up time was 12 months. MacLennan splint was applied in these case upto 3 weeks. Results: Primary healing of the fractured mandible was observed in all patients. Postoperative complications were minor and transient. The outcome of the operation was not endangered. Adverse tissue reaction like infection, malocclusion, swelling and growth restrictions did not occur during observation period. Conclusion: MacLennan splint is having various advantages like faster mobilization and the avoidance of secondary removal operations. Based on this preliminary results MacLennan splints are safe and efficient in the treatment of pediatric mandible fracture. How to cite this article: Khairwa A, Bhat M, Sharma A, Sharma R. Management of Symphysis and Parasymphysis Mandibular Fractures in Children Treated with MacLennan Splint: Stability and Early Results. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):127-132. PMID:26379381

  13. Intraoperative radiotherapy given as a boost for early breast cancer: Long-term clinical and cosmetic results

    SciT

    Lemanski, Claire; Azria, David; Thezenas, Simon

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: The standard radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer consists of 50 Gy external beam RT (EBRT) to the whole breast followed by an electron boost of 10-16 Gy to the tumor bed, but this has several cosmetic disadvantages. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) could be an alternative to overcome these. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 50 women with early breast cancer operated on in a dedicated IORT facility. Median dose of 10 Gy was delivered using 9-MeV electron beams. All patients received postoperative EBRT (50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions). Late toxicity and cosmetic results were assessed independently by two physicians accordingmore » to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event v3.0 grading system and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires. Results: After a median follow-up of 9.1 years (range, 5-15 years), two local recurrences were observed within the primary tumor bed. At the time of analysis, 45 patients are alive with (n = 1) or without disease. Among the 42 disease-free remaining patients, 6 experienced Grade 2 late subcutaneous fibrosis within the boost area. Overall, the scores indicated a very good quality of life and cosmesis was good to excellent in the evaluated patients. Conclusion: Our results confirm that IORT given as a boost after breast-conserving surgery is a reliable alternative to conventional postoperative fractionated boost radiation.« less

  14. Perioperative Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Keloids: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciT

    Jiang, Ping, E-mail: ping.jiang@uksh.de; Baumann, René; Dunst, Juergen

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of therapy-resistant keloids and report first results, with emphasis on feasibility and early treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: From 2009 to 2014, 24 patients with 32 recurrent keloids were treated with immediate perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy; 3 patients had been previously treated with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy and presented with recurrences in the pretreated areas. Two or more different treatment modalities had been tried in all patients and had failed to achieve remission. After (re-)excision of the keloids, a single brachytherapy tube was placed subcutaneously before closing the wound. The target volumemore » covered the scar in total length. Brachytherapy was given in 3 fractions with a single dose of 6 Gy in 5 mm tissue depth. The first fraction was given within 6 hours after surgery, the other 2 fractions on the first postoperative day. Thus, a total dose of 18 Gy in 3 fractions was administered within 36 hours after the resection. Results: The treatment was feasible in all patients. No procedure-related complications (eg, secondary infections) occurred. Nineteen patients had keloid-related symptoms before treatment like pain and pruritus; disappearance of symptoms was noticed in all patients after treatment. After a median follow-up of 29.4 months (range, 7.9-72.4 months), 2 keloid recurrences and 2 mildly hypertrophied scars were observed. The local control rate was 94%. Pigmentary abnormalities were detected in 3 patients, and an additional 6 patients had a mild delay in the wound-healing process. Conclusions: The early results of this study prove the feasibility and the efficacy of brachytherapy for the prevention of keloids. The results also suggest that brachytherapy may be advantageous in the management of high-risk keloids or as salvage treatment for failure after external beam therapy.« less

  15. Early Integration of Palliative Care in Oncology Practice: Results of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) Survey.

