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Sample records for early microglial proliferation

  1. Microglial disruption in young mice with early chronic lead exposure☆

    PubMed Central

    Sobin, Christina; Montoya, Mayra Gisel Flores; Parisi, Natali; Schaub, Tanner; Cervantes, Miguel; Armijos, Rodrigo X.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which early chronic lead (Pb) exposure alter brain development have not been identified. We examined neuroimmune system effects in C57BL/6J mice with Pb exposure, including levels that may be common among children in lower socioeconomic income environments. Pups were exposed via dams’ drinking water from birth to post-natal day 28 to low, high or no Pb conditions. We compared gene expression of neuroinflammatory markers (study 1); and microglial mean cell body volume and mean cell body number in dentate gyrus, and dentate gyrus volume (study 2). Blood Pb levels in exposed animals at sacrifice (post-natal day 28) ranged from 2.66 to 20.31 μg/dL. Only interleukin-6 (IL6) differed between groups and reductions were dose-dependent. Microglia cell body number also differed between groups and reductions were dose-dependent. As compared with controls, microglia cell body volume was greater but highly variable in only low-dose animals; dentate gyri volumes in low- and high-dose animals were reduced. The results did not support a model of increased neuroinflammation. Instead, early chronic exposure to Pb disrupted microglia via damage to, loss of, or lack of proliferation of microglia in the developing brains of Pb-exposed animals. PMID:23598043

  2. Glioma-mediated microglial activation promotes glioma proliferation and migration: roles of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen; Carney, Karen E.; Pigott, Victoria M.; Falgoust, Lindsay M.; Clark, Paul A.; Kuo, John S.; Sun, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Microglia play important roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and suppression of adaptive immunity in glioma. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) regulates microglial activation and migration. However, little is known about the roles of NHE1 in intratumoral microglial activation and microglia–glioma interactions. Our study revealed up-regulation of NHE1 protein expression in both glioma cells and tumor-associated Iba1+ microglia in glioma xenografts and glioblastoma multiforme microarrays. Moreover, we observed positive correlation of NHE1 expression with Iba1 intensity in microglia/macrophages. Glioma cells, via conditioned medium or non-contact glioma-microglia co-cultures, concurrently upregulated microglial expression of NHE1 protein and other microglial activation markers (iNOS, arginase-1, TGF-β, IL-6, IL-10 and the matrix metalloproteinases MT1-MMP and MMP9). Interestingly, glioma-stimulated microglia reciprocally enhanced glioma proliferation and migration. Most importantly, inhibition of microglial NHE1 activity via small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or the potent NHE1-specific inhibitor HOE642 significantly attenuated microglial activation and abolished microglia-stimulated glioma migration and proliferation. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that NHE1 function plays an important role in glioma–microglia interactions, enhancing glioma proliferation and invasion by stimulating microglial release of soluble factors. NHE1 upregulation is a novel marker of the glioma-associated microglial activation phenotype. Inhibition of NHE1 represents a novel glioma therapeutic strategy by targeting tumor-induced microglial activation. PMID:27287871

  3. Aging increases microglial proliferation, delays cell migration, and decreases cortical neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Ana; Pradillo, Jesús M; García-Culebras, Alicia; Palma-Tortosa, Sara; Ballesteros, Ivan; Hernández-Jiménez, Macarena; Moro, María A; Lizasoain, Ignacio

    2015-05-10

    Aging is not just a risk factor of stroke, but it has also been associated with poor recovery. It is known that stroke-induced neurogenesis is reduced but maintained in the aged brain. However, there is no consensus on how neurogenesis is affected after stroke in aged animals. Our objective is to determine the role of aging on the process of neurogenesis after stroke. We have studied neurogenesis by analyzing proliferation, migration, and formation of new neurons, as well as inflammatory parameters, in a model of cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in young- (2 to 3 months) and middle-aged mice (13 to 14 months). Aging increased both microglial proliferation, as shown by a higher number of BrdU(+) cells and BrdU/Iba1(+) cells in the ischemic boundary and neutrophil infiltration. Interestingly, aging increased the number of M1 monocytes and N1 neutrophils, consistent with pro-inflammatory phenotypes when compared with the alternative M2 and N2 phenotypes. Aging also inhibited (subventricular zone) SVZ cell proliferation by decreasing both the number of astrocyte-like type-B (prominin-1(+)/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)(+)/nestin(+)/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)(+) cells) and type-C cells (prominin-1(+)/EGFR(+)/nestin(-)/Mash1(+) cells), and not affecting apoptosis, 1 day after stroke. Aging also inhibited migration of neuroblasts (DCX(+) cells), as indicated by an accumulation of neuroblasts at migratory zones 14 days after injury; consistently, aged mice presented a smaller number of differentiated interneurons (NeuN(+)/BrdU(+) and GAD67(+) cells) in the peri-infarct cortical area 14 days after stroke. Our data confirm that stroke-induced neurogenesis is maintained but reduced in aged animals. Importantly, we now demonstrate that aging not only inhibits proliferation of specific SVZ cell subtypes but also blocks migration of neuroblasts to the damaged area and decreases the number of new interneurons in

  4. An early and late peak in microglial activation in Alzheimer's disease trajectory.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen; Brooks, David J; Okello, Aren; Edison, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Amyloid-β deposition, neuroinflammation and tau tangle formation all play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that there is microglial activation early on in Alzheimer's disease trajectory, where in the initial phase, microglia may be trying to repair the damage, while later on in the disease these microglia could be ineffective and produce proinflammatory cytokines leading to progressive neuronal damage. In this longitudinal study, we have evaluated the temporal profile of microglial activation and its relationship between fibrillar amyloid load at baseline and follow-up in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and this was compared with subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Thirty subjects (eight mild cognitive impairment, eight Alzheimer's disease and 14 controls) aged between 54 and 77 years underwent 11C-(R)PK11195, 11C-PIB positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Patients were followed-up after 14 ± 4 months. Region of interest and Statistical Parametric Mapping analysis were used to determine longitudinal alterations. Single subject analysis was performed to evaluate the individualized pathological changes over time. Correlations between levels of microglial activation and amyloid deposition at a voxel level were assessed using Biological Parametric Mapping. We demonstrated that both baseline and follow-up microglial activation in the mild cognitive impairment cohort compared to controls were increased by 41% and 21%, respectively. There was a longitudinal reduction of 18% in microglial activation in mild cognitive impairment cohort over 14 months, which was associated with a mild elevation in fibrillar amyloid load. Cortical clusters of microglial activation and amyloid deposition spatially overlapped in the subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Baseline microglial activation was increased by 36% in Alzheimer's disease subjects compared with controls. Longitudinally, Alzheimer's disease subjects showed

  5. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  6. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin attenuates early brain injury through modulating microglial polarization after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    You, Wanchun; Wang, Zhong; Li, Haiying; Shen, Haitao; Xu, Xiang; Jia, Genlai; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-15

    Here, we aimed to study the role and underlying mechanism of mTOR in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Experiment 1, the time course of mTOR activation in the cortex following SAH. Experiment 2, the role of mTOR in SAH-induced EBI. Adult SD rats were divided into four groups: sham group (n=18), SAH+vehicle group (n=18), SAH+rapamycin group (n=18), SAH+AZD8055 group (n=18). Experiment 3, we incubated enriched microglia with OxyHb. Rapamycin and AZD8055 were also used to demonstrate the mTOR's role on microglial polarization in vitro. The phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its substrates were significantly increased and peaked at 24h after SAH. Rapamycin or AZD8055 markedly decreased the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its substrates and the activation of microglia in vivo, and promoted the microglial polarization from M1 phenotype to M2 phenotype. In addition, administration of rapamycin and AZD8055 following SAH significantly ameliorated EBI, including neuronal apoptosis, neuronal necrosis, brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability. Our findings suggested that the rapamycin and AZD8055 could attenuate the development of EBI in this SAH model, possibly through inhibiting the activation of microglia by mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microglial pathology.

    PubMed

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-09-26

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial pathology and its significance during aging and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer dementia (AD). The identification of dystrophic (senescent) microglia has created an ostensible conflict with prior work claiming a role for activated microglia and neuroinflammation during normal aging and in AD, and this has raised a basic question: does the brain's immune system become hyperactive (inflamed) or does it become weakened (senescent) in elderly and demented people, and what is the impact on neuronal function and cognition? Here we strive to reconcile these seemingly contradictory notions by arguing that both low-grade neuroinflammation and microglial senescence are the result of aging-associated free radical injury. Both processes are damaging for microglia as they synergistically exhaust this essential cell population to the point where the brain's immune system is effete and unable to support neuronal function.

  8. Deep brain stimulation during early adolescence prevents microglial alterations in a model of maternal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Ravit; Dong, Le; Del-Valle-Anton, Lucia; Guneykaya, Dilansu; Voget, Mareike; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Schweibold, Regina; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Goetz, Thomas; Ewing, Samuel; Kettenmann, Helmut; Wolf, Susanne A; Winter, Christine

    2017-07-01

    In recent years schizophrenia has been recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder likely involving a perinatal insult progressively affecting brain development. The poly I:C maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is considered as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Using this model we and others demonstrated the association between neuroinflammation in the form of altered microglia and a schizophrenia-like endophenotype. Therapeutic intervention using the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline affected altered microglia activation and was successful in the adult offspring. However, less is known about the effect of preventive therapeutic strategies on microglia properties. Previously we found that deep brain stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex applied pre-symptomatically to adolescence MIA rats prevented the manifestation of behavioral and structural deficits in adult rats. We here studied the effects of deep brain stimulation during adolescence on microglia properties in adulthood. We found that in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex, microglial density and soma size were increased in MIA rats. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was unchanged in all brain areas before and after implantation and stimulation. Stimulation of either the medial prefrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens normalized microglia density and soma size in main projection areas including the hippocampus and in the area around the electrode implantation. We conclude that in parallel to an alleviation of the symptoms in the rat MIA model, deep brain stimulation has the potential to prevent the neuroinflammatory component in this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Up-regulation of brain cytokines and chemokines mediates neurotoxicity in early acute liver failure by a mechanism independent of microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Faleiros, Bruno E; Miranda, Aline S; Campos, Alline C; Gomides, Lindisley F; Kangussu, Lucas M; Guatimosim, Cristina; Camargos, Elizabeth R S; Menezes, Gustavo B; Rachid, Milene A; Teixeira, Antônio L

    2014-08-26

    The neurological involvement in acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized by arousal impairment with progression to coma. There is a growing body of evidence that neuroinflammatory mechanisms play a role in this process, including production of inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. However, it is still uncertain whether brain-derived cytokines and glial cells are crucial to the pathophysiology of ALF at the early stage, before coma development. Here, we investigated the influence of cytokines and microglia in ALF-induced encephalopathy in mice as soon as neurological symptoms were identifiable. Behavior was assessed at 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post-injection of thioacetamide, a hepatotoxic drug, through locomotor activity by an open field test. Brain concentration of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and chemokines (CXCL1, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5) were assessed by ELISA. Microglial activation in brain sections was investigated through immunohistochemistry, and cellular ultrastructural changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. We found that ALF-induced animals presented a significant decrease in locomotor activity at 24 h, which was accompanied by an increase in IL-1β, CXCL1, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 in the brain. TNF-α level was significantly increased only at 36 h. Despite marked morphological changes in astrocytes and brain endothelial cells, no microglial activation was observed. These findings suggest an involvement of brain-derived chemokines and IL-1β in early pathophysiology of ALF by a mechanism independent of microglial activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Functional Deficit and Microglial Disturbances in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rabano, Miriam; Vivanco, Maria d M; Perrin, Florence Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective motoneurons degeneration. There is today no clear-cut pathogenesis sequence nor any treatment. However growing evidences are in favor of the involvement, besides neurons, of several partners such as glia and muscles. To better characterize the time course of pathological events in an animal model that recapitulates human ALS symptoms, we investigated functional and cellular characteristics of hSOD1G93A mice. Methods and Findings We have evaluated locomotor function of hSOD1G93A mice through dynamic walking patterns and spontaneous motor activity analysis. We detected early functional deficits that redefine symptoms onset at 60 days of age, i.e. 20 days earlier than previously described. Moreover, sequential combination of these approaches allows monitoring of motor activity up to disease end stage. To tentatively correlate early functional deficit with cellular alterations we have used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry approaches to characterize neuromuscular junctions, astrocytes and microglia. We show that (1) decrease in neuromuscular junction's number correlates with motor impairment, (2) astrocytes number is not altered at pre- and early-symptomatic ages but intraspinal repartition is modified at symptoms onset, and (3) microglia modifications precede disease onset. At pre-symptomatic age, we show a decrease in microglia number whereas at onset of the disease two distinct microglia sub-populations emerge. Conclusions In conclusion, precise motor analysis updates the onset of the disease in hSOD1G93A mice and allows locomotor monitoring until the end stage of the disease. Early functional deficits coincide with alterations of neuromuscular junctions. Importantly, we identify different sets of changes in microglia before disease onset as well as at early-symptomatic stage. This finding not only brings a new sequence of cellular events in the natural

  11. Early Postnatal Cardiomyocyte Proliferation Requires High Oxidative Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Ana Elisa Teófilo Saturi; Bassaneze, Vinícius; Forni, Maria Fernanda; Keusseyan, Aline Alfonso; Kowaltowski, Alicia Juliana; Krieger, José Eduardo

    2017-11-13

    Cardiac energy metabolism must cope with early postnatal changes in tissue oxygen tensions, hemodynamics, and cell proliferation to sustain development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes are dependent on high oxidative energy metabolism. We show that energy-related gene expression does not correlate with functional oxidative measurements in the developing heart. Gene expression analysis suggests a gradual overall upregulation of oxidative-related genes and pathways, whereas functional assessment in both cardiac tissue and cultured cardiomyocytes indicated that oxidative metabolism decreases between the first and seventh days after birth. Cardiomyocyte extracellular flux analysis indicated that the decrease in oxidative metabolism between the first and seventh days after birth was mostly related to lower rates of ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that overall energetic demands decrease during this period. In parallel, the proliferation rate was higher for early cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, in vitro nonlethal chemical inhibition of mitochondrial respiration reduced the proliferative capacity of early cardiomyocytes, indicating a high energy demand to sustain cardiomyocyte proliferation. Altogether, we provide evidence that early postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity correlates with high oxidative energy metabolism. The energy requirement decreases as the proliferation ceases in the following days, and both oxidative-dependent metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis subside.

  12. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Joyce C G; Van Calster, Joachim; Pulido, Jose S; Miles, Sarah L; Vile, Richard G; Van Bergen, Tine; Cassiman, Catherine; Spielberg, Leigh H; Leys, Anita M

    2015-07-01

    Paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, BDUMP) is a rare but devastating disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients who usually have an occult malignancy. Visual loss occurs as a result of paraneoplastic changes in the uveal tissue. In a masked fashion, the serum of two patients with BDUMP was evaluated for the presence of cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor using cultured human melanocytes. We evaluated the efficacy of plasmapheresis as a treatment modality early in the disease in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy. The serum of the first case patient was investigated after plasmapheresis and did not demonstrate proliferation of cultured human melanocytes. The serum of the second case was evaluated prior to treatment with plasmapheresis and did induce this proliferation. These findings are in accordance with the diminution of CMEP factor after plasmapheresis. Treatment with plasmapheresis managed to stabilise the ocular disease progression in both patients. In the past, visual loss due to paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation was considered progressive and irreversible. We treated two patients successfully with plasmapheresis and demonstrated a relation between CMEP factor in the serum of these patients and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Joyce C G; Van Calster, Joachim; Pulido, Jose S; Miles, Sarah L; Vile, Richard G; Van Bergen, Tine; Cassiman, Catherine; Spielberg, Leigh H; Leys, Anita M

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, BDUMP) is a rare but devastating disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients who usually have an occult malignancy. Visual loss occurs as a result of paraneoplastic changes in the uveal tissue. Methods In a masked fashion, the serum of two patients with BDUMP was evaluated for the presence of cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor using cultured human melanocytes. We evaluated the efficacy of plasmapheresis as a treatment modality early in the disease in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy. Results The serum of the first case patient was investigated after plasmapheresis and did not demonstrate proliferation of cultured human melanocytes. The serum of the second case was evaluated prior to treatment with plasmapheresis and did induce this proliferation. These findings are in accordance with the diminution of CMEP factor after plasmapheresis. Treatment with plasmapheresis managed to stabilise the ocular disease progression in both patients. Conclusions In the past, visual loss due to paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation was considered progressive and irreversible. We treated two patients successfully with plasmapheresis and demonstrated a relation between CMEP factor in the serum of these patients and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. PMID:25908835

  14. Sex Differences in Early Postnatal Microglial Colonization of the Developing Rat Hippocampus Following a Single-Day Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, M J; Boschen, K E; Roth, T L; Klintsova, A Y

    2018-06-01

    Microglia are involved in various homeostatic processes in the brain, including phagocytosis, apoptosis, and synaptic pruning. Sex differences in microglia colonization of the developing brain have been reported, but have not been established following alcohol insult. Developmental alcohol exposure represents a neuroimmune challenge that may contribute to cognitive dysfunction prevalent in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. Most studies have investigated neuroimmune activation following adult alcohol exposure or following multiple exposures. The current study uses a single day binge alcohol exposure model (postnatal day [PD] 4) to examine sex differences in the neuroimmune response in the developing rat hippocampus on PD5 and 8. The neuroimmune response was evaluated through measurement of microglial number and cytokine gene expression at both time points. Male pups had higher microglial number compared to females in many hippocampal subregions on PD5, but this difference disappeared by PD8, unless exposed to alcohol. Expression of pro-inflammatory marker CD11b was higher on PD5 in alcohol-exposed (AE) females compared to AE males. After alcohol exposure, C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) was significantly increased in female AE pups on PD5 and PD8. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also upregulated by AE in males on PD8. The results demonstrate a clear difference between the male and female neuroimmune response to an AE challenge, which also occurs in a time-dependent manner. These findings are significant as they add to our knowledge of specific sex-dependent effects of alcohol exposure on microglia within the developing brain.

  15. Dendritic cells modulate burn wound healing by enhancing early proliferation.

    PubMed

    Vinish, Monika; Cui, Weihua; Stafford, Eboni; Bae, Leon; Hawkins, Hal; Cox, Robert; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Adequate wound healing is vital for burn patients to reduce the risk of infections and prolonged hospitalization. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells that release cytokines and are central for the activation of innate and acquired immune responses. Studies have showed their presence in human burn wounds; however, their role in burn wound healing remains to be determined. This study investigated the role of DCs in modulating healing responses within the burn wound. A murine model of full-thickness contact burns was used to study wound healing in the absence of DCs (CD11c promoter-driven diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice) and in a DC-rich environment (using fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand, FL- a DC growth factor). Wound closure was significantly delayed in DC-deficient mice and was associated with significant suppression of early cellular proliferation, granulation tissue formation, wound levels of TGFβ1 and formation of CD31+ vessels in healing wounds. In contrast, DC enhancement significantly accelerated early wound closure, associated with increased and accelerated cellular proliferation, granulation tissue formation, and increased TGFβ1 levels and CD31+ vessels in healing wounds. We conclude that DCs play an important role in the acceleration of early wound healing events, likely by secreting factors that trigger the proliferation of cells that mediate wound healing. Therefore, pharmacological enhancement of DCs may provide a therapeutic intervention to facilitate healing of burn wounds. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. P2Y12R-Dependent Translocation Mechanisms Gate the Changing Microglial Landscape.

