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Sample records for early menarche results

  1. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation) were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context). Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3%) were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6]), early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0]) and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]). Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours. PMID:20353570

  2. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  3. Childhood Abuse and Early Menarche among Peruvian Women

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Nicolaidis, Christina; Garcia, Pedro J.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood abuse has been associated with age of menarche in some studies, but not all, and few have assessed the independent associations of sexual and physical abuse with early menarche. We examined the association between childhood abuse and early menarche among pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Methods Multinomial logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early menarche (≤11 years) in relation to any physical or sexual childhood abuse, physical abuse only, sexual abuse only and both physical and sexual abuse in a cohort of 1,499 pregnant (first trimester) women. Results Approximately 69% of participants reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The frequencies of physical abuse only, sexual abuse only and both physical and sexual abuse were 37.4%, 7.7% and 24.5%, respectively. Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported any childhood abuse had a 1.38-fold increased odds of early menarche (95% CI: 1.01–1.87). Compared to no abuse, the odds of early menarche was 1.60-fold among women with childhood sexual abuse only (OR=1.60; 95% CI 0.93–2.74) and 1.56-fold for those with both physical and sexual abuse (OR=1.56; 95% CI 1.07–2.25) during childhood. Isolated physical abuse was weakly associated with early menarche (OR=1.23; 95% CI 0.87–1.74). There was no clear evidence of association of childhood abuse with late menarche (≥15 years). Conclusion Childhood abuse, particularly joint physical and sexual abuse, is associated with early menarche. Our findings add to an expanding body of studies documenting the enduring adverse health consequences of childhood abuse. PMID:25620302

  4. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Results Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ2₍₄₎ = 21.41, p < .001) ranging from a high of 12.9 years in the oldest cohort (age 59 or older at the time of interview) to a low of 12.4 in the second youngest cohort (age 28-37). Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Conclusions Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse

  5. The effect of early menarche on the sexual behaviors of Korean female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Ji In; Lee, Chang Hun; Park, Jae Hong; Ye, Byeong Jin; Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Young Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationships between early menarche and sexual behaviors among Korean female adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted on female high school students in grades 10-12. The survey included 17,867 students, and 974 students were assigned to the early menarche group because they had experienced menarche when they were in grade four or below, and 16,893 students were assigned to the normal menarche group because they had experienced menarche during or after grade five. The characteristics of the sexual behaviors in the early menarche and normal menarche group were analyzed. Results The early menarche group was at a higher risk of intersexual kissing or petting (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.87), intersexual intercourse (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.65-3.36), homosexual kissing or petting (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 2.22-5.59), homosexual intercourse (OR, 7.70; 95% CI, 4.04-14.66), being the victim (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.98-4.22) or the assailant (OR, 13.55; 95% CI, 6.61-27.78) of sexual assaults, intercourse without any contraception (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.06-3.46), and pregnancy (OR, 5.72; 95% CI, 2.31-14.15) than the normal menarche group. Conclusion Early menarche is associated with risky sexual behaviors among adolescent females; therefore, developing comprehensive sexual health education programs and tools for early intervention are required for children who are expected to experience early menarche. PMID:26512348

  6. Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma: Prospective population-based study of twins.

    PubMed

    Lieberoth, Sofie; Gade, Elisabeth; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Backer, Vibeke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between early menarche and risk of post-menarcheal asthma. Using data from two multidisciplinary questionnaire surveys, conducted eight years apart, we prospectively studied 10,648 female twins, 12-41 years of age, from the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. Early menarche was defined as menarche before 12 years of age. We performed a cohort analysis and a co-twin control analysis including twin pairs discordant for incident asthma. Early menarche was observed in 9.3% of the individuals. The eight-year cumulative incidence of asthma was higher in girls with early menarche compared to girls without early menarche (7.4 vs. 4.5%), OR = 1.71 (1.31-2.22), p < 0.001; also after adjustment for BMI, current age, physical activity, education, and smoking, OR = 1.53 (1.15-2.04), p = 0.003. The unadjusted risk of asthma was increased by 8% (1-15%), p = 0.041 per year earlier menarche occurred. Among 167 twin pairs discordant for incident asthma, there was a non-significant tendency towards early menarche being more common in the asthmatic than the non-asthmatic co-twin (12.0 vs. 9.6%), OR = 1.57 (0.61-4.05), p = 0.350. The risk of asthma was not uniform in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma among Danish female twins independently of BMI, age, physical activity, educational level and smoking. Results indicate a complex relationship possibly mediated through innate and non-genetic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early growth, menarche, and adiposity rebound.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sheila; Dickson, Nigel

    2002-02-16

    Adiposity rebound is thought to arise earlier in children with a high body-mass index (BMI) at age 3 years. To test this hypothesis we followed up a birth cohort. Our results indicate that earlier rebound arose in children who were tall at age 3 years, but that timing was not associated with BMI at age 3 years in boys, and arose later in girls with higher BMIs at age 3. Adiposity rebound also arose earlier in children whose parents had high rather than low BMIs. Magnitude of BMI at rebound was associated with height and BMI at age 3, and with parental BMI. There was a correlation between age at rebound and age at menarche, which suggests that timing of rebound is an indicator of physical maturity rather than obesity.

  8. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche12

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. Design: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9–10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche. Results: Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Conclusion: Consumption of

  9. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p < .001) ranging from a high of 12.9 years in the oldest cohort (age 59 or older at the time of interview) to a low of 12.4 in the second youngest cohort (age 28-37). Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly

  10. [Early menarche as a risk factor of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Luján Irastorza, Jesús Estuardo; García Rodríguez, Francisco; Figueroa Preciado, Gudelia; Hernández Marín, Imelda; Ayala, Aquiles R

    2006-11-01

    Most of the information in medical literature report diverse factors of breast cancer, which are related to the reproductive life of the woman. It is mentioned that menarche before the 12 years elevates the relative risk of this disease, in comparison with its appearance after the 13 years. To determine if early menarche is a risk factor associated to breast cancer. This retrospective, observational and descriptive study included 162 women with breast cancer from a 3 years period (2002-2004), in the Juarez Hospital of Mexico. In addition other well known risk factors for breast cancer were evaluated. The statistical analysis was made with the software program SPSS; the descriptive analysis was made by means of summary of statistics, histograms, box and bar charts. Early menarche doesn't have correlation with breast cancer nor with the appearance of the disease in early ages; it was present in the 12.3% (n = 20) of the patients; the menarche initiated between 12 and 13 years in 64.4% (n = 104.3) of the cases. The average age at the time of the diagnosis of breast cancer in the early menarche group was of 55 years and for the group in general of 47.6 years. The factor that seems to be related to breast cancer is overweight and obesity with 54.26 and 17.11% respectively, with an average body mass index of 27.7 kg/m2. There was not a correlation between early menarche as risk factor for breast cancer neither between the reproductive risk factors considered habitual and increased risk of breast cancer. Overweight and obesity seem to be related to the appearance of the disease, reason why it is required to investigate this with different random control groups in the country. We propose to study other factors that may be implicated in the genesis of breast cancer such as inflammatory factors, similar insulin growth factors and hyperinsulinism.

  11. Early age at menarche and wheezing in adolescence. The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Gary; Baptista Menezes, Ana Maria; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of menarche before 11 years of age on the incidence of wheezing/asthma in girls 11 to 18 years of age. Methods The study sample comprised 1,350 girls from a birth cohort that started in 1993 in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil; this cohort was followed until 18 years of age. We assessed wheezing by the question, “Have you ever had wheezing in the chest at any time in the past?,” from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Early menarche was defined as occurring before 11 years of age. We estimated the cumulative incidence of wheezing excluding from the analysis all those participants who reported wheezing before age of 11 years. We performed the chi-square test to assess the association between ever wheezing and independent variables. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate cumulative incidence ratios. Results The average age at menarche in the cohort girls was 12 years (95% CI: 11.1–12.1). The prevalence of early menarche before 11 years of age was 11% (95% CI: 9.7–12.3). The cumulative incidence of wheezing from 11 to 18 years of age was 33.5% (95% CI: 30.9– 36.0). The crude association between ever wheezing in adolescence and early menarche before age 11 was 1.19 (95% CI: 0.96–1.48). After adjusting for early childhood and contemporaneous variables, no significant association for early menarche before 11 years of age and wheezing during adolescence was found (CIR: 1.18; CI95%: 0.93-1.49). Conclusion Early menarche before 11 years of age is not associated with an increased risk of wheezing during adolescence. PMID:26870751

  12. Age at Menarche Is Associated with Divergent Alcohol Use Patterns in Early Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…

  13. Age at Menarche Is Associated with Divergent Alcohol Use Patterns in Early Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…

  14. The development of reproductive strategy in females: early maternal harshness --> earlier menarche --> increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization-that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)-the authors subjected longitudinal data on 433 White, 62 Black, and 31 Hispanic females to path analysis. Results showed (a) that greater maternal harshness at 54 months predicted earlier age of menarche; (b) that earlier age of menarche predicted greater sexual (but not other) risk taking; and (c) that maternal harshness exerted a significant indirect effect, via earlier menarche, on sexual risk taking (i.e., greater harshness --> earlier menarche --> greater sexual risk taking) but only a direct effect on other risk taking. Results are discussed in terms of evolutionary perspectives on human development and reproductive strategy, and future directions for research are outlined. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial risk and correlates of early menarche in Mexican-American girls.

    PubMed

    Jean, Rosenie Thelus; Wilkinson, Anna V; Spitz, Margaret R; Prokhorov, Alex; Bondy, Melissa; Forman, Michele R

    2011-05-15

    Mexican-American girls have one of the fastest rates of decline in age at menarche. To date, no study has addressed the role of psychosocial factors on age at menarche in this population. Using data from a longitudinal cohort of Mexican-American girls from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area recruited in 2005, the authors investigated associations between family life and socioeconomic environment and age at menarche in 523 girls. After adjusting for maternal age at menarche, daughter's age, and body mass index at baseline, perception of family life environment as conflict-prone was significantly associated with an earlier age at menarche (< 11 years). Additionally, there was a 2-fold higher risk (odds ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 4.40) of early menarche among daughters of mothers who were single parents compared with those who were not. Furthermore, girls who matured early had a 2.5-fold increased risk (odds ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 6.96) of experimenting with cigarettes compared with those who had an average-to-late age at menarche (≥ 11 years). This study provides important information regarding the role of family life environment and single parenting on age at menarche in Mexican Americans. Awareness of the impact of the family life environment and fathers' absence during the early years should be emphasized when addressing early age at menarche across cultures.

  16. [Association between early menarche and physical fitness among adolescent girls in China].

    PubMed

    Fu, Lian-guo; Yang, Yi-de; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-jun; Song, Yi; Hu, Pei-jin; Li, Xiao-hui; Wu, Li-jing; Meng, Xiang-rui

    2013-08-01

    To explore the association between early menarche and physical fitness among adolescent girls in China. Research material was selected from the data of "2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Survey". Probability unit regression method was used to calculate the age of 10th percentile at menarche and menarche age before the 10th percentile was defined as early menarche(9.0-11.6 years old). A total of 1072 girls with early menarche were selected. Each girl with early menarche was matched with one girl from the same urban or rural locations who hadn't achieved menarche with the age difference less than 0.1 years. A total of 1072 girls without menarche were selected. Indicators of physical fitness included 50 m running, standing broad jump, 50 m×8 shuttle running and sit-ups. Differences of physical fitness between early menarche and without menarche were analyzed using t test stratified by age and urban/rural area. The multilevel models of single dependent variable and multiple dependent variables were used to analyze association between early menarche and physical fitness. A total of 2144 students were put in this research. Among girls (11.0-11.6 years old) in urban areas, 50 m running, standing broad jump and sit-ups was (9.78 ± 0.85) s, (153.81 ± 18.59) cm, and 27.79 ± 10.25, respectively for those with early menarche, while in girls without menarche was (10.01 ± 0.90) s, (149.71 ± 18.72) cm and 26.28 ± 10.11, respectively. There were significant differences between two groups on all above variables (t values were 4.02, 3.43 and 2.31, respectively with all P values <0.01). Among girls in rural, 50 m×8 shuttle-running and sit-ups was (125.22 ± 15.57) s and 24.96 ± 8.97 for those with early menarche, while it was (120.92 ± 13.06) s and 22.96 ± 9.83 for those without menarche. There were significant differences between two groups on both variables(t values were 3.89 and 2.77 with both P values < 0.01). In addition, 50 m×8 shuttle-running in girls (10

  17. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women.

  18. Toward a New Understanding of Early Menarche: The Role of Environmental Stress in Pubertal Timing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierson, Michelle; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined divorce and interparental conflict in light of theory that environmental stress may trigger early menarche in adolescents. Findings from 71 adolescent females and their mothers revealed that, compared to girls from intact families, those from divorced families had earlier onset of menarche. Higher maternal reports of interparental…

  19. Birth weight, early life weight gain and age at menarche: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Juul, F; Chang, V W; Brar, P; Parekh, N

    2017-11-01

    Adiposity in pre- and postnatal life may influence menarcheal age. Existing evidence is primarily cross-sectional, failing to address temporality, for which the role of adiposity in early life remains unclear. The current study sought to systematically review longitudinal studies evaluating the associations between birth weight and infant/childhood weight status/weight gain in relation to menarcheal age. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Global Health (Ovid) and CINAHL were systematically searched. Selected studies were limited to English-language articles presenting multi-variable analyses. Seventeen studies reporting risk estimates for birth weight (n = 3), infant/childhood weight gain/weight status (n = 4) or both (n = 10), in relation to menarcheal age were included. Lower vs. higher birth weight was associated with earlier menarche in nine studies and later menarche in one study, while three studies reported a null association. Greater BMI or weight gain over time and greater childhood weight were significantly associated with earlier menarche in nine of nine and six of seven studies, respectively. Studies suggested that lower birth weight and higher body weight and weight gain in infancy and childhood may increase the risk of early menarche. The pre- and postnatal period may thus be an opportune time for weight control interventions to prevent early menarche, and its subsequent consequences. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Milk Intake and Total Dairy Consumption: Associations with Early Menarche in NHANES 1999-2004

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Andrea S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. Methods/Findings This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs) in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20–49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9–12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5–12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake β = −0.32, P<0.10; “sometimes/variable milk intake” β = −0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never). Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk “sometimes/varied” or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively). Among the 9–12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06). Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively), while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05) than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03), but not after controlling for overweight. Conclusions There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche. PMID:21347271

  1. Early menarche is associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in premenopausal Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se Won; Ahn, Ju Hyun; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Seo, Ju-Hee; Lim, Jung Sub

    2016-01-01

    In pediatrics, identifying risk factors is important in planning the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an independent association between early menarche (<12 years) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean women. We analyzed data from 4463 premenopausal women from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-IV (2007-2009). MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation for Asians and insulin resistance (IR) was defined as HOMA-IR more than 3.05. The prevalence of MetS and IR was 7.9 and 15.0%. Women (55.6%) with MetS also showed IR. The prevalence of MetS was higher in both women with early menarche and late menarche (≥16 years) compared with the reference group (early, 12.8%; reference, 7.0%; late, 11.0%, both P = 0.002). However, the odds ratio for MetS was 3.54 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.14-5.87) and for IR was 2.98 (95% CI, 1.99-4.47) after adjusting for age and other confounders such as lifestyle variables, reproductive variables and sociodemographic variables only in women with early menarche Early menarche was associated with an increased risk of MetS and IR in premenopausal Korean women. Early menarche is associated with higher risk of CVD-related death and all-cause mortality in Western studies. Early menarche is associated with higher risk of diabetes in Korean premenopausal women. Early menarche (<12 years) is associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in nationally representative Korean premenopausal women. However, late menarche (>16 years) is not associated with metabolic syndrome after controlling for age and other confounders.

  2. Age at menarche is associated with divergent alcohol use patterns in early adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Richards, Meghan A; Oinonen, Kirsten A

    2011-10-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14 (i.e., frequency, amount, vomiting), and (c) binge drinking between ages 11 and 14. In contrast, late menarche was associated with greater current use in the adult women (i.e., frequency, amount, hangovers). Early timing of first intoxication relative to menarche (FIRM) strongly predicted higher current drinking. These findings suggest: (a) a link between AAM and alcohol use as early as age 9, (b) opposite relationships between AAM and alcohol use during two distinct developmental periods separated by a period of use unassociated with AAM, and (c) that the impact of early FIRM on adult consumption deserves further study. Copyright © 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Secure Infant-Mother Attachment Buffers the Effect of Early-Life Stress on Age of Menarche.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sooyeon; Simpson, Jeffry A; Griskevicius, Vladas; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Prior research indicates that being reared in stressful environments is associated with earlier onset of menarche in girls. In this research, we examined (a) whether these effects are driven by exposure to certain dimensions of stress (harshness or unpredictability) during the first 5 years of life and (b) whether the negative effects of stress on the timing of menarche are buffered by secure infant-mother attachment. Results revealed that (a) exposure to greater harshness (but not unpredictability) during the first 5 years of life predicted earlier menarche and (b) secure infant-mother attachment buffered girls from this effect of harsh environments. By connecting attachment research to its evolutionary foundations, these results illuminate how environmental stressors and relationships early in life jointly affect pubertal timing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839

  5. The Association Between Early Menarche and Offspring’s Obesity Risk in Early Childhood was Modified by Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jungwon; Li, Zhu; Liu, Xia; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Study effect of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) on the relationship between maternal menarcheal age (MMA) and child growth and overweight risk and examine socio-demographics characteristics of excessive GWG. Design and Methods The relationships between GWG and MMA in 54,184 women and their children’s growth trajectories during first 5 years of life (2000–2005) in south China were tested using longitudinal data analysis with mixed models and logistic regression. Results Average MMA was 14.8 (1.3) years; 36.3% of the women had excessive GWG. Excessive GWG interacted with adverse effects of early MMA (if ≤ 13 years), leading to the most rapid growth in offspring and highest risk of overweight at age 4–5 (OR = 5.2 [2.0–13.5]) than others. Women with early menarche, high-education, urban residence, and a routine job were more likely to have excessive GWG than the others. Conclusions GWG modify the association between early MMA and offspring’s growth and overweight. Controlling for GWG may reduce the adverse influence of early MMA and its own adverse influence on childhood health. PMID:23836480

  6. Age at Menarche and Its Association with the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: Results from the KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Doris; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Heier, Margit; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Kowall, Bernd; Stöckl, Heidi; Döring, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The metabolic syndrome is a major public health challenge and identifies persons at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age at menarche and the metabolic syndrome (IDF and NCEP ATP III classification) and its components. Design 1536 women aged 32 to 81 years of the German population based KORA F4 study were investigated. Data was collected by standardized interviews, physical examinations, and whole blood and serum measurements. Results Young age at menarche was significantly associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), greater waist circumference, higher fasting glucose levels, and 2 hour glucose (oral glucose tolerance test), even after adjusting for the difference between current BMI and BMI at age 25. The significant effect on elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure was attenuated after adjustment for the BMI change. Age at menarche was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome adjusting for age (p-values: <0.001 IDF, 0.003 NCEP classification) and additional potential confounders including lifestyle and reproductive history factors (p-values: 0.001, 0.005). Associations remain significant when additionally controlling for recollected BMI at age 25 (p-values: 0.008, 0.033) or the BMI change since age 25 (p-values: 0.005, 0.022). Conclusion Young age at menarche might play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. This association is only partially mediated by weight gain and increased BMI. A history of early menarche may help to identify women at risk for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22028807

  7. Early menarche: A systematic review of its effect on sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Choi, Cecilia; Tai, Hina; Lee, Grace; Sommer, Marni

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent girls aged 15-19 bear a disproportionate burden of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Research from several high-income countries suggests that early age at menarche is an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health. We conducted this systematic review to better understand whether and how early menarche is associated with various negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries and the implications of such associations. We systematically searched eight health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed literature on menarche and sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for inclusion, overall quality and risk of bias, and performed data extraction on all included studies. Twenty-four articles met all inclusion criteria-nine of moderate quality and fifteen with several methodological weaknesses. Our review of the minimal existing literature showed that early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries, similar to what has been observed in high-income countries. Early menarche is also associated with early marriage-an association that may have particularly important implications for countries with high child marriage rates. Early age at menarche may be an important factor affecting the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to confirm the existence of the identified associations across different settings and to better understand the process through which early menarche and other markers of early pubertal development may contribute to the increased vulnerability of girls to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Given the association of early

  8. Early Menarcheal Age and Risk for Later Depressive Symptomatology: The Role of Childhood Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sarah R.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the relationship between pubertal timing and depression in girls, with most results suggesting that earlier menarche predicts more depression in adolescence. However, few studies have controlled for the potentially confounding effects of childhood depressive symptoms. The current study uses a prospective,…

  9. Early menarche and menstrual problems are associated with sleep disturbance in a large sample of Chinese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Chen, Hua; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Fan, Fang; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2017-06-22

    Little is known about the association between menstruation and sleep disturbance in adolescent girls. This study examined sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, and sleep quality in relation to age at menarche and menstrual problems in a large sample of Chinese adolescent girls. This report represents the baseline data of an ongoing longitudinal study of the Shandong Adolescent Behavior & Health Cohort (SABHC) in Shandong, China. 5,800 12 to 18-year-old girls (mean age= 15.0, SD = 1.4) participated in the baseline survey. A structured questionnaire was used to assess participants' age at menarche, menstrual cycle interval, menstrual flow length, period irregularity, period pain, body weight and height, and demographics. Internalizing and externalizing problems were measured by the Youth-Self Report of Child Behavioral Checklist. Sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, and sleep quality were assessed by the items adapted from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. After adjusting for age, school, body mass index, internalizing and externalizing problems, and family covariates, irregular periods (OR=1.46, 95%CI=1.06-2.02), period pain (OR=1.99, 95%CI=1.44-2.76), and menstrual flow length ≥7 days (OR=1.21, 95%CI=1.00-1.48) were significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. Irregular periods (OR=1.72, 95%CI= 1.30-2.27) and period pain (OR=1.78, 95%CI=1.34-2.37) were significantly associated with poor sleep quality. Age at menarche ≤11 years (OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.05-2.50) was significantly associated with insomnia symptoms in 12 to 14-year-old girls. Our results suggest that irregular periods and period pain appear to be associated with sleep disturbance and that early menarche may have short-term impact on sleep in adolescent girls.

  10. Early menarche as an alternative reproductive tactic in human females: an evolutionary approach to reproductive health issues.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Meghan T; Folinsbee, Kaila E

    2012-12-20

    The age at which a female reaches sexual maturity is critical in determining her future reproductive health and success. Thus, a worldwide decline in menarcheal age (timing of first menstrual period) may have serious long-term consequences. Early menarcheal timing (first menstrual period before age 12) can have a negative effect on fecundity, as well as the quality and quantity of offspring, and may consequently influence population growth or decline. In this paper, we apply an evolutionary framework to modern human health, and assess both proximate and ultimate consequences of declining menarcheal age. Examination of human reproductive health within an evolutionary framework is innovative and essential, because it illuminates the ultimate consequences of a declining age of menarche and facilitates new ways of thinking about the long-term and intergenerational transmission of health and disease; thus, an evolutionary framework lends itself to innovative public health and policy programs. In this paper, we examine whether or not early menarche is an alternative reproductive tactic that modern human females employ in response to a stressful environment, and whether or not early menarche is ultimately beneficial.

  11. Age at menarche in childhood cancer survivors: results of a nationwide survey in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Theda; Balcerek, Magdalena; Reinmuth, Simone; Hohmann, Cynthia; Keil, Thomas; Henze, Guenter; Borgmann-Staudt, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With rising cure rates of childhood cancer, side effects of treatment are attracting increasing interest. The present analysis evaluates the influence of tumor localization, radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the age of menarche. 4,689 former pediatric oncology patients, diagnosed 1980-2004, were contacted in collaboration with the German Childhood Cancer Registry. 1,036 out of 1,461 female participants reported their age at menarche and had an oncological diagnosis before menarche. The median age at menarche was 13 years, compared to 12.8 years in the German general population. A significant delay of menarche was seen in patients with pituitary radiation doses of ≥30 Gy (mean 13.6 years, SD 2.2) compared to <30 Gy (mean 12.5 years, SD 1.4, p = 0.05). Patients with additional spinal radiation were even older at menarche (mean 14.4 years, SD 2.5). Pelvic and pelvic-near radiation significantly delayed onset of menarche (mean 14.0 years, SD 1.9 and mean 14.3, SD 2.6, respectively, p < 0.001). Only some chemotherapeutic agents (carboplatin/cisplatin, etoposide) were associated with a menarcheal delay of <1 year. Overall, female childhood cancer survivors showed a normal menarcheal age. Pituitary radiation dosage of ≥30 Gy, spinal and pelvic radiotherapy were associated with a moderate delay in the occurrence of menarche. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Age at menarche, reactions to menarche and attitudes towards menstruation among Mexican adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationships between menarcheal timing and both menarcheal experience and attitudes toward menstruation in Mexican girls. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 10 different public schools. Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 11-16 years. Participants answered 1 questionnaire about menarcheal experience and another about attitudes towards menstruation. Early maturers (menarche before 11 years) were more likely than average (menarche at 11 or 12 years) or late maturers (menarche at 13 or more years) to state they had not known what they should do at the moment they got their first period (P < .01), that they had not felt prepared to start menstruating (P < .05), and that they thought they must keep secret the fact of already having had their first period (P < .05). Concerning their emotional reactions to menarche, early maturers were the most likely to have felt scared (P < .05), worried (P < .05) and sad (P < .05) and were the least likely to have felt calm (P < .05). They were also the most likely to show current secretive attitudes towards menstruation (P < .01). Finally, late maturers showed more positive attitudes toward menstruation than their peers (P < .01). These results could be useful for developing resources to help early maturing girls manage menstruation. Since these girls have limited or in some cases no time for preparation, they need special support. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years].

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi-yong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-jun; Fu, Lian-guo; Dong, Bin; Yang, Yi-de

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years. A total of 76 869 girls aged 7 to 17 years old were selected from the national physical fitness and health research in 2010, and probit analyses were used to calculate the average age of menarche for each province. Girls whose age were lower than the P 10 of age at menarche were judged as early age at menarche, and matched with two selected participant without menarche based on the age and the same urban or rural areas. High blood pressure was defined as whose systolic pressure and/or diastolic pressure was higher than P 95 of systolic pressure or diastolic pressure at the same age group. The difference of the rate of high blood pressure in girls with and without menarche by Chi-square test, and multilevel model was used to analyze the relationship between early age at menarche and blood pressure. In 76 869 girls, the values of height and BMI were separately (152.2 ± 10.4) cm and (18.7 ± 3.1) kg/m(2), while the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were (103.4 ± 11.0) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) and (65.0 ± 9.1) mm Hg respectively. In 47 942 girls (62.4%) had occurred menstruation while 28 927 girls (37.6%) without menstruation. The girls began to report menstruation at the age of 9, and 81.5% (7123/8736) girls had already reported menstruation at the age of 13. The rate of high blood pressure in menstruation group from 11 to 13 years were separately 6.71% (100/1490), 5.99% (265/4423) and 5.38% (383/7123), which was significant higher than 3.78% (265/7005), 3.33% (144/4328) and 4.09% (66/1613) in the same age group of non-menstruation (the values of Chi-square were separately 25.62, 32.36, 4.46, and all P values < 0.05) . The mean age of early age at menarche was 9 to 11 years old, and the rate of high blood pressure, high systolic pressure, and high diastolic pressure at 11 years group was separately 6.08% (49/806), 4.84% (39/806) and 3

  14. In utero exposure to atrazine analytes and early menarche in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort.

    PubMed

    Namulanda, Gonza; Taylor, Ethel; Maisonet, Mildred; Boyd Barr, Dana; Flanders, W Dana; Olson, David; Qualters, Judith R; Vena, John; Northstone, Kate; Naeher, Luke

    2017-07-01

    Evidence from experimental studies suggests that atrazine and its analytes alter the timing of puberty in laboratory animals. Such associations have not been investigated in humans. To determine the association between in utero exposure to atrazine analytes and earlier menarche attainment in a nested case-control study of the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cases were girls who reported menarche before 11.5 years while controls were girls who reported menarche at or after 11.5 years. Seven atrazine analyte concentrations were measured in maternal gestational urine samples (sample gestation week median (IQR): 12 (8-17)) during the period 1991-1992, for 174 cases and 195 controls using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We evaluated the study association using multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We used multiple imputation to impute missing confounder data for 29% of the study participants. Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58%>limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposureearly menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.38) and exposuremenarche and atrazine analytes. We found a weak, non-significant association between in

  15. Trends and correlates of age at menarche in Colombia: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Herrán, Oscar F; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of age at menarche could provide useful information on the impact of changing environmental conditions on child health. Nevertheless, nationally representative data are exceedingly rare. The aim of this study was to examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of age at menarche of Colombian girls. The study sample included 15,441 girls born between 1992 and 2000 who participated in the Colombian National Nutrition Survey of 2010. We estimated median menarcheal age using Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated with Cox regression models. The median age at menarche was 12.6 years. There was an estimated decline of 0.54 years/decade (P<0.001) over the birth years; this decline was only observed among girls from urban areas, and was more pronounced among girls from wealthier versus poorer families. Child height and BMI, maternal BMI and education, and family wealth were each inversely associated with menarcheal age whereas food insecurity and number of children in the household were positively associated with age at menarche. In conclusion, a negative trend in age at menarche is ongoing in Colombia, especially in groups most likely to benefit from socioeconomic development.

  16. Evidence for a programming effect of early menarche on the rise of breast cancer incidence in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Amy W H; Mak, Joyce; Cheung, Polly S Y; Epstein, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Younger age at menarche and older age at first live birth are implicated as risk factors for breast cancer, but the extent to which these factors contribute to the sharply rising incidence of this disease in developing countries has received little study. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 702 consecutive breast cancer patients diagnosed at a single hospital in Hong Kong during 2003-2006. Comparisons were made between patients with different ages at cancer diagnosis (hence, belonging to different birth cohorts) and their respective ages at menarche and at first live birth. We then correlated these age-dependent differences with overall breast cancer incidence data from the Hong Kong Cancer Registry. When patients diagnosed before age 40 are compared with those after 60, the age of menarche is lower in the former subgroup (12.7 vs. 14.2; p<10(-6)) while the age of first live birth is greater (28.2 vs. 25.5; p<0.01). However, registry data suggest that the progressive rise in breast cancer incidence has not affected those over 65, nor very young (20-39 years) patients. Lifestyle variables that reduce age at menarche may contribute to the rising risk of breast cancer diagnosed after age 40 in Hong Kong, whereas earlier-onset cancers may be characterised by a distinct pathogenesis. Although retrospective, these data raise the possibility that cancer-preventive health interventions could gainfully target reversible risk factors favoring early menarche - such as formula infant feeding, high-fat diets, and lack of exercise - in children and adolescents living in developing countries such as China.

  17. The relation of menarcheal age to obesity in childhood and adulthood: the Bogalusa heart study

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S; Khan, Laura Kettel; Serdula, Mary K; Dietz, William H; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2003-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that girls who undergo menarche at a relatively young age tend to be more obese as adults. However, because childhood (pre-menarcheal) levels of weight and height are associated with an earlier menarche, the increased prevalence of adult obesity among early maturers may largely reflect the persistence of childhood obesity into adulthood. Methods We examined these interrelationships among 1179 girls (65% white, 35% black) who were examined as children (mean age, 9 y), adolescents, and adults (mean age, 26 y) in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Results Both white and black women who reported that they underwent menarche before age 12 y had, on average, higher adult levels of weight (+10 kg), body mass index (BMI, +4 kg/m2) and skinfold thicknesses (+6 mm) than did women who underwent menarche after age 13.5 y. However, relatively fat children tended to undergo menarche earlier than did thinner children, with each standard deviation increase in pre-menarcheal BMI increasing the odds of early menarche (<12 y) by approximately 2-fold. Stratified and regression analyses indicated that (1) adult obesity was more strongly associated with childhood obesity than with menarcheal age, and (2) about 60% to 75% of the apparent effect of menarcheal age was due to the influence of childhood obesity on both menarcheal age and adult obesity. Conclusions Although additional longitudinal studies are needed, it is likely that the importance of early menarche in adult obesity has been overestimated. Most of apparent influence of menarcheal age on adult obesity is attributable to the association of childhood obesity with both menarcheal age and adult obesity. PMID:12723990

  18. Shared Genetic Effects Between Age at Menarche and Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jessica H.; Thornton, Laura M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose An early age at menarche is associated with disordered eating in women. However, it is unclear whether they share genetic factors. The goal of the current study is to delineate the genetic correlation between age at menarche and disordered eating. Methods Participants included 427 monozygotic and 329 dizygotic 16-17 year-old female twins from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development. Disordered eating was assessed with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. Age at menarche was assessed via self-report. A bivariate correlated factors model was used to delineate the genetic correlation between age at menarche and disordered eating. Results The analysis revealed a negative genetic correlation of −.18 in the best-fit model indicating that the genetic factors that influence younger age at menarche are associated with increased liability for disordered eating. Conclusion Future research should examine possible causes for this correlation such as the estrogen system and gene-environment interactions. PMID:23084171

  19. Height Growth and Percentage of Body Fat in Relation to Early Menarche in Girls from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Mendez, Nina; Dickinson, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Early menarche (EM) (i.e., age at menarche [AAM] <12 years of age) is related to short height and higher body fatness. In a mixed-longitudinal study done in Merida, Yucatan, height, body mass index (BMI), and percentage of body fat (BF%) were recorded at a one-year interval among 258 postmenarcheal (EM = 94) girls. Anthropometric measurements were recorded of the age cohorts in 2008-09 when participants were 13-17 years of age (baseline), and in the one-year follow-up study (± 6 days) the girls were 14-18 years of age. The BF% was estimated through bioelectrical impedance analysis. Mean AAM was 10.59 years in EM girls and 12.54 years in not early menarche (NEM) girls. Height growth (cm/year) was greater in NEM girls. Mean values of BMI, BF%, and frequencies of stunting (low height-for-age) and excess weight (overweight + obesity) were higher in EM girls than in their NEM age peers.

  20. Timing of menarche in Norwegian girls: associations with body mass index, waist circumference and skinfold thickness.

    PubMed

    Bratke, Heiko; Bruserud, Ingvild Særvold; Brannsether, Bente; Aßmus, Jörg; Bjerknes, Robert; Roelants, Mathieu; Júlíusson, Pétur B

    2017-06-06

    Research studies show conflicting results regarding the association between menarche and body weight. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if anthropometric indicators of body composition, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triceps (TSF) and subscapular skinfold (SSF) thicknesses, were differentially associated with age at menarche in Norwegian girls. The association between menarche and BMI, WC, TSF and SSF was investigated in 1481 girls aged 8-15.5 years, and in a subgroup of 181 girls with menarche during the 12 months prior to examination. Anthropometric measures were categorized as low (< -1SDS), average (-1 ≤ SDS ≤ +1) or high (> 1SDS), and menarche according to this classification was analysed with Kaplan-Meier curves and unadjusted and adjusted Cox regression. The median age at menarche in the total sample was 13.1 years. In the unadjusted models, low categories of all traits were associated with later menarche, and high categories with earlier menarche. When adjusted for other covariates, earlier menarche was only related with a high BMI (Hazard Ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07, 1.85), and later menarche with a low BMI (HR 0.53, 95%CI 0.38, 0.75) and low SSF (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.39, 0.75). In girls with recent menarche, early menarche was significantly associated with a high BMI in the final model (HR 1.79, 95%CI 1.23, 2.62). The timing of menarche was associated with the BMI, WC, TSF and SSF, but more strongly so with the BMI. These associations may be related to a common tempo of growth, as the mean age at menarche has remained stable during the last decades during a time period while the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased significantly.

  1. Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

    2013-09-01

    Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (p<0.05) and negatively associated with BMI (p<0.001). Students from urban areas attained menarche earlier than those from rural areas (p<0.05). Students from small-sized families attained menarche earlier than those from larger families (p<0.05). First-born students experienced menarche earlier than those who were seventh-born or later. Obese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.

  2. Birth size and age at menarche: a twin perspective.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Scheike, Thomas; Kold Jensen, Tina

    2013-10-01

    Do birthweight (BW) and co-twin sex influence the age at menarche in twins? BW, but not co-twin sex, was associated with age at menarche in twins. However, BW was not associated with age at menarche after controlling for genetics and shared rearing environment. Nutritional deprivation during critical developmental periods can trigger long-term effects on health. A small size at birth has been associated with early age at menarche in singletons. However, the relative influence of genetics and environmental factors on this association remains unresolved. In total, 2505 twin pairs were included in this cohort study. All participants were recruited from the Danish Twin Register. Data on the age at menarche were collected by questionnaire and combined with data on BW, birth length (BL) and gestational age (GA) from the Danish Medical Birth register. The BW for GA standard deviation score (BW-SDS) was calculated. BW-SDS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.00], P = 0.04], but not BW, BL or GA (P ≥ 0.15), was positively associated with age at menarche in all twins after adjustment for zygosity and year of birth. However, BW-SDS was not associated with menarcheal age within twin pairs (HR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.91-1.12, P = 0.88). No differences were found in the age at menarche or birth size between twin girls from same sex and twin girls from opposite-sex pregnancies. Heritability of menarcheal age and BW were estimated to be 0.61 (95% CI: 0.38-0.84) and 0.27 (95% CI: 0.18-0.38), respectively. Both BW and menarcheal age were influenced by genetic and environmental factors. A limitation of this study is recall bias on the age at menarche. It is also not clear how these results should be extrapolated to the non-twin population. lower BW for GA is associated with earlier age at menarche in twin girls. However, the lack of within-pair differences in menarcheal age between even markedly BW-discordant twins indicates that this association is governed by

  3. Do mental health and behavioural problems of early menarche persist into late adolescence? A three year follow-up study among adolescent girls in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence

    2010-08-01

    Early menarche has been linked to mental health and behavioural problems in several studies. Most of these studies are cross-sectional, the data gathered during puberty. Thus, there is a lack of research on the long-term effect of early menarche on mental health. The main aim of this study was to explore whether the differences in mental health problems between girls with early and late menarche persist into late adolescence. The data consisted of responses from a large school-based survey of all 10th grade girls (15 years of age) in Oslo, Norway. Of the 1860 participating girls in the 2001 survey, 1377 were included in the three year follow-up study in 2004, giving a response rate of 74%. Mental distress was measured with the Hopkins Symptom Check list 10-version. Additional items assessed were number of sexual partners, weight and body satisfaction. All information was self-reported, including age of menarche. We found a clear gradient in the cross sectional analyses at baseline of higher odds for mental distress at lower age of menarche even after adjustment for socio demographic and other factors. In the analysis of the follow-up data there was no statistically significant difference in mental distress across age of menarche, even though the differences in body and weight satisfaction and average body mass index remained at the same level between baseline and follow-up. We therefore conclude that the effects of age of menarche on mental health problems are a transitory problem during puberty.

  4. Premature menarche

    PubMed Central

    Murram, D; Dewhurst, John; Grant, D B

    1983-01-01

    Follow-up information was obtained from 12 women aged 16-34 years who had been seen previously because of premature isolated menstrual bleeding (premature menarche) starting between ages 9 months and 9 years. All the women reported normal regular menses and fertility was normal in the 6 women who had married. PMID:6830291

  5. The relationship between age of menarche and mental distress in Norwegian adolescent girls and girls from different immigrant groups in Norway: results from an urban city cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2006-07-01

    Lower age of menarche has been associated with increased mental distress among adolescent girls. The association might be mediated via body image, as girls with early menarche tend to have higher weight than those with late onset menarche. Many of the existing studies of menarche and mental distress are based on samples of white, western girls. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between age of menarche and mental distress among Norwegian girls and girls from different immigrant groups, and to study the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the difference between current and desired weight, on the relationship between age of menarche and mental distress. The study was a cross-sectional population-based self-report survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 3694 girls (91%) participated, one quarter of which were first or second generation immigrants. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to measure mental distress. An inverse, linear association between age of menarche and mental distress was found for both Norwegian girls and girls from all the immigrant groups. Regardless of immigrant status, girls with early onset menarche had higher BMI and higher difference in current and desired weight than those with late onset menarche. In linear regression, the difference in current and desired weight was more strongly associated with mental distress both among the Norwegian girls and girls from immigrant groups than age of menarche and BMI when controlling for social and behavioral factors. Early age of menarche might serve as a predictor for psychopathology in Norwegians girls as well as in girls from different immigrant groups. The association between age of menarche and mental distress might be mediated via differences in current and desired weight.

  6. Genetic and environmental effects on age at menarche, and its relationship with reproductive health in twins.

    PubMed

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy S

    2013-04-01

    Menarche or first menstrual period is a landmark in reproductive life span and it is the most prominent change of puberty. The timing of menarche can be under the influence of genes as well as individual environmental factors interacting with genetic factors. Our study objectives were (a) to investigate the heritability of age of menarche in twins, (b) to obtain the association between age of menarche and childhood factors, and reproductive events/behavior, (c) to examine whether or not having a male co-twin affects early/late menarche. A group of female-female identical (n = 108, 54 pairs), non-identical twins (n = 68, 34 pairs) and 17 females from opposite-sex twin sets were identified from twin registries of Malaysia and Iran. Genetic analysis was performed via two methods of Falconers' formula and maximum likelihood. Heritability was found to be 66% using Falconers' formula and 15% using univariate twin analysis. Model analysis revealed that shared environmental factors have a major contribution in determining the age of menarche (82%) followed by non-shared environment (18%). Result of this study is consistent with that of the literature. Timing of menarche could be under the influence of shared and non-shared environmental effects. Hirsutism was found to have a higher frequency among subjects with late menarche. There was no significant difference in age of menarche between females of opposite-sex twins and females of same-sex twins. It is concluded that twin models provide a powerful means of examining the total genetic contribution to age of menarche. Longitudinal studies of twins may clarify the type of environmental effects that determine the age of menarche.

  7. Reported Early Family Environment Covaries with Menarcheal Age as a Function of Polymorphic Variation in Estrogen Receptor-α (ESR1)

    PubMed Central

    Manuck, Stephen B.; Craig, Anna E.; Flory, Janine D.; Halder, Indrani; Ferrell, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Age at menarche, a sentinel index of pubertal maturation, was examined in relation to early family relationships (conflict, cohesion) and polymorphic variation in the gene encoding estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) in a midlife sample of 455 European American women. Consistent with prior literature, women who reported being raised in families characterized by close interpersonal relationships and little conflict tended to reach menarche at a later age than participants reared in families lacking cohesion and prone to discord. Moreover, this association was moderated by ESR1 variation, such that quality of the family environment covaried positively with menarcheal age among participants homozygous for minor alleles of the two ESR1 polymorphisms studied here (rs9304799, rs2234693), but not among women of other ESR1 genotypes. In addition, a) family relationship variables were unrelated to ESR1 variation, and b) genotype-dependent effects of childhood environment on age at menarche could not be accounted for by personality traits elsewhere shown to explain heritable variation in reported family conflict and cohesion. These findings are consistent with theories of differential susceptibility to environmental influence, as well as the more specific hypothesis (by Belsky) that girls differ genetically in their sensitivity to rearing effects on pubertal maturation. PMID:21262040

  8. Factors associated with early age at menarche among Thai adolescents in Bangkok: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Noipayak, Pongsak; Rawdaree, Petch; Supawattanabodee, Busaba; Manusirivitthaya, Sumonmal

    2017-03-09

    The age at menarche in the Thai population has not been determined since 1997. This study recruited adolescents in Bangkok Metropolis to determine the age at menarche and its associations with health and socioeconomic status. This cross-sectional study used a two-step stratified sampling strategy to recruit 1,020 female students, aged 10-16 years, from schools in Dusit district, Bangkok, Thailand. Self-reported data on age at menarche and social determinants of health were collected from participants and their parents. A trained research nurse collected anthropometric data. Mean age at menarche was 11.8 ± 1.0 years, and age at menarche was significantly correlated with year of birth (r = -0.4, p < 0.001). Students from schools that are part of Bangkok Metropolis had the lowest mean age at menarche. Participants born in 2000-2003 having their first period at < 11.8 years numbered 5.5 times (95% CI: 3.80-8.18) and 5.0 times (95% CI: 3.6-8.0) greater than those born in 1997-1999 by univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively. Year of birth significantly associated with age at menarche in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The mean age at menarche among female adolescents in Bangkok Metropolis was occurring earlier and was inversely associated with year of birth in this cohort. Only year of birth were associated with age at menarche in the multivariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders.

  9. The Evolution of the Age at Menarche from Prehistorical to Modern Times.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Anastasios

    2016-12-01

    Menarche denotes the onset of the female reproductive capacity. The age that menarche occurs is mostly attributed to the interaction of genetics and various environmental factors. Herein, the author describes the evolution of the age at menarche from prehistoric to the present times. Data from skeletal remains suggest that in the Paleolithic woman menarche occurred at an age between 7 and 13 years, early sexual maturation being a trade-off for reduced life expectancy. In the classical, as well as in the medieval years, the age at menarche was generally reported to be at approximately 14 years, with a range from 12 to 15 years. A significant retardation of the age at menarche occurred in the beginning of the modern times, soon after the industrial revolution, due to the deterioration of the living conditions, with most studies reporting menarche to occur at 15-16 years. In the 20th century, especially in the second half of it, in the industrialized countries, the age at menarche decreased significantly, as a result of the improvement of the socioeconomic conditions, occurring at 12-13 years. In the present times, in the developed countries, this trend seems to slow down or level off.

  10. Association of timing of menarche with depressive symptoms and depression in adolescence: Mendelian randomisation study

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Maija-Eliina; Lewis, Sarah J.; Bonilla, Carolina; Smith, George Davey; Joinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational studies report associations between early menarche and higher levels of depressive symptoms and depression. However, no studies have investigated whether this association is causal. Aims To determine whether earlier menarche is a causal risk factor for depressive symptoms and depression in adolescence. Method The associations between a genetic score for age at menarche and depressive symptoms at 14, 17 and 19 years, and depression at 18 years, were examined using Mendelian randomisation analysis techniques. Results Using a genetic risk score to indicate earlier timing of menarche, we found that early menarche is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms at 14 years (odds ratio per risk allele 1.02, 95% CI 1.005–1.04, n = 2404). We did not find an association between the early menarche risk score and depressive symptoms or depression after age 14. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a causal effect of age at menarche on depressive symptoms at age 14. PMID:27491534

  11. Age at Menarche and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Elks, Cathy E.; Ong, Ken K.; Scott, Robert A.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Brand, Judith S.; Wark, Petra A.; Amiano, Pilar; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Franks, Paul W.; Grioni, Sara; Halkjaer, Jytte; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rolandsson, Olov; Romieu, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Younger age at menarche, a marker of pubertal timing in girls, is associated with higher risk of later type 2 diabetes. We aimed to confirm this association and to examine whether it is explained by adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study consists of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals from 26 research centers across eight European countries. We tested the association between age at menarche and incident type 2 diabetes using Prentice-weighted Cox regression in 15,168 women (n = 5,995 cases). Models were adjusted in a sequential manner for potential confounding and mediating factors, including adult BMI. RESULTS Mean menarcheal age ranged from 12.6 to 13.6 years across InterAct countries. Each year later menarche was associated with 0.32 kg/m2 lower adult BMI. Women in the earliest menarche quintile (8–11 years, n = 2,418) had 70% higher incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with those in the middle quintile (13 years, n = 3,634), adjusting for age at recruitment, research center, and a range of lifestyle and reproductive factors (hazard ratio [HR], 1.70; 95% CI, 1.49–1.94; P < 0.001). Adjustment for BMI partially attenuated this association (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18–1.71; P < 0.001). Later menarche beyond the median age was not protective against type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Women with history of early menarche have higher risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Less than half of this association appears to be mediated by higher adult BMI, suggesting that early pubertal development also may directly increase type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:24159179

  12. Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age at menarche is the reflection of cumulative pre-adolescent exposure of girls to either adverse environment such as food insecurity or affluent living conditions. Food insecurity could result in inadequate nutrient intake and stress, both of which are hypothesized to have opposing effects on the timing of menarche through divergent pathways. It is not known whether food insecure girls have delayed menarche or early menarche compared with their food secure peers. In this study we test the competing hypothesis of the relationship between food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods We report on 900 girls who were investigated in the first two rounds of the five year longitudinal survey. The semi-parametric frailty model was fitted to determine the effect of adolescent food insecurity on time to menarche after adjusting for socio-demographic and economic variables. Results Food insecure girls have menarche one year later than their food secure peer (median age of 15 years vs 14 years). The hazard of menarche showed a significant decline (P = 0.019) as severity of food insecurity level increased, the hazard ratio (HR) for mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity were 0.936 and 0.496, respectively compared to food secure girls. Stunted girls had menarche nearly one year later than their non-stunted peers (HR = 0.551, P < 0.001). Conclusion Food insecurity is associated with delay of age at menarche by one year among girls in the study area. Stunted girls had menarche one year later than their non-stunted peers. Age at menarche reflects the development of girls including the timing of sexual maturation, nutritional status and trajectory of growth during the pre-pubertal periods. The findings reflect the consequence of chronic food insecurity on the development and well-being of girls in the study area. PMID:21910910

  13. Detecting menarcheal status through dental mineralization stages?

    PubMed

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Santos, Frédéric; Bruzek, Jaroslav; Urzel, Vanessa

    2016-10-01

    Menarche is an indicator frequently used to study variation in growth, development, and related health conditions among members of living populations. As a life event, menarche is often associated with changes in an individual's social identity. The reproductive lifespan, which for females starts with menarche, is a paramount feature of palaeodemographic studies. Determination of menarche status from the skeletal remains of individuals of past populations can be obtained by assessing the developmental status of the iliac crest, as well as the hand and wrist bones, which are, unlike teeth, often poorly recovered in bioarchaeological contexts. The present study seeks to evaluate the link between dental mineralization and menarche in a population of known menarche status. The relationship between permanent teeth mineralization and menarche status was investigated by using data of developing permanent teeth (167 radiographs) rated in accordance with the well-known standards of Demirjian et al. and Moorrees et al. collected among 73 living French females of known menarcheal status. Using correlation ratios, GLMM and CART algorithm, menarcheal status is correlated with mineralization of the premolars. Menarcheal status is predicted correctly for 92 and 77% of radiographs of the learning and validation samples, respectively. Although promising, the results require caution prior to generalization to other populations. The age of menarche in this particular sample may simply coincide with the development of the premolars in this particular sample. Therefore, further investigation applied to populations with various mean ages of menarche is required in order to provide new evidence of variation in human growth and development from the correspondence between the mineralization of the permanent teeth and menarche. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The influence of climate on age at menarche: Augmented with the influence of ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2016-08-01

    Samples representative of South Korea, Indonesia, and Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed and the influence of climate on age at menarche was investigated. The sample size was 24,651 for Korea (birth years 1941-1992), for Indonesia 8331 (birth years 1944-1988) plus 20,519 (birth years 1978-1997), and 2842 for Peninsular Malaysia (birth years 1927-1968). Respondents recalled their age at menarche. The mean age at menarche was calculated for each birth year by country, and for Malaysia, additionally by ancestry. It has been found that mean ages at menarche for the early birth years were much younger in Indonesia than in Korea despite similar levels of socioeconomic conditions (proxied by GDP per capita). For example, for the birth year 1944, the mean age at menarche was 14.45 years for Indonesia and 16.19 years for Korea-a difference of 1.74 years. It was necessary to double the Korean GDP per capita to make the Korean mean age at menarche the same as the Indonesian one. Chinese and Malay women in Peninsular Malaysia were further analyzed, and the results provided indirect evidence that the difference between Korea and Indonesia was not due to ancestry differences. Results in multivariate settings provided consistent results. It has been concluded that climate exerts a significant influence on age at menarche because the relatively easy availability of food in the tropics increases energy intake while the absence of cold weather decreases energy expenditure on maintenance and activity.

  15. Menarche, sexual practices, and pregnancy: model testing.

    PubMed

    Talashek, M L; Montgomery, A C; Moran, C; Paskiewicz, L; Jiang, Y

    2000-03-01

    Rates of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing, while in slight decline in the United States since 1992, remain high enough to warrant significant national concern. Birth rates, however, remain particularly high for minority adolescents. One hundred fifty-two records of African American and Latina adolescents receiving prenatal care from nurse midwives at an inner city university clinic were reviewed to partially test a developmental maturity model of pregnancy using logistic regression. The relationships between age at menarche to sexual practices and age at first pregnancy were examined. Mean age of the sample was 16.5 years, mean age at menarche was 12.2 years, at first coitus was 14.6 years, and at first pregnancy was 15.6 years. Thirty percent of the girls were experiencing second pregnancies. Birth control use by the adolescents was inconsistent, with only 20 percent using birth control at first coitus. Multiple regression analyses produced a model explaining 50 percent of the variance in age at first pregnancy. The predictor variables in the model were age at first coitus, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and use of birth control at first coitus. Further analyses indicate that for childbearing adolescents, age at first coitus is a classic intervening variable between age at menarche and age at first pregnancy. Early physiologic maturers appear to lack the psychological and cognitive maturity required to cope with their emerging sexuality resulting in early unprotected coitus and pregnancy. Findings provide guidance to healthcare providers for the development of interventions to prevent unplanned pregnancies.

  16. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche123

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Methods: Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9–14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996–1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. Results: During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1–4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: −3%, −23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1–4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged ≥9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. PMID:26136590

  17. Methylome Analysis and Epigenetic Changes Associated with Menarcheal Age

    PubMed Central

    Demetriou, Christiana A.; Chen, Jia; Polidoro, Silvia; van Veldhoven, Karin; Cuenin, Cyrille; Campanella, Gianluca; Brennan, Kevin; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Kvaskoff, Marina; Drogan, Dagmar; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf; Risch, Angela; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Sánchez Perez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Onland-Moret, Charlotte; Peeters, Petra; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Romieu, Isabelle; Gallo, Valentina; Gunter, Marc; Herceg, Zdenko; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Riboli, Elio; Flanagan, James M.; Vineis, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been linked to both breast cancer and DNA methylation, suggesting methylation as an important mechanism by which reproductive factors impact on disease risk. However, few studies have investigated the link between reproductive factors and DNA methylation in humans. Genome-wide methylation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 376 healthy women from the prospective EPIC study was investigated using LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA). Also, methylation of 458877 CpG sites was additionally investigated in an independent group of 332 participants of the EPIC-Italy sub-cohort, using the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. Multivariate logistic regression and linear models were used to investigate the association between reproductive risk factors and genome wide and CpG-specific DNA methylation, respectively. Menarcheal age was inversely associated with global DNA methylation as measured with LUMA. For each yearly increase in age at menarche, the risk of having genome wide methylation below median level was increased by 32% (OR:1.32, 95%CI:1.14–1.53). When age at menarche was treated as a categorical variable, there was an inverse dose-response relationship with LUMA methylation levels (OR12–14vs.≤11 yrs:1.78, 95%CI:1.01–3.17 and OR≥15vs.≤11 yrs:4.59, 95%CI:2.04–10.33; P for trend<0.0001). However, average levels of global methylation as measured by the Illumina technology were not significantly associated with menarcheal age. In locus by locus comparative analyses, only one CpG site had significantly different methylation depending on the menarcheal age category examined, but this finding was not replicated by pyrosequencing in an independent data set. This study suggests a link between age at menarche and genome wide DNA methylation, and the difference in results between the two arrays suggests that repetitive element methylation has a role in the association. Epigenetic changes may be modulated by menarcheal age, or the

  18. [Parity and menarche as risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, Mariá Cleofás; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; de Jesús, Rafael Natividad Nieva; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide studies, even in our country, have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. Transversal, retrospective and analytical study. Non-probabilistic sampling technique was performing with users women of the IMSS in San Luis Potosí. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche (before the age of 13) and late menarche (at 13 years of age or after). It was measured bone mineral density with dual distal forearm x-ray absorptiometry to all patients. 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria, of the World Health Organization, 18% of posmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 41% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of deeds and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had 4 or more children were older than the other women. average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. In addition we found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46; p = 0.035). In posmenopausal women a menarche at the age of 13 years or after is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  19. [Parity and menarche as risk factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, María Cleofas; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; Nieva-de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    At the moment the studies lead at world-wide level and even in our country have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. A retrospective and analytical cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sampling technique in women rightful claimants of the IMSS, San Luis Potosi. In all of them the bone mineral density was measured with X-ray dual absorptiometry in the distal forearm. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche (< 13 yrs) and late menarche (> or = 13 yrs). 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria of the World Health Organization, 18% of postmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 43% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of pregnancies and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had four or more children were older than the other women, average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. We found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46, p: 0.035). In postmenopausal women a menarche older than 13 years is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  20. Age at Menarche and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Harpsøe, Maria; Simonsen, Jacob; Stenager, Egon; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Baker, Jennifer L; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Frisch, Morten; Bager, Peter

    2017-03-25

    Few studies have addressed the possible association between age at menarche and multiple sclerosis (MS), and results are conflicting. We studied this issue in a large prospective cohort study. The study cohort comprised 77,330 women included in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on menarcheal age was ascertained at the first interview, which took place in the 16th week of pregnancy. Women were followed for MS from the first interview to December 31, 2011. Associations between age at menarche and risk of MS were evaluated with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Overall, 226 women developed MS during an average follow-up period of 11.7 years. Age at menarche among women with MS was generally lower than that among women without MS (Wilcoxon rank-sum test; P = 0.002). We observed an inverse association between age at menarche and MS risk. For each 1-year increase in age at menarche, risk of MS was reduced by 13% (hazard ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.96). Early age at menarche appears to be associated with an increased risk of MS. The mechanisms behind this association remain to be established.