    PubMed

    Zagonel, Vittorina; Torta, Riccardo; Franciosi, Vittorio; Brunello, Antonella; Biasco, Guido; Cattaneo, Daniela; Cavanna, Luigi; Corsi, Domenico; Farina, Gabriella; Fioretto, Luisa; Gamucci, Teresa; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Magarotto, Roberto; Maltoni, Marco; Mastromauro, Cataldo; Melotti, Barbara; Meriggi, Fausto; Pavese, Ida; Piva, Erico; Sacco, Cosimo; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trentin, Leonardo; Ermacora, Paola; Varetto, Antonella; Merlin, Federica; Gori, Stefania; Cascinu, Stefano; Pinto, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Early integration of palliative care in oncology practice ("simultaneous care", SC) has been shown to provide better care resulting in improved quality-of-life and also survival. We evaluated the opinions of Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) members. A 37-item questionnaire was delivered to 1119 AIOM members. Main areas covered were: social, ethical, relational aspects of disease and communication, training, research, organizational and management models in SC. Three open questions explored the definition of Quality of Life, Medical Oncologist and Palliative Care. Four hundred and forty-nine (40.1%) medical oncologists returned the questionnaires. Forty-nine percent stated they address non-curability when giving a diagnosis of metastatic tumor, and 43% give the information only to patients who clearly ask for it. Fifty-five percent say the main formative activity in palliative medicine came from attending meetings and 90% agree that specific palliative care training should be part of the core curriculum in oncology. Twenty-two percent stated they consulted guidelines for symptom management, 45% relied upon personal experience and 26% make a referral to a palliative care specialist. Seventy-four percent were in favor of more research in palliative medicine. An integration between Units of Oncology and Palliative Care Services early in the course of advanced disease was advocated by 86%. Diverse and multifaceted definitions were given for the concepts of Quality of Life, Palliative Care and Medical Oncologist. SC is felt as an important task, as well as training of medical oncologists in symptom management and research in this field.

  16. Early results of Latitude primary total elbow replacement with a minimum follow-up of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saurabh S; Watts, Adam C; Talwalkar, Sumedh C; Birch, Ann; Nuttall, David; Trail, Ian A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to present outcomes of primary Latitude total elbow replacement (TER) with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with prospective outcome data collection for the latest outcome. Included were 63 consecutive primary Latitude TERs in 58 patients performed during a period of 5 years at a specialist orthopedic hospital. The mean age of the patients was 62 years (33-85 years). Five primary TERs (4 patients) were lost to follow-up. The primary diagnosis was rheumatoid arthritis in 49, osteoarthritis in 8, and trauma in 6 elbows. The mean flexion-extension arc was 75° preoperatively and 97° postoperatively. Mean postoperative Elbex pain score was 19/100, and function score was 37/100. Mean postoperative scores were 42/100 for the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and 38/50 for the elbow-specific American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons assessment. Four patients died of unrelated causes, and 8 of 63 underwent further surgical intervention, including explantation and conversion from unlinked to linked implant. On radiographic review of 41 surviving TERs, aseptic radiologic loosening was observed of the humeral component in 4 elbows and of the ulnar component in 9. Seven elbows had no radial component, and of the remaining 34 elbows, 16 (47%) had signs of loosening of the radial implant. Complications included 1 heterotopic ossification, 1 olecranon fracture, and 3 further procedures for ulnar nerve entrapment. The results indicate that the early outcome of Latitude TER is comparable to that of other prostheses. There is concern about early radiologic loosening of the radial component. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical and MRI responses to etanercept in early non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: 48-week results from the EMBARK study

    PubMed Central

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Dougados, Maxime; Sieper, Joachim; Braun, Jürgen; Citera, Gustavo; Van den Bosch, Filip; Logeart, Isabelle; Wajdula, Joseph; Jones, Heather; Marshall, Lisa; Bonin, Randi; Pedersen, Ron; Vlahos, Bonnie; Kotak, Sameer; Bukowski, Jack F