    PubMed

    Eyo, Ukpong B; Mo, Mingshu; Yi, Min-Hee; Murugan, Madhuvika; Liu, Junting; Yarlagadda, Rohan; Margolis, David J; Xu, Pingyi; Wu, Long-Jun

    2018-04-24

    Microglia are an exquisitely tiled and self-contained population in the CNS that do not receive contributions from circulating monocytes in the periphery. While microglia are long-lived cells, the extent to which their cell bodies are fixed and the molecular mechanisms by which the microglial landscape is regulated have not been determined. Using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging to follow the microglial population in young adult mice, we document a daily rearrangement of the microglial landscape. Furthermore, we show that the microglial landscape can be modulated by severe seizures, acute injury, and sensory deprivation. Finally, we demonstrate a critical role for microglial P2Y12Rs in regulating the microglial landscape through cellular translocation independent of proliferation. These findings suggest that microglial patrol the CNS through both process motility and soma translocation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  18. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  19. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  20. Microglial Dynamics and Role in the Healthy and Diseased Brain

    PubMed Central

    Perry, V. Hugh

    2015-01-01

    The study of the dynamics and functions of microglia in the healthy and diseased brain is a matter of intense scientific activity. The application of new techniques and new experimental approaches has allowed the identification of novel microglial functions and the redefinition of classic ones. In this review, we propose the study of microglial functions, rather than their molecular profiles, to better understand and define the roles of these cells in the brain. We review current knowledge on the role of surveillant microglia, proliferating microglia, pruning/neuromodulatory microglia, phagocytic microglia, and inflammatory microglia and the molecular profiles that are associated with these functions. In the remodeling scenario of microglial biology, the analysis of microglial functional states will inform about the roles in health and disease and will guide us to a more precise understanding of the multifaceted roles of this never-resting cells. PMID:24722525

  1. Substance P enhances microglial density in the substantia nigra through neurokinin-1 receptor/NADPH oxidase-mediated chemotaxis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingshan; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Wilson, Belinda; Qian, Li; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of microglia varies greatly throughout the brain. The substantia nigra (SN) contains the highest density of microglia among different brain regions. However, the mechanism underlying this uneven distribution remains unclear. Substance P (SP) is a potent proinflammatory neuropeptide with high concentrations in the SN. We recently demonstrated that SP can regulate nigral microglial activity. In the present study, we further investigated the involvement of SP in modulating nigral microglial density in postnatal developing mice. Nigral microglial density was quantified in wild-type (WT) and SP-deficient mice from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P30. SP was detected at high levels in the SN as early as P1 and microglial density did not peak until around P30 in WT mice. SP-deficient mice (TAC1(-/-)) had a significant reduction in nigral microglial density. No differences in the ability of microglia to proliferate were observed between TAC1(-/-) and WT mice, suggesting that SP may alter microglial density through chemotaxic recruitment. SP was confirmed to dose-dependently attract microglia using a trans-well culture system. Mechanistic studies revealed that both the SP receptor neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and the superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX2) were necessary for SP-mediated chemotaxis in microglia. Furthermore, genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of NK1R or NOX2 attenuated SP-induced microglial migration. Finally, protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) was recognized to couple SP/NK1R-mediated NOX2 activation. Altogether, we found that SP partly accounts for the increased density of microglia in the SN through chemotaxic recruitment via a novel NK1R-NOX2 axis-mediated pathway. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  2. Age-specific function of α5β1 integrin in microglial migration during early colonization of the developing mouse cortex.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Sophie Marie-Thérèse; Swinnen, Nina; Kessels, Sofie; Arnauts, Kaline; Smolders, Silke; Le Bras, Barbara; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Legendre, Pascal; Brône, Bert

    2017-07-01

    Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, take part in brain development and homeostasis. They derive from primitive myeloid progenitors that originate in the yolk sac and colonize the brain mainly through intensive migration. During development, microglial migration speed declines which suggests that their interaction with the microenvironment changes. However, the matrix-cell interactions allowing dispersion within the parenchyma are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to better characterize the migration behavior and to assess the role of matrix-integrin interactions during microglial migration in the embryonic brain ex vivo. We focused on microglia-fibronectin interactions mediated through the fibronectin receptor α5β1 integrin because in vitro work indirectly suggested a role for this ligand-receptor pair. Using 2-photon time-lapse microscopy on acute ex vivo embryonic brain slices, we found that migration occurs in a saltatory pattern and is developmentally regulated. Most importantly, there is an age-specific function of the α5β1 integrin during microglial cortex colonization. At embryonic day (E) 13.5, α5β1 facilitates migration while from E15.5, it inhibits migration. These results indicate a developmentally regulated function of α5β1 integrin in microglial migration during colonization of the embryonic brain. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Increased Plp1 gene expression leads to massive microglial cell activation and inflammation throughout the brain

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Carrie L; Appikatla, Sunita; Bessert, Denise A; Paintlia, Ajaib S; Singh, Inderjit; Skoff, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    PMD (Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that impairs motor and cognitive functions and is associated with a shortened lifespan. The cause of PMD is mutations of the PLP1 [proteolipid protein 1 gene (human)] gene. Transgenic mice with increased Plp1 [proteolipid protein 1 gene (non-human)] copy number model most aspects of PMD patients with duplications. Hypomyelination and demyelination are believed to cause the neurological abnormalities in mammals with PLP1 duplications. We show, for the first time, intense microglial reactivity throughout the grey and white matter of a transgenic mouse line with increased copy number of the native Plp1 gene. Activated microglia in the white and grey matter of transgenic mice are found as early as postnatal day 7, before myelin commences in normal cerebra. This finding indicates that degeneration of myelin does not cause the microglial response. Microglial numbers are doubled due to in situ proliferation. Compared with the jp (jimpy) mouse, which has much more oligodendrocyte death and hardly any myelin, microglia in the overexpressors show a more dramatic microglial reactivity than jp, especially in the grey matter. Predictably, many classical markers of an inflammatory response, including TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) and IL-6, are significantly up-regulated manyfold. Because inflammation is believed to contribute to axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation in mammals with increased Plp1 gene dosage may also contribute to axonal degeneration described in patients and rodents with PLP1 increased gene dosage. PMID:20885931

  4. Microglial numbers attain adult levels after undergoing a rapid decrease in cell number in the third postnatal week.

    PubMed

    Nikodemova, Maria; Kimyon, Rebecca S; De, Ishani; Small, Alissa L; Collier, Lara S; Watters, Jyoti J

    2015-01-15

    During postnatal development, microglia, CNS resident innate immune cells, are essential for synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis and remodeling. During this period microglia undergo morphological and phenotypic transformations; however, little is known about how microglial number and density is regulated during postnatal CNS development. We found that after an initial increase during the first 14 postnatal days, microglial numbers in mouse brain began declining in the third postnatal week and were reduced by 50% by 6weeks of age; these "adult" levels were maintained until at least 9months of age. Microglial CD11b levels increased, whereas CD45 and ER-MP58 declined between P10 and adulthood, consistent with a maturing microglial phenotype. Our data indicate that both increased microglial apoptosis and a decreased proliferative capacity contribute to the developmental reduction in microglial numbers. We found no correlation between developmental reductions in microglial numbers and brain mRNA levels of Cd200, Cx3Cl1, M-Csf or Il-34. We tested the ability of M-Csf-overexpression, a key growth factor promoting microglial proliferation and survival, to prevent microglial loss in the third postnatal week. Mice overexpressing M-Csf in astrocytes had higher numbers of microglia at all ages tested. However, the developmental decline in microglial numbers still occurred, suggesting that chronically elevated M-CSF is unable to overcome the developmental decrease in microglial numbers. Whereas the identity of the factor(s) regulating microglial number and density during development remains to be determined, it is likely that microglia respond to a "maturation" signal since the reduction in microglial numbers coincides with CNS maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Facial nerve injuries cause changes in central nervous system microglial cells].

    PubMed

    Cerón, Jeimmy; Troncoso, Julieta

    2016-12-01

    Our research group has described both morphological and electrophysiological changes in motor cortex pyramidal neurons associated with contralateral facial nerve injury in rats. However, little is known about those neural changes, which occur together with changes in surrounding glial cells. To characterize the effect of the unilateral facial nerve injury on microglial proliferation and activation in the primary motor cortex. We performed immunohistochemical experiments in order to detect microglial cells in brain tissue of rats with unilateral facial nerve lesion sacrificed at different times after the injury. We caused two types of lesions: reversible (by crushing, which allows functional recovery), and irreversible (by section, which produces permanent paralysis). We compared the brain tissues of control animals (without surgical intervention) and sham-operated animals with animals with lesions sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 21 or 35 days after the injury. In primary motor cortex, the microglial cells of irreversibly injured animals showed proliferation and activation between three and seven days post-lesion. The proliferation of microglial cells in reversibly injured animals was significant only three days after the lesion. Facial nerve injury causes changes in microglial cells in the primary motor cortex. These modifications could be involved in the generation of morphological and electrophysiological changes previously described in the pyramidal neurons of primary motor cortex that command facial movements.

  6. Activation of GPR55 increases neural stem cell proliferation and promotes early adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jeremy D; Zuluaga-Ramirez, Viviana; Gajghate, Sachin; Winfield, Malika; Persidsky, Yuri

    2018-06-11

    The cannabinoid system exerts functional regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and adult neurogenesis, yet not all effects of cannabinoid-like compounds seen can be attributed to the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB 1 R) or cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB 2 R). The recently de-orphaned GPR55 has been shown to be activated by numerous cannabinoid ligands suggesting that GPR55 is a third cannabinoid receptor. Here we examined the role of GPR55 activation in NSC proliferation and early adult neurogenesis. The effects of GPR55 agonists (LPI, O-1602, ML184) on human NSC proliferation in vitro were assessed by flow cytometry. hNSC differentiation was determined by flow cytometry, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Immature neuron formation in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and GPR55 -/- mice was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Activation of GPR55 significantly increased proliferation rates of hNSCs in vitro. These effects were attenuated by ML193, a selective GPR55 antagonist. ML184 significantly promoted neuronal differentiation in vitro while ML193 reduced differentiation rates as compared to vehicle treatment. Continuous administration into the hippocampus of O-1602 via cannula connected to osmotic pump resulted in increased Ki67+ cells within the dentate gyrus. O-1602 increased immature neuron generation as assessed by DCX+ and BrdU+ cells as compared to vehicle treated animals. GPR55 -/- animals displayed reduced rates of proliferation and neurogenesis within the hippocampus while O-1602 had no effect as compared to vehicle controls. Together, these findings suggest GPR55 activation as a novel target and strategy to regulate NSC proliferation and adult neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Caudal migration and proliferation of renal progenitors regulates early nephron segment size in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Richard W; Dodd, Rachel C; Davidson, Alan J

    2016-10-19

    The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney and is divided into distinct proximal and distal segments. The factors determining nephron segment size are not fully understood. In zebrafish, the embryonic kidney has long been thought to differentiate in situ into two proximal tubule segments and two distal tubule segments (distal early; DE, and distal late; DL) with little involvement of cell movement. Here, we overturn this notion by performing lineage-labelling experiments that reveal extensive caudal movement of the proximal and DE segments and a concomitant compaction of the DL segment as it fuses with the cloaca. Laser-mediated severing of the tubule, such that the DE and DL are disconnected or that the DL and cloaca do not fuse, results in a reduction in tubule cell proliferation and significantly shortens the DE segment while the caudal movement of the DL is unaffected. These results suggest that the DL mechanically pulls the more proximal segments, thereby driving both their caudal extension and their proliferation. Together, these data provide new insights into early nephron morphogenesis and demonstrate the importance of cell movement and proliferation in determining initial nephron segment size.

  8. Microglial activation in white matter lesions and nonlesional white matter of ageing brains.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J E; Ince, P G; Higham, C E; Gelsthorpe, C H; Fernando, M S; Matthews, F; Forster, G; O'Brien, J T; Barber, R; Kalaria, R N; Brayne, C; Shaw, P J; Stoeber, K; Williams, G H; Lewis, C E; Wharton, S B

    2007-12-01

    White matter lesions (WML), a common feature in brain ageing, are classified as periventricular (PVL) or deep subcortical (DSCL), depending on their anatomical location. Microglial activation is implicated in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, but the microglial response in WML is poorly characterized and its role in pathogenesis unknown. We have characterized the microglial response in WML and control white matter using immunohistochemistry to markers of microglial activation and of proliferation. WML of brains from an unbiased population-based autopsy cohort (Medical Research Council's Cognitive Function and Ageing Study) were identified by post mortem magnetic resonance imaging and sampled for histology. PVL contain significantly more activated microglia, expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and the costimulatory molecules B7-2 and CD40, than either control white matter (WM) or DSCL. Furthermore, we show that significantly more microglia express the replication licensing protein minichromosome maintenance protein 2 within PVL, suggesting this is a more proliferation-permissive environment than DSCL. Although microglial activation occurs in both PVL and DSCL, our findings suggest a difference in pathogenesis between these lesion-types: the ramified, activated microglia associated with PVL may reflect immune activation resulting from disruption of the blood brain barrier, while the microglia within DSCL may reflect an innate, amoeboid phagocytic phenotype. We also show that microglia in control WM from lesional cases express significantly more MHC II than control WM from nonlesional ageing brain, suggesting that WML occur in a 'field-effect' of abnormal WM.

  9. Microglial Dynamics During Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Menassa, David A.; Gomez-Nicola, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Microglial cells are thought to colonize the human cerebrum between the 4th and 24th gestational weeks. Rodent studies have demonstrated that these cells originate from yolk sac progenitors though it is not clear whether this directly pertains to human development. Our understanding of microglial cell dynamics in the developing human brain comes mostly from postmortem studies demonstrating that the beginning of microglial colonization precedes the appearance of the vasculature, the blood–brain barrier, astrogliogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, neurogenesis, migration, and myelination of the various brain areas. Furthermore, migrating microglial populations cluster by morphology and express differential markers within the developing brain and according to developmental age. With the advent of novel technologies such as RNA-sequencing in fresh human tissue, we are beginning to identify the molecular features of the adult microglial signature. However, this is may not extend to the much more dynamic and rapidly changing antenatal microglial population and this is further complicated by the scarcity of tissue resources. In this brief review, we first describe the various historic schools of thought that had debated the origin of microglial cells while examining the evidence supporting the various theories. We then proceed to examine the evidence we have accumulated on microglial dynamics in the developing human brain, present evidence from rodent studies on the functional role of microglia during development and finally identify limitations for the used approaches in human studies and highlight under investigated questions. PMID:29881376

  10. Early-life experience decreases drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood via microglial-specific epigenetic programming of anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Bilbo, Staci D

    2011-12-07

    A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene × early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior.

  11. Early-Life Experience Decreases Drug-Induced Reinstatement of Morphine CPP in Adulthood via Microglial-Specific Epigenetic Programming of Anti-Inflammatory IL-10 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with Ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene X early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation, and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:22159099

  12. Early CALP2 expression and microglial activation are potential inducers of spinal IL-6 up-regulation and bilateral pain following motor nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Wang, Shao-Kun; Yao, Pei-Wen; Liao, Guang-Jie; Na, Xiao-Dong; Li, Yong-Yong; Zeng, Wei-An; Liu, Xian-Guo; Zang, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Previous work from our laboratory showed that motor nerve injury by lumbar 5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT) led to interleukin-6 (IL-6) over-expression in bilateral spinal cord, and that intrathecal administration of IL-6 neutralizing antibody delayed the induction of mechanical allodynia in bilateral hind paws. However, early events and upstream mechanisms underlying spinal IL-6 expression following L5-VRT require elucidation. The model of L5-VRT was used to induce neuropathic pain, which was assessed with von Frey hairs and the plantar tester in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Calpain-2 (CALP2, a calcium-dependent protease) knockdown or over-expression and microglia depletion were conducted intrathecally. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to explore the possible mechanisms. Here, we provide the first evidence that both IL-6 and CALP2 levels are increased in lumbar spinal cord within 30 min following L5-VRT. IL-6 and CALP2 co-localized in both spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and spinal ventral horn. Post-operative (PO) increase in CALP2 in ipsilateral SDH was evident at 10 min PO, preceding increased IL-6 at 20 min PO. Knockdown of spinal CALP2 by intrathecal CALP2-shRNA administration prevented VRT-induced IL-6 overproduction in ipsilateral spinal cord and alleviated bilateral mechanical allodynia. Spinal microglia activation also played a role in early IL-6 up-regulation. Macrophage/microglia markers ED1/Iba1 were increased at 30 min PO, while glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte) and CNPase (oligodendrocyte) markers were not. Increased Iba1 was detected as early as 20 min PO and peaked at 3 days. Morphology changed from a small soma with fine processes in resting cells to an activated ameboid shape. Depletion of microglia using Mac-1-saporin partially prevented IL-6 up-regulation and attenuated VRT-induced bilateral mechanical allodynia. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that increased spinal cord CALP2 and microglia cell

  13. Role of human cytomegalovirus in the proliferation and invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts isolated from early placentae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zheng, Xiaofei; Li, Qin; Chen, Juanjuan; Yin, Zongzhi; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Dandan; Li, Wei; Qiao, Yuan; Chen, Suhua

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and its mechanism in extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) proliferation and invasion in vitro. Methods: Differential enzymatic digestion combined with gradient centrifugation, was used to isolate primary EVT from human chorionic villi collected from early placentae of healthy pregnant women. HCMV infection was determined by immunofluorescence staining of HCMVpp65 antigen expression. An MTT assay was used to examine the role of HCMV in the proliferation of EVT. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemical staining and Western blots were carried out in a control group (EVT) and a virus group (EVT+HCMV) to examine the expression of major genes and protein in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways in EVT 48 h after inoculation with HCMV. An in vitro cell invasion assay was performed to analyze the influence of HCMV on EVT invasion. Results: HCMV significantly inhibited the proliferation of EVT 48 h after viral infection (P < 0.05). The expression of TGF-β1, Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad5 genes was significantly increased (P < 0.05), but that of TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TGFβRI, TGFβRII, Smad7, MMP2, and MMP9 was significantly decreased in the virus group 48 h after HCMV infection (P < 0.05). Smad7, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels were significantly decreased and the TGF-β1 protein level was significantly increased in infected EVT (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: HCMV may act on multiple steps of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway to impede EVT proliferation and invasion. PMID:26770317

  14. Ablation of proliferating neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mary; Krish, Varsha S; Kirshenbaum, Greer S; Atsak, Piray; Lass, Tamara J; Lieberman, Sophie R; Leonardo, E David; Dranovsky, Alex

    2018-05-09

    Environmental exposures during early life, but not during adolescence or adulthood, lead to persistent reductions in neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The mechanisms by which early life exposures lead to long-term deficits in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether targeted ablation of dividing neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to produce long-term decreases in DG neurogenesis. Having previously found that the stem cell lineage is resistant to long-term effects of transient ablation of dividing stem cells during adolescence or adulthood (Kirshenbaum et al., 2014), we used a similar pharmacogenetic approach to target dividing neural stem cells for elimination during early life periods sensitive to environmental insults. We then assessed the Nestin stem cell lineage in adulthood. We found that the adult neural stem cell reservoir was depleted following ablation during the first postnatal week, when stem cells were highly proliferative, but not during the third postnatal week, when stem cells were more quiescent. Remarkably, ablating proliferating stem cells during either the first or third postnatal week led to reduced adult neurogenesis out of proportion to the changes in the stem cell pool, indicating a disruption of the stem cell function or niche following stem cell ablation in early life. These results highlight the first three postnatal weeks as a series of sensitive periods during which elimination of dividing stem cells leads to lasting alterations in adult DG neurogenesis and stem cell function. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relationship between DG development and adult neurogenesis, as well as suggest a possible mechanism by which early life experiences may lead to lasting deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 during early mouse development.