  1. Prenatal and childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jennifer S; Flom, Julie D; Tehranifar, Parisa; Mayne, Susan T; Terry, Mary Beth

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the association between age at menarche and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, both prenatally and during early childhood; however, few studies have had data available during both time periods. The present study examined whether exposure to prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) via maternal smoking during pregnancy or childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was associated with age at menarche in a multi-ethnic birth cohort. With the uniquely available prospectively collected data on body size and growth at birth and in early life, we further examined whether the association between PTS and ETS exposure and age at menarche was mediated by these variables. From 2001 to 2006, we recruited 262 women born between 1959 and 1963 who were enrolled previously in a New York City site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Mothers who smoked during pregnancy vs. those who did not were more likely to be White, younger, have more education and have lower birthweight babies. Daughters with heavy PTS exposure (≥ 20 cigarettes per day) had a later age at menarche (>12 years vs. ≤ 12 years), odds ratio (OR) =2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 5.0] compared with daughters with no PTS. Daughters exposed to only childhood ETS had a later age at menarche, OR=2.1 [95% CI 1.0, 4.3], and those exposed to PTS and ETS combined had a statistically significant later age at menarche, OR=2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 4.6] compared with daughters with no PTS and no ETS. These results did not change after further adjustment for birthweight and postnatal growth suggesting that exposure to PTS and ETS is associated with later age at menarche even after considering possible relationships with growth.

  2. Menarche Increases Relapse Risk in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lulu, Sabeen; Graves, Jennifer; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) predominantly affects women with a sex ratio of 3:1 in contrast with a 1:1 sex ratio seen in pre-pubertal onset. Thus, puberty may influence MS risk differentially in males and females. How puberty may be associated with MS clinical features and disease course remains unknown. Objective To determine the association of menarche with disease course in girls with MS. Methods This is a longitudinal retrospective study from the UCSF Regional Pediatric MS Center database. We categorized patients by time of disease onset: pre-menarche, peri-menarche and post-menarche. Poisson regression models were used for within subject relapse analyses offset by follow-up time. Results Seventy six girls were included (pre-menarche onset=17; peri-menarche onset=9; post-menarche onset=50). Age of menarche was similar in all groups (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.19). Relapse rate was the same in all three groups during first 2 years of follow-up. In girls with follow-up overlapping at least two time periods, within-subject analyses showed increased relapses during peri-menarche compared to post-menarche period (adjusted IRR=8.5, 95%CI 2.5–28.7, p=0.001). Conclusion Pubertal status may influence MS course at least in female patients. Understanding how puberty influences MS clinical features may offer new insights in important factors regulating disease processes. PMID:25948626

  3. Age at Menarche, Schooling, and Sexual Debut in Northern Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Judith R.; Kayuni, Ndoliwe; Floyd, Sian; Banda, Emmanuel; Francis-Chizororo, Monica; Tanton, Clare; Molesworth, Anna; Hemmings, Joanne; Crampin, Amelia C.; French, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Background Age at sexual debut is a key behavioural indicator used in HIV behavioural surveillance. Early age at menarche may precipitate early sex through perceived readiness for sex, or through school drop-out, but this is rarely studied. We investigated trends and circumstances of sexual debut in relation to schooling and age at menarche. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional sexual behaviour survey was conducted on all individuals age 15–59 within a demographic surveillance site in Karonga District, Malawi. Time trends were assessed using birth cohorts. Survival analysis was used to estimate the median age at menarche, sexual debut and first marriage. The 25th centile was used to define “early” sex, and analyses of risk factors for early sex were restricted to those who had reached that age, and were done using logistic regression. Of the 8232 women and 7338 men resident in the area, 88% and 78%, respectively, were seen, and, 94% and 92% of these were interviewed. The median reported age at first sex was 17.5 for women and 18.8 for men. For women, ages at menarche, sexual debut and first marriage did not differ by birth cohort. For men, age at sexual debut and first marriage decreased slightly in later birth cohorts. For both men and women increased schooling was associated with later sexual debut and a longer delay between sexual debut and first marriage, but the associations were stronger for women. Earlier age at menarche was strongly associated with earlier sexual debut and marriage and lower schooling levels. In women early sexual debut (<16 years) was less likely in those with menarche at age 14–15 (odds ratio (OR) 0.31, 95%CI 0.26–0.36), and ≥16 (OR 0.04, 95%CI 0.02–0.05) compared to those with menarche at <14. The proportion of women who completed primary school was 46% in those with menarche at <14, 60% in those with menarche at 14–15 and 70% in those with menarche at ≥16. The association between age at menarche and schooling was

  4. Heterosexual Romantic Involvement and Depressive Symptoms in Black Adolescent Girls: Effects of Menarche and Perceived Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls. PMID:25678429

  5. Heterosexual romantic involvement and depressive symptoms in black adolescent girls: effects of menarche and perceived social support.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls.

  6. Pre-menarcheal physical activity predicts post-menarcheal lean mass and core strength, but not fat mass.

    PubMed

    Day, M A; Dowthwaite, J N; Rosenbaum, P F; Roedel, G G; Brocker, A A; Scerpella, T A

    2015-12-01

    Youth exercise is associated with improved body composition, but details regarding timing and persistence are limited. We examined pre- and circum-menarcheal organized physical activity exposure (PA) as a factor in development of early post-menarcheal lean mass, fat mass and muscle strength. Participants in a longitudinal study of musculoskeletal growth using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included based on: 1) Whole body DXA scans: 0.5-1.5 years pre-menarche, 0.5-1.5 years post-menarche; 2) PA records for ⋝6 months preceding the first DXA (prePA) and for the inter-DXA interval (circumPA). Dominant arm grip strength and sit-ups tests coincided with DXA scans; PA, height and maturity were recorded semi-annually. Regressions correlated PA with lean mass/fat mass/strength, accounting for maturity, body size, and baseline values. Seventy girls [baseline: 11.8 yrs (sd 1.0), follow-up: 13.9 years (sd 1.0)] demonstrated circum-menarcheal gains of 25-29% for lean and fat mass and 33% for grip strength. PREPA correlated with pre- and post-menarcheal lean mass, sit-ups and pre-menarcheal fat mass (p<0.05), but not grip strength. CIRCUMPA correlated with only post-menarcheal sub-head lean mass (p=0.03). Lean mass and core strength at 1-year post-menarche were more strongly predicted by pre-menarcheal organized PA than by recent circum-menarcheal PA.

  7. Menarche and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Martino, Sara; Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    160 undergraduate women (M age = 20.3, SD = 1.52) were assessed for depression, drug abuse, and eating disorders. The age of menarche was positively correlated with higher scores on a screening measure for eating disorders, a finding opposite to past studies for adolescent girls.

  8. Size at birth predicts age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Adair, L S

    2001-04-01

    This study examines the relationship of intrauterine growth, measured by size and maturity at birth, to age at menarche, while also considering a wide range of other factors that may affect maturation. The research is motivated by the current debate about the importance of the prenatal environment as a determinant of later disease risk. Data were collected during the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. This community-based study has followed a cohort of several thousand Filipino infants since their birth in 1983 to 1984. Participants live in urban and rural communities of Metro Cebu, the second largest metropolitan area of the Philippines. The analysis sample includes 997 girls 14 to 15 years of age. The main outcome measure is age at menarche, determined from girls' self-report of the month and year of first menses. Factors that influenced age at menarche were identified using Weibull parametric survival time models. The main exposure variables of interest included weight and length (measured by trained field staff) and gestational age (assessed from mother's reported date of last menstrual period, augmented by clinical assessments at birth). The analysis also takes into account a wide range of other factors that are likely to affect age at menarche. These include the girls' early postnatal growth rates, premenarcheal body composition (body mass index and skinfold thicknesses measured at 8 years), current diet (measured by two 24-hour dietary recalls), and socioeconomic conditions of the household in which they live. We also assessed the contribution of maternal characteristics, including age at menarche, height, and nutritional status while pregnant with the study child. The median age at menarche calculated from the hazard model is 13.1 years, with 50% of girls attaining menarche between 12.4 and 13.9 years. Earlier menarche is characteristic of girls who live in urban, higher socioeconomic status households, as indicated by higher maternal education

  9. Age at menarche of schoolgirls in Maputo, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Padez, C

    2003-01-01

    Age at menarche was analysed in 753 Mozambican schoolgirls taking part in across-sectional anthropometric study in Maputo, Mozambique, in 2000. The probit analysis of the status quo data yielded an median age at menarche of 13.20 +/- 1.18 years. The retrospective method was applied only to recall data of the 396 post-menarcheal girls and it yielded an average of 13.91 +/- 1.29 years. Mean age at menarche in girls living in the urban centre of Maputo was 13.35 and 12.96 years, for recall age and probit analysis, respectively, and 14.51 and 13.68 years for girls living in the slums surrounding the centre. The differences in age at menarche, calculated by recall method, between girls from central Maputo and girls from the slums were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Parent's educational level also revealed a significant effect on age at menarche. Girls whose parents had a lower educational level showed a later age at menarche. For the size of the family, girls who were later borne had a higher age at menarche. In the 1960s, the age at menarche was 13.55 and 13.83 years in urban and rural girls, respectively. In this study, we found a lack of decrease in the mean age at menarche (13.9 years), which could be due to the poor living conditions in Mozambique between 1960 and 2000 as a result of the civil war from 1976 to 1990. Despite the economic growth of the country in the last decade, Mozambique is still in the group of the poorest countries in the world; in spite of this fact, the mean menarcheal age in these girls are amongst the lowest values presented for African countries.

  10. The Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Q63R Variant Modulates the Relationship between Childhood Obesity and Age at Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Torella, Marco; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Nobili, Bruno; Perrone, Laura; Maione, Sabatino; Rossi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background The ovary is an important site where gene variants modulate pubertal timing. The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed in the ovary, plays a role in folliculogenesis and ovulation, and can be modulated by estrogens. Obesity is strictly associated with early menarche and is characterized by sex hormone and endocannabinoid derangement. Aim In this study, we investigated the role of the CB2 receptor in determining the age at menarche in obese girls. Methods We studied a cohort of 240 obese girls (age 11.9±3 years; BMI z-score 2.8±0.8). The age at menarche (if it had already occurred) was recorded at the time of the visit or via phonecall. The CNR2 rs35761398 polymorphism, which leads to the CB2 Q63R variant, was detected by the TaqMan assay. Results In total, 105 patients were homozygous for the R63-coding allele (RR), 113 were QR and 22 were QQ. Variance analysis revealed a significantly earlier age of menarche in subjects carrying the Q63 allele, which was also found after adjusting for BMI z-score (11±1.2 vs. 11.6±1.2 years, p = 0.0003). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients homozygous for the Q allele had a 2.2-fold higher risk (odds ratio = 2.2; CI1.1–3.4; p = 0.02) of presenting with an early menarche (age at menarche <12 years). Conclusion We demonstrated for the first time the association between the CB2 Q63R functional variant and the age at menarche in a cohort of Italian obese girls. PMID:26447698

  11. The Decreasing Age at Menarche in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marván, M Luisa; Catillo-López, Rosa Lilia; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica; Callejo, Diana Del

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the current age at menarche in 2 urban areas from Mexico and to analyze secular trends in the age at menarche in Mexico City. Cross-sectional survey and secondary data analyses. (1) Samples of female students from Mexico City and from the city of Xalapa; and (2) national health surveys. (1) Pre- and postmenarcheal students, aged 8-17 years; and (2) data for women born between 1904 and 1999 who grew up in Mexico City were obtained from 3 relevant national health surveys. (1) Students were asked if they had had their first period and when it occurred; (2) information on year of birth and age at menarche for the remaining women was obtained from the national surveys; data were divided in groups according to the decade in which the women were born. (1) The estimated mean age at menarche was 11.40 and 11.34 years in Mexico City and Xalapa respectively. (2) There were significant differences in age at menarche among women who were born in the different decades analyzed. Women who were born in the 1990s or later reported an earlier age at menarche than those who were born from the 1940s to 1980s (P < .0001). These results could be helpful to health and education professionals who should take into account that because there is currently a widening gap between the physical and psychosocial maturity of girls, they might need special support. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Earlier Menarche Is Associated with Lower Insulin Sensitivity and Increased Adiposity in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dyanne A.; Derraik, José G. B.; Rowe, Deborah L.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess whether age at menarche was associated with insulin sensitivity in young adult women. Methods We studied 54 healthy young women aged 20–30 years. Participants were grouped according to age at menarche: Early (≤11.0 years; n=13), Average (>12.0 and ≤13.0 years; n=28), and Late (≥14.0 years, n=13). Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergman’s minimal model. Body composition was assessed using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Earlier menarche was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p=0.015). There was also a continuous increase in adiposity with younger age at menarche, which was associated with increased weight (p=0.001), BMI (p=0.002), total body fat (p=0.049), and truncal fat (p=0.020). Stratified analyses showed that insulin sensitivity in Early women (5.5 x10-4·min-1(mU/l)) was lower than in Average (8.0 x10-4·min-1(mU/l), p=0.021) and Late (8.6 x10-4·min-1(mU/l), p=0.033) groups. Early women (weight=66.1 kg; BMI=24.1 kg/m2) were considerably heavier and fatter than Average (59.0 kg, p=0.004; 21.4 kg/m2, p=0.002) and Late (57.0 kg, p=0.001; 20.8 kg/m2, p=0.0009) women. Conclusions Early menarche is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and increased adiposity in young adulthood, potentially increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26061526

  13. The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

  14. Age at menarche in relation to prenatal rainy season exposure and altitude of residence: results from a nationally representative survey in a tropical country.

    PubMed

    Jansen, E C; Herrán, O F; Fleischer, N L; Mondul, A M; Villamor, E

    2017-04-01

    Intrauterine exposure to the rainy season in the tropics may be accompanied by high rates of infection and nutritional deficiencies. It is unknown whether this exposure is related to the extrauterine timing of development. Our aim was to evaluate the relations of prenatal exposure to the rainy season and altitude of residence with age at menarche. The study included 15,370 girls 10 to <18 years old who participated in Colombia's 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Primary exposures included the number of days exposed to the rainy season during the 40 weeks preceding birth, and altitude of residence at the time of the survey. We estimated median menarcheal ages and hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) according to exposure categories using Kaplan-Meier cumulative probabilities and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. All tests incorporated the complex survey design. Girls in the highest quintile of gestation days exposed to the rainy season had an earlier age at menarche compared with those in the lowest (adjusted hazard ratios (HR)=1.08; 95% CI 1.00-1.18, P-trend=0.03). Girls living at altitudes ⩾2000 m had a later age at menarche compared with those living <1000 m (adjusted HR=0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.94, P-trend <0.001). The inverse association between gestation days during the rainy season and menarche was most apparent among girls living at altitudes ⩾2000 m (P, interaction=0.04). Gestation days exposed to the rainy season and altitude of residence were associated with the timing of sexual maturation among Colombian girls independent of socioeconomic status and ethnicity.

  15. The effects of high altitude on age at menarche and menopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, A. K.; Kapoor, Satwanti

    1986-03-01

    The age at menarche and menopause of three groups of Bhotia females living at high altitude, Himalayan region — Uttar Pradesh, North India, were studied. The Johari Bhotia women had earliest menarche (¯X=15.1±1.1 years) as compared to Rang Bhotias, settled (¯X=15.6±0.9 years) and Rang Bhotias, migratory (¯X=16.0±1.0 years). The differences between all these three groups for age at menarche were significant. A trend towards increase in age at menarche with an increase in altitude has been observed, but the total fertility period in the three groups remained similar as early menarche has been found to be associated with early onset of menopause and late menarche with late menopause.

  16. Early physics results.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Peter

    2012-02-28

    For the past year, experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have started exploring physics at the high-energy frontier. Thanks to the superb turn-on of the LHC, a rich harvest of initial physics results have already been obtained by the two general-purpose experiments A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), which are the subject of this report. The initial data have allowed a test, at the highest collision energies ever reached in a laboratory, of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles, and to make early searches Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). Significant results have already been obtained in the search for the Higgs boson, which would establish the postulated electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism in the SM, as well as for BSM physics such as Supersymmetry (SUSY), heavy new particles, quark compositeness and others. The important, and successful, SM physics measurements are giving confidence that the experiments are in good shape for their journey into the uncharted territory of new physics anticipated at the LHC.

  17. Association of Age at Menarche with Anthropometric Measures in Punjabi Bania Girls

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Zora; Sethi, Gurmeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Menarcheal age is the age at which menstruation begins. Menarcheal age is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological and psychological environment. Aim 1) To determine the menarcheal age and to examine the relationship between current age at menarche with anthropometric measures in Punjabi bania girls. 2) To develop maturity standards for Bania girls. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional survey was carried out on 200 bania girls at the age of onset of menarche. Menarcheal data was obtained by status quo method by asking about whether menarche has been experienced or not. In the present survey adolescent girls were interviewed with the help of pre-designed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS software, version 16.0. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for correlation studies. Results A total of 200 Punjabi bania girls were examined in the study. The median age of onset of menarche in these girls was 12.3 years. Menarcheal age was positively associated with bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span. Conclusion The present research has revealed secular trend in the age of onset of menarche as indicated by median age of 12.3 years in Bania girls. The bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span were also correlated with the age of menarche. PMID:28050402

  18. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  19. Timing of menarche in girls adopted from China: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, P; Tan, T X

    2016-11-01

    Girls adopted internationally from some states have been found to have high rates of early puberty, including early menarche. Explanations for the link between international adoption and early puberty include post-adoption catch-up growth triggering puberty, and under-recorded age. We compared menarcheal age in a cohort of 814 girls adopted from China into North America against menarcheal ages in girls in China. Adoptive parents provided survey data on their daughters' weight in 2005 and on menarcheal status and age at menarche in 2011. Estimated median age at menarche for adopted Chinese girls is 12.37 years (95% CI: 11.84-13.00 years). Estimated prevalence of menarcheal age ≤10.00 years for adopted girls is 3%. These findings are similar to published findings on non-adopted Chinese girls. The distribution of menarche of adopted girls and non-adopted girls at the estimated incidence rates P3-P97 are also similar. Among the 609 girls whose parents reported on their weight shortly after adoption, 148 (24.3%) were -2SD or more below the median weight in the WHO weight-for-age tables. The proportion of these girls who had attained menarche was not statistically different from other girls. For girls adopted from China, the age of menarche, the percentage of girls attaining menarche <10 years and the distribution of menarcheal age are all similar to Chinese girls growing up in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Birth weight, postnatal growth, and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Terry, Mary Beth; Ferris, Jennifer S; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wei, Ying; Flom, Julie D

    2009-07-01

    Larger body size in childhood is correlated with earlier age at menarche; whether birth and infant body size changes are also associated with age at menarche is less clear. The authors contacted female participants enrolled in the New York site of the US National Collaborative Perinatal Project born between 1959 and 1963 (n = 262). This racially and ethnically diverse cohort (38% white, 40% African American, and 22% Puerto Rican) was used to investigate whether maternal (body size, pregnancy weight gain, age at menarche, smoking) and birth (birth weight, birth length, placental weight) variables and early infant body size changes were associated with age at menarche even after considering later childhood body size. Higher percentile change in weight from ages 4 months to 1 year was associated with earlier age at menarche even after adjustment for later childhood growth (beta = -0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.27, -0.02 years per 10-percentile change in weight from ages 4 months to 1 year). The association was in the same direction for all 3 racial/ethnic groups but was largest for the white group. These New York Women's Birth Cohort Adult Follow-up data (2001-2006) suggest that infant weight gain, in addition to childhood weight gain, may be associated with earlier age at menarche.

  1. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  2. Brief Report: Autistic-Like Traits in Childhood Predict Later Age at Menarche in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Hickey, Martha; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between autistic-like traits in early childhood and age at menarche in typically developing girls. Autistic-like symptoms were measured at age 2 years using the Child Behaviour Checklist, and age at menarche (AAM) was determined prospectively using self-report questionnaires at age 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. Girls…

  3. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  4. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  5. Serum DDT, age at menarche, and abnormal menstrual cycle length

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, F; Perry, M; Venners, S; Chen, C; Wang, B; Yang, F; Fang, Z; Zang, T; Wang, L; Xu, X; Wang, X

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) exposure is known to affect human endocrine function, few previous studies have investigated the effects of DDT exposure on age at menarche or menstrual cycle length. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to study the effects of DDT exposure on age at menarche and menstrual cycle length among 466 newly married, nulliparous female Chinese textile workers aged 20–34 years enrolled between 1996 and 1998. Serum was analysed for DDT and its major metabolites. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate DDT exposure effects on age at menarche and multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate DDT exposure effects on odds of experiencing short or long cycles. Results: Relative to those in the lowest DDT quartile, the adjusted mean age at menarche was younger in those in the fourth quartile (–1.11 years). Modeled as a continuous variable, a 10 ng/g increase in serum DDT concentration was associated with an adjusted reduction in age at menarche of 0.20 years. Relative to those in the lowest DDT quartile, odds of any short cycle (<21 days) in the previous year were higher for those in the fourth quartile (odds ratio = 2.78; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.14). There were no associations between serum DDT concentrations and odds of experiencing a long cycle (>40 days). Conclusion: Results suggest that DDT exposure was associated with earlier age at menarche and increased risk of experiencing a shortened menstrual cycle. PMID:16299097

  6. [The menarche age in teenagers of the Northwest of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Méndez Estrada, Rosa Olivia; Valencia, Mauro E; Meléndez Torres, Juana María

    2006-06-01

    The beginning of sexual maturity in individuals is a measure commonly used as an indicator of a population's quality of life. Among women, one of the most frequently used indicators is the age of menarche. The objectives of this research were to obtain the age of menarche in school age girls from the Northwest of Mexico, and to establish the relationship between the latter with their socioeconomic level, body weight, and height. The sample was taken from 857 girls between 7 and 17 years old from different socioeconomic level sectors. The age of menarche of these girls was determined by the statu quo method. The value found for menarche was 12.06 +/- 0.44 years old. We also found an association of menarche to height (p < 0.01) and to socioeconomic level (p < 0.01). The value for age of menarche in this study was similar to the one reported for other Latin-American populations. Taking into consideration that approximately 70% of the Mexican population has been considered of low income level and that the environmental conditions are not entirely favorable, it is possible that this could be the result of genetic and environmental interactions.

  7. Early results from ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    First findings by Europe's new space telescope ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) will be announced at a press conference to be held at ESA's satellite tracking station in Villafranca, Apartado 50727 - 28080-Madrid, on Wednesday 14 February 1996 Astronomers responsible for ISO's instruments will show results ranging from materials in the planet Saturn, through the birth and death of stars, to the behaviour of colliding galaxies. All instruments are working well and even their preliminary results confirm that ISO is a unique observatory making an unprecedented exploration of the universe by infrared rays. Parallel press conferences will be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris, ESTEC Noordwijk (the Netherlands) and ESOC Darmstadt (Germany) where a live television link will be established with Villafranca and from where the media can participate in the discussion.

  8. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  9. Age of onset, nutritional determinants, and seasonal variations in menarche in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2009-12-01

    Menarche is an important milestone in the development of female adolescents. The study assessed the age at menarche using recall, its seasonality, and association with marital and nutritional status (using mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC]) among 3,923 female adolescents aged 12-19 years in a rural area of Bangladesh. At the time of assessment, most (88%) adolescents had attained menarche at the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 12.8 (1.4) years. Age of onset of menarche among married adolescents (13%) occurred earlier than in those who were unmarried (12.6 +/- 1.3 years vs 12.9 +/- 1.4 years, p < 0.01). Age at menarche was negatively associated with MUAC after adjusting for age and marital status (beta = -0.10, p < 0.01). More than 50% of the adolescents had an onset of menarche during winter (chi2 = 634.97; p < 0.001), with peaks in December and January. In this rural population, the current age at menarche was found to be slightly lower than the previous estimates of 13.0 years in Bangladesh. An early onset of menarche was associated with season and better nutritional status of the female adolescents and may be associated with early marriage.

  10. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Johnson, Dayna A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  11. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy.

  12. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  13. Menarche age in Iran: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Nasim; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Chan, Yiong Huak; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research shows that the age at menarche, as an essential element in the reproductive health of women, had been decreasing in the 19th and 20th centuries, and shows a huge variation across different countries. There are numerous studies performed in Iran reporting a range of age at menarche. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to determine the overall mean age at menarche of the girls in Iran. Materials and Methods: All relevant studies were reviewed using sensitive and standard keywords in the databases from 1950 to 2013. Two raters verified a total of 1088 articles based on the inclusion criteria of this study. Forty-seven studies were selected for this meta-analysis. Cochran test was used for samples’ homogeneity (Tau-square). The mean age at menarche of the girls in Iran with 95% confidence interval (CI) from the random effects was reported. Results: The homogeneity assumption for the 47 reviewed studies was attained (Tau-square = 0.00). The mean (95% CI) menarche age of Iranian girls from the random effects was 12.81 (95% CI: 12.56–13.06) years. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that mean age at menarche was less than that of some European developed countries such as Switzerland, Sweden, and Denmark, more than that reported in some countries such as Greece and Italy, and similar to the values obtained in the United States of America and Colombia. Lower age at menarche in Iran may be largely attributed to the changes in lifestyle and diet of the children. PMID:25400670

  14. Father Absence, Menarche and Interest in Infants among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.; Debias, Nicole; Durante, Kristina M.; Spaepen, Geertrui M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between menarche and interest in infants among adolescent girls, and the effects of early environment, particularly of father absence from home, on both variables. Eighty-three girls ranging in age from between 11 and 14 years served as study participants. Interest in infants was assessed through their…

  15. African-American/white differences in the age of menarche: accounting for the difference.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Fang, Muriel Z; Gardner, William P; Pajer, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    Lifetime health disparity between African-American and white females begins with lower birthweight and higher rates of childhood overweight. In adolescence, African-American girls experience earlier menarche. Understanding the origins of these health disparities is a national priority. There is growing literature suggesting that the life course health development model is a useful framework for studying disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of explanatory factors from key developmental stages on the age of menarche and to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche they could explain. The factors were maternal age of menarche, birthweight, poverty during early childhood (age 0 through 5 years), and child BMI z-scores at 6 years. The sample, drawn from the US National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Child-Mother file, consisted of 2337 girls born between 1978 and 1998. Mean age of menarche in months was 144 for African-American girls and 150 for whites. An instrumental variable approach was used to estimate a causal effect of child BMI z-score on age of menarche. The instrumental variables were pre-pregnancy BMI, high gestational weight gain and smoking during pregnancy. We found strong effects of maternal age of menarche, birthweight, and child BMI z-score (-5.23, 95% CI [-7.35,-3.12]) for both African-Americans and whites. Age of menarche declined with increases in exposure to poverty during early childhood for whites. There was no effect of poverty for African-Americans. We used Oaxaca decomposition techniques to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche was attributable to race differences in observable factors and how much was due to race dependent responses. The African-American/white difference in childhood BMI explained about 18% of the overall difference in age of menarche and birthweight differences explained another 11%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age at menarche and pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy: a population study of 74 973 women.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, E K; Eberhard-Gran, M; Nielsen, C S; Eskild, A

    2011-12-01

    To study the association of age at menarche with presence of pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy. Population study. Norway 1999-2007. A total of 74 973 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires in weeks 17 and 30 of gestation. Pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy at 30 weeks of gestation, defined as pain in the pubic symphysis in the anterior pelvis and in both sacroiliac joints in the posterior pelvis. The prevalence of pelvic girdle syndrome was 20.6% (328/1593) in women with menarche before the age of 11, it was 16.3% (3200/22 044) in women with menarche at the age of 12 and 12.7% (1252/9859) in women with menarche after the age of 14 (chi-square test for trend, P < 0.001). The inverse association of age at menarche with pelvic girdle syndrome remained after adjustment for body mass index, maternal age, parity, educational level, previous low back pain, emotional distress and physically demanding work. Women with early menarche and high body mass index had the highest prevalence of pelvic girdle syndrome, but the association of early menarche with pelvic girdle syndrome was similar in women with and without high body mass index. Early menarche was associated with increased prevalence of pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy. Factors associated with early menarche may play a role in the development of pelvic girdle pain. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  17. [The importance of memory bias in obtaining age of menarche by recall method in Brazilian adolescents].

    PubMed

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Assuino, Samanta Ramos; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan

    2014-06-01

    To compare the age at menarche obtained by recall method according to the time elapsed since the event, in order to verify the importance of the recall bias. Were evaluated 1,671 girls (7-18 years) at schools in Campinas-SP regarding the occurrence of menarche by the status quo method (menarche: yes or no) and the recall method (date of menarche, for those who mentioned it). The age at menarche obtained by the status quo method was calculated by logit, which considers the whole group, and the age obtained by the recall method was calculated as the average of the mentioned age at menarche. In this group, the age at menarche was obtained by the difference between the date of the event and the date of birth. Girls who reported menarche (883, 52.8%) were divided into four groups according to the time elapsed since the event. To analyze the results, we used ANOVA and logistic regression for the analysis, with a significance level of 0.05. The age at menarche calculated by logit was 12.14 y/o (95% CI 12.08 to 12.20). Mean ages obtained by recall were: for those who experienced menarche within the previous year 12.26 y/o (±1.14), between > 1-2 years before, 12.29 y (±1.22); between > 2-3 years before, 12.23 y/o (±1.27); and more than 3 years before, 11.55y/o (±1.24), p < 0.001. The age at menarche obtained by the recall method was similar for girls who menstruated within the previous 3 years (and approaches the age calculated by logit); when more than 3 years have passed, the recall bias was significant.

  18. Malnutrition, menarche, and marriage in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A K; Huffman, S L; Curlin, G T

    1977-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of nutritional status on the onset of menarche and the association between age at menarche and age at marriage, a survey of 1155 girls, ages 10 through 20, was conducted in a rural area of Bangladesh in March 1976. In order to obtain an estimated mean of age of menarche, probit analysis was used. The mean age of menarche using this technique is estimated at 15.65 for Muslims and 15.91 for Hindus. It was learned that in recent years the age of menarche has increased in a rural area. This increase seems to be associated with malnutrition caused by the war, postwar inflation, floods and famines during the 1971-75 period. When age is controlled for, the prominent effect of weight on menstrual status is evident. 98% of the girls whose weights were 88 pounds or greater had reached menarche compared to only 1% of those weighing less than 66 pounds. Body weight appears to be 1 of the most important factors for the determination of onset of menarche. There exists a seasonality of onset of menarche with a peak in winter. Age of marriage among this rural population has increased and may be associated with the increasing age of menarche. Since both age of menarche and age of marriage have increased, fertility among females age 15-19 may be expected to decrease in the future if this pattern continues.

  19. Age at Menarche and Gallstone Disease in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Choi, Yuni; Kwon, Min-Jung; Yun, Kyung Eun; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Kim, Yoo Jin; Kim, Kye-Hyun; Cho, Juhee; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Suh, Byung Seong

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the association between age at menarche and gallstone disease (GSD) in Korean women and to determine whether any of the observed associations were mediated by adult adiposity. A cross-sectional study was performed on 83 275 Korean women, aged 30 years or older, who underwent a health checkup examination between March 2011 and April 2013. Information regarding age at menarche was collected using standardized, self-administered questionnaires. Gallstone disease was defined as either having gallstones or having had a cholecystectomy based on ultrasound. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between age at menarche and GSD. Of the 83 275 women evaluated in this study, 3341 had GSD. Age at menarche was negatively associated with the prevalence of GSD. In a multivariable-adjusted model adjusting for potential confounders including reproductive factors and body weight at age 20, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for GSD comparing menarche at <12, 12, 14, 15, and 16 to 18 years to menarche at 13 years were 1.46 (1.23-1.75), 1.19 (1.04-1.35), 0.97 (0.87-1.09), 0.92 (0.82-1.03), and 0.89 (0.78-1.02), respectively (P for trend <.001). Adjusting for adult body mass index or percentage fat mass (%) partially reduced these associations; however, they remained statistically significant. Early menarche was associated with increasing prevalence of GSD in a large sample of middle-aged women. The findings of this study extend the range of adverse health outcomes associated with early menarche and suggest that obesity prevention strategies could be useful for reducing the risk of GSD in women who experience early menarche. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Whether age of menarche is influenced by body mass index and lipoproteins profile? a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Maryam; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Menarche, a milestone in the reproductive life span of a woman, is influenced by several genetics and environmental factors. There is no consensus regarding the impact of body mass index (BMI) and lipid profiles on the age of menarche, as the results of various studies demonstrate. Objective: To investigate the correlation between age of menarche and BMI/lipoprotein profile in a community sample of Iranian girls. Materials and Methods: In the study, 370 girls, aged 10-16 years, who began their menarche within six months prior to the study, were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) population. Information was documented regarding their body composition, including height, weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference were collected and their lipid profiles were assessed after a 12-hour fast. Results: In this study, the mean±SD of age of menarche and BMI were 12.6±1.1 years and 21.7±3.9 kg/m2, respectively. There were statistically significant relationships between age of menarche and height, BMI, waist circumference, and the maternal educational level. The relationship between age of menarche and the weight and lipid profiles of subjects was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Age at menarche is not influenced by lipid profiles but it is influenced by BMI. PMID:25246895

  1. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  2. Decline in menarcheal age among Saudi girls.

    PubMed

    Al Alwan, Ibrahim A; Ibrahim, Areej A; Badri, Motasim A; Al Dubayee, Mohammed S; Bin-Abbas, Bassam S

    2015-11-01

    To estimate age at menarche and to assess trends in menarcheal age among Saudi women. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted among healthy prepubertal female school children and adolescents from September 2006 to July 2012 in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were invited from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Tanner stage, height, weight, body mass index, and socioeconomic parameters including parent's level of education were collected. Age at menarche was compared with maternal age at menarche. The study included 265 girls and mothers. Mean±standard deviation (SD) age at menarche for girls was 13.08 ± 1.1 years, and their distribution category across the ≤10 years was 4 (1.5%), 11-14 years was 239 (90.2%), and ≥15 years was 22 (8.3%) girls. Anthropometric measurements, mother's level of education, and family income were not statistically significant determining factors associated with age at menarche. Mean ± SD age at menarche for mothers was 13.67 ± 1.4 years, and their distribution category across the ≤10 years was 7 (2.6%), 11-14 years was 172 (64.9%), and ≥15 years was 86 (32.5%). Girls attained menarche at younger age compared with their mothers (p less than 0.0001). A downward secular trend in age of menarche was observed (Cuzick test for trend = 0.049). Saudi girls attain menarcheal age earlier than their mothers, reflecting a downward secular trend in menarcheal age.

  3. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche.

    PubMed

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-08-01

    Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9-14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996-1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1-4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: -3%, -23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1-4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged ≥9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Age at menarche and its association with dysglycemia in Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Baek, Tae-Hwa; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Joungwon; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Choi, Yuni; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that earlier menarche is associated with increased risks of prediabetes and diabetes in white women; however, the associations have not been fully explored in Asian populations. We investigated the associations between age at menarche and prediabetes and/or diabetes in Korean middle-aged women. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,039 premenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 44 to 56 years who visited the health promotion center for medical checkups. Participants were divided into three groups based on age at menarche: early (<13 y), average (13-16 y), and late (>16 y). The mean (SD) age at menarche was 14.6 (1.6) years. Of 2,039 women, 820 and 85 women had prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or 5.7%-6.4% glycated hemoglobin) and diabetes, respectively. On logistic regression analysis, earlier menarche was significantly associated with prediabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.24-2.61; P = 0.002), diabetes (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.04-5.69; P = 0.04), and dysglycemia (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.28-2.66; P = 0.001), after adjusting for a number of confounding factors, compared with average age at menarche. On linear regression analysis, earlier age at menarche was significantly associated with increased fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, homeostatic model assessment for β-cell function, body mass index, and waist circumference. Age at menarche is inversely associated with various forms of dysglycemia. A history of earlier menarche may be helpful in predicting prediabetes and subsequent diabetes in Korean women.

  5. Complex relation of HLA-DRB1*1501, age at menarche, and age at multiple sclerosis onset

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Alicia S.; Xia, Zongqi; Chibnik, Lori; De Jager, Philip L.; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between 2 markers of early multiple sclerosis (MS) onset, 1 genetic (HLA-DRB1*1501) and 1 experiential (early menarche), in 2 cohorts. Methods: We included 540 white women with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (N = 156 with genetic data available) and 1,390 white women without MS but with a first-degree relative with MS (Genes and Environment in Multiple Sclerosis [GEMS]). Age at menarche, HLA-DRB1*1501 status, and age at MS onset were analyzed. Results: In both cohorts, participants with at least 1 HLA-DRB1*1501 allele had a later age at menarche than did participants with no risk alleles (MS: mean difference = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.03–0.95], p = 0.036; GEMS: mean difference = 0.159, 95% CI = [0.012–0.305], p = 0.034). This association remained after we adjusted for body mass index at age 18 (available in GEMS) and for other MS risk alleles, as well as a single nucleotide polymorphism near the HLA-A region previously associated with age of menarche (available in MS cohort). Confirming previously reported associations, in our MS cohort, every year decrease in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65-year earlier MS onset (95% CI = [0.07–1.22], p = 0.027, N = 540). Earlier MS onset was also found in individuals with at least 1 HLA-DRB1*1501 risk allele (mean difference = −3.40 years, 95% CI = [−6.42 to −0.37], p = 0.028, N = 156). Conclusions: In 2 cohorts, a genetic marker for earlier MS onset (HLA-DRB1*1501) was inversely related to earlier menarche, an experiential marker for earlier symptom onset. This finding warrants broader investigations into the association between the HLA region and hormonal regulation in determining the onset of autoimmune disease. PMID:27504495

  6. The Planck Mission: Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Marco Bersanelli

    2012-03-07

    The ESA Planck space mission, launched on May 14, 2009, is dedicated to high precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the first light of the universe, both in temperature and polarization. The satellite observes the full sky from a far-Earth orbit with two cryogenic instruments in the 30-850 GHz range at the focal plane of a 1.5-meter telescope. The primary objective of Planck is to measure with unprecedented precision the key cosmological parameters and to provide accurate tests of physics in the early universe. Planck has recently completed the fifth full-sky survey. The data analysis is underway. The first cosmology results are expected in early 2013 while a number of astrophysical results have been recently delivered to the community, including galactic and extragalactic astrophysics and a rich catalogue of radio and infrared sources. These results demonstrate the excellent in-orbit performance of the instruments and give excellent prospects for the forthcoming cosmological results.

  7. Childhood hair product use and earlier age at menarche in a racially diverse study population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18-77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used before age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (<12 vs. ≥12), adjusting for potential confounders. African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Menarcheal and pubertal development and determining factors among schoolgirls in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Opare-Addo, P M; Stowe, M; Ankobea-Kokroe, F; Zheng, T

    2012-02-01

    To determine menarcheal and pubertal ages and possible factors responsible for current pubertal trends in Kumasi, Ghana, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 720 urban and rural Kumasi 7-17-year-old schoolgirls and their mothers in 2008. Heights and weights were measured and additional information obtained by survey. Mantel-Haenzsel, χ(2), ordered logistic regression and probit analyses were used to analyse the data collected. With 40.42% menarcheal prevalence, median menarcheal ages were significantly different: 12.37 ± 1.48 years urban and 13.41 ± 2.25 years rural; 12.89 ± 1.93 years, overall. Obesity (OR = 2.57; p = 0.033) and high socioeconomic status (OR = 2.12; p = 0.008) were predictors of early menarche, while a younger mother was protective against early menarche (OR = 0.32; p = 0.039). Age at menarche among Kumasi schoolgirls has dropped 0.76 years since it was last determined among similarly aged girls in 1986, declining at a rate of about 0.32 years/decade. The predicting factors provide an important opportunity for intervention through school curricula and targeted education of adolescents.

  9. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM), and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting), and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups. PMID:25050345

  10. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10−8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  11. Association Between Age at Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-03-05

    In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 22-27 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age ≤11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk.

  12. [Increment in height of the upper segment and bi-iliac diameter after menarche in young girls. Longitudinal study of 40 adolescents].

    PubMed

    Singleton, A; Patois, E; Pedron, G; Roy, M P

    1975-11-01

    The growth in height, upper segment and biiliac diameter after the menarche has been studied in 40 girls followed longitudinally until the mean age of 18 years 3 months. The mean increase in height after the menarch was 7.3 +/- 2 cm., with significant individual variations. The upper segment was responsible for much of the total increase, which was greater with an early menarche. The percentage of the final height attained by the menarche was constant: 95.5 % +/- 1,2 %. After cessation in height growth, the biiliac diameter still increased for 75 % of the children. The median value for this increase after the menarche was 2 cm., with a significant scatter. The increase in these three parameters was in indirect correlation with the bone age: the less the bone age at the menarche, the greater the increase in height, upper segment and biiliac diameter.

  13. Polymorphisms in adiposity-related genes are associated with age at menarche and menopause in breast cancer patients and healthy women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyee-Zu; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Sook-Young; Kim, Yeonju; Lee, Eun-Sook

    2012-07-01

    Is there any effect of genetic polymorphisms in adiposity-related genes on the timing of menarche and menopause and the total duration of menstruation among Korean women? Our results suggest that the adiposity-related genes LEP, LEPR and PPARγ may play a role in the onset and cessation of menstruation, and the total duration of menstruation. Previous candidate-gene approaches have mainly presented the results for genes related to the estrogen metabolism pathway. Most genes of interest that participate in steroid-hormone metabolism, such as estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β, have been associated with age at menarche and menopause. This study shows the possibility that adiposity-related genes also influence the duration of menstruation. We recruited 400 breast cancer patients and 452 healthy participants from a case-control study at the Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center in Korea. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) genes were investigated to evaluate their possible effects on menstruation. Associations between SNPs and age at menarche, age at menopause and duration of menstruation were evaluated. Four SNPs (rs2167270 of LEP, rs7602 of LEPR and rs4684846 and rs3856806 of PPARγ) were associated with late menarche (≥ 17-year-old). Four SNPs (rs2167270 of LEP and rs1801282, rs2120825, and rs3856806 of PPARγ) were associated with early menopause (<40-year-old) among post-menopausal women. In logistic regression models with covariate adjustment, women with the GG genotype of rs7602 (LEPR) had a higher risk for late menarche [odds ratio (OR) = 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-3.31] compared with their counterparts carrying the GA or AA genotypes. In addition, the GG genotype of rs2167270 (LEP) was inversely associated with a duration of menstruation of <30 years (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.31-1.00) compared with the GA or AA

  14. Prenatal smoking and age at menarche: influence of the prenatal environment on the timing of puberty.

    PubMed

    Behie, A M; O'Donnell, M H

    2015-04-01

    Do prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking and birthweight influence age at menarche (AAM) in a cohort of Australian girls? We find that prenatal smoke exposure and lower birthweight increase the chance of earlier menarche in accordance with theoretical predictions as do confounding factors of maternal AAM and higher BMI of the girls. Much prior research focuses on the role of the early childhood environment in determining AAM but fewer studies consider the role of the prenatal environment. Those studies that examine the prenatal period find an acceleration of maturation associated with maternal smoking and low birthweight. Life history theory predicts that early life exposure to stressful environments should promote more rapid maturation and that this timing can be established before birth, making the prenatal environment particularly important. Statistical analysis of longitudinal survey data collected from a large cohort (n = 2446) of Australian children using data from birth to 12-13 years of age. Owing to missing data, 1493 girls were included in the final analysis. Using cox regression, we examine how (i) maternal cigarette smoking during gestation and (ii) birthweight influence girls' AAM. Cox regression was used because not all girls had reached menarche. We find that older maternal AAM (hazards ratio (HR): 0.75, confidence interval (CI) (95%): 0.71-0.79) and higher birthweight (HR: 0.86, CI (95%): 0.75-0.97) lower the chance of earlier menarche; while higher girls' BMI at 8-9 years (HR: 1.12, CI (95%): 1.10-1.15), and maternal cigarette smoking on 'most days' during gestation (HR: 1.40, CI (95%): 1.10-1.79 with 'no smoking' as the reference level) increased the chance of earlier menarche. All factors were statistically significant at P = 0.05. Not all girls had reached menarche, necessitating the use of cox regression. As with other longitudinal studies, there was study sample attrition and some missing data, particularly in reports of maternal smoking. In

  15. Age at menarche of university students in Bangladesh: secular trends and association with adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Golam; Islam, Saima; Aik, Saw; Zaman, Tunku Kamarul; Lestrel, Pete E

    2010-09-01

    Age at menarche has been shown to be an important indicator for diseases such as breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. The aim of the present study was to document secular trends in age at menarche and their association with anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors in university students in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 995 students from Rajshahi University using a stratified sampling technique between July 2004 and May 2005. Trends in age at menarche were examined by linear regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the association of age at menarche with adult anthropometric measures and various socio-demographic factors. The mean and median age of menarche were 13.12+/-1.16 and 13.17 years, respectively, with an increasing tendency among birth-year cohorts from 1979 to 1986. Menarcheal age was negatively associated with BMI (p<0.01), but positively associated with height (p<0.05). Early menarche was especially pronounced among students from urban environments, Muslims and those with better educated mothers. Increasing age at menarche may be explained by improved nutritional status among Bangladeshi populations. Early menarche was associated with residence location at adolescence, religion and mother's education.

  16. Influence of sports participation and menarche on bone mineral density of female high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Lawson, Mandra J; Levy, Susan S

    2007-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during adolescence may enhance peak bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce osteoporosis risk. The association of sports participation before and after menarche with areal BMD (by central DXA) was investigated in 99 female high school athletes (age 15.5+/-1.3 year). The frequency and duration of structured sports (school-based or other organized team) were assessed using an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Overall, the average number of years of weight-bearing sport participation was 7.4+/-3.4 years; 72% of the athletes began sport participation before menarche. Training patterns and BMD were examined by tertiles of yearly weight-bearing sport participation (hours/year) before (WBpre), after (WBpost) menarche, and in total (WBtotal). After adjusting for chronological age, gynecological age, and BMI, compared to athletes in the WBtotal low tertile, athletes in the WBtotal high tertile had significantly greater BMD at the spine (p=0.009), total hip (p=0.03), trochanter (p=0.03), and total body (p=0.009). Similar patterns were found by WBpre or WBpost status, separately, with the exception of spine BMD which was significantly different across tertiles in WBpost only (p<0.01). While the number of years of participation was similar across tertiles of WBtotal, the number of months/year was significantly greater among athletes in the high tertile than athletes in the low tertile (9.2+/-3.4 month/year versus 5.0+/-2.9 month/year, respectively (p<0.001)). These results indicate that near year-round participation in structured weight-bearing sports during early adolescence may help young girls optimize bone mineral accrual during these critical years, and may decrease their risk of osteoporosis with advancing age.

  17. Alcohol Intake Between Menarche and First Pregnancy: A Prospective Study of Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult alcohol consumption during the previous year is related to breast cancer risk. Breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens between menarche and first full-term pregnancy. No study has characterized the contribution of alcohol consumption during this interval to risks of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer. Methods We used data from 91005 parous women in the Nurses’ Health Study II who had no cancer history, completed questions on early alcohol consumption in 1989, and were followed through June 30, 2009, to analyze breast cancer risk. A subset of 60093 women who had no history of BBD or cancer in 1991 and were followed through June 30, 2001, were included in the analysis of proliferative BBD. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Results We identified 1609 breast cancer cases and 970 proliferative BBD cases confirmed by central histology review. Alcohol consumption between menarche and first pregnancy, adjusted for drinking after first pregnancy, was associated with risks of breast cancer (RR = 1.11 per 10g/day intake; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00 to 1.23) and proliferative BBD (RR = 1.16 per 10g/day intake; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.32). Drinking after first pregnancy had a similar risk for breast cancer (RR = 1.09 per 10g/day intake; 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.23) but not for BBD. The association between drinking before first pregnancy and breast neoplasia appeared to be stronger with longer menarche to first pregnancy intervals. Conclusions Alcohol consumption before first pregnancy was consistently associated with increased risks of proliferative BBD and breast cancer. PMID:23985142

  18. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and age at menarche in a prospective study of US girls.

    PubMed

    Carwile, J L; Willett, W C; Spiegelman, D; Hertzmark, E; Rich-Edwards, J; Frazier, A L; Michels, K B

    2015-03-01

    menarche. The effect of SSB consumption on age at menarche was observed in every tertile of baseline BMI. Diet soda and fruit juice consumption were not associated with age at menarche. Although we adjusted for a variety of suspected confounders, residual confounding is possible. We did not measure SSB consumption during early childhood, which may be an important window of exposure. More frequent SSB consumption may predict earlier menarche through mechanisms other than increased BMI. Our findings provide further support for public health efforts to reduce SSB consumption. The Growing up Today Study is supported by grant R03 CA 106238. J.L.C. was supported by the Breast Cancer Research Foundation; Training Grant T32ES007069 in Environmental Epidemiology from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health; and Training Grant T32HD060454 in Reproductive, Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. A.L.F. is supported by the American Cancer Society, Research Scholar Grant in Cancer Control. K.B.M. was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (Public Health Service grants R01CA158313 and R03CA170952). There are no conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Age at menarche in schoolgirls from Tanzania in light of socioeconomic and sociodemographic conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rebacz, Ewa

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the age at menarche of girls from Tanzania examined in 2005 considering their families' social and material status. For the purpose of the analysis of the age at menarche, N = 71 girls were qualified (N = 8 from Dares Salaam and N = 63 from Mafinga) out of N = 98 who took part in the anthropological study. The calendar age of the girls who qualified for the determination of the age at menarche ranged from 12.9 to 22.7 years of age (X = 15.9 +/- 1.9). The age at menarche revealed using the recall method was 14.3 +/- 1.1 years. The menarche of the girls included in the study with a parent (mother or father) residing in town was found to be earlier (14.1 and 14.0 respectively). When neither parent completed schooling or had only primary education, the age at the daughter's menarche was on average 15.0 years. The girls whose fathers completed secondary school had their first menstruation at 14.8 years, while the daughters of mothers who finished secondary school--at 14.5. The lowest age at menarche was found in the group of girls whose parents obtained higher education (13.4 years in the case of the father and 13.3 in the case of the mother). A higher age at menarche was typical of the group of girls from families in which the number of children in the household was > or = 6 (15.2). In the two-way ANOVA equation, the lowest age at menarche was found in the girls whose families lived in town and had higher education, while the highest--where the family lived in the countryside and did not finish school or had primary school only. In the two-way ANOVA equation (education*self-estimation of the family's material situation), the lowest age at menarche (13.2) was found in the group where the father had higher education and the material situation was assessed as very good or rather good. My own studies are representative for similar African environments. The results obtained allow for comparison with research findings for highly

  20. Age at Menarche and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Singaporean Chinese Women: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Odegaard, AO; Gross, MD; Koh, WP; Yuan, JM; Pereira, MA

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether menarcheal age was inversely associated with CVD mortality in Singaporean Chinese women. Methods 34,022 Chinese women aged 45–74 at enrollment (1993–1998), with complete data on study variables, were followed prospectively through 2009 for primary cause of death due to CVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CERE). Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality were computed across menarcheal age categories and adjusted for potential confounders and BMI. Results Over 460,374 person-years of follow-up, 1,852 women died from CVD; 998 of them from CHD and 557 from CERE. There was a significant interaction between menarcheal age and smoking (p<0.05). In nonsmokers, menarcheal age was inversely associated with risk for CVD and CHD mortality. HRs (and 95% CI) for CVD mortality across menarcheal age categories (≤12, 13–14, 15–16, ≥17) were: 1.06 (0.87–1.29), 1 (referent), 0.89 (0.79–1.00), and 0.80 (0.69–0.93), respectively (ptrend<0.001); HRs for CHD mortality were: 1.06 (0.80–1.34), 1 (referent), 0.76 (0.65–0.90), and 0.72 (0.58–0.88), respectively (ptrend<0.001). In nonsmokers there was no association between menarcheal age and CERE mortality. Among smokers, menarcheal age was not associated with CVD, CHD or CERE mortality. Conclusion Menarcheal age was inversely associated with risk of CVD mortality in nonsmoking Chinese women. PMID:22939833

  1. Influence of socioeconomic factors on age at menarche of Polish girls.

    PubMed

    Szwed, Anita; John, Aleksandra; Czapla, Zbigniew; Kosińska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on age at menarche in Polish girls. Questionnaire data of 2016 girls were collected during the cross-sectional research. Within the socioeconomic variables parents' education, urbanization, number of children in the family and date of menarche were considered. To examine the effects of the analyzed socioeconomic factors on age at menarche, the analysis of variance and the Kaplan-Meier method were used. To estimate the mutual relations between the analyzed variables, the method of classification and regression trees (CART) was applied. The socioeconomic factors significantly affect age at menarche. The latest crossed threshold of puberty is observed in girls whose parents inhabit rural areas. Family size also affects age at menarche: girls from large families are the latest who have crossed the pubertal threshold. The method of classification and regression trees indicates that the most important predictive factor is the number of children in the family. The obtained results confirmed the complex effect of the analyzed variables. A factor that conditions occurrence of menarche most of all is the number of children in the family and then the urbanization degree of mother's place of residence. Further research is clearly required--especially research including analyses of mutual relations between variables and their complex effect.

  2. A Cutoff for Age at Menarche Predicting Metabolic Syndrome in Egyptian Overweight/Obese Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Elsehely, Ibrahim; Abdel Hafez, Hala; Ghonem, Mohammed; Fathi, Ali; Elzehery, Rasha

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies showed that early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the definition of early menarche at these studies was based on background data in the communities at which these studies was carried on. The aim of this work is to determine a cutoff for age at menarche discriminating presence or absence of metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese premenopausal women. This study included 204 overweight/obese women. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP-ATP III (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria. Of a total 204 participants, 82 (40.2%) had metabolic syndrome. By using receiver operating characteristic analysis, age at menarche ≤12.25 year discriminated individuals with from those without metabolic syndrome. The area under the curve was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.83). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were 82%, 70%, 85%, and 64%, respectively. Age at menarche ≤12.25 years predicts the presence of metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese women. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association.