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of etanercept (ETN) after 48 weeks in patients with early active non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). Methods Patients meeting Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axSpA, but not modified New York radiographic criteria, received double-blind ETN 50 mg/week or placebo (PBO) for 12 weeks, then open-label ETN (ETN/ETN or PBO/ETN). Clinical, health, productivity, MRI and safety outcomes were assessed and the 48-week data are presented here. Results 208/225 patients (92%) entered the open-label phase at week 12 (ETN, n=102; PBO, n=106). The percentage of patients achieving ASAS40 increased from 33% to 52% between weeks 12 and 48 for ETN/ETN and from 15% to 53% for PBO/ETN (within-group p value <0.001 for both). For ETN/ETN and PBO/ETN, the EuroQol 5 Dimensions utility score improved by 0.14 and 0.08, respectively, between baseline and week 12 and by 0.23 and 0.22 between baseline and week 48. Between weeks 12 and 48, MRI Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada sacroiliac joint (SIJ) scores decreased by −1.1 for ETN/ETN and by −3.0 for PBO/ETN, p<0.001 for both. Decreases in MRI SIJ inflammation and C-reactive protein correlated with several clinical outcomes at weeks 12 and 48. Conclusions Patients with early active nr-axSpA demonstrated improvement from week 12 in clinical, health, productivity and MRI outcomes that was sustained to 48 weeks. Trial registration number NCT01258738. PMID:26269397

  18. Early application of an intermittent pneumatic compression device is safe and results in proximal arteriovenous fistula enlargement.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sanjay; Mitra, Amit; Arkans, Ed; Singh, Tej M

    2018-05-01

    Delays in arteriovenous fistula maturation can cause care delays and increased costs. Increased distention pressure and intermittent wall shear stress may dilate veins based on prior research. Early use of non-invasive devices may help assist clinical arteriovenous fistula dilation. This was an Institutional Review Board approved study. After arteriovenous fistula creation, a novel, intermittent pneumatic compression device (Fist Assist ® ) was applied 15 cm proximal to arteriovenous fistula enabling 60 mmHg of cyclic compression for 6 h daily for 30 days. Among the patients who completed 1 month follow-up, 30 (n = 30) arteriovenous fistula patients were in the study arm to test vein dilation with Fist Assist. Controls (n = 16) used a sham device. Vein size was measured and recorded at baseline and after 30 days by duplex measurement. Clinical results (percentage increase) were recorded and tested for significance. No patients experienced thrombosis or adverse effects. Patient compliance and satisfaction was high. After 1 month, the mean percentage increase in vein diameter in the Fist Assist treatment group was significantly larger (p = 0.026) than controls in the first 5 mm segment of the fistula after the anastomosis. All fistulas treated with Fist Assist are still functional with no reported thrombosis or extravasations. Early application of an intermittent pneumatic compression device may assist in arteriovenous fistula dilation and are safe. Non-invasive devices like Fist Assist may have clinical utility to help fistulae development and decrease costs as they may eventually assist maturation.

  19. Refining the Early and Middle Eocene Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale: new results from ODP Leg 208 (Walvis Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Frederichs, T.; Bohaty, S. M.; Florindo, F.; Zachos, J. C.; Raffi, I.; Agnini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomical calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) for the Eocene (34-56 Ma) has advanced tremendously in recent years. Combining a cyclostratigraphic approach based on the recognition of the stable 405-kyr eccentricity cycle of Earth's orbit with high-resolution bio- and magnetostratigraphy from deep-sea sedimentary records (ODP Legs 171B, 189 and 207; IODP Exp. 320/321) resulted in a new calibration of the middle-to-late Eocene GPTS spanning Chrons C12r to C19n (30.9-41.3 Ma). A fully astronomically calibrated GPTS for the Eocene was established recently by integrating cyclo-bio-magnetostratigraphy from ODP Sites 702 and 1263 records spanning the middle Eocene with Site 1258 records covering the early Eocene. Comparison of this deep sea-derived GPTS with GTS2012 and GPTS calibration points from terrestrial successions show overall consistent results, but there are still major offsets for the duration of Chrons C20r, C22r and C23n.2n. Because of the relatively large uncertainty of the calibration point, a radioisotopic dated ash layer in DSDP 516F, at C21n.75 (46.24±0.5 Ma) the duration of C20r in GPTS2012 (2.292 myr) is uncertain. Offsets in durations of C22r and C23n.2n between GPTS2012 and the new astronomical GPTS (~400-kyr longer C22r; ~400-kyr shorter C23n.2n) could be due to uncertainties in the interpretation of Site 1258 magnetostratigraphic data. Here we present new results toward establishing a more accurate and complete bio-, magneto- and chemostratigraphy for South Atlantic Leg 208 sites encompassing magnetochrons C13 to C24 (33 to 56 Ma). Our study aims to integrate paleomagnetic records from multiple drilled sites with physical property data, stable isotope data and XRF core scanning data to construct an astronomically calibrated framework for refining GPTS age estimates. This effort will complete the Early-to-Middle Eocene GPTS and allow evaluation of the relative position of calcareous nannofossil events to magnetostratigraphy.