    PubMed

    Winking, H; Gerdes, J; Traut, W

    2004-01-01

    In somatic tissues, the mouse Ki-67 protein (pKi-67) is expressed in proliferating cells only. Depending on the stage of the cell cycle, pKi-67 is associated with different nuclear domains: with euchromatin as part of the perichromosomal layer, with centromeric heterochromatin, and with the nucleolus. In gametes, sex-specific expression is evident. Mature MII oocytes contain pKi-67, whereas pKi-67 is not detectable in mature sperm. We investigated the re-establishment of the cell cycle-dependent distribution of pKi-67 during early mouse development. After fertilization, male and female pronuclei exhibited very little or no pKi-67, while polar bodies were pKi-67 positive. Towards the end of the first cell cycle, prophase chromosomes of male and female pronuclei simultaneously got decorated with pKi-67. In 2-cell embryos, the distribution pattern changed, presumably depending on the progress of development of the embryo, from a distribution all over the nucleus to a preferential location in the nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs). From the 4-cell stage onwards, pKi-67 showed the regular nuclear relocations known from somatic tissues: during mitosis the protein was found covering the chromosome arms as a constituent of the perichromosomal layer, in early G1 it was distributed in the whole nucleus, and for the rest of the cell cycle it was associated with NPBs or with the nucleolus. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Mild myelin disruption elicits early alteration in behavior and proliferation in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elizabeth A; Busquet, Nicolas; Shepherd, Douglas; Dietz, Robert M; Herson, Paco S; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M; Li, Anan; George, Nicholas M; Restrepo, Diego; Macklin, Wendy B

    2018-02-13

    Myelin, the insulating sheath around axons, supports axon function. An important question is the impact of mild myelin disruption. In the absence of the myelin protein proteolipid protein (PLP1), myelin is generated but with age, axonal function/maintenance is disrupted. Axon disruption occurs in Plp1 -null mice as early as 2 months in cortical projection neurons. High-volume cellular quantification techniques revealed a region-specific increase in oligodendrocyte density in the olfactory bulb and rostral corpus callosum that increased during adulthood. A distinct proliferative response of progenitor cells was observed in the subventricular zone (SVZ), while the number and proliferation of parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was unchanged. This SVZ proliferative response occurred prior to evidence of axonal disruption. Thus, a novel SVZ response contributes to the region-specific increase in oligodendrocytes in Plp1 -null mice. Young adult Plp1- null mice exhibited subtle but substantial behavioral alterations, indicative of an early impact of mild myelin disruption. © 2018, Gould et al.

  17. Mild myelin disruption elicits early alteration in behavior and proliferation in the subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Elizabeth A; Busquet, Nicolas; Shepherd, Douglas; Dietz, Robert M; Herson, Paco S; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M; Li, Anan; George, Nicholas M

    2018-01-01

    Myelin, the insulating sheath around axons, supports axon function. An important question is the impact of mild myelin disruption. In the absence of the myelin protein proteolipid protein (PLP1), myelin is generated but with age, axonal function/maintenance is disrupted. Axon disruption occurs in Plp1-null mice as early as 2 months in cortical projection neurons. High-volume cellular quantification techniques revealed a region-specific increase in oligodendrocyte density in the olfactory bulb and rostral corpus callosum that increased during adulthood. A distinct proliferative response of progenitor cells was observed in the subventricular zone (SVZ), while the number and proliferation of parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was unchanged. This SVZ proliferative response occurred prior to evidence of axonal disruption. Thus, a novel SVZ response contributes to the region-specific increase in oligodendrocytes in Plp1-null mice. Young adult Plp1-null mice exhibited subtle but substantial behavioral alterations, indicative of an early impact of mild myelin disruption. PMID:29436368

  18. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and modulate microglial phagocytosis and behavioural response.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Li, Yuanyuan; Pei, Gang

    2017-03-24

    Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used in Asian countries for hundreds of years to promote health and longevity. The pharmacological functions of which had been classified, including the activation of innate immune responses, suppression of tumour and modulation of cell proliferations. Effective fractions of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) had already been reported to regulate the immune system. Nevertheless, the role of GLP in the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has not been sufficiently elucidated. Further, GLP effect on microglial behavioural modulations in correlation with the inflammatory responses remains to be unravelled. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the contributions of GLP on microglia. The BV2 microglia and primary mouse microglia were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ 42 ) oligomer, respectively. Investigation on the effect of GLP was carried by quantitative determination of the microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions and behavioural modulations including migration, morphology and phagocytosis. Analysis of microglial morphology and phagocytosis modulations was confirmed in the zebrafish brain. Quantitative results revealed that GLP down-regulates LPS- or Aβ-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions in BV-2 and primary microglia. In addition, GLP attenuates inflammation-related microglial migration, morphological alterations and phagocytosis probabilities. We also showed that modulations of microglial behavioural responses were associated with MCP-1 and C1q expressions. Overall, our study provides an insight into the GLP regulation of LPS- and Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and serves an implication that the neuroprotective function of GLP might be achieved through modulation of microglial inflammatory and behavioural responses.

  19. Curcumin is a potent modulator of microglial gene expression and migration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Microglial cells are important effectors of the neuronal innate immune system with a major role in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Curcumin, a major component of tumeric, alleviates pro-inflammatory activities of these cells by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) signaling. To study the immuno-modulatory effects of curcumin on a transcriptomic level, DNA-microarray analyses were performed with resting and LPS-challenged microglial cells after short-term treatment with curcumin. Methods Resting and LPS-activated BV-2 cells were stimulated with curcumin and genome-wide mRNA expression patterns were determined using DNA-microarrays. Selected qRT-PCR analyses were performed to confirm newly identified curcumin-regulated genes. The migration potential of microglial cells was determined with wound healing assays and transwell migration assays. Microglial neurotoxicity was estimated by morphological analyses and quantification of caspase 3/7 levels in 661W photoreceptors cultured in the presence of microglia-conditioned medium. Results Curcumin treatment markedly changed the microglial transcriptome with 49 differentially expressed transcripts in a combined analysis of resting and activated microglial cells. Curcumin effectively triggered anti-inflammatory signals as shown by induced expression of Interleukin 4 and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α. Several novel curcumin-induced genes including Netrin G1, Delta-like 1, Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, and Plasma cell endoplasmic reticulum protein 1, have been previously associated with adhesion and cell migration. Consequently, curcumin treatment significantly inhibited basal and activation-induced migration of BV-2 microglia. Curcumin also potently blocked gene expression related to pro-inflammatory activation of resting cells including Toll-like receptor 2 and Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2. Moreover, transcription of NO synthase 2 and Signal transducer and activator

  20. Pattern of recurrence of early breast cancer is different according to intrinsic subtype and proliferation index

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recurrence risk in breast cancer varies throughout the follow-up time. We examined if these changes are related to the level of expression of the proliferation pathway and intrinsic subtypes. Methods Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor, Ki-67, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6) was performed on tissue-microarrays constructed from a large and uniformly managed series of early breast cancer patients (N = 1,249). Subtype definitions by four biomarkers were as follows: luminal A (ER + and/or PR+, HER2-, Ki-67 <14), luminal B (ER + and/or PR+, HER2-, Ki-67 ≥14), HER2-enriched (any ER, any PR, HER2+, any Ki-67), triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-, any Ki-67). Subtype definitions by six biomarkers were as follows: luminal A (ER + and/or PR+, HER2-, Ki-67 <14, any CK 5/6, any EGFR), luminal B (ER + and/or PR+, HER2-, Ki-67 ≥14, any CK 5/6, any EGFR), HER2-enriched (ER-, PR-, HER2+, any Ki-67, any CK 5/6, any EGFR), Luminal-HER2 (ER + and/or PR+, HER2+, any Ki-67, any CK 5/6, any EGFR), Basal-like (ER-, PR-, HER2-, any Ki-67, CK5/6+ and/or EGFR+), triple-negative nonbasal (ER-, PR-, HER2-, any Ki-67, CK 5/6-, EGFR-). Each four- or six-marker defined intrinsic subtype was divided in two groups, with Ki-67 <14% or with Ki-67 ≥14%. Recurrence hazard rate function was determined for each intrinsic subtype as a whole and according to Ki-67 value. Results Luminal A displayed a slow risk increase, reaching its maximum after three years and then remained steady. Luminal B presented most of its relapses during the first five years. HER2-enriched tumors show a peak of recurrence nearly twenty months post-surgery, with a greater risk in Ki-67 ≥14%. However a second peak occurred at 72 months but the risk magnitude was greater in Ki-67 <14%. Triple negative tumors with low proliferation rate display a smooth risk curve, but with Ki-67 ≥14% show

  1. Methamphetamine neurotoxicity in dopamine nerve endings of the striatum is associated with microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Walker, Paul D; Benjamins, Joyce A; Geddes, Timothy J; Kuhn, Donald M

    2004-10-01

    Methamphetamine intoxication causes long-lasting damage to dopamine nerve endings in the striatum. The mechanisms underlying this neurotoxicity are not known but oxidative stress has been implicated. Microglia are the major antigen-presenting cells in brain and when activated, they secrete an array of factors that cause neuronal damage. Surprisingly, very little work has been directed at the study of microglial activation as part of the methamphetamine neurotoxic cascade. We report here that methamphetamine activates microglia in a dose-related manner and along a time course that is coincident with dopamine nerve ending damage. Prevention of methamphetamine toxicity by maintaining treated mice at low ambient temperature prevents drug-induced microglial activation. MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), which damages dopamine nerve endings and cell bodies, causes extensive microglial activation in striatum as well as in the substantia nigra. In contrast, methamphetamine causes neither microglial activation in the substantia nigra nor dopamine cell body damage. Dopamine transporter antagonists (cocaine, WIN 35,428 [(-)-2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate], and nomifensine), selective D1 (SKF 82958 [(+/-)-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide]), D2 (quinpirole), or mixed D1/D2 receptor agonists (apomorphine) do not mimic the effect of methamphetamine on microglia. Hyperthermia, a prominent and dangerous clinical response to methamphetamine intoxication, was also ruled out as the cause of microglial activation. Together, these data suggest that microglial activation represents an early step in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Other neurochemical effects resulting from methamphetamine-induced overflow of DA into the synapse, but which are not neurotoxic, do not play a role in this response.

  2. Regulatory effects of fisetin on microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-06-26

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Microglial depletion using intrahippocampal injection of liposome-encapsulated clodronate in prolonged hypothermic cardiac arrest in rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Drabek, Tomas; Janata, Andreas; Jackson, Edwin K.; End, Brad; Stezoski, Jason; Vagni, Vincent A.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Wilson, Caleb D.; van Rooijen, Nico; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Trauma patients who suffer cardiac arrest (CA) from exsanguination rarely survive. Emergency preservation and resuscitation using hypothermia was developed to buy time for resuscitative surgery and delayed resuscitation with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but intact survival is limited by neuronal death associated with microglial proliferation and activation. Pharmacological modulation of microglia may improve outcome following CA. Systemic injection of liposome-encapsulated clodronate (LEC) depletes macrophages. To test the hypothesis that intrahippocampal injection of LEC would attenuate local microglial proliferation after CA in rats, we administered LEC or PBS into the right or left hippocampus, respectively. After rapid exsanguination and 6 min no-flow, hypothermia was induced by ice-cold (IC) or room-temperature (RT) flush. Total duration of CA was 20 min. Pre-treatment (IC, RTpre) and post-treatment (RTpost) groups were studied, along with shams (cannulation only) and CPB controls. On day 7, shams and CPB groups showed neither neuronal death nor microglial activation. In contrast, the number of microglia in hippocampus in each individual group (IC, RTpre, RTpost) was decreased with LEC vs. PBS by ~34–46% (P < 0.05). Microglial proliferation was attenuated in the IC vs. RT groups (P < 0.05). Neuronal death did not differ between hemispheres or IC vs. RT groups. Thus, intrahippocampal injection of LEC attenuated microglial proliferation by ~40%, but did not alter neuronal death. This suggests that microglia may not play a pivotal role in mediating neuronal death in prolonged hypothermic CA. This novel strategy provides us with a tool to study the specific effects of microglia in hypothermic CA. PMID:21970817

  4. Role of methotrexate exposure in apoptosis and proliferation during early neurulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuwei; Wang, Jianhua; Guan, Tao; Xiang, Qian; Wang, Mingsheng; Guan, Zhen; Li, Guannan; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qiu; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Apoptosis and proliferation play important roles in embryonic development and are required for neural tube closure. The antifolate drug methotrexate (MTX) induces folate dysmetabolism by inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase and causes abnormal apoptosis and proliferation. In this study, we established an animal model of neural tube defects (NTDs) using MTX to investigate the role of apoptosis and proliferation in NTDs caused by folate deficiency. Differential gene expressions were studied by microarray and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in the NTD animal model. Results showed that 30.8% of NTDs were caused by using MTX in treatment regimens. Microarray indicated that 166 genes were significantly different between the control and NTD mice, including four apoptosis-related genes (Endog, Trp53, Casp3, Bax) and three proliferation-related genes (Ptch1, Pla2g4a, Foxg1). Levels of Endog, Trp53, Casp3, Bax (fold change>1.5) were upregulated but Ptch1, Pla2g4a, Foxg1 (fold change<0.67) were downregulated (P<0.05). These results were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. TUNEL, immunohistochemical assays and Western blot were further used to detect apoptosis and proliferation in the NTD animal model. It was found that apoptosis in neuroepithelial cells was increased as determined by TUNEL (P<0.05). Expressions of caspase-3 were significantly enhanced (P<0.05) but expressions of phosphohistone H3 were greatly decreased (P<0.05). These results concluded that MTX caused a folate and folate-associated dysmetabolism, and further induced abnormal apoptosis and proliferation, which may play a critical role in the occurrence of NTDs caused by folate deficiency. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Proteomics Identification of Potential Candidates Involved in Cell Proliferation for Early Stage of Brain Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fei Tieng; Ogawa, Satoshi; Smith, A Ian; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of the non-mammalian vertebrates has better neuroregenerative capability as compared with the mammalian CNS. Regeneration of habenula was observed 40 days after damage in zebrafish. During the early stage of regeneration, we found a significant increase of apoptotic cells on day-1 post-damage and of proliferative cells on day-3 post-damage. To identify the molecular factor(s) involved in the early stages of neuroregeneration, differentially expressed proteins during sham, 20- and 40-h post-habenula damage were investigated by proteomic approach by using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight (MALDI-ToF) and tandem mass spectrometry. Protein profiles revealed 17 differentially (>1.5-fold) expressed proteins: 10 upregulated, 4 downregulated, 2 proteins were found to be downregulated at the early stage but upregulated at a later stage, and 1 protein was found to be upregulated at 2 different time points. All proteins identified can be summarized under few molecular processes involved in the early stages of neuroregeneration in zebrafish CNS: apoptosis regulation (Wnt inhibitory factor 1 [WIF1]), neuroprotection (metallothionein), cell proliferation (Spred2, ependymin, Lhx1, and Wnts), differentiation (Spred2, Lhx9, and Wnts), and morphogenesis (cytoplasmic actins and draculin). These protein profiling results suggest that drastic molecular changes occur in the neuroregenerative process during this period, which includes cell proliferation, differentiation, and protection.

  6. Microglial activation is a pharmacologically specific marker for the neurotoxic amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Dowgiert, Jennifer; Geddes, Timothy J; Francescutti-Verbeem, Dina; Liu, Xiuli; Kuhn, Donald M

    2004-09-09

    Neurotoxic amphetamines cause damage to monoamine nerve terminals of the striatum by unknown mechanisms. Microglial activation contributes to the neuronal damage that accompanies injury, disease, and inflammation, but a role for these cells in amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has received little attention. We show presently that D-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), D-amphetamine, and p-chloroamphetamine, each of which has been linked to dopamine (DA) or serotonin nerve terminal damage, result in microglial activation in the striatum. The non-neurotoxic amphetamines l-methamphetamine, fenfluramine, and DOI do not have this effect. All drugs that cause microglial activation also increase expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). At a minimum, microglial activation serves as a pharmacologically specific marker for striatal nerve terminal damage resulting only from those amphetamines that exert neurotoxicity. Because microglia are known to produce many of the reactive species (e.g., nitric oxide, superoxide, cytokines) that mediate the neurotoxicity of the amphetamine-class of drugs, their activation could represent an early and essential event in the neurotoxic cascade associated with high-dose amphetamine intoxication.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF EARLY MOLECULAR EVENTS AFTER PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR EXPOSURE IN THE RODENT LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferators (PP) are a large class of structurally diverse chemicals that mediate their effects in the liver mainly through the PP-activated receptor α(PPARα). Development of PP induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mouse liver is known to be dependent on PPARα but do...

  8. Pesticides, Microglial NOX2, and Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Taetzsch, Thomas; Block, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that pesticide exposure is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Several pesticides known to damage dopaminergic (DA) neurons, such as paraquat, rotenone, lindane, and dieldrin also demonstrate the ability to activate microglia, the resident innate immune cell in the brain. While each of these environmental toxicants may impact microglia through unique mechanisms, they all appear to converge on a common final pathway of microglial activation: NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation. This review will detail the role of microglia in selective DA neurotoxicity, highlight what is currently known about the mechanism of microglial NOX2 activation in these key pesticides, and describe the importance for DA neuron survival and PD etiology. PMID:23349115

  9. Regulation of microglial development: a novel role for thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Lima, F R; Gervais, A; Colin, C; Izembart, M; Neto, V M; Mallat, M

    2001-03-15

    The postnatal development of rat microglia is marked by an important increase in the number of microglial cells and the growth of their ramified processes. We studied the role of thyroid hormone in microglial development. The distribution and morphology of microglial cells stained with isolectin B4 or monoclonal antibody ED1 were analyzed in cortical and subcortical forebrain regions of developing rats rendered hypothyroid by prenatal and postnatal treatment with methyl-thiouracil. Microglial processes were markedly less abundant in hypothyroid pups than in age-matched normal animals, from postnatal day 4 up to the end of the third postnatal week of life. A delay in process extension and a decrease in the density of microglial cell bodies, as shown by cell counts in the developing cingulate cortex of normal and hypothyroid animals, were responsible for these differences. Conversely, neonatal rat hyperthyroidism, induced by daily injections of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), accelerated the extension of microglial processes and increased the density of cortical microglial cell bodies above physiological levels during the first postnatal week of life. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunological analyses indicated that cultured cortical ameboid microglial cells expressed the alpha1 and beta1 isoforms of nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. Consistent with the trophic and morphogenetic effects of thyroid hormone observed in situ, T3 favored the survival of cultured purified microglial cells and the growth of their processes. These results demonstrate that thyroid hormone promotes the growth and morphological differentiation of microglia during development.