  3. Age at Menarche and Factors that Influence It: A Study among Female University Students in Tamale, Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by nutritional status and prevailing environmental conditions. This study measured the menarcheal age of female undergraduate students in northern Ghana and explored factors that could impact on the onset of menarche. Method GraphPad 5.01 was used to analyze data collected from 293 randomly selected female university students in a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Association between different variables was tested using appropriate statistical tests. Results The mean recall age at menarche of participants in this study was 13.66 ±1.87 years for a female population of mean age, 23.04±5.07 years. Compared to female students who lived in rural settings, urban and suburban areas dwellers significantly recorded earlier menarche (p = 0.0006). Again, females from high income earning families experienced menarche earlier than those who were born to or lived with lower income earners (p = 0.003). Lower menarcheal age increased risk of experiencing menstrual pain prior to menses rather than during menstrual flow for dysmenorrhic females. (13.52±2.052 vrs 13.63±1.582 year; χ2 = 7.181, df = 2, p = 0.028). Conclusion Mean menarcheal age of female university students in northern Ghana was 13.66 years. Females from urban areas and high income families had earlier menarche. Compared to the very first Ghanaian study reported in 1989, the menarcheal age decline was 0.11 year per decade. PMID:27171234

  4. LISA Optics Model: Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Scherr, Larry

    2003-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) optics model is used to generate a synthetic data stream in the absence of gravitational waves. The simulation has the spacecraft in moving in their respective Keplerian orbits. The pointing of the spacecraft and station keeping about the proof masses is accomplished using a control scheme, which minimizes the disturbance on the proof masses in the sensitive direction. The resulting data stream gives an indication of the magnitude of instrumental noise due to pointing jitter and motions of the spacecraft with respect to the proof masses. Computational details are presented and the results discussed.

  5. A study of menarcheal age in India.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D F; Chinn, S; Girija, B; Singh, H D

    1977-03-01

    A study of menarcheal age was carried out in southern India. A logit method of analysis was applied to status quo data on 1267 Tamil and Telugu speaking girls aged 9 to 18 years in 3 schools catering for different socio-economic groups. There appears to be no relationship of menarcheal age with dietary pattern classified simply as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Differences in median age at menarche between schools correspond well with the socio-economic differences between them. The median age in the most advantaged school (12-86 years) is comparable with that in recent studies in southern and eastern Europe, and may perhaps be in advance of some recent north-west European samples.

  6. Age at menarche as a fitness trait: nonadditive genetic variance detected in a large twin sample.

    PubMed Central

    Treloar, S A; Martin, N G

    1990-01-01

    The etiological role of genotype and environment in recalled age at menarche was examined using an unselected sample of 1,177 MZ and 711 DZ twin pairs aged 18 years and older. The correlation for onset of menarche between MZ twins was .65 +/- .03, and that for DZ pairs was .18 +/- .04, although these differed somewhat between four birth cohorts. Environmental factors were more important in the older cohorts (perhaps because of less reliable recall). Total genotypic variance (additive plus nonadditive) ranged from 61% in the oldest cohort to 68% in the youngest cohort. In the oldest birth cohort (born before 1939), there was evidence of greater influence of environmental factors on age at menarche in the second-born twin, although there was no other evidence in the data that birth trauma affected timing. The greater part of the genetic variance was nonadditive (dominance or epistasis), and this is typical of a fitness trait. It appears that genetic nonadditivity is in the decreasing direction, and this is consistent with selection for early menarche during human evolution. Breakdown of inbreeding depression as a possible explanation for the secular decline in age at menarche is discussed. PMID:2349942

  7. FlareLab: early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltwisch, H.; Kempkes, P.; Mackel, F.; Stein, H.; Tenfelde, J.; Arnold, L.; Dreher, J.; Grauer, R.

    2010-12-01

    The FlareLab experiment at Bochum University has been constructed to generate and investigate plasma-filled magnetic flux tubes similar to arch-shaped solar prominences, which often result in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In its first version, the device has been used to reproduce and extend previous studies of Bellan et al (1998 Phys. Plasmas 5 1991). Here the plasma source consists of two electrodes, which can be connected to a 1.0 kJ capacitor bank, and of a horseshoe magnet, which provides an arch-shaped guiding field. The discharge is ignited in a cloud of hydrogen gas that has been puffed into the space above the electrodes. In the first few microseconds the plasma current rises at a rate of several kA µs-1, causing the plasma column to pinch along the guiding B-field and to form an expanding loop structure. The observed dynamics of the magnetic flux tubes is analysed by means of three-dimensional MHD simulations in order to determine the influence of parameters like the initial magnetic field geometry on magnetic stability. At present, FlareLab is redesigned to mimic a model that was proposed by Titov and Démoulin (1999 Astron. Astrophys. 351 707) to investigate twisted magnetic configurations in solar flares.

  8. [Day at menarche, "fiesta" expectancy and "memory bias"].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2004-03-01

    The photoperiod and temperature were ruled out as main factors of the annual menarche rhythm. Vacations associate to peaks and study periods to troughs of menarche. Some months show contradictory behavior according to their vacation-study condition. To test the hypothesis that menarche occurs mainly in relation to fiesta or celebration (birthdays, holidays, and vacations) expectancies. To refute the memory bias in recording the day at menarche. Girls from Santiago, Chile (3,957) and Medellin, Colombia (3,616) were asked about the date of birth and menarche. In both cities, menarche occurred more commonly at birthday, Christmas-New Year, Day of the Independence, other holidays and days at vacation. The bias of memory was refuted because in both cities important holidays did not have excesses of menarche and some non-holidays had excesses; the distribution of menarches in the neighbor of peaks was often a left biased bell, with accessory peaks, and menarches/day over the expected mean (in agreement with the fiesta expectancy), and not a U shaped distribution (as expected by the memory bias); menarche distributed homogeneously on days of the week. The fiesta expectancy appears as a cause of the menarche rhythm. The bias of memory does not produce detectable effects. Evidence for recruitment of menarches and synergism between fiesta expectancy and vacations were found.

  9. Is soy intake related to age at onset of menarche? A cross-sectional study among adolescents with a wide range of soy food consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early onset of menarche may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Several factors affect the timing of menarche but it is not clear if soy foods consumption around pubertal years plays a role; thus, we examined its relation to age at onset of menarche (AOM) in a high soy-consuming population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 339 girls ages 12–18 years attending middle and high schools near two Seventh-day Adventist universities in California and Michigan using a web-based dietary questionnaire and physical development tool. Soy consumption (categorized as total soy, meat alternatives, tofu/traditional soy, and soy beverages) was estimated from the questionnaire, while AOM was self-reported. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cox proportional hazards ratios, Kaplan-Meier curves and Poisson regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results Mean (SD) intakes were: total soy,12.9 (14.4) servings/week; meat alternatives, 7.0 (8.9) servings/week; tofu/traditional soy foods, 2.1 (3.8) servings/week; soy beverages, 3.8 (6.3) servings/week. Mean AOM was 12.5 (1.4) y for those who reached menarche. Consumption of total soy and the 3 types of soy foods was not significantly associated with AOM and with the odds for early- or late-AOM. Adjustment for demographic and dietary factors did not change the results. Conclusion Soy intake is not associated with AOM in a population of adolescent girls who have a wide range of, and relatively higher, soy intake than the general US population. Our finding suggests that the increasing popularity of soy in the US may not be associated with AOM. PMID:24889551

  10. Is soy intake related to age at onset of menarche? A cross-sectional study among adolescents with a wide range of soy food consumption.

    PubMed

    Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Pribis, Peter; Messina, Mark; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-06-03

    Early onset of menarche may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Several factors affect the timing of menarche but it is not clear if soy foods consumption around pubertal years plays a role; thus, we examined its relation to age at onset of menarche (AOM) in a high soy-consuming population. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 339 girls ages 12-18 years attending middle and high schools near two Seventh-day Adventist universities in California and Michigan using a web-based dietary questionnaire and physical development tool. Soy consumption (categorized as total soy, meat alternatives, tofu/traditional soy, and soy beverages) was estimated from the questionnaire, while AOM was self-reported. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cox proportional hazards ratios, Kaplan-Meier curves and Poisson regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Mean (SD) intakes were: total soy,12.9 (14.4) servings/week; meat alternatives, 7.0 (8.9) servings/week; tofu/traditional soy foods, 2.1 (3.8) servings/week; soy beverages, 3.8 (6.3) servings/week. Mean AOM was 12.5 (1.4) y for those who reached menarche. Consumption of total soy and the 3 types of soy foods was not significantly associated with AOM and with the odds for early- or late-AOM. Adjustment for demographic and dietary factors did not change the results. Soy intake is not associated with AOM in a population of adolescent girls who have a wide range of, and relatively higher, soy intake than the general US population. Our finding suggests that the increasing popularity of soy in the US may not be associated with AOM.

  11. Age at menarche in relation to anthropometric characteristics, competition level and boat category in elite junior rowers.

    PubMed

    Claessens, A L; Bourgois, J; Beunen, G; Philippaerts, R; Thomis, M; Lefevre, J; Loos, R J E; Vrijens, J

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of the effects of training for sports on growth and maturation, there is very little menarcheal data for elite rowing athletes. Knowledge of the relationship of the maturational status with training level, different boat categories, and somatic features of the athletes will clarify the assumed impact of rowing training on the growth and maturational process of youngsters. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche in world top junior rowing athletes and to investigate its relationship with anthropometric characteristics, and competition level, rowing style and boat category. The sample consisted of 212 female junior rowers, with a mean chronological age of 17.6 +/- 0.8 years, all participants at the 1997 FISA World Junior Rowing Championships. Anthropometric dimensions, somatotype and body composition characteristics were measured, and age at menarche and training data were retrospectively obtained by questionnaires. Results revealed that the mean age at menarche of the total group of rowers was 12.8 +/- 1.2 years and did not differ from a non-athletic reference population. Rowers who started their rowing training before menarche (n = 78) showed a significant (p menarche compared with rowers who started their training after menarche (n = 134), with mean ages of 13.4 and 12.4 years, respectively. No significant relationship between the age at menarche and physical and body composition characteristics could be demonstrated, with r varying between -0.11 and 0.11. Furthermore, no significant differences in ages at menarche between competition levels (finalists versus non-finalists/medallists versus non-medallists) and between the different boat categories could be observed. Based on the results of this study, there is no direct evidence to state that intensive rowing training has a negative influence on the maturation status of junior female athletes.

  12. Symbols of menarche identified by African American females.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Dorothy J

    2002-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify and describe symbolic themes of menarche. The qualitative case study design was used with a purposive sample of 30 participants (15 mothers and their 15 daughters) in answering 2 questions: (a) How do 9- and 10-year-old African American girls view the meaning of their menarcheal flow?, and (b) How do African American mothers view the meaning of menarche? Data were collected through interviews 2 to 5 days after completion of menarche. A cross-case comparison analysis of the interviews revealed 4 themes: (a) vaginal bleeding, (b) sexual maturation, (c) premenarcheal sexual activity, and (d) sexual payback to fathers. With the exception of the latter all themes were supported in earlier studies of Euro-American girls. These findings indicate the need for further research addressing self-concept at menarche, impact of menarche on family relationships, and views of fathers about sexual payback as a symbol of menarche.

  13. Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause.

    PubMed

    Forman, Michele R; Mangini, Lauren D; Thelus-Jean, Rosenie; Hayward, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A woman's age at menarche (first menstrual period) and her age at menopause are the alpha and omega of her reproductive years. The timing of these milestones is critical for a woman's health trajectory over her lifespan, as they are indicators of ovarian function and aging. Both early and late timing of either event are associated with risk for adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. Thus, the search for a relationship between age at menarche and menopause has consequences for chronic disease prevention and implications for public health. This article is a review of evidence from the fields of developmental biology, epidemiology, nutrition, demography, sociology, and psychology that examine the menarche-menopause connection. Trends in ages at menarche and menopause worldwide and in subpopulations are presented; however, challenges exist in constructing trends. Among 36 studies that examine the association between the two sentinel events, ten reported a significant direct association, two an inverse association, and the remainder had null findings. Multiple factors, including hormonal and environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and stress throughout the life course are hypothesized to influence the tempo of growth, including body size and height, development, menarche, menopause, and the aging process in women. The complexity of these factors and the pathways related to their effects on each sentinel event complicate evaluation of the relationship between menarche and menopause. Limitations of past investigations are discussed, including lack of comparability of socioeconomic status indicators and biomarker use across studies, while minority group differences have received scant attention. Suggestions for future directions are proposed. As research across endocrinology, epidemiology, and the social sciences becomes more integrated, the confluence of perspectives will yield a richer understanding of the influences on the tempo of a woman's reproductive life

  14. Age at menarche in relation to nutritional status and critical life events among rural and urban secondary school girls in post-conflict Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Menarche age is an important indicator of reproductive health of a woman or a community. In industrial societies, age at menarche has been declining over the last 150 years with a secular trend, and similar trends have been reported in some developing countries. Menarche age is affected by genetic and environmental cues, including nutrition. The study was designed to determine the age at menarche and its relation to childhood critical life events and nutritional status in post-conflict northern Uganda. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study of rural and urban secondary school girls in northern Uganda. Structured questionnaires were administered to 274 secondary school girls, aged 12 – 18 years to determine the age at menarche in relation to home location, nutritional status, body composition and critical life events. Results The mean age at menarche was 13.6 ± 1.3 for rural and 13.3 ± 1.4 years for urban dwelling girls (t = -1.996, p = 0.047). Among the body composition measures, hip circumference was negatively correlated with the age at menarche (r = -0.109, p = 0.036), whereas height, BMI and waist circumference did not correlate with menarche. Paternal (but not maternal) education was associated with earlier menarche (F = 2.959, p = 0.033). Childhood critical life events were not associated with age at menarche. Conclusions Age at menarche differed among urban and rural dwelling school girls and dependent on current nutritional status, as manifested by the hip circumference. It was not associated with extreme stressful childhood critical life events. PMID:24885913

  15. Seasonal variations in menarche in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K

    1982-01-01

    Data from about 11,000 girls aged 10-18 years were used to study seasonal variations in menarche in Oslo, Norway. A statistical method which takes into account the changes over time in the age-structure of the sample is used to show that throughout the period 1965-1970, the menarche incidence varied according to a stable bimodal seasonal pattern with peaks in December-January and July-August. This pattern corresponds to those observed in Sweden and Finland, but deviates from other reported patterns, i.e. from the variations found in Copenhagen. It is argued that a possible cause of general lack of well supported hypotheses for seasonal variations is that an environmental factor may cause marked cyclic variations, without having a marked effect on the process determining maturation.

  16. Toward a contemporary tradition for menarche.

    PubMed

    Logan, D D; Calder, J A; Cohen, B L

    1980-06-01

    A cultural tradition to acknowledge a girl's first menstrual period is proposed in order to overcome the negative connotation of the event. Three basic questions regarding such a tradition are addressed: Who would participate? What would it mean? What type of activity should it be? A research team consisting of a psychologist, a nurse, and a social worker suggests answers based on their interviews with mothers and daughters, as well as their collection of menarche anecdotes from women psychologists.

  17. Heavier birth weight associated with taller height but not age at menarche in US women born 1991-1998.

    PubMed

    Workman, Megan; Kelly, Karina

    2017-09-10

    Heavier birth weight predicts taller adult height, but it remains unknown the extent to which this additional height increment results from a faster average growth rate versus an extension of the growth period. Aiming to distinguish these effects, this study examined associations between birth weight (BW), age at menarche (an established proxy for growth duration), and near-adult height in a cohort of US young women born in the 1990s. Multiple regression evaluated age-adjusted height as an outcome of BW, age at menarche, indicators of family socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders in a sample of US teens who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2012 (N = 342). Relevant interactions were also evaluated. Mean ± SD was 11.9 ± 1.2 years and 3262 ± 592 g for age at menarche and BW, respectively. BW did not predict age at menarche (β = -.01, p = .838). Girls were 1.3 cm taller per year delay in menarche (p < .001) and 2.9 cm taller per 1 kg increase in BW (p < .001). Additionally, the greatest gain in height associated with delayed menarche was observed among the heaviest BW quartile. Girls born heavier were taller but experienced menarche at similar ages to girls born lighter. To the extent that age at menarche reflected growth duration, these results demonstrate faster average growth among heavier-born girls. Consistent with fetal programming of average growth rate, these results held after adjustment for confounders of postnatal growth like family socioeconomic status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [The combined effect of spermarche, menarche and obesity on elevated blood pressure among Chinese students].

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Ma, J; Zhang, B; Hu, P J

    2017-04-06

    Objective: To investigate the association between the combined effect of spermarche/menarche and obesity with elevated blood pressure among Chinese students. Methods: A total of 106 009 primary and secondary school students (55 614 boys and 50 395 girls) were selected from " 2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance" (including 31 provinces, with the exception of Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) with full record of height, weight, blood pressure, puberty development data of spermarche/menarche. The level of blood pressure, as well as the prevalence of high blood pressure(HBP), were compared between different subgroups (pre-spermarche/menarche and non-obesity group, pre-spermarche/menarche and obesity group, pro-spermarche/menarche and non-obesity group, pro-spermarche/menarche and obesity group), and mulilevel logistic model was used to investigate the relationship between puberty development, obesity and blood pressure. Results: Among 55 614 boys aged 11 to 17 years old, the prevalence of spermarche was 62.1% (34 512/55 614), the prevalence of obesity was 7.5% (4 166/55 614), and the mean values of systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were 110.7/68.2 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa). While among 50 395 girls aged 9-14 years, the prevalence of menarche was 48.2% (24 301/50 395), the prevalence of obesity was 5.8% (2 942/50 395), and the mean values of systolic pressure and diastolic pressure was 102.9/64.8 mmHg. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 5.2% (1 003/19 274), 17.9% (328/1 828), 6.6% (2 132/32 174), and 23.9% (558/2 338) in pre-spermarche and non-obesity boys, pre-spermarche and obesity boys, pro-spermarche and non-obesity boys and pro-spermarche and obesity boys, respectively. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 5.9% (1 439/24 570), 17.2% (262/1 524), 5.0% (1 147/22 883), and 17.0% (241/1 418) in pre-menarche and non-obesity girls, pre-menarche and obesity girls, pro-menarche and non-obesity girls and pro-menarche and obesity girls

  19. Urban Rural Comparison of Anthropometry and Menarcheal Status of Adolescent School Going Girls of Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Khichar, Satyendra; Dabi, Dhanraj; Parakh, Manish; Dara, Pawan K.; Parakh, Poonam; Vyas, Suyasha; Deopa, Bindu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescence is the formative period of life. Poor adolescent health translates into poor maternal health leading to increased maternal morbidity with inter-generational consequences. Aim To compare anthropometric, socio-demographic, menstrual and nutritional status of rural and urban adolescent school going girls of Western Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in two rural schools and one urban school of Jodhpur region. Anthropometric, socio-economic (family history, menstrual history, maternal education) and dietary habit data of 327 (137 urban and 190 rural) school going adolescent girls aged 11–16 years were collected using structured questionnaires by a school based survey after consent from parents and school officials. Height and weight were taken using the standard procedure. Stunting (height for age) and thinness [Body Mass index (BMI) for age] were calculated as per the National Center for Health and Statistics (NCHS) standards. Statistical analysis was done using student t-test, fisher-exact test and Chi-square test. Results Mean height was significantly higher in urban girls while mean BMI of adolescents was significantly higher in rural areas as compared to their urban counterparts. Growth spurt was between 12-13 years showing maximum increase in mean height, coinciding with or immediately post-menarche. Menarche was one year earlier in urban girls as compared to rural girls (p<0.001). Thinness was more prevalent among females in urban areas and stunting was more common amongst girls residing in rural areas. Conclusion Life style habits (poor dietary habits, sedentary life style) of the urban girls may contribute to an early menarche but rural girls despite having a later onset of menarche; have a lower final height which may be attributed to their poor nutritional status. Improving nutrition of rural girls and modifying the life style of urban girls and educating their mothers will

  20. Early results of an objective olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Davies, C W; Donne, K E; Whittet, H B

    1998-01-01

    Although many people comment on their ability or inability to smell an odour, the accurate measurement of olfaction remains an elusive goal. Currently, there are no instruments available to objectively measure olfaction. This article outlines the design and early test results of a low cost, computer-based olfactometer which uses the frequency content of evoked potentials to quantify a subject's response to an olfactory stimulus. Clinical trials have been undertaken to establish the validity of the olfactometer and over a thousand tests have been carried out. Early results suggest that the methodology employed is appropriate and could be developed to enable a commercial olfactometer to be produced.

  1. Maternal body mass index and daughters' age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Keim, Sarah A; Branum, Amy M; Klebanoff, Mark A; Zemel, Babette S

    2009-09-01

    The role of intergenerational influences on age at menarche has not been explored far beyond the association between mothers' and daughters' menarcheal ages. Small size at birth and childhood obesity have been associated with younger age at menarche, but the influence of maternal overweight or obesity on daughters' age at menarche has not been thoroughly examined. In a follow-up study of the prospective Collaborative Perinatal Project, grown daughters were asked in 1987-1991 for their age at menarche. Data from the original Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1966) included their mothers' height and prepregnancy weight. In the follow-up study, 597 of 627 daughters had complete menarche and maternal data available and were included in the present analysis. We used polytomous logistic regression to examine the association between maternal overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 25-29.9 km/m) or obesity (BMI >or= 30) and daughter's age at menarche (menarche (OR for menarche at menarche, maternal parity, socioeconomic status, race, and study site (OR = 3.3 [1.1-10.0]). Effect estimates for maternal overweight were close to the null. There was limited evidence of mediation by small for gestational age or BMI at age 7. Maternal obesity is associated with younger menarcheal age among daughters in this study, possibly via unmeasured shared factors.

  2. Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Michele R; Mangini, Lauren D; Thelus-Jean, Rosenie; Hayward, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A woman’s age at menarche (first menstrual period) and her age at menopause are the alpha and omega of her reproductive years. The timing of these milestones is critical for a woman’s health trajectory over her lifespan, as they are indicators of ovarian function and aging. Both early and late timing of either event are associated with risk for adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. Thus, the search for a relationship between age at menarche and menopause has consequences for chronic disease prevention and implications for public health. This article is a review of evidence from the fields of developmental biology, epidemiology, nutrition, demography, sociology, and psychology that examine the menarche–menopause connection. Trends in ages at menarche and menopause worldwide and in subpopulations are presented; however, challenges exist in constructing trends. Among 36 studies that examine the association between the two sentinel events, ten reported a significant direct association, two an inverse association, and the remainder had null findings. Multiple factors, including hormonal and environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and stress throughout the life course are hypothesized to influence the tempo of growth, including body size and height, development, menarche, menopause, and the aging process in women. The complexity of these factors and the pathways related to their effects on each sentinel event complicate evaluation of the relationship between menarche and menopause. Limitations of past investigations are discussed, including lack of comparability of socioeconomic status indicators and biomarker use across studies, while minority group differences have received scant attention. Suggestions for future directions are proposed. As research across endocrinology, epidemiology, and the social sciences becomes more integrated, the confluence of perspectives will yield a richer understanding of the influences on the tempo of a woman

  3. Age of menarche and nutritional status of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents in the Araucanía Region of Chile.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Muzzo, Santiago; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio

    2010-08-01

    Early onset of menarche has been linked to prevalence of obesity; however, this may differ for indigenous females. To analyse the relationship between age of menarche and nutritional status among indigenous and non-indigenous girls. The design of this study was cross-sectional. Date of menarche was determined through interviews, and all responses were confirmed by the girls' mothers. A total of 8504 adolescents were screened for recent menarche. One hundred and thirty-one girls of Mapuche (indigenous) and 143 girls of Chilean-Spanish background were identified and evaluated by anthropometric measurements. Median age of menarche was 150 months, interquartile range (IR) 143-157 in indigenous, and 145.5 months, IR 139-153 in non-indigenous girls (p = 0.04). The indigenous females showed a higher prevalence of overweight (36.4% vs 23.1%), although the frequency of obesity was similar (16.8% vs 16.3%). For indigenous girls, age of menarche was delayed by 2.69 months (confidence intervals (CI) -0.38 to 5.77). It was observed that girls with overweight experienced age of menarche 7.59 months earlier than those with normal weight, CI -10.78 to -4.41. In the analysis of obesity, the effect on age of menarche was similar, with onset 7.53 months earlier than for the normal weight, CI -11.34 to -3.72. Age of menarche is younger than has been previously reported and occurs earlier in girls with overweight and obesity, while being indigenous was not related.

  4. Short-term secular variation in menarche and blood lead concentration in school girls in the Copper Basin of southwestern Poland: 1995 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Sławińska, Teresa; Ignasiak, Zofia; Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate short-term secular change in menarche and associations with blood lead level in Polish girls between 1995 and 2007. Menarcheal status of school girls 7-16 years from villages in southwestern Poland was surveyed in 1995, 2001, 2004, and 2007. Blood lead was sampled in 1995 and 2007. Median ages and variance statistics for menarche were estimated with probit analysis. Associations between blood lead level and menarcheal status in 1995 and 2007 were analyzed with logistic regression using blood lead level as an independent binary variable: 2.00-5.00 and ≥5.10 μg/dl. Median ages at menarche declined slightly from 1995 (13.36 ± 0.06 years) to 2001 (13.20 ± 0.04 years), was stable in 2004 (13.20 ± 0.05 years), and declined to 2007 (12.81 ± 0.05 years). Blood lead levels declined from 6.57 ± 0.13 μg/dl in 1995 to 4.24 ± 0.14 μg/dl in 2007. With age, height, and BMI controlled, probability of attaining menarche was not associated with blood lead in 1995, but was decreased with increased blood lead in 2007 (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.09-1.06, P = 0.057). Ages at menarche and blood lead levels declined between 1995 and 2007. Higher blood lead levels were not associated with menarche in 1995, suggesting that nutritional and health conditions and perhaps somewhat unstable social and economic conditions in the 1980s and early 1990s may have masked the influence of lead on sexual maturation. Elevated blood lead was associated with the probability of later menarche in 2007, although the association was of borderline (P = 0.06). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Menarche and Interest in Infants: Biological and Social Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Susan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reports two studies in which 12- to 13-year-old girls, half of whom were premenarcheal and half postmenarcheal, responded to pictures of infants. Concurrent assessments of interest in motherhood, cognitive sophistication about the relationship between menarche and childbearing, attitudes toward menarche, and sex-role self-image did not…

  6. Menarcheal age and subsequent patterns of family formation.

    PubMed

    Riley, A P; Weinstein, M; Ridley, J C; Mormino, J; Gorrindo, T

    2001-01-01

    We examine whether age at menarche affects age at first marriage or first birth using two samples of U.S. women. Data are drawn from the Tremin Trust, a longitudinal study of menstrual cycles that recruited white women who were students at the University of Minnesota and from a survey of a nationally representative sample of white women born between 1900 and 1910. Regression models with cubic splines were used to analyze the relationship between age at menarche and age at first marriage. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the effect of age at menarche on the interval between marriage and first birth. Unlike earlier work, we found that once secular trends in both age at marriage and age at menarche were taken into account, there was no evidence that age at menarche affects either age at marriage or the timing of first births in these U.S. women.

  7. Family stress, perception of pregnancy, and age of first menarche among pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ravert, A A; Martin, J

    1997-01-01

    Family-of-origin stress, age of first menarche, and the perception of pregnancy as a life event were examined in 97 pregnant adolescents ages 13 to 18. This study investigated whether family-of-origin stress levels were significantly related to the pregnant adolescent's perception of her pregnancy as a life event. The study also examined whether age of first menarche was related to the subject's level of family stress. Family stress levels were assessed through the Adolescent-Family Inventory of Life-Events and Changes (A-FILE) developed by McCubbin & Thompson (1987). Perception of pregnancy as a life event was measured on a Likert scale developed by the researcher. Age of first menarche was obtained via self-report. Results indicated high levels of family stress among subjects with only a moderate level of impact or stress experienced from the pregnancy. As a group, the subjects experienced first menarche between 12 to 13 years of age, which is the average age supported by other studies within the United States.

  8. Relationship between menarche and psychosis onset in women with first episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Abadal, Elena; Usall, Judith; Barajas, Anna; Carlson, Janina; Iniesta, Raquel; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Baños, Iris; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age at menarche and age at first episode of psychosis, as well as clinical severity and outcome, in a population of women with first-episode psychosis. Clinical and socio-demographical data, age at menarche and at first-episode psychosis, parental history of psychosis and cannabis-use habits were obtained from 42 subjects with a first episode of psychosis. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Global Assessment Function, Disability Assessment Schedule, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, European Quality of Life, and Lewis and Murray Obstetric Complication Scales were administered. Statistical analysis was performed by means of zero-order correlations and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests using SPSS version 17.0. We found no significant correlation between age at menarche and age at first-episode psychosis, or with the clinical scores performed. We observed that subjects with earlier age at menarche had more parental history of psychosis. Our negative results do not support the theory of a possible protective role of oestrogen, which seems to be more complex than previously thought. We would suggest that further research is needed to investigate developmental influences of sex steroids on the onset of psychosis and potentially therapeutic benefits based upon oestrogen. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Association Between Age at Onset of Schizophrenia and Age at Menarche

    PubMed Central

    KILIÇASLAN, Esin Evren; EROL, Almila; ZENGİN, Burçak; ÇETİNAY AYDIN, Pınar; METE, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence from clinical practice, as well as from epidemiological and basic research shows that there are gender differences in clinical features of schizophrenia, and this may be related to estrogens. There may be a relationship between earlier puberty and later onset of the disease, because of the protective effects of estrogens in women with schizophrenia. In this study, our aim was to analyze the correlation between age of menarche and age of onset of schizophrenia and to investigate the protective effects of estrogens in schizophrenia. Method In this study, we included 289 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Those with mental deficiency or organic brain disorders were excluded from the study. All subjects were given a socio-demographic form to determine their personal information, age at menarche, age at first odd behavior, age at onset of the disease and first hospitalization. Data on factors which may affect the association between age at onset of schizophrenia and age at menarche such as family history, head or birth trauma etc. were recorded on the information form. Results We found out that age at menarche was negatively associated with age at first odd behavior and age at first psychotic symptoms. Conclusion Our study verifies the protective effects of estrogens and shows that the earlier puberty may be the cause of later onset of schizophrenia. A gender-sensitive approach in psychiatry improves our understanding of mental illness and our therapeutic strategies.

  10. Menarche and the onset of depression and anxiety in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, G C; Hibbert, M E; Carlin, J; Shao, Q; Rosier, M; Caust, J; Bowes, G

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Psychiatric disorder often begins at adolescence. This study aimed to examine the associations between puberty and social circumstances and the adolescent rise in depression and anxiety. DESIGN: A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used to identify a representative group of Australian secondary school students in years 7 (age 12-13 years), 9 (14-15 years), and 11 (16-17 years) of 45 Victorian schools. The computerised clinical interview schedule (CIS) was used to evaluate psychiatric morbidity. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 2525 subjects completed the survey - an overall participation rate of 83%. Levels of depression and anxiety increased with the secondary school years and girls had significantly higher rates at each school year level. For boys, the clearest independent associations with depression and anxiety were rising school year level and high parental educational achievement. For girls menarchal status emerged as the strongest predictor. Associations with age and school year level, evident on univariate analysis, did not persist when the recency of menarche was taken into account. After addition of measures of perceived social stress to a multivariate model, a significant association between depression/anxiety and parental divorce disappeared but the association with menarche persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Menarche marks a transition in the risk of depression and anxiety in girls. The pattern of findings is consistent with a biological mediation of this association. PMID:9039386

  11. Important Role of Menarche in Development of Estrogen Receptor–Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Zirpoli, Gary; Hong, Chi-Chen; Yao, Song; Troester, Melissa A.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N.; Borges, Virginia; Park, Song-Yi; Chandra, Dhyan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Menarche is a critical time point for diverging fates of mammary cells of origin. African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor–negative (ER-) breast cancer. Methods: In the AMBER Consortium, using harmonized data from 4426 African American women with breast cancer and 17 474 controls, we used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ages at menarche and first live birth (FLB), and the interval between, in relation to ER+ and ER- breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Risk of ER- breast cancer was reduced with later age at menarche among both parous and nulliparous women (≥15 vs <11 years OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.81 and OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.29 to 1.10, respectively), with no effect of age at FLB. For ER+ breast cancer, the inverse association was weaker among nulliparous women. While longer intervals between menarche and FLB were associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in a dose-response fashion (OR for 20 year interval = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.79, P trend = .003), ER- risk was only increased for intervals up to 14 years and not beyond (P trend = .33). Conclusions: While ER- breast cancer risk was markedly reduced in women with a late age at menarche, there was not a clear pattern of increased risk with longer interval between menarche and FLB, as was observed for ER+ breast cancer. These findings indicate that etiologic pathways involving adolescence and pregnancy may differ for ER- and ER+ breast cancer. PMID:26085483

  12. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA`s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  13. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.; Duren, R.; Frerking, M.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the Sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  14. Role of oestrogen in the regulation of bone turnover at the menarche.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard

    2005-05-01

    The rise in oestrogen levels at menarche in girls is associated with a large reduction in bone turnover markers. This reduction reflects the closure of the epiphyseal growth plates, the reduction in periosteal apposition and endosteal resorption within cortical bone, and in bone remodelling within cortical and cancellous bone. Oestrogen promotes these changes, in part, by promoting apoptosis of chondrocytes in the growth plate and osteoclasts within cortical and cancellous bone. The period of early puberty is associated with an increased risk of fracture, particularly of the distal forearm, and this may be related to the high rate of bone turnover. A late menarche is a consistent risk factor for fracture and low bone mineral density in the postmenopausal period; models that might explain this association are considered.

  15. High Prepubertal Leptin Levels Are Associated With Earlier Menarcheal Age.

    PubMed

    Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Navarro, Pilar; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Given the interplay between metabolic status and the reproductive system, factors governing energy homeostasis could influence the timing of pubertal onset. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine the influence of metabolic peptides associated to adiposity on menarcheal age. The sample population included 168 girls. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured at a prepubertal baseline (6-8 years old) and 7 years later. Leptin and adiponectin levels were determined by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, insulin by radioimmunoassay and ghrelin by a multiplexed bead immunoassay. Adjusted for body mass index, Spearman correlation analysis revealed a significant negative association between prepubertal leptin levels and menarche. The highest prepubertal leptin levels were observed in overweight girls with the earliest menarche. Menarcheal age was significantly associated with variation of adiponectin levels between both baseline and follow-up. Multiple regression analysis showed that prepubertal leptin was the only significant contributing factor, predicting 15.3% of variation in menarcheal age. High leptin levels in prepubertal girls are associated with earlier menarcheal age, independent of body mass index. However, the relationship of ghrelin, insulin, or adiponectin levels with menarcheal age is not evident in our population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Age at menarche and risk of major cardiovascular diseases: Evidence of birth cohort effects from a prospective study of 300,000 Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Li, Liming; Millwood, Iona Y; Peters, Sanne A E; Chen, Yiping; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Xiaofang; Chen, Lingli; Feng, Shixian; Lv, Silu; Pang, Zhigang; Woodward, Mark; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-01-15

    Previous studies of mostly Western women have reported inconsistent findings on the association between age at menarche and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about the association in China where there has been a large intergenerational decrease in women's mean age at menarche. The China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 302,632 women aged 30-79 (mean 50.5)years in 2004-8 from 10 diverse regional sites across China. During 7years follow-up, 14,111 incident cases of stroke, 14,093 of coronary heart disease (CHD), and 3200 CVD deaths were reported among 281,491 women who had no prior history of CVD at baseline. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) relating age at menarche to CVD risks. The mean (SD) age of menarche was 15.4 (1.9)years, decreasing from 16.2 (2.0) among women born before 1940 to 14.7 (1.6) for those born during the 1960s-1970s. The patterns of association between age at menarche and CVD risk appeared to differ between different birth cohorts, with null associations in older generations but U-shaped or weak positive associations in younger women, especially those born after the 1960s. After minimizing the potential confounding effects from major CVD risk factors, both early and late menarche, compared with menarche at age 13years, were associated with increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality, which was more pronounced in younger generations. Among Chinese women the associations between age at menarche and risk of CVD differed by birth cohort, suggesting other factors may underpin the association. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide association study of sexual maturation in males and females highlights a role for body mass and menarche loci in male puberty

    PubMed Central

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Berry, Diane J.; Ang, Wei; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Körner, Antje; Siitonen, Niina; Ntalla, Ioanna; Marinelli, Marcella; Perry, John R.B.; Kettunen, Johannes; Jansen, Rick; Surakka, Ida; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ring, Susan; Mcmahon, George; Power, Chris; Wang, Carol; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimäki, Terho; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Neef, Madlen; Weise, Sebastian; Pahkala, Katja; Niinikoski, Harri; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Bustamante, Mariona; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Murabito, Joanne; Torrent, Maties; Dedoussis, George V.; Kiess, Wieland; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pennell, Craig E.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hyppönen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Ripatti, Samuli; McCarthy, Mark I.; Widén, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about genes regulating male puberty. Further, while many identified pubertal timing variants associate with age at menarche, a late manifestation of puberty, and body mass, little is known about these variants' relationship to pubertal initiation or tempo. To address these questions, we performed genome-wide association meta-analysis in over 11 000 European samples with data on early pubertal traits, male genital and female breast development, measured by the Tanner scale. We report the first genome-wide significant locus for male sexual development upstream of myocardin-like 2 (MKL2) (P = 8.9 × 10−9), a menarche locus tagging a developmental pathway linking earlier puberty with reduced pubertal growth (P = 4.6 × 10−5) and short adult stature (p = 7.5 × 10−6) in both males and females. Furthermore, our results indicate that a proportion of menarche loci are important for pubertal initiation in both sexes. Consistent with epidemiological correlations between increased prepubertal body mass and earlier pubertal timing in girls, body mass index (BMI)-increasing alleles correlated with earlier breast development. In boys, some BMI-increasing alleles associated with earlier, and others with delayed, sexual development; these genetic results mimic the controversy in epidemiological studies, some of which show opposing correlations between prepubertal BMI and male puberty. Our results contribute to our understanding of the pubertal initiation program in both sexes and indicate that although mechanisms regulating pubertal onset in males and females may largely be shared, the relationship between body mass and pubertal timing in boys may be complex and requires further genetic studies. PMID:24770850

  18. Genome-wide association study of sexual maturation in males and females highlights a role for body mass and menarche loci in male puberty.

    PubMed

    Cousminer, Diana L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Berry, Diane J; Ang, Wei; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Körner, Antje; Siitonen, Niina; Ntalla, Ioanna; Marinelli, Marcella; Perry, John R B; Kettunen, Johannes; Jansen, Rick; Surakka, Ida; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ring, Susan; Mcmahon, George; Power, Chris; Wang, Carol; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimäki, Terho; Middeldorp, Christel M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Neef, Madlen; Weise, Sebastian; Pahkala, Katja; Niinikoski, Harri; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Bustamante, Mariona; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Murabito, Joanne; Torrent, Maties; Dedoussis, George V; Kiess, Wieland; Boomsma, Dorret I; Pennell, Craig E; Raitakari, Olli T; Hyppönen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Ripatti, Samuli; McCarthy, Mark I; Widén, Elisabeth

    2014-08-15

    Little is known about genes regulating male puberty. Further, while many identified pubertal timing variants associate with age at menarche, a late manifestation of puberty, and body mass, little is known about these variants' relationship to pubertal initiation or tempo. To address these questions, we performed genome-wide association meta-analysis in over 11 000 European samples with data on early pubertal traits, male genital and female breast development, measured by the Tanner scale. We report the first genome-wide significant locus for male sexual development upstream of myocardin-like 2 (MKL2) (P = 8.9 × 10(-9)), a menarche locus tagging a developmental pathway linking earlier puberty with reduced pubertal growth (P = 4.6 × 10(-5)) and short adult stature (p = 7.5 × 10(-6)) in both males and females. Furthermore, our results indicate that a proportion of menarche loci are important for pubertal initiation in both sexes. Consistent with epidemiological correlations between increased prepubertal body mass and earlier pubertal timing in girls, body mass index (BMI)-increasing alleles correlated with earlier breast development. In boys, some BMI-increasing alleles associated with earlier, and others with delayed, sexual development; these genetic results mimic the controversy in epidemiological studies, some of which show opposing correlations between prepubertal BMI and male puberty. Our results contribute to our understanding of the pubertal initiation program in both sexes and indicate that although mechanisms regulating pubertal onset in males and females may largely be shared, the relationship between body mass and pubertal timing in boys may be complex and requires further genetic studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The effect of menarche age, parity and lactation on bone mineral density in premenopausal ambulatory multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Sioka, Chrissa; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Papakonstantinou, Stilianos; Georgiou, Athanasia; Pelidou, Sygliti-Henrietta; Kyritsis, Athanasios P; Kalef-Ezra, John A

    2015-07-01

    Although pregnancy and breast-feeding do not have any deleterious effect on disease activity in female multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, their role on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk is unknown. We investigated the role of age at menarche, parity and lactation on BMD expressed as percentage of the mean BMD (%BMD) in 46 pre-menopausal ambulatory female MS patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in lumbar spine (LS) and hip. MS female patients with age at menarche ≥13 years old had reduced %BMD compared to those with menarche age <13 years (95.2±10.7 vs 102.1±13.3, p=0.05 in LS; 90.5±12.6 vs 99.8±12.6, p=0.02 in hip). Parity did not result in any statistically significant changes in either LS or hip. Patients that breastfed their offspring compared to those that did not had significantly lower BMD in both LS (93.9±9.3 vs 110.7±15.6, p=0.004) and hip (91.6±10.7 vs 105.6±15.3, p=0.02). MS female patients with menarche at age≥13 years and those who breastfed their offspring may have reduced BMD. Larger studies are needed to verify these findings and establish a definite role of menarche age and breast feeding with BMD.

  20. Evolutionary perspectives on pregnancy: maternal age at menarche and infant birth weight.

    PubMed

    Coall, David A; Chisholm, James S

    2003-11-01

    We present a novel evolutionary analysis of low birth weight (LBW). LBW is a well-known risk factor for increased infant morbidity and mortality. Its causes, however, remain obscure and there is a vital need for new approaches. Life history theory, the most dynamic branch of evolutionary ecology, provides important insights into the potential role of LBW in human reproductive strategies. Life history theory's primary rationale for LBW is the trade-off between current and future reproduction. This trade-off underlies the prediction that under conditions of environmental risk and uncertainty (experienced subjectively as psychosocial stress) it can be evolutionarily adaptive to reproduce at a young age. One component of early reproduction is early menarche. Early reproduction tends to maximise offspring quantity, but parental investment theory's assumption of a quantity-quality trade-off holds that maximizing offspring quantity reduces quality, of which LBW may be the major component. We therefore predict that women who experienced early psychosocial stress and had early menarche are more likely to produce LBW babies. Furthermore, the extension of parent-offspring conflict theory in utero suggests that the fetus will attempt to resist its mother's efforts to reduce its resources, allocating more of what it does receive to the placenta in order to extract more maternal resources to increase its own quality. We propose that LBW babies born to mothers who experience early psychosocial stress and have early menarche are more likely to have a higher placental/fetal weight ratio. We review evidence in support of these hypotheses and discuss the implications for public health.

  1. Age at menarche and risk of type 2 diabetes among African-American and white women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, P. L.; Huxley, R.; Pankow, J. S.; Selvin, E.; Fernández-Rhodes, L.; Franceschini, N.; Demerath, E. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We examined race differences in the association between age at menarche and type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity. Methods We analysed baseline and 9-year follow-up data from 8,491 women (n=2,505 African-American, mean age 53.3 years; n=5,986 white, mean age 54.0 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Stratifying by race, we used logistic regression to estimate the OR for prevalent diabetes at baseline, and Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the HR for incident diabetes over follow-up according to age at menarche category (8–11, 12, 13, 14 and 15–18 years). Results Adjusting for age and centre, we found that early age at menarche (8–11 vs 13 years) was associated with diabetes for white, but not African-American women in both the prevalent (white OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.32, 2.25; African-American OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.84, 1.51; interaction p = 0.043) and incident models (white HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.08, 1.89; African-American HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.87, 1.67; interaction p=0.527). Adjustment for adiposity and lifestyle confounders attenuated associations for prevalent (white OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.05, 1.89; African-American OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.68, 1.30; interaction p=0.093) and incident diabetes (white HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.92, 1.63; African-American HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.80, 1.56; interaction p=0.554). Conclusions/interpretation Early menarche was associated with type 2 diabetes in white women, and adulthood adiposity attenuated the relationship. We did not find a similar association in African-American women. Our findings suggest that there may be race/ethnic differences in the influence of developmental factors in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes, which merit further investigation. PMID:22760786

  2. Age at menarche in girls and the Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wojtyła, Andrzej; Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T

    2012-01-01

    The researchers express their attitude concerning a chapter in the book by Victor Preedy entitled 'Handbook of Anthropometry: Physical Measures of Human Form and Disease' written by Polish researchers, anthropologists concerning the age at menarche in Polish girls after World War II. The authors question the arguments explaining the phenomenon of acceleration of pubertal timing in girls in recent decades described in the scientific literature. In their opinion, the phenomena of acceleration or delay of pubertal onset in girls cannot be explained solely by the living conditions. According to them, it is necessary to consider in these analyses the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD). The researchers are of the opinion that this is rather a mismatch in the conditions of individual development, mainly nutrition, between critical developmental periods (critical windows) and later conditions that play a role in the acceleration or delay of the age at menarche in girls. They draw attention to the fact that the age at menarche in girls is an indicator of life span programmed in the early developmental periods. They consider that the effect of these relationships is susceptibility to civilisation chronic diseases in adulthood.

  3. Age at menarche and the risk of operative delivery.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hsu Phern; Frøen, J Frederik; Richardson, Sylvia; Liquet, Benoit; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Smith, Gordon C S

    2017-09-28

    We sought to evaluate the impact of later menarche on the risk of operative delivery. We studied 38,069 eligible women (first labors at term with a singleton infant in a cephalic presentation) from the Norwegian Mothers and Child Cohort Study. The main exposures were the age at menarche and the duration of the interval between menarche and the first birth. Poisson's regression with a robust variance estimator. Operative delivery, defined as emergency cesarean or assisted vaginal delivery (ventouse extraction or forceps). A 5 year increase in age at menarche was associated with a reduced risk of operative delivery (risk ratio [RR] 0.84, 95%CI 0.78, 0.89; p < .001). Adjustment for the age at first birth slightly strengthened the association (RR 0.79, 95%CI 0.74, 0.84; p < .001). However, the association was lost following adjustment for the menarche to birth interval (RR 0.99, 95%CI 0.93, 1.06; p = .81). A 5 years increase in menarche to birth interval was associated with an increased risk of operative delivery (RR 1.26, 95%CI 1.23, 1.28; p < .001). This was not materially affected by adjustment for an extensive series of maternal characteristics (RR 1.23, 95%CI 1.20, 1.25; p < .001). Later menarche reduces the risk of an operative first birth through shortening the menarche to birth interval. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the pattern and/or duration of prepregnancy exposure of the uterus to estrogen and progesterone contributes to uterine aging.

  4. Secular trend in the age at menarche in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Barnes-Josiah, Debora; Augustin, Antoine

    1995-01-01

    Trends in age at menarche of 10,563 pregnant Haitian women enrolled in a longitudinal study of maternal mortality are examined. Mean recalled age at menarche for adult women in the sample was 15.37 years. However, there was a clear decline in mean menarcheal ages from the oldest to the youngest women, with a mean rate of decline for adult women of 0.36 years per decade. Mean menarcheal age was higher in each age group of rural women than for women in the metropolitan Port-au-Prince area; the rate of decline for adult rural women (0.37 years per decade) was nonsignificantly higher than that for adult metropolitan women (0.30 years per decade). The data suggest a secular decline in age at menarche in Haiti, as well as a continuing disparity between metropolitan and rural women. A declining age at menarche has important implications for fertility and reproductive health in Haiti, and may reflect a gradual improvement in health and nutritional status. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  5. Age at Menarche and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study Among 27,482 Women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; He, Chunyan; Zhu, Yeyi; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Yeung, Edwina; Hu, Frank B.; Zhang, Cuilin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between age at menarche and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort study of 42,109 eligible pregnancies from 27,482 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. RESULTS The adjusted risk ratios for GDM across the age at menarche categories (≤11, 12, 13, and ≥14 years) were 1.34 (95% CI 1.14–1.58), 1.13 (0.97–1.31), 1.11 (0.95–1.29), and 1.00 (referent; P for trend = 0.0005), respectively. Analysis of the mediating effect indicated that 42.1% (P = 0.0007) of the association was mediated through prepregnancy BMI. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggested that earlier menarche was significantly associated with an increased risk of GDM. This association was largely mediated through prepregnancy excessive body adiposity. PMID:26813668

  6. The Kepler Mission and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Jenkins, Jon; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D.; Devore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N., III; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Gould, Alan; Jenkins, Jon; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey; Monet, David; Sasselov, Dimitar; Boss, Alan; Caldwell, John; Dupree, Andrea K.; Howell, Steve B.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Meibom, Søren; Morrison, David; Tarter, Jill; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Rowe, Jason F.; van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Buzasi, Derek; Charbonneau, David; Doyle, Lau-Rance; Ford, Eric; Fortney, Jonathan; Holman, Matthew; Seager, Sara; Steffen, Jason; Welsh, William

    Kepler is a Discovery-class mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The instrument consists of a 0.95 m aperture photometer designed to obtain high-precision photometric measurement for more than 3.5 years of more than 100,000 stars to search for patterns of transits of exoplanets. The focal plane of the Schmidt telescope contains 42 CCDs with a total of 95 megapixels that cover 115 square degrees of sky. The single star field will be viewed for the entire duration of the mission. The photometer was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit on March 6, 2009, finished its commissioning on May 12, and is now in the science operations mode. The bases for a number of the design choices are described. Although the data have not yet been fully corrected for the presence of systematic errors and artifacts, the data show the presence of thousands of eclipsing binaries and variable stars of amazing variety. The character of stellar variability allows us to distinguish dwarf stars from giants. Astrometric stability at the sub-millipixel level of the photocenters of stars allows us in many cases to distinguish transit candidates from background eclipsing binaries. Analysis of the early data shows transits, occultations and even visible light emission from the hot exoplanet HAT-P-7b. The latest results on exoplanet detections from Kepler will be presented. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. A Longitudinal Assessment of Associations between Adolescent Environment, Adversity Perception, and Economic Status on Fertility and Age of Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Dorsa; Jordan, Matthew R.; Bribiescas, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions of environmental adversity and access to economic resources in adolescence can theoretically affect the timing of life history transitions and investment in reproductive effort. Here we present evidence of correlations between variables associated with subjective extrinsic mortality, economic status, and reproductive effort in a nationally representative American population of young adults. Methods We used a longitudinal database that sampled American participants (N ≥ 1,579) at four points during early adolescence and early adulthood to test whether perceptions of environmental adversity and early economic status were associated with reproductive effort. Results We found that subjectively high ratings of environmental danger and low access to economic resources in adolescence were significantly associated with an earlier age of menarche in girls and earlier, more robust fertility in young adulthood. Conclusion While energetics and somatic condition remain as possible sources of variation, the results of this study support the hypothesis that perceptions of adversity early in life and limited access to economic resources are associated with differences in reproductive effort and scheduling. How these factors may covary with energetics and somatic condition merits further investigation. PMID:27249338

  8. [Menarche in healthy and sick girls with special reference to mongolism].

    PubMed

    Bellone, F; Tanganelli, E; Pecorari, D

    1979-02-15

    The age of menarche in various groups of females was studied. In healthy girls, the average age of menarche was 12 years 2 months regardless of their birthweights. Twin girls had a significantly retarded menarche (approx. 12 years 8 months). In a group of 102 blind patients, it was not significantly different from healthy controls. In a series of 42 girls with mongolism, the mean age of menarche was significantly retarded (13 years 3 months).

  9. A comparison of menstrual changes expected by pre-menarcheal adolescents and changes actually experienced by post-menarcheal adolescents in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marván, M L; Vacio, A; Espinosa-Hernandez, G

    2001-11-01

    This survey explored para-menstrual changes that Mexican pre-menarcheal girls expect to experience and paramenstrual changes actually experienced by post-menarcheal girls. The survey included 95 pre-menarcheal girls who reported what they expected to experience in the para-menstruum, and their answers were compared with para-menstrual changes reported by 98 post-menarcheal girls. There were more post-menarcheal than pre-menarcheal girls who reported negative physical changes, while more pre-menarcheal girls expected to experience negative changes related to cognitive-emotional expressions. Regarding positive para-menstrual changes, despite the fact that hardly any of the girls named them, more post-menarcheal girls reported positive changes than pre-menarcheal girls who expected the changes. The dominant menstrual discourse concerning menstruation focused on para-menstrual negative changes, which can lead pre-menarcheal girls to anticipate their periods with fear and to overlook positive changes that may occur in the para-menstruum.

  10. Validation of a Pre-Clinical Model for the Investigation of Menarcheal Age on Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    relationship between age at vaginal opening (VO), a marker for ovarian function, and susceptibility to MNU-induced mammary cancer and 2) investigate...and late onset of sexual maturation. Vaginal opening will be used as the marker for onset of menarche because VO is an estrogen dependent process, thus...evaluated daily for onset of vaginal opening (VO), by visual inspection. The first 50 rats to reach VO will be segregated into the early-onset group

  11. Childhood Experience and the Onset of Menarche: A Test of a Sociobiological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used data from a longitudinal study of 16-year-old girls to test predictions about psychosocial factors in the onset of menarche. Found that family conflict and father's absence in childhood predicted an earlier age of menarche, and these factors in combination with weight showed some evidence of an additive influence on menarche. (Author/GLR)

  12. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  13. Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-α gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-α SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted.

  14. Landsat-7 Mission and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, S. Kenneth; Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, James R.; Barker, John L.; Markham, Brian L.; Bolek, Joseph T.; Scott, Steven S.; Thompson, R. J.; Rapp, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    The Landsat-7 mission has the goal of acquiring annual data sets of reflective band digital imagery of the landmass of the Earth at a spatial resolution of 30 meters for a period of five years using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imager on the Landsat-7 satellite. The satellite was launched on April 15, 1999. The mission builds on the 27-year continuous archive of thematic images of the Earth from previous Landsat satellites. This paper will describe the ETM+ instrument, the spacecraft, and the ground processing system in place to accomplish the mission. Results from the first few months in orbit will be given, with emphasis on performance parameters that affect image quality, quantity, and availability. There will also be a discussion of the Landsat Data Policy and the user interface designed to make contents of the archive readily available, expedite ordering, and distribute the data quickly. Landsat-7, established by a Presidential Directive and a Public Law, is a joint program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Enterprise and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observing System (EROS) Data Center.

  15. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androic, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Birchall, J.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cornejo, J. C.; Covrig, S.; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finn, J. M.; Forest, T.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hoskins, J. R.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J.; McHugh, M. J.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Myers, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roche, J.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Young, R. D.; Zhamkochyan, S.

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e{{p}} scattering to provide the first determination of the proton's weak charge Q_w^p. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e{{p}} to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(θw) at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world's highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment's data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  16. Early Results from AIRS/AMSU/HSB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Barnet, Christopher; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky; Kouvaris, Lou

    2003-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 5, 2002, together with AMSU A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infiared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU/HSB are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The sounding goals of AIRS are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean temperatures with an rms error of lK, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20%, in cases with up to 80% effective cloud cover. Pre-launch simulation studies indicated that these results should be achievable. Minor modifications have been made to the pre-launch retrieval algorithm as described in this paper. Sample fields of parameters retrieved from AIRS/AMSU/HSB data are presented and validated as a function of retrieved fractional cloud cover. As in simulation, the degradation of retrieval accuracy with increasing cloud cover is small. Select fields are also compared to those contained in the ECMWF analysis, done without the benefit of AIRS data, to demonstrate information that AIRS can add to that already contained in the ECMWF analysis.