  20. Early Childhood Program Participation, Results from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016. First Look. NCES 2017-101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Lisa; Steinley, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016 (NHES:2016). The Early Childhood Program Participation Survey collected data on children's participation in relative care, nonrelative care, and center-based care arrangements. It also collected…

  1. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  2. The Consequences of Early Childbearing: Research Summary. Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (Parnes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    The effects of early childbearing on a woman's later social and economic status are examined in this paper. Previous research has documented an association of early motherhood with lower educational attainment, marital instability, higher subsequent fertility, and later economic poverty. However, these associations have not been tested in…

  3. Early results of urothelial carcinoma screening in a risk population of coke workers: urothelial carcinoma among coke workers.

    PubMed

    Giberti, C; Gallo, F; Schenone, M; Genova, A

    2010-08-01

    To present the protocol and the early results of a urothelial carcinoma (UC) screening analysis performed in a risk population of coke workers. Between June 2006 and October 2008, 171 male workers (mean age 43 years), employed in a Ligurian coke plant (Italiana Coke S.r.l) and exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for a median period of 16 years, underwent screening for UC. Urological evaluation included medical history, physical examination, routine laboratory tests, urine analysis, urinary cytology and uCyt+ assay. In the event of signs and symptoms suggestive of UC or positive urinary tests, the workers were also subjected to urinary ultrasonography and cystoscopy with biopsy of any suspicious lesions. Regarding the laboratory tests, 19/171 (11%) uCyt+ samples were considered inadequate and were excluded from the outcomes assessment. Overall, urine analysis, cytology and uCyt+ were positive in 18/152 (12%) subjects who showed no evidence of UC at the scheduled check-ups. No significant association was identified between marker positivity and occupational activity. Our results fail to show an increased risk of UC among the coke workers evaluated. However, they will need to be confirmed in the future by a larger enrollment and a longer follow-up in order to assess the definitive risk for UC after exposure to coke. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of μg on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU’s). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiments were designed to determine if S. meliloti would infect M. truncatula and initiate biomolecular changes associated with nodule formation and if the μg environment altered the host plant and/or bacteria to induce nodule formation upon return to 1g. Initial analysis results demonstrate that the legumes and bacteria cultivated in μg have potential to develop a symbiotic interaction, but suggest that μg alters their ability to form nodules upon return to 1g. (Research supported by NASA ESMD/ Advance Capabilities Division grant NNX10AR09A)

  5. Interocular suppression in strabismic amblyopia results in an attenuated and delayed hemodynamic response function in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Farivar, Reza; Thompson, Benjamin; Mansouri, Behzad; Hess, Robert F

    2011-12-20

    Factors such as strabismus or anisometropia during infancy can disrupt normal visual development and result in amblyopia, characterized by reduced visual function in an otherwise healthy eye and often associated with persistent suppression of inputs from the amblyopic eye by those from the dominant eye. It has become evident from fMRI studies that the cortical response to stimulation of the amblyopic eye is also affected. We were interested to compare the hemodynamic response function (HRF) of early visual cortex to amblyopic vs. dominant eye stimulation. In the first experiment, we found that stimulation of the amblyopic eye resulted in a signal that was both attenuated and delayed in its time to peak. We postulated that this delay may be due to suppressive effects of the dominant eye and, in our second experiment, measured the cortical response of amblyopic eye stimulation under two conditions--where the dominant eye was open and seeing a static pattern (high suppression) or where the dominant eye was patched and closed (low suppression). We found that the HRF in response to amblyopic eye stimulation depended on whether the dominant eye was open. This effect was manifested as both a delayed HRF under the suppressed condition and an amplitude reduction.