  10. Microglial K+ Channel Expression in Young Adult and Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Tom; Eder, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The K+ channel expression pattern of microglia strongly depends on the cells' microenvironment and has been recognized as a sensitive marker of the cells' functional state. While numerous studies have been performed on microglia in vitro, our knowledge about microglial K+ channels and their regulation in vivo is limited. Here, we have investigated K+ currents of microglia in striatum, neocortex and entorhinal cortex of young adult and aged mice. Although almost all microglial cells exhibited inward rectifier K+ currents upon membrane hyperpolarization, their mean current density was significantly enhanced in aged mice compared with that determined in young adult mice. Some microglial cells additionally exhibited outward rectifier K+ currents in response to depolarizing voltage pulses. In aged mice, microglial outward rectifier K+ current density was significantly larger than in young adult mice due to the increased number of aged microglial cells expressing these channels. Aged dystrophic microglia exhibited outward rectifier K+ currents more frequently than aged ramified microglia. The majority of microglial cells expressed functional BK-type, but not IK- or SK-type, Ca2+-activated K+ channels, while no differences were found in their expression levels between microglia of young adult and aged mice. Neither microglial K+ channel pattern nor K+ channel expression levels differed markedly between the three brain regions investigated. It is concluded that age-related changes in microglial phenotype are accompanied by changes in the expression of microglial voltage-activated, but not Ca2+-activated, K+ channels. PMID:25472417

  11. Interleukin 22 early affects keratinocyte differentiation, but not proliferation, in a three-dimensional model of normal human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Donetti, Elena, E-mail: elena.donetti@unimi.it; Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine driving the progression of the psoriatic lesion with other cytokines, as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-17. Our study was aimed at evaluating the early effect of IL-22 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha and IL-17 by immunofluorescence on i) keratinocyte (KC) proliferation, ii) terminal differentiation biomarkers as keratin (K) 10 and 17 expression, iii) intercellular junctions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed. A model of human skin culture reproducing a psoriatic microenvironment was used. Plastic surgery explants were obtained from healthy young women (n=7) after informed consent. Fragments were divided before addingmore » IL-22 or a combination of the three cytokines, and harvested 24 (T24), 48 (T48), and 72 (T72) h later. From T24, in IL-22 samples we detected a progressive decrease in K10 immunostaining in the spinous layer paralleled by K17 induction. By TEM, after IL-22 incubation, keratin aggregates were evident in the perinuclear area. Occludin immunostaining was not homogeneously distributed. Conversely, KC proliferation was not inhibited by IL-22 alone, but only by the combination of cytokines. Our results suggest that IL-22 affects keratinocyte terminal differentiation, whereas, in order to induce a proliferation impairment, a more complex psoriatic-like microenvironment is needed.« less

  12. Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Microglial Polarization: Implications for Aging and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L.; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Lanciego, Jose L.; Guerra, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia can transform into proinflammatory/classically activated (M1) or anti-inflammatory/alternatively activated (M2) phenotypes following environmental signals related to physiological conditions or brain lesions. An adequate transition from the M1 (proinflammatory) to M2 (immunoregulatory) phenotype is necessary to counteract brain damage. Several factors involved in microglial polarization have already been identified. However, the effects of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on microglial polarization are less known. It is well known that there is a “classical” circulating RAS; however, a second RAS (local or tissue RAS) has been observed in many tissues, including brain. The locally formed angiotensin is involved in local pathological changes of these tissues and modulates immune cells, which are equipped with all the components of the RAS. There are also recent data showing that brain RAS plays a major role in microglial polarization. Level of microglial NADPH-oxidase (Nox) activation is a major regulator of the shift between M1/proinflammatory and M2/immunoregulatory microglial phenotypes so that Nox activation promotes the proinflammatory and inhibits the immunoregulatory phenotype. Angiotensin II (Ang II), via its type 1 receptor (AT1), is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, leading to pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects. However, these effects are counteracted by a RAS opposite arm constituted by Angiotensin II/AT2 receptor signaling and Angiotensin 1–7/Mas receptor (MasR) signaling. In addition, activation of prorenin-renin receptors may contribute to activation of the proinflammatory phenotype. Aged brains showed upregulation of AT1 and downregulation of AT2 receptor expression, which may contribute to a pro-oxidative pro-inflammatory state and the increase in neuron vulnerability. Several recent studies have shown interactions between the brain RAS and different factors involved in microglial polarization, such as

  13. Modulation of Microglial Activity by Rho-Kinase (ROCK) Inhibition as Therapeutic Strategy in Parkinson's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roser, Anna-Elisa; Tönges, Lars; Lingor, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive degeneration of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS), resulting in a reduced innervation of target structures and a loss of function. A shared characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases is the infiltration of microglial cells into affected brain regions. During early disease stages microglial cells often display a rather neuroprotective phenotype, but switch to a more pro-inflammatory neurotoxic phenotype in later stages of the disease, contributing to the neurodegeneration. Activation of the Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway appears to be instrumental for the modulation of the microglial phenotype: increased ROCK activity in microglia mediates mechanisms of the inflammatory response and is associated with improved motility, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of inflammatory cytokines. Recently, several studies suggested inhibition of ROCK signaling as a promising treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review article, we discuss the contribution of microglial activity and phenotype switch to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), two devastating neurodegenerative diseases without disease-modifying treatment options. Furthermore, we describe how ROCK inhibition can influence the microglial phenotype in disease models and explore ROCK inhibition as a future treatment option for PD and ALS.

  14. Macroglia-Microglia Interactions via TSPO Signaling Regulates Microglial Activation in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minhua; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Lian; Ma, Wenxin; Rodriguez, Ignacio R.; Fariss, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic retinal inflammation in the form of activated microglia and macrophages are implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases of the retina, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. However, molecular biomarkers and targeted therapies for immune cell activation in these disorders are currently lacking. To address this, we investigated the involvement and role of translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker of microglial and astrocyte gliosis in brain degeneration, in the context of retinal inflammation. Here, we find that TSPO is acutely and specifically upregulated in retinal microglia in separate mouse models of retinal inflammation and injury. Concomitantly, its endogenous ligand, diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI), is upregulated in the macroglia of the mouse retina such as astrocytes and Müller cells. In addition, we discover that TSPO-mediated signaling in microglia via DBI-derived ligands negatively regulates features of microglial activation, including reactive oxygen species production, TNF-α expression and secretion, and microglial proliferation. The inducibility and effects of DBI-TSPO signaling in the retina reveal a mechanism of coordinated macroglia-microglia interactions, the function of which is to limit the magnitude of inflammatory responses after their initiation, facilitating a return to baseline quiescence. Our results indicate that TSPO is a promising molecular marker for imaging inflammatory cell activation in the retina and highlight DBI-TSPO signaling as a potential target for immodulatory therapies. PMID:24599476

  15. Coronary endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle proliferation are programmed by early-gestation dexamethasone exposure in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Roghair, Robert D.; Jung, Felicia; Scholz, Thomas D.; Lamb, Fred S.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of the early-gestation ovine fetus to exogenous glucocorticoids induces changes in postnatal cardiovascular physiology. We sought to characterize coronary artery vascular function in this model by elucidating the contribution of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to altered coronary vascular reactivity and examining the proliferative potential of coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone (dex, 0.28 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 48 h) was administered to pregnant ewes at 27–28-day gestation (term 145 days). Coronary arteries were isolated from 1- to 2-wk-old dex-exposed offspring and aged-matched controls. Compared with controls, coronary arteries from dex-exposed lambs demonstrated enhanced vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 and ACh that was abolished by endothelial removal or preincubation with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NNA, membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase + catalase, or apamin + charybdotoxin, but not indomethacin. The rate of coronary vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation was also significantly greater in dex-exposed lambs. Protein levels of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen were increased and α-smooth muscle actin decreased in dex-exposed coronary VSMC, consistent with a proliferative state. Finally, expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox 4, but not Nox 1, mRNA was also decreased in coronary VSMC from dex-exposed lambs. These findings suggest an important interaction exists between early-gestation glucocorticoid exposure and reactive oxygen species that is associated with alterations in endothelial function and coronary VSMC proliferation. These changes in coronary physiology are consistent with those associated with the development of atherosclerosis and may provide an important link between an adverse intrauterine environment and increased risk for coronary artery disease. PMID:20335378

  16. Trimethyltin-Induced Microglial Activation via NADPH Oxidase and MAPKs Pathway in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Jung; Kim, Yong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is known as a potent neurotoxicant that causes neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation, particularly in the hippocampus. Microglial activation is one of the prominent pathological features of TMT neurotoxicity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how microglial activation occurs in TMT intoxication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the signaling pathways in TMT-induced microglial activation using BV-2 murine microglial cells. Our results revealed that TMT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the expression of CD11b and nuclear factor-κB- (NF-κB-) mediated nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α in BV-2 cells. We also observed that NF-κB activation was controlled by p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, TMT-induced ROS generation occurred via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in BV-2 cells. Interestingly, treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin significantly suppressed p38 and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation and ultimately the production of proinflammatory mediators upon TMT exposure. These findings indicate that NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation activated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which then stimulated NF-κB to release proinflammatory mediators in the TMT-treated BV-2 cells.

  17. Trimethyltin-Induced Microglial Activation via NADPH Oxidase and MAPKs Pathway in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da Jung; Kim, Yong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is known as a potent neurotoxicant that causes neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation, particularly in the hippocampus. Microglial activation is one of the prominent pathological features of TMT neurotoxicity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how microglial activation occurs in TMT intoxication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the signaling pathways in TMT-induced microglial activation using BV-2 murine microglial cells. Our results revealed that TMT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the expression of CD11b and nuclear factor-κB- (NF-κB-) mediated nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α in BV-2 cells. We also observed that NF-κB activation was controlled by p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, TMT-induced ROS generation occurred via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in BV-2 cells. Interestingly, treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin significantly suppressed p38 and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation and ultimately the production of proinflammatory mediators upon TMT exposure. These findings indicate that NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation activated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which then stimulated NF-κB to release proinflammatory mediators in the TMT-treated BV-2 cells. PMID:26221064

  18. High Proliferation Predicts Pathological Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lluch, Ana; Ribelles, Nuria; Anton-Torres, Antonio; Sanchez-Rovira, Pedro; Albanell, Joan; Calvo, Lourdes; García-Asenjo, Jose Antonio Lopez; Palacios, Jose; Chacon, Jose Ignacio; Ruiz, Amparo; De la Haba-Rodriguez, Juan; Segui-Palmer, Miguel A.; Cirauqui, Beatriz; Margeli, Mireia; Plazaola, Arrate; Barnadas, Agusti; Casas, Maribel; Caballero, Rosalia; Carrasco, Eva; Rojo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the neoadjuvant setting, changes in the proliferation marker Ki67 are associated with primary endocrine treatment efficacy, but its value as a predictor of response to chemotherapy is still controversial. Patients and Methods. We analyzed 262 patients with centralized basal Ki67 immunohistochemical evaluation derived from 4 GEICAM (Spanish Breast Cancer Group) clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. The objective was to identify the optimal threshold for Ki67 using the receiver-operating characteristic curve method to maximize its predictive value for chemotherapy benefit. We also evaluated the predictive role of the defined Ki67 cutoffs for molecular subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Results. A basal Ki67 cutpoint of 50% predicted pathological complete response (pCR). Patients with Ki67 >50% achieved a pCR rate of 40% (36 of 91) versus a pCR rate of 19% in patients with Ki67 ≤50% (33 of 171) (p = .0004). Ki67 predictive value was especially relevant in ER-HER2− and ER-HER2+ patients (pCR rates of 42% and 64%, respectively, in patients with Ki67 >50% versus 15% and 45%, respectively, in patients with Ki67 ≤50%; p = .0337 and .3238, respectively). Both multivariate analyses confirmed the independent predictive value of the Ki67 cutpoint of 50%. Conclusion. Basal Ki67 proliferation index >50% should be considered an independent predictive factor for pCR reached after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, suggesting that cell proliferation is a phenomenon closely related to chemosensitivity. These findings could help to identify a group of patients with a potentially favorable long-term prognosis. Implications for Practice: The use of basal Ki67 status as a predictive factor of chemotherapy benefit could facilitate the identification of a patient subpopulation with high probability of achieving pathological complete response when treated with primary chemotherapy, and thus

  19. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki, E-mail: yasukiishizaki@gunma-u.ac.jp

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytesmore » and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.« less

  20. Role of early growth response 1 in arteriogenesis: impact on vascular cell proliferation and leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Judith-Irina; Ziegelhoeffer, Tibor; Heil, Matthias; Fischer, Silvia; Fernández, Borja; Schaper, Wolfgang; Preissner, Klaus T; Deindl, Elisabeth

    2012-03-01

    Based on previous findings that early growth response 1 (Egr-1) participates in leukocyte recruitment and cell proliferation in vitro, this study was designed to investigate its mode of action during arteriogenesis in vivo. In a model of peripheral arteriogenesis, Egr-1 was significantly upregulated in growing collaterals of wild-type (WT) mice, both on mRNA and protein level. Egr-1(-/-) mice demonstrated delayed arteriogenesis after femoral artery ligation. They further showed increased levels of monocytes and granulocytes in the circulation, but reduced levels in adductor muscles under baseline conditions. After femoral artery ligation, elevated numbers of macrophages were detected in the perivascular zone of collaterals in Egr-1(-/-) mice and mRNA of leukocyte recruitment mediators was upregulated. Other Egr family members (Egr-2 to -4) were significantly upregulated only in Egr-1(-/-) mice, suggesting a mechanism of counterbalancing Egr-1 deficiency. Moreover, splicing factor-1, downregulated in WT mice after femoral artery ligation in the process of increased vascular cell proliferation, was upregulated in Egr-1(-/-) mice. αSM-actin on the other hand, significantly downregulated in WT mice, showed no differential expression in Egr-1(-/-) mice. While cell cycle regulator cyclin E and cdc20 were upregulated in Egr-1(-/-) mice, cyclin D1 expression decreased below the detection limit in collaterals, and the proliferation marker ki67 was not differentially expressed. In conclusion, compensation for deficiency in Egr-1 function in leukocyte recruitment can presumably be mediated by other transcription factors; however, Egr-1 is indispensable for effective vascular cell cycle progression in arteriogenesis.

  1. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Guo, Wenjie; Li, Wenjuan; Cheng, Meng; Hu, Ying; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation. PMID:27872858

  2. Downregulation of KLF6 is an early event in hepatocarcinogenesis, and stimulates proliferation while reducing differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kremer-Tal, Sigal; Narla, Goutham; Chen, Yingbei; Hod, Eldad; DiFeo, Analisa; Yea, Steven; Lee, Ju-Seog; Schwartz, Myron; Thung, Swan N.; Fiel, Isabel M.; Banck, Michaela; Zimran, Eran; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Bruix, Jordi; Martignetti, John A.; Llovet, Josep M.; Friedman, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has the most rapidly rising cancer incidence in the US and Europe. The KLF6 tumor suppressor is frequently inactivated in HCC by loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) and/or mutation. Methods Here we have analyzed 33 HBV- and 40 HCV-related HCCs for mRNA expression of wildtype KLF6 (wtKLF6) as well as the KLF6 variant 1 (SV1), a truncated, growth-promoting variant that antagonizes wtKLF6 function. The HCV-related tumors analyzed represented the full histologic spectrum from cirrhosis and dysplasia to metastatic cancer. Results Expression of KLF6 mRNA is decreased in 73% of HBV-associated HCCs compared to matched surrounding tissue (ST), with reductions of ~80% in one-third of the patients. KLF6 mRNA expression is also reduced in dysplastic nodules from patients with HCV compared to cirrhotic livers (p < 0.005), with an additional, marked decrease in the very advanced, metastatic stage (p < 0.05). An increased ratio of KLF6SV1/wt KLF6 is present in a subset (6/33, 18%) of the HBV-related HCCs compared to matched ST. Reconstituting KLF6 in HepG2 cells by retroviral infection decreased proliferation and related markers including cyclin D1 and beta-catenin, increased cellular differentiation based on induction of albumin, E-cadherin, and decreased alpha fetoprotein. Conclusions We conclude that reduced KLF6 expression is common in both HBV- and HCV-related HCCs and occurs at critical stages during cancer progression. Effects of KLF6 are attributable to regulation of genes controlling hepatocyte growth and differentiation. PMID:17196295

  3. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2017-08-17

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200 Danish infants (N = 290 enrolled; N = 201 all samples analyzed), as assessed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Further, we evaluated probiotic presence and proliferation by use of specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Probiotic administration did not significantly alter gut microbiota community structure or diversity as compared to placebo. The probiotic strains were detected in 91.3% of the fecal samples from children receiving probiotics and in 1% of the placebo treated children. Baseline gut microbiota was not found to predict the ability of probiotics to establish in the gut after the 6 month intervention. Within the probiotics group, proliferation of the strains LGG® and BB-12® in the gut was detected in 44.7% and 83.5% of the participants, respectively. A sub-analysis of the gut microbiota including only individuals with detected growth of the probiotics LGG® or BB-12® and comparing these to placebo revealed no differences in community structure or diversity. Six months of probiotic administration during early life did not change gut

  4. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of apoptosis induced by 15-methoxypinusolidic acid in microglial BV2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y; Lim, SY; Jeong, HS; Koo, KA; Sung, SH; Kim, YC

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: We conducted a genome wide gene expression analysis to explore the biological aspects of 15-methoxypinusolidic acid (15-MPA) isolated from Biota orientalis and tried to confirm the suitability of 15-MPA as a therapeutic candidate for CNS injuries focusing on microglia. Experimental approach: Murine microglial BV2 cells were treated with 15-MPA, and their transcriptome was analysed by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes differentially expressed upon 15-MPA treatment were selected for RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis to confirm the gene expression. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by 15-MPA were examined by bromodeoxyuridine assay, Western blot analysis of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and flow cytometry. Key results: A total of 514 genes were differentially expressed by 15-MPA treatment. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 15-MPA induced significant changes in expression of genes in the cell cycle pathway. Genes involved in growth arrest and DNA damage [gadd45α, gadd45γ and ddit3 (DNA damage-inducible transcript 3)] and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (cdkn2b) were up-regulated, whereas genes involved in cell cycle progression (ccnd1, ccnd3 and ccne1), DNA replication (mcm4, orc1l and cdc6) and cell proliferation (fos and jun) were down-regulated. RT-PCR analysis for representative genes confirmed the expression levels. 15-MPA significantly reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, increased poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and the number of apoptotic cells, indicating that 15-MPA induces apoptosis in BV2 cells. Conclusion and implications: 15-MPA induced apoptosis in murine microglial cells, presumably via inhibition of the cell cycle progression. As microglial activation is detrimental in CNS injuries, these data suggest a strong therapeutic potential of 15-MPA. PMID:19466985

  5. Changes in neocortical and hippocampal microglial cells during hibernation.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; Regalado-Reyes, Mamen; DeFelipe, Javier; Muñoz, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Mammalian hibernation proceeds alongside a wide range of complex brain adaptive changes that appear to protect the brain from extreme hypoxia and hypothermia. Using immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, quantitative analysis methods and intracellular injections, we have characterized microglia morphological changes that occur in the neocortex and hippocampus of the Syrian hamster during hibernation. In euthermic hamsters, microglial cells showed the typical ramified/resting morphology with multiple long, thin and highly-branched processes homogeneously immunostained for Iba-1. However, during torpor, microglial cell process numbers increase significantly accompanied by a shortening of the Iba-1 immunoreactive processes, which show a fragmented appearance. Adaptative changes of microglial cells during torpor coursed with no expression of microglial cell activation markers. We discuss the possibility that these morphological changes may contribute to neuronal damage prevention during hibernation.