  17. Exposures to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Age of Menarche in Adolescent Girls in NHANES (2003–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Kanta; Martin, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: The observed age of menarche has fallen, which may have important adverse social and health consequences. Increased exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationship between EDC exposure and the age of menarche in adolescent girls. Methods: We used data from female participants 12–16 years of age who had completed the reproductive health questionnaire and laboratory examination for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for years 2003–2008 (2005–2008 for analyses of phthalates and parabens). Exposures were assessed based on creatinine-corrected natural log urine concentrations of selected environmental chemicals and metabolites found in at least 75% of samples in our study sample. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis in SAS 9.2 survey procedures to estimate associations after accounting for censored data among participants who had not reached menarche. We evaluated body mass index (BMI; kilograms per meter squared), family income-to-poverty ratio, race/ethnicity, mother’s smoking status during pregnancy, and birth weight as potential confounders. Results: The weighted mean age of menarche was 12.0 years of age. Among 440 girls with both reproductive health and laboratory data, after accounting for BMI and race/ethnicity, we found that 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) and summed environmental phenols (2,5-DCP and 2,4-DCP) were inversely associated with age of menarche [hazard ratios of 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19 and 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19, respectively]. Other exposures (total parabens, bisphenol A, triclosan, benzophenone-3, total phthalates, and 2,4-DCP) were not significantly associated with age of menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between 2,5-DCP, a potential EDC, and earlier age of menarche in the general U

  18. The magnetic survey mission CHAMP: Early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühr, H.

    2001-05-01

    On July 15, 2000 the geoscientific satellite CHAMP was launched from the Russian launch site Plesetsk into a near-polar (87.3\\deg) orbit. The mission is devoted to global investigations of the gravity, magnetic and electric fields and to atmospheric profiling. Cruising at a low, circular orbit - 460 km at the beginning, decaying to 300 km after a 5 years mission period - CHAMP promises to return a unique data set. The orbital plane moves with respect to local time at rate of about 1h per 11days, thus covering all LTs within 4.5 months. In this talk I will focus on the magnetic field investigation. The satellite is equipped with a scalar Overhauser magnetometer at the tip of a 4m boom. Half way down the boom there are two (redundant) fluxgate magnetometers mounted together with a dual-head star camera on an optical bench. This magnetometry package provides the capability of maintaining absolutely calibrated vector field measurements throughout the mission. During an extended commissioning and calibration phase of 8 months the various instruments on board have been tuned to the environmental conditions and intrinsic factors and biases are determined. The evaluation of preliminary data sets confirms that all instruments meet their specification. Initial results will be presented which allow to show the performance of the measurements. When comparing repeat tracks it is encouraging to see how well features like crustal anomalies match each other. The precision of vector field data is particularly high on the night side. Here we can make use of the simultaneous readings of the two star trackers. By combining the individual measurements we obtain a precise attitude. The quality of the vector data will be demonstrated in comparison with main field models.

  19. Digital Imaging of Ice Cores: Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, G.; McGwire, K.; Taylor, K.; Alley, R. B.; Dupont, T. K.; Reusch, D. B.

    2005-12-01

    Ice core science addresses fundamental questions of human interest related to global warming, abrupt climate change, biogeochemical cycling and more, and directly informs policymakers. The National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) in Denver, Colorado, is currently developing a high-resolution optical scanning system for laboratory curation in order to expand the accessibility of ice core data sets through creation of a digital archive of ice core images. Additional goals of this project include development of internet-based search and retrieval capabilities from this digital archive; development of a digital image analysis system specifically for ice core studies; integration of digital optical data with other dating methods and testing of the image processing tools in scientific investigations. By providing permanent online digital archives of core quality, it will allow improved selection of samples, and documentation of possible core-quality artifacts for all U.S. ice core scientists. This project will allow any researcher to examine the core in similar detail to the few investigators who were fortunate enough to observe it before modifications from sampling and storage. This re-examination can be done decades later by anyone at any location, which is not possible now because only the interpretation of the original observer is recorded. Integration of this digital optical examination into ice core analysis will speed discovery, allow collaborative interpretation, and enhance consistency of analysis to improve ice core dating, identification of melt layers, location of flow disturbances, and more. Here we report on the current status of, and latest results from, these development efforts, including examples of images from the GISP2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two) ice core. Preliminary work on this core shows that the imaging system successfully and accurately captures numerous features readily recognized by (trained) human observers, such as layering from changes in

  20. Alcohol intake between menarche and first pregnancy: a prospective study of breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Berkey, Catherine S; Collins, Laura C; Schnitt, Stuart J; Connolly, James L; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2013-10-16

    Adult alcohol consumption during the previous year is related to breast cancer risk. Breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens between menarche and first full-term pregnancy. No study has characterized the contribution of alcohol consumption during this interval to risks of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer. We used data from 91,005 parous women in the Nurses' Health Study II who had no cancer history, completed questions on early alcohol consumption in 1989, and were followed through June 30, 2009, to analyze breast cancer risk. A subset of 60,093 women who had no history of BBD or cancer in 1991 and were followed through June 30, 2001, were included in the analysis of proliferative BBD. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We identified 1609 breast cancer cases and 970 proliferative BBD cases confirmed by central histology review. Alcohol consumption between menarche and first pregnancy, adjusted for drinking after first pregnancy, was associated with risks of breast cancer (RR = 1.11 per 10 g/day intake; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00 to 1.23) and proliferative BBD (RR = 1.16 per 10 g/day intake; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.32). Drinking after first pregnancy had a similar risk for breast cancer (RR = 1.09 per 10 g/day intake; 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.23) but not for BBD. The association between drinking before first pregnancy and breast neoplasia appeared to be stronger with longer menarche to first pregnancy intervals. Alcohol consumption before first pregnancy was consistently associated with increased risks of proliferative BBD and breast cancer.

  1. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  2. An Exploration of Mothers' Attitudes towards Their Daughters' Menarche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Clare; Harden, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Menarche is a significant milestone for young women, representing an important juncture between girlhood and maturation. The limited literature that exists suggests that a mother's reaction to her daughter's first periods can shape her experiences and perceptions of menstruation which, in turn, may impact on her self-image and, consequently,…

  3. Age at menarche: the influence of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, E.; Shalev, C.; Dalal, I.; Sod-Moriah, U. A.

    1988-03-01

    Age at menarche was studied by the recollection method in two groups of Causasian Jewish high school girls, inhabitants of two towns in Israel, Safad and Elat. The two towns differ mainly in climatic conditions. The age at menarche was found to be significantly lower ( P<0.02) in the hot town of Elat than in the temperate town of Safad: 13.30±1.21 and 13.58±0.9 years, respectively (mean ±SD). A significant association was found between the age at menarche and the town in which the girls lived. Accordingly, in the hot town of Elat, the percentage of girls who had their first menstrual cycle by the age of 12 years and earlier, was more than double that of the girls in Safad (17.9% and 7.1%, respectively). It is concluded that the environmental temperature, with or without any possible interaction of humidity, is probably responsible for the tendency for an earlier onset of menarche in girls living in the hot town of Elat.

  4. "A Kotex and a Smile": Mothers and Daughters at Menarche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the menarche or first-period narratives of 155 young women, focusing on their relationships with their mothers at this time. It finds that maternal scripts are changing as young women of this cohort, most of whom started their periods around the new millennium, recalled supportive mothers who were emotionally engaged with…

  5. An Exploration of Mothers' Attitudes towards Their Daughters' Menarche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Clare; Harden, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Menarche is a significant milestone for young women, representing an important juncture between girlhood and maturation. The limited literature that exists suggests that a mother's reaction to her daughter's first periods can shape her experiences and perceptions of menstruation which, in turn, may impact on her self-image and, consequently,…

  6. Age at Menarche, Level of Education, Parity and the Risk of Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Population-Based Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Louise F.; Mishra, Gita D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although rates have declined, hysterectomy is still a frequent gynaecological procedure. To date, there has been no systematic quantification of the relationships between early/mid-life exposures and hysterectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to quantify the associations between age at menarche, education level, parity and hysterectomy. Methods Eligible studies were identified by searches in PubMed and Embase through March 2015. Study-specific estimates were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored using sub-group analysis and meta-regression. Results Thirty-two study populations were identified for inclusion in at least one meta-analysis. Each year older at menarche was associated with lower risk of hysterectomy—summary hazard ratio 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.95; I2 = 0%); summary odds ratio 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.94; I2 = 61%). Low education levels conferred a higher risk of hysterectomy in the lowest versus highest level meta-analysis (summary hazard ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.80; I2 = 86%), summary odds ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.35, 1.69; I2 = 90%)) and dose-response meta-analysis (summary odds ratio 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.23; I2 = 85%) per each level lower of education). Sub-group analysis showed that the birth cohort category of study participants, the reference category used for level of education, the year the included article was published, quality of the study (as assessed by the authors) and control for the key variables accounted for the high heterogeneity between studies in the education level meta-analyses. In the meta-analyses of studies of parity and hysterectomy the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions The present meta-analyses suggest that the early life factors of age at menarche and lower education level are associated with hysterectomy, although this evidence should be interpreted with

  7. Age at Menarche, Level of Education, Parity and the Risk of Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Population-Based Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Louise F; Mishra, Gita D

    2016-01-01

    Although rates have declined, hysterectomy is still a frequent gynaecological procedure. To date, there has been no systematic quantification of the relationships between early/mid-life exposures and hysterectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to quantify the associations between age at menarche, education level, parity and hysterectomy. Eligible studies were identified by searches in PubMed and Embase through March 2015. Study-specific estimates were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored using sub-group analysis and meta-regression. Thirty-two study populations were identified for inclusion in at least one meta-analysis. Each year older at menarche was associated with lower risk of hysterectomy-summary hazard ratio 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.95; I2 = 0%); summary odds ratio 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.94; I2 = 61%). Low education levels conferred a higher risk of hysterectomy in the lowest versus highest level meta-analysis (summary hazard ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.80; I2 = 86%), summary odds ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.35, 1.69; I2 = 90%)) and dose-response meta-analysis (summary odds ratio 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.23; I2 = 85%) per each level lower of education). Sub-group analysis showed that the birth cohort category of study participants, the reference category used for level of education, the year the included article was published, quality of the study (as assessed by the authors) and control for the key variables accounted for the high heterogeneity between studies in the education level meta-analyses. In the meta-analyses of studies of parity and hysterectomy the results were not statistically significant. The present meta-analyses suggest that the early life factors of age at menarche and lower education level are associated with hysterectomy, although this evidence should be interpreted with some caution due to variance across the

  8. Even transient rapid infancy weight gain is associated with higher BMI in young adults and earlier menarche

    PubMed Central

    Salgin, Burak; Norris, Shane A.; Prentice, Philippa; Pettifor, John. M.; Richter, Linda M.; Ong, Ken K.; Dunger, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early postnatal rapid “catch-up” weight gain has been consistently associated with subsequent higher obesity risk and earlier pubertal development. In many low- and middle-income countries, infancy catch-up weight gain is transient and often followed by growth faltering. We explored the hypothesis that even transient catch-up weight gain during infancy is associated with later obesity risk and earlier puberty. Methods 2352 (1151 male, 1201 female) black South African children in the Birth to Twenty (Bt20) prospective birth cohort study (Johannesburg-Soweto) underwent serial measurements of body size and composition from birth to age 18 years. At age 18 years, whole-body fat mass and fat-free mass were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal development was assessed by the research team between ages 9 and 10 years, and recorded annually from age 11 years using a validated self-assessment protocol. Results Catch-up weight gain from birth to age 1 year, despite being followed by growth faltering between ages 1 and 2 years, was associated greater mid-upper arm circumference (p=0.04) and skin fold thickness (p=0.048) at age 8 years, and with higher weight (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.001) at age 18 years after adjustment for sex, age, smoking during pregnancy, birth order, gestational age, formula-milk feeding and household socio-economic status. Infancy catch-up weight gain was also associated with younger age at menarche in girls (p<0.001). This association persisted after adjustment for smoking during pregnancy, birth order, gestational age, formula-milk feeding and household socio-economic status (p=0.005). Conclusion Transient catch-up weight gain from birth to age 1 year among children born in a low-income area of South Africa was associated with earlier menarche and greater adiposity in early adulthood. This observation suggests that modifiable determinants of rapid infancy weight gain may be targeted in order to prevent later obesity

  9. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  10. The meaning of menarche: A cross-cultural semantic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Chrisler, Joan C; Gorman, Jennifer A; Barney, Angela

    2017-09-01

    The psychological meaning of menarche was explored in 102 college students from Mexico and the United States. The Natural Semantic Networks Technique was used and participants were asked to respond to the prompt "My first period was …" The strongest components of the Mexican women's semantic network were scary, confusing, and unexpected; the strongest components of the American women's semantic network were unexpected, annoying, and painful. Only the Americans listed positive words (i.e., nice). The Mexicans' network contained the most negative words (i.e., dirty). The results suggest a need for better education and greater social support, especially in Mexico.

  11. Monthly distribution of menarche among schoolgirls from a municipality in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Carlos H F; Barbieri, Marco A; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marisa R; De Souza, Luiz

    2004-01-01

    We studied the monthly distribution of menarche among schoolgirls from Barrinha, Brazil, a municipality of rural characteristics in the process of transition to urbanization, economically dependent on sugar cane culture and processing. The association between season of the year, month of the year, and birth month and the occurrence of menarche was evaluated. The schoolgirls who provided the date of menarche (month and year) by the recall method and who had menarche up to 36 months before the interview were selected for analysis (460 girls). The correlations between month of occurrence of menarche and month of birth and between menarche and seasons of the year were determined by the chi-square test and the mean monthly ages at menarche were compared by Student's t-test, with a significance level of 0.05. There was a correlation between month of birth and month at menarche, with a peak of occurrence of menarche in December not affected by the menstruating patterns of maturation, but no correlation between menarche and seasons of the year. The difference between mean age at menarche in December (spring-summer transition) and in June (autumn-winter transition) was not significant. Mean age at menarche during the month following school vacations was lower. We conclude that situations of stress-relaxation transition, such as end of the school year, beginning of school vacation, and, perhaps most important, the socioeconomic factor-the end of the sugar cane harvest, when rural workers receive their final payments-favor the occurrence of the peak of menarche in December.

  12. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  13. Menarche and puberty in daughters of amenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    Ben-Rafael, Z; Blankstein, J; Sack, J; Lunenfeld, B; Oelsner, G; Serr, D M; Mashiach, S

    1983-12-16

    Twenty-six daughters born to amenorrheic women after gonadotropin-induced ovulation were studied at 10 to 16 years of age. The aim of the study was to assess whether the mothers' condition, namely, amenorrhea and infertility followed by the pharmacologic induction of ovulation, had any effect on their female offspring in terms of endocrine disorders at puberty. The daughters were found to have normal onset of puberty as well as normal physical and mental development. The mean age at menarche, body weight, and height were similar to those of the general female population in Israel. A functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis was evidenced by the appearance of menarche followed by regular cycles. These data form a reassuring sample for the clinicians, the treated mothers, and their offspring.

  14. Vaginal microbiota of adolescent girls prior to the onset of menarche resemble those of reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Roxana J; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A; Shew, Marcia L; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Forney, Larry J

    2015-03-24

    Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. This study addresses longitudinal changes in vaginal and vulvar microbial communities prior to and immediately following menarche. The research is significant because microbial ecology of the vagina is an integral aspect of health, including resistance to infections. The physiologic changes of puberty and initiation of cyclic menstruation are likely to have profound effects on vaginal microbiota, but almost nothing is known about changes that normally occur during this time. Our understanding has been especially hampered by the lack of thorough characterization of microbial communities using techniques

  15. Childhood body mass index at 5.5 years mediates the effect of prenatal maternal stress on daughters' age at menarche: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, A; Liu, A; Jones, S L; Laplante, D P; King, S

    2017-04-01

    Early pubertal timing is known to put women at greater risk for adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Of the factors that influence girls' pubertal timing, stress experienced during childhood has been found to advance age at menarche (AAM). However, it is not known if stress experienced by mothers during or in the months before conception can be similarly associated with earlier pubertal timing. Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is associated with metabolic changes, such as increased childhood adiposity and risk of obesity, that have been associated with earlier menarchal age. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the present study tested whether PNMS induced by a natural disaster is either directly associated with earlier AAM, or whether there is an indirect association mediated through increased girls' body mass index (BMI) during childhood. A total of 31 girls, whose mothers were exposed to the Quebec's January 1998 ice storm during pregnancy were followed from 6 months to 5 1/2 to 5.5 years of age. Mother's stress was measured within 6 months of the storm. BMI was measured at 5.5 years, and AAM was assessed through teen's self-report at 13.5 and 15.5 years of age. Results revealed that greater BMI at 5.5 years mediated the effect of PNMS on decreasing AAM [B=-0.059, 95% confidence intervals (-0.18, -0.0035)]. The present study is the first to demonstrate that maternal experience of stressful conditions during pregnancy reduces AAM in the offspring through its effects on childhood BMI. Future research should consider the impact of AAM on other measures of reproductive ability.

  16. Thelarche, pubarche, and menarche attainment in children with normal and elevated body mass index.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Lipton, Rebecca B; Drum, Melinda L

    2009-01-01

    The early onset of puberty may be related to obesity, so there is a need to know the prevalence of early pubertal milestones in nonoverweight children. OBJECTIVE. We compared attainment of stage 2 breasts, stage 3 (sexual) pubic hair, and menarche in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample of children with normal BMI with those with excessive BMI (> or =85th percentile). The ages at which 5%, 50%, and 95% of youth had attained key pubertal stages were estimated by probit models. Logit models were then fit to compare attainment of these milestones in children of excessive and normal BMI. Pubertal signs occurred before 8.0 years of age in <5% of the normal-BMI general and non-Hispanic white female population. However, pubertal milestones generally appeared earlier in normal-BMI non-Hispanic black and Mexican American girls; thelarche occurred before age 8.0 in 12% to 19% of these groups, and the 5th percentile for menarche was 0.8 years earlier for non-Hispanic black than non-Hispanic white subjects. Pubarche was found in < or =3% of 8.0-year-old girls with normal BMI of all of these ethnic groups but was significantly earlier in minority groups. Pubarche appeared before 10.0 years in <2% of normal-BMI boys. Girls with excessive BMI had a significantly higher prevalence of breast appearance from ages 8.0 through 9.6 years and pubarche from ages 8.0 through 10.2 years than those with normal BMI. Menarche was also significantly more likely to occur in preteen girls with an elevated BMI. Prevalence estimates are given for the key pubertal milestones in children with normal BMI. Breast and sexual pubic hair development are premature before 8 years of age in girls with normal BMI in the general population. Adiposity and non-Hispanic black and Mexican American ethnicity are independently associated with earlier pubertal development in girls.

  17. Epidemiology of Uterine Fibroids – From Menarche to Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL) have a substantial impact on women's health, but relatively few studies have identified opportunities for primary prevention of these neoplasms. Most established risk factors are not modifiable, including premenopausal age, African ancestry, age at menarche, and childbearing history. The main challenge in studying UL is that a large proportion of tumors are asymptomatic. Herein, we review the epidemiology of UL from published studies to date. We highlight the advantages of ultrasound screening studies and the ways in which their innovative methods have helped clarify the etiology of disease. We conclude with a discussion of promising new hypotheses. PMID:26744813

  18. Epidemiology of Uterine Fibroids: From Menarche to Menopause.

    PubMed

    Wise, Lauren A; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K

    2016-03-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL) have a substantial impact on women's health, but relatively few studies have identified opportunities for primary prevention of these neoplasms. Most established risk factors are not modifiable, including premenopausal age, African ancestry, age at menarche, and childbearing history. The main challenge in studying UL is that a large proportion of tumors are asymptomatic. Herein, we review the epidemiology of UL from published studies to date. We highlight the advantages of ultrasound screening studies and the ways in which their innovative methods have helped clarify the etiology of disease. We conclude with a discussion of promising new hypotheses.

  19. Family Stress, Perception of Pregnancy, and Age of First Menarche among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, April A; Martin, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines family-of-origin stress, age of first menarche, and the perceptions of pregnancy as a life event in 97 pregnant adolescents. Participants' reported high levels of family stress with only a moderate level of impact or stress attributed to the pregnancy. As a group, the girls' first menarche matched national averages. (RJM)

  20. Family Stress, Perception of Pregnancy, and Age of First Menarche among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, April A; Martin, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines family-of-origin stress, age of first menarche, and the perceptions of pregnancy as a life event in 97 pregnant adolescents. Participants' reported high levels of family stress with only a moderate level of impact or stress attributed to the pregnancy. As a group, the girls' first menarche matched national averages. (RJM)

  1. Early Scientific Results from the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    With the complete success of Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope in May, 2009, the Observatory's capabilities are extremely broad and beyond anything it has previously been equipped with. I will present results on the important early science corning out of the telescope and discuss prospects for the future."

  2. Early results from the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1995-01-01

    Data extraction and analysis of the LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment is continuing. Almost twice the pre LDEF world sample has been investigated and some details of the charge spectrum in the region from Z approximately 70 up to and including the actinides are presented. The early results indicate r process enhancement over solar system source abundances.

  3. Early Scientific Results from the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    With the complete success of Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope in May, 2009, the Observatory's capabilities are extremely broad and beyond anything it has previously been equipped with. I will present results on the important early science corning out of the telescope and discuss prospects for the future."

  4. Early results from the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C. |

    1995-02-01

    Data extraction and analysis of the LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment is continuing. Almost twice the pre LDEF world sample has been investigated and some details of the charge spectrum in the region from Z approximately 70 up to and including the actinides are presented. The early results indicate r process enhancement over solar system source abundances.

  5. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  6. From menarche to menopause: the fertile life span of celiac women.

    PubMed

    Santonicola, Antonella; Iovino, Paola; Cappello, Carmelina; Capone, Pietro; Andreozzi, Paolo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated menopause-associated disorders and fertile life span in women with celiac disease (CD) under untreated conditions and after long-term treatment with a gluten-free diet. The participants were 33 women with CD after menopause (untreated CD group), 25 celiac women consuming a gluten-free diet at least 10 years before menopause (treated CD group), and 45 healthy volunteers (control group). The Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire was used to gather information on menopause-associated disorders. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to acquire information on physical activity. Untreated celiac women had a shorter duration of fertile life span than did the control women because of an older age of menarche and a younger age of menopause (P < 0.01). The scores for hot flushes, muscle/joint problems, and irritability were higher in untreated celiac women than in the control women (higher by 49.4%, 121.4%, and 58.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). In comparison with untreated CD, long-lasting treatment of CD was not associated with a significant difference in the duration of fertile life span, but was only associated with a significant reduction in muscle/joint problems (a reduction of 47.1%; P < 0.05). Late menarche and early menopause causes a shorter fertile period in untreated celiac women compared with control women. A gluten-free diet that started at least 10 years before menopause prolongs the fertile life span of celiac women. The perception of intensity of hot flushes and irritability is more severe in untreated celiac women than in controls. Low physical exercise and/or poorer quality of life frequently reported by untreated celiac women might be the cause of reduced discomfort tolerance, thus increasing the subjective perception of menopausal symptoms.

  7. Age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among female students in an urban area in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Serajul; Hussain, Md Altaf; Islam, Saimul; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among urban female students (n=680) in Bangladesh. The mean age of the respondents was 14±1.43years. Majority of the respondents were unmarried (98.4%). The mean age at menarche was 11.6±3.6years, median 12years. Almost one-third (35.7%) of the participants had menarche at the age of 12years. There was no statistically significant difference between age at menarche before and after 12years with the socio-economic characteristics, except education (p=<0.001). In the multivariate model, only higher education was statistically significant predictor of age at menarche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Age at menarche and diet among adolescents in slums of Nashik, India.

    PubMed

    Khopkar, Sushama; Kulathinal, Sangita; Virtanen, Suvi M; Säävälä, Minna

    2015-11-01

    The role of dietary patterns in determining age at menarche is insufficiently understood in low-income countries. The relationship between dietary patterns, particularly the consumption of oil, and age at menarche in a slum-dwelling adolescent population in India is examined. Data were derived from a cross-sectional baseline survey and anthropometric measurements among 10- to 19-year-old adolescents (n=545, female respondents 272, of whom 160 were post-menarcheal) and a household survey in two slums in the city of Nashik, Western India. By using mixed effects linear regression models, the association between age at menarche and household-wise use of sources of animal protein and oil and fat is examined. Age at menarche (mean 13.7 years) in the slums studied was relatively high according to Indian standards. Age at menarche and the consumption of dairy products, meat, fish and eggs were not associated. The household per capita consumption of vegetable oil had an inverse association with a girl's age at menarche, and there was an indication of a positive association between use of ghee (clarified butter) and age at menarche. These associations did not disappear when controlling for anthropometric status and socio-economic characteristics. Intake of fats and foods that are important sources of protein among underprivileged households in India is low and reflected in the relatively late age at menarche. The potential differences in the association between various types of fatty acids, energy intake and age at menarche in conditions of undernutrition requires further prospective study.

  9. Early Retinoic acid deprivation in developing zebrafish results in microphthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hong-Gam T.; Dowling, John E.; Cameron, D. Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency causes impaired vision and blindness in millions of children around the world. Previous studies in zebrafish have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the acid form of vitamin A, plays a vital role in early eye development. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of early RA deficiency by treating zebrafish with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB), a potent inhibitor of the enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) that converts retinal to RA. Zebrafish embryos were treated for 2 hours beginning at 9 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Gross morphology and retinal development were examined at regular intervals for 5 days after treatment. The optokinetic reflex (OKR) test, visual background adaptation (VBA) test, and the electroretinogram (ERG) were performed to assess visual function and behavior. Early treatment of zebrafish embryos with 100 μM DEAB (9hr) resulted in reduced eye size and this microphthalmia persisted through larval development. Retinal histology revealed that DEAB eyes, had significant developmental abnormalities but had relatively normal retinal lamination by 5.5 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the fish showed neither, an OKR or VBA response. Further, the retina did not respond to light as measured by the ERG. We conclude that early deficiency of RA during eye development causes microphthalmia as well as other visual defects, and that timing of the RA deficiency is critical to the developmental outcome. PMID:23013828

  10. [Effect of early surgical interventions on results of burn treatment].

    PubMed

    Fistal', N M

    2009-01-01

    Results of treatment of 160 adults which were treated in the department of thermal defeats and plastic surgery of IURS named by V. K. Gusak AMS of Ukraine in 2005-2007 were analysed. 110 men in age 34.82 +/- 1.22 entered a basic group. All patients of this group were operated in early terms 1-2 days after a trauma. The group of comparison is made from 50 men in the same age with identical on an area and depth defeats. The patients of this group had prolongation of the specialized treatment, therefore primary surgical treatment began later. At the analysis of treatment results we found out that early surgical treatment of the burned adult brought to the decline burn disease, reduce the terms of treatment and amount of operative interferences, prevents formation of rough scars and deformations.

  11. Early Results of ICRH Experiments in VX-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.; Ilin, A. V.; Petro, A. J.; Jacobson, V.; McCaskill, G.; Tarditi, A. G.; Winter, D. S.; Bengtson, R. D.; Breizman, B. N.; Baity, F. W.; Carter, M. D.; Colestock, P.; Light, M.; Bering, E. A.; Glover, T. W.; Davis, C.; Chavers, D. G.

    2003-10-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) is an open-ended RF-heated propulsion concept currently under development by NASA. Current experiments (VX-10) focus on the demonstration of significant ion acceleration by ion cyclotron resonance. Theoretical and plasma simulation predictions are used to define the parameter space of interest in these experiments. Early results show significant ion energy absorption with concomitant plasma acceleration and agree well with predicted values. Plasma diagnostics include Mach, triple, RF and emissive probes, a momentum sensor, retarding potential analyzers, a spectrometer and a 70GHz microwave interferometer. An array of thermocouples monitor heat deposition to the walls of the discharge tube. A baratron sensor and a fast ion gauge provide time-tagged background pressure. Early results from these diagnostics will be presented and discussed.

  12. Impact cratering calculations. Part 1: Early time results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, J. M.; Sauer, F. N.; Austin, M. G.; Ruhl, S. F.; Shultz, P. H.; Orphal, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Early time two dimensional finite difference calculations of laboratory scale hypervelocity impact of 0.3 g spherical 2024 aluminum projectiles into homogeneous plasticene clay targets were performed. Analysis of resulting material motions showed that energy and momentum were coupled quickly from the aluminum projectile to the target material. In the process of coupling, some of the plasticene clay target was vaporized while the projectile become severely deformed. The velocity flow field developed within the target was shown to have features similar to those found in calculations of near surface explosion cratering. Specific application of Maxwell's analytic Z-Model showed that this model can be used to describe the early time flow fields resulting from the impact cratering calculations as well, provided the flow field centers are located beneath the target surface and most of the projectile momentum is dissipated before the model is applied.

  13. Aortic Annulus Enlargement: Early and Long-Terms Results

    PubMed Central

    Dumani, Selman; Likaj, Ermal; Dibra, Laureta; Beca, Vera; Kuci, Saimir; Refatllari, Ali

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) is a common occurrence in aortic valve surgery. Even the discussions about the impact of this phenomenon on the results of aortic valve surgery, the management of this problem remain one of the main topics in this kind of surgery. One of the ways of a solution is aortic annulus enlargement. The main topic of this study is to evaluate the early and longterm results of this technique in our country. METHODS: During the period January 2010 –January 2015, 641 patients performed aortic valve surgery. In ten patients we performed aortic annulus enlargement according to Manouguian technique to avoid severe patient-prothesis mismatch. Operative mortality and perioperative complications (low cardiac output, pulmonary complications, etc..) were considered the indicators of the early results. Survival, clinical presentation according to NYHA, quality of life were the indicators to evaluate long-term results. Preoperative and postoperative echocardiographic data were also used to evaluate our results. We collected the data from hospital registrations and periodical clinical visit and echographic examination after hospital discharge. RESULTS: In our group, 6 of 10 patients were diagnosed with stenotic aortic valve, two patients had aortic valve regurgitation and two mixed valve pathology. Four patients had concomitant cardiac surgery procedure, mitral or CABG. In all cases, aortic valve pathology was the primary diagnose. In the preoperative echocardiographic examination mean transvalvular gradient was 54.3 ± 6.42. We had no death during early or late postoperative period. Only one patient had pulmonary complications and long time of respiratory assistance because of his pulmonary pathology. The same patient had low cardiac output and wound infection. Early after surgery mean transprostethic gradient was 16.2 ± 3.44 and late postoperative was 15.9 ± 4.3. No patient had the severe patient-prothesis mismatch. Mean follow-up was 49 ± 20

  14. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. Methods We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. Results We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (Ptrend = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (Ptrend = 0.005) but not cases (Ptrend = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (Phet = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age ≥15 years (ORhet = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; ORhom = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; Ptrend = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age ≤11 years (ORhet = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, ORhom = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; Ptrend = 0.29). Conclusions To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at

  15. Growing up under generalized violence: an ecological study of homicide rates and secular trends in age at menarche in Colombia, 1940s-1980s.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Chavarro, Jorge E; Caro, Luis E

    2009-07-01

    We examined secular changes in mean age at menarche among 5577 Colombian women born between 1941 and 1989, and correlated those changes with nation-wide rates of homicide and real gross domestic product per capita (GDP) at the year of birth and at the year at age 5, within predefined historical periods. The mean (standard error) rate of change in age at menarche by year of birth was -0.55 (0.02) years/decade. The rate of change was not constant, but varied between historical periods as follows: -1.44, -0.14, -0.60, and -0.36 years/decade for the periods 1941-1947, 1948-1958, 1959-1978, and 1979-1989, respectively. The changes in age at menarche correlated positively with the changes in the nation-wide rates of homicide within such periods; i.e. decelerations in the menarcheal trend coincided with increases in the rates of homicide and vice versa. The correlation was higher with the rates of homicide when women were 5 years of age (r=0.99, p=0.01) compared to the rates of homicide at the year of birth (0.55, p=0.45). There were negative correlations between the changes in age at menarche and the changes in GDP, but they were weaker than those with the rates of homicide. These results could suggest a potential impact on maturation of psychosocial stress in childhood due to exposure to a generalized atmosphere of violence and fear.

  16. Replication of LIN28B SNP association with age of menarche in young Filipino women.

    PubMed

    Croteau-Chonka, D C; Lange, L A; Lee, N R; Adair, L S; Mohlke, K L

    2013-10-01

    Age of menarche, or the timing of first menses in girls, is a physiological trait that shows substantial genetic heritability. Earlier age of menarche is associated with increased childhood adiposity and with adult risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease. We sought to further characterize the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7759938 from the menarche locus LIN28B in 827 young Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We tested rs7759938 for additive association with age of menarche and also tested whether childhood adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) at age 8, mediated this relationship. We observed nominal association of rs7759938 with age of menarche (β = -0.118 years, 95% confidence interval = (-0.216, -0.020), P = 0.019) with an effect direction consistent with the previous report. We also observed suggestive evidence that the effect of the SNP on age of menarche was independent of childhood BMI. These data confirm the strongest gene reported in Europeans (LIN28B) as a contributor to age of menarche in an Asian population. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Correlation of body mass index levels with menarche in adolescent girls in Shaanxi, China: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Dang, Shaonong; Xing, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hong

    2016-09-06

    Menarche is a milestone for adolescent girls. The timing of menarche is influenced by genetics, social status and nutritional status (e.g., height, weight and body mass index [BMI]) and impacts future health (e.g., obesity and breast cancer). There have been many studies on trends in age at menarche among adolescent girls in China, but few have investigated associations between growth status and the timing of menarche. This study examined the association between age at menarche and growth status among adolescent girls in Western China. The participants in this cross sectional study came from three geographical regions of Shaanxi Province. A total of 533 adolescent girls from urban and rural areas were randomly selected. Trained investigators administered a standard questionnaire to each participant during a face-to-face interview and carried out anthropometric measurements. The average age at menarche was 13.3 years. There were statistically significant differences in BMI z-scores between pre-menarcheal and post-menarcheal girls of the same age and these differences were related to socioeconomic factors. Girls who had reached menarche, in particular those aged 13-14 years, were significantly taller (P < 0.01) and had higher BMI (P < 0.01) than girls in the same age group who had not reached menarche. BMI is associated with the timing of menarche but socioeconomic factors are also important.

  18. Confirmation of delayed menarche based on regression evaluation of age at menarche for age at MPV of height in female ball game players.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Demura, Schinichi

    2005-01-01

    A general delay in menarche in female athletes has been confirmed based on comparisons of mean ages between athletes and non-athletes; however, it has not been possible to judge such delays individually. If delayed menarche could be evaluated for an individual, the athlete could be advised as to necessary precautions. In this study, the age at maximum peak velocity (MPV) of height, adopted as an index of physical maturation, was identified by the wavelet interpolation method (WIM). The relationship between the age at menarche and age at MPV of height in female athletes and non-athletes was then examined. For the athlete group, health examination records of 90 female ball game players in the first year of university in the Tokai area, all of whom had participated in national level competitions, were reviewed for the period from the first grade of elementary school until the final year of high school (from 1985 to 1996). A similar examination was conducted for the control group, among whom a final group of 78 female non-athletes were selected. The age at menarche was determined by questionnaires, and the longitudinal data for height and weight were obtained from the health examination records. Based on a comparison of the difference between the age at MPV of height and age at menarche in ball game players and the control group, a tendency was seen for the difference between the two ages to narrow as the age at MPV of height rose. A corrected regression evaluation of age at menarche against age at MPV of height was derived in the control group, and the evaluation system was applied to ball game players. The delay in menarche in ball game players could be individually evaluated.

  19. Urban Rural Comparison of Anthropometry and Menarcheal Status of Adolescent School Going Girls of Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Shyama; Khichar, Satyendra; Dabi, Dhanraj; Parakh, Manish; Dara, Pawan K; Parakh, Poonam; Vyas, Suyasha; Deopa, Bindu

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is the formative period of life. Poor adolescent health translates into poor maternal health leading to increased maternal morbidity with inter-generational consequences. To compare anthropometric, socio-demographic, menstrual and nutritional status of rural and urban adolescent school going girls of Western Rajasthan, India. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in two rural schools and one urban school of Jodhpur region. Anthropometric, socio-economic (family history, menstrual history, maternal education) and dietary habit data of 327 (137 urban and 190 rural) school going adolescent girls aged 11-16 years were collected using structured questionnaires by a school based survey after consent from parents and school officials. Height and weight were taken using the standard procedure. Stunting (height for age) and thinness [Body Mass index (BMI) for age] were calculated as per the National Center for Health and Statistics (NCHS) standards. Statistical analysis was done using student t-test, fisher-exact test and Chi-square test. Mean height was significantly higher in urban girls while mean BMI of adolescents was significantly higher in rural areas as compared to their urban counterparts. Growth spurt was between 12-13 years showing maximum increase in mean height, coinciding with or immediately post-menarche. Menarche was one year earlier in urban girls as compared to rural girls (p<0.001). Thinness was more prevalent among females in urban areas and stunting was more common amongst girls residing in rural areas. Life style habits (poor dietary habits, sedentary life style) of the urban girls may contribute to an early menarche but rural girls despite having a later onset of menarche; have a lower final height which may be attributed to their poor nutritional status. Improving nutrition of rural girls and modifying the life style of urban girls and educating their mothers will reduce the disparity and lead to better health and development

  20. The Reliability of Self-Reported Menarcheal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolak, Linda; Krieg, Dana B.; Hayward, Chris; Shisslak, Catherine M.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2007-01-01

    Self-reports of grade at first menstrual period for 1,967 fourth-grade through ninth-grade girls were used to categorize girls as early maturers. The categories of early maturer and other (on-time or late maturers) were then examined for stability over a 3-year period using McNemar tests and [kappa] coefficients. Although the results showed…

  1. The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Walker, C.; Kulesa, C.; Stark, A.; Smith, H.; Tolls, V.; White, G.; Israel, F.; Guesten, R.; Requenna-Torres, M.; Shaw, T.; Chen, S.; Schlawin, E.

    The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS) is a Herschel Open Time Key Programme to use the HIFI and PACS instruments to observe [CII], [NII], [OI], [OIII], and high-J CO emission lines in focused regions near the Galactic Center. By separating and evaluating the distinctly different roles of the central nuclear engine, the Galactic Bar, and dynamical stellar and interstellar feedback mechanisms, HIGGS will provide a high-resolution template for the physical processes in galactic nuclei throughout the local universe, in particular those engaged in starburst activity. We intend to present our early results along with a description of the data reduction and analysis tools that we have developed.

  2. Preface: The LAMOST Galactic surveys and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Gang; Hou, Jin-Liang

    2015-08-01

    By the time of this writing, the ongoing LAMOST Galactic surveys have collected approximately 4.5 million stellar spectra with signal-to-noise ratios better than 10 per pixel. This special issue is devoted to early results from the surveys, mostly based on the LAMOST Data Release 1 (DR1; Luo et al., this volume) that contains data secured by May 2013, the end of the first year of regular surveys, although a few studies have made use of data collected in the second year of regular surveys. LAMOST DR1 was released to the Chinese astronomical community and international partners in August 2013 and made public to the whole world in March 2015. Here we briefly review the scope and motivation, data reduction and release, as well as early results of the surveys. As the project advances, one can expect that these surveys will yield an exquisite description of the distribution, kinematics and chemistry of Galactic stellar populations, especially those within a few kpc of the Sun, a robust measurement of the local dark matter density, and, consequently, shed light on how our Galaxy, and other galaxies in general, form and evolve.

  3. Early Results of the NASA Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie; Kakar, Ramesh

    2004-01-01

    As reported at previous sessions of the Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference, the Office of Earth Science within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been sponsoring the Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX) since 1993. Although originally designed to support satellite calibration and validation activities and to demonstrate new remote sensing technology pertinent to the global water cycle, the CAMEX research objectives have evolved to include a strong emphasis on hurricane observational studies. A hallmark of CAMEX success has been fruitful research collaborations with the Hurricane Research Division (HRD) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Hurricanes At Landfall Initiative of the United States Weather Research Program. Satellite, aircraft, and ground-based observations collected during the 1998 and 200 1 field phases of CAMEX represent a wealth of information describing the three dimensional structure of tropical cyclones. Early research results gleaned from these observations have been submitted to a special issue of the American Meteorological Society Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. An overview of these early findings and their expected significance to the operational community will be presented during this talk.

  4. Experiences and Constructions of Menarche and Menstruation Among Migrant and Refugee Women.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Alexandra J; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Metusela, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation are shaped by the sociocultural environment in which women are embedded. We explored experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation among migrant and refugee women resettled in Sydney, Australia, and Vancouver, Canada. Seventy-eight semistructured individual interviews and 15 focus groups comprised of 82 participants were undertaken with women from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and varying South American countries. We analyzed the data using thematic decomposition, identifying the overall theme "cycles of shame" and two core themes. In "becoming a woman," participants constructed menarche as a marker of womanhood, closely linked to marriage and childbearing. In "the unspeakable," women conveyed negative constructions of menstruation, positioning it as shameful, something to be concealed, and polluting. Identifying migrant and refugee women's experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation is essential for culturally safe medical practice, health promotion, and health education.

  5. Mexican adolescents' experience of menarche and attitudes toward menstruation: role of communication between mothers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Marván, M L; Molina-Abolnik, M

    2012-12-01

    First, to explore the kind of information that Mexican mothers give their daughters about menstruation before their menarche, and to study the impact of this communication on how prepared the daughters felt when they experienced their menarche. Second, to investigate the influence of the menarcheal experience on attitudes toward menstruation. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 3 different public schools. 405 Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 12-15 years. Participants answered a questionnaire that had 3 parts: (a) General data, (b) topics related to menses that participants had discussed with their mothers prior to menarche, and (c) menarcheal experience. They also answered a questionnaire about menstrual attitudes. Although most of the participants knew what they should do when they experienced their menarche, only 39% stated they had felt prepared to start menstruating. Regarding menstrual attitudes, adolescents scored highest on Negative Feelings and Secrecy rather than on Positive Feelings. Participants who had previously discussed the emotional aspects of menses with their mothers were more likely to claim they had felt prepared to start menstruating when they got their first period (OR = 3.45). The fact that adolescents felt prepared to start menstruating predicted positive attitudes toward menstruation (β = .19) Discussing the emotional aspects of menses prior to menarche is crucial to being prepared for menarche, and to holding positive attitudes toward menstruation. Information on biological knowledge and practical aspects of menses needs to be supplemented with emotional issues. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DEEP-South: Network Construction, Test Runs and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Myung-Jin; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Bae, Young-Ho; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jintae; Moon, Bora

    2016-01-01

    Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) which consists of three identical 1.6 m wide-field telescopes with 18k × 18k CCDs, is the first optical survey system of its kind. The combination of fast optics and the mosaic CCD delivers seeing limited images over a 4 square degrees field of view. The main science goal of KMTNet is the discovery and characterization of exoplanets, yet it also offers various other science applications including DEep Ecliptic Patrol of SOUTHern sky (DEEP-South). The aim of DEEP-South is to discover and characterize asteroids and comets, including Near Earth Objects (NEOs). We started test runs last February after commissioning, and will return to normal operations in October 2015. A summary of early results from the test runs will be presented.

  7. Early results of HemiCAP(®) resurfacing implant.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Hakan; Citak, Mehmet; Bas, Emel Gonen; Duman, Evrim; Aydin, Erbil; Ates, Yalim

    2012-01-01

    Metallic implants in the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint have been used for many years in the treatment of hallux rigidus (HR). The HemiCAP(®) prosthesis is the first implant used for resurfacing the metatarsal head in HR treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the early results of the HemiCAP(®) prosthesis for the treatment of HR. A total of 27 toes of 25 patients with MTP arthritis of the great toe were treated with an Arthrosurface(®)HemiCAP(®) resurfacing implant. The average follow-up time was 37.6 (range: 30 to 43) months. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically. Postoperative satisfaction and function were scored according to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Pain was assessed with the use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating the absence of pain and 10 describing the worst pain imaginable. Mean preoperative AOFAS score improved from 40.94 (range: 25 to 63) to 85.1 (range: 54 to 98) at the final follow-up (p<0.0001). Preoperative average VAS pain scores improved from 8.30 preoperatively to 2.05 at the final follow-up (p<0.0001). The average MTP joint range of motion (ROM) the improved from 14.36 degrees preoperatively to 54.38 degrees at the final follow-up. No radiologic loosening or osteolysis was observed in patients with HemiCAP(®) implant. The early results of the HemiCAP(®) implant on the metatarsal head are promising. However, studies over a longer period involving more patients would be beneficial in terms of defining and reviewing the stability of the implant and any innovations in the treatment strategy for HR.

  8. Early Results of a New Rotating Hinge Knee Implant

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Hans-Joachim; Miehlke, Rolf; Schuh, Reinhard; Kubista, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background. Indication for rotating hinge (RH) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) includes primary and revision cases, with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to report prospective early results of a new modular rotating hinge TKA (EnduRo). For this implant several new design features and a new bearing material (carbon-fiber reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone) have been developed. Furthermore, we tried to establish a new classification of failure modes for revision TKA. Methods. 152 EnduRo rotating-hinge prostheses were implanted in two centers. In 90 patients a primary implantation has been performed and 62 patients were revision cases. Knee Society Score (KSS), Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and Range of motion (ROM) were assessed before surgery, 3 months postoperatively, 12 months postoperatively, and annually thereafter. We defined 3 types of complications: Type 1, infection; type 2, periprosthetic complications; type 3, implant failures. Results. KSS, WOMAC, OKS, and ROM revealed significant improvements between the preoperative and the follow-up investigations. There were 14 complications (9.2%) leading to revision surgery, predominantly type 2. Conclusion. Our study shows excellent clinical results of the EnduRo TKA. Furthermore, no premature material failure or unusual biological response to the new bearing material could be detected. PMID:25089279

  9. Menarche, Menopause, Years of Menstruation, and the Incidence of Osteoporosis: The Influence of Prenatal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol

    PubMed Central

    Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994–2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Main Outcome Measure: Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. Results: The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. PMID:24248183

  10. Cultural practices relating to menarche and menstruation among adolescent girls in Taiwan--qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-L; Chen, K-H; Peng, N-H

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively record the cultural attitudes and practices associated with menarche and menstruation in Taiwanese girls, particularly with respect to coping mechanisms. Forty-eight adolescent girls participated. Adolescent girls were individually interviewed to investigate the effects of their cultural practices, coping mechanisms, and physiological symptoms during menarche and menstruation. The qualitative investigation revealed mixed reactions to menstruation, such as eating chocolate, using sanitary napkins, and feeling irritable or embarrassed. Cluster construction suggested that adolescents were prepared for menarche but required emotional support; in addition, the new generation employed the Internet to learn how to cope. A phenomenological approach showed that menarche and menstrual attitudes among Taiwanese adolescents were comprised in 4 dimensions: self-perception, information, and cultural practices with regard to menarche; physiological symptoms and psychological reactions during menstruation; coping mechanisms during menarche and menstruation; and methods for coping and cultural practices for menstruation. Cultural beliefs and the Internet have changed cross-cultural contacts. Educators and health professionals should seek to understand this generation of girls, who perceive the world as more flexible and available and have more creativity and new eating behaviors and hobbies. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of adiposity genetic variants with menarche timing in 92,105 women of European descent.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Demerath, Ellen W; Cousminer, Diana L; Tao, Ran; Dreyfus, Jill G; Esko, Tõnu; Smith, Albert V; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore; McArdle, Patrick F; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Elks, Cathy E; Strachan, David P; Kutalik, Zoltán; Vollenweider, Peter; Feenstra, Bjarke; Boyd, Heather A; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Broer, Linda; Zillikens, M Carola; Oostra, Ben; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Perry, John R B; Murray, Anna; Koller, Daniel L; Lai, Dongbing; Corre, Tanguy; Toniolo, Daniela; Albrecht, Eva; Stöckl, Doris; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F; He, Chunyan; Kraft, Peter; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Byrne, Enda M; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Warrington, Nicole M; Pennell, Craig E; Stolk, Lisette; Visser, Jenny A; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lin, Peng; Fisher, Sherri L; Bierut, Laura J; Crisponi, Laura; Porcu, Eleonora; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Spector, Tim D; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda M; Ridker, Paul M; Poole, Charles; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Murabito, Joanne M; Chasman, Daniel I; Widen, Elisabeth; North, Kari E; Ong, Ken K; Franceschini, Nora

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is of global health concern. There are well-described inverse relationships between female pubertal timing and obesity. Recent genome-wide association studies of age at menarche identified several obesity-related variants. Using data from the ReproGen Consortium, we employed meta-analytical techniques to estimate the associations of 95 a priori and recently identified obesity-related (body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), waist circumference, and waist:hip ratio) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with age at menarche in 92,116 women of European descent from 38 studies (1970-2010), in order to estimate associations between genetic variants associated with central or overall adiposity and pubertal timing in girls. Investigators in each study performed a separate analysis of associations between the selected SNPs and age at menarche (ages 9-17 years) using linear regression models and adjusting for birth year, site (as appropriate), and population stratification. Heterogeneity of effect-measure estimates was investigated using meta-regression. Six novel associations of body mass index loci with age at menarche were identified, and 11 adiposity loci previously reported to be associated with age at menarche were confirmed, but none of the central adiposity variants individually showed significant associations. These findings suggest complex genetic relationships between menarche and overall obesity, and to a lesser extent central obesity, in normal processes of growth and development.

  12. Early Results from the MAVEN IUVS Echelle Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. T.; Mayyasi, M.; Schneider, N. M.; Deighan, J.; Stewart, I. F.; McClintock, B.; Jakosky, B. M.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2015-12-01

    The IUVS instrument on MAVEN contains the first echelle spectrograph to be sent to another planet. The system has a novel optical design to enable long-aperture measurements of emission lines in the absence of continuum, intended primarily to measure the H and D Ly αlpha emission lines and thereby the D/H ratio from the martian upper atmosphere. The system also detects the OI 1304 triplet with the three component lines well resolved. The main scientific goal of the echelle channel is to measure the H and D Ly αlpha emissions, and to discover how the H and D densities, temperatures, and escape fluxes vary with location, season, topography, etc. The global D/H ratio of the martian atmosphere is roughly 5 times higher than in the terrestrial atmosphere due to the escape of a large volume of water into space, likely early in the history of Mars. Since H atoms escape faster than D atoms, the D/H ratio increases with time as more water is lost. Recent IR observations indicate large variations in the D/H ratio in the lower atmosphere from location to location, and possibly seasonal changes [Villanueva et al. 2015]. HST and MEX measurements of the H corona of Mars show large (order of magnitude) changes in the H exosphere and escape flux with changing seasons and/or heliospheric distance [Clarke et al. 2014; Chaffin et al. 2014]. Do the same variations apply to deuterium? Are there similar variations in the D/H ratio? Early results from the echelle channel will be presented.

  13. Early Commissioning Results of the NDCX-II Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidia, Steve; Arbelaez, Diego; Greenway, Wayne; Jung, Jin-Young; Kwan, Joe; Roy, Prabir; Seidl, Peter; Takakuwa, Jeffrey; Waldron, William; Friedman, Alex; Grote, David; Sharp, William; Gilson, Erik; Ni, Pavel

    2012-10-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) will generate ion beam pulses for studies of Warm Dense Matter science and heavy-ion-driven Inertial Fusion Energy. The machine accelerates 20-50 nC of Li+ to 1.2-3 MeV energy, starting from a 10.9-cm alumino-silicate ion source. At the end of the accelerator the ions are focused to a sub-mm spot size onto a thin foil (planar) target. The pulse duration is compressed from ˜500 ns at the source to sub-ns at the target following beam transport in a neutralizing plasma. We report on the results of early commissioning studies that characterize beam quality and beam transport, acceleration waveform shaping and beam current evolution. We present measurements of time-resolved beam phase space density and variation in transverse beam centroid position. We present simulation results to benchmark against the experimental measurements, and to predict performance in subsequent sections of the accelerator.

  14. Early Puberty Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with early menarche was still apparent after accounting for adiposity. Around half of the increased risk ... About Us Who We Are Careers Contact Us Policies Corporate Support Newsroom Press Releases For Professionals En ...

  15. Early Results and Plans for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul J.; Anderson, S. F.; Morganson, E.; Ruan, J. J.; PS1; SDSS-III; SDSS-IV

    2014-01-01

    With PanSTARRS-1 just finishing and LSST over the horizon, time-domain astronomy is a celestial tsunami just now hitting our shores. We outline the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS) - the first large-scale, all-sky spectroscopic survey of celestial variables. As part of SDSS-IV eBOSS program, the TDSS has begun obtaining BOSS-quality spectroscopy of variable objects selected primarily from the PS1 3pi survey. During the duration of SDSS-IV (2014-2020), TDSS should garner of order 1E+05 first-ever spectra of variables to i-band mag about 21. While AGN will dominate the sample, all kinds of variable stars will also be revealed, including RR Lyr, flare stars, eclipsing binaries, pulsating white dwarfs and more. We will outline target selection, and discuss early results. We also describe a TDSS subprogram testing for spectroscopic variability by obtaining 2d or 3d epoch spectra of several carefully chosen source classes.

  16. Early Results from the MODIS Atmosphere Cloud Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, S.; Ackerman, S. A.; King, M. D.; Menzel, W. P.; Gao, B.-C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of five instruments aboard the Terra Earth Observing System platform launched in December 1999. With 36 spectral bands from the visible through the infrared, and spatial resolution from 250m to 1km, the instrument provides an unprecedented opportunity for global cloud studies. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for cloud masking and retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have been developed by members of the MODIS atmosphere team. The archived products from these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, as well as fundamental atmospheric research. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud top physical parameters (temperature, pressure, emissivity), cloud phase, cloud optical parameters (optical depth, effective particle radius, water path), visible cirrus reflectance, a contrail flag, and other derived parameters. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals at a 1 km or 5 km spatial resolution at nadir (referred to as Level-2 products) and 1 degree global gridded statistics (Level-3 products). An overview of the MODIS atmosphere algorithms and products, their status, validation activities, and early level-2 and -3 results will be presented.

  17. The early results of our initial experience with robotic adrenalectomy

    PubMed Central

    Akarsu, Cevher; Dural, Ahmet Cem; Kankaya, Burak; Çelik, Muhammet Ferhat; Köneş, Osman; Mert, Meral; Kalaycı, Mustafa Uygar; Alış, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Robotic adrenalectomy is one of the minimally invasive surgical methods gaining wide acceptance due to the three-dimensional imaging system and ergonomics of the equipment. We aimed to present the early data on patients who underwent robotic adrenalectomy due to adrenal masses in our hospital. Material and Methods: The records of eight cases, in which a unilateral robotic trans-peritoneal adrenalectomy was conducted due to an adrenal mass between 2011 and 2013, have been evaluated. Demographic characteristics of cases, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, preoperative diagnosis, diameter and localization of the adrenal mass, operative time, blood loss, conversion rate to open surgery, morbidity and mortality rates, length of hospital stay, total hospital charges and postoperative pathologic results were considered. Results: The female to male ratio was 6:2, the median age was 49.5 (26–71) and the median BMI was 29.7 (21.7–38.5). An adrenalectomy was performed in six cases for a right adrenal mass and in two cases for a left adrenal mass. The mean tumor diameter was 53.6 mm (20–90). The average surgical time (including docking) was 98 min. (55–175 min.) and the average blood loss was 50 mL. The only complication was a diaphragm injury which was repaired robotically. There were no conversions to traditional laparoscopic or open surgery and there have not been any mortality in the series. The median length of hospital stay was 4.1 days (range 2–11) and the average cost was 3617.12 TL ($1808.56). Conclusion: Robotic adrenalectomy is an effective and safe surgical alternative to laparoscopic adrenalectomy. However its high cost has emerged as its main disadvantage. PMID:25931887

  18. Robotic Esophagectomy for Cancer: Early Results and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Cerfolio, Robert J; Wei, Benjamin; Hawn, Mary T; Minnich, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy with intrathoracic dissection and anastomosis is increasingly performed. Our objectives are to report our operative technique, early results and lessons learned. This is a retrospective review of 85 consecutive patients who were scheduled for minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy (laparoscopic or robotic abdominal and robotic chest) for esophageal cancer. Between 4/2011 and 3/2015, 85 (74 men, median age: 63) patients underwent robotic Ivor Lewis esophageal resection. In all, 64 patients (75%) had preoperative chemoradiotherapy, 99% had esophageal cancer, and 99% had an R0 resection. There were no abdominal or thoracic conversions for bleeding. There was 1 abdominal conversion for the inability to completely staple the gastric conduit. The mean operative time was 6 hours, median blood loss was 35ml (no intraoperative transfusions), median number of resected lymph nodes was 22, and median length of stay was 8 days. Conduit complications (anastomotic leak or conduit ischemia) occurred in 6 patients. The 30 and 90-day mortality were 3/85 (3.5%) and 9/85 (10.6%), respectively. Initial poor results led to protocol changes via root cause analysis: longer rehabilitation before surgery, liver biopsy in patients with history of suspected cirrhosis, and refinements to conduit preparation and anastomotic technique. Robotic Ivor Lewis esophagectomy for cancer provides an R0 resection with excellent lymph node resection. Our preferred port placement and operative techniques are described. Disappointingly high thoracic conduit problems and 30 and 90-day mortality led to lessons learned and implementation of change which are shared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Results from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, K. C.; Jorgensen, I.; Hook, I. M.; Takamiya, M. Y.