  6. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of

  7. Factors associated with a bad functional prognosis in early inflammatory back pain: results from the DESIR cohort.

    PubMed

    Lukas, C; Dougados, M; Combe, B

    2016-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a heterogeneous disease with hardly predictable potential courses. We aimed at determining prognostic factors of bad functional outcome at 2 years in patients with early inflammatory back pain (IBP). Data from patients included in the French multicentre devenir des spondylarthropathies indifférenciées récentes (DESIR) cohort, that is, suffering from IBP starting before 50 years of age and lasting for 3-36 months, were used. A bad functional outcome at 24 months was defined as an increase in bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), or BASFI at 2 years higher than the 75th centile in the cohort. Demographic, clinical, biological and radiological data collected at inclusion were compared in patients with bad functional outcome versus others, by χ(2) test, then by a multivariate logistic regression model with stepwise selection of relevant factors. 513 patients (54.4% females, 72.2% fulfilling ASAS criteria) were assessed. Of those, 130 (25.3%) fulfilled the aforementioned criteria of a bad functional outcome (BASFI increase ≥4 units or ≥36 at 2 years). Multivariate analysis revealed that not fulfilling ASAS criteria, female sex, age >33 years, lower educational level, active smoking status and high disease activity according to bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) at baseline were independently associated with a bad functional outcome at 24 months. Sensitivity analyses restricted to patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA resulted in similar results. We observed, in a large prospective cohort of patients with early IBP, formerly described bad prognostic factors, especially a low educational level, an older age and a high disease activity at onset, and revealed that active smoking status and female sex were also independently associated with a poor outcome. Fulfilment of ASAS criteria, on the other hand, was predictive of a better outcome, most likely due to the more consensual

  8. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Norway, years 1999–2006. Participants 53 934 mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. We included mothers with singleton pregnancy who had responded to three questionnaires (weeks 18 and 30 in pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum) and had answered minimum one of the abuse questions in week 30. Main outcome measure ORs were estimated by binary logistic regression with cessation of any (all) breast feeding before 4 months as the outcome, and abuse including subcategories of abuse, as the exposure. Results Nearly all women initiated breast feeding, but 12.1% ceased any breast feeding before 4 months and 38.9% ceased full breast feeding before 4 months, but continued partial breast feeding. Overall, 19% of the women reported any adult abuse and 18% reported any child abuse. The highest risk of any breast feeding cessation before 4 months was seen in women exposed to three types of adult abuse (emotional, sexual or physical), with adjusted OR being 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) compared with no abuse. Recent abuse and exposure from known perpetrator resulted in nearly 40% and 30% increased risk, respectively. The OR of any breast feeding cessation for women exposed to any child abuse was 1.41 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.50) compared with no abuse in childhood. Conclusions Past and recent abuse of women is strongly associated with early cessation of breast feeding. Abused mothers comprise a key group to target for extra support and breastfeeding assistance. PMID

  9. Clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects and their relationships with nicotine metabolism: preliminary results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Delucchi, Kevin L; Benowitz, Neal L; Hall, Sharon M