  6. The Role of Microglial Subsets in Regulating Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    CCR)2. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 192: 1075–1080. 9 Mahad, D. J. and Ransohoff, R. M., The role of MCP-1 (CCL2) and CCR2 in multiple sclerosis and...at multiple timepoints in vivo and establish the function of these microglial subtypes ex vivo. 2. Skew the microglial response to TBI towards... multiple aspects, most notably in their chemokine repertoires. Thus, the macrophage response to TBI ini- tially involves heterogeneous polarization

  7. TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology.

    PubMed

    Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Través, Paqui G; Tufail, Yusuf; Leal-Bailey, Humberto; Lew, Erin D; Burrola, Patrick G; Callaway, Perri; Zagórska, Anna; Rothlin, Carla V; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Lemke, Greg

    2016-04-14

    Microglia are damage sensors for the central nervous system (CNS), and the phagocytes responsible for routine non-inflammatory clearance of dead brain cells. Here we show that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Mer and Axl regulate these microglial functions. We find that adult mice deficient in microglial Mer and Axl exhibit a marked accumulation of apoptotic cells specifically in neurogenic regions of the CNS, and that microglial phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells generated during adult neurogenesis is normally driven by both TAM receptor ligands Gas6 and protein S. Using live two-photon imaging, we demonstrate that the microglial response to brain damage is also TAM-regulated, as TAM-deficient microglia display reduced process motility and delayed convergence to sites of injury. Finally, we show that microglial expression of Axl is prominently upregulated in the inflammatory environment that develops in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Together, these results establish TAM receptors as both controllers of microglial physiology and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in CNS disease.

  8. Non-Eosinophilic Nasal Polyps Shows Increased Epithelial Proliferation and Localized Disease Pattern in the Early Stage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Jin, Hong Ryul; Eun, Kyoung Mi; Mutusamy, Somasundran; Cho, Seong H; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Dae Woo

    2015-01-01

    Non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs) show less inflammatory changes and are less commonly associated with lower airway inflammatory disorders such as asthma, compared with eosinophilic NPs. However, the development of non-eosinophilic NPs which is a predominant subtype in Asian population still remains unclear. A total of 81 patients (45 with non-eosinophilic NPs and 36 with eosinophilic NPs) were enrolled. Clinical information and computed tomography (CT), endoscopic, and histological findings were investigated. Tissue samples were analyzed for total IgE levels and for mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23p19, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and periostin. Immunostaining assessment of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker was performed. We found that epithelial in-growing patterns such as pseudocysts were more frequently observed in histological and endoscopic evaluations of non-eosinophilic NPs, which was linked to increase epithelial staining of Ki-67, a proliferating marker. Eosinophilic NPs were characterized by high infiltration of inflammatory cells, compared with non-eosinophilic NPs. To investigate the developmental course of each subtype, CT was analyzed according to CT scores and subtypes. Non-eosinophilic NPs showed more localized pattern and maxillary sinus involvement, but lesser olfactory involvement in early stage whereas eosinophilic NPs were characterized by diffuse ethmoidal and olfactory involvement. In addition, high ethmoidal/maxillary (E/M) CT scores, indicating ethmoidal dominant involvement, were one of surrogate markers for eosinophilic NP. E/M CT scores was positively correlated with levels of TH2 inflammatory markers, including IL-4, IL-5, periostin mRNA expression and total IgE levels in NPs, whereas levels of the TH1 cytokine, IFN- γ were inversely correlated. Moreover, if the combinatorial algorithm meet the three of the

  9. 4-Hydroxy TEMPO attenuates dichlorvos induced microglial activation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sunkaria, Aditya; Sharma, Deep Raj; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2014-02-19

    Microglial cells have been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies from our lab have shown that dichlorvos (an organophosphate) could induce Parkinson's like features in rats. Recently, we have shown that dichlorvos can induce microglial activation, and if not checked in time could ultimately induce neuronal apoptosis. However, this activation does not always pose a threat to the neurons. Activated microglia also secrete various neuronal growth factors, suggesting that they have beneficial roles in CNS repair. Therefore, it is essential to control their detrimental functions selectively. Here, we tried to find out how microglial cells behave when exposed to dichlorvos in either the presence or absence of potent nitric oxide scavenger and superoxide dismutase mimetic, 4-hydroxy TEMPO (4-HT). Wistar rat pups (1 day) were used to isolate and culture primary microglial cells. We found 4-HT pretreatment successfully attenuated the dichlorvos mediated microglial activation. Moreover, 4-HT pretreatment decreased the up-regulated levels of p53 and its downstream effector, p21. The expression of various cell cycle regulators such as Chk2, CDC25a, and cyclin A remained close to their basal levels when 4-HT pretreatment was given. DNA fragmentation analysis showed significant reduction in the DNA damage of 4-HT pretreated microglia as compared to dichlorvos treated cells. In addition to this, we found 4-HT pretreatment prevented the microglial cells from undergoing apoptotic cell death even after 48 h of dichlorvos exposure. Taken together, our results showed 4-HT pretreatment could successfully ameliorate the dichlorvos induced microglial cell damage.

  10. Organization of hyperactive microglial cells in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord associated with orofacial neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Shibuta, Kazuo; Suzuki, Ikuko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Kuniya; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-04-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate spatial organization of hyperactive microglial cells in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and upper cervical spinal cord (C1), and to clarify the involvement in mechanisms underlying orofacial secondary hyperalgesia following infraorbital nerve injury. We found that the head-withdrawal threshold to non-noxious mechanical stimulation of the maxillary whisker pad skin was significantly reduced in chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (ION-CCI) rats from day 1 to day 14 after ION-CCI. On day 3 after ION-CCI, mechanical allodynia was obvious in the orofacial skin areas innervated by the 1st and 3rd branches of the trigeminal nerve as well as the 2nd branch area. Hyperactive microglial cells in Vc and C1 were observed on days 3 and 7 after ION-CCI. On day 3 after ION-CCI, a large number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)-immunoreactive (IR) cells were observed in Vc and C1. Many hyperactive microglial cells were also distributed over a wide area of Vc and C1 innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The intraperitoneal administration of minocycline significantly reduced the activation of microglial cells and the number of pERK-IR cells in Vc and C1, and also significantly attenuated the development of mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, enhanced background activity and mechanical evoked responses of Vc wide dynamic range neurons in ION-CCI rats were significantly reversed following minocycline administration. These findings suggest that activation of microglial cells over a wide area of Vc and C1 is involved in the enhancement of Vc and C1 neuronal excitability in the early period after ION-CCI, resulting in the neuropathic pain in orofacial areas innervated by the injured as well as uninjured nerves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The microglial fractalkine receptor is not required for activity-dependent plasticity in the mouse visual system.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Rebecca L; Tremblay, Marie-Eve; Hopkins, Brittany E; Majewska, Ania K

    2017-11-01

    Microglia have recently been implicated as key regulators of activity-dependent plasticity, where they contribute to the removal of inappropriate or excess synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate this microglial function are still not well understood. Although multiple studies have implicated fractalkine signaling as a mediator of microglia-neuron communications during synaptic plasticity, it is unclear whether this is a universal signaling mechanism or whether its role is limited to specific brain regions and stages of the lifespan. Here, we examined whether fractalkine signaling mediates microglial contributions to activity-dependent plasticity in the developing and adolescent visual system. Using genetic ablation of fractalkine's cognate receptor, CX 3 CR1, and both ex vivo characterization and in vivo imaging in mice, we examined whether fractalkine signaling is required for microglial dynamics and modulation of synapses, as well as activity-dependent plasticity in the visual system. We did not find a role for fractalkine signaling in mediating microglial properties during visual plasticity. Ablation of CX 3 CR1 had no effect on microglial density, distribution, morphology, or motility, in either adolescent or young adult mice across brain regions that include the visual cortex. Ablation of CX 3 CR1 also had no effect on baseline synaptic turnover or contact dynamics between microglia and neurons. Finally, we found that fractalkine signaling is not required for either early or late forms of activity-dependent visual system plasticity. These findings suggest that fractalkine is not a universal regulator of synaptic plasticity, but rather has heterogeneous roles in specific brain regions and life stages. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neonatal Subventricular Zone Neural Stem Cells Release Extracellular Vesicles that Act as a Microglial Morphogen.

    PubMed

    Morton, Mary C; Neckles, Victoria N; Seluzicki, Caitlin M; Holmberg, Jennie C; Feliciano, David M

    2018-04-03

    Subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells (NSCs) are the cornerstone of the perinatal neurogenic niche. Microglia are immune cells of the nervous system that are enriched in the neonatal SVZ. Although microglia regulate NSCs, the extent to which this interaction is bi-directional is unclear. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived particles that encase miRNA and proteins. Here, we demonstrate that SVZ NSCs generate and release EVs. Neonatal electroporated fluorescent EV fusion proteins were released by NSCs and subsequently cleared from the SVZ. EVs were preferentially targeted to microglia. Small RNA sequencing identified miRNAs within the EVs that regulate microglia physiology and morphology. EVs induced a transition to a CD11b/Iba1 non-stellate microglial morphology. The transition accompanied a microglial transcriptional state characterized by Let-7-regulated cytokine release and a negative feedback loop that controlled NSC proliferation. These findings implicate an NSC-EV-microglia axis and provide insight to normal and pathophysiological brain development. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Celecoxib Inhibits Prion Protein 90-231-Mediated Pro-inflammatory Responses in Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Villa, Valentina; Thellung, Stefano; Corsaro, Alessandro; Novelli, Federica; Tasso, Bruno; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Gatta, Elena; Tonelli, Michele; Florio, Tullio

    2016-01-01

    Activation of microglia is a central event in the atypical inflammatory response occurring during prion encephalopathies. We report that the prion protein fragment encompassing amino acids 90-231 (PrP90-231), a model of the neurotoxic activity of the pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc)), causes activation of both primary microglia cultures and N9 microglial cells in vitro. This effect was characterized by cell proliferation arrest and induction of a secretory phenotype, releasing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). Conditioned medium from PrP90-231-treated microglia induced in vitro cytotoxicity of A1 mesencephalic neurons, supporting the notion that soluble mediators released by activated microglia contributes to the neurodegeneration during prion diseases. The neuroinflammatory role of COX activity, and its potential targeting for anti-prion therapies, was tested measuring the effects of ketoprofen and celecoxib (preferential inhibitors of COX1 and COX2, respectively) on PrP90-231-induced microglial activation. Celecoxib, but not ketoprofen significantly reverted the growth arrest as well as NO and PGE2 secretion induced by PrP90-231, indicating that PrP90-231 pro-inflammatory response in microglia is mainly dependent on COX2 activation. Taken together, these data outline the importance of microglia in the neurotoxicity occurring during prion diseases and highlight the potentiality of COX2-selective inhibitors to revert microglia as adjunctive pharmacological approach to contrast the neuroinflammation-dependent neurotoxicity.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Whasun; Bae, Hyocheol; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2017-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family binds to two transmembrane receptors; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (NTRK2) with high affinity and p75 with low affinity. Although BDNF-NTRK2 signaling in the central nervous system is known, signaling in the female reproductive system is unknown. Therefore, we determined effects of BDNF on porcine endometrial luminal epithelial (pLE) cells isolated from Day 12 of pregnancy, as well as expression of BDNF and NTRK2 in endometria of cyclic and pregnant pigs. BDNF-NTRK2 genes were expressed in uterine glandular (GE) and luminal (LE) epithelia during early pregnancy. In addition, their expression in uterine GE and LE decreased with increasing parity of sows. Recombinant BDNF increased proliferation in pLE cells in a dose-dependent, as well as expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1 in nuclei of pLE cells. BDNF also activated phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2, JNK, P38 proteins in pLE cells. In addition, cell death resulting from tunicamycin-induced ER stress was prevented when pLE cells were treated with the combination of tunicamycin and BDNF which also decreased cells in the Sub-G 1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response genes were mostly down-regulated to the basal levels as compared to non-treated pLE cells. Our finding suggests that BDNF acts via NTRK2 to induce development of pLE cells for maintenance of implantation and pregnancy by activating cell signaling via the PI3K and MAPK pathways and by inhibiting ER stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Functional β-Adrenoceptors Are Important for Early Muscle Regeneration in Mice through Effects on Myoblast Proliferation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jarrod E.; Trieu, Jennifer; Sheorey, Radhika; Chee, Annabel Y. -M.; Naim, Timur; Baum, Dale M.; Ryall, James G.; Gregorevic, Paul; Lynch, Gordon S.

    2014-01-01

    Muscles can be injured in different ways and the trauma and subsequent loss of function and physical capacity can impact significantly on the lives of patients through physical impairments and compromised quality of life. The relative success of muscle repair after injury will largely determine the extent of functional recovery. Unfortunately, regenerative processes are often slow and incomplete, and so developing novel strategies to enhance muscle regeneration is important. While the capacity to enhance muscle repair by stimulating β2-adrenoceptors (β-ARs) using β2-AR agonists (β2-agonists) has been demonstrated previously, the exact role β-ARs play in regulating the regenerative process remains unclear. To investigate β-AR-mediated signaling in muscle regeneration after myotoxic damage, we examined the regenerative capacity of tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mice lacking either β1-AR (β1-KO) and/or β2-ARs (β2-KO), testing the hypothesis that muscles from mice lacking the β2-AR would exhibit impaired functional regeneration after damage compared with muscles from β1-KO or β1/β2-AR null (β1/β2-KO) KO mice. At 7 days post-injury, regenerating muscles from β1/β2-KO mice produced less force than those of controls but muscles from β1-KO or β2-KO mice did not exhibit any delay in functional restoration. Compared with controls, β1/β2-KO mice exhibited an enhanced inflammatory response to injury, which delayed early muscle regeneration, but an enhanced myoblast proliferation later during regeneration ensured a similar functional recovery (to controls) by 14 days post-injury. This apparent redundancy in the β-AR signaling pathway was unexpected and may have important implications for manipulating β-AR signaling to improve the rate, extent and efficacy of muscle regeneration to enhance functional recovery after injury. PMID:25000590

  16. Adjudin attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and ischemia-induced microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jiaxiang; Liu, Tengyuan; Xie, Qian Reuben; Zhang, Tingting; Yu, Hemei; Wang, Boshi; Ying, Weihai; Mruk, Dolores D.; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C. Yan; Xia, Weiliang

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation caused by microglial activation plays a key role in ischemia, neurodegeneration and many other CNS diseases. In this study, we found that Adjudin, a potential non-hormonal male contraceptive, exhibits additional function to reduce the production of proinflammatory mediators. Adjudin significantly inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 release and IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α expression in BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, Adjudin exhibited anti-inflammatory properties by suppression of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity as well as ERK MAPK phosphorylation. To determine the in vivo effect of Adjudin, we used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) mouse model and found that Adjudin could reduce ischemia-induced CD11b expression, a marker of microglial activation. Furthermore, Adjudin treatment attenuated brain edema and neurological deficits after ischemia but did not reduce infarct volume. Thus, our data suggest that Adjudin may be useful for mitigating neuroinflammation. PMID:23084372

  17. Redox Control of Microglial Function: Molecular Mechanisms and Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    McBean, Gethin; Cindric, Marina; Egea, Javier; López, Manuela G.; Rada, Patricia; Zarkovic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by chronic microglial over-activation and oxidative stress. It is now beginning to be recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by either microglia or the surrounding environment not only impact neurons but also modulate microglial activity. In this review, we first analyze the hallmarks of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes of microglia and their regulation by ROS. Then, we consider the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by NADPH oxidases and nitric oxide synthases and the new findings that also indicate an essential role of glutathione (γ-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine) in redox homeostasis of microglia. The effect of oxidant modification of macromolecules on signaling is analyzed at the level of oxidized lipid by-products and sulfhydryl modification of microglial proteins. Redox signaling has a profound impact on two transcription factors that modulate microglial fate, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, master regulators of the pro-inflammatory and antioxidant responses of microglia, respectively. The relevance of these proteins in the modulation of microglial activity and the interplay between them will be evaluated. Finally, the relevance of ROS in altering blood brain barrier permeability is discussed. Recent examples of the importance of these findings in the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases are also discussed. This review should provide a profound insight into the role of redox homeostasis in microglial activity and help in the identification of new promising targets to control neuroinflammation through redox control of the brain. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1766–1801. PMID:24597893

  18. Microglial Lectins in Health and Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Jian Jing; Chern, Yijuang

    2018-01-01

    . Most importantly, multiple studies have reported dysregulation of lectins in neurological disorders. Here, we reviewed recent studies on microglial lectins and their functions in CNS health and disease, and suggest that these lectin families are novel, potent therapeutic targets for neurological diseases. PMID:29867350

  19. Attenuation of p38-Mediated miR-1/133 Expression Facilitates Myoblast Proliferation during the Early Stage of Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Duo; Li, Xihua; Chen, Chuchu; Li, Yuyin; Zhao, Lei; Jing, Yanyan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Hongfeng; Chang, Yaning; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Jun; Ying, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Myoblast proliferation following myotrauma is regulated by multiple factors including growth factors, signal pathways, transcription factors, and miRNAs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the orchestration of these regulatory factors remain unclear. Here we show that p38 signaling is required for miR-1/133a clusters transcription and both p38 activity and miR-1/133 expression are attenuated during the early stage of muscle regeneration in various animal models. Additionally, we show that both miR-1 and miR-133 reduce Cyclin D1 expression and repress myoblast proliferation by inducing G1 phase arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-133 inhibits mitotic progression by targeting Sp1, which mediates Cyclin D1 transcription, while miR-1 suppresses G1/S phase transition by targeting Cyclin D1. Finally, we reveal that proproliferative FGF2, which is elevated during muscle regeneration, attenuates p38 signaling and miR-1/133 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that downregulation of p38-mediated miR-1/133 expression by FGF2 and subsequent upregulation of Sp1/Cyclin D1 contribute to the increased myoblast proliferation during the early stage of muscle regeneration. PMID:22911796

  20. Attenuation of p38-mediated miR-1/133 expression facilitates myoblast proliferation during the early stage of muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Duo; Li, Xihua; Chen, Chuchu; Li, Yuyin; Zhao, Lei; Jing, Yanyan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Hongfeng; Chang, Yaning; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Jun; Ying, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Myoblast proliferation following myotrauma is regulated by multiple factors including growth factors, signal pathways, transcription factors, and miRNAs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the orchestration of these regulatory factors remain unclear. Here we show that p38 signaling is required for miR-1/133a clusters transcription and both p38 activity and miR-1/133 expression are attenuated during the early stage of muscle regeneration in various animal models. Additionally, we show that both miR-1 and miR-133 reduce Cyclin D1 expression and repress myoblast proliferation by inducing G1 phase arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-133 inhibits mitotic progression by targeting Sp1, which mediates Cyclin D1 transcription, while miR-1 suppresses G1/S phase transition by targeting Cyclin D1. Finally, we reveal that proproliferative FGF2, which is elevated during muscle regeneration, attenuates p38 signaling and miR-1/133 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that downregulation of p38-mediated miR-1/133 expression by FGF2 and subsequent upregulation of Sp1/Cyclin D1 contribute to the increased myoblast proliferation during the early stage of muscle regeneration.