    2001-12-01

    We present examples of early science results achieved with the newly commissioned Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on the Gemini North 8-m Telescope. GMOS provides long- and multi-slit spectroscopy and imaging over a 5.5 arcmin field of view, and these three modes were successfully commissioned during the second half of 2001. GMOS was built by a collaboration between the UK (Astronomical Technology Centre at ROE and University of Durham) and Canada (HIA). As part of System Verification (SV) we have executed several imaging, long-slit, and multi-object spectroscopic programs designed to test and demonstrate the scientific capabilities of GMOS. Two of these programs, for which we present the imaging and preliminary MOS results, target the fields around RXJ0142.0+2131 and UM224. The first program is aimed at investigating galaxy evolution through observations of a rich cluster at intermediate redshift (z=0.28) and measuring stellar populations and dynamics of the member galaxies. The goal of the second program is to measure redshifts of galaxies in the field of a high redshift QSO (z=2.08) with intervening metal-line absorption in order to identify which galaxies may be responsible for the absorption and investigate their group/clustering properties. All data obtained as part of SV will become public within a few months. We are currently in the final stages of SV observations including full commissioning of the IFU, and have begun obtaining data for the community as of November 2001. The Gemini Observatory is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: NSF (United States), PPARC (United Kingdom), NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), ARC (Australia), CNPq (Brazil) and CONICET (Argentina).

  20. Experience of Menarche Among Jordanian Adolescent Girls: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Omar; Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Fooladi, Marjaneh M

    2016-06-01

    Menarche is a significant physical and emotional experience for adolescent girls, especially in certain cultures, where it is viewed as a rite of passage, affecting the meaning of lived experiences. The purpose of the study was to explore the menarche experience among Jordanian adolescent girls when they reach menarche. Interpretive phenomenological analysis. Az-Zarqa City, Jordan. A homogenous sample of 7 Jordanian girls, ages 12-14 years, who had their first menstruation within the past 6 months. Participants were asked to narrate their experiences through journal writing; their reports to be used for interpretive phenomenological analyses by 2 independent researchers, to ensure the findings' trustworthiness. Three major themes emerged as: (1) menstruation as a forbidden topic; (2) keeping the "topic" to oneself; and (3) no more secrets. Each theme was characterized according to distinct sets of emotions and knowledge-seeking patterns because Jordanian culture and Islamic teachings had greatly influenced the girls' experience of menarche. Menarche was considered a social taboo; not to be openly discussed. At the first signs of menarche, participants were shocked, scared, confused, and anxious. They had limited information and support from their family or school system. Therefore, they relied on self-perceptions about menarche, and viewed the experience of menstruation with profound negative emotions. Participants hesitated to share their experiences with their mothers and close friends. They felt alone and experienced their emotional turmoil in isolation and without support. Jordanian adolescent girls need formal health education to understand and manage the reproductive changes that occur in their bodies. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between age at menarche and infertility among Chinese rural women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianping; Zhong, Chunli; Liang, Hong; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Ou; Gao, Ersheng; Chen, Aimin; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jian; Sun, Fei; Miao, Maohua

    2015-11-01

    To explore the relationship between age at menarche and infertility. The cross-sectional study investigated 6906 couples from the communities in Sandu Shui Autonomous County of Guizhou Province, China. Face to face interviews were conducted to collect information on age at menarche and time to first pregnancy, as well as demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Infertility was defined as being unable to become pregnant after attempting for ≥12 months. Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between age at menarche and infertility of first attempt. The prevalence rate of infertility for the first pregnancy attempt of the study population was 11.87%. There is an obvious monotonic, almost linear, trend of prevalence rate of infertility with increasing age at menarche (P for trend: <0.001). Compared with wives with age at menarche of 13 years, the prevalence ratios of infertility were 0.71 (95%CI: 0.42, 1.20), 1.33 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.68), 1.47 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.85), 1.57 (95%CI: 1.20, 2.04), 1.41 (95%CI: 1.00, 1.99) and 1.73 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.52) for wives with age at menarche of ≤12, 14, 15, 16, 17 and ≥18 years, respectively, after adjusting for wife's year at birth, age at marriage, ethnic group, education and occupation, and husband's smoking and drinking habits before marriage. The present community-based study indicated that increasing age at menarche was associated with an increased risk of infertility in the study population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adult stature and age at menarche in Zapotec-speaking communities in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, in a secular perspective.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Selby, H A; Buschang, P H; Aronson, W L; Wilkinson, R G

    1983-04-01

    Adult stature and the age at menarche among individuals from Zapotec-speaking communities in the Valley of Oaxaca in southern Mexico are considered in a secular perspective. Four sets of observations are utilized: 1) adult stature in males and females from five rural communities; 2) age at menarche in adult women and school girls from a single rural community; 3) earlier studies of adult stature in the Valley of Oaxaca; and 4) estimated stature from long bones excavated in various archaeological sites in the Valley of Oaxaca. There were no significant differences among the five communities for stature; hence, the data were pooled for analysis and comparison. Results of linear regression of stature and stature adjusted for the estimated effects of aging after 30 years of age on year of birth indicate negligible secular changes in either sex. Comparisons with statures from earlier surveys, the earliest dates to 1899, also indicate negligible changes. When adult women are grouped according to age, there are no differences in mean ages at menarche between the older and younger women. Mean age at menarche for the total adult sample is 14.53 +/- 0.08 years, which compares favorably with the probit estimate for school girls, 14.70 +/- 0.32 years. These results thus suggest virtually no secular change in adult size and maturity of the Zapotec-speaking population in the Valley of Oaxaca over the past 80 years. Differences in stature between contemporary populations and estimated statures from long bones from several archaeological sites in Oaxaca are small, and thus suggests little secular change over the past one to two-thousand years.

  3. Midcarpal Hemiarthroplasty for Wrist Arthritis: Rationale and Early Results

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Michael C.; Packer, Greg; Tan, David; Crisco, J.J. Trey; Wolfe, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Midcarpal hemiarthroplasty is a novel motion-preserving treatment for radiocarpal arthritis and is an alternative to current procedures that provide pain relief at the expense of wrist biomechanics and natural motion. It is indicated primarily in active patients with a well-preserved distal row and debilitating arthritic symptoms. By resurfacing the proximal carpal row, midcarpal arthroplasty relieves pain while preserving the midcarpal articulation and the anatomic center of wrist rotation. This technique has theoretical advantages when compared with current treatment options (i.e., arthrodesis and total wrist arthroplasty) since it provides coupled wrist motion, preserves radial length, is technically simple, and avoids the inherent risks of nonunion and distal component failure. The KinematX midcarpal hemiarthroplasty has an anatomic design and does not disrupt the integrity of the wrist ligaments. We have implanted this prosthesis in nine patients with promising early results. The indications for surgery were as follows: scapholunate advanced collapse wrist (three), posttraumatic osteoarthritis (three), inflammatory arthritis (two), and Keinböck disease (one). Prospective data has been collected and the results are preliminary given the infancy of the procedure. The mean follow-up was 30.9 weeks (range: 16 to 56 weeks). The mean Mayo wrist score increased from 31.9 preoperatively to 58.8 (p < 0.05) and the mean DASH score improved significantly from 47.8 preoperatively to 28.7 (p < 0.05). There was a trend toward increased motion but statistical significance was not reached. Two patients required manipulation for wrist stiffness. There was no evidence of prosthetic loosening or capitolunate narrowing. The procedure is simple (average surgical time was 49 minutes) and maintains coupled wrist motion through preservation of the midcarpal articulation. The preliminary data show that it appears safe but considerably longer follow-up is required before

  4. Early and Midterm Results Following Interventional Coarctoplasty: Evaluation of Variables that Can Affect the Results

    PubMed Central

    Bassiri, Hossein Ali; Shafe, Omid; Sarpooshi, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stent coarctoplasty has been approved as the treatment of choice for adult patients with coarctation of the aorta. We have evaluated the early and midterm clinical and procedural results after interventional coarctoplasty. Also, variables that can affect these results were evaluated. Subjects and Methods Gathering clinical, angiographic and procedural data, we evaluated the pre-specified outcomes, including procedural success, complications, the incidence of hypertension after coarctoplasty etc., after the procedure. The effect of pre-specified variables including aortic arch shape, coarctation type and etc. on the procedural result was evaluated. Results Between February 2005 through March 2014, 133 stent coarctoplasty procedures were performed. Median age was 23.5 years old (interquartile range [IQR]:19-28), and 105 (71.9%) were male. Nearly all of the patients were undergone stent coarctoplasty, mostly with cheatham platinum (CP) stents. There was no association between aortic arch morphology and acute procedural complications. Balloon length more than 40 mm (p=0.028), aorta diameter at the site of Coarctation larger than 2.35 mm (p=0.008) was associated with higher rate of restenosis during follow-up. Comparison between the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) before and after coarctoplasty showed a significant reduction in the prevalence of HTN (117 [91.4%] vs. 95 [74.2%] p<0.001). Conclusion Stent coarctoplasty is a low-risk procedure with favorable early and delayed outcomes. Most mortality is related to the patient's comorbid conditions and not to the procedure. PMID:28154597

  5. [Menarche, menstrual and sociodemographic characteristics of Puerto Rican female athletes in the XV and XVI Central American and Caribbean Games].

    PubMed

    Rivera, M A; Mendez Zamora, I; Matos, R M; Rivera, A

    1993-09-01

    This investigation described maturation, menstrual and socio-demographic characteristics of 65 Puerto Rican women athletes that were interviewed during the XVI Central American and Caribbean Games (CACG), Mexico City in 1990. The results were compared with those of Puerto Rican women athletes (n = 52) at the XV CACG, Santiago Dominican Republic, 1986. The quantitative variables (age, age at initiation of training, years of training, age at menarche, birth order, and family size) were not statistically different (t-independent, p > or = 0.05). The observed frequencies for the qualitative variables (menstrual characteristics, degree of certainty in the recall of age of menarche, use of oral contraceptives, and marital status) were very similar. the women at the XVI CAC in Mexico demonstrated similar maturational, menstrual and socio-demographic characteristics to the those athletes evaluated four years earlier in Santiago and based on their long history of training, both samples were representative of athletically mature athletes. The findings were very similar to those reported for olympic athletes and such data expands the available information on Puerto Rican women athletes.

  6. Western gulf culture-density study-early results

    Treesearch

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher; Alan B. Wilson; Nick Chappell; Conner Fristoe; Larry Anderson

    2006-01-01

    The Western Gulf Culture-Density Study is a collaborative research effort between Texas A&M University and five forest products companies to examine the effects of early silvicultural treatment intensity and a wide range of both densities and soil types on performance of loblolly pine. The study tests 2 silvicultural intensities, 5 planting densities (200 to 1,200...

  7. The Impact of Early Algebra: Results from a Longitudinal Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Martinez, Mara V.; Cayton-Hodges, Gabrielle A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide evidence of the impact of early algebra (EA) over time. We document this impact in the following ways: (a) by showing the performance over time of an experimental group of 15 children on an algebra assessment, from 3rd to 5th grade; and (b) by showing how the performance on an algebra assessment of children from an…

  8. Early results from NASA's SnowEx campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Gatebe, Charles; Hall, Dorothy; Misakonis, Amy; Elder, Kelly; Marshall, Hans Peter; Hiemstra, Chris; Brucker, Ludovic; Crawford, Chris; Kang, Do Hyuk; De Marco, Eugenia; Beckley, Matt; Entin, Jared

    2017-04-01

    SnowEx is a multi-year airborne snow campaign with the primary goal of addressing the question: How much water is stored in Earth's terrestrial snow-covered regions? Year 1 (2016-17) focuses on the distribution of snow-water equivalent (SWE) and the snow energy balance in a forested environment. The year 1 primary site is Grand Mesa and the secondary site is the Senator Beck Basin, both in western, Colorado, USA. Ten core sensors on four core aircraft will make observations using a broad suite of airborne sensors including active and passive microwave, and active and passive optical/infrared sensing techniques to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of these potential satellite remote sensing techniques, along with models, to measure snow under a range of forest conditions. SnowEx also includes an extensive range of ground truth measurements—in-situ samples, snow pits, ground based remote sensing measurements, and sophisticated new techniques. A detailed description of the data collected will be given and some early results will be presented. Seasonal snow cover is the largest single component of the cryosphere in areal extent (covering an average of 46M km2 of Earth's surface (31 % of land areas) each year). This seasonal snow has major societal impacts in the areas of water resources, natural hazards (floods and droughts), water security, and weather and climate. The only practical way to estimate the quantity of snow on a consistent global basis is through satellites. Yet, current space-based techniques underestimate storage of snow water equivalent (SWE) by as much as 50%, and model-based estimates can differ greatly vs. estimates based on remotely-sensed observations. At peak coverage, as much as half of snow-covered terrestrial areas involve forested areas, so quantifying the challenge represented by forests is important to plan any future snow mission. Single-sensor approaches may work for certain snow types and certain conditions, but not for others

  9. Skeletal benefits of pre-menarcheal gymnastics are retained after activity cessation.

    PubMed

    Scerpella, Tamara A; Dowthwaite, Jodi N; Gero, Nicole M; Kanaley, Jill A; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Mechanical loading during childhood and adolescence may yield skeletal benefits that persist beyond activity cessation and menarche. At 1 year pre- and 2 years post-menarche, nondominant forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and projected area (area) were compared in gymnasts (n = 9), ex-gymnasts (n = 8) and nongymnasts (n = 13). At both observations, gymnasts and ex-gymnasts had higher forearm aBMD, BMC and area than nongymnasts. Gymnasts had higher postmenarcheal means than ex-gymnasts for all three parameters. Childhood mechanical loading yields skeletal advantages that persist at least 24 months after loading cessation and menarche. Continued postmenarcheal loading yields additional benefit.

  10. Going through the Rites of Passage: Timing and Transition of Menarche, Childhood Sexual Abuse, and Anxiety Symptoms in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Menarche is a discrete, transitional event that holds considerable personal, social, biological, and developmental significance. The present longitudinal study examined both the transition and timing of menarche on the trajectory of anxiety in girls with histories of childhood maltreatment (N = 93; 63% European American, 14% multiracial, 10%…

  11. Influence of menarche on the relation between diurnal cortisol production and ventral striatum activity during reward anticipation

    PubMed Central

    LeMoult, Joelle; Colich, Natalie L.; Sherdell, Lindsey; Hamilton, J. Paul; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by an increase in risk-taking and reward-seeking behaviors. In other populations, increased risk taking has been associated with tighter coupling between cortisol production and ventral striatum (VS) activation during reward anticipation; this relation has not yet been examined, however, as a function of adolescent development. This study examined the influence of pubertal development on the association between diurnal cortisol production and VS activity during reward anticipation. Pre- and post-menarcheal girls collected diurnal cortisol and completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging-based monetary incentive delay task, from which we extracted estimates of VS activity during the anticipation of reward, anticipation of loss and anticipation of non-incentive neutral trials. Post-menarcheal girls showed greater coupling between the cortisol awakening response and VS activation during anticipation of reward and loss than did their pre-menarcheal counterparts. Post-menarcheal girls did not differ from pre-menarcheal girls in their cortisol-VS coupling during anticipation of neutral trials, suggesting that puberty-related changes in cortisol-VS coupling are specific to affective stimuli. Interestingly, behavioral responses during the task indicate that post-menarcheal girls are faster to engage with affective stimuli than are pre-menarcheal girls. Thus, post-menarcheal girls exhibit neurobiological and behavioral patterns that have been associated with risk taking and that may underlie the dramatic increase in risk-taking behavior documented during adolescence. PMID:25678549

  12. Longitudinal Reliability of Self-Reported Age at Menarche in Adolescent Girls: Variability across Time and Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Pabst, Stephanie; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche is critical in research and clinical settings, yet there is a dearth of studies examining its reliability in adolescents. We examined age at menarche during adolescence, specifically, (a) average method reliability across 3 years, (b) test-retest reliability between time points and methods, (c) intraindividual variability of…

  13. Influence of menarche on the relation between diurnal cortisol production and ventral striatum activity during reward anticipation.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Colich, Natalie L; Sherdell, Lindsey; Hamilton, J Paul; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-09-01

    Adolescence is characterized by an increase in risk-taking and reward-seeking behaviors. In other populations, increased risk taking has been associated with tighter coupling between cortisol production and ventral striatum (VS) activation during reward anticipation; this relation has not yet been examined, however, as a function of adolescent development. This study examined the influence of pubertal development on the association between diurnal cortisol production and VS activity during reward anticipation. Pre- and post-menarcheal girls collected diurnal cortisol and completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging-based monetary incentive delay task, from which we extracted estimates of VS activity during the anticipation of reward, anticipation of loss and anticipation of non-incentive neutral trials. Post-menarcheal girls showed greater coupling between the cortisol awakening response and VS activation during anticipation of reward and loss than did their pre-menarcheal counterparts. Post-menarcheal girls did not differ from pre-menarcheal girls in their cortisol-VS coupling during anticipation of neutral trials, suggesting that puberty-related changes in cortisol-VS coupling are specific to affective stimuli. Interestingly, behavioral responses during the task indicate that post-menarcheal girls are faster to engage with affective stimuli than are pre-menarcheal girls. Thus, post-menarcheal girls exhibit neurobiological and behavioral patterns that have been associated with risk taking and that may underlie the dramatic increase in risk-taking behavior documented during adolescence.

  14. Aquarius Radiometer Performance: Early On-Orbit Calibration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Wentz, Frank; Ruf, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched into a 657-km altitude, 6-PM ascending node, sun-synchronous polar orbit from Vandenberg, California, USA on June 10, 2011. The Aquarius instrument was commissioned two months after launch and began operating in mission mode August 25. The Aquarius radiometer meets all engineering requirements, exhibited initial calibration biases within expected error bars, and continues to operate well. A review of the instrument design, discussion of early on-orbit performance and calibration assessment, and investigation of an on-going calibration drift are summarized in this abstract.

  15. Nutritional factors affecting the menarcheal state of adolescent school girls in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Gehan M; El-Sayed, Nawal A; Mahdy, Nehad H; Khamis, Sally E

    2007-01-01

    The nutritional status of adolescents plays a dominant role in determining the maturation status. The aim of the present work was to assess the mean age of menarche and the main nutritional factors affecting it. A cross-sectional study of 1606 girls was conducted in primary and preparatory schools in Alexandria. Every girl was subjected to anthropometric assessment including weight, height, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference, hip circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness. BMI and body fat percentage were calculated. A 24 hours diet recall method was used to assess the dietary intake. The mean age of menarche was 11.98+/-0.96 years. The mean MUAC, triceps skin-fold thickness, waist circumference and hip circumference were significantly higher among menstruating girls as compared to non-menstruating. (p<0.01). Only 7.5% of the females less than the 5th percentile of BMI (thinness) were menstruating, while the corresponding figure for those at or more than 85th percentile (overweight) was 65.6% and this was statistically significant (X 2 (2) =102.8, P<0.001). Girls who attained menstruation demonstrated a higher significant mean percent of body fat (43.40+/-10.0) as compared to non menstruating ones (35.41+/-7.87), ( t=17.09, P<0.001). The oldest age at menarche was noted when the protein, iron and caloric intake was less than 80% of the RDAs. However after adjustment of other variables direct relation was detected between age of girls and their age of menarche and those in private school had earlier age of menarche than those in governmental one. The nutritional status of the adolescents had a significant association with the onset of menstruation and the age at menarche.

  16. Physical activity from menarche to first pregnancy and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Rosner, Bernard; Malik, Vasanti; Cespedes, Elizabeth; Joshi, Amit D.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Colditz, Graham A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast tissue is particularly susceptible to exposures between menarche and first pregnancy, and a longer interval between these reproductive events is associated with elevated breast cancer risk. Physical activity during this time period may offset breast cancer risk, particularly for those at highest risk with longer menarche-to-first-pregnancy intervals. We used data from 65,576 parous women in the Nurses’ Health Study II free of cancer in 1989 (baseline) and recalled their leisure-time physical activity at ages 12–34 in 1997. Current activity was collected at baseline and over follow-up. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Between 1989 and 2011, 2,069 invasive breast cancer cases were identified. Total recreational activity between menarche and first pregnancy was not significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer. However, physical activity between menarche and first pregnancy was associated with significantly lower breast cancer risk among women in the highest category of a menarche-to first-pregnancy interval (≥20 years; RR for the highest versus the lowest quartile = 0.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.55–0.97; Ptrend = 0.045; Pinteraction = 0.048). This was not observed in women with a shorter interval. Physical activity between menarche and first pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among women with at least 20 years between these reproductive events. This may provide a modifiable factor that women can intervene on to mitigate their breast cancer risk associated with a longer interval. PMID:27130486

  17. Relationships Between Age at Menarche, Walking Gait Base of Support, and Stance Phase Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Froehle, Andrew W; Grannis, Kimberly A; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2017-05-01

    Age at menarche impacts patterns of pubertal growth and skeletal development. These effects may carry over into variation in biomechanical profiles involved in sports-related traumatic and overuse knee injuries. The present study investigated whether age at menarche is a potential indicator of knee injury risk through its influence on knee biomechanics during normal walking. To test the hypothesis that earlier menarche is related to postpubertal biomechanical risk factors for knee injuries, including a wider, more immature gait base of support, and greater valgus knee angles and moments. Cross-sectional observational study. University research facility. Healthy, postmenarcheal, adolescent girls. Age at menarche was obtained by recall questionnaire. Pubertal growth and anthropometric data were collected by using standard methods. Biomechanical data were taken from tests of walking gait at self-selected speed. Reflective marker position data were collected with a 3-dimensional quantitative motion analysis system, and 3 force plates recorded kinetic data. Age at menarche; growth and anthropometric measurements; base of support; static knee frontal plane angle; and dynamic knee frontal plane angles and moments during stance. Earlier menarche was correlated significantly with abbreviated pubertal growth and postpubertal retention of immature traits, including a wider base of support. Earlier menarche and wider base of support were both correlated with more valgus static knee angles, more valgus knee abduction angles and moments at foot-strike, and a more valgus peak knee abduction angle during stance. Peak knee abduction moment during stance was not correlated with age at menarche or base of support. Earlier menarche and its effects on growth are associated with retention of a relatively immature gait base of support and a tendency for static and dynamic valgus knee alignment. This biomechanical profile may put girls with earlier menarche at greater risk for sports

  18. Age at Menarche and Factors that Influence It: A Study among Female University Students in Tamale, Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by nutritional status and prevailing environmental conditions. This study measured the menarcheal age of female undergraduate students in northern Ghana and explored factors that could impact on the onset of menarche. GraphPad 5.01 was used to analyze data collected from 293 randomly selected female university students in a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Association between different variables was tested using appropriate statistical tests. The mean recall age at menarche of participants in this study was 13.66 ±1.87 years for a female population of mean age, 23.04±5.07 years. Compared to female students who lived in rural settings, urban and suburban areas dwellers significantly recorded earlier menarche (p = 0.0006). Again, females from high income earning families experienced menarche earlier than those who were born to or lived with lower income earners (p = 0.003). Lower menarcheal age increased risk of experiencing menstrual pain prior to menses rather than during menstrual flow for dysmenorrhic females. (13.52±2.052 vrs 13.63±1.582 year; χ2 = 7.181, df = 2, p = 0.028). Mean menarcheal age of female university students in northern Ghana was 13.66 years. Females from urban areas and high income families had earlier menarche. Compared to the very first Ghanaian study reported in 1989, the menarcheal age decline was 0.11 year per decade.

  19. Planck early results. VI. The High Frequency Instrument data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bucher, M.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Efstathiou, G.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McAuley, I.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Saha, R.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the processing of the 336 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 295 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.9 to 4.4'. The white noise level is around 1.5 μK degree or less in the 3 main CMB channels (100-217 GHz). The photometric accuracy is better than 2% at frequencies between 100 and 353 GHz and around 7% at the two highest frequencies. The maps created by the HFI Data Processing Centre reach our goals in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and photometric accuracy. They are already sufficiently accurate and well-characterised to allow scientific analyses which are presented in an accompanying series of early papers. At this stage, HFI data appears to be of high quality and we expect that with further refinements of the data processing we should be able to achieve, or exceed, the science goals of the Planck project. Corresponding author: F. R. Bouchet, e-mail: bouchet@iap.fr

  20. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacchei, A.; Maino, D.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; de Zotti, G.; Dick, J.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Knoche, J.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; López-Caniego, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Matthai, F.; Meinhold, P. R.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Natoli, P.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Polenta, G.; Poutanen, T.; Reinecke, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rohlfs, R.; Sandri, M.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Valiviita, J.; Villa, F.; Zonca, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Bedini, L.; Bennett, K.; Binko, P.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bremer, M.; Cabella, P.; Cappellini, B.; Chen, X.; Colombo, L.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Troia, G.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Dörl, U.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falvella, M. C.; Finelli, F.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Gasparo, F.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giardino, G.; Gómez, F.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hell, R.; Herranz, D.; Hovest, W.; Huynh, M.; Jewell, J.; Juvela, M.; Kisner, T. S.; Knox, L.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lilje, P. B.; Lubin, P. M.; Maggio, G.; Marinucci, D.; Martínez-González, E.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Meharga, M. T.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moss, A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pearson, D.; Pettorino, V.; Pietrobon, D.; Prézeau, G.; Procopio, P.; Puget, J.-L.; Quercellini, C.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Salerno, E.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Silk, J. I.; Smoot, G. F.; Sternberg, J.; Stivoli, F.; Stompor, R.; Tofani, G.; Toffolatti, L.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Vuerli, C.; Wade, L. A.; Watson, R.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation induced by the motion of the spacecraft. Noise properties are estimated from TOD from which the sky signal has been removed using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. Measured 1/f noise knee-frequencies range from ~100 mHz at 30 GHz to a few tens of mHz at 70GHz. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈-10dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for geometrical calibration of the focal plane. Corresponding author: A. Zacchei, e-mail: zacchei@oats.inaf.it

  1. Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women were encouraged to follow American Cancer Society guidelines for mammography. Stool was checked for occult blood. Endometrial sampling was offered to post-menopausal women. No participant has developed an ovarian cancer since entering the program. One woman has been diagnosed to have breast cancer. False-positive levels of circulating tumor markers (CA 125, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; lipid-associated sialic acid in plasma, 13/84 [15.5 percent]; NB/70K, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; and urinary gonadotropin fragment, 1/65 [1.5 percent]) were observed on entry into the program. Low resistive indices (less than 0.5) were documented in 8/91 (8.8 percent) ovaries studied by the color Doppler flow technique. One participant underwent a laparotomy based on a false-positive endovaginal ultrasound examination. Tests now being employed in community practice have a high likelihood of being associated with false-positive results. Therapeutic interventions based on isolated abnormal tumor markers or ultrasound studies obtained from women with family histories of ovarian cancer may lead to inappropriate surgery. It is necessary for cancer centers to develop expertise in ovarian cancer detection techniques to advise physicians in their geographic areas appropriately about the significance of the abnormal screening test. PMID:1810101

  2. FRONTIER FIELDS: HIGH-REDSHIFT PREDICTIONS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Zitrin, Adi

    2015-02-20

    The Frontier Fields program is obtaining deep Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope images of new ''blank'' fields and nearby fields gravitationally lensed by massive galaxy clusters. The Hubble images of the lensed fields are revealing nJy sources (AB mag > 31), the faintest galaxies yet observed. The full program will transform our understanding of galaxy evolution in the first 600 million years (z > 9). Previous programs have yielded a dozen or so z > 9 candidates, including perhaps fewer than expected in the Ultra Deep Field and more than expected in shallower Hubble images. In this paper, we present high-redshift (z > 6) number count predictions for the Frontier Fields and candidates in three of the first Hubble images. We show the full Frontier Fields program may yield up to ∼70 z > 9 candidates (∼6 per field). We base this estimate on an extrapolation of luminosity functions observed between 4 < z < 8 and gravitational lensing models submitted by the community. However, in the first two deep infrared Hubble images obtained to date, we find z ∼ 8 candidates but no strong candidates at z > 9. We defer quantitative analysis of the z > 9 deficit (including detection completeness estimates) to future work including additional data. At these redshifts, cosmic variance (field-to-field variation) is expected to be significant (greater than ±50%) and include clustering of early galaxies formed in overdensities. The full Frontier Fields program will significantly mitigate this uncertainty by observing six independent sightlines each with a lensing cluster and nearby blank field.

  3. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: NASA Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Huffman, G.; Petersen, W.; Kidd, Chris

    capabilities will be presented along with early imagery of GPM’s retrievals of precipitation.

  4. The WHAM Hα Magellanic Stream Survey: Progress and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kat; Krishnarao, Dhanesh

    2017-01-01

    We present early analysis of the Hα survey of the Magellanic Stream using the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM). The neutral component of the Stream extends some 200° across the sky (Nidever et al. 2010). However, the full extent of the ionized gas has not been mapped in detail. Previous studies (e.g., Putman et al. 2003; Weiner & Williams 1996) suggest that ionized gas is likely to be found all along the length of the Stream, and may extend beyond the current neutral boundaries as traced by 21 cm. Barger et al. (2013) used WHAM to map ionized gas throughout the Magellanic Bridge between the Magellanic Clouds. Although ionized emission tracks the neutral emission for the most part, it often spans a few degrees away from the H I at slightly offset velocities. Additionally, Fox et al. (2014) find evidence in an absorption line study that the tidal debris in the Magellanic System contains twice as much ionized gas as neutral material and may extend 30° away from 21-cm sensitivity boundaries. We are now compiling the first comprehensive picture of the ionized component of the Magellanic Stream using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to trace diffuse emission (~tens of mR), its velocity resolution (12 km/s) to separate the Stream from the Milky Way, and its multiwavelength capabilities (e.g., [S II] and [N II]) to examine the physical conditions of the gas. Much of the data along the primary axis of the Stream has been collected for the first phase of this extensive study, a complete kinematic Hα survey of the Stream. We present survey progress, challenges in extracting Stream emission, and first-look kinematic maps at select positions along the Stream.

  5. Frequencies of spontaneous breast development and spontaneous menarche in Turner syndrome in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Igarashi, Yutaka; Ozono, Keiichi; Ohyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Masamichi; Osada, Hisao; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Kohno, Hitoshi; Seino, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Tajima, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Fujita, Keinosuke; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Yokoya, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The Growject® database on human GH treatment in Turner syndrome was analyzed in the Turner Syndrome Research Collaboration, and the relationships of the frequencies of spontaneous breast development and spontaneous menarche with karyotype and GH treatment were investigated. One hundred and three cases started GH treatment with 0.5 IU/kg/ week (0.5 IU group), and their dose was increased to 0.35 mg/kg/wk midway through the treatment course. Another 109 cases started GH at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg/wk (0.35 mg group). Spontaneous breast development was observed in 77 (36.3%) of the 212 patients, and spontaneous menarche occurred in 31 patients (14.6%). The frequency of spontaneous breast development was significantly lower in patients with the 45,X karyotype and significantly higher in patients with a structural abnormality of the second X chromosome. The frequency of spontaneous menarche was significantly higher in patients with mosaicism characterized by X monosomy and a cellular line with no structural abnormality of the X chromosome. No significant differences in frequencies of spontaneous breast development and spontaneous menarche were observed between the two dose groups, indicating that GH treatment does not increase the frequency of spontaneous puberty. PMID:26568657

  6. Age at Menarche and Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescent Girls with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris

    2010-01-01

    The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…

  7. Height, age at menarche, body weight and body mass index in life-long vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Magdalena; Appleby, Paul; Key, Tim

    2005-10-01

    We investigated whether life-long adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with adult height, age at menarche, adult body weight and body mass index (BMI), used as indicators of growth, development and obesity, in a large sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and information on age, ethnicity, education, age at menarche and age at becoming a vegetarian were obtained through a questionnaire. Self-reported height and weight were calibrated using predictive equations derived from a previous validation study. United Kingdom. The study includes 45 962 British men and women aged > or = 20 years of whom 16,083 were vegetarians (not eating fish or meat). In men and women, there were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between life-long vegetarians (n = 125 (men) and n = 265 (women)) and people who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years (n = 3122 (men) and n = 8137 (women)). Nor was there a significant difference in age at menarche between life-long vegetarian women and women who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years. This study suggests that, compared with people who become vegetarian when adult, life-long vegetarians do not differ in adult height, weight, BMI or age at menarche in women.

  8. Association of maternal menarcheal age with anthropometric dimensions and blood pressure in children from Greater Bilbao.

    PubMed

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Rebato, Esther

    2016-09-01

    Earlier menarche has been related to shorter height and greater obesity-related anthropometric dimensions and blood pressure in women. Boys and girls with earlier maternal menarcheal age (MMA) have shown greater height and body mass index (BMI) in childhood. To analyse associations of menarcheal age with their own and their children's anthropometric dimensions and blood pressure. The sample consisted of 493 women and their children (aged 2-19 years) from Greater Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain). For both generations there is information on 19 anthropometric dimensions, blood pressure and socio-demographic characteristics. Linear regressions adjusted for different covariates were used to analyse the associations. Menarcheal age in women showed the greatest positive associations with iliospinal height and ectomorphy and negative associations with BMI, sum of six skin-folds, endomorphy and mesomorphy. Boys with earlier MMA had greater body heights and breadths, particularly iliospinal height and biacromial breadth (0.10 z-score/year; p < 0.05). In girls, earlier MMA predicted greater sitting height, biepicondylar humerus breadth, weight and sum of four circumferences (0.07-0.09 z-score/year; p < 0.05). However, there was some evidence that MMA was positively associated with body heights, ectomorphy and blood pressure in girls aged ≥12. Children with earlier MMA tend to have greater anthropometric dimensions. Adolescent growth spurt might affect these relationships, at least in girls.

  9. Interactive Effects of Menarcheal Status and Dating on Dieting and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Steinberg, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    Examined effects of three different aspects of heterosocial activity--mixed-sex activities, dating, and physical involvement with boys--on the diet patterns of adolescent girls. Found interaction between dating and menarcheal status in the prediction of dieting and disordered eating, with dating more strongly linked to dieting and disordered…

  10. Age at Menarche and Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescent Girls with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris

    2010-01-01

    The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…

  11. Early sexual maturity among Pumé foragers of Venezuela: fitness implications of teen motherhood.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L

    2008-07-01

    Because humans have slow life histories, discussions of the optimal age at first birth have stressed the benefits of delayed reproduction. However, given the diversity of ecological, fertility, and mortality environments in which humans live, reproductive maturity is expected to be highly variable. This article uses reproductive histories to examine a pattern of early menarche and first birth among the Pume, a group of South American foragers. Age at menarche and first birth are constructed using both retrospective and cross-sectional data for females over the age of 10 (n = 83). The objectives are first to define these patterns and then discuss their reproductive consequences. On average, Pume girls reach menarche at age 12.9, and give birth to their first child at age 15.3-15.5 (retrospective and cross-sectional data, respectively). This populational average falls several years prior to what often is considered the human norm. Two questions are then considered. What are the infant mortality costs across a mother's reproductive career? How does surviving fertility vary with age at first birth? Results indicate that the youngest of first-time mothers (<14) are four times more likely to loose their firstborns than older first-time mothers (> or =17). Given parity-specific mortality rates, the optimal strategy to minimize infant mortality and maximize reproductive span is to initiate childbearing in the midteens. Women gain no additional advantage in surviving fertility by delaying childbearing until their late teens.

  12. Mathematical Rigor vs. Conceptual Change: Some Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, W. R.

    2003-05-01

    Results from two different pedagogical approaches to teaching introductory astronomy at the college level will be presented. The first of these approaches is a descriptive, conceptually based approach that emphasizes conceptual change. This descriptive class is typically an elective for non-science majors. The other approach is a mathematically rigorous treatment that emphasizes problem solving and is designed to prepare students for further study in astronomy. The mathematically rigorous class is typically taken by science majors. It also fulfills an elective science requirement for these science majors. The Astronomy Diagnostic Test version 2 (ADT 2.0) was used as an assessment instrument since the validity and reliability have been investigated by previous researchers. The ADT 2.0 was administered as both a pre-test and post-test to both groups. Initial results show no significant difference between the two groups in the post-test. However, there is a slightly greater improvement for the descriptive class between the pre and post testing compared to the mathematically rigorous course. There was great care to account for variables. These variables included: selection of text, class format as well as instructor differences. Results indicate that the mathematically rigorous model, doesn't improve conceptual understanding any better than the conceptual change model. Additional results indicate that there is a similar gender bias in favor of males that has been measured by previous investigators. This research has been funded by the College of Science and Mathematics at James Madison University.

  13. Secular trend in age at menarche in China: a case study of two rural counties in Anhui Province.

    PubMed

    Graham, M J; Larsen, U; Xu, X

    1999-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that age at menarche has decreased in Europe and the United States during the last century and in Japan over the last several decades. Data from a community-based survey conducted in two rural counties of Anhui Province in China indicate a similar, downward secular trend in age at menarche for Chinese women. The present study shows the mean age at menarche decreased by 2.8 years, from 16.5 to 13.7, over an approximate 40-year time interval. This rapid decrease in age at menarche may partly be due to better nutrition and living standards reflected by the improved socioeconomic standards experienced in China over the past few decades. To test this hypothesis, a number of determinants of age at menarche were assessed; year of birth, literacy status, county of residence, amount of physical labour, general health status, pesticide exposure before age at menarche, and drinking water source were all found to be associated with age at menarche.

  14. Materials Adherence Experiment on Mars Pathfinder: Early results

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, G.A.; Jenkins, P.P.; Hunter, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Materials Adherence Experiment (MAE) on the Pathfinder Sojourner rover will measure the dust deposition rate. By August, the Sojourner Rover on Mars Pathfinder will have completed its primary mission, and the experiment will have data on dust deposition during the first three weeks of operation on Mars. This paper will present the initial data from the experiment. This will be the first presentation of the results from the Pathfinder MAE experiment.

  15. MIS unicondylar knee arthroplasty: surgical approach and early results.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Mark W; Tria, Alfred J

    2004-11-01

    Unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee has seen a resurgence of interest in the United States. The principles of unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee are different from those for total knee arthroplasty, allowing replacement of only the affected joint compartment with less bone loss. Minimally invasive surgery allows for less soft tissue dissection with the potential for less morbidity. The key question is: will the changes associated with the minimally invasive surgery procedure improve the clinical results of the standard unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee or will the changes make the procedure too difficult and lead to an increasing failure rate? This study reviews the surgical technique and presents the 2 to 4 year results of the minimally invasive unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee 47 knees in 41 patients. The average range of motion increased from 121 degrees -132 degrees . The Knee Society pain score improved from 45-80 and the function score improved from 47-78. Only one knee has been revised. With proper patient selection, minimally invasive unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee allows for results that are at least equal to those of the standard open procedure at 2 to 4 years after the surgery.

  16. Early Results from the YOHKOH Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Acton, L. W.; Lemen, J.; Hirayama, T.; Tsuneta, S.

    1992-05-01

    The The Soft X-ray Telescope on the Yohkoh satellite, launched by Japan on August 30, 1992, has proved to be a resounding success. It is providing a wealth of new information and many surprises, both on flares and on the behavior of the solar corona. Performance of the telescope has met or exceed our most optimistic expectations and it appears to be in perfect focus. Unlike the Skylab instruments, the Yohkoh telescope is not limited by a finite supply of film, permitting long sequences of images to be made with relatively high time resolution. Repetition rates for a given exposure / filter combination are typically a few seconds per frame to a few minutes per frame, depending on the selected field size. Movies assembled from long exposure sequences have shown the corona to be even more dynamic than expected. Major re-structuring, involving large fractions of the visible corona, can take place in an hour or two. Smaller regions are even more dynamic, changing almost continuously. Movies, created from long exposure sequences, have demonstrated the fundamental importance of large-scale coronal loops in connecting widely separated regions such that activity in one region quickly affects the physical conditions at remote sites. The images also show that the majority of the loops have nearly constant cross sections along their lengths, rather than one that increases with height. Several X-class flares have been observed; the surprising result is that they do not appear to be very dynamic in soft X-rays. The flare kernels seem to consist of compact loop structures that brighten and then fade without changing size or shape. Bright points are not as prominent as in the Skylab images; a result of using a CCD (a linear detector) rather than film which has a logarithmic response. The other instruments on Yohkoh are producing equally exciting results; it seems clear that the Yohkoh mission will produce many major advances in our knowledge of the flare mechanism.

  17. Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis: early and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Riccardo; Alifano, Marco; Stefani, Alessandro; Legras, Antoine; Grigoroiu, Madalina; Collet, Jean-Yves; Magdelenat, Pierre; Regnard, Jean-François

    2008-08-01

    Management of bronchiectasis remains controversial and information on long-term results of surgical treatment is poor. Clinical records of 45 patients, who underwent surgery for bronchiectasis in an 8-year period, were retrospectively reviewed. Bronchiectasis focus was isolated in 24 cases, associated with a limited homolateral or controlateral focus in 9 and 11, respectively; two patients had bilateral evident foci. Bronchiectasis was responsible for lobe destruction in 23 cases. All patients had symptoms: haemoptysis (n=7), recurrent pneumonia (n=7), persistent bronchorrea with recurrent infection (n=15), hemoptysis and recurrent infection (n=16). A total of 23 lobectomies, 11 lobectomies+segmentectomies, 2 bi-lobectomies, 9 segmentectomies and 1 pneumonectomy were carried out. There were no perioperative deaths; complications occurred in 5 patients (postoperative pneumonia in 2, prolonged air-leak, residual air-space and bronchial infection 1 each). Symptoms disappeared in 32 patients, 10 patients experienced a significant improvement. Exercise tolerance remained stable or improved in 33 and 2 cases, respectively, a slight impairment was observed in 9. Out of 32 evaluable patients 11 had an unchanged FEV(1), 15 had a limited FEV(1) lowering (<15%), and 9 had a more important functional loss. Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis obtains satisfactory long-term results, with acceptable morbidity rates.

  18. Early results after robot-assisted colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Helvind, Neel Maria; Jakobsen, Henrik Loft; Olsen, Jesper; Bundgaard, Mads; Harvald, Thomas; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of robotic technology in surgery is challenging in many ways. The aim of this study was to present the implementation process and results of the first two years of consecutive robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) colorectal procedures. The study was a retrospective study of a consecutive, unselected patient population. All outcome parameters were predefined and all patients completed 30-day follow-up. All parameters were reported, including complication rate, reoperation rate and mortality. From April 2010 to April 2012, a total of 223 elective RAL colorectal procedures were performed. The procedures were grouped as follows: left colectomy/sigmoid resection (n = 65), low anterior resection (n = 50), abdominoperineal resection (n = 10), right colectomy (n = 56), rectopexia (n = 21), colectomy (n = 8), palliative procedure (n = 8) and stoma reversal (n = 8). The overall mortality rate was 0.4%; intra- and post-operative complication rates were 5.4% and 16%, respectively; and the reoperation rate was 9%. Conversion to open surgery was necessary in 9% of cases. A positive learning curve was found for low anterior resections with a significant decrease in duration of surgery over the course of the study period. RAL colorectal surgery can be performed as a standard procedure for most colorectal procedures. Appropriate staff education, surgical plan and quality assessment are necessary and we recommend a credentialing system for robotic surgery certification. Future randomized clinical trials should be performed to evaluate the short- and long-term results in these patients. not relevant. not relevant.

  19. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  20. Zinc as an adjunct for childhood pneumonia - interpreting early results.

    PubMed

    Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Fataki, Maulidi R; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2008-07-01

    Zinc supplementation has been consistently shown to reduce the incidence of childhood pneumonia, but its effect on the course of pneumonia when administered as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy is still unclear. Three trials published to date have shown mixed results, and a recent trial from India raises the possibility that zinc may be detrimental in some circumstances. Study sites and designs differ, particularly in the timing of zinc treatment and in determining recovery from pneumonia, which can explain the differences in study findings. Serum zinc concentrations are unreliable indicators of zinc status, particularly during acute infectious illnesses. Subgroup analyses, especially using serum zinc levels, must be cautioned against. Future studies are needed that are large enough to be sufficiently powered to accommodate larger treatment failure rates, an issue that ongoing trials will hopefully address.

  1. Early results from the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Isaacman, R. B.; Fixsen, D. J.; Read, S. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mapped 98 percent of the sky, 60 percent of it twice, before the liquid helium coolant was exhausted. The FIRAS covers the frequency region from 1 to 100/cm with a 7 deg angular resolution. The spectral resolution is 0.2/cm for frequencies less than 20/cm and 0.8/cm for higher frequencies. Preliminary results include: a limit on the deviations from a Planck curve of 1 percent of the peak brightness from 1 to 20/cm, a temperature of 2.735 +/- 0.06 K, a limit on the Comptonization parameter y of 0.001, on the chemical potential parameter mu of 0.01, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy spectrum is that of a Doppler shifted blackbody.

  2. Early results from NASA's assessment of satellite servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Thronson, Harley A., Jr.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Whipple, Arthur O.; Oegerle, William R.

    2010-07-01

    Following recommendations by the NRC, NASA's FY 2008 Authorization Act and the FY 2009 and 2010 Appropriations bills directed NASA to assess the use of the human spaceflight architecture to service existing/future observatory-class scientific spacecraft. This interest in satellite servicing, with astronauts and/or with robots, reflects the success that NASA achieved with the Shuttle program and HST on behalf of the astronomical community as well as the successful construction of ISS. This study, led by NASA GSFC, will last about a year, leading to a final report to NASA and Congress in autumn 2010. We will report on its status, results from our March satellite servicing workshop, and recent concepts for serviceable scientific missions.

  3. Burrell-Optical-Kepler Survey (BOKS) II: Early Variability Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Feldmeier, J.; von Braun, K.; Everett, M.; Mihos, C.; Harding, P.; Knox, C.; Sherry, W.; Lee, T.; Ciardi, D.; Rudick, C.; Proctor, M.; van Belle, G.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results for the photometric time-series data obtained with the BOKS survey (see BOKS I poster Feldmeier et al.). The BOKS survey covers about 1 square degree in the constellation of Cygnus. We obtained nearly 2000 SDSS r-band images spanning a total time period of 39 days. Each point source in our BOKS survey is also present in the single epoch, 7-color photometric survey catalogue being produced by the NASA Discovery program Kepler mission. Light curves of approximately 60,000 point sources, spanning r=14 to 20, are examined and discussed. We will present variability demographics for the BOKS survey including characterization of the light curves into variable classes based on type, color, amplitude, and any extra-solar planet transit candidates.

  4. Magellan - Early results from the Venus mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Some results obtained with the Magellan Venus Radar Mapper are presented. Mapping was initiated on October 26, 1990 and has completed over 714 orbits of image data, covering 40 percent of the surface of Venus. Mapping began at 330 deg east longitude, mapping from the north pole to about 78 deg south latitude. Included are the regions of Ishtar Terra, Sedna, Guinevere and Lavinia Planitiae, and Lada Terra. Features discernable from the mapping include high and lowland plains, evidence of volcanic activity, and impact craters from 6 km to over 50 km across. Some Magellan scientific discoveries are listed, including evidence of a predominant role of ballistic volcanism, extensive and intensive tectonics, a moderate rate of volcanic and tectonic resurfacing, and a low rate of weathering and wind erosion. Other discoveries concerning techntonics, volcanism, impact cratering, and exogenous resurfacing are also listed. Magellan image coverage is discussed, and a chronology of the development of VOIR and Magellan is provided.

  5. CMS tracking performance results from early LHC operation

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2010-11-24

    The first LHC pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 0.9 and 2.36 TeV were recorded by the CMS detector in December 2009. The trajectories of charged particles produced in the collisions were reconstructed using the all-silicon Tracker and their momenta were measured in the 3.8 T axial magnetic field. Results from the Tracker commissioning are presented including studies of timing, efficiency, signal-to-noise, resolution, and ionization energy. Reconstructed tracks are used to benchmark the performance in terms of track and vertex resolutions, reconstruction of decays, estimation of ionization energy loss, as well as identification of photon conversions, nuclear interactions, and heavy-flavour decays.

  6. Early Results from the Q{sub weak} Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Birchall, J; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cornejo, J C; Covrig, S; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Gaskel, D; Gericke, M T.W.; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hoskins, J R; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Leacock, J; Leckey, J; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J; McHugh, M J; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Myers, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; W T H, Nuruzzaman; Oers, van; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roche, J; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Young, R D; Zhamkochyan, S

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Q{sub weak} experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic {vector e}p scattering to provide the first determination of the protons weak charge Q{sub w}{sup p}. The experiment employed a 180 {micro}A longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons corresponding to Q{sup 2} of 0.025 GeV{sup 2} were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of Q{sub w}{sup p} to 4.2 percent (combined statistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(thetaw) at the level of 0.3 percent, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C{sub 1u} and C{sub 1d}. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the worlds highest power LH{sub 2} target. The new constraints on C{sub 1u} and C{sub 1d} provided by the subset of the experiments data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  7. HUNTING THE COOLEST DWARFS: METHODS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.; Song, Inseok; Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B. E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu

    2011-12-20

    We present the methods and first results of a survey of nearby high proper motion main-sequence stars to probe for cool companions with the Gemini camera at Lick Observatory. This survey uses a sample of old (age > 2 Gyr) stars as targets to probe for companions down to temperatures of 500 K. Multi-epoch observations allow us to discriminate comoving companions from background objects. So far, our survey has successfully rediscovered the wide T8.5 companion to GJ 1263 and has discovered a companion to the nearby M0V star GJ 660.1. The companion to GJ 660.1 (GJ 660.1B) is {approx}4 mag fainter than its host star in the J-band and is located at a projected separation of {approx}120 AU. Known trigonometric parallax and Two Micron All Sky Survey magnitudes for the GJ 660.1 system indicate a spectral type for the companion of M9 {+-} 2.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandanayake, N. S.; Huggett, M. T.; Bown, S. G.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

    2010-02-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma ranks as the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the USA. Patients usually present late with advanced disease, limiting attempted curative surgery to 10% of cases. Overall prognosis is poor with one-year survival rates of less than 10% with palliative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Given these dismal results, a minimally invasive treatment capable of local destruction of tumor tissue with low morbidity may have a place in the treatment of this disease. In this paper we review the preclinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) studies which have shown that it is possible to achieve a zone of necrosis in normal pancreas and implanted tumour tissue. Side effects of treatment and evidence of a potential survival advantage are discussed. We describe the only published clinical study of pancreatic interstitial PDT, which was carried out by our group (Bown et al Gut 2002), in 16 patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. All patients had evidence of tumor necrosis on follow-up imaging, with a median survival from diagnosis of 12.5 months. Finally, we outline a phase I dose-escalation study of verteporfin single fibre PDT followed by standard gemcitabine chemotherapy which our group is currently undertaking in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Randomized controlled studies are also planned.

  9. Early Results of Retrograde Transpopliteal Angioplasty of Iliofemoral Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Saumitra; Gibson, Matthew; Magee, Timothy R.; Galland, Robert B.; Torrie, E. Peter H.

    2001-12-15

    Purpose: To assess whether the retrograde transpopliteal approach is a safe, practical and effective alternative to femoral puncture for percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).Methods: Forty PTAs in 38 patients were evaluated. Intentional subintimal recanalization was performed in 13 limbs. Ultrasound evaluation of the popliteal fossa was carried out 30 min and 24 hr post procedurally in the first 10 patients to exclude local complications. All patients had a follow-up of at least 6 weeks.Results: The indication for PTA was critical ischemia in seven limbs and disabling claudication in the remainder.Stenoses (single or multiple) were present in 24 and occlusion in 15.The superficial femoral artery (SFA) was the commonest segment affected(36) followed by common femoral artery (CFA) in four and iliac artery in four. Technical success was achieved in 38 of 39 limbs where angioplasty was carried out. In one limb no lesion was found.Immediate complications were distal embolization in two and thrombosis in one. None of these required immediate surgery. There were no puncture site hematomas or popliteal arteriovenous fistulae.Symptomatic patency at 6 weeks was 85%. Further reconstructive surgery was required in three limbs and amputation in two.Conclusion: The transpopliteal approach has a high technical success rate and a low complication rate with a potential to develop into an outpatient procedure. It should be considered for flush SFA occulsions or iliac disease with tandem CFA/SFA disease where the contralateral femoral approach is often technically difficult.

  10. Early results from ISEE-A electric field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Maynard, N. C.; Aggson, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    In the solar wind and in middle latitude regions of the magnetosphere, spacecraft sheath fields obscure the ambient field under low plasma flux conditions such that valid measurements are confined to periods of moderately intense flux. Initial results show: (1) that the DC electric field is enhanced by roughly a factor of two in a narrow region at the front, increasing B, edge of the bow shock, (2) that scale lengths for large changes in E at the subsolar magnetopause are considerably shorter than scale lengths associated with the magnetic structure of the magnetopause, and (3) that the transverse distribution of B-aligned E-fields between the outer magnetosphere and ionospheric levels must be highly complex to account for the random turbulent appearance of the magnetospheric fields and the lack of corresponding time-space variations at ionospheric levels. Spike-like, non-oscillatory, fields lasting less than 0.2 seconds are occasionally seen at the bow shock and at the magnetopause and also intermittently appear in magnetosheath and plasma sheet regions under highly variable field conditions.

  11. LGM vena cava filter: objective evaluation of early results.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T P; Dorfman, G S; Yedlicka, J W; McCowan, T C; Vogelzang, R L; Hunter, D W; Carver, D K; Pinsk, R; Castaneda-Zuniga, W; Ferris, E J

    1991-02-01

    One hundred one LG-Medical (LGM) vena cava filters were placed in 97 patients at four institutions. Placement was a complete technical success in 90% (91 of 101). In 6% of attempts, LGM filter insertion was complicated by incomplete opening of the filter. Pulmonary embolism after filter placement was not definitely demonstrated in any patient. The probability of inferior vena cava patency was 92% at 6 months after filter insertion. Thrombosis at the insertion site was seen in eight of 35 patients (23%) evaluated with duplex ultrasound or venography. Thrombus was observed in 37% of filters at follow-up examination, with cephalic extension of thrombus above the filter in 20% of all patients examined. Filter migration (greater than 1 cm) was seen in 12%; significant angulation was observed in only one patient (2%). In vitro experimentation demonstrated that incomplete opening of the LGM filter during placement can be avoided, in part, by brisk retraction of the insertion cannula. The low-profile introducer system of the LGM filter allows increased alternatives in selecting the site for filter insertion. The low-profile system also makes outpatient filter placement a possibility. No significant difference in the prevalence of thrombosis at the insertion site following LGM filter insertion was noted compared with previous results reported for percutaneous transfemoral placement of the Greenfield filter. The nonopaque sheath does not permit careful localization prior to filter deposition. Modification of the LGM filter to include a radiopaque sheath is suggested.

  12. Menarcheal age in Norway in the 19th century: a re-evaluation of the historical sources.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Walloe, L

    1976-07-01

    A fall in the age of menarche during the last fifty years is well documented from many parts of the world, among them Norway. Tanner says that this trend can be extended back at least to the middle of the last century, and he uses Norwegian sources to support this hypothesis. Re-examination of these Norwegian sources indicates that there was no fall at all during the ninetheenth century, and that the age at menarche was constant at approximately 16.0 years for the lower social classes throughout this period. It is also suggested that the age at menarche was constant at approximately 14 years for the higher social classes.