    2014-05-01

    Although the early time course of smoking withdrawal effects has been characterized, the clinical significance of early withdrawal symptoms and their predictors are unknown. This study evaluated the relationships of early smoking withdrawal effects with quit attempt outcomes and the rate of nicotine metabolism. Eleven treatment-seeking smokers abstained from smoking for 4 hr in the laboratory before a quit attempt. Withdrawal measures included heart rate, sustained attention, and self-report. Following baseline assessment, withdrawal measures were administered every 30 min. At the conclusion of the 4-hr early withdrawal session, participants received a brief smoking cessation intervention and then returned 1 week and 12 weeks later for outcome assessments that included biochemically confirmed smoking abstinence, cigarettes smoked in the past 24hr, and self-reported withdrawal symptoms. The rate of nicotine metabolism was estimated at intake with the nicotine metabolite ratio (trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) measured in saliva. Greater self-reported negative affect and concentration difficulty during early withdrawal, most notably anxiety, were related with poorer quit attempt outcomes. There was some indication that although a faster increase in craving and greater hunger during early withdrawal were associated with more favorable outcomes, a greater decrease in heart rate during this time was associated with poorer outcomes. Faster nicotine metabolism was related to a faster increase in anxiety but a slower increase in craving during early withdrawal. These findings lend support to the clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects. The rate of nicotine metabolism may be a useful predictor of early withdrawal symptoms.

  10. Intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy for anorectal Crohn's disease results in early and severe proximal colonic recurrence.

    PubMed

    de Buck van Overstraeten, Anthony; Wolthuis, Albert M; Vermeire, Séverine; Van Assche, Gert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Penninckx, Freddy; D'Hoore, André

    2013-07-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (CD) represents a more aggressive phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease and often coincides with proctocolitis. This study aims to assess the outcome of patients undergoing proctectomy with end-colostomy. A retrospective outcome analysis of 10 consecutive patients who underwent intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy between February 2007 and May 2011 was performed. All patients suffered from refractory distal and perianal CD. The proximal colon was normal at endoscopy. All data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. The main outcome parameter was disease recurrence and need for completion colectomy. Severe and early endoscopic recurrence in the proximal colon occurred in 9/10 patients at a median time interval of 9.5 months (range: 1.9-23.6 months). Despite protracted medical treatment, completion colectomy was necessary in 5 patients. One patient, who underwent a second segmental colectomy with a new end-colostomy, showed again endoscopic recurrence and is currently treated with anti-TNF agents. Intersphincteric proctectomy with colostomy seems to be an ineffective surgery for perianal CD with coexisting proctitis and results in a high risk of recurrence of the disease in the remaining colon. Therefore, despite a normal appearance of the proximal colon, a proctocolectomy with end-ileostomy seems to be the surgical approach of choice in these patients. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel percutaneous suture-mediated patent foramen ovale closure technique. Early results of the NobleStitch EL Italian Registry.

    PubMed

    Gaspardone, Achille; De Marco, Federico; Sgueglia, Gregory A; De Santis, Antonella; Iamele, Maria; D'Ascoli, Emanuela; Tusa, Maurizio; Corciu, Anca; Mullen, Michael; Nobles, Anthony; Carminati, Mario; Bedogni, Francesco

    2018-04-03

    To assess the efficacy of a novel percutaneous "device-less" suture mediated patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure system. Between June 2016 and October 2017, a prospective registry aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of the NobleStitch EL (HeartStitch, Fountain Valley, CA) suture-based PFO closure system was carried out at 12 sites in Italy. Among 200 consecutive evaluated patients, 192 were considered suitable for suture-mediated PFO closure (44±13 years, 114 women). Suture of the septum with the NobleStitch EL system was carried out successfully in 186 (96%) patients. Median fluoroscopy time was 16.1 (13.0-22.5) minutes and contrast volume 200 (150-270) ml. At 206±130 days follow-up, microbubbles transthoracic echocardiography with Valsalva maneuver revealed no RLS (grade 0) in 139 (75%) patients and RLS grade ≤1 in 166 (89%) patients. Significant RLS was present in 20 (11%) patients (grade 2 and 3 in 11 and 9 patients, respectively). There were no device-related complications. The early results of this first Italian Registry indicates that the suture mediated "deviceless" closure of PFO is feasible in the majority of septal anatomies, provides an effective closure of PFO comparable to traditional devices with an excellent safety profile at medium term follow-up.