  1. Relationships between selective neuronal loss and microglial activation after ischaemic stroke in man.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rhiannon S; Simon Jones, P; Alawneh, Josef A; Hong, Young T; Fryer, Tim D; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2018-05-09

    Modern ischaemic stroke management involves intravenous thrombolysis followed by mechanical thrombectomy, which allows markedly higher rates of recanalization and penumbral salvage than thrombolysis alone. However, <50% of treated patients eventually enjoy independent life. It is therefore important to identify complementary therapeutic targets. In rodent models, the salvaged penumbra is consistently affected by selective neuronal loss, which may hinder recovery by interfering with plastic processes, as well as by microglial activation, which may exacerbate neuronal death. However, whether the salvaged penumbra in man is similarly affected is still unclear. Here we determined whether these two processes affect the non-infarcted penumbra in man and, if so, whether they are inter-related. We prospectively recruited patients with (i) acute middle-cerebral artery stroke; (ii) penumbra present on CT perfusion obtained <4.5 h of stroke onset; and (iii) early neurological recovery as a marker of penumbral salvage. PET with 11C-flumazenil and 11C-PK11195, as well as MRI to map the final infarct, were obtained at predefined follow-up times. The presence of selective neuronal loss and microglial activation was determined voxel-wise within the MRI normal-appearing ipsilateral non-infarcted zone and surviving penumbra masks, and their inter-relationship was assessed both across and within patients. Dilated infarct contours were consistently excluded to control for partial volume effects. Across the 16 recruited patients, there was reduced 11C-flumazenil and increased 11C-PK11195 binding in the whole ipsilateral non-infarcted zone (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Within the non-infarcted penumbra, 11C-flumazenil was also reduced (P = 0.001), but without clear increase in 11C-PK11195 (P = 0.18). There was no significant correlation between 11C-flumazenil and 11C-PK11195 in either compartment. This mechanistic study provides direct evidence for the presence of both neuronal

  2. Pathological histone acetylation in Parkinson's disease: Neuroprotection and inhibition of microglial activation through SIRT 2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Smith, Andrew D; Dexter, David T

    2018-02-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons due to intracytoplasmic inclusions composed predominantly of a synaptic protein called α-synuclein. Accumulations of α-synuclein are thought to 'mask' acetylation sites on histone proteins, inhibiting the action of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes in their equilibrium with histone deacetylases (HDACs), thus deregulating the dynamic control of gene transcription. It is therefore hypothesised that the misbalance in the actions of HATs/HDACs in neurodegeneration can be rectified with the use of HDAC inhibitors, limiting the deregulation of transcription and aiding neuronal homeostasis and neuroprotection in disorders such as PD. Here we quantify histone acetylation in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in the brains of control, early and late stage PD cases to determine if histone acetylation is a function of disease progression. PD development is associated with Braak-dependent increases in histone acetylation. Concurrently, we show that as expected disease progression is associated with reduced markers of dopaminergic neurons and increased markers of activated microglia. We go on to demonstrate that in vitro, degenerating dopaminergic neurons exhibit histone hypoacetylation whereas activated microglia exhibit histone hyperacetylation. This suggests that the disease-dependent increase in histone acetylation observed in human PD cases is likely a combination of the contributions of both degenerating dopaminergic neurons and infiltrating activated microglia. The HDAC SIRT 2 has become increasingly implicated as a novel target for mediation of neuroprotection in PD: the neuronal and microglial specific effects of its inhibition however remain unclear. We demonstrate that SIRT 2 expression in the SNpc of PD brains remains relatively unchanged from controls and that SIRT 2 inhibition, via AGK2 treatment of neuronal and microglial cultures, results in neuroprotection of

  3. Microglial aging in the healthy CNS: phenotypes, drivers, and rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai T.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), share two characteristics in common: (1) a disease prevalence that increases markedly with advancing age, and (2) neuroinflammatory changes in which microglia, the primary resident immune cell of the CNS, feature prominently. These characteristics have led to the hypothesis that pathogenic mechanisms underlying age-related neurodegenerative disease involve aging changes in microglia. If correct, targeting features of microglial senescence may constitute a feasible therapeutic strategy. This review explores this hypothesis and its implications by considering the current knowledge on how microglia undergo change during aging and how the emergence of these aging phenotypes relate to significant alterations in microglial function. Evidence and theories on cellular mechanisms implicated in driving senescence in microglia are reviewed, as are “rejuvenative” measures and strategies that aim to reverse or ameliorate the aging microglial phenotype. Understanding and controlling microglial aging may represent an opportunity for elucidating disease mechanisms and for formulating novel therapies. PMID:23493481

  4. A Combination of Ontogeny and CNS Environment Establishes Microglial Identity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, F Chris; Bennett, Mariko L; Yaqoob, Fazeela; Mulinyawe, Sara B; Grant, Gerald A; Hayden Gephart, Melanie; Plowey, Edward D; Barres, Ben A

    2018-05-22

    Microglia, the brain's resident macrophages, are dynamic CNS custodians with surprising origins in the extra-embryonic yolk sac. The consequences of their distinct ontogeny are unknown but critical to understanding and treating brain diseases. We created a brain macrophage transplantation system to disentangle how environment and ontogeny specify microglial identity. We find that donor cells extensively engraft in the CNS of microglia-deficient mice, and even after exposure to a cell culture environment, microglia fully regain their identity when returned to the CNS. Though transplanted macrophages from multiple tissues can express microglial genes in the brain, only those of yolk-sac origin fully attain microglial identity. Transplanted macrophages of inappropriate origin, including primary human cells in a humanized host, express disease-associated genes and specific ontogeny markers. Through brain macrophage transplantation, we discover new principles of microglial identity that have broad applications to the study of disease and development of myeloid cell therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of Tau Pathology by the Microglial Fractalkine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Kiran; Konerth, Megan; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N.; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Aggregates of the hyperphosphorylated microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) are an invariant neuropathological feature of tauopathies. Here we show that microglial neuroinflammation promotes MAPT phosphorylation and aggregation. First, lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation promotes hyperphosphorylation of endogenous mouse MAPT in non-transgenic mice that is further enhanced in mice lacking the microglial-specific fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) and is dependent upon functional toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin 1 (IL1) receptors. Second, humanized MAPT transgenic mice lacking CX3CR1 exhibited enhanced MAPT phosphorylation and aggregation as well as behavioral impairments that correlated with increased levels of active p38 MAPK. Third, in vitro experiments demonstrate that microglial activation elevates the level of active p38 MAPK and enhances MAPT hyperphosphorylation within neurons that can be blocked by administration of an interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that CX3CR1 and IL1/p38 MAPK may serve as novel therapeutic targets for human tauopathies. PMID:20920788

  6. GM-CSF produced by non-hematopoietic cells is required for early epithelial cell proliferation and repair of injured colonic mucosa1,2

    PubMed Central

    Egea, Laia; McAllister, Christopher S.; Lakhdari, Omar; Minev, Ivelina; Shenouda, Steve; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, and dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn’s disease in humans and colitis in murine models has been considered mainly to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF deficient (GM-CSF−/−) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type (WT) mice resulted in marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF−/− mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Non-hematopoietic cells and not myeloid cells produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury as revealed by bone marrow chimera and DC depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell produced GM-CSF has a novel non-redundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium. PMID:23325885

  7. The effects of early hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat cerebellar cortex. III. Kinetics of cell proliferation in the external granular layer.

    PubMed

    Lauder, J M

    1977-04-22

    The effects of early hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the rates of cell acquisition and proliferation have been studied in the external granular layer (EGL) of the developing rat cerebellar cortex at 10 days of age using quantitative autoradiographic methods. Both altered thyroid states reduce the rate of cell acquisition in the EGL, but appear to do so for different reasons. Hyperthyroidism shortens the average length of the cell cycle by decreasing the duration of the pre-DNA synthetic phase (G1), indicating that excess thyroxine may exert a direct effect on the EGL. This action involves the early onset of neuronal differentiation (cessation of proliferation)46 which presumably leads to the observed decrease in the rate of cell acquisition (increased doubling time). Such differentiating cells do not, however, leave the proliferative zone or the EGL prematurely, resulting in a reduced labeling index, mitotic index, and growth fraction as non-dividing cells dilute the proliferating cell population. Hypothyroidism, on the other hand, leads to no significant change in the length of the cell cycle or in the mitotic index, but causes a decreased labeling index and growth fraction, as well as a reduced rate of cell acquisition (increased doubling time). No significant change in the amount of cell death in the EGL could be found to explain this apparent discrepancy between the rate of cell proliferation (cell cycle length) and cell acqusiition. The answer to this puzzle appears to lie in the mitotic index, which is not affected to the same extent as the labeling index, although it is also slightly reduced. If cells were to remain longer in mitosis, this could result in a decreased labeling index and growth fraction but nearly normal mitotic index and cell cycle length (as measured using the % labeled mitoses method), since those cells dropping out of the cycling population would be counted as mitoses...

  8. S. aureus-dependent microglial activation is selectively attenuated by the cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Delta12,14- prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2).

    PubMed

    Kielian, Tammy; McMahon, Meredith; Bearden, Edward D; Baldwin, Aaron C; Drew, Paul D; Esen, Nilufer

    2004-09-01

    Microglial activation is a hallmark of brain abscess. The continual release of proinflammatory mediators by microglia following bacterial challenge may contribute, in part, to the destruction of surrounding normal tissue characteristic of brain abscess. Therefore, attenuating chronic microglial activation during the course of CNS bacterial infections may have therapeutic benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonist 15-deoxy-Delta12,14- prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) to modulate microglial activation in response to Staphylococcus aureus, one of the main etiologic agents of brain abscess in humans. 15d-PGJ2 was a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-12 p40) and CC chemokine (MIP-1beta, MCP-1) production in primary microglia, but had no effect upon the expression of select CXC chemokines (MIP-2, KC). 15d-PGJ2 also selectively inhibited the S. aureus-dependent increase in microglial TLR2, CD14, MHC class II, and CD40 expression, whereas it had no effect on the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. Microarray analysis revealed additional inflammatory mediators modulated by 15d-PGJ2 in primary microglia following S. aureus exposure, the majority of which were chemokines. These results suggest that suppressing microglial activation through the use of 15d-PGJ2 may lead to the sparing of damage to normal brain parenchyma that often results from brain abscess. Copyright 2004 International Society for Neurochemistry

  9. Effects of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine on microglial functions.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yuki; Tomonaga, Daichi; Kalashnikova, Anastasia; Furuya, Fumihiko; Akimoto, Nozomi; Ifuku, Masataka; Okuno, Yuko; Beppu, Kaoru; Fujita, Kyota; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Churilov, Leonid P; Noda, Mami

    2015-05-01

    L-tri-iodothyronine (3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine; T3) is an active form of the thyroid hormone (TH) essential for the development and function of the CNS. Though nongenomic effect of TH, its plasma membrane-bound receptor, and its signaling has been identified, precise function in each cell type of the CNS remained to be investigated. Clearance of cell debris and apoptotic cells by microglia phagocytosis is a critical step for the restoration of damaged neuron-glia networks. Here we report nongenomic effects of T3 on microglial functions. Exposure to T3 increased migration, membrane ruffling and phagocytosis of primary cultured mouse microglia. Injection of T3 together with stab wound attracted more microglia to the lesion site in vivo. Blocking TH transporters and receptors (TRs) or TRα-knock-out (KO) suppressed T3-induced microglial migration and morphological change. The T3-induced microglial migration or membrane ruffling was attenuated by inhibiting Gi /o -protein as well as NO synthase, and subsequent signaling such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibitors for Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, reverse mode of Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), and small-conductance Ca(2+) -dependent K(+) (SK) channel also attenuated microglial migration or phagocytosis. Interestingly, T3-induced microglial migration, but not phagocytosis, was dependent on GABAA and GABAB receptors, though GABA itself did not affect migratory aptitude. Our results demonstrate that T3 modulates multiple functional responses of microglia via multiple complex mechanisms, which may contribute to physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of the CNS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Essential roles of mitochondrial depolarization in neuron loss through microglial activation and attraction toward neurons.

    PubMed

    Nam, Min-Kyung; Shin, Hyun-Ah; Han, Ji-Hye; Park, Dae-Wook; Rhim, Hyangshuk

    2013-04-10

    As life spans increased, neurodegenerative disorders that affect aging populations have also increased. Progressive neuronal loss in specific brain regions is the most common cause of neurodegenerative disease; however, key determinants mediating neuron loss are not fully understood. Using a model of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, we found only 25% cell loss in SH-SY5Y (SH) neuronal mono-cultures, but interestingly, 85% neuronal loss occurred when neurons were co-cultured with BV2 microglia. SH neurons overexpressing uncoupling protein 2 exhibited an increase in neuron-microglia interactions, which represent an early step in microglial phagocytosis of neurons. This result indicates that ΔΨm loss in SH neurons is an important contributor to recruitment of BV2 microglia. Notably, we show that ΔΨm loss in BV2 microglia plays a crucial role in microglial activation and phagocytosis of damaged SH neurons. Thus, our study demonstrates that ΔΨm loss in both neurons and microglia is a critical determinant of neuron loss. These findings also offer new insights into neuroimmunological and bioenergetical aspects of neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue expander stimulated lengthening of arteries (TESLA) induces early endothelial cell proliferation in a novel rodent model.

    PubMed

    Potanos, Kristina; Fullington, Nora; Cauley, Ryan; Purcell, Patricia; Zurakowski, David; Fishman, Steven; Vakili, Khashayar; Kim, Heung Bae

    2016-04-01

    We examine the mechanism of aortic lengthening in a novel rodent model of tissue expander stimulated lengthening of arteries (TESLA). A rat model of TESLA was examined with a single stretch stimulus applied at the time of tissue expander insertion with evaluation of the aorta at 2, 4 and 7day time points. Measurements as well as histology and proliferation assays were performed and compared to sham controls. The aortic length was increased at all time points without histologic signs of tissue injury. Nuclear density remained unchanged despite the increase in length suggesting cellular hyperplasia. Cellular proliferation was confirmed in endothelial cell layer by Ki-67 stain. Aortic lengthening may be achieved using TESLA. The increase in aortic length can be achieved without tissue injury and results at least partially from cellular hyperplasia. Further studies are required to define the mechanisms involved in the growth of arteries under increased longitudinal stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Induces Microglial Death by NADPH-Oxidase-Independent Reactive Oxygen Species as well as Energy Depletion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuj Kumar; Singh, Vikas; Gera, Ruchi; Purohit, Mahaveer Prasad; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) is one of the most widely used engineered nanoparticles. Upon exposure, nanoparticle can eventually reach the brain through various routes, interact with different brain cells, and alter their activity. Microglia is the fastest glial cell to respond to any toxic insult. Nanoparticle exposure can activate microglia and induce neuroinflammation. Simultaneous to activation, microglial death can exacerbate the scenario. Therefore, we focused on studying the effect of ZnO-NP on microglia and finding out the pathway involved in the microglial death. The present study showed that the 24 h inhibitory concentration 50 (IC 50 ) of ZnO-NP for microglia is 6.6 μg/ml. Early events following ZnO-NP exposure involved increase in intracellular calcium level as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neither of NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin, (APO) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPIC) were able to reduce the ROS level and rescue microglia from ZnO-NP toxicity. In contrary, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) showed opposite effect. Exogenous supplementation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced ROS significantly even beyond control level but partially rescued microglial viability. Interestingly, pyruvate supplementation rescued microglia near to control level. Following 10 h of ZnO-NP exposure, intracellular ATP level was measured to be almost 50 % to the control. ZnO-NP-induced ROS as well as ATP depletion both disturbed mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently triggered the apoptotic pathway. The level of apoptosis-inducing proteins was measured by western blot analysis and found to be upregulated. Taken together, we have deciphered that ZnO-NP induced microglial apoptosis by NADPH oxidase-independent ROS as well as ATP depletion.

  13. Gas6 Deficiency Increases Oligodendrocyte Loss and Microglial Activation in Response to Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Michele D.; Cate, Holly S.; Prieto, Anne L.; Kemper, Dennis; Butzkueven, Helmut; Gresle, Melissa M.; Cipriani, Tania; Jokubaitis, Vilija G.; Carmeliet, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The TAM family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases comprises three known members, namely Tyro3, Axl, and Mer. These receptors are widely expressed in the nervous system, including by oligodendrocytes, the cell type responsible for myelinating the CNS. We examined the potential role of the TAM family and of their principle cognate ligand, Gas6 (growth arrest gene 6), in modulating the phenotype of the cuprizone model of demyelination. We found that the expression profiles of Axl, Mer, and Gas6 mRNA were increased in the corpus callosum in a temporal profile correlating with the increased migration and proliferation of microglia/macrophages in this model. In contrast, expression of Tyro3 decreased, correlating with the loss of oligodendrocytes. Gas6 both promoted in vitro survival of oligodendrocytes (39.3 ± 3.1 vs 11.8 ± 2.4%) and modulated markers of activation in purified cultures of microglia (tumor necrosis factor α mRNA expression was reduced ∼48%). In Gas6−/− mice subjected to cuprizone-challenge, demyelination was greater than in control mice, within the rostral region of the corpus callosum, as assessed by luxol fast blue staining (myelination reduced by 36%) and by ultrastructural analysis. An increased loss of Gst-π (glutathione S-transferase-π)-positive oligodendrocytes was also identified throughout the corpus callosum of Gas6−/− mice. Microglial marker expression (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1) was increased in Gas6−/− mice but was restricted to the rostral corpus callosum. Therefore, TAM receptor activation and regulation can independently influence both oligodendrocyte survival and the microglial response after CNS damage. PMID:18480276

  14. An immortalized microglial cell line (Mocha) derived from rat cochlea.

    PubMed

    Seigel, G M; Manohar, S; Bai, Y Y; Ding, D; Salvi, R

    2017-12-01

    Microglia are glial-immune cells that are essential for the function and survival of the central nervous system. Microglia not only protect neural tissues from immunological insults, but also play a critical role in neural development and repair. However, little is known about the biology of microglia in the cochlea, the auditory portion of the inner ear. In this study, we detected TMEM119+, CD11b+, CD45+ and Iba1+ populations of cells in the rat cochlea, particularly in Rosenthal's canal, inner sulcus and stria vascularis. Next, we isolated and enriched the population of CD11b+ cells from the cochlea and immortalized these cells with the 12S E1A gene of adenovirus in a replication-incompetent retroviral vector to derive a novel microglial cell line, designated Mocha (microglia of the cochlea). The resulting Mocha cells express a number of markers consistent with microglia and respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation by upregulation of genes (Cox2, ICAM-1, Il6r, Ccl2, Il13Ra and Il15Ra) as well as releasing cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-12, IL-13 and RANTES). As evidence of microglial function, Mocha cells phagocytose fluorescent beads at 37°C, but not at 4°C. The expression pattern of microglial markers in Mocha cells suggests that immortalization leads to a more primitive phenotype, a common phenomenon in immortalized cell lines. In summary, Mocha cells display key characteristics of microglia and are now available as a useful model system for the study of cochlear microglial behavior, both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Transcription Factor p53 Influences Microglial Activation Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Suman; Nesser, Nicole K.; Hopkins, Stephanie; Myers, Scott J.; Case, Amanda; Lee, Rona J.; Seaburg, Luke A.; Uo, Takuma; Murphy, Sean P.; Morrison, Richard S.; Garden, Gwenn A.