  13. Management of strangulated abdominal wall hernias with mesh; early results

    PubMed Central

    Ozbagriacik, Mustafa; Bas, Gurhan; Basak, Fatih; Sisik, Abdullah; Acar, Aylin; Kudas, Ilyas; Yucel, Metin; Ozpek, Adnan; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgery for abdominal wall hernias is a common procedure in general surgery practice. The main causes of delay for the operation are comorbid problems and patient unwillingness, which eventually, means that some patients are admitted to emergency clinics with strangulated hernias. In this report, patients who admitted to the emergency department with strangulated adominal wall hernias are presented together with their clinical management. METHODS: Patients who admitted to our clinic between January 2009 and November 2011 and underwent emergency operation were included in the study retrospectively. Demographic characteristics, hernia type, length of hospital stay, surgical treatment and complications were assessed. RESULTS: A total 81 patients (37 female, 44 male) with a mean age of 52.1±17.64 years were included in the study. Inguinal, femoral, umbilical and incisional hernias were detected in 40, 26, 9 and 6 patients respectively. Polypropylene mesh was used in 75 patients for repair. Primary repair without mesh was used in six patients. Small bowel (n=10; 12.34%), omentum (n=19; 23.45%), appendix (n=1; 1.2%) and Meckel’s diverticulum (n=1; 1.2%) were resected. Median length of hospital stay was 2 (1–7) days. Surgical site infection was detected in five (6.2%) patients. No significant difference was detected for length of hospital stay and surgical site infection in patients who had mesh repair (p=0.232 and 0.326 respectively). CONCLUSION: The need for bowel resection is common in strangulated abdominal wall hernias which undergo emergency operation. In the present study, an increase of morbidity was seen in patients who underwent bowel resection. No morbidity was detected related to the usage of prosthetic materials in repair of hernias. Hence, we believe that prosthetic materials can be used safely in emergency cases. PMID:28058336

  14. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  15. Early Results from Swift AGN and Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xinyu; Griffin, Rhiannon; Nugent, Jenna; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-04-01

    The Swift AGN and Cluster Survey (SACS) uses 125 deg^2 of Swift X-ray Telescope serendipitous fields with variable depths surrounding gamma-ray bursts to provide a medium depth (4 × 10^-15 erg cm^-2 s^-1) and area survey filling the gap between deep, narrow Chandra/XMM-Newton surveys and wide, shallow ROSAT surveys. Here, we present the first two papers in a series of publications for SACS. In the first paper, we introduce our method and catalog of 22,563 point sources and 442 extended sources. SACS provides excellent constraints on the AGN and cluster number counts at the bright end with negligible uncertainties due to cosmic variance, and these constraints are consistent with previous measurements. The depth and areal coverage of SACS is well suited for galaxy cluster surveys outside the local universe, reaching z > 1 for massive clusters. In the second paper, we use SDSS DR8 data to study the 203 extended SACS sources that are located within the SDSS footprint. We search for galaxy over-densities in 3-D space using SDSS galaxies and their photometric redshifts near the Swift galaxy cluster candidates. We find 103 Swift clusters with a > 3σ over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmations as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, BCG magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, X-ray luminosity and red sequences. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≤ 0.3 and 80% complete for z ≤ 0.4, consistent with the survey depth of SDSS. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm presented in our first paper has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further studying cluster evolution and cosmology. In the end, we will discuss our ongoing optical identification of z>0.5 cluster

  16. Early results using the Atlantis anterior cervical plate system.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Bryan; Haid, Regis W; Rodts, Gerald E; Subach, Brian R; Kaiser, Michael

    2002-01-15

    required reoperation and intravenous antibiotic medication. Two cases (2.6%) of anterior screw backout and/or breakage were identified. One patient died of unrelated causes within 3 months of operation. These initial results indicate that use of the Atlantis plate system for anterior cervical arthrodesis produces fusion rates and clinical outcomes that are comparable with those obtained using other locking plating systems. It has the unique advantage, however, of providing the surgeon with the choice of fixed, variable, or hybrid screw constructs as a way of tailoring screw angles to individual anatomical/biomechanical needs.

  17. Initial results from the mission to really early earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. M.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Mtree Team

    2003-04-01

    raises the possibility that an earlier report of such an age reflects later U-Pb mobility (see Tera, 2002, EOS 83). \\underline{Inclusion mineralogy}: Many ˜10-100-μm-sized inclusions have been found in >4 Ga zircons, including peraluminous mineral assemblages and sulfide crystals (targeted for Δ33S analysis). \\underline{Geodynamo origin}: Ultra-sensitive analysis methods demonstrate that a Jack Hills zircon carries an intrinsic remenant magnetism raising the possibility of constraining the time of geodynamo activation. \\underline{Extinct radioactivities}: RELAX Xe isotope analyses using 4.15 Ga zircons yield plutogenic 136Xe as high as 35% and indicate a terrestrial Pu/U ratio indistinguishable from chondritic. This result has implications for interpreting mantle-derived Xe isotopes in terms of mantle evolution and the age of the atmosphere.

  18. Birth Weight, Early Weight Gain and Pubertal Maturation: a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Dinse, Gregg E.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on the timing of various measures of puberty in both girls and boys. Methods A total of 856 newborns enrolled in the North Carolina Infant Feeding Study were followed to age 5 years, with 600 children followed up at adolescence. Birth weight was obtained from medical records and children were weighed at study visits until age 5 years; gains in standardized weights were calculated over four early age intervals: 0–6 months, 6–12 months, 1–2 years, and 2–5 years. Age at menarche in girls and age at advanced Tanner stages in both girls and boys were reported by adolescents and their parents. Survival models were used to analyze the effects of birth weight and early weight gain on these outcomes. Results Girls with higher birth weight and greater weight gains during the four early age intervals were younger when they reached menarche and advanced Tanner stages; boys with greater early weight gains also were younger when they reached advanced Tanner stages, but few of these effects were statistically significant. Conclusions Higher birth weights and greater weight gains during infancy and early childhood can lead to earlier sexual maturation in girls. PMID:22434749

  19. Age at menarche and menstrual cycle pattern among school adolescent girls in Central India.

    PubMed

    Dambhare, Dharampal G; Wagh, Sanjay V; Dudhe, Jayesh Y

    2012-01-01

    The onset of menstruation is part of the maturation process. However, variability in menstrual cycle characteristics and menstrual disorders are common. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at menarche and patterns of menstruation among school adolescent girls and explore its variation across socio-economic and demographic factors. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on 1100 school adolescent girls in district Wardha, Central India. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire on menstruation. Data was entered and analyzed by using Epi Info 6.04 software package. Chi- square value was used for testing statistical significance. Mean ages of menarche were 13.51 + 1.04 years and 13.67 + 0.8 years for urban and rural areas respectively. Abnormal cycle length was common and affected 30.48%. The majority 56.15 experienced dysmenorrhoea and 56.16 percent had premenstrual syndrome. Self medication was practiced by 7.13% of the adolescent girls. The most common premenstrual symptom was headache 26.74%. Absenteeism from the school 13.9% was the effect of menstruation related problems on their daily routine. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms were perceived as most distressing symptoms leading to school absenteeism. Majority of the girls 75.58% had discussed menstrual problems with someone, most commonly with their mothers 38.15%. There was a general lack of information about menstrual issues especially with regards to cycle length, duration of menses and age at menarche. Girls from families of high socio-economic class have significantly lower mean menarcheal age in both urban and rural area. The mean age of menarche was significantly higher in girls involved in vigorous sporting activity in urban area compared to their non-sporting counterparts. Age at menarche was delayed. The menstrual disorders among female adolescents are common. A school health education on menstrual problems targeting adolescent girls and

  20. Sibling composition and household room sharing are associated with menarcheal status among rural Bengalee girls of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Koziel, Slawomir; Chakraborty, Raja; Bose, Kaushik

    2013-08-01

    Menarche, the first menstruation, is one of the most important events in a woman's reproductive life. The timing of menarche varies across populations and depends upon social interaction and family environment. It is also associated with several biological as well as social factors. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between sibling composition and age at menarche (AAM) and to assess the association between the pattern of room sharing with family members of different sexes and menarcheal occurrence among rural Bengalee girls from West Bengal, India. The total sample comprised 577 Bengalee girls, 6-17 years of age, from various schools and madrasas in two blocks of the Nadia District of West Bengal State in India. The effects of room sharing on the occurrence of menarche, and of sibling composition on the menarcheal age, were assessed by analyses of covariance. The room-sharing pattern had a significant effect on menarcheal status (yes÷no): a significantly higher percentage of girls who shared a room with the mother and÷or sisters were postmenarcheal compared with those who shared a room with male family members. AAM did not differ significantly between girls having brothers or sisters. However, sibling order had a significant impact on AAM. Girls who had a younger sibling only (brother or sister) had a higher mean AAM, and girls who had both younger brothers and younger sisters had significantly higher mean AAM, than did the girls who had no younger sibling (singletons or having only elder siblings). There was no difference in AAM between the girls who had younger sister(s) and those who had younger brother(s). These differences were also independent of body mass index. In conclusion, the room sharing characteristics and the sibling sex composition, particularly their order, had significant effect on menarche in adolescent rural Bengalee girls.

  1. Search for promotion factors of ultrasound bone measurement in Japanese males and pre/post-menarcheal females aged 8-14 years.

    PubMed

    Kohri, Toshiyuki; Kaba, Naoko; Murakami, Tetsuo; Narukawa, Teruaki; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Sakai, Takeo; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    There is little evidence regarding the associations between bone growth and environmental factors among growing children, especially in Asians. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to search for the promotion factors of bone growth in Japanese children during growth. The study subjects were male (n=333) and pre/post-menarcheal female (n=179/n=68) school children aged 8-14 y. Bone status at the calcaneus was evaluated by quantitative ultrasound (Benus III), and the bone area ratio (BAR) was used as an evaluation index. Dietary intakes were assessed via brief self-administered diet history questionnaires. The participants were asked to record all of their activities for 3 d (2 weekdays and 1 holiday). They were also required to provide the most recent anthropometric measurement records at their schools and answer questions about the frequency of fractures and, for females, the length of time since menarche. Multiple regression analysis with dummy variables demonstrated that age, magnesium (more than the RDA), vitamin B(1) (more than the RDA), mean physical activity intensity per day (more than 1.7 METs), vitamin C (more than the RDA) and calcium (more than the RDA) were significantly positive influential factors of BAR for males. For premenarcheal females, age, vitamin A (more than the RDA), BMI, and mean physical activity intensity per day (more than 1.7 METs) were significantly positive influential factors of BAR, and for postmenarcheal females, only BMI and age were significantly positive influential factors of BAR. The results suggest that several manageable factors correlate with the bone mass, and the associations differ depending on gender and menarcheal status.

  2. Serum inflammatory biomarkers fail to identify early axial spondyloarthritis: results from the SpondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Turina, Maureen C; Yeremenko, Nataliya; van Gaalen, Floris; van Oosterhout, Maikel; Berg, Inger J; Ramonda, Ramona; Lebre, Cristina (M C); Landewé, Robert; Baeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Decreasing the diagnostic delay in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) remains a major challenge. Here, we assessed the value of serum inflammatory biomarkers to distinguish early axSpA from other pathologies in a large cohort of patients referred with early back pain. Methods Serum c reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and calprotectin were determined in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort (n=310), an early back pain inception cohort. Additionally, explorative serum biomarkers derived from the literature (interleukin-27 (IL-27), human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) and lipcolin-2 (LCN-2)) were determined by ELISA in full-blown patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (n=21) and healthy controls (n=20). Results Serum CRP and ESR levels were not elevated in early axSpA versus ‘control’ back pain patients. Serum calprotectin was elevated in early axSpA versus controls (p=0.01) but failed to identify early axSpA at the individual level (positive predictive value of 38.7%). As to explorative biomarkers, serum levels of IL-27 were not detectable, and hBD-2 and LCN-2 serum levels were not elevated in full-blown AS versus healthy controls (p=0.572, p=0.562, respectively). Therefore, these markers were not further determined in the SPACE cohort. Conclusions None of the candidate serum inflammatory markers were useful as diagnostic markers in the early phase of axSpA. PMID:28123777

  3. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  4. Early Pregnancy Diabetes Screening and Diagnosis: Prevalence, Rates of Abnormal Test Results, and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina

    2017-10-06

    To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.

  5. Parent-of-origin specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J. Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D’adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco EJ; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul DP; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth JF; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality1. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation2,3, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P<5×10−8) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1/WDR25, MKRN3/MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signaling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  6. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Perry, John Rb; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco Ej; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul Dp; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce Hr; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth Jf; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

    2014-10-02

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition.

  7. Seasonal rhythm of menarche as a sensitive index of living conditions.

    PubMed

    Wolański, N; Dickinson, F; Siniarska, A

    1994-01-01

    The paper is focused on the seasonal pattern of birth and occurrence of menarche in different populations. The material collected in 1988/89 consists of 522 girls and their 249 mothers from schools of Merida, and of 135 girls and their 66 mothers from Progreso (Yucatan, Mexico). Occurrence of a biorhythm due to which girls matured in the month of their birth more frequently than by chance, was found. A shift of the maturation to an earlier or later month is caused by stress acceleration up or delaying maturation. Seasonal differences in menarche occur in different climates, but they depend on seasonal differences in the life style, occupation, and the like, rather than on climate itself. Typically menarche occurs in the extreme periods in terms of climate, diet, hard work, stress, etc., that is, in summer and/or in winter. The age of mother's maturation is correlated with that of daughter's. Month of daughter's maturation is correlated with that of mother's. Correlation exists between the month of woman's birth and the month of her maturation. No correlation exists between the month of daughter's birth and that of mother's, and between the month of daughter's maturation and the month of mother's birth.

  8. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K; Walløe, L

    1980-01-01

    Every 5th year since 1920 the heights and weights of all Oslo schoolchildren (aged 7 to 18 years) have been measured, and the measurements processed centrally. For ages between 8 and 14 the mean height increased by about 4 cm per decade between 1920 and 1940 for both sexes. A drop of about 1.5 cm occurred during World War II, followed by a rapid catch-up. Since 1950, height has increased only moderately. A weight increase of between 1.5 kg (8 years old) and 3.5 kg (13 years old) per decade before 1940 was followed by a drop during the war equivalent to somewhat less than one decade's gain. A rapid catch-up after the war was followed by a slight decrease since 1950, especially for ages above puberty. A stable difference in the social composition of the eastern and western districts of Oslo allowed comparison of the trends for lower and higher social strata. Before the war, children from higher strata were taller than children from lower strata, but this difference has now practically disappeared. Children from the higher strata weighed more until about 1955, but later those from the lower strata weighed markedly more, especially during adolescence. The difference in menarcheal age between social strata was examined in 1928, 1952, 1970 and 1975. The time trend parallels that for weight: menarcheal age was lowest among higher strata until the 1950s, but after that the lower strata experienced the lowest menarcheal age.

  9. Rare coding variants and X-linked loci associated with age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Day, Felix R.; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Hinds, David A.; Esko, Tõnu; Elks, Cathy E.; Altmaier, Elisabeth; He, Chunyan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Schick, Ursula M.; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Deborah J.; Traglia, Michela; Wang, Carol A.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Barbieri, Caterina; Coviello, Andrea D.; Cucca, Francesco; Demerath, Ellen W.; Dunning, Alison M.; Gandin, Ilaria; Grove, Megan L.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Hofman, Albert; Huang, Jinyan; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Karasik, David; Kriebel, Jennifer; Lange, Ethan M.; Lange, Leslie A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Li, Xin; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Morrison, Alanna C.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pirie, Ailith; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Reiner, Alex P.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia F.; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Robert A.; Stöckl, Doris; Visser, Jenny A.; Völker, Uwe; Vozzi, Diego; Wilson, James G.; Zygmunt, Marek; Forouhi, Nita G.; Kerrison, Nicola D.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Sims, Matt; Barroso, Inês; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I.; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Riboli, Elio; Smith, Blair H.; Campbell, Archie; Deary, Ian J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buring, Julie E.; Crisponi, Laura; Easton, Douglas F.; Hayward, Caroline; Hu, Frank B.; Liu, Simin; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E.; Ridker, Paul M.; Strauch, Konstantin; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Toniolo, Daniela; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulivi, Sheila; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wellons, Melissa; Franceschini, Nora; Chasman, Daniel I.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Murray, Anna; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R. B.

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 loci have been identified for age at menarche by genome-wide association studies; however, collectively these explain only ∼3% of the trait variance. Here we test two overlooked sources of variation in 192,974 European ancestry women: low-frequency protein-coding variants and X-chromosome variants. Five missense/nonsense variants (in ALMS1/LAMB2/TNRC6A/TACR3/PRKAG1) are associated with age at menarche (minor allele frequencies 0.08–4.6%; effect sizes 0.08–1.25 years per allele; P<5 × 10−8). In addition, we identify common X-chromosome loci at IGSF1 (rs762080, P=9.4 × 10−13) and FAAH2 (rs5914101, P=4.9 × 10−10). Highlighted genes implicate cellular energy homeostasis, post-transcriptional gene silencing and fatty-acid amide signalling. A frequently reported mutation in TACR3 for idiopathic hypogonatrophic hypogonadism (p.W275X) is associated with 1.25-year-later menarche (P=2.8 × 10−11), illustrating the utility of population studies to estimate the penetrance of reportedly pathogenic mutations. Collectively, these novel variants explain ∼0.5% variance, indicating that these overlooked sources of variation do not substantially explain the ‘missing heritability' of this complex trait. PMID:26239645

  10. GALLEX solar neutrino observations. The results from GALLEX I and early results from GALLEX II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmann, P.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Pezzoni, S.; Plaga, R.; Rönn, U.; Sann, M.; Schlosser, C.; Wink, R.; Wojcik, M.; Ammon, R. V.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Hellriegel, K.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weyrich, F.; Balata, M.; Ferrari, N.; Lalla, H.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; Feilitzsch, F. V.; Mößbauer, R.; Schanda, U.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Charbit, S.; Cribier, M.; Dupont, G.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Hahn, R. L.; Hartmann, F. X.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1993-09-01

    The first period (GALLEX I) of data taking in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment has been completed. From 14 May 1991 to 29 April 1992, the experiment observed the solar neutrino flux using neutrino capture by 71Ga to form 71Ge. Counting ended on 2 November 1992. The final result from the 15 runs of this periodpis (81+/-17 [stat.]+/-9 [syst.]) SNU (1σ). The first 6 runs of GALLEX II recorded the neutrino signal from 19 August 1992 to 3 February 1993. The preliminary result for this period is (97+/-23 [stat.]+/-7 [syst.]) SNU (1σ). With counting data considered until 29 April 1993, the joint result for all 21 runs is (87+/-14 [stat.]+/-7 [syst.]) SNU (1σ). The present neutrino recording period GALLEX II is continuing with one solar exposure every four weeks. This work has been supported by the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics of the US Department of Energy, United States.

  11. Age at menarche and performance intelligence quotients of adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Noipayak, Pongsak; Rawdaree, Petch; Supawattanabodee, Busaba; Manusirivitthaya, Sumonmal

    2016-07-11

    The presence of an association between age at the onset of puberty and intelligence quotient (IQ) in young adolescents remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the association between age at menarche and performance IQ scores of young female adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 537 students aged 11-15 years attending primary and secondary schools in the Dusit district of Bangkok, Thailand. The participants were selected based on two-step stratified sampling. Age at menarche and health and socioeconomic status were determined using a self-report questionnaire completed by participants. Performance IQ scores were determined using the Standard Progressive Matrices intelligence test (Thai version) administered by registered clinical psychologists. Of the 537 participants, 0.4 had reached menarche at 8 years of age, 1.9 at 9 years, 10.1 at 10 years, 36.1 at 11 years, 37.6 at 12 years, 10.4 at 13 years, 3.4 at 14 years, and 0.2 % at 15 years. Age at menarche was inversely correlated with performance IQ (Pearson correlation -0.087, p = 0.047). The regression equation predicting performance IQ by age at menarche was performance IQ = 128.06 - 1.16*age at menarche (R (2)  = 0.008). In univariate analysis, performance IQ was inversely correlated with age at menarche, body mass index (BMI), time spent watching television, and time sleeping, but was directly correlated with maternal age at birth (all p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, age at menarche and BMI remained significantly inversely correlated with performance IQ (p < 0.05), while maternal age at birth was directly correlated with performance IQ. The model consisting of age at menarche, BMI, and maternal age at birth best predicted performance IQ. After adjusting for confounders, multiple regression analysis showed that age at menarche and BMI of young female adolescents living in the Dusit district of Bangkok, Thailand, were

  12. Important Role of Menarche in Development of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; Hong, Chi-Chen; Yao, Song; Troester, Melissa A; Bandera, Elisa V; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N; Borges, Virginia; Park, Song-Yi; Chandra, Dhyan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R

    2015-09-01

    Menarche is a critical time point for diverging fates of mammary cells of origin. African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. In the AMBER Consortium, using harmonized data from 4426 African American women with breast cancer and 17 474 controls, we used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ages at menarche and first live birth (FLB), and the interval between, in relation to ER+ and ER- breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Risk of ER- breast cancer was reduced with later age at menarche among both parous and nulliparous women (≥15 vs <11 years OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.81 and OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.29 to 1.10, respectively), with no effect of age at FLB. For ER+ breast cancer, the inverse association was weaker among nulliparous women. While longer intervals between menarche and FLB were associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in a dose-response fashion (OR for 20 year interval = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.79, P trend = .003), ER- risk was only increased for intervals up to 14 years and not beyond (P trend = .33). While ER- breast cancer risk was markedly reduced in women with a late age at menarche, there was not a clear pattern of increased risk with longer interval between menarche and FLB, as was observed for ER+ breast cancer. These findings indicate that etiologic pathways involving adolescence and pregnancy may differ for ER- and ER+ breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  14. Age at menarche in relation to nutritional status and critical life events among rural and urban secondary school girls in post-conflict northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Odongkara Mpora, Beatrice; Piloya, Thereza; Awor, Sylvia; Ngwiri, Thomas; Laigong, Paul; Mworozi, Edison A; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2014-05-09

    Menarche age is an important indicator of reproductive health of a woman or a community. In industrial societies, age at menarche has been declining over the last 150 years with a secular trend, and similar trends have been reported in some developing countries. Menarche age is affected by genetic and environmental cues, including nutrition. The study was designed to determine the age at menarche and its relation to childhood critical life events and nutritional status in post-conflict northern Uganda. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of rural and urban secondary school girls in northern Uganda. Structured questionnaires were administered to 274 secondary school girls, aged 12 - 18 years to determine the age at menarche in relation to home location, nutritional status, body composition and critical life events. The mean age at menarche was 13.6 ± 1.3 for rural and 13.3 ± 1.4 years for urban dwelling girls (t = -1.996, p = 0.047). Among the body composition measures, hip circumference was negatively correlated with the age at menarche (r = -0.109, p = 0.036), whereas height, BMI and waist circumference did not correlate with menarche. Paternal (but not maternal) education was associated with earlier menarche (F = 2.959, p = 0.033). Childhood critical life events were not associated with age at menarche. Age at menarche differed among urban and rural dwelling school girls and dependent on current nutritional status, as manifested by the hip circumference. It was not associated with extreme stressful childhood critical life events.

  15. Design rationale and biomechanics of Maverick Total Disc arthroplasty with early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Hallett H; Lehuec, Jean-Charles; Friesem, Tai; Zdeblick, Thomas; Eisermann, Lukas

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the design criteria, biomechanical and biological (wear and safety) testing of this chrome cobalt metal-on-metal, ball and socket design prosthesis. The surgical technique and early clinical results of the initial implantations are also reviewed. Initial results of 7 Maverick implantations showed all 7 patients attaining a 15 point Oswestry improvement within 3 months after implantation. This early result in a small sample is significantly quicker in recovery and improvement when compared to the historical control of the LT cage with Infuse IDE study. Longer term results and more careful study are needed of this interesting and optimistic finding.

  16. Final Visual Acuity Results in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with conventionally-managed eyes. Methods Infants with symmetrical, high-risk prethreshold ROP (N=317) had one eye randomized to earlier treatment at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (N=84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either early treatment or conventional management. Main Outcome Measures ETDRS visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers. Retinal structure was assessed as a secondary outcome. Results Analysis of all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant benefit for early treatment (24.6% v. 29.0% unfavorable outcome, P=0.15). Analysis of 6-year visual acuity results according to the Type 1 and 2 clinical algorithm showed a benefit for Type 1 eyes (25.1% v. 32.8%, P=0.02) treated early, but not Type 2 eyes (23.6% v. 19.4%, P=0.37). Early treated eyes showed a significantly better structural outcome compared with conventionally managed eyes (8.9% v. 15.2% unfavorable outcome, P<0.001), with no greater risk of ocular complications. Conclusion Early treatment for Type 1 high-risk prethreshold eyes improved visual acuity outcomes at 6 years of age. Early treatment for Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes did not. Application to Clinical Practice Type 1 eyes, not Type 2 eyes should be treated early. These results are particularly important considering that 52 % of Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes underwent regression of ROP without requiring treatment. PMID:20385926

  17. Grating Visual Acuity Results in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare grating (resolution) visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment (ET) for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) versus eyes that were managed conventionally (CM). Methods In a randomized clinical trial, infants with bilateral, high-risk prethreshold ROP (N=317) had one eye treated early at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, and treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (N=84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either ET or CM. Main Outcome Measures Grating visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers using Teller acuity cards. Results Monocular grating acuity results were obtained from 317 (86%) of 370 surviving children. Analysis of grating acuity results for all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant overall benefit for early treatment (18.1% vs 22.8% unfavorable outcome, P=0.08). When the 6-year grating acuity results were analyzed according to a clinical algorithm (high-risk Type 1 and high-risk Type 2 prethreshold ROP), a benefit was seen in Type 1 eyes (16.4% vs 25.2%, P=0.004) that were treated early, but not in Type 2 eyes (21.3% vs 15.9%, P=0.29). Conclusion Early treatment for eyes with Type 1 ROP improved grating acuity outcomes but early treatment for eyes with Type 2 ROP did not. Application to Clinical Medicine Type I eyes should be treated early; however, based on acuity results at age 6 years, Type 2 eyes should be cautiously monitored for progression to Type 1 ROP. Trial Registration NCT00027222 PMID:21746974

  18. The results of early operation in talipes quino-varus. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Main, B J; Crider, R J; Polk, M; Lloyd-Roberts, G C; Swann, M; Kamdar, B A

    1977-08-01

    The results of operation performed within the first six months of life upon seventy-seven resistant club feet are presented. The indications for and the rationale of early operation are discussed. Particular attention has been paid to the relationship between the age at operation and the outcome more than four years later; the results were greatly superior when operation was undertaken early. Two surgical techniques are compared, the postero-medial release proving better than a simple posterior release. The relationship between clinical and radiological assessment is discussed, and also the influence of the results reported upon future practice.

  19. Final visual acuity results in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study.

    PubMed

    Good, William V; Hardy, Robert J; Dobson, Velma; Palmer, Earl A; Phelps, Dale L; Tung, Betty; Redford, Maryann

    2010-06-01

    To compare visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with conventionally managed eyes. Infants with symmetrical, high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye randomized to earlier treatment at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (n = 84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either early treatment or conventional management. The main outcome measure was ETDRS visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers. Retinal structure was assessed as a secondary outcome. Analysis of all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant benefit for early treatment (24.3% vs 28.6% [corrected] unfavorable outcome; P = .15). Analysis of 6-year visual acuity results according to the Type 1 and 2 clinical algorithm showed a benefit for Type 1 eyes (25.1% vs 32.8%; P = .02) treated early but not Type 2 eyes (23.6% vs 19.4%; P = .37). Early-treated eyes showed a significantly better structural outcome compared with conventionally managed eyes (8.9% vs 15.2% unfavorable outcome; P < .001), with no greater risk of ocular complications. Early treatment for Type 1 high-risk prethreshold eyes improved visual acuity outcomes at 6 years of age. Early treatment for Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes did not. Application to Clinical Practice Type 1 eyes, not Type 2 eyes, should be treated early. These results are particularly important considering that 52% of Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes underwent regression of ROP without requiring treatment. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222.

  20. Critical period for menarche derived by the wavelet interpolation method from changes in BMI with age in South Korean girls.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Tanaka, Nozomi

    2010-12-01

    Recently, few studies regarding the changes in BMI with age have been reported. In the present study, the wavelet interpolation method (WIM) was applied to the changes in BMI with age from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school in Korean girls, and the relationship between age at the maximum peak velocity (MPV) of BMI and age at menarche was confirmed by determining the age at MPV of BMI. Age at menarche and activity status were obtained from questionnaires given to 263 second grade high school girls in the Pusan area of South Korea. Moreover, longitudinal growth data on height and weight from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school (from 1997 to 2008) were obtained from health examination records. BMI was calculated from height and weight values from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school, and wavelet interpolation was applied to the distances of BMI in each grade. The change curve of BMI with age was determined by wavelet interpolation, and the age at MPV of BMI was determined from the changes in the velocity curve with age as the differentiation curve. Age at MPV of BMI was found to be 12.76 +/- 1.6 years, and age at menarche to be 12.34 +/- 1.1 years. The interval in age at the two times was -0.42 +/- 1.6 years, and a significant difference was seen between age at menarche and age at MPV of BMI. The reason that the age at menarche was a little earlier than the age at MPV of BMI is hypothesized to be abnormal melatonin levels influenced by lack of sleep in Korean school girls. However, it is proposed that the age at MPV of BMI is valid as the critical period for the age at menarche.

  1. Strength and Flexibility in Gymnasts Before and After Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Kathleen M.

    Twenty female gymnasts between the ages of twelve and fourteen were tested to determine possible difference in strength and flexibility before and after the development of an active menstrual cycle. Results indicate that females participating in gymnastics on a seriously competitive level tend to be short and light for their ages, as well as to…

  2. Early Blindness Results in Developmental Plasticity for Auditory Motion Processing within Auditory and Occipital Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G. Christopher; Boynton, Geoffrey M.; Fine, Ione

    2016-01-01

    Early blind subjects exhibit superior abilities for processing auditory motion, which are accompanied by enhanced BOLD responses to auditory motion within hMT+ and reduced responses within right planum temporale (rPT). Here, by comparing BOLD responses to auditory motion in hMT+ and rPT within sighted controls, early blind, late blind, and sight-recovery individuals, we were able to separately examine the effects of developmental and adult visual deprivation on cortical plasticity within these two areas. We find that both the enhanced auditory motion responses in hMT+ and the reduced functionality in rPT are driven by the absence of visual experience early in life; neither loss nor recovery of vision later in life had a discernable influence on plasticity within these areas. Cortical plasticity as a result of blindness has generally be presumed to be mediated by competition across modalities within a given cortical region. The reduced functionality within rPT as a result of early visual loss implicates an additional mechanism for cross modal plasticity as a result of early blindness—competition across different cortical areas for functional role. PMID:27458357

  3. [Age at menarche among schoolgirls from a rural community in Southeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tavares, C H; Haeffner, L S; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Barbieri, M R; Souza, L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the 3rd percentile (P3), 50th percentile (P50 = median age at menarche = MAM), and amplitude between the extremes (P97 and P3) of age at menarche among schoolgirls in the county of Barrinha, São Paulo, Brazil. Values were correlated with socioeconomic conditions such as social class, number of siblings, and father's employment status. This was a cross-sectional study based on the use of status quo adjusted by logit for calculation of percentiles. A questionnaire was applied to 1,602 schoolgirls aged 8 to 17 years (incomplete). MAM was 12 years (y) and 6 months (m), with a P97 of 10 y and 2 m and a P3 of 14 y and 10 m. Girls from lower-income families and those with unemployed fathers showed later MAM. No difference in MAM was observed with respect to number of siblings. Amplitude between P97 ad P3 was great in the overall sample. We conclude that Barrinha presented a MAM similar to and even lower than regional values for Brazil and for some developed countries. The study of the interval between extreme percentiles proved to be a better indicator of biological diversity and socioeconomic inequality than MAM alone.

  4. Early Puberty, Negative Peer Influence, and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend’s deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls’ race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend’s deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend’s deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the “other” racial/ethnic minority group only. CONCLUSIONS: Early puberty and friends’ deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences. PMID:24324002

  5. An Early Childhood Special Education Research Agenda in a Culture of Accountability for Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carta, Judith J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reacts to testimony on early childhood special education research before the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education (EC 632 080). Noting the Commission's emphasis on accountability and results, it stresses the importance of being clear about desired outcomes, the need for sensitive and accurate ways of measuring…

  6. Enhancing Student Services at Owens Community College: Early Results from the Opening Doors Demonstration in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrivener, Susan; Pih, Michael

    2007-01-01

    MDRC launched Opening Doors in 2003 to study the effects of community college programs designed to help students persist in school and earn a credential. This report presents early results from the Opening Doors program at Owens Community College in Toledo, Ohio, which operated from 2004 through 2006. The two-semester program served students whose…

  7. Palaeomagnetic results from the southern Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico: evidence for Early Cretaceous or Laramide remagnetization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnel, H.; Gose, W. A.; Testarmata, M. M.; Bocanegra Noriega, G.

    1990-12-01

    A large suite of samples from the Latest Triassic Huizachal and Early Jurassic Huayacocotla Groups and the Latest Jurassic Taman and Earliest Cretaceous Pimienta Formations was collected in the southern Sierra Madre Oriental for a palaeomagnetic study. Only the samples from three sites belonging to the Huizachal Group and the Las Juntas Formation possibly have retained their primary magnetization. If so, their pole position does not reveal any palaeomagnetically discernable motion relative to cratonic North America. All remaining sites were remagnetized as evidenced by a negative fold test at four sites and the fact that the pole positions cluster better at the 95% significance level if no structural corrections are applied. The tightness of the cluster ( α95 = 4.6 °) and the same polarity, suggest that the samples were remagnetized at some common time. These results permit two interpretations. (1) If the sampling region has not suffered any significant tectonic rotation, then the remagnetization can be dated by comparison with the polar wander path for North America as Early Cretaceous (≈ 130 Ma). This Early Cretaceous phase of deformation is not recognized in the northern Sierra Madre Oriental and clearly pre-dates the Early Tertiary Laramide orogeny. (2) If the southern Sierra Madre Oriental did rotate counterclockwise by ≈ 20 °, then the remagnetization could have originated in any Cretaceous or Early Tertiary time, and may indeed be related to the Laramide deformation. In either case, the data imply that the southern Sierra Madre Oriental constitutes an independent tectonic domain.

  8. Cardiovascular and selected comorbidities in early arthritis and early spondyloarthritis, a comparative study: results from the ESPOIR and DESIR cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Gherghe, Ana Maria; Dougados, Maxime; Combe, Bernard; Landewé, Robert; Mihai, Carina; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of comorbidities in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and early axial spondyloarthritis (ESpA) versus the general population. Methods Baseline data of 689 patients with ERA from the Etude et Suivi des Polyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) cohort (age 48.2±12.1 years, symptoms duration 14.2±14.5 weeks) and 645 patients with ESpA from Devenir des Spondylarthropathies Indifférenciées Récentes (DESIR; age 32.8±8.4 years, axial symptoms duration 79.0±45.7 weeks) were analysed. Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections and neoplasia were determined in each cohort. The prevalence (95% CI) of several comorbidities was compared with that in the French general population. For patients without CVD, the 10-year risk of developing CVD was calculated using the Framingham and SCORE equations. The heart age was calculated using the 2008 Framingham points system. Results 42% of patients with ERA and 20.3% of patients with ESpA had at least 1 comorbidity; the most common were arterial hypertension (AHT) and dyslipidaemia. AHT prevalence (95% CI) in ERA (18.2% (15.5% to 21.3%)), but not in ESpA (5.08% (3.57% to 7.14%)), was significantly increased (p<0.05) compared with the general population (7.58%). Prevalence of tuberculosis history was higher in ERA (4.7% (3.3% to 6.6%)), and ESpA (0.99% (0.4% to 2.3%)) than in the general population (0.02%; both p<0.05). No differences were observed in malignancies, coronary heart disease or diabetes. In ERA, among patients without a history of CVD, an intermediate to high CVD risk was found. The heart age exceeded the real age by 4.1±9.6 years in ERA and by 2.1±7.0 years in ESpA (p<0.001). Conclusions We found an increased prevalence of AHT and tuberculosis history in ERA and ESpA, and an increased CVD risk. These results should prompt rheumatologists to check these comorbidities early in the disease. PMID:26535145

  9. Combined elevated midpregnancy tumor necrosis factor alpha and hyperlipidemia in pregnancies resulting in early preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L; Ryckman, Kelli K; Bedell, Bruce; O'Brodovich, Hugh M; Gould, Jeffrey B; Lyell, Dierdre J; Borowski, Kristi S; Shaw, Gary M; Murray, Jeffrey C; Stevenson, David K

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether pregnancies resulting in early preterm birth (PTB) (<30 weeks) were more likely than term pregnancies to have elevated midtrimester serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels combined with lipid patterns suggestive of hyperlipidemia. In 2 nested case-control samples drawn from California and Iowa cohorts, we examined the frequency of elevated midpregnancy serum TNF-α levels (in the fourth quartile [4Q]) and lipid patterns suggestive of hyperlipidemia (eg, total cholesterol, low-density-lipoproteins, or triglycerides in the 4Q, high-density lipoproteins in the first quartile) (considered independently and by co-occurrence) in pregnancies resulting in early PTB compared with those resulting in term birth (n = 108 in California and n = 734 in Iowa). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated in logistic regression models were used for comparisons. Early preterm pregnancies were 2-4 times more likely than term pregnancies to have a TNF-α level in the 4Q co-occurring with indicators of hyperlipidemia (37.5% vs 13.9% in the California sample (adjusted OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-16.3) and 26.3% vs 14.9% in the Iowa sample (adjusted OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3). No differences between early preterm and term pregnancies were observed when TNF-α or target lipid abnormalities occurred in isolation. Observed differences were not explicable to any maternal or infant characteristics. Pregnancies resulting in early PTB were more likely than term pregnancies to have elevated midpregnancy TNF-α levels in combination with lipid patterns suggestive of hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Onset of menarche in Skopje. (Comparative studies on 22,727 women up to the 6th decade of age)].

    PubMed

    Palcevski, G; Jovanoski, S; Marcikić, V; Lazarov, A; Popovska, M; Cakmakov, D; Janjevski, M; Grueva, K; Popovska, S

    1977-01-01

    Studies of menarche in Skopje have shown that its secular trend is significantly more pronounced in younger than in older generations. While in the young it amounts to 2.5--3 months per decade, in the elderly it is up to one month per decade. The total acceleration in the course of this century has proved to be 13.5 months. The earliest menarche was recorded in Romanies (13.46 +/- 0.92), the latest in Albanians (14.05 +/- 1.22), while Macedonian girls are somewhere in--between, along with other nationalities (14.0 +/- 1.40). Menarche proved to appear earlier in girls from very well-to-do families (13.95 +/- 1.36) than in those from families with a very low income (14.19 +/- 1.43). The latest beginning of the menstruation has been recorded in girls from peasant families (14.38 +/- 1.17). Sporadic repeated investigations of this king in different parts of the country, by using a more modern "status quo" method, appear necessary in order to determine differences in the menarcheal age in the country as a whole and to shed more ligh on their underlying causes.

  11. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  12. A full featured handheld LIBS analyzer with early results for defense and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, D.; Connors, B.; Jennings, M.; Egan, J.; Derman, K.; Soucy, P.; Moller, S.; Sackett, D.

    2015-06-01

    A handheld LIBS instrument has been designed that includes most features found in large bench-top systems including variable gating, argon purge, high resolution, wide spectral range, sample rastering, and video targeting. In this presentation we will discuss the feature selection, trade-off decisions and new developments that made this kind of size reduction possible. Early results will be presented for elemental presence detection and quantification with specific emphasis on defense and security.

  13. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  14. Body size in early life and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Ciupak, Gregory; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Jandorf, Lina; Pawlish, Karen; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is growing evidence that body size in early life influences lifetime breast cancer risk, but little is known for African American (AA) women. Methods We evaluated body size during childhood and young adulthood and breast cancer risk among 1,751 cases [979 AA and 772 European American (EA)] and 1,673 controls (958 AA and 715 EA) in the Women’s Circle of Health Study. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models while adjusting for potential covariates. Results Among AA women, being shorter at 7–8 y compared to peers was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.74), and being heavier at menarche with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, although of borderline significance (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.20–1.02). For EA women, being shorter from childhood through adolescence, particularly at menarche, was associated with reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.31–0.98). After excluding hormone replacement therapy users, an inverse association with postmenopausal breast cancer was found among EA women reporting to be heavier than their peers at menarche (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04–0.79). The inverse relationship between BMI at age 20 and breast cancer risk was stronger and only statistically significant in EA women. No clear association with weight gain since age 20 was found. Conclusions Findings suggest that the impact of childhood height on breast cancer risk may differ for EA and AA women and confirm the inverse association previously reported in EA populations with adolescent body fatness, in AA women. PMID:24113797

  15. Risk of postoperative hemorrhage after intracranial surgery after early nadroparin administration: results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Rüdiger; Scheuer, Timm; Beck, Jürgen; Woszczyk, Alina; Seifert, Volker; Raabe, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    surgery P = 0.1, chi(2) test; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-3.0). This report describes the largest prospective study conducted to date to determine the hemorrhage rate after early postoperative anticoagulation. The results support the concept of postoperative pharmacological thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients undergoing intracranial surgery.

  16. Is low digit ratio linked with late menarche? Evidence from the BBC internet study.

    PubMed

    Manning, John T; Fink, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Age at menarche (AAM) in the general population may be influenced by prenatal sex steroids. The ratio of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) is a putative correlate of prenatal sex steroids, but the relationship of 2D:4D to AAM is controversial. Matchock ([2008]: Am J Hum Biol 20:487-489) has reported that right 2D:4D (but not left) was negatively related to AAM, but Helle ([2010a]: Am J Hum Biol 22:418-420) found no relationship. Here the association between 2D:4D, AAM, and self-reported rate of pubertal development (RPD) is considered. The sample consisted of self-measured finger lengths and AAM and RPD reported by women in the BBC internet study. There were 70,658 white women who reported a mean (± SD) AAM of 12.54 (1.48) years. Right 2D:4D was negatively related to AAM and positively related to RPD. These relationships were independent of left 2D:4D, age and height. Between-country variation in right 2D:4D was also significantly related to AAM such that in countries with low 2D:4D women mean AAM was higher. In support of the findings of Matchock, right 2D:4D was found to be negatively related to AAM. In addition, right 2D:4D was positively related to RPD. In a sample of 19 countries, mean right 2D:4D was negatively correlated with mean national AAM. These findings suggest that women with high prenatal testosterone and low prenatal estrogen tend to show late menarche and slow pubertal development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. FINAL RESULTS OF THE EARLY TREATMENT FOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY (ETROP) RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Good, William V

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To present the final results of the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study. Methods Infants with bilateral high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (n = 317) had one eye randomized to early retinal ablative treatment and the fellow eye managed conventionally (control eye). In asymmetric cases (n = 84), the eye with high-risk prethreshold ROP was randomized to early or to conventional management. High risk was determined using a model based on the Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity natural history cohort. The primary outcome was visual acuity assessed by masked testers using the Teller acuity card procedure. Structural examinations were performed at 6 and 9 months. Results Grating acuity results showed a reduction in unfavorable visual acuity outcomes with earlier treatment, from 19.8% to 14.3% (P < .005). Unfavorable structural outcomes were reduced from 15.6% to 9.0% (P < .001) at 9 months. Further analysis supported retinal ablative therapy for eyes with type I ROP, defined as zone I, any stage ROP with plus disease; zone I, stage 3 ROP without plus disease; or zone II, stage 2 or 3 with plus disease. The analysis supported a “wait and watch” approach to type II ROP, defined as zone I, stage 1 and 2 without plus disease, or zone II, stage 3 without plus disease. These eyes should be considered for treatment only if they progress to type I ROP or threshold. Conclusion Early treatment of high-risk prethreshold ROP significantly reduced unfavorable outcomes in both primary and secondary (structural) measures. PMID:15747762

  18. Sparking a Reading Revolution: Results of Early Literacy Interventions in Egypt and Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gove, Amber; Brombacher, Aarnout; Ward-Brent, Michelle

    2017-03-01

    This article examines the effects of two early grade reading interventions in two Arabic-speaking contexts (Egypt and Jordan), developed in partnership with ministries of education. The interventions relied on similar research bases for improving reading instruction in Arabic. In Egypt, the results of a 166-school pilot led to the national scale-up of the Early Grade Reading Program for more than 4 million children in grades 1-3. Informed by Egypt's experience, a demonstration effort in 43 schools led to a national rollout in Jordan's 2,651 public primary schools and the creation of a remediation program. We reflect on the conditions that influenced the pilot and scale-up outcomes given the commitments made to "inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all" under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Parametric flutter studies of an arrow-wing configuration: Some early results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Michael H.; Cole, Stanley R.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Keller, Donald F.; Parker, Ellen C.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    1988-01-01

    Some early experimental results from a combined experimental and analytical study being conducted at NASA-Langley of the transonic flutter characterisitics of a generic arrow wing configuration are presented. The planned study includes the parametric variation of a variety of structural and geometric characteristics. Presented here are flutter results of the basic arrow wing, for the basic wing with the addition of two simulated lower-surface-mounted engine nacelles, and for the basic wing with the addition of both the fin and the engine nacelles.

  20. Results from UV Imaging in the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Seth H.; WFC3-SOC

    2013-01-01

    A portion of the GOOD-S field was observed with the HST Wide Field Camera 3 with both the UVIS and IR channels, as part of the Early Release Science Observations. Here we present a summary of our results from imaging intermediate redshift galaxies with an emphasis on what was learned from the ultraviolet portion of the observations. We discuss the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies, the assembly of massive spheroids during the peak epoch of the cosmic star-formation rate, the evolution and properties of UV-selected star-forming galaxies, analysis of AGN host galaxies, and the UV properties of z<1.5 early-type galaxies. Additionally, we will discuss how the UV data affect derived galaxy properties such as photometric redshifts and SED parameters. This work is based on the Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program. Support for program 11359 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. Acceptable results of early closure of loop ileostomy to protect low rectal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Perdawid, Sharafaden Karim; Andersen, Ole Bjørn

    2011-06-01

    This was a pilot project performed prior to full implementation of early loop ileostomy closure (within two weeks) following low anterior resection of the rectum in a group of patients selected according to previously recommended criteria for safe, early ileostomy closure. Retrospective review of medical records. Patients undergoing loop ileostomy closure between December 2009 and October 2010 were analyzed. Data were collected on demographics, tumour characteristics, information about the perioperative period, operative details, postoperative complications, closure operation, the postoperative closure period and follow-up. Eleven patients were included (men, n = 4) with a median age of 58 years (range 47-79 years). Ileostomy closure was performed at a median of ten days (range 8-13 days) following rectum resection. The median hospital stay was 16 days (range 14-24 days). No re-laparotomies were performed. One patient developed a pelvic pus collection ten days post closure and was treated conservatively. One patient died 32 days after closure for reasons not related to surgery. The results of this small retrospective study show morbidity rates associated with early loop ileostomy closure that are probably acceptable. Safety, feasibility, timing and selection criteria should be clarified in large randomized studies. not relevant. not relevant.

  2. Early Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Reducing Radiotherapy Side Effects: Early Results of a Randomized Trial in Oropharyngeal and Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Teguh, David N.; Levendag, Peter C.; Noever, Inge; Voet, Peter; Est, Henrie van der; Rooij, Peter van; Dumans, Antoine G.; Boer, Maarten F. de; Huls, Michiel van der; Sterk, Wouter; Schmitz, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: Comparison of quality of life (QoL) and side effects in a randomized trial for early hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: From 2006, 19 patients with tumor originating from the tonsillar fossa and/or soft palate (15), base of tongue (1), and nasopharynx (3) were randomized to receive HBOT or not. HBOT consisted of 30 sessions at 2.5 ATA (15 msw) with oxygen breathing for 90 min daily, 5 days per week, applied shortly after the RT treatment was completed. As of 2005, all patients received validated questionnaires (i.e., the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ Head and Neck Cancer Module (H and N35), Performance Status Scale): before treatment; at the start of RT treatment; after 46 Gy; at the end of RT treatment; and 2, 4, and 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after follow-up. Results: On all QoL items, better scores were obtained in patients treated with hyperbaric oxygen. The difference between HBOT vs. non-HBOT was significant for all parameters: EORTC H and N35 Swallowing (p = 0.011), EORTC H and N35 Dry Mouth (p = 0.009), EORTC H and N35, Sticky Saliva (p = 0.01), PSS Eating in Public (p = 0.027), and Pain in Mouth (visual analogue scale; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Patients randomized for receiving hyperbaric oxygen after the RT had better QoL scores for swallowing, sticky saliva, xerostomia, and pain in mouth.

  3. Grating visual acuity results in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Velma; Quinn, Graham E; Summers, C Gail; Hardy, Robert J; Tung, Betty; Good, William V

    2011-07-01

    To compare grating (resolution) visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment (ET) for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with that in eyes that underwent conventional management (CM). In a randomized clinical trial, infants with bilateral, high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye undergo ET and the other eye undergo CM, with treatment only if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (n = 84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to ET or CM. Grating visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers using Teller acuity cards. Monocular grating acuity results were obtained from 317 of 370 surviving children (85.6%). Analysis of grating acuity results for all study participants with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant overall benefit of ET (18.1% vs 22.8% unfavorable outcomes; P = .08). When the 6-year grating acuity results were analyzed according to a clinical algorithm (high-risk types 1 and 2 prethreshold ROP), a benefit was seen in type 1 eyes (16.4% vs 25.2%; P = .004) undergoing ET, but not in type 2 eyes (21.3% vs 15.9%; P = .29). Early treatment of eyes with type 1 ROP improves grating acuity outcomes, but ET for eyes with type 2 ROP does not. APPLICATION TO CLINICAL MEDICINE: Type 1 eyes should be treated early; however, based on acuity results at 6 years of age, type 2 eyes should be cautiously monitored for progression to type 1 ROP. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222.

  4. The Use of Cryotherapy for Papilloma and Early Laryngeal Cancers: Long-term Results.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Michael S; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Milstein, Claudio F

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective chart review. To determine the efficacy of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of early glottic cancer and laryngeal papillomatosis. The use of cryotherapy in conjunction with traditional modalities has recently been proposed to improve voice outcomes in patients with early laryngeal cancer as compared to pretreatment conditions. This study investigates its utility in improving oncological outcomes and decreasing recurrences of laryngeal papillomatosis. Patients with either early glottic cancer or laryngeal papillomatosis that received cryotherapy as part of their surgical regimen were investigated. All patients were seen at a large tertiary care center within a 10-year window. Demographic data were collected and all postoperative notes were reviewed. Recurrences of the laryngeal cancer were noted, as was the duration of time between successive papillomatosis operations. The charts of 54 glottic cancer and 29 papillomatosis patients that received cryotherapy were reviewed. One patient from the papillomatosis cohort was excluded from statistical analysis due to lack of follow-up. Overall, 16 (30%) of the laryngeal cancer patient experienced a malignant recurrence. The overall 5-year survival of these patients was 98% and the 5-year disease-free survival was 74%. The use of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis extended the duration of time between surgeries by an average of 79 days (P=.23). The use of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of early glottic cancer does not improve the rate of carcinoma recurrences. Additionally, cryotherapy does not result in a statistically significant increase in the duration of disease-free period for laryngeal papillomatosis patients, although the observed increase may be clinically important. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Assessment of renal perfusion with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: Preliminary results in early diabetic nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Lin, Pan; Fan, Peili; Mao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We performed a prospective study to evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in quantitative evaluation of renal cortex perfusion in patients suspected of early diabetic nephropathies (DN), with the estimated GFR (MDRD equation) as the gold standard. The study protocol was approved by the hospital review board; each patient gave written informed consent. Our study included 46 cases (21 males and 25 females, mean age 55.6 ± 4.14 years) of clinical confirmed early DN patients. After intravenous bolus injection of 1 ml sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles of ultrasound contrast agent, real time CEUS of renal cortex was performed successively using a 2-5 MHz convex probe. Time-intensity curves (TICs) and quantitative indexes were created with Qlab software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to predict the diagnostic criteria of CEUS quantitative indexes, and their diagnostic efficiencies were compared with resistance index (RI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) of renal segmental arteries by chi square test. Our control group included forty-five healthy volunteers. Difference was considered statistically significant with P <  0.05. Changes of area under curve (AUC), derived peak intensity (DPI) were statistically significant (P <  0.05). DPI less than 12 and AUC greater than 1400 had high utility in DN, with 71.7% and 67.3% sensitivity, 77.8% and 80.0% specificity. These results were significantly better than those obtained with RI and PSV which had no significant difference in early stage of DN (P > 0.05). CEUS might be helpful to improve early diagnosis of DN by quantitative analyses. AUC and DPI might be valuable quantitative indexes.

  6. Effective treatment of haemorrhoids: early complication and late results after 150 consecutive stapled haemorrhoidectomies.

    PubMed

    Bove, Aldo; Bongarzoni, Giuseppe; Palone, Gino; Chiarini, Stella; Calisesi, Enrico Maria; Corbellini, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Haemorrhoidectomy according to Longo potentially reduces post-operative pain and allows an early return to work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the technique, the early and especially late complications, and recurrences, in 150 patients. Between January 2005 and December 2006, we performed 150 consecutive haemorrhoidectomies with the Longo technique: 82 for third degree haemorrhoids and 68 for fourth degree haemorrhoids. The mean age of patients was 42 years. Every patient had a pre-operative proctoscopy and endoscopy KIT PPH01 (Ethicon Endo Surgery) was used. We evaluated the length of the operation, the post-operative pain, the early and late complications, and the recurrence of the disease. The mean follow up was 52 months (range 36-72). There was no mortality. The mean length of the operation was 25 minutes with a range of 15 to 45 minutes. Pain, evaluated using the V.A.S. scale, was very light in 114 patients (V.A.S. 2,1) and light in 36 (V.A.S. 3.2). Only 11 (7.5%) patients took painkillers, on demand, for a week after discharge from hospital and 2 patients (1,3%) for more than one month. Early complications (6.6%) were: 5 bleeding (2 after seven days), 4 acute urinary retentions, 1 external haemorrhoid thrombosis and 1 haematoma of the rectus wall. Mean Hospital stay was 2.1 days. Late complications (10%) were: 5 "faecal urgency" which disappeared after six months, 6 moderate asymptomatic strictures, and 4 persistent skin tags. There were 8 recurrences (5.1%), 2 for haemorrhoids of grade 3 e 6 for haemorrhoids of grade 4. All the recurrences appeared within the first 24 months. The stapled procedure according to Longo is an effective treatment for haemorrhoids. The results for postoperative pain and early return to work are very good. However, special care for haemostasis is essential in order to avoid bleeding. An effective surgical technique prevents late complications, but results after long term follow up show a not insignificant

  7. Effect of age at menopause on disease presentation in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lauren E; Huang, Wei-Ti; Pope, Janet E; Haraoui, Boulos; Boire, Gilles; Thorne, J Carter; Hitchon, Carol A; Tin, Diane; Keystone, Edward C; Bykerk, Vivian P

    2015-05-01

    Studies suggest that hormonal states affect disease characteristics in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study investigated how age at menopause affects disease in women presenting with early RA. This was a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women with early RA under age 65 years at time of enrollment in the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort. RA-related disease characteristics in women who had early age at menopause (EM; age at menopause <45 years) were compared to those who had usual age at menopause (age at menopause ≥45 years). The t-test was applied to continuous variables and the chi-square test to categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for age at menopause, smoking, and use of exogenous hormones. A total of 534 women were included; 93 were in the EM group. The age at RA onset was similar between groups. The EM group had higher mean patient global and pain scores and was more likely to be rheumatoid factor (RF) positive and meet the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA. Using multivariate logistic regression, the EM group was more likely to be RF positive (odds ratio 2.2 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.8], P = 0.005). Symptom duration, joint counts, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, Health Assessment Questionnaire scores, and inflammatory markers did not differ between groups. These data suggest that early age at menopause, compared to usual age at menopause, is associated with seropositivity in women with early RA. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Long-term results of early contact lens use in pediatric unilateral aphakia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chun Ellin; Hu, Annie C; Rosenbaum, Arthur; Spooner, Sharon; Weissman, Barry A

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate which factor(s) might predict excellent Snellen visual acuity results in unilateral nontraumatic pediatric aphakes. Retrospective review of all unilateral pediatric aphakic patients seen in a specialty contact lens clinic between 1982 and 2009. Inclusion criteria as follows: (1) cataract extraction before age 6 weeks, (2) no other health complications, (3) contact lens fitting within 3 weeks postsurgery, and (4) measurable subjective visual performance on a clinical Snellen acuity chart. Fifteen patients were identified: 10 patients with persistent fetal vasculature syndrome (PFV) and 5 patients with the diagnosis of idiopathic congenital cataract (ICC). Final Snellen acuity results showed seven patients (46.67%) developed excellent Snellen visual acuities (defined as 20/50 or better), four patients (26.67%) developed moderate Snellen visual acuities (20/125 to 20/60), and four total patients (26.67%) developed poor Snellen visual acuities (worse than 20/200). Analysis used descriptive statistics. Approximately 50% of our unilateral nontraumatic pediatric aphakic patients aged older than 5 years achieved excellent Snellen visual acuity in the aphakic eye. The amount of surgical or ocular complications seems to have an inverse relationship with Snellen visual acuity in PFV. Patching compliance, without implying cause-effect direction, also had a direct relationship with final Snellen visual acuity for patients. Early cataract extraction, good to moderate patching compliance, and aggressive early contact lens management can lead to moderate to excellent Snellen visual results in several unilateral pediatric aphakic patients.