  12. Early experience and results of bone graft enriched with autologous platelet gel for recalcitrant nonunions of lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chao-Ching; Su, Chen-Yao; Huang, Ching-Kuei; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Tzeng, Yun-Hsuan

    2007-09-01

    Refractory nonunions of the tibia or femur are physically and mentally devastating conditions for the patients, and the treatment is challenging for orthopedic surgeons. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcome of surgical treatment in recalcitrant nonunions of a lower extremity with bone graft enriched with autologous platelet gel (APG). Twelve patients with four femoral and eight tibial atrophic nonunions after multiple prior procedures were included. All of them were treated with the bone grafting procedures with autograft complex enriched with APG. They were evaluated with radiographs, bone mineral density for bony healing process, and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey for functional outcome. Of the 12 patients, 11 healed at an average of 19.7 weeks after the first attempt and 1 healed after the second attempt at 21 weeks. The bone mineral density continued to increase steadily from early healing to the remodeling phase. Functional status was greatly improved at an average follow-up of 32.4 months. The results of this preliminary study implied the possible potential of bone graft enriched with APG in the treatment of recalcitrant nonunions of the lower extremity. More research is necessary to clarify its role in augmentation of bone graft to enhance healing of nonunion.

  13. Does otitis media in early childhood affect later behavioural development? Results from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, C; Eikelboom, R H; Jacques, A; Swanepoel, D W; Whitehouse, A J O; Jamieson, S E; Brennan-Jones, C G

    2018-03-01

    To examine the relationship between early life episodes of otitis media and later behavioural development with adjustment for confounders. Longitudinal cohort study. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study recruited 2900 pregnant women from King Edward Memorial Hospital (KEMH) in Perth, Western Australia, between 1989 and 1991. Data from the children born were collected at both the Year 3 and Year 5 follow-up. At Year 3, n = 611 were diagnosed with recurrent otitis media through parent-report and clinical examination. At Year 5, n = 299 were considered exposed to otitis media based upon tympanometry results. Performance in the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire completed by the primary caregiver at Year 10. Significant associations were found between recurrent otitis media at Year 3 and internalising behaviours (P = .011), and the somatic (P = .011), withdrawn (P = .014), attention (P = .003) and thought problems domains (P = .021), and the total CBCL score (P = .010). A significant association was also found between exposure to otitis media at Year 5 and externalising behaviours (P = .026). A modest association was seen between recurrent otitis media at Year 3 and exposure to otitis media at Year 5 and a number of behaviour domains at Year 10. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample (CLoGS): Early results from X-ray and radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, Jan M.; O'Sullivan, Ewan; David, Laurence P.; Giacintucci, Simona; Kolokythas, Konstantinos

    2017-08-01

    Although the group environment is the dominant locus of galaxy evolution (in contrast to rich clusters, which contain only a few percent of galaxies), there has been a lack of reliable, representative group samples in the local Universe. In particular, X-ray selected samples are strongly biased in favor of the X-ray bright, centrally-concentrated cool-core systems. In response, we have designed the Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample (CLoGS), an optically-selected statistically-complete sample of 53 groups within 80 Mpc which is intended to overcome the limitations of X-ray selected samples and serve as a representative survey of groups in the local Universe. We have supplemented X-ray data from Chandra and XMM (70% complete to date, using both archival and new observations, with a 26-group high richness subsample 100% complete) with GMRT radio continuum observations (at 235 and 610 MHz, complete for the entire sample). CLoGS includes groups with a wide variety of properties in terms of galaxy population, hot gas content, and AGN power. We here describe early results from the survey, including the range of AGN activity observed in the dominant galaxies, the relative fraction of cool-core and non-cool-core groups in our sample, and the degree of disturbance observed in the IGM.