    2011-01-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by the innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, have pro-inflammatory and subsequently neurotoxic actions as well as anti-inflammatory functions that promote recovery and repair. Very little is known about the transcriptional control of these specific microglial behaviors. We have previously shown that in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the transcription factor p53 accumulates in microglia and that microglial p53 expression is required for the in vitro neurotoxicity of the HIV coat glycoprotein gp120. These findings suggested a novel function for p53 in regulating microglial activation. Here we report that in the absence of p53, microglia demonstrate a blunted response to interferon-γ, failing to increase expression of genes associated with classical macrophage activation or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. Microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles revealed increased expression of genes associated with anti-inflammatory functions, phagocytosis and tissue repair in p53 knockout (p53−/−) microglia compared with those cultured from strain matched p53 expressing (p53+/+) mice. We further observed that p53−/− microglia demonstrate increased phagocytic activity in vitro and expression of markers for alternative macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In HAND brain tissue, the alternative activation marker CD163 was expressed in a separate subset of microglia than those demonstrating p53 accumulation. These data suggest that p53 influences microglial behavior, supporting the adoption of a pro-inflammatory phenotype, while p53 deficiency promotes phagocytosis and gene expression associated with alternative activation and anti-inflammatory functions. PMID:21598312

  16. Microglial Dysregulation in OCD, Tourette Syndrome, and PANDAS

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that immune dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Tourette syndrome, and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). The mechanistic details of this pathophysiology, however, remain unclear. Here we focus on one particular component of the immune system: microglia, the brain's resident immune cells. The role of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases has been understood in terms of classic, inflammatory activation, which may be both a consequence and a cause of neuronal damage. In OCD and Tourette syndrome, which are not characterized by frank neural degeneration, the potential role of microglial dysregulation is much less clear. Here we review the evidence for a neuroinflammatory etiology and microglial dysregulation in OCD, Tourette syndrome, and PANDAS. We also explore new hypotheses as to the potential contributions of microglial abnormalities to pathophysiology, beyond neuroinflammation, including failures in neuroprotection, lack of support for neuronal survival, and abnormalities in synaptic pruning. Recent advances in neuroimaging and animal model work are creating new opportunities to elucidate these issues. PMID:28053994

  17. Microglial Dysregulation in OCD, Tourette Syndrome, and PANDAS.

    PubMed

    Frick, Luciana; Pittenger, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that immune dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Tourette syndrome, and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). The mechanistic details of this pathophysiology, however, remain unclear. Here we focus on one particular component of the immune system: microglia, the brain's resident immune cells. The role of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases has been understood in terms of classic, inflammatory activation, which may be both a consequence and a cause of neuronal damage. In OCD and Tourette syndrome, which are not characterized by frank neural degeneration, the potential role of microglial dysregulation is much less clear. Here we review the evidence for a neuroinflammatory etiology and microglial dysregulation in OCD, Tourette syndrome, and PANDAS. We also explore new hypotheses as to the potential contributions of microglial abnormalities to pathophysiology, beyond neuroinflammation, including failures in neuroprotection, lack of support for neuronal survival, and abnormalities in synaptic pruning. Recent advances in neuroimaging and animal model work are creating new opportunities to elucidate these issues.

  18. Microglial Dysfunction in Brain Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Kira Irving; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, have long been a subject of study in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) field due to their dramatic responses to the pathophysiology of the disease. With several large-scale genetic studies in the past year implicating microglial molecules in AD, the potential significance of these cells has become more prominent than ever before. As a disease that is tightly linked to aging, it is perhaps not entirely surprising that microglia of the AD brain share some phenotypes with aging microglia. Yet the relative impacts of both conditions on microglia are less frequently considered in concert. Furthermore, microglial “activation” and “neuroinflammation” are commonly analyzed in studies of neurodegeneration but are somewhat ill-defined concepts that in fact encompass multiple cellular processes. In this review, we have enumerated six distinct functions of microglia and discuss the specific effects of both aging and AD. By calling attention to the commonalities of these two states, we hope to inspire new approaches for dissecting microglial mechanisms. PMID:24445162

  19. Neuropeptides and Microglial Activation in Inflammation, Pain, and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Microglial cells are responsible for immune surveillance within the CNS. They respond to noxious stimuli by releasing inflammatory mediators and mounting an effective inflammatory response. This is followed by release of anti-inflammatory mediators and resolution of the inflammatory response. Alterations to this delicate process may lead to tissue damage, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Chronic pain, such as inflammatory or neuropathic pain, is accompanied by neuroimmune activation, and the role of glial cells in the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain has been the subject of increasing research over the last two decades. Neuropeptides are small amino acidic molecules with the ability to regulate neuronal activity and thereby affect various functions such as thermoregulation, reproductive behavior, food and water intake, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides can also affect inflammatory responses and pain sensitivity by modulating the activity of glial cells. The last decade has witnessed growing interest in the study of microglial activation and its modulation by neuropeptides in the hope of developing new therapeutics for treating neurodegenerative diseases and chronic pain. This review summarizes the current literature on the way in which several neuropeptides modulate microglial activity and response to tissue damage and how this modulation may affect pain sensitivity. PMID:28154473

  20. Differential General Anesthetic Effects on Microglial Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xuefei; Lian, Qingquan; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Pan, Jonathan Z.

    2013-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction has been widely observed, especially in older patients. An association of post-operative cognitive dysfunction with the neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, has been suggested. Neuroinflammation contributes to Alzheimer pathology, through elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation in the CNS leading to neuronal damage, synaptic disruption and ultimately cognitive dysfunction. We compare the effects of three different, clinically-used, anesthetics on microglial activation with, and without, the prototypical inflammatory trigger, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Microglial BV-2 cell cultures were first exposed to isoflurane, sevoflurane (each at 2 concentrations) or propofol for 6 h, and cytokine levels measured in lysates and media. The same experiments were repeated after 1 h LPS pre-treatment. We found; 1) anesthetics alone have either no or only a small effect on cytokine expression; 2) LPS provoked a large increase in microglia cytokine expression; 3) the inhaled anesthetics either had no effect on LPS-evoked responses or enhanced it; 4) propofol nearly eliminated the LPS pro-inflammatory cytokine response and improved cell survival as reflected by lactate dehydrogenase release. These data suggest that propofol may be a preferred anesthetic when it is desirable to minimize neuroinflammation. PMID:23382826

  1. Intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment attenuates immediate neuropathic pain by modulating Nav1.3 expression and decreasing spinal microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intrathecal lidocaine reverses tactile allodynia after nerve injury, but whether neuropathic pain is attenuated by intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment is uncertain. Methods Sixty six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three treatment groups: (1) sham (Group S), which underwent removal of the L6 transverse process; (2) ligated (Group L), which underwent left L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL); and (3) pretreated (Group P), which underwent L5 SNL and was pretreated with intrathecal 2% lidocaine (50 μl). Neuropathic pain was assessed based on behavioral responses to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Expression of sodium channels (Nav1.3 and Nav1.8) in injured dorsal root ganglia and microglial proliferation/activation in the spinal cord were measured on post-operative days 3 (POD3) and 7 (POD7). Results Group L presented abnormal behavioral responses indicative of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, exhibited up-regulation of Nav1.3 and down-regulation of Nav1.8, and showed increased microglial activation. Compared with ligation only, pretreatment with intrathecal lidocaine before nerve injury (Group P), as measured on POD3, palliated both mechanical allodynia (p < 0.01) and thermal hyperalgesia (p < 0.001), attenuated Nav1.3 up-regulation (p = 0.003), and mitigated spinal microglial activation (p = 0.026) by inhibiting phosphorylation (activation) of p38 MAP kinase (p = 0.034). p38 activation was also suppressed on POD7 (p = 0.002). Conclusions Intrathecal lidocaine prior to SNL blunts the response to noxious stimuli by attenuating Nav1.3 up-regulation and suppressing activation of spinal microglia. Although its effects are limited to 3 days, intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment can alleviate acute SNL-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:21676267

  2. Malat1 as an evolutionarily conserved lncRNA, plays a positive role in regulating proliferation and maintaining undifferentiated status of early-stage hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xian-Yong; Wang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Jing-Lan; Ma, Charles X; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Feng-Song

    2015-09-03

    The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcription 1 (Malat1) is a highly conserved long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) gene. Previous studies showed that Malat1 is abundantly expressed in many tissues and involves in promoting tumor growth and metastasis by modulating gene expression and target protein activities. However, little is known about the biological function and regulation mechanism of Malat1 in normal cell proliferation. In this study we conformed that Malat1 is highly conserved across vast evolutionary distances amongst 20 species of mammals in terms of sequence, and found that mouse Malat1 expresses in tissues of liver, kidney, lung, heart, testis, spleen and brain, but not in skeletal muscle. After treating erythroid myeloid lymphoid (EML) cells with All-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA), we investigated the expression and regulation of Malat1 during hematopoietic differentiation, the results showed that ATRA significantly down regulates Malat1 expression during the differentiation of EML cells. Mouse LRH (Lin-Rhodamine(low) Hoechst(low)) cells that represent the early-stage progenitor cells show a high level of Malat1 expression, while LRB (Lin - Hoechst(Low) Rhodamine(Bright)) cells that represent the late-stage progenitor cells had no detectable expression of Malat1. Knockdown experiment showed that depletion of Malat1 inhibits the EML cell proliferation. Along with the down regulation of Malat1, the tumor suppressor gene p53 was up regulated during the differentiation. Interestingly, we found two p53 binding motifs with help of bioinformatic tools, and the following chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) test conformed that p53 acts as a transcription repressor that binds to Malat1's promoter. Furthermore, we testified that p53 over expression in EML cells causes down regulation of Malat1. In summary, this study indicates Malat1 plays a critical role in maintaining the proliferation potential of early-stage hematopoietic cells. In addition to its

  3. Metformin reduces morphine tolerance by inhibiting microglial-mediated neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yinbing; Sun, Xiaodi; Jiang, Lai; Hu, Liang; Kong, Hong; Han, Yuan; Qian, Cheng; Song, Chao; Qian, Yanning; Liu, Wentao

    2016-11-17

    Tolerance seriously impedes the application of morphine in clinical medicine. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the exact mechanisms and efficient treatment. Microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord are thought to play pivotal roles on the genesis and maintaining of morphine tolerance. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) has been associated with the inhibition of inflammatory nociception. Metformin, a biguanide class of antidiabetic drugs and activator of AMPK, has a potential anti-inflammatory effect. The present study evaluated the effects and potential mechanisms of metformin in inhibiting microglial activation and alleviating the antinociceptive tolerance of morphine. The microglial cell line BV-2 cells and mouse brain-derived endothelial cell line bEnd3 cells were used. Cytokine expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cell signaling was assayed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The antinociception and morphine tolerance were assessed in CD-1 mice using tail-flick tests. We found that morphine-activated BV-2 cells, including the upregulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) phosphorylation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) mRNA expression, which was inhibited by metformin. Metformin suppressed morphine-induced BV-2 cells activation through increasing AMPK phosphorylation, which was reversed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Additionally, in BV-2 cells, morphine did not affect the cell viability and the mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In bEnd3 cells, morphine did not affect the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but increased IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA expression; the effect was inhibited by metformin. Morphine also did not affect the mRNA expression of TLR-4 and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). Furthermore, systemic administration of metformin significantly blocked morphine

  4. The antidepressant-like effects of pioglitazone in a chronic mild stress mouse model are associated with PPARγ-mediated alteration of microglial activation phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiuying; Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Shuo; Xie, Xiaofang; Fan, Yonghua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Peng, Cheng; You, Zili

    2016-10-04

    Discoveries that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is involved in the pathological process of depression provided a new strategy for novel antidepressant therapy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor regulating inflammation and microglial polarization and, therefore, a potential target for resolving depressive disorders. Our hypothesis was that antidepressant effects could be achieved through anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities by PPARγ-dependent microglia-modulating agents. Chronic mild stress (CMS) treatment was performed on C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. After 3 weeks with the CMS procedure, depressive-like behaviors were evaluated by sucrose preference (SP), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST), and locomotor activity. Pioglitazone was administered intragastrically once per day for 3 weeks at different doses. Neuroinflammatory cytokines were determined by real time-PCR (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and western blot. The activated microglial state was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. N9 microglial cells were subjected to lipopolysaccharide, pioglitazone, and GW9662 to discuss the phenotype of activated microglia by RT-PCR, ELISA, and western blot. It was demonstrated that the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (2.5 mg/kg) ameliorated depression-like behaviors in CMS-treated mice, as indicated by body weight (BW), the SP test, the FST, and the TST. The amelioration of the depression was blocked by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. The expression of M1 markers (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, iNOS, and CCL2) increased, and the gene expression of M2 markers (Ym1, Arg1, IL-4, IL-10, and TGFβ) decreased in the hippocampus of the stress-treated mice. Pioglitazone significantly inhibited the increased numbers and morphological alterations of microglia in the hippocampus, reduced the elevated expression of microglial M1 markers, and increased the downgraded expression of microglial M2 markers

  5. Activation of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor delta in mouse impacts lipid composition and placental development at early stage of gestation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongjuan; Zhang, Yiyu; Liu, Lun; Yuan, Hongyan; Qu, Jian; Shen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (Ppard) activation has been implicated in regulating a multitude of biological processes in placental development. In this study, we employed the UPLC-ESI-TOFMS approach to investigate the metabolic traits in placenta from GW501516-treated mice at Embryonic Day 10.5. By analyzing the mass spectrum data, ions with the most significant differences between control and GW501516-treated groups were identified. Among these metabolites, the fatty acids, phospholipids, and sterol lipids were dramatically increased. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis and glycolysis were the top two altered metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism, energy production, and lipid metabolism. Subsequent immunoblotting experiments provided evidence for positive correlation of PPARD level and AKT and ERK signaling pathways upon GW501516 treatment. Furthermore, the stimulation of GW501516 increased trophoblast cell fusion gene syncytin-A (Syna), but not syncytin-B (Synb), expression, suggesting a potential role of Ppard activation in promoting cytotrophoblast differentiation. Our results reveal that Ppard activation elicits dramatic changes of the metabolic activities in placenta, which is correlated to AKT and ERK signaling. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. GNP-GAPDH1-22 nanovaccines prevent neonatal listeriosis by blocking microglial apoptosis and bacterial dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Marimon, José María; Freire, Javier; Salcines-Cuevas, David; Carmen Fariñas, M.; onzalez-Rico, Claudia; Marradi, Marco; Garcia, Isabel; Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Mirian; San Nicolas-Gomez, Aida; Castañeda-Sampedro, Ana; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; Penades, Soledad; Punzon, Carmen; Gomez-Roman, Javier; Rivera, Fernando; Fresno, Manuel; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013–2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios. Therefore, we developed a nanovaccine with gold glyco-nanoparticles conjugated to LM peptide 1-22 of GAPDH (Lmo2459), GNP-GAPDH1-22 nanovaccinesformulated with a pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2/4-targeted adjuvant. Neonates born to non-vaccinated pregnant mice with listeriosis, showed brain and vascular diseases and significant microglial dysfunction by induction of TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. This programmed TNF-mediated suicide explains LM dissemination in brains and livers and blocks production of early pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and interferon-α/β. In contrast, neonates born to GNP-GAPDH1–22-vaccinated mothers before LM infection, did not develop listeriosis or brain diseases and had functional microglia. In nanovaccinated mothers, immune responses shifted towards Th1/IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles and high production of anti-GAPDH1–22 antibodies, suggesting good induction of LM-specific memory. PMID:28903312

  7. GNP-GAPDH1-22 nanovaccines prevent neonatal listeriosis by blocking microglial apoptosis and bacterial dissemination.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Teran-Navarro, Hector; Marimon, José María; Freire, Javier; Salcines-Cuevas, David; Carmen Fariñas, M; Onzalez-Rico, Claudia; Marradi, Marco; Garcia, Isabel; Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Mirian; San Nicolas-Gomez, Aida; Castañeda-Sampedro, Ana; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; Penades, Soledad; Punzon, Carmen; Gomez-Roman, Javier; Rivera, Fernando; Fresno, Manuel; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2017-08-15

    Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH 1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios. Therefore, we developed a nanovaccine with gold glyco-nanoparticles conjugated to LM peptide 1-22 of GAPDH (Lmo2459), GNP-GAPDH 1-22 nanovaccinesformulated with a pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2/4-targeted adjuvant. Neonates born to non-vaccinated pregnant mice with listeriosis, showed brain and vascular diseases and significant microglial dysfunction by induction of TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. This programmed TNF-mediated suicide explains LM dissemination in brains and livers and blocks production of early pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and interferon-α/β. In contrast, neonates born to GNP-GAPDH 1-22 -vaccinated mothers before LM infection, did not develop listeriosis or brain diseases and had functional microglia. In nanovaccinated mothers, immune responses shifted towards Th1/IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles and high production of anti-GAPDH 1-22 antibodies, suggesting good induction of LM-specific memory.

  8. Early Events in Retinal Degeneration Caused by Rhodopsin Mutation or Pigment Epithelium Malfunction: Differences and Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierdomenico, Johnny; García-Ayuso, Diego; Pinilla, Isabel; Cuenca, Nicolás; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Villegas-Pérez, María P.

    2017-01-01

    To study the course of photoreceptor cell death and macro and microglial reactivity in two rat models of retinal degeneration with different etiologies. Retinas from P23H-1 (rhodopsin mutation) and Royal College of Surgeon (RCS, pigment epithelium malfunction) rats and age-matched control animals (Sprague-Dawley and Pievald Viro Glaxo, respectively) were cross-sectioned at different postnatal ages (from P10 to P60) and rhodopsin, L/M- and S-opsin, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were immunodetected. Photoreceptor nuclei rows and microglial cells in the different retinal layers were quantified. Photoreceptor degeneration starts earlier and progresses quicker in P23H-1 than in RCS rats. In both models, microglial cell activation occurs simultaneously with the initiation of photoreceptor death while GFAP over-expression starts later. As degeneration progresses, the numbers of microglial cells increase in the retina, but decreasing in the inner retina and increasing in the outer retina, more markedly in RCS rats. Interestingly, and in contrast with healthy animals, microglial cells reach the outer nuclei and outer segment layers. The higher number of microglial cells in dystrophic retinas cannot be fully accounted by intraretinal migration and PCNA immunodetection revealed microglial proliferation in both models but more importantly in RCS rats. The etiology of retinal degeneration determines the initiation and pattern of photoreceptor cell death and simultaneously there is microglial activation and migration, while the macroglial response is delayed. The actions of microglial cells in the degeneration cannot be explained only in the basis of photoreceptor death because they participate more actively in the RCS model. Thus, the retinal degeneration caused by pigment epithelium malfunction is more inflammatory and would probably respond better to interventions

  9. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial Models for Prediction and Early Warning of Aedes aegypti Proliferation from Data on Climate Change and Variability in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Paulo L; Rivero, Alina; Linares, Yzenia; Pérez, Alina; Vázquez, Juan R

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability, the primary expression of climate change, is one of the most important environmental problems affecting human health, particularly vector-borne diseases. Despite research efforts worldwide, there are few studies addressing the use of information on climate variability for prevention and early warning of vector-borne infectious diseases. Show the utility of climate information for vector surveillance by developing spatial models using an entomological indicator and information on predicted climate variability in Cuba to provide early warning of danger of increased risk of dengue transmission. An ecological study was carried out using retrospective and prospective analyses of time series combined with spatial statistics. Several entomological and climatic indicators were considered using complex Bultó indices -1 and -2. Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficient specified for a matrix of neighbors with a radius of 20 km, was used to identify the spatial structure. Spatial structure simulation was based on simultaneous autoregressive and conditional autoregressive models; agreement between predicted and observed values for number of Aedes aegypti foci was determined by the concordance index Di and skill factor Bi. Spatial and temporal distributions of populations of Aedes aegypti were obtained. Models for describing, simulating and predicting spatial patterns of Aedes aegypti populations associated with climate variability patterns were put forward. The ranges of climate variability affecting Aedes aegypti populations were identified. Forecast maps were generated for the municipal level. Using the Bultó indices of climate variability, it is possible to construct spatial models for predicting increased Aedes aegypti populations in Cuba. At 20 x 20 km resolution, the models are able to provide warning of potential changes in vector populations in rainy and dry seasons and by month, thus demonstrating the usefulness of climate information for

  11. Hydroxychloroquine reduces microglial activity and attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marcus W; Zabad, Rana; Giuliani, Fabrizio; Hader, Walter; Lewkonia, Ray; Metz, Luanne; Wee Yong, V