  9. Psychological distress over time in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from a longitudinal study in an early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Bacconnier, Ludovic; Rincheval, Nathalie; Flipo, René-Marc; Goupille, Philippe; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Combe, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    RA is a chronic disease with frequent psychological co-morbidities, of which depression and anxiety are two common manifestations. We aimed to identify predictive factors of psychological distress in a large prospective cohort of very early RA patients. ESPOIR (Etude et Suivi des Polyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes) is a multicentre, longitudinal and prospective cohort study of patients with early arthritis (<6 months disease duration). The study sample comprised 641 patients with very early RA according to the 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism RA criteria from the ESPOIR cohort. Psychological distress was assessed over 3 years by the five-item Mental Health Inventory questionnaire at various time points (baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months). Logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation model was used to analyse the association of disease variables and risk of psychological distress. At baseline, 46.9% of RA patients were screened as positive for psychological distress. Over 3 years, psychological distress decreased significantly, with a prevalence of 25.8% at 36 months. The HAQ Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score was the most important factor predicting psychological distress over 3 years [odds ratio 2.10 (95% CI 1.41, 3.14)-3.59 (2.29, 5.63)]. Baseline biological and radiological variables and treatment regimens were not associated with distress. Psychological distress in very early RA is frequent and the HAQ-DI score is a predictor of depression and anxiety in these patients. A psychological evaluation in patients with early RA is important for further individual psychiatric diagnosis and management. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Early ketamine exposure results in cardiac enlargement and heart dysfunction in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ran; Liu, Guangjian; Du, Min; Shi, Yu; Jiang, Pu; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Lan; Liu, Jianxia; Xu, Ying

    2016-04-18

    Ketamine is a commonly used clinical anesthetic and a popular recreational drug. However, with the exception of studies about the nervous system, studies about the effect of early ketamine exposure on embryos are rare. Xenopus laevis is a commonly used vertebrate model for assessing teratogenicity. Therefore, we treated Xenopus embryos with ketamine to evaluate its teratogenicity on embryos. Xenopus embryos were treated with ketamine from stages 8 to 21. Embryonic and cardiac morphology were analyzed using living embryo imaging and whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (WMISH). Heart function was measured by heart rate and ventricular shortening fraction (VSF). The mRNA expression levels of several heart development-related genes were determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The protein expression levels of XMLC2, phospho-histone H3 (pH3) and histone H3 were determined by western blot. Ketamine caused concentration-dependent increases in mortality and shortening of body length. At a dose of 0.5 mg/ml, ketamine exposure resulted in cardiac enlargement as the primary manifestation of several malformations: gut defects, a curved axis and shortened body length. Cardiac cells underwent increased proliferation. Moreover, the heart rate and ventricular shortening fraction were decreased, findings indicative of heart dysfunction. XMLC2 expression levels were down-regulated at stages 28, 32/33, 35/36 and 46. Ketamine exposure during early development has teratogenic effects on Xenopus embryos. The heart enlargement and decreased VSF may result from the down-regulation of XMLC2 mRNA and protein levels. These findings provide new insight into the potential fetal defects induced by ketamine exposure during early pregnancy.

  11. Early results of patellofemoral inlay resurfacing arthroplasty using the HemiCap Wave prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akash; Haider, Zakir; Anand, Amarjit; Spicer, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Common surgical treatment options for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis include arthroscopic procedures, total knee replacement and patellofemoral replacement. The HemiCap Wave patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis is a novel inlay design introduced in 2009 with scarce published data on its functional outcomes. We aim to prospectively evaluate early functional outcomes and complications, for patients undergoing a novel inlay resurfacing arthroplasty for isolated patellofemoral arthrosis in an independent centre. From 2010 to 2013, 16 consecutive patients underwent patellofemoral resurfacing procedures using HemiCap Wave (Arthrosurface Inc., Franklin, Massachusetts, USA) for anterior knee pain with confirmed radiologically and/or arthroscopically isolated severe patellofemoral arthrosis. Standardized surgical technique, as recommended by the implant manufacturer, was followed. Outcome measures included range of movement, functional knee scores (Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36)), radiographic disease progression, revision rates and complications. Eight men and eight women underwent patellofemoral HemiCap Wave resurfacing, with an average age of 63 years (range: 46-83). Average follow-up was 24.1 months (6-34). Overall, post-operative scores were excellent. There was a statistically significant improvement in the post-operative OKS, KOOS and SF-36 scores ( p < 0.01). One patient had radiological disease progression. One patient underwent revision for deep infection. Two other minor complications were observed and treated conservatively. The HemiCap Wave patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis has excellent early results in terms of functional outcomes, radiological outcomes and low complication rates. At the very least, early results show that the HemiCap Wave is comparable to more established onlay prostheses. The HemiCap Wave thus provides a safe and effective surgical option in the treatment

  12. GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM S{sup 4}G EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-02-01

    Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S{sup 4}G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T {sub N}, of the number of clusters, N {sub CL}, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M {sub *}, rises weakly with M {sub *} for early-type galaxies with M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T {sub N} on M {sub *} is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M {sub *}; and (2) for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, there is no trend between N {sub CL} and M {sub *}, the scatter in T {sub N} is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N {sub CL} in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is ∼0.0014 for M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and can be as large as ∼0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S{sup 4}G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S{sup 4}G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S{sup 4}G.

  13. Effects of menarcheal age on the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors during single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kew-Wan; Lim, Bee-Oh

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between maturation and lower extremity biomechanics during landing in team sport athletes, we are presently uninformed of any research that examined the single-legged drop landing biomechanics of gymnasts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the menarcheal age on the lower extremity biomechanics during a single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts. Twenty-two female artistic elite gymnasts, between 9 and 36 years of age, participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups pre- (n = 11) and post- (n = 11) menarche and asked to perform a single-legged drop landing on top of a 30 cm platform and land on a force plate. The statistical analysis consisted of the multivariate analysis with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The post-menarche group showed a decrease in their maximum knee flexion angle and increase in their maximum knee abduction angle, maximum internal tibial rotation angle, maximum knee abduction moment, and hamstring-quadriceps muscle activity ratio compared with the pre-menarche group during the single-legged drop landing. The post-menarche group showed an increased noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, due to their greater knee loads, compared with the pre-menarche group.

  14. Early post-operative results after repair of traumatic brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Reda, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for traumatic brachial plexus injuries include nerve grafting, or neurotization. The type of lesion and the reconstructive procedures affect functional results and postoperative pain relief. A total number of twenty five patients suffering from post-traumatic brachial plexus injury were included in the study. The patients underwent exploration and primary repair of the affected plexus, based on case by case policy. Spinal accessory nerve transfer to suprascapular nerve procedure regained 78.95% of functional muscle power, 10.50% of non functional muscle power and only 10.5 % of non innervated muscle. The Oberlin procedure regained 83.33% with elbow flexion muscle power, 16.67% with non functional muscle power. Intercostal nerve transfer to musculocutaneous nerve regained 62.5% with functional muscle power, 25% with non functional muscle power and only 12.5 % with non innervated muscle. The shoulder, elbow and wrist extension functions were significantly improved early post-operatively. In addition, the post-operative improvement of shoulder, elbow and wrist extension functions had significant negative correlations with the pre-operative elapsed time, and accompanied by a significant positive correlation with post-operative follow up period. Early intervention for traumatic brachial plexus palsy is recommended to get good results with pain relief.

  15. Continuous antagonism of the ghrelin receptor results in early induction of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro; Nakashima, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Yuki; Ida, Takanori; Kojima, Masayasu

    2011-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that mediates a variety of physiological roles, such as stimulating appetite, initiating food intake, and modulating energy metabolism. Although it has been reported that a bolus injection of ghrelin decreases blood pressure, the effect of continuous ghrelin administration on vasoregulation has yet to be determined. We examined the longitudinal effect of ghrelin on vasoregulation using Dahl-Iwai salt-sensitive rats. In this model, a high-salt diet induced high blood pressure and increased ghrelin levels but reduced food intake. In salt-sensitive hypertension, cumulative food intake decreased, while both ghrelin messenger RNA levels and plasma ghrelin content increased. Continuous administration of a ghrelin receptor agonist, growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), for 2 weeks by mini-osmotic pump did not change blood pressure values although the cumulative food intake recovered. In contrast, continuous administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-Lys³]-GHRP-6, induced early elevations in blood pressure without changes in heart rate. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed high expression levels of genes involved in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase, after continuous [D-Lys³]-GHRP-6 administration. These results indicate that continuous antagonism of the ghrelin receptor results in early induction of salt-sensitive hypertension in this animal model and suggests that increases in autonomic nervous activity induced by ghrelin receptor antagonism are responsible, as indicated by the high expression levels of genes in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway.

  16. Detection of early bronchial cancer by autofluorescence: results in patients with H&N cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Radu, Alexandre; Zellweger, Matthieu; Lovisa, Blaise; Goujon, Didier; Grosjean, Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnières, Georges

    2007-07-01

    Head and neck (H&N) cancer patients have a high incidence of second primary tumours in the tracheobronchial tree. Diagnostic autofluorescence bronchoscopy (DAFE) has shown promising results in the detection of early neoplastic and pre-neoplastic changes in the bronchi. We have investigated the medical impact of DAFE in a population of H&N cancer patients. The bronchoscopies were performed using a modified commercially available DAFE system. Endoscopic imaging of the tissue autofluorescence (AF) was combined with an online image analysis procedure allowing to discriminate between true and false positive results. White light (WL) bronchoscopy was performed as a control. Twenty-one patients with high lung cancer risk factors underwent WL and AF bronchoscopy with this improved system. Forty-one biopsies were taken on macroscopicall suspicious (WL or AF positive) sites. Seven patients were found to have second primary tumours in the bronchi. The sensitivity for the detection of these early lesions with the DAFE was 1.6 times larger than the sensitivity of WL bronchoscopy only. The positive predictive value (PPV) for AF is 79% (33% for WL alone). The PPV of both methods together is 100%. DAFE proved to be efficient for the detection of second primary lesions in H&N cancer patients and can be used as a simple addition to pre-operative work-up or follow-up in this patient population.

  17. Father mental health during the early parenting period: results of an Australian population based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Christensen, Daniel; Mensah, Fiona; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine; Lucas, Nina; Canterford, Louise; Nicholson, Jan M

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to report on the occurrence of mental health difficulties for a large national sample of Australian fathers of children aged 0-5 years (n = 3,471). Secondary objectives were to compare fathers' mental health against normative data for the general male adult population, and to examine the course of mental health problems for fathers across the early childhood period. Secondary analysis of data from the infant cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children at three waves when children were 0-12 months, 2-3 and 4-5 years. Comparative data on the prevalence of psychological distress in the Australian adult male population sourced from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Approximately nine per cent of fathers reported symptomatic or clinical psychological distress at each wave, as measured by the Kessler-6. Approximately 30 % reporting distress at wave 1 continued to report distress at a similar or worse level across waves 2 and 3. Fathers not living with their children also had high rates of distress (14 % at wave 1 and 10 % at wave 2). Finally, fathers in the present study had 1.38 increased odds (95 % CI 1.12-1.69) for psychological distress compared with the Australian adult male population. Fathers are at risk of experiencing postnatal mental health difficulties, which may persist across the early childhood period for some fathers. The results suggest routine assessment of fathers' wellbeing should be undertaken in the postnatal period with mental health interventions and support provided across the early childhood period.

  18. Endoscopic papillectomy for early ampullary tumors: long-term results from a large multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Napoleon, Bertrand; Gincul, Rodica; Ponchon, Thierry; Berthiller, Julien; Escourrou, Jean; Canard, Jean-Marc; Boyer, Jean; Barthet, Marc; Ponsot, Philippe; Laugier, René; Helbert, Thierry; Coumaros, Dimitri; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Mion, François; Saurin, Jean-Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Endoscopic papillectomy of early tumors of the ampulla of Vater is an alternative to surgery. This large prospective multicenter study was aimed at evaluating the long-term results of endoscopic papillectomy. Between September 2003 and January 2006, 10 centers included all patients referred for endoscopic papillectomy and meeting the inclusion criteria: biopsies showing at least adenoma, a uT1N0 lesion without intraductal involvement at endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and no previous treatment. A standardized endoscopic papillectomy was done, with endoscopic monitoring with biopsies 4 - 8 weeks later where complications were recorded and complementary resection performed when necessary. Follow-up with duodenoscopy, biopsies, and EUS was done at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Therapeutic success was defined as complete resection (no residual tumor found at early monitoring) without duodenal submucosal invasion in the resection specimen in the case of adenocarcinoma and without relapse during follow-up. 93 patients were enrolled. Mortality was 0.9 % and morbidity 35 %, including pancreatitis in 20 %, bleeding 10 %, biliary complications 7 %, perforation 3.6 %, and papillary stenosis in 1.8 %. Adenoma was not confirmed in the resection specimen in 14 patients who were therefore excluded. Initial treatment was insufficient in 9 cases (8 carcinoma with submucosal invasion; 1 persistence of adenoma). During follow-up, 5 patients had tumor recurrence and 7 died from unrelated diseases without recurrence. Finally, 81.0 % of patients were cured (95 % confidence interval 72.3 % - 89.7 %). Endoscopic papillectomy of selected ampullary tumors is curative in 81.0 % of cases. It must be considered to be the first-line treatment for early tumors of the ampulla of Vater without intraductal invasion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Early results of large head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Kostensalo, I; Seppänen, M; Mäkelä, K; Mokka, J; Virolainen, P; Hirviniemi, J

    2012-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty significantly improves patient's life quality. However, total joint replacement is associated with possible complications, such as dislocations, infections, fractures and periprosthetic osteolysis. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties and analyse short term complications related to them. Between 9/2005 and 6/2009, a total of 691 hip replacements were performed on 635 patients with the use of Magnum M2 large head cementless metal-on-metal prosthesis in Turku University Hospital. All patients had a scheduled follow-up at two to three months, and at one year. The results were evaluated using X-rays, Harris Hip Score (HHS), and evaluating post-operative complications and reasons for re-operations. During our follow-up the HHS median raised from its preoperative value of 59.8 to 86.4 two to three months after the operation, and to 93.9 one year after the operation. As a complication we had five infections requiring single open debridement (early infection) or a two stage revision. Seven patients had a periprosthetic femoral fracture that was operated and 11 patients were reoperated because of acetabular component malposition, fracture or early loosening. We did not observe any dislocations, n. ischiadicus damages, squeeking or complications related to high metal ion release (ALVAL-reactions (Aseptic Lymphocyte-dominated Vasculitis-Associated Lesion) or pseudotumours). The metal-on-metal bearing pair allows large femoral head size, which decreases the risk for dislocation. It may also decrease the risk for osteolysis and aseptic loosening in a long run. Early complication rate related to the bearing surface is minimal. Metal-on-metal prosthesis is a good choice for young and active patients with good bone quality.

  20. A large-scale candidate-gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Peter; Chasman, Daniel I.; Buring, Julie E.; Chen, Constance; Hankinson, Susan E.; Paré, Guillaume; Chanock, Stephen; Ridker, Paul M.; Hunter, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified several novel genetic loci associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause. However, the stringent significance threshold used in GWA studies potentially lead to false negatives and true associations may have been overlooked. Incorporating biologically relevant information, we examined whether common genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes of 9 groups of biologically plausible pathways and related phenotypes are associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause. A total of 18,862 genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 278 genes were assessed for their associations with these two traits among a total of 24,341 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS, N=2,287) and the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS, N=22,054). Linear regression was used to assess the marginal association of each SNP with each phenotype. We adjusted for multiple testing within each gene to identify statistically significant SNP associations at the gene level. To evaluate the overall evidence for an excess of statistically significant gene associations over the proportion expected by chance, we applied a one-sample test of proportion to each group of candidate genes. The steroid-hormone metabolism and biosynthesis pathway was found significantly associated with both age at menarche and age at natural menopause (p=0.040 and 0.011, respectively). Additionally, the group of genes associated with precocious or delayed puberty was found significantly associated with age at menarche (p=0.013), and the group of genes involved in premature ovarian failure with age at menopause (p=0.025). PMID:20734064

  1. [Geographic distribution and secular trend of menarche in 9-18 year-old Chinese Han girls].

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Hu, Pei-jin; Zhang, Bing

    2011-06-18

    To analyze the characteristics and secular trend of age at menarche (age at menarche, AAM) in Chinese girls aged 9-18. Probit analyses were used to calculate AAMs in various populations of Chinese girls who participated in National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance in 2005 or 1995. The samples of girls were 92 767 in 2005 and 85 433 in 1995 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, respectively. AAM was 12.76 years in Chinese girls aged 9-18 in China. AAMs were 12.60 and 12.92 years for urban and rural girls, respectively. There was a large variation among different geographic areas, and AAM was earlier in girls living in east of China and later in girls living in northwest of China. AAMs of the top 5 municipalities/provinces were Beijing (12.27 years), Shanghai (12.32 years), Sichuan (12.48 years), Fujian (12.50 years) and Tianjin (12.51 years); and the last 5 provinces/autonomous regions were Qinghai (14.09 years), Hubei (13.33 years), Heilongjiang (13.10 years), Ningxia (13.08 years) and Hunan (12.87 years). AAMs were 0.22 and 0.34 years earlier than those of urban and rural girls in 1995. The onset of menarche was generally earlier in urban than in rural girls, and the latest in northwest of China. Significant decline trend of age at menarche could be found in Chinese girls, especially in rural areas. The differences of AAMs among urban and rural areas and in various provinces were with a tendency to shrink in 2005 compared with 1995.

  2. Review of early clinical results and complications associated with oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF).

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Maharaj, Monish; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-09-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion represents an effective surgical intervention for patients with lumbar degenerative diseases, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation, pseudoarthrosis and spinal deformities. Traditionally, conventional open anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion techniques have been employed with excellent results, but each with their own advantages and caveats. Most recently, the antero-oblique trajectory has been introduced, providing yet another corridor to access the lumbar spine. Termed the oblique lumbar interbody fusion, this approach accesses the spine between the anterior vessels and psoas muscles, avoiding both sets of structures to allow efficient clearance of the disc space and application of a large interbody device to afford distraction for foraminal decompression and endplate preparation for rapid and thorough fusion. This review aims to summarize the early clinical results and complications of this new technique and discusses potential future directions of research.

  3. Early results of the modified Peterson bunion procedure for adolescent hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Aronson, J; Nguyen, L L; Aronson, E A

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent hallux valgus has a high recurrence rate after conventional surgical corrections. Excellent results have been reported with a double osteotomy of the first metatarsal fixed with a 3/16" transarticular pin. The present study reports the early results of using a medial plate and screws with an osteoperiosteal distally based flap to correct metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation, decrease recurrence from laxity in the medial capsular repair, and avoid intra-articular damage. The study included 18 feet in 16 patients (8 males, 8 females). All osteotomies healed primarily without complications, though there was recurrence in 3 undercorrected feet (2 patients). The average preoperative hallux valgus angle of 34 degrees was reduced to 16 degrees at a minimum 1-year follow-up. The average intermetatarsal angle improved from 14 degrees (before operation) to 6 degrees. No patient has requested plate removal.

  4. The VLA Sky Survey - science goals and some early results from the pilot survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Mark; Chandler, Claire J.; Kimball, Amy E.; Myers, Steven T.; Schinzel, Frank; VLASS Survey Science Group

    2017-01-01

    In this talk I shall outline the science possible with the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS). The VLASS will survey the entire sky north of declination -40 deg in three epochs at 3GHz with full polarization information at 3-arcsec resolution, reaching a depth of 70muJy when the three epochs are combined. Key science for this survey includes the detection of radio transients and polarimetric observations across the 2-4GHz band covered by the observations. A pilot survey was conducted during the summer of 2016 to test the data acquisition and reduction strategy. The pilot survey fields were selected to be in regions of the sky well studied at other wavelengths, and I will present some early science results from the pilot, including the results of matching the pilot survey catalogs to overlapping infrared/optical surveys.

  5. Early results on the environmental integrity of W-88 o-ring seals

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.

    1993-04-01

    The author reports experimental measurements for the argon and oxygen permeability coefficients for the new EPDM material (SR793B-80) used for the environmental o-ring seals of the W88. The results allow the author to refine the argon gas analysis modeling predictions for W88 surveillance units. By comparing early surveillance results (up to four years in the field) with the modeling, the author shows that (1) up to this point in time, leakage past the seals is insignificant and (2) the argon approach should be able to inexpensively and easily monitor both integrated lifetime water leakage and the onset of any aging problems. Finally, the author provides a number of pieces of evidence indicating that aging of the SR793B-80 material will not be significant during the expected lifetime of the W88.

  6. Regression model estimation of early season crop proportions: North Dakota, some preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    To estimate crop proportions early in the season, an approach is proposed based on: use of a regression-based prediction equation to obtain an a priori estimate for specific major crop groups; modification of this estimate using current-year LANDSAT and weather data; and a breakdown of the major crop groups into specific crops by regression models. Results from the development and evaluation of appropriate regression models for the first portion of the proposed approach are presented. The results show that the model predicts 1980 crop proportions very well at both county and crop reporting district levels. In terms of planted acreage, the model underpredicted 9.1 percent of the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the county level. It predicted almost exactly the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the crop reporting district level and overpredicted the planted acreage by just 0.92 percent.

  7. Cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation and concomitant malignancy: early and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Paolo; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pugliese, Marta; Bovio, Emanuele; Chiariello, Luigi; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    We retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of cardiac surgery using extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in patients affected by malignancies and the potential influence of ECC on malignancy progression during follow-up. Out of 7078 patients referred for cardiac surgery from January 2001 to December 2012, 241 consecutive patients (3.4%) (mean age 72 ± 8 years; men 170) had malignancy either known before or detected during hospital stay. Organ malignancies were present in 201 patients (83%) and hematological malignancies in 40 (17%). Early stages of cancer (I-II, in remission) were present in 180 (75%) patients, and advanced stages (III-IV for organ malignancies , multiple organ involvement for hematological malignancies) in 61 (25%). EuroSCORE I and II were 8.6 ± 5.4 and 3.8 ± 2.1%, respectively. Cardiac surgery with ECC consisted in isolated (n = 176) or multiple procedures (n = 65). Follow-up (mean 57 ± 40 months) was 99% complete. In-hospital mortality was 5.8% (n = 14); 1.67% (n = 4) died from cancer-related causes. Ten-year survival was 65 ± 5%, and freedom from cardiac death was 92 ± 3.5%. Freedom from cancer-related death was 90 ± 3% for patients operated on in early stages of cancer compared with 60 ± 8.4% for those who operated on in advanced stages (P < 0.0001), and 89 ± 2.6% for organ malignancies compared with 48 ± 13% for hematological malignancies (P = 0.0002); hematological malignancies different from Hodgkin/non-Hodgkin lymphoma affected long-term survival (P < 0.05). Progression of malignancy was observed in 29 patients (12.8%) at 18 ± 10 months. Cardiac surgery in cancer patients is not associated with increased in-hospital mortality and provides satisfactory freedom from cardiac death. Long-term survival in early stages of cancer appears satisfactory. Time interval between ECC and progression of malignancy during follow-up should apparently exclude

  8. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Elks, Cathy E.; Perry, John R.B.; Sulem, Patrick; Chasman, Daniel I.; Franceschini, Nora; He, Chunyan; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Visser, Jenny A.; Byrne, Enda M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Esko, Tõnu; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lin, Peng; Mangino, Massimo; Marongiu, Mara; McArdle, Patrick F.; Smith, Albert V.; Stolk, Lisette; van Wingerden, Sophie W.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Albrecht, Eva; Corre, Tanguy; Ingelsson, Erik; Hayward, Caroline; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Smith, Erin N.; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Zgaga, Lina; Alavere, Helen; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barroso, Ines; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bergmann, Sven; Blackburn, Hannah; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buring, Julie E.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D.; d’Adamo, Pio; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Deloukas, Panos; Döring, Angela; Smith, George Davey; Easton, Douglas F.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Emilsson, Valur; Eriksson, Johan; Ferrucci, Luigi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Foroud, Tatiana; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Geller, Frank; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Ferreli, Liana; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Andrew D.; Karasik, David; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraft, Peter; Launer, Lenore J.; Laven, Joop S.E.; Li, Shengxu; Liu, Jianjun; Levy, Daniel; Martin, Nicholas G.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Melbye, Mads; Mooser, Vincent; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael A.; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; Ness, Andrew R.; Northstone, Kate; Oostra, Ben A.; Peacock, Munro; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Peltonen, Leena; Pennell, Craig E.; Pharoah, Paul; Polasek, Ozren; Plump, Andrew S.; Pouta, Anneli; Porcu, Eleonora; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schork, Nicholas J.; Scuteri, Angelo; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Soranzo, Nicole; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Strachan, David P.; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tikkanen, Emmi; Toniolo, Daniela; Tsui, Kim; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tyrer, Jonathon; Uda, Manuela; van Dam, Rob M.; van Meurs, Joyve B.J.; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Weedon, Michael N.; Wichmann, H. Erich; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Young, Lauren; Zhai, Guangju; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Boyd, Heather A.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Econs, Michael J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hunter, David J.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Metspalu, Andres; Montgomery, Grant W.; Ridker, Paul M.; Spector, Tim D.; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uitterlinden, André G.; Widen, Elisabeth; Murabito, Joanne M.; Ong, Ken K.; Murray, Anna

    2011-01-01

    To identify loci for age at menarche, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies in 87,802 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,731 women. In addition to the known loci at LIN28B (P=5.4×10−60) and 9q31.2 (P=2.2×10−33), we identified 30 novel menarche loci (all P<5×10−8) and found suggestive evidence for a further 10 loci (P<1.9×10−6). New loci included four previously associated with BMI (in/near FTO, SEC16B, TRA2B and TMEM18), three in/near other genes implicated in energy homeostasis (BSX, CRTC1, and MCHR2), and three in/near genes implicated in hormonal regulation (INHBA, PCSK2 and RXRG). Ingenuity and MAGENTA pathway analyses identified coenzyme A and fatty acid biosynthesis as biological processes related to menarche timing. PMID:21102462

  9. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Elks, Cathy E; Perry, John R B; Sulem, Patrick; Chasman, Daniel I; Franceschini, Nora; He, Chunyan; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Visser, Jenny A; Byrne, Enda M; Cousminer, Diana L; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Esko, Tõnu; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lin, Peng; Mangino, Massimo; Marongiu, Mara; McArdle, Patrick F; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; van Wingerden, Sophie H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Albrecht, Eva; Corre, Tanguy; Ingelsson, Erik; Hayward, Caroline; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Smith, Erin N; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M; Zgaga, Lina; Alavere, Helen; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barroso, Inês; Berenson, Gerald S; Bergmann, Sven; Blackburn, Hannah; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buring, Julie E; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D; d'Adamo, Pio; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Deloukas, Panos; Döring, Angela; Smith, George Davey; Easton, Douglas F; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Emilsson, Valur; Eriksson, Johan; Ferrucci, Luigi; Folsom, Aaron R; Foroud, Tatiana; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Geller, Frank; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E; Ferreli, Liana; Heath, Andrew C; Hernandez, Dena G; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiel, Douglas P; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraft, Peter; Launer, Lenore J; Laven, Joop S E; Li, Shengxu; Liu, Jianjun; Levy, Daniel; Martin, Nicholas G; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Mooser, Vincent; Murray, Jeffrey C; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael A; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; Oostra, Ben A; Peacock, Munro; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peltonen, Leena; Pennell, Craig E; Pharoah, Paul; Polasek, Ozren; Plump, Andrew S; Pouta, Anneli; Porcu, Eleonora; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schork, Nicholas J; Scuteri, Angelo; Segrè, Ayellet V; Shuldiner, Alan R; Soranzo, Nicole; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Strachan, David P; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tikkanen, Emmi; Toniolo, Daniela; Tsui, Kim; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tyrer, Jonathon; Uda, Manuela; van Dam, Rob M; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Wichmann, H Erich; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Young, Lauren; Zhai, Guangju; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Econs, Michael J; Harris, Tamara B; Hunter, David J; Loos, Ruth J F; Metspalu, Andres; Montgomery, Grant W; Ridker, Paul M; Spector, Tim D; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uitterlinden, André G; Widen, Elisabeth; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K; Murray, Anna

    2010-12-01

    To identify loci for age at menarche, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies in 87,802 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,731 women. In addition to the known loci at LIN28B (P = 5.4 × 10⁻⁶⁰) and 9q31.2 (P = 2.2 × 10⁻³³), we identified 30 new menarche loci (all P < 5 × 10⁻⁸) and found suggestive evidence for a further 10 loci (P < 1.9 × 10⁻⁶). The new loci included four previously associated with body mass index (in or near FTO, SEC16B, TRA2B and TMEM18), three in or near other genes implicated in energy homeostasis (BSX, CRTC1 and MCHR2) and three in or near genes implicated in hormonal regulation (INHBA, PCSK2 and RXRG). Ingenuity and gene-set enrichment pathway analyses identified coenzyme A and fatty acid biosynthesis as biological processes related to menarche timing.

  10. Intraoperative Ir-192 implantation for early breast cancer. Techniques and results

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Patients with early breast cancer (T1-2 N0-1) can be treated by lumpectomy and irradiation with a local control and survival equal to more radical surgery. Between 1982 and 1988, 323 patients with early breast cancer were treated, when possible, with Ir-192 implants at the time of lumpectomy to a local dose of 2000 cGy in 40-50 hours. Ten to 14 days later, the whole breast was treated to 4500 cGy at 180 per fraction in 5 weeks. The 6-year actuarial survival for stages I and II disease was 98% and 91%, respectively, and the recurrence-free survival was 96% and 98%, respectively. When these 323 patients were evaluated by T status, a local control of 97% was the same for T1 and T2 lesions. The cosmetic results were good to excellent in 95% of the patients. This approach has improved our ability to accurately place the boost dose in the breast.

  11. Minimally Invasive Anal Fistula Treatment (MAFT)-An Appraisal of Early Results in 416 Patients.

    PubMed

    Chowbey, P K; Khullar, R; Sharma, A; Soni, V; Najma, K; Baijal, M

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive anal fistula treatment (MAFT) was introduced to minimize early postoperative morbidity, preserve sphincter continence, and reduce recurrence. We report our early experience with MAFT in 416 patients. Preoperative MRI was performed in 150 patients initially and subsequently thereafter. The technique involves fistuloscope-aided localization of internal fistula opening, examination and fulguration of all fistula tracks, and secure stapled closure of internal fistula opening within anal canal/rectum. MAFT was performed as day-care procedure in 391 patients (93.9 %). During surgery, internal fistula opening could not be located in 100 patients (24 %). Seven patients required readmission to hospital. Mean visual analog scale scores for pain on discharge and at 1 week were 3.1 (1-6) and 1.6 (0-3), respectively. Mean duration for return to normal activity was 3.2 days (2-11 days). Fistula recurrence was observed in 35/134 patients (26.1 %) at 1 year follow-up. MAFT may be performed as day-care procedure with benefits of less pain, absence of perianal wounds, faster recovery, and preservation of sphincter continence. However, long-term results from more centers are needed especially for recurrence.

  12. Early life-stage toxicity test methods for gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) and results using chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Goodman, L.R.; Cripe, G.M.; Macauley, S.F.

    1986-02-01

    Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry, and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/liter. However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos concentrations from 3.7 to 150 micrograms/liter weighted significantly less than control fish: 9% lower in 3.7 micrograms/liter to 62% lower in 150 micrograms/liter. The 96-hr LC50 for juvenile fish was 520 micrograms/liter. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in toadfish and bioconcentration factors increased with increasing exposure concentration, a condition not generally observed with other marine fishes and other test chemicals. These results demonstrated the procedures for, and the practicality of, early life-stage tests with this marine species. We recommend the use of the gulf toadfish for comparative toxicity testing and for evaluating the toxicity of substances in conjunction with ontogenetical, physiological, and histological investigations of this considerably studied genus. We do not recommend it for routine effects testing.

  13. Post-impact climate conditions on early Mars: preliminary results from GCM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steakley, Kathryn; Murphy, Jim; Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Observations imply that liquid water was stable on Mars' surface during the late Noachian/early Hesperian era, with valley networks forming roughly 3.5-3.75 billion years ago, possibly from precipitation and runoff (Fassett & Head 2008, Icarus 195, 61; Hynek et al., 2010, JGR Planets, 115, E09008). Climate models, however, struggle to reproduce such warm conditions (Forget et al., 2013, Icarus 21, 81). Volcanism and impacts have been suggested as mechanisms of either inducing a warm and wet environment or causing local melting in a cold and wet environment. Comets and asteroids are capable of injecting into the atmosphere both kinetic energy from the impact and water from the object itself and from vaporized surface and subsurface ice. Segura et al. (2008, JGR Planets 113, E11007) find using a 1-D atmospheric model that significant rainfall and periods of above-freezing temperatures lasting months to years can follow impacts of objects between 30 and 100 km in diameter. We revisit this work utilizing a 3-D global climate model (GCM) to consider the effects of dynamics, topography, global surface ice variations, etc. We present preliminary results from the NASA ARC Mars GCM investigating global temperature and precipitation behavior in a post-impact, early Mars environment.

  14. Early-life seizures result in deficits in social behavior and learning.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Joaquin N; Swann, John W; Anderson, Anne E

    2014-06-01

    Children with epilepsy show a high co-morbidity with psychiatric disorders and autism. One of the critical determinants of a child's behavioral outcome with autism and cognitive dysfunction is the age of onset of seizures. In order to examine whether seizures during postnatal days 7-11 result in learning and memory deficits and behavioral features of autism we administered the inhalant flurothyl to induce seizures in C57BL/6J mice. Mice received three seizures per day for five days starting on postnatal day 7. Parallel control groups consisted of similarly handled animals that were not exposed to flurothyl and naïve mice. Subjects were then processed through a battery of behavioral tests in adulthood: elevated-plus maze, nose-poke assay, marble burying, social partition, social chamber, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze. Mice with early-life seizures had learning and memory deficits in the training portion of the Morris water maze (p<0.05) and probe trial (p<0.01). Mice with seizures showed no differences in marble burying, the nose-poke assay, or elevated plus-maze testing compared to controls. However, they showed a significant difference in the social chamber and social partition tests. Mice with seizures during postnatal days 7-11 showed a significant decrease in social interaction in the social chamber test and had a significant impairment in social behavior in the social partition test. Together, these results indicate that early life seizures result in deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory tasks and produce long-term disruptions in social behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early and medium term results of the sleeve valve-sparing procedure for aortic root ectasia.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Amando; Tasca, Giordano; Giannico, Floriana; Lobiati, Elisabetta; Skouse, Douglas; Galanti, Andrea; Martino, Antonello Stefano; Triggiani, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate our experience of using a simplified aortic valve sleeve procedure to treat aortic root ectasia and aneurysms with or without aortic regurgitation. In experienced hands, 2 aortic valve-sparing procedures, ie, Yacoub and David, have yielded excellent long-term results in the treatment of aortic root aneurysms, with or without aortic regurgitation. However, these techniques are demanding and not widely used. Recently, a new and simplified valve-sparing technique, named "sleeve procedure," has been proposed, and has yielded encouraging early results. Ninety consecutive patients with aortic root aneurysms underwent sleeve procedures from October 2006 to October 2012. Follow-up data (clinical 100% complete and echocardiographic 93% complete) were acquired from our outpatient clinic or from the referring cardiologist. The mean age of the patients was 61.5 ± 12.5 years, 79% were male, 16 (18%) had a bicuspid valve, 3 had Marfan syndrome, and 2 had aortic dissection. Over a mean clinical follow-up of 34 ± 19 months, 2 patients died from noncardiac causes and 1 was reoperated on for the recurrence of aortic regurgitation. On follow-up echocardiography after a mean of 18 ± 9 months, aortic regurgitation was absent/negligible, mild or moderate in 62%, 37%, and 1% of patients, respectively, and the diameters of the annulus, Valsalva sinuses, and sinotubular junction were 27.3 + 2.2, 37.0 + 3.4, and 30.6 + 3.1 mm, respectively. Our encouraging early and medium term results suggest that the sleeve procedure is a safe and effective aortic valve-sparing technique for the treatment of aortic root ectasia and aneurysm. However, longer follow-up is needed in order to draw definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Scientific Results and Future Prospects for the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm B.

    2010-01-01

    Following the extraordinarily successful Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009, the Observatory is now fully equipped with a broad array of powerful science instruments that put it at the pinnacle of its scientific power. Relevant to the subject matter of the Beyond 2010 Conference, HST will be well-placed over the next five-plus years to advance our knowledge of the formation of high-redshift galaxies and their growth with cosmic time; the emergence of structure in the early universe via Dark Matter-driven gravitational instability; and the universe's expansion history and any resulting implications for the temporal character of Dark Energy. These are fitting projects for the iconic facility now celebrating its 20th anniversary in orbit.

  17. The effect of physiological urine dilution on pregnancy test results in complicated early pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Ikomi, A; Matthews, M; Kuan, A M; Henson, G

    1998-04-01

    This study addresses the likelihood of false negative urine pregnancy test results, due to physiological urine dilution as described in some anecdotal reports. In this prospective study 320 pregnancy tests were performed on urine samples of varying concentrations obtained from 40 women, with suspected complications of early pregnancy, who had presented for ultrasound scans. Four different pregnancy tests were used and serum betahCG levels were measured quantitatively. Despite a mean fivefold increase in urine dilution, the pregnancy tests with low betahCG detection limits maintained maximal sensitivity. The detection of betahCG in dilute urine was adversely affected by using pregnancy tests with higher betahCG detection limits and these tests should be used with caution when assessing gynaecological emergencies.

  18. Visualizing changes in circuit activity resulting from denervation and reinnervation using immediate early gene expression.

    PubMed

    Temple, Meredith D; Worley, Paul F; Steward, Oswald

    2003-04-01

    We describe a novel strategy to evaluate circuit function after brain injury that takes advantage of experience-dependent immediate early gene (IEG) expression. When normal rats undergo training or are exposed to a novel environment, there is a strong induction of IEG expression in forebrain regions, including the hippocampus. This gene induction identifies the neurons that are engaged during the experience. Here, we demonstrate that experience-dependent IEG induction is diminished after brain injury in young adult rats (120-200 gm), specifically after unilateral lesions of the entorhinal cortex (EC), and then recovers with a time course consistent with reinnervation. In situ hybridization techniques were used to assess the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein Arc at various times after the lesion (4, 8, 12, 16, or 30 d). One group of rats was allowed to explore a complex novel environment for 1 hr; control operated animals remained in their home cage. In unoperated animals, exposure to the novel environment induced Arc mRNA levels in most pyramidal neurons in CA1, in many pyramidal neurons in CA3, and in a small number of dentate granule cells. This characteristic pattern of induction was absent at early time points after unilateral EC lesions (4 and 8 d) but recovered progressively at later time points. The recovery of Arc expression occurred with approximately the same time course as the reinnervation of the dentate gyrus as a result of postlesion sprouting. These results document a novel approach for quantitatively assessing activity-regulated gene expression in polysynaptic circuits after trauma.

  19. Early clinical results with cortically based pedicle screw trajectory for fusion of the degenerative lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Glennie, R Andrew; Dea, Nicolas; Kwon, Brian K; Street, John T

    2015-06-01

    This study reviews the outcomes and revision rates of degenerative lumbar fusion surgery using cortical trajectory pedicle screws in lieu of traditional pedicle screw instrumentation. Pedicle screw fixation can be a challenge in patients with low bone mineral density. Wide posterior approaches to the lumbar spine exposing lateral to the facet joints and onto transverse processes causes an additional degree of muscular damage and blood loss not present with a simple laminectomy. A cortical bone trajectory pedicle screw has been proposed as an alternative to prevent screw pullout and decrease the morbidity associated with the wide posterior approach to the spine. We present a series of eight consecutive patients using a cortical bone trajectory instead of traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. A retrospective review of our institutional registry data identified eight patients who had cortical screws placed with the assistance of O-arm Stealth navigation (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) from 2010-2013. We analyzed the need for revision, the maintenance of reduction and the incidence of screw pullout or breakage. Our review demonstrated that two of eight patients were revised at an average of 12months. The reasons for these revisions were pseudarthrosis and caudal adjacent segment failure. All patients who were revised had frank screw loosening. We present early clinical results of a new technique that has been shown to have a better fixation profile in laboratory testing. Our less than favorable early clinical results should be interpreted with caution and highlight important technical issues which should be considered.

  20. Persistent Noggin arrests cardiomyocyte morphogenesis and results in early in utero lethality

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Olga; Snider, Paige; Wang, Jain; Schwartz, Robert J.; Chen, YiPing; Conway, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple BMP genes are expressed in the developing heart from the initiation to late-differentiation stages, and play pivotal roles in cardiovascular development. In this study, we investigated the requirement of BMP activity in heart development by transgenic over-expression of extracellular BMP antagonist Noggin. Results Using Nkx2.5-Cre to drive lineage-restricted Noggin within cardiomyocyte progenitors, we show persistent Noggin arrests cardiac development at the linear heart stage. This is coupled with a significantly reduced cell proliferation rate, subsequent cardiomyocyte programmed cell death and reduction of downstream intracellular pSMAD1/5/8 expression. Noggin mutants exhibit reduced heartbeat which likely results in subsequent fully penetrant in utero lethality. Significantly, confocal and electron micrographic examination revealed considerably fewer contractile elements, as well as a lack of maturation of actin-myosin microfilaments. Molecular analysis demonstrated that ectopic Noggin-expressing regions in the early heart’s pacemaker region, failed to express the potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (Hcn4), resulting in an overall decrease in Hcn4 levels. Conclusions Combined, our results reveal a novel role for BMP signaling in the progression of heart development from the tubular heart stage to the looped stage via regulation of proliferation and promotion of maturation of the in utero heart’s contractile apparatus and pacemaker. PMID:25428115

  1. Early maternal separation, nightmares, and bad dreams: results from the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel.

    PubMed

    Csóka, Szilvia; Simor, Péter; Szabó, Gábor; Kopp, Mária S; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-03-01

    Early maternal separation is a particularly stressful experience. Current models of nightmare production emphasize negative emotionality as having a central role in determining dream affect. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that persons who experienced early maternal separation (before one year of age and lasting at least one month) report more frequent nightmare experiences and bad dreams as adults. In the frame of the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel, 5020 subjects were interviewed. Significant associations were found between early maternal separation and both frequent nightmare experience in adulthood and increased frequency of oppressive and bad dreams. Current depression scores fully mediated the association between early separation and nightmares, but not the association between early separation and negative dream affect. We interpret these findings as a trait-like enhancement of negative emotionality in adults who experienced early maternal separation. This enhancement influences the content of dreams and, when it takes the form of depression, also influences the frequency of nightmares.

  2. Reduction of intraocular pressure and glaucoma progression: results from the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial.

    PubMed

    Heijl, Anders; Leske, M Cristina; Bengtsson, Bo; Hyman, Leslie; Bengtsson, Boel; Hussein, Mohamed

    2002-10-01

    To provide the results of the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial, which compared the effect of immediately lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP), vs no treatment or later treatment, on the progression of newly detected open-angle glaucoma. Randomized clinical trial. Two hundred fifty-five patients aged 50 to 80 years (median, 68 years) with early glaucoma, visual field defects (median mean deviation, -4 dB), and a median IOP of 20 mm Hg, mainly identified through a population screening. Patients with an IOP greater than 30 mm Hg or advanced visual field loss were ineligible. Patients were randomized to either laser trabeculoplasty plus topical betaxolol hydrochloride (n = 129) or no initial treatment (n = 126). Study visits included Humphrey Full Threshold 30-2 visual field tests and tonometry every 3 months, and optic disc photography every 6 months. Decisions regarding treatment were made jointly with the patient when progression occurred and thereafter. Glaucoma progression was defined by specific visual field and optic disc outcomes. Criteria for perimetric progression were computer based and defined as the same 3 or more test point locations showing significant deterioration from baseline in glaucoma change probability maps from 3 consecutive tests. Optic disc progression was determined by masked graders using flicker chronoscopy plus side-by-side photogradings. After a median follow-up period of 6 years (range, 51-102 months), retention was excellent, with only 6 patients lost to follow-up for reasons other than death. On average, treatment reduced the IOP by 5.1 mm Hg or 25%, a reduction maintained throughout follow-up. Progression was less frequent in the treatment group (58/129; 45%) than in controls (78/126; 62%) (P =.007) and occurred significantly later in treated patients. Treatment effects were also evident when stratifying patients by median IOP, mean deviation, and age as well as exfoliation status. Although patients reported few systemic or ocular

  3. Predictors of the early introduction of solid foods in infants: results of a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A; Binns, Colin W; Graham, Kathleen I; Oddy, Wendy H

    2009-01-01

    Background The early introduction of solid foods before 4 months of age has been associated with an increased risk of diarrhoea in infancy and a greater risk of wheeze and increased percentage body fat and weight in childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the level of compliance with national recommendations related to the timing of the introduction of solid foods and to describe the maternal and infant characteristics associated with the timing of the introduction of solids. Methods Subjects were 519 participants in the second longitudinal Perth Infant Feeding Study (PIFS II) recruited from two maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia in 2002/3. Data collected prior to, or shortly after discharge from hospital, and at 4, 10, 16, 22, 32, 40 and 52 weeks postpartum included timing of the introduction of solid foods and a variety of maternal and infant characteristics associated with the introduction of solid foods. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify those factors associated with the risk of introducing solid foods early, which for the purposes of this study was defined as being before 17 weeks. Results The median age of introduction of solid foods was 17.6 weeks. In total, 44% of infants had received solids before 17 weeks and 93% of infants had received their first solids before 26 weeks of age. The strongest independent predictors of the early introduction of solids were young maternal age, mother smoking prior to pregnancy and not fully breastfeeding at 4 weeks postpartum. In general, mothers introduced solids earlier than recommended because they perceived their baby to either need them or be ready for them. Conclusion This study showed a high level of non-compliance among Australian mothers with the infant feeding recommendation related to the timing of solids that was current at the time. In order to improve compliance health professionals need to be aware of those groups least likely to comply with recommendations and

  4. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs.

    PubMed

    Herring, M J; Putney, L F; St George, J A; Avdalovic, M V; Schelegle, E S; Miller, L A; Hyde, D M

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O3) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA+O3) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA+O3 alters the development process in the lung alveoli.

  5. The difficulties of Indonesian fourth graders in learning fractions: An early exploration of TIMSS 2015 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, Ariyadi

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates Indonesian fourth-graders low performance in dealing with fractions in TIMSS 2015. Furthermore, the present study also explores possible reasons for this low performance. The data for this study was drawn from TIMSS 2015 data which included test results and responses to Teacher Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Indonesian textbooks were also analyzed to portrait a broader scope of possible reasons for students' low performance. The analysis of TIMSS test result reveals that Indonesian students, in comparison to students from other countries, had low understanding of the basic concepts of fractions. From the Teacher Questionnaire it was found that a possible reason for this low understanding was the Indonesian curriculum for third grade which gave low emphasis on the basic concepts of fractions and introduced operations of fractions rather early. Furthermore, the result of textbook analysis shows that Indonesian textbooks restricted only to one definition of fractions, i.e. fractions as parts of wholes. This finding might also explain Indonesian fourth graders' low understanding of fractions.

  6. Early Postoperative Results of Percutaneous Needle Fasciotomy in 451 Patients with Dupuytren Disease.

    PubMed

    Molenkamp, Sanne; Schouten, Tanneke A M; Broekstra, Dieuwke C; Werker, Paul M N; Moolenburgh, J Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Percutaneous needle fasciotomy is a minimally invasive treatment modality for Dupuytren disease. In this study, the authors analyzed the efficacy and complication rate of percutaneous needle fasciotomy using a statistical method that takes the multilevel structure of data, regarding multiple measurements from the same patient, into account. The data of 470 treated rays from 451 patients with Dupuytren disease that underwent percutaneous needle fasciotomy were analyzed retrospectively. The authors described the early postoperative results of percutaneous needle fasciotomy and applied linear mixed models to compare mean correction of passive extension deficit between joints and efficacy of primary versus secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Mean preoperative passive extension deficits at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints were 37, 40, and 31 degrees, respectively. Mean preoperative total passive extension deficit was 54 degrees. Results were excellent, with a mean total passive extension deficit correction of 85 percent. Percutaneous needle fasciotomy was most effective for metacarpophalangeal joints and less effective for proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. Secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy was as effective as primary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Complications were rare and mostly minor. The results of this study confirm that percutaneous needle fasciotomy is an effective and safe treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate disease who prefer a minimally invasive procedure. Therapeutic, IV.

  7. Early post-operative results of percutaneous needle fasciotomy in 451 patients with Dupuytren disease.

    PubMed

    Molenkamp, Sanne; Schouten, Tanneke A M; Broekstra, Dieuwke C; Werker, Paul M N; Moolenburgh, J Daniel

    2017-02-13

    Percutaneous needle fasciotomy (PNF) is a minimally invasive treatment modality for Dupuytren disease (DD). In this study we analyzed the efficacy and complication-rate of PNF using a statistical method that takes the multi-level structure of data, regarding multiple measurements from the same patients, into account. The data of 470 treated rays from 451 patients with Dupuytren disease that underwent percutaneous needle fasciotomy (PNF) were analyzed retrospectively. We described the early postoperative results of PNF and we applied linear mixed models to compare mean correction of PED between joints and efficacy of primary versus secondary PNF. Mean preoperative PED's at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints were 37˚, 40˚ and 31˚ respectively. Mean preoperative TPED was 54˚. Results were excellent, with a mean TPED correction of 85%. PNF was most effective for MCP-joints and less effective for PIP and DIP-joints. Secondary PNF was as effective as primary PNF. Complications were rare and mostly minor. The results of this study confirm that PNF is an effective and safe treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate disease who prefer a minimally invasive procedure.

  8. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S.; Winer, Eric P.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  9. The 3f Enable sutureless bioprosthesis: Early results, safeguards, and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Permanyer, Eduard; Estigarribia, Arnaldo-Javier; Ysasi, Alejandro; Herrero, Enrique; Semper, Omar; Llorens, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and hemodynamic performance of the 3f Enable (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) sutureless bioprosthesis in the early postoperative period. Its implantation technique was also evaluated highlighting the modifications in regard to the original technique and mistakes made throughout the learning curve. This is a prospective, nonrandomized study. From February 2011 to March 2014, a total of 60 patients underwent aortic valve replacement with the 3f Enable valve at the Hospiten Rambla. All intraoperative and postoperative data were prospectively collected. The mean age was 81.3 ± 3.78 years. Mean logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation I was 13.78%. An associated concomitant procedure was performed in 23 patients (38.3%). The extracorporeal circulation and crossclamping times were 49.8 ± 15.7 minutes and 35.4 ± 8.9 minutes, respectively. The average stay in the intensive care unit was 34.7 hours. Mean systolic pressure gradients ranged from 8.01 mm Hg (size 19 valve) to 7.2 mm Hg (size 25 valve). Mean effective orifice area ranged from 1.9 cm(2) (size 19 valve) to 2.5 cm(2) (size 25 valve). Severe mismatch (<0.65 cm(2)/m(2)) did not occur in any patient. Only 1.66% of patients had more than mild aortic insufficiency at discharge. The early (30-day) mortality was 6.6% (n = 4). The 3f Enable bioprosthesis is an important alternative to conventional prostheses, with reduction of surgery times and good hemodynamic results on discharge. It is especially useful for high-risk patients and octogenarians. Studies on a greater number of patients and long-term follow-ups are necessary. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementing a national flexible sigmoidoscopy screening program: results of the English early pilot.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Roisin; Rubin, Greg; Sofianopoulou, Eleni; Patnick, Julietta; Rees, Colin J

    2015-03-01

    Following the results of a major UK study showing that once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) screening significantly reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, an FSIG screening program in England was announced in late 2010. Three "early pilot" sites were selected in 2011 in Derby, South of Tyne, and Tees to assess the practicalities of the delivery of FSIG screening. Eligible people aged 55 from selected practices in the three early pilot areas received postal invitations to participate. The South of Tyne and Derby sites employed interactive models of screening invitation, while Tees used a simple invitation. Data were collected to assess uptake, process, and outcome. A self-completion participant satisfaction questionnaire was sent to all participants 1 month after attendance. A total of 4023 55-year-olds were invited to participate. Uptake was 29 %, with 1151 people screened over a 3-month period. Screening uptake differed by method of invitation: a simple approach was significantly more successful than an interactive one (32 % vs. 27 %, P = 0.0015). Uptake decreased significantly with increasing deprivation. Adenomas were found in 111 (9.8 %) of those screened and cancer in two. The procedure was rated "very" or "fairly" acceptable by 97 % of participants. Over 90 % of respondents said they would participate in future cancer screening and a similar proportion would recommend doing so to others. Delivery of an FSIG screening program to prevent CRC is feasible and should be implemented using a simple invitation system. The national Bowel Scope program subsequently commenced at pilot sites in May 2013, with full implementation planned by 2016. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Crystal L; Turab, Ali; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Bose, Anuradha; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Caulfield, Laura E

    2015-05-01

    We report the infant feeding experiences in the first month of life for 2,053 infants participating in "Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development" (MAL-ED). Eight sites (in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania), each followed a cohort of children from birth (by day 17), collecting detailed information on infant feeding practices, diet and illness episodes. Mothers were queried twice weekly regarding health status, breastfeeding and the introduction (or no) of non-breast milk liquids and foods. Here, our goal is to describe the early infant feeding practices in the cohort and evaluate factors associated with termination of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. With data from enrollment to a visit at 28-33 days of life, we characterized exclusive, predominant or partial breastfeeding (using a median of 6-9 visits per child across the sites). Only 6 of 2,053 infants were never breastfed. By one month, the prevalences of exclusive breastfeeding were < 60% in 6 of 8 sites, and of partial breastfeeding (or no) were > 20% in 6 of 8 sites. Logistic regression revealed that prelacteal feeding (given to 4-63% of infants) increased the likelihood of partial breastfeeding (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.10), as did the withholding of colostrum (2-16% of infants) (OR: 1.63:1.01, 2.62), and being a first-time mother (OR: 1.38:1.10, 1.75). Our results reveal diversity across these sites, but an overall trend of early transition away from exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. Interventions which introduce or reinforce the WHO/UNICEF Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding are needed in these sites to improve breastfeeding initiation, to reinforce exclusive breastfeeding and delay introduction of non-breast milk foods and/or liquids.