  15. Sea surface temperature measurements by the along-track scanning radiometer on the ERS 1 satellite: Early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlow, C. T.; ZáVody, A. M.; Barton, I. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1994-11-01

    The along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) was launched in July 1991 on the European Space Agency's first remote sensing satellite, ERS 1. An initial analysis of ATSR data demonstrates that the sea surface temperature (SST) can be measured from space with very high accuracy. Comparison of simultaneous measurements of SST made from ATSR and from a ship-borne radiometer show that they agree to within 0.3°C. To assess data consistency, a complementary analysis of SST data from ATSR was also carried out. The ATSR global SST field was compared on a daily basis with daily SST analysis of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). The ATSR global field is consistently within 1.0°C of the UKMO analysis. Also, to demonstrate the benefits of along-track scanning SST determination, the ATSR SST data were compared with high-quality bulk temperature observations from drifting buoys. The likely causes of the differences between ATSR and the bulk temperature data are briefly discussed. These results provide early confidence in the quantitative benefit of ATSR's two-angle view of the Earth and its high radiometric performance and show a significant advance on the data obtained from other spaceborne sensors. It should be noted that these measurements were made at a time when the atmosphere was severely contaminated with volcanic aerosol particles, which degrade infrared measurements of the Earth's surface made from space.

  16. Early Results of Medicare's Bundled Payment Initiative for a 90-Day Total Joint Arthroplasty Episode of Care.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Richard; Clair, Andrew J; Inneh, Ifeoma A; Slover, James D; Bosco, Joseph A; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2016-02-01

    In 2011 Medicare initiated a Bundled Payment for Care Improvement (BPCI) program with the goal of introducing a payment model that would "lead to higher quality, more coordinated care at a lower cost to Medicare." A Model 2 bundled payment initiative for Total Joint Replacement (TJR) was implemented at a large, tertiary, urban academic medical center. The episode of care includes all costs through 90 days following discharge. After one year, data on 721 Medicare primary TJR patients were available for analysis. Average length of stay (LOS) was decreased from 4.27 days to 3.58 days (Median LOS 3 days). Discharges to inpatient facilities decreased from 71% to 44%. Readmissions occurred in 80 patients (11%), which is slightly lower than before implementation. The hospital has seen cost reduction in the inpatient component over baseline. Early results from the implementation of a Medicare BPCI Model 2 primary TJR program at this medical center demonstrate cost-savings. IV economic and decision analyses-developing an economic or decision model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 'Le moment de la lune'. an auto-ethnographic tale of practice about menarche in a children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Denshire, Sally

    2011-08-01

    Auto-ethnographic accounts can highlight unsaid moments of professional practice. In this case, my auto-ethnographic tale 'Le moment de la lune' re-inscribes subjugated knowledge about menstruation and occupational therapy practice in the era before adolescent wards. This fictional tale is written in direct dialogue with an article that was published in this journal at a particular point in my own career as an occupational therapist. In the tale I am 'writing in' what was not written about in my article and in occupational therapy generally. This 'writing-in'/re-inscribing is the research method. My previous article 'Normal spaces' published in this journal in 1985, was organised around principles and generalities of youth-specific practice. The original article had little locating the personal or evoking the body and a heavy reliance on the literature. Issues of gender and culture were largely absent, or, perhaps, 'written out'. The corresponding tale of embodied sexuality, 'Le moment de la lune', articulates something of local complex practice and the particularity of individual therapeutic work to do with menstruation in self-care. Points of tension in 'Normal spaces' are elaborated and I explain how 'Le moment de la lune' problematises supporting menarche in a children's hospital. Now practice has moved on with dedicated adolescent wards in all major children's hospitals. Nevertheless, occupational therapy practice around issues of menstrual self-management is still under-documented. Writing about unspoken moments of practice can have ethical implications for expanding the ways occupational therapy practice can be written and understood. © 2011 The Author. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Juvenile Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Cognitive Deficits Associated with Impaired Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Early Tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Hylin, Michael J; Holden, Ryan C; Smith, Aidan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Qaiser, Rabia; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P

    2018-05-22

    The leading cause of death in the juvenile population is trauma, and in particular neurotrauma. The juvenile brain response to neurotrauma is not completely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to injury expansion and behavioral deficits in adult rodents and furthermore has been seen in adult postmortem human brains diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in juveniles with traumatic