  12. Early result of hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mue; Mohammed, Salihu; Francis, Awonusi; William, Yongu; Joseph, Kortor; Cornilius, Elachi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractured neck of femur is a frequent and severe injury in elderly patients with consequent high morbidity and mortality. Hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment modality for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in elderly patients above 60 years. This study analysed the early functional outcome and complications of Austin Moore endoprosthesis in elderly patients above 60 years with fractured neck of femur. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data were obtained over a 5 year period from January 2007 to December 2012. Thirty-five elderly patients of 60 years and above with displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated with hemiarthroplasty using Austin Moore endoprosthesis were included. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 35 patients were involved. The age-range was 60-90 years with mean age of 69.7 ± 7 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was trivial falls in 18 (66.7%) patients. The commonest complication was pressure sore in 2 (5.7%) patients, followed by surgical site infection in 1 (2.9%) patient and periprosthetic fracture in 1 (2.9%) patients. Early post-operative mortality was 2.9%. Post-operative hip functional status according to Postel and Merle d Aubigne revealed that majority (66.6%) of patients had satisfactory hip function. Conclusion: Functional outcome of Austin Moore in elderly patients above 60 years with fracture neck of femur was satisfactory in most of the cases with minimal morbidity. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. PMID:25657497

  13. Early postnatal nociceptive stimulation results in deficits of spatial memory in male rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Cristiane; Antonio, Bruno; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes; Hamani, Clement; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2015-11-01

    Prematurely-born infants are exposed to multiple invasive procedures while in the intensive care unit. Newborn rats and humans have similar behavioral responses to noxious stimulation. Previous studies have shown that early noxious stimuli may alter dentate gyrus neurogenesis and the behavioral repertoire of adult rats. We evaluated the late effects of noxious stimulation administered during different phases of development on two spatial memory tests; object recognition (OR) and Morris water maze (WM) tests. Noxious stimulation was induced by an intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on postnatal (P) day 1 (group P1) or 8 (P8). Control animals were not stimulated. Behavioral tests were conducted on P60 in both male and female animals. In the WM, three domains were evaluated: acquisition, probe trial performance and reversal re-acquisition. The number of Nissl stained cells in the dentate granule cell layer was assessed by stereological counting. The OR test revealed that P1 male rats had poor long-term memory compared to the control and P8 groups. In the WM, no short- or long-term memory differences were detected between early postnatal-stimulated male and female rats and their respective controls. However, the ability to find the hidden platform in a new position was reduced in P1 male rats. The number of dentate granule cells in P8 males was higher than in all other groups. This study demonstrates that noxious stimulation on P1 results in spatial learning deficits in male animals, but does not disrupt the development of the hippocampus-dependent strategies of learning and memory.

  14. Early prefrontal functional blockade in rats results in schizophrenia-related anomalies in behavior and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Francisca; Louilot, Alain

    2012-09-01

    Growing evidence suggests schizophrenia may arise from abnormalities in early brain development. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) stands out as one of the main regions affected in schizophrenia. Latent inhibition, an interesting cognitive marker for schizophrenia, has been found in some studies to be reduced in acute patients. It is generally widely accepted that there is a dopaminergic dysfunctioning in schizophrenia. Moreover, several authors have reported that the psychostimulant, D-amphetamine (D-AMP), exacerbates symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. We explored in rats the effects in adulthood of neonatal transient inactivation of the PFC on behavioral and neurochemical anomalies associated with schizophrenia. Following tetrodotoxin (TTX) inactivation of the left PFC at postnatal day 8, latent inhibition-related dopaminergic responses and dopaminergic reactivity to D-AMP were monitored using in vivo voltammetry in the left core part of the nucleus accumbens in adult freely moving rats. Dopaminergic responses and behavioral responses were followed in parallel. Prefrontal neonatal inactivation resulted in disrupted behavioral responses of latent inhibition and latent inhibition-related dopaminergic responses in the core subregion. After D-AMP challenge, the highest dose (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) induced a greater dopamine increase in the core in rats microinjected with TTX, and a parallel increase in locomotor activity, suggesting that following prefrontal neonatal TTX inactivation animals display a greater behavioral and dopaminergic reactivity to D-AMP. Transitory inactivation of the PFC early in the postnatal developmental period leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes in adulthood that are meaningful for schizophrenia modeling. The data obtained may help our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disabling disorder.

  15. Early and midterm results of kissing stent technique in the management of aortoiliac obstructive disease.

    PubMed

    Pulli, Raffaele; Dorigo, Walter; Fargion, Aaron; Angiletta, Domenico; Azas, Leonidas; Pratesi, Giovanni; Alessi Innocenti, Alessandro; Pratesi, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    To retrospectively analyze the early and the midterm results of endovascular management of aortoiliac obstructive disease with the kissing stent technique. From January 2005 to September 2012, 229 consecutive endovascular interventions for aortoiliac obstructive disease were performed; data from all the interventions were prospectively collected in a dedicated database. In 41 patients, the kissing stent technique at the level of aortic bifurcation was performed (group 1), whereas in the remaining 188 it was not (group 2). Perioperative results were compared with chi-squared test. Follow-up results were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves and compared with log-rank test. Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II C and D lesions were present in 66% of patients in group 1 and in 28.5% in group 2 (P < 0.001), whereas iliac occlusion rather than stenosis was detected in 78% of patients in group 1 and in 50% in group 2 (P = 0.001). The mean number of placed stents was 2.5 in group 1 and 1.4 in group 2 (P < 0.001). Technical success was 100% in group 1 and 98% in group 2 (P = 0.3). The rate of perioperative complications was 7.3% in group 1 and 4.2% in group 2 (P = 0.4). At 30 days, neither deaths nor major cardiovascular complications occurred. There was no thrombosis or significant restenosis at the early postoperative follow-up visit. Mean duration of follow-up was 22 months. Primary patency rates at 4 years were 70.5% (standard error [SE], 0.09) in group 1 and 75.5% (SE, 0.06) in group 2 (P = 0.7). At the same interval, assisted primary and secondary patency and survival rates were also similar; reintervention rates were 15.5% in group 1 (SE, 0.1) and 19.5% in group 2 (SE, 0.06; P = 0.6). The kissing stent technique provided satisfactory results in patients with obstructive aortoiliac diseases, without an increase in immediate and midterm complications, representing an effective solution in complex anatomies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The selection system of silviculture in spruce-fir stands - procedures, early results, and comparisons with unmanaged stands

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Frank; Barton M. Blum

    1978-01-01

    Early results after 20 years of record keeping indicate that spruce-fir stands will respond to the selection system of silviculture. Stand quality is improved, species composition can be altered, diameter-class distribution approaches a stated goal, stand density is controlled, and yields are increased. Selection silviculture in spruce-fir can now be compared to early...

  17. Early results of an integrated maternal, newborn, and child health program, Northern Nigeria, 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes early results of an integrated maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) program in Northern Nigeria where child mortality rates are two to three times higher than in the southern states. The intervention model integrated critical health systems changes needed to reinvigorate MNCH health services, together with community-based activities aimed at mobilizing and enabling women to make changes in their MNCH practices. Control Local Government Areas received less-intense statewide policy changes. Methods The impact of the intervention was assessed using a quasi-experimental design, comparing MNCH behaviors and outcomes in the intervention and control areas, before and after implementation of the systems and community activities. Stratified random household surveys were conducted at baseline in 2009 (n = 2,129) and in 2011 at follow-up (n = 2310), with women with births in the five years prior to household surveys. Chi-square and t-tests were used to document presence of significant improvements in several MNCH outcomes. Results Between baseline and follow-up, anti-tetanus vaccination rates increased from 69.0% to 85.0%, and early breastfeeding also increased, from 42.9% to 57.5%. More newborns were checked by trained health workers (39.2% to 75.5%), and women were performing more of the critical newborn care activities at follow-up. Fewer women relied on the traditional birth attendant for health advice (48.4% to 11.0%, with corresponding increases in advice from trained health workers. At follow-up, most of these improvements were greater in the intervention than control communities. In the intervention communities, there was less use of anti-malarials for all symptoms, coupled with more use of other medications and traditional, herbal remedies. Infant and child mortality declined in both intervention and control communities, with the greatest declines in intervention communities. In the intervention communities, infant mortality rate

  18. Project Early Kindergarten Evaluation: Results through 2008-09 of a Saint Paul Public Schools Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jennifer Lee; Gozali-Lee, Edith; Mueller, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The Saint Paul Public Schools' Project Early Kindergarten program aims to improve the school readiness of Saint Paul children. The program began in 10 Saint Paul schools in fall 2005, and expanded to community child care settings a year later. Project Early Kindergarten (PEK) has since become the model for pre-kindergarten programs district-wide…

  19. Wages for Early Childhood Professionals in North America: Results of an Exchange Insta-Poll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2004-01-01

    This article reports findings from a recent "Exchange" Insta-Poll on Early Childhood Wages in North America. This survey was conducted on the "Exchange" web site, www.ChildCareExchange.com, from April 14-30, 2004. Over 900 early childhood professionals from 50 states, the District of Columbia, and 10 Canadian provinces provided…

  20. Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Groot, John; Chang, Liang; Varosi, Frank; Wan, Xiaoke; Powell, Scott; Jiang, Peng; Hanna, Kevin; Wang, Ji; Pais, Rohan; Liu, Jian; Dou, Liming; Schofield, Sidney; McDowell, Shaun; Costello, Erin; Delgado-Navarro, Adriana; Fleming, Scott; Lee, Brian; Bollampally, Sandeep R.; Bosman, Troy; Jakeman, Hali; Fletcher, Adam; Marquez, Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    We report design, performance and early results from two of the Extremely High Precision Extrasolar Planet Tracker Instruments (EXPERT) as part of a global network for hunting for low mass planets in the next decade. EXPERT is a combination of a thermally compensated monolithic Michelson interferometer and a cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph for extremely high precision Doppler measurements for nearby bright stars (e.g., 1m/s for a V=8 solar type star in 15 min exposure). It has R=18,000 with a 72 micron slit and a simultaneous coverage of 390-694 nm. The commissioning results show that the instrument has already produced a Doppler precision of about 1 m/s for a solar type star with S/N~100 per pixel. The instrument has reached ~4 mK (P-V) temperature stability, ~1 mpsi pressure stability over a week and a total instrument throughput of ~30% at 550 nm from the fiber input to the detector. EXPERT also has a direct cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy mode fed with 50 micron fibers. It has spectral resolution of R=27,000 and a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 390-1000 nm.

  1. A new UKIDSS proper motion survey and key early results, including new benchmark systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L.; Lucas, P.; Burningham, B.; Jones, H.; Pinfield, D.; Smart, R.; Andrei, A.

    We present a proper motion catalogue for the 1500 deg2 of 2 epoch J-band UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) data, which includes 120,000 stellar sources with motions detected above the 5sigma level. Our upper limit on proper motion detection is 3\\farcs3 yr-1 and typical uncertainties are of order 10 mas yr-1 for bright sources from data with a modest 1.8-7.0 year epoch baseline. We developed a bespoke proper motion pipeline which applies a source-unique second order polynomial transformation to UKIDSS array coordinates to counter potential local non-uniformity in the focal plane. Our catalogue agrees well with the proper motion data supplied in the current WFCAM Science Archive (WSA) tenth data release (DR10) catalogue where there is overlap, and in various optical catalogues, but it benefits from some improvements, such as a larger matching radius and relative to absolute proper motion correction. We present proper motion results for 128 T dwarfs in the UKIDSS LAS and key early results of projects utilising our catalogue, in particular searches for brown dwarf benchmark systems through cross matches with existing proper motion catalogues. We report the discovery of two new T dwarf benchmark systems.

  2. Indications and early to mid-term results of ulnar head replacement

    PubMed Central

    Shyamalan, G; Balabanidou, E

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the indications and show the early to mid-term results of ulnar head replacement for the treatment of pathological conditions of the distal radioulnar joint. Methods Our study group comprised 52 patients with a mean age of 64 years who had 56 ulnar head replacements. Seven were implanted to salvage an unstable deletive procedure; the rest were for primary treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and trauma. Concomitant procedures along with the ulnar head replacement included wrist arthrodesis, joint replacement and tendon transfers. Results The follow-up duration ranged from 1 year to 11 years (mean: 60 months, median: 60 months). In almost all of the patients, pain improved with a median visual analogue scale score of 2 (mean: 2.2, range: 0–8) and a median DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) score of 12.5 (mean: 17.9, range: 0–56). Of the 52 patients, 47 reported they would have the same procedure again. Conclusions Ulnar head replacement appears to be a reliable and effective procedure solving several pathological problems of the distal radioulnar joint. We present a large patient group with a short to medium-term follow-up duration. PMID:24025293

  3. Neuronal redox imbalance results in altered energy homeostasis and early postnatal lethality.

    PubMed

    Maity-Kumar, Gandhari; Thal, Dietmar R; Baumann, Bernd; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Redox imbalance is believed to contribute to the development and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. Our aim was to develop an animal model that exhibits neuron-specific oxidative stress in the CNS to study the consequences and eventually find clues regarding the pathomechanisms of oxidative insults in neuronal homeostasis. We therefore generated a novel neuron-specific superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)-deficient mouse by deleting exon 3 of the SOD2 gene using CamKIIα promoter-driven Cre expression. These neuron-specific SOD2 knockout (SOD2(nko)) mice, although born at normal frequencies, died at the age of 4 weeks with critical growth retardation, severe energy failure, and several neurologic phenotypes. In addition, SOD2(nko) mice exhibited severe neuronal alterations such as reactive astrogliosis, neuronal cell cycle inhibition, and induction of apoptosis. JNK activation and stabilization of p53, as a result of reactive oxygen species accumulation, are most likely the inducers of neuronal apoptosis in SOD2(nko) mice. It is remarkable that hypothalamic regulation of glucose metabolism was affected, which in turn induced necrotic brain lesions in SOD2(nko) mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that exclusive deficiency of SOD2 in neurons results in an impaired central regulation of energy homeostasis that leads to persistent hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia-related neuropathology, and an early lethality of the mutant mice. © FASEB.

  4. [Concomitant radiochemotherapy for locally advanced oro- and hypopharyngeal cancer: tolerance and early results].

    PubMed

    Kawecki, A; Jarzabski, A; Szutkowski, Z; Kiprian, D; Jagielska, B

    2000-01-01

    Combination of radio- and chemotherapy is one of the methods which may improve results of treatment in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Currently, the most promising sequence of radio- and chemotherapy is concomitant. In Head and Neck Cancer Department of Cancer Center in Warsaw since 1995 is continued study estimated tolerance and effectiveness of the concomitant radiochemotherapy for patients with locally advanced oro- and hypopharyngeal cancer. Chemotherapy consist of cisplatinum and 5-fluorouracil in continuous infusion during first week of irradiation followed by 24-hours infusion of 5-fluorouracil one weekly until radiotherapy is finished. Radiotherapy is used with conventional fractionation 2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions weekly to total dose 66 Gy. Between October 1995 and September 1998 fifty seven patients with oropharyngeal cancer were entered to study. Tolerance of treatment was acceptable. Complete regression of the tumor was obtained in 41/57 patients (72%). Five other patients after radiotherapy were referred for successful radical neck dissection. Including this group, local control was obtained in 81%. At this moment, 60% of patients are alive without evidence of disease. In 12 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer tolerance of treatment and early results were poor, so the study was stopped in this group.

  5. The Field Operations and Early Results of the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Ding, Yihui; Wang, Jough-Tai; Johnson, Richard; Keenan, Tom; Cifelli, Robert; Gerlach, John; Thiele, Otto; Rickenbach, Tom; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1999-01-01

    The South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) is an international field experiment with the objective to better understand the key physical processes for the onset and evolution of the Asian summer monsoon in relation to fluctuation of the regional hydrologic cycle over Southeast Asian, southern East Asia, aiming at improving monsoon prediction. In this article, we present a description of the major meteorological observation platforms during the Intensive Observing Periods (IOP) of SCSMEX. We also provide highlights of early results and discussions of the role of SCSMEX in providing valuable in-situ data for calibration of satellite rainfall estimate from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Preliminary results indicate that there are distinctive stages in the onset of the South China Sea monsoon including possibly strong influences from extratropical systems as well as from convection over the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. There are some tantalizing evidence of complex interactions between the supercloud cluster development over the Indian Ocean, advancing southwest monsoon flow over the South China Sea, midlatitude disturbances and the western Pacific subtropical high, possibly contributing to the disastrous flood over Yangtze River Basin in China during June 1998.

  6. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis: comparison of results between early and late cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Acar, Turan; Kamer, Erdinç; Acar, Nihan; Atahan, Kemal; Bağ, Halis; Hacıyanlı, Mehmet; Akgül, Özgün

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones. The common opinion about treatment of acute cholecystitis is initially conservative treatment due to preventing complications of inflamation and following laparoscopic cholecystectomy after 6- 8 weeks. However with the increase of laparoscopic experience in recent years, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become more common. We aimed to compare the outcomes of the patients to whom we applied early or late cholecystectomy after hospitalization from the emergency department with the diagnosis of AC between March 2012-2015. We retrospectively reviewed the files of totally 66 patients in whom we performed early cholecystectomy (within the first 24 hours) (n: 33) and to whom we firstly administered conservative therapy and performed late cholecystectomy (after 6 to 8 weeks) (n: 33) after hospitalization from the emergency department with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The groups were made up of patients who had similar clinical and demographic characteristics. While there were no statistically significant differences between the durations of operation, the durations of hospitalization were longer in those who underwent early cholecystectomy. Moreover, more complications were seen in the patients who underwent early cholecystectomy although the difference was not statistically significant. Early cholecystectomy is known to significantly reduce the costs in patients with acute cholecystitis. However, switching to open surgery as well as increase of complications in patients who admitted with severe inflammation attack and who have high comorbidity, caution should be exercised when selecting patients for early operation.

  7. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A.; Avdalovic, M.V.; Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A.; Hyde, D.M.

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  8. Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of the Montpellier Phase II Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Lemanski, Claire; Azria, David; Gourgon-Bourgade, Sophie; Gutowski, Marian; Rouanet, Phillippe; Saint-Aubert, Bernard; Ailleres, Norbert; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Dubois, Jean-Bernard

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: We recently presented the intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) technique given as a reliable alternative to conventional boost radiation after breast-conserving surgery. The low crude numbers of recurrence in elderly patients led us to investigate the feasibility and the efficacy of this procedure as a sole treatment. Methods and Materials: We included 94 patients older than 65 years in this phase II trial. Among them, 42 patients presented with all the inclusion criteria, i.e., stages pT0 to pT1 and pN0, ductal invasive unifocal carcinoma, and tumor-free margin of >2 mm. IORT was delivered using a dedicated linear accelerator. One 21-Gy fraction was prescribed and specified at the 90% isodose, using electrons. In vivo dosimetry was performed for all patients. The primary endpoint was the quality index. Secondary endpoints were quality of life, local recurrences, cosmetic results, and specific and overall rates of survival. Results: The median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-49 months), and median age was 72 years (range, 66-80 years). The median tumor diameter was 10 mm. All patients received the total prescribed dose. No acute grade 3 toxicities were observed. Endpoints for all but one patient corresponded to acceptable quality index criteria. Pretreatment quality-of-life scores were maximal, and no significant decrease was observed during follow-up. Cosmesis was good to excellent at 6 months. Two patients experienced recurrence but underwent salvage mastectomy. Conclusion: Our results confirm that exclusive partial-breast IORT is feasible for treating early-stage breast cancer in the elderly. IORT may be considered an alternative treatment for a selected population and offers a safe one-step treatment.

  9. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Camus, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Eng, P.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Longval, Y.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Mansoux, B.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pons, R.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of cosmic rays due to historically low levels of solar activity. As a result of the redundancy of Planck's observation strategy, theremoval of a few percent of data contaminated by glitches does not significantly affect the instrumental sensitivity. The cosmic ray flux represents a significant and variable heat load on the sub-Kelvin stage. Temporal variation and the inhomogeneous distribution of the flux results in thermal fluctuations that are a probable source of low frequency noise. The removal of systematic effects in the time ordered data provides a signal with an average noise equivalent power that is 70% of the goal in the 0.6-2.5 Hz range. This is slightly higher than was achieved during the pre-launch characterization but better than predicted in the early phases of the project. The improvement over the goal is a result of the low level of instrumental background loading achieved by the optical and thermal design of the HFI. Corresponding author: J.-M. Lamarre, jean-michel.lamarre@obspm.fr

  10. A Pilot Clinical Trial of Creatine and Minocycline in Early Parkinson Disease: 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report an 18-month follow-up on creatine and minocycline futility study, the Neuroprotective Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease, Futility Study 1 (NET-PD FS-1). Background The NET-PD FS-1 futility study on creatine and minocycline found neither agent futile in slowing down the progression of disability in Parkinson disease (PD) at 12 months using the prespecified futility threshold. An additional 6 months of follow-up aimed to assess safety and potential interactions of the study interventions with anti-parkinsonian therapy. Methods Additional 6 months of follow-up in randomized, blinded phase II trial of creatine (dosage, 10 g/d) and minocycline (dosage, 200 mg/d) in subjects with early PD. Results By 18 months, symptomatic treatment of PD symptoms was required in 61% of creatine, 62% of minocycline, and 60% of placebo-treated subjects. Study treatment was prematurely discontinued in 9%, 23%, and 6% of subjects in the creatine, minocycline, and placebo arms, respectively. Creatine and minocycline did not seem to adversely influence the response to symptomatic therapy nor increase adverse events. Conclusions Data from this small, 18-month phase II trial of creatine and minocycline do not demonstrate safety concerns that would preclude a large, phase III efficacy trial, although the decreased tolerability of minocycline is a concern. PMID:18520981

  11. Classroom-based narrative and vocabulary instruction: results of an early-stage, nonrandomized comparison study.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Olszewski, Abbie; Fargo, Jamison; Gillam, Ronald B

    2014-07-01

    This nonrandomized feasibility study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of a narrative and vocabulary instruction program provided by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) in a regular classroom setting. Forty-three children attending 2 first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Children in each classroom were divided into high- and low-risk subgroups on the basis of their performance on a narrative test. Narrative and vocabulary instruction was provided by an SLP in 1 classroom for three 30-min periods per week for 6 weeks. The children in the experimental classroom made clinically significant improvements on narrative and vocabulary measures; children in the comparison classroom did not. Within the experimental classroom, children in the high-risk subgroup demonstrated greater gains in narration and fewer gains in vocabulary than children in the low-risk subgroup. There were no subgroup differences in the comparison classroom. These preliminary results provide early evidence of the feasibility of implementing a narrative instruction program in a classroom setting. Children at a high risk for language difficulties appeared to profit more from the narrative instruction than from the embedded vocabulary instruction. More extensive research on this instructional program is warranted.

  12. Comparison of the early results of coronary artery bypass grafting with and without extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Vural, K M; Taşdemir, O; Karagöz, H; Emir, M; Tarcan, O; Bayazit, K

    1995-12-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of coronary artery bypass grafting without using extracorporeal circulation with standard cardiopulmonary bypass technique, based on certain early postoperative criteria, we designed a fully randomized and prospective study on two similar groups of 25 patients (off-pump and on-pump groups). The groups were compared for hemodynamic data (cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, left- and right-ventricular stroke-work indices, inotropic and mechanical support needs) and enzyme levels (CK-MB and SGOT), as well as mortality, perioperative infarction rate, homologous transfusion requirements, and the symptomatology in the first follow-ups. There was no mortality or perioperative myocardial infarction in either group. Inotropic (25% vs. 4%) and mechanical (4% vs. 0) support requirements and homologous blood consumption (percentages of patients that needed no transfusion: 20% vs. 72%) were greater in the on-pump group. Results were otherwise similar. It is concluded that, in technically suitable cases, off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery is as safe and efficient as the standard on-pump technique and can be used in particular when cannulation, hypothermia, or cardiopulmonary bypass must be avoided. With these properties, this technique could take an important place in the cardiac surgeon's armamentarium.

  13. Adaptive multi-sensor biomimetics for unsupervised submarine hunt (AMBUSH): Early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouin, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Underwater surveillance is inherently difficult because acoustic wave propagation and transmission are limited and unpredictable when targets and sensors move around in the communication-opaque undersea environment. Today's Navy underwater sensors enable the collection of a massive amount of data, often analyzed offtine. The Navy of tomorrow will dominate by making sense of that data in real-time. DRDC's AMBUSH project proposes a new undersea-surveillance network paradigm that will enable such a real-time operation. Nature abounds with examples of collaborative tasks taking place despite limited communication and computational capabilities. This publication describes a year's worth of research efforts finding inspiration in Nature's collaborative tasks such as wolves hunting in packs. This project proposes the utilization of a heterogeneous network combining both static and mobile network nodes. The military objective is to enable an unsupervised surveillance capability while maximizing target localization performance and endurance. The scientific objective is to develop the necessary technology to acoustically and passively localize a noise-source of interest in shallow waters. The project fulfills these objectives via distributed computing and adaptation to changing undersea conditions. Specific research interests discussed here relate to approaches for performing: (a) network self-discovery, (b) network connectivity self-assessment, (c) opportunistic network routing, (d) distributed data-aggregation, and (e) simulation of underwater acoustic propagation. We present early results then followed by a discussion about future work.

  14. Early and Late Retrieval of the ALN Removable Vena Cava Filter: Results from a Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, O.; Barral, F. G.; Lions, C.; Novelli, L.; Beregi, J. P.; Sapoval, M.

    2008-09-15

    Retrieval of removable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in selected patients is widely practiced. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate the feasibility and results of percutaneous removal of the ALN removable filter in a large patient cohort. Between November 2003 and June 2006, 123 consecutive patients were referred for percutaneous extraction of the ALN filter at three centers. The ALN filter is a removable filter that can be implanted through a femoral/jugular vein approach and extracted by the jugular vein approach. Filter removal was attempted after an implantation period of 93 {+-} 15 days (range, 6-722 days) through the right internal jugular vein approach using the dedicated extraction kit after control inferior vena cavography. Following filter removal, vena cavograms were obtained in all patients. Successful extraction was achieved in all but one case. Among these successful retrievals, additional manipulation using a femoral approach was needed when the apex of the filter was close to the IVC wall in two patients. No immediate IVC complications were observed according to the postimplantation cavography. Neither technical nor clinical differences between early and late filter retrieval were noticed. Our data confirm the safety of ALN filter retrieval up to 722 days after implantation. In infrequent cases, additional endovenous filter manipulation is needed to facilitate extraction.

  15. Early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Lavoie, Dawn L.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2011-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region and its diverse ecosystems are threatened by population and development pressure and by the impacts of rising sea level and severe storms such as the series of hurricanes that has impacted the northern Gulf in recent years. In response to the complex management issues facing the region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) organized a multidisciplinary research program to coordinate the activities of USGS and other scientists working in the northern Gulf of Mexico region (fig. 1). The Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project aims to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic coastal ecosystems on the northern Gulf coast, the impact of human activities on these ecosystems, and the vulnerability of ecosystems and human communities to more frequent and more intense hurricanes in the future. A special issue of Geo-Marine Letters published in December 2009 is devoted to early results of studies completed as part of this project. These studies, which have been conducted at sites throughout the northern Gulf region, from the Chandeleur Islands to Apalachicola Bay, have focused on three themes: (1) The underlying geologic framework that exerts controls over coastal processes (2) The impact of human activities on nearshore water quality (3) Hurricanes and associated effects

  16. Early Instrument Performance Results from the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Guenther, B. W.; Barnes, W. L.; Murphy, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a major observational capability flying on the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 "Terra" mission. This mission is to go into orbit in late 1999 or very early 2000. The MODIS was developed to provide improved observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere features relative to "heritage instruments" such as the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Nimbus Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS)and the SeaStar/SeaWiFS instruments, in particular. In addition the MODIS should provide complementary observations to the Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper and the NOAA HIRS instrument. There has been considerable effort to include capabilities or plans to characterize and assure calibration of the instrument data. These efforts include on on-board blackbody (BB), a solar diffuser (SID), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), and a spectral radiometric calibration assembly (SDSM). These devices, along with careful analyses of scenes acquired during orbit, are expected to allow comparisons with pre-launch expectations regarding spatial performance, spectral performance, and radiometric performance. In addition deep space observations and observations of the moon are to be used to characterize instrument performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide quantitative comparisons, as results become available from the Terra MODIS, to heritage instruments, pre-launch expectations and specifications.

  17. Early Results of Cryosurgery in Varicose Veins in Korea: Safety and Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Eun Jue; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Jong Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background Cryosurgery was recently introduced as a treatment for varicose veins in the lower extremities. Cryosurgery with freezing probes can be used to remove the great saphenous vein (GSV) via an inguinal incision alone. The aim of this study was to assess early outcomes and the feasibility of cryosurgery for varicose veins. Materials and Methods Forty patients were enrolled in the present study from March 2009 to July 2010. All patients underwent careful physical examinations, and their GSV reflux was demonstrated by duplex ultrasonography. Clinical severity was measured according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology (CEAP) classification. The impaired GSVs were removed with rigid cryoprobes after freezing. Patients had follow-up appointments at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Sclerotherapy was performed during follow-up on an outpatient basis as needed. Results A total of 19 men and 21 women were enrolled. The mean follow-up duration was 3.4 months (range, 1 to 12 months). The clinical severity ranged from CEAP 2 to CEAP 6a. Thirty-eight patients underwent concomitant phlebectomy during surgery. No recurrences were reported during follow-up. There were three cases of minor complications. Two patients had paresthesia, and one had thrombophlebitis. Conclusion Using cryosurgery techniques to treat varicose veins, the complication rates were minimal and outcomes were comparable to those of previous reports. This procedure is a safe and feasible treatment modality for varicose veins. PMID:22708082

  18. VCE early acoustic test results of General Electric's high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Bhutiani, P. K.; Majjigi, R. K.; Doyle, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of variable cycle engine (VCE) early acoustic engine and model scale tests are presented. A summary of an extensive series of far field acoustic, advanced acoustic, and exhaust plume velocity measurements with a laser velocimeter of inverted velocity and temperature profile, high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles on a YJ101 VCE static engine test vehicle are reviewed. Select model scale simulated flight acoustic measurements for an unsuppressed and a mechanical suppressed coannular plug nozzle are also discussed. The engine acoustic nozzle tests verify previous model scale noise reduction measurements. The engine measurements show 4 to 6 PNdB aft quadrant jet noise reduction and up to 7 PNdB forward quadrant shock noise reduction relative to a fully mixed conical nozzle at the same specific thrust and mixed pressure ratio. The influences of outer nozzle radius ratio, inner stream velocity ratio, and area ratio are discussed. Also, laser velocimeter measurements of mean velocity and turbulent velocity of the YJ101 engine are illustrated. Select model scale static and simulated flight acoustic measurements are shown which corroborate that coannular suppression is maintained in forward speed.

  19. Results of a trial of PET-directed therapy for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Radford, John; Illidge, Tim; Counsell, Nicholas; Hancock, Barry; Pettengell, Ruth; Johnson, Peter; Wimperis, Jennie; Culligan, Dominic; Popova, Bilyana; Smith, Paul; McMillan, Andrew; Brownell, Alison; Kruger, Anton; Lister, Andrew; Hoskin, Peter; O'Doherty, Michael; Barrington, Sally

    2015-04-23

    It is unclear whether patients with early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma and negative findings on positron-emission tomography (PET) after three cycles of chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) require radiotherapy. Patients with newly diagnosed stage IA or stage IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma received three cycles of ABVD and then underwent PET scanning. Patients with negative PET findings were randomly assigned to receive involved-field radiotherapy or no further treatment; patients with positive PET findings received a fourth cycle of ABVD and radiotherapy. This trial assessing the noninferiority of no further treatment was designed to exclude a difference in the 3-year progression-free survival rate of 7 or more percentage points from the assumed 95% progression-free survival rate in the radiotherapy group. A total of 602 patients (53.3% male; median age, 34 years) were recruited, and 571 patients underwent PET scanning. The PET findings were negative in 426 of these patients (74.6%), 420 of whom were randomly assigned to a study group (209 to the radiotherapy group and 211 to no further therapy). At a median of 60 months of follow-up, there had been 8 instances of disease progression in the radiotherapy group, and 8 patients had died (3 with disease progression, 1 of whom died from Hodgkin's lymphoma); there had been 20 instances of disease progression in the group with no further therapy, and 4 patients had died (2 with disease progression and none from Hodgkin's lymphoma). In the radiotherapy group, 5 of the deaths occurred in patients who received no radiotherapy. The 3-year progression-free survival rate was 94.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.5 to 97.7) in the radiotherapy group and 90.8% (95% CI, 86.9 to 94.8) in the group that received no further therapy, with an absolute risk difference of -3.8 percentage points (95% CI, -8.8 to 1.3). The results of this study did not show the noninferiority of the strategy of no further

  20. Early Results from the Curiosity Rover's SAM Investigation at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Chris; Cabane, Michael; Coll, Patrice

    2013-04-01

    The goals of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission (1, 2) are to explore the potential of the Gale Crater landing site to support life either in the distant past or the present. The contribution of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite (3) in this exploration of habitability is (A) to search for organic compounds in rocks and soils, (B) to determine the composition of inorganic volatiles compounds in the atmosphere or extracted from solid materials, and (C) to measure the isotopic composition of several of these volatiles. While prime exploration targets of MSL's Curiosity Rover are the layers in the central mound (Mt. Sharp) of Gale crater the initial exploration of region near the landing point has revealed a diverse geology and the early part of the mission has been spent both commissioning the 10 Curiosity instruments and the Rover subsystems and making first time measurements of both atmospheric and solid samples. SAM is located in the interior of MSL's Curiosity rover next to the XRD/XRF CheMin instrument. A variety of imaging, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, and elemental analysis instrumentation serves to locate sampling sites and interogate candidate materials before solid sample is collected either with a drill or a scoop for delivery to SAM and CheMin. SAM's instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), a tunable laser spectrometer (TLS), and a 6-column gas chromatograph (GC). These are coupled through a solid sample transport system and a gas processing and enrichment system. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyze volatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. Early results from SAM atmospheric runs include a determination of: new volume mixing ratios for the 5 major isotopic constituents showing Ar approximately equal to N2; an upper limit of 3.5 ppb for the volume mixing ratio of methane; C and O isotope ratios showing both heavier than terrestrial averages

  1. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hailong; Christlieb, Norbert; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn

    2015-01-10

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.

  2. Totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty with titanium-coated lightweight polypropylene mesh: early results.

    PubMed

    Tamme, C; Garde, N; Klingler, A; Hampe, C; Wunder, R; Köckerling, F

    2005-08-01

    -coated polypropylene mesh without the need for fixation of the implant. The low early recurrence rate of 0.2% is evidence that the posterior wall of the inguinal canal is adequately augmented. The question whether the material reduction and the titanium coating of the mesh may bring about a reduction in postoperative chronic pain and the sensation of rigidity in the inguinal area via an improvement in biocompatibility must await the results of the scheduled follow-up examination 1 year after the surgical procedure.

  3. Birth characteristics and female sex hormone concentrations during adolescence: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Terryl J.; Rovine, Michael J.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth characteristics and adult hormone concentrations influence breast cancer risk, but little is known about the influence of birth characteristics on hormone concentrations, particularly during adolescence. Methods We evaluated the association of birth characteristics (birth weight, birth length, and gestational age) with serum sex hormone concentrations during late childhood and adolescence in 278 female participants of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess the relationships of birth characteristics and serum estrogens and androgens at five different time points over a mean period of 7 years. Results In analyses that did not take into account time from blood draw until menarche, birth weight was inversely associated with pre-menarche concentrations of estradiol, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). In the post-menarche analyses, birth weight was not significantly associated with concentration of any of the hormones under investigation. Birth length and gestational age were not associated with hormone concentrations before or after menarche. Conclusion Birth weight is inversely associated with sex hormone concentrations before menarche in the model unadjusted for time from blood draw until menarche. Impact The in utero environment has long-term influences on the hormonal milieu, which could potentially contribute to breast cancer risk. PMID:21327460

  4. Long-Term Results of Early Surgery versus Conventional Treatment for Infective Endocarditis Trial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Duk-Hyun; Lee, Sahmin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Sung-Han; Kim, Dae-Hee; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Song, Jong-Min; Chung, Cheol-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Jae-Won

    2016-11-01

    Compared with conventional treatment, early surgery significantly reduced the composite end point of all-cause death and embolic events during hospitalization, but long-term data in this area are lacking. This study sought to compare long-term outcomes of early surgery with a conventional treatment strategy in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) and large vegetations. The Early Surgery versus Conventional Treatment in Infective Endocarditis (EASE) trial randomly assigned patients with left-sided IE, severe valve disease and large vegetation to early surgery (37 patients) or conventional treatment groups (39 patients). The pre-specified end points were all-cause death, embolic events, recurrence of IE and repeat hospitalizations due to the development of congestive heart failure occurring during follow-up. There were no significant differences between the early surgery and the conventional treatment group in all-cause mortality at 4 years (8.1% and 7.7%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 1.04; 95% CI, 0.21 to 5.15; p=0.96). The rate of the composite end point of death from any cause, embolic events or recurrence of IE at 4 years was 8.1% in the early surgery group and 30.8% in the conventional treatment group (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.78; p=0.02). The estimated actuarial rate of end points at 7 years was significantly lower in the early surgery group than in the conventional treatment group (log-rank p=0.007). There was a substantial benefit in having early surgery for patients with IE and large vegetations whose health was sustained up to 7 years, and late clinical outcome after surgery was excellent in survivors of IE. (EASE clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00750373).

  5. The JCMT Plane Survey: early results from the ℓ = 30° field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. J. T.; Plume, R.; Thompson, M. A.; Parsons, H.; Urquhart, J. S.; Eden, D. J.; Dempsey, J. T.; Morgan, L. K.; Thomas, H. S.; Buckle, J.; Brunt, C. M.; Butner, H.; Carretero, D.; Chrysostomou, A.; deVilliers, H. M.; Fich, M.; Hoare, M. G.; Manser, G.; Mottram, J. C.; Natario, C.; Olguin, F.; Peretto, N.; Polychroni, D.; Redman, R. O.; Rigby, A. J.; Salji, C.; Summers, L. J.; Berry, D.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Traficante, A.; Bastien, P.; diFrancesco, J.; Davis, C. J.; Evans, A.; Friberg, P.; Fuller, G. A.; Gibb, A. G.; Gibson, S.; Hill, T.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Longmore, S. N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martin, P. G.; Lu'o'ng, Q. Nguyê˜n.; Pineda, J. E.; Purcell, C.; Richer, J. S.; Schieven, G. H.; Shipman, R.; Spaans, M.; Taylor, A. R.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present early results from the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) Plane Survey (JPS), which has surveyed the northern inner Galactic plane between longitudes ℓ = 7° and ℓ = 63° in the 850-μm continuum with SCUBA-2 (Submm Common-User Bolometer Array 2), as part of the JCMT Legacy Survey programme. Data from the ℓ = 30° survey region, which contains the massive-star-forming regions W43 and G29.96, are analysed after approximately 40 per cent of the observations had been completed. The pixel-to-pixel noise is found to be 19 mJy beam-1 after a smooth over the beam area, and the projected equivalent noise levels in the final survey are expected to be around 10 mJy beam-1. An initial extraction of compact sources was performed using the FELLWALKER method, resulting in the detection of 1029 sources above a 5σ surface-brightness threshold. The completeness limits in these data are estimated to be around 0.2 Jy beam-1 (peak flux density) and 0.8 Jy (integrated flux density) and are therefore probably already dominated by source confusion in this relatively crowded section of the survey. The flux densities of extracted compact sources are consistent with those of matching detections in the shallower APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) survey. We analyse the virial and evolutionary state of the detected clumps in the W43 star-forming complex and find that they appear younger than the Galactic-plane average.

  6. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry – methodology and early results from a novel national database

    PubMed Central

    Helgstrand, JT; Klemann, N; Røder, MA; Toft, BG; Brasso, K; Vainer, B; Iversen, P

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We present the methodology and early results from a new national Danish prostate database containing clinical data from all males who had evaluation of prostate tissue from 1995 to 2011. Materials and methods SNOMED codes were retrieved from the Danish Pathology Register. A total of 26,295 combinations of SNOMED codes were identified. A computer algorithm was developed to transcode SNOMED codes into an analyzable format including procedure (eg, biopsy, transurethral resection, etc), diagnosis, and date of diagnosis. For validation, ~55,000 pathological reports were manually reviewed. Prostate-specific antigen, vital status, causes of death, and tumor-node-metastasis classification were integrated from national registries. Results Of the 161,525 specimens from 113,801 males identified, 83,379 (51.6%) were sets of prostate biopsies, 56,118 (34.7%) were transurethral/transvesical resections of the prostate (TUR-Ps), and the remaining 22,028 (13.6%) specimens were derived from radical prostatectomies, bladder interventions, etc. A total of 48,078 (42.2%) males had histopathologically verified prostate cancer, and of these, 78.8% and 16.8% were diagnosed on prostate biopsies and TUR-Ps, respectively. Future perspectives A validated algorithm was successfully developed to convert complex prostate SNOMED codes into clinical useful data. A unique database, including males with both normal and cancerous histopathological data, was created to form the most comprehensive national prostate database to date. Potentially, our algorithm can be used for conversion of other SNOMED data and is available upon request. PMID:27729813

  7. Early Results of Endovascular Treatment of the Thoracic Aorta Using the Valiant Endograft

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Matt Ivaz, Stella; Cheshire, Nicholas; Fattori, Rosella; Rousseau, Herve; Heijmen, Robin; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Thony, Frederic; Horne, Gillian; Morgan, Robert; Loftus, Ian

    2007-11-15

    Endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta has been adopted as the first-line therapy for much pathology. Initial results from the early-generation endografts have highlighted the potential of this technique. Newer-generation endografts have now been introduced into clinical practice and careful assessment of their performance should be mandatory. This study describes the initial experience with the Valiant endograft and makes comparisons with similar series documenting previous-generation endografts. Data were retrospectively collected on 180 patients treated with the Valiant endograft at seven European centers between March 2005 and October 2006. The patient cohort consisted of 66 patients with thoracic aneurysms, 22 with thoracoabdominal aneurysms, 19 with an acute aortic syndrome, 52 with aneurysmal degeneration of a chronic dissection, and 21 patients with traumatic aortic transection. The overall 30-day mortality for the series was 7.2%, with a stroke rate of 3.8% and a paraplegia rate of 3.3%. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that mortality differed significantly between different indications; thoracic aneurysms (6.1%), thoracoabdominal aneurysms (27.3%), acute aortic syndrome (10.5%), chronic dissections (1.9%), and acute transections (0%). Adjunctive surgical procedures were required in 63 patients, and 51% of patients had grafts deployed proximal to the left subclavian artery. Comparison with a series of earlier-generation grafts demonstrated a significant increase in complexity of procedure as assessed by graft implantation site, number of grafts and patient comorbidity. The data demonstrate acceptable results for a new-generation endograft in series of patients with diverse thoracic aortic pathology. Comparison of clinical outcomes between different endografts poses considerable challenges due to differing case complexity.

  8. Single-Fraction Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Early Cosmetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, Kathryn McCormick, Beryl; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Borgen, Patrick; Fey, Jane; Goldberg, Jessica; Sacchini, Virgilio

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cosmetic outcome of patients treated with wide local excision and intraoperative radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 women were treated on a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy at wide local excision. The eligibility criteria included age >60, tumor size {<=}2.0 cm, clinically negative lymph nodes, and biopsy-established diagnosis. After wide local excision, a custom breast applicator was placed in the excision cavity, and a dose of 20 Gy was prescribed to a depth of 1 cm. After 18 patients were treated, the dose was constrained laterally to 18 Gy. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated by photographs at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Four examiners graded the photographs for symmetry, edema, discoloration, contour, and scarring. The grades were evaluated in relationship to the volume of irradiated tissue, tumor location, and dose at the lateral aspects of the cavity. Results: The median volume of tissue receiving 100% of the prescription dose was 47 cm{sup 3} (range, 20-97 cm{sup 3}). Patients with {<=}47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue had better cosmetic outcomes than did the women who had >47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue. Women who had received 18 Gy at the lateral aspects of their cavities had better cosmetic outcomes than did women who had received 20 Gy at the lateral aspects. When comparing the 6- and 12-month results, the scores remained stable for 63%, improved for 17%, and worsened for 20%. Conclusion: Intraoperative radiotherapy appears feasible for selected patients. A favorable cosmetic outcome appears to be related to a smaller treatment volume. The cosmetic outcome is acceptable, although additional follow-up is necessary.

  9. Titan: Preliminary results on surface properties and photometry from VIMS observations of the early flybys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buratti, B.J.; Sotin, Christophe; Brown, R.H.; Hicks, M.D.; Clark, R.N.; Mosher, J.A.; McCord, T.B.; Jaumann, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Momary, T.; Simonelli, D.P.; Sicardy, B.

    2006-01-01

    Cassini observations of the surface of Titan offer unprecedented views of its surface through atmospheric windows in the 1-5 ??m region. Images obtained in windows for which the haze opacity is low can be used to derive quantitative photometric parameters such as albedo and albedo distribution, and physical properties such as roughness and particle characteristics. Images from the early Titan flybys, particularly T0, Ta, and T5 have been analyzed to create albedo maps in the 2.01 and 2.73 ??m windows. We find the average normal reflectance at these two wavelengths to be 0.15??0.02 and 0.035??0.003, respectively. Titan's surface is bifurcated into two albedo regimes, particularly at 2.01 ??m. Analysis of these two regimes to understand the physical character of the surface was accomplished with a macroscopic roughness model. We find that the two types of surface have substantially different roughness, with the low-albedo surface exhibiting mean slope angles of ???18??, and the high-albedo terrain having a much more substantial roughness with a mean slope angle of ???34??. A single-scattering phase function approximated by a one-term Henyey-Greenstein equation was also fit to each unit. Titan's surface is back-scattering (g???0.3-0.4), and does not exhibit substantially different backscattering behavior between the two terrains. Our results suggest that two distinct geophysical domains exist on Titan: a bright region cut by deep drainage channels and a relatively smooth surface. The two terrains are covered by a film or a coating of particles perhaps precipitated from the satellite's haze layer and transported by eolian processes. Our results are preliminary: more accurate values for the surface albedo and physical parameters will be derived as more data is gathered by the Cassini spacecraft and as a more complete radiative transfer model is developed from both Cassini orbiter and Huygens Lander measurements. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Confocal microendoscopy: Characterization of imaging bundles, fluorescent contrast agents, and early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovich, Joshua Anthony

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Early detection improves the chances of survival following diagnosis, and new imaging modalities have the potential to reduce deaths due to this disease. The confocal microendoscope (CME) is a non-destructive in-vivo imaging device for visualization of the ovaries that operates in real-time. Two components of the CME system are evaluated in this paper, and initial results from an ongoing clinical trial are presented. Fiber-optic imaging bundles are used in the CME imaging catheter to relay images over distances of up to 20 feet. When detecting fluorescent signals from investigated tissue, any fluorescence in the system can potentially reduce contrast in images. The emission and transmission properties of three commercially available fiber optic imaging bundles were evaluated. Emission maps of fluorescence from bundles were generated at multiple excitation wavelengths to determine the profile and amount of fluorescence present in bundles manufactured by Sumitomo, Fujikura, and Schott. Results are also presented that show the variation of transmittance as a function of illumination angle in these bundles. Users of high-resolution fiber-optic imaging bundles should be aware of these properties and take them into account during system design. Contrast is improved in images obtained with the CME through the application of topical dyes. Acridine orange (AO) and SYTO 16 are two fluorescent stains that are used to show the size, shape, and distribution of cell nuclei. Unfortunately, little is known about the effects of these dyes on living tissues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dye treatment on peritoneal tissues in mice. Seventy-five Balb/c mice were split into five groups of fifteen and given peritoneal injections of dye or saline. The proportions of negative outcomes for the control and test groups were compared using confidence intervals and the Fisher's exact test

  11. Postoperative surveillance recommendations for early stage colon cancer based on results from the clinical outcomes of surgical therapy trial.

    PubMed

    Tsikitis, Vassiliki L; Malireddy, Kishore; Green, Erin A; Christensen, Brent; Whelan, Richard; Hyder, Jace; Marcello, Peter; Larach, Sergio; Lauter, David; Sargent, Daniel J; Nelson, Heidi

    2009-08-01

    Intensive postoperative surveillance is associated with improved survival and recommended for patients with late stage (stage IIB and III) colon cancer. We hypothesized that stage I and IIA colon cancer patients would experience similar benefits. Secondary analysis of data from the Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Therapy trial was performed by analyzing results according to TNM stage; early (stage I and IIA, 537 patients) and late (stage IIB and III, 254 patients) stage disease. Five-year recurrence rates were higher in patients with late (35.7%) versus early stage disease (9.5%). Early and late stage salvage rates, recurrence patterns and methods of first detection were compared by chi(2) test. Salvage rates for early- and late-stage disease patients with recurrence were the same (35.9% v 37%; P = .9, respectively). Median survival after second surgery after recurrence was 51.2 and 35.8 months for early- and late-stage patients, respectively. Single sites of first recurrence did not significantly differ between early and late stage, but multiple sites of recurrence occurred less often in early-stage patients (3.6% v 28.6%, for early v late, respectively; P < .001). METHODS of first detection of recurrence were not significantly different: carcinoembryonic antigen (29.1% v 37.4%), computed tomography scan (23.6% v 26.4%), chest x-ray (7.3% v 12.1%), and colonoscopy (12.7% v 8.8%), for early versus late stage disease, respectively. Patients with early-stage colon cancer have similar sites of recurrence, and receive similar benefit from postrecurrence therapy as late-stage patients; implementation of surveillance guidelines for early-stage patients is appropriate.

  12. Early life factors associated with incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma in preschool children: results from the Canadian Early Childhood Development cohort study.

    PubMed

    Midodzi, William K; Rowe, Brian H; Majaesic, Carina M; Saunders, Leslie Duncan; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2010-02-01

    Background. Asthma is a common childhood illness. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma in preschool years and its relationship to host, prenatal and postnatal factors, early childhood factors, parental factors, household factors and demographic factors. Methods. The study sample was comprised of 8,499 infants and toddlers (<2 years at baseline) enrolled in the Canadian Early Childhood Development Study. Incidence of asthma was determined when the children were in preschool age (2 to 5 years). Results. The 4-year cumulative incidence at preschool age was 13.7% for physician-diagnosed asthma. History of early childhood wheezing before 2 years of age was a significant risk factor for incidence of asthma in preschool years (hazard ratio (HR): 2.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.04-2.65). Factors that were protective for the development of asthma were breastfeeding more than 3 months (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69-0.97); history of nose or throat infection often in childhood (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67-0.93); early daycare attendance (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74-0.98); presence of two or more siblings at birth, (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.97); and dwelling in rural non- central metropolitan areas (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95). Male sex, low birth weight, childhood allergy, single parent, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal medication use, parental atopy, and low SES at baseline were significant risk factors for the incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma in preschool years. Conclusion. This study emphasizes the role of wheezing in infant and toddler age on early onset of asthma during preschool years. The results also provide additional importance of early exposures to environmental factors such as early infections, daycare attendance, and rural environment in the development of proper immune dynamics to prevent asthma.

  13. Early results of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy: the learning curve at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christopher L; Erickson, Jill A; Hines, Jerod L

    2006-09-01

    thirty hips in which the index procedure was performed. In our experience, the early results of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy have been encouraging, with a 92% survival rate at thirty-six months. The occurrence of complications demonstrates a substantial learning curve. Recognition of the true preoperative acetabular version and reorientation of the acetabulum into an appropriately anteverted position have become important factors in surgical decision-making. Therapeutic Level IV.

  14. Endurance training in early life results in long-term programming of heart mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Glenn D; Laker, Rhianna C; McConell, Glenn K; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Being born small for gestational age increases the risk of developing adult cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to examine if early-life exercise could increase heart mass in the adult hearts from growth restricted rats. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction in the offspring (Restricted) or sham surgery (Control) was performed on day 18 of gestation in WKY rats. A separate group of sham litters had litter size reduced to five pups at birth (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Male offspring remained sedentary or underwent treadmill running from 5 to 9 weeks (early exercise) or 20 to 24 weeks of age (later exercise). Remarkably, in Control, Restricted, and Reduced litter groups, early exercise increased (P < 0.05) absolute and relative (to body mass) heart mass in adulthood. This was despite the animals being sedentary for ~4 months after exercise. Later exercise also increased adult absolute and relative heart mass (P < 0.05). Blood pressure was not significantly altered between groups or by early or later exercise. Phosphorylation of Akt Ser(473) in adulthood was increased in the early exercise groups but not the later exercise groups. Microarray gene analysis and validation by real-time PCR did not reveal any long-term effects of early exercise on the expression of any individual genes. In summary, early exercise programs the heart for increased mass into adulthood, perhaps by an upregulation of protein synthesis based on greater phosphorylation of Akt Ser(473).

  15. Menarche, menopause, years of menstruation, and the incidence of osteoporosis: the influence of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Parker, Samantha E; Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C; Hatch, Elizabeth E

    2014-02-01

    Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994-2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown.

  16. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    PubMed

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  17. Early results of pulsed dye laser angioplasty with integral ball-tips in long femoral occlusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Alan; Mitchell, David C.; Wood, Richard F. M.

    1990-07-01

    A Pulsed Dye laser together with specifically designed integral ball-tipped optical fibres have been used for the primary recanalisation of femoropopliteal vascular disease in 25 limbs of 23 patients. All patients had complete occlusions of the vessels ranging from 8-49cms in length (mean 22cms), having presented with critical ischaemia (18) or severe claudication warranting operative intervention (5). Pedal ulceration was present in 8 limbs and digital gangrene in 4. The laser produced visible light at 480nm in lOOmJ/lus pulses, at a frequency of 10-20Hz. The energy delivery device comprised a smooth atraumatic ball-tip constructed from the glass of the optical fibre, which was loaded retrogradely into a standard balloon angioplasty catheter. The device was introduced through a common femoral artery cutdown. Angiographic recanalisation was achieved in 22 of the 25 limbs with a mean energy of 280J(range 68-727J) and in each case the channel created by the laser fibre was augmented by balloon angioplasty. Technical failure occurred in three cases, caused by a wall dissection, persistent side-branch entry and incomplete lesion penetration respectively. Eighteen of procedures (72%) were clinically successful with marked symptomatic improvement. Of the four angiographic successful but clinical failures, acute occlusion within 48 hours occurred in 2 diabetic patients with very poor run-off and distal gangrene. The third case failed acutely due to a technically inadequate balloon dilatation and the fourth patient failed to improve symptomatically due to widespread with segmental tibial vessel disease below a successful recanalisation. Over a mean follow-up period of 7 months, three patients died of myocardial infarction. Twelve of the 23 patients (52%) remain well with patent vessels. These early results demonstrate the efficacy of pulsed dye laser angioplasty using ball-tipped optical fibres.

  18. Early results of neurodevelopment following hybrid stage I for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Sharon L; Carey, Helen; Chisolm, Joanne L; Heathcock, Jill C; Steward, Deborah

    2015-03-01

    Motor skills and neurodevelopment in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) who have undergone Hybrid Stage I palliation is unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess early neurodevelopment in infants with HLHS after Hybrid Stage I palliation. Developmental assessment was performed in HLHS infants who underwent Hybrid Stage I palliation at 2 and 4 months of age using the Test of Infant Motor Performance, and at 6 months of age, prior to undergoing the second staged surgery, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III). Results were compared to healthy control subjects and norm-referenced data. The HLHS group scored between -1 and -2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean at 2 months of age (p = 0.002), and within -1 SD of the mean, at 4 months of age (p = 0.0019), on the TIMP. Compared to the control group, composite motor skills were significantly lower at 6 months of age on the Bayley-III in the HLHS group (p = 0.0489), however, not significant for cognitive (p = 0.29) or language (p = 0.68). Percentile rank