    2015-11-15

    Microglial activation is thought to be a key pathophysiological mechanism underlying disease activity in all forms of MS. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug with immunomodulatory properties that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatological diseases. In this series of experiments, we explore the effect of HCQ on human microglial activation in vitro and on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in vivo. We activated human microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and measured concentrations of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in untreated and HCQ pretreated cultures. We investigated the effect of HCQ pretreatment at two doses on the development of EAE and spinal cord histology. HCQ pretreatment reduced the production of pro-inflammatory (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist) cytokines in LPS-stimulated human microglia. HCQ pretreatment delayed the onset of EAE, and reduced the number of Iba-1 positive microglia/macrophages and signs of demyelination in the spinal cords of HCQ treated animals. HCQ treatment reduces the activation of human microglia in vitro, delays the onset of EAE, and decreases the representation of activated macrophages/microglia and demyelination in the spinal cord of treated mice. HCQ is a plausible candidate for further clinical studies in MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Methamphetamine Causes Microglial Activation in the Brains of Human Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugihara, Genichi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suda, Shiro; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Mori, Norio; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular addictive drug whose use is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric adverse events and toxic to the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems of the brain. Methamphetamine-induced neuropathology is associated with increased expression of microglial cells that are thought to participate in either pro-toxic or protective mechanisms in the brain. Although reactive microgliosis has been observed in animal models of methamphetamine neurotoxicity, no study has reported on the status of microglial activation in human methamphetamine abusers. The present study reports on 12 abstinent methamphetamine abusers and 12 age-, gender-, education-matched control subjects who underwent positron emission tomography using a radiotracer for activated microglia, [11C](R)-(1-[2-chlorophenyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) ([11C](R)-PK11195). Compartment analysis was used to estimate quantitative levels of binding potentials of [11C](R)-PK11195 in brain regions with dopaminergic and/or serotonergic innervation. The mean levels of [11C](R)-PK11195 binding were higher in methamphetamine abusers than those in control subjects in all brain regions (> 250% higher, p < 0.01 for all). In addition, the binding levels in the midbrain, striatum, thalamus, and orbitofrontal and insular cortices (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the duration of methamphetamine abstinence. These results suggest that chronic self-administration of methamphetamine can cause reactive microgliosis in the brains of human methamphetamine abusers, a level of activation that appears to subside over longer periods of abstinence. PMID:18509037

  13. Methamphetamine causes microglial activation in the brains of human abusers.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugihara, Genichi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Suda, Shiro; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Mori, Norio; Gold, Mark S; Cadet, Jean L

    2008-05-28

    Methamphetamine is a popular addictive drug whose use is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric adverse events and toxic to the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems of the brain. Methamphetamine-induced neuropathology is associated with increased expression of microglial cells that are thought to participate in either pro-toxic or protective mechanisms in the brain. Although reactive microgliosis has been observed in animal models of methamphetamine neurotoxicity, no study has reported on the status of microglial activation in human methamphetamine abusers. The present study reports on 12 abstinent methamphetamine abusers and 12 age-, gender-, and education-matched control subjects who underwent positron emission tomography using a radiotracer for activated microglia, [(11)C](R)-(1-[2-chlorophenyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) ([(11)C](R)-PK11195). Compartment analysis was used to estimate quantitative levels of binding potentials of [(11)C](R)-PK11195 in brain regions with dopaminergic and/or serotonergic innervation. The mean levels of [(11)C](R)-PK11195 binding were higher in methamphetamine abusers than those in control subjects in all brain regions (>250% higher; p < 0.01 for all). In addition, the binding levels in the midbrain, striatum, thalamus, and orbitofrontal and insular cortices (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the duration of methamphetamine abstinence. These results suggest that chronic self-administration of methamphetamine can cause reactive microgliosis in the brains of human methamphetamine abusers, a level of activation that appears to subside over longer periods of abstinence.

  14. Fractalkine Attenuates Microglial Cell Activation Induced by Prenatal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Chamera, Katarzyna; Roman, Adam; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure. Our study found that the microglia do not express fractalkine. Prenatal stress decreases the expression of the fractalkine receptor, which in turn is enhanced by the administration of exogenous fractalkine. Moreover, treatment with fractalkine diminishes the prenatal stress-induced overproduction of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, or NO in the microglial cells derived from prenatally stressed newborns. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the pathological activation of microglia in prenatally stressed newborns may be attenuated by fractalkine administration. Therefore, understanding of the role of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 system may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuron-microglia interaction and its role in pathological conditions in the brain. PMID:27239349

  15. Enhancement of Cell Ingrowth, Proliferation, and Early Differentiation in a Three-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Scaffold Using Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liangjun

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the use of autografts or allografts have necessitated the development of biomaterials for bone regeneration. Various studies have been performed to optimize the cultivation of osteogenic cells using osteoconductive porous scaffolds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic efficiency of bone cell ingrowth, proliferation, and early differentiation in a silicon carbide (SiC) porous ceramic scaffold promoted with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts were seeded onto scaffolds and cultured for 4 and 7 days with daily of 20-min ultrasound treatment. The cells were evaluated for cell attachment, morphology, viability, ingrowth depth, volumetric proliferation, and early differentiation. After 4 and 7 days of culture and ultrasound exposure, the cell density was higher in the ultrasound-treated group compared with the sham-treated group on SiC scaffolds. The cell ingrowth depths inside the SiC scaffolds were 149.2±27.3 μm at 1 day, 310.1±12.6 μm for the ultrasound-treated group and 248.0±19.7 μm for the sham control at 4 days, and 359.6±18.5 μm for the ultrasound-treated group and 280.0±17.7 μm for the sham control at 7 days. They were significantly increased, that is, 25% (p=0.0029) and 28% (p=0.0008) increase, respectively, with ultrasound radiation force as compared with those in sham control at 4 and 7 days postseeding. The dsDNA contents were 583.5±19.1 ng/scaffold at 1 day, 2749.9±99.9 ng/scaffold for the ultrasound-treated group and 2514.9±114.7 ng/scaffold for the sham control at 4 days, and 3582.3±325.3 ng/scaffold for the ultrasound-treated group and 2825.7±134.3 ng/scaffold for the sham control at 7 days. There was a significant difference in the dsDNA content between the ultrasound- and sham-treated groups at 4 and 7 days. The ultrasound-treated group with the SiC construct showed a 9% (p=0.00029) and 27% (p=0.00017) increase in the average dsDNA content at 4 and 7 days over

  16. Early treatment of minocycline alleviates white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wei Wei; Wu, Xiao Hua; Liao, Ru Jia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang Nan; Zhang, Li San; Zhou, Yu Dong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei Wei

    2015-01-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion develops with progressive white matter and cognitive impairments, yet no effective therapy is available. We investigated the temporal effects of minocycline on an experimental SIVD exerted by right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO). Minocycline treated at the early stage (day 0–3), but not the late stage after rUCCAO (day 4–32) alleviated the white matter and cognitive impairments, and promoted remyelination. The actions of minocycline may not involve the inhibition of microglia activation, based on the effects after the application of a microglial activation inhibitor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and co-treatment with lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, minocycline treatment at the early stage promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in subventricular zone, increased OPC number and alleviated apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes in white matter. In vitro, minocycline promoted OPC proliferation and increased the percentage of OPCs in S and G2/M phases. We provided direct evidence that early treatment is critical for minocycline to alleviate white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which may be due to its robust effects on OPC proliferation and mature oligodendrocyte loss. So, early therapeutic time window may be crucial for its application in SIVD. PMID:26174710

  17. Microglial response to Alzheimer's disease is differentially modulated by voluntary wheel running and enriched environments.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J J; Noristani, H N; Verkhratsky, A

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an untreatable neurodegenerative disease that deteriorates memory. Increased physical/cognitive activity reduces dementia risk by promoting neuronal and glial response. Although few studies have investigated microglial response in wild-type rodents following exposure to physical/cognitive stimulation, environmental-induced changes of microglia response to AD have been neglected. We investigated effects of running (RUN) and enriched (ENR) environments on numerical density (N v, #/mm(3)) and morphology of microglia in a triple transgenic (3×Tg-AD) mouse model of AD that closely mimics AD pathology in humans. We used immunohistochemical approach to characterise microglial domain by measuring their overall cell surface, volume and somata volume. 3×Tg-AD mice housed in standard control (STD) environment showed significant increase in microglial N v (11.7 %) in CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare (S.Mol) of the hippocampus at 12 months compared to non-transgenic (non-Tg) animals. Exposure to combined RUN and ENR environments prevented an increase in microglial N v in 3×Tg-AD and reduced microglial numbers to non-Tg control levels. Interestingly, 3×Tg-AD mice housed solely in ENR environment displayed significant decrease in microglial N v in CA1 subfield (9.3 % decrease), stratum oriens (11.5 % decrease) and S.Mol (7.6 % decrease) of the hippocampus compared to 3×Tg-AD mice housed in STD environment. Morphological analysis revealed microglial hypertrophy due to pronounced increase in microglia surface, volume and somata volume (61, 78 and 41 %) in 3×Tg-AD mice housed in RUN (but not in ENR) compared to STD environment. These results indicate that exposure to RUN and ENR environments have differential effects on microglial density and activation-associated changes in microglial morphology.

  18. Early effects of altered gravity environments on plant cell growth and cell proliferation: Characterization of morphofunctional nucleolar types in an Arabidopsis cell culture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Ana Isabel; Herranz, Raul; Manzano, Aránzazu; Van Loon, Jack; Medina, Francisco Javier

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the cell growth rate of an in vitro cellular system in Arabidopsis thaliana induced by short exposure to an altered gravity environment have been estimated by a novel approach. The method consisted of defining three structural nucleolar types which are easy and reliable indicators of the ribosome biogenesis activity and, consequently, of protein biosynthesis, a parameter strictly correlated to cell growth in this cellular system. The relative abundance of each nucleolar type was statistically assessed in different conditions of gravity. Samples exposed to simulated microgravity for 200 min showed a significant decrease in nucleolar activity compared to 1g controls, whereas samples exposed to hypergravity (2g) for the same period showed nucleolar activity slightly increased,. These effects could be considered as an early cellular response to the environmental alteration, given the short duration of the treatment. The functional significance of the structural data was validated by a combination of several different well-known parameters, using microscopical, flow cytometry, qPCR and proteomic approaches, which showed that the decreased cell growth rate was decoupled from an increased cell proliferation rate under simulated microgravity, and the opposite trend was observed under hypergravity. Actually, not all parameters tested showed the same quantitative changes, indicating that the response to the environmental alteration is time-dependent. These results are in agreement with previous observations in root meristematic cells and they show the ability of plant cells to produce a response to gravity changes, independently of their integration into plant organs.

  19. Microglial Function across the Spectrum of Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Jillian C.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia constitute the resident immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system. Although much work has focused on their ability to mount an inflammatory response in reaction to pathology, recent studies have delved into their role in maintaining homeostasis in the healthy brain. It is important to note that the function of these cells is more complex than originally conceived, as there is increasing evidence that microglial responses can vary greatly among individuals. Here, this review will describe the changing behavior of microglia from development and birth through to the aged brain. Further, it is not only age that impacts the state of the neuroimmune milieu, as microglia have been shown to play a central role in the sexual differentiation of the brain. Finally, this review will discuss the implications this has for the differences in the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders between males and females, and between the young and old. PMID:28273860

  20. Microglial cell dysregulation in brain aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    von Bernhardi, Rommy; Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Laura; Eugenín, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergoes phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant microglia activation leads to a deleterious environment and neurodegeneration. In aged mice, microglia exhibit an increased expression of cytokines and an exacerbated inflammatory response to pathological changes. Whereas LPS increases nitric oxide (NO) secretion in microglia from young mice, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) predominates in older mice. Furthermore, there is accumulation of DNA oxidative damage in mitochondria of microglia during aging, and also an increased intracellular ROS production. Increased ROS activates the redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B, which promotes more neuroinflammation, and can be translated in functional deficits, such as cognitive impairment. Mitochondria-derived ROS and cathepsin B, are also necessary for the microglial cell production of interleukin-1β, a key inflammatory cytokine. Interestingly, whereas the regulatory cytokine TGFβ1 is also increased in the aged brain, neuroinflammation persists. Assessing this apparent contradiction, we have reported that TGFβ1 induction and activation of Smad3 signaling after inflammatory stimulation are reduced in adult mice. Other protective functions, such as phagocytosis, although observed in aged animals, become not inducible by inflammatory stimuli and TGFβ1. Here, we discuss data suggesting that mitochondrial and endolysosomal dysfunction could at least partially mediate age-associated microglial cell changes, and, together with the impairment of the TGFβ1-Smad3 pathway, could result in the reduction of protective activation and the facilitation of cytotoxic activation of microglia, resulting in the promotion of

  1. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis induces microglial activation in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Wong, Larry; Done, Joseph D; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown and factors including the host's immune response and the nervous system have been attributed to the development of CP/CPPS. We previously demonstrated that mast cells and chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL3 play an important role in mediating prostatitis. Here, we examined the role of neuroinflammation and microglia in the CNS in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was induced using a subcutaneous injection of rat prostate antigen. Sacral spinal cord tissue (segments S14-S5) was isolated and utilized for immunofluorescence or QRT-PCR analysis. Tactile allodynia was measured at baseline and at various points during EAP using Von Frey fibers as a function for pelvic pain. EAP mice were treated with minocycline after 30 days of prostatitis to test the efficacy of microglial inhibition on pelvic pain. Prostatitis induced the expansion and activation of microglia and the development of inflammation in the spinal cord as determined by increased expression levels of CCL3, IL-1β, Iba1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Microglial activation in mice with prostatitis resulted in increased expression of P2X4R and elevated levels of BDNF, two molecular markers associated with chronic pain. Pharmacological inhibition of microglia alleviated pain in mice with prostatitis and resulted in decreased expression of IL-1β, P2X4R, and BDNF. Our data show that prostatitis leads to inflammation in the spinal cord and the activation and expansion of microglia, mechanisms that may contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pelvic pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis induces microglial activation in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Larry; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown and factors including the host’s immune response and the nervous system have been attributed to the development of CP/CPPS. We previously demonstrated that mast cells and chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL3 play an important role in mediating prostatitis. Here, we examined the role of neuroinflammation and microglia in the CNS in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Methods Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was induced using a subcutaneous injection of rat prostate antigen. Sacral spinal cord tissue (segments S4–S5) was isolated and utilized for immunofluorescence or QRT-PCR analysis. Tactile allodynia was measured at baseline and at various points during EAP using Von Frey fibers as a function for pelvic pain. EAP mice were treated with minocycline after 30 days of prostatitis to test the efficacy of microglial inhibition on pelvic pain. Results Prostatitis induced the expansion and activation of microglia and the development of inflammation in the spinal cord as determined by increased expression levels of CCL3, IL-1β, Iba1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Microglial activation in mice with prostatitis resulted in increased expression of P2X4R and elevated levels of BDNF, two molecular markers associated with chronic pain. Pharmacological inhibition of microglia alleviated pain in mice with prostatitis and resulted in decreased expression of IL-1β, P2X4R, and BDNF. Conclusion Our data shows that prostatitis leads to inflammation in the spinal cord and the activation and expansion of microglia, mechanisms that may contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:25263093

  3. MicroRNA-101a regulates microglial morphology and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saika, Reiko; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Noto, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Yamamura, Takashi; Miyake, Sachiko

    2017-05-30

    Microglia, as well as other tissue-resident macrophages, arise from yolk sac progenitors. Thus, it is likely that the central nervous system environment is critical for the acquisition of a distinct microglial phenotype. Several microRNAs that are enriched in the brain play crucial roles in brain development and may also play a role in the differentiation of microglia. To track the differentiation of hematopoietic cells into microglia, lineage-negative bone marrow cells were co-cultured with astrocytes in the absence or presence of microRNAs or their inhibitors. Microglia-like cells were identified as small, round cells that were immunopositive for CD11b, Iba1, CX3CR1, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2. Five microRNAs (miR-101a, miR-139-3p, miR-214 * , miR-218, and miR-1186) were identified as modifiers of the differentiation of bone marrow-derived microglia-like cells. Among them, miR-101a facilitated the differentiation of bone marrow cells into microglia-like cells most potently. Small, round cells expressing CD11b, Iba1, CX3CR1, and TREM-2 were predominant in cells treated by miR-101a. miR-101a was abundantly expressed in non-microglial brain cells. Transfection of miR-101a into microglia significantly increased the production of IL-6 in response to LPS. Finally, miR-101a downregulated the expression of MAPK phosphatase-1. miR-101a, which is enriched in the brain, promotes the differentiation of bone marrow cells into microglia-like cells.

  4. Dextromethorphan inhibition of voltage-gated proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Ho; Yeh, Jay Z

    2012-05-10

    Dextromethorphan, an antitussive drug, has a neuroprotective property as evidenced by its inhibition of microglial production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. The microglial activation requires NADPH oxidase activity, which is sustained by voltage-gated proton channels in microglia as they dissipate an intracellular acid buildup. In the present study, we examined the effect of dextromethorphan on proton currents in microglial BV2 cells. Dextromethorphan reversibly inhibited proton currents with an IC(50) value of 51.7 μM at an intracellular/extracellular pH gradient of 5.5/7.3. Dextromethorphan did not change the reversal potential or the voltage dependence of the gating. Dextrorphan and 3-hydroxymorphinan, major metabolites of dextromethorphan, and dextromethorphan methiodide were ineffective in inhibiting proton currents. The results indicate that dextromethorphan inhibition of proton currents would suppress NADPH oxidase activity and, eventually, microglial activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status, Microglial Activation, Stress Resilience, and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0657 TITLE: Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status, Microglial Activation, Stress Resilience, and Cognitive...AND SUBTITLE Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status, Microglial Activation, Stress Resilience, and Cognitive Performance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...a marker of activated microglia. Subjects will also complete a comprehensive stress resilience and neurocognitive battery to correlate with [11C

  6. Microglial migration and interactions with dendrimer nanoparticles are altered in the presence of neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Nance, Elizabeth; Alnasser, Yossef; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2016-03-22

    Microglial cells have been implicated in neuroinflammation-mediated injury in the brain, including neurodevelopmental disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP) and autism. Pro-inflammatory activation of microglial cells results in the impairment of their neuroprotective functions, leading to an exaggerated, ongoing immune dysregulation that can persist long after the initial insult. We have previously shown that dendrimer-mediated delivery of an anti-inflammatory agent can attenuate inflammation in a rabbit model of maternal inflammation-induced CP and significantly improve the motor phenotype, due to the ability of the dendrimer to selectively localize in activated microglia. To elucidate the interactions between dendrimers and microglia, we created an organotypic whole-hemisphere brain slice culture model from newborn rabbits with and without exposure to inflammation in utero. We then used this model to analyze the dynamics of microglial migration and their interactions with dendrimers in the presence of neuroinflammation. Microglial cells in animals with CP had an amoeboid morphology and impaired cell migration, demonstrated by decreased migration distance and velocity when compared to cells in healthy, age-matched controls. However, this decreased migration was associated with a greater, more rapid dendrimer uptake compared to microglial cells from healthy controls. This study demonstrates that maternal intrauterine inflammation is associated with impaired microglial function and movement in the newborn brain. This microglial impairment may play a role in the development of ongoing brain injury and CP in the offspring. Increased uptake of dendrimers by the "impaired" microglia can be exploited to deliver drugs specifically to these cells and modulate their functions. Host tissue and target cell characteristics are important aspects to be considered in the design and evaluation of targeted dendrimer-based nanotherapeutics for improved and sustained efficacy. This ex

  7. Microglial Activation Correlates with Disease Progression and Upper Motor Neuron Clinical Symptoms in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Johannes; Toledo, Jon B.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated clinicopathological correlates of upper motor neuron (UMN) damage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and analyzed if the presence of the C9ORF72 repeat expansion was associated with alterations in microglial inflammatory activity. Methods Microglial pathology was assessed by IHC with 2 different antibodies (CD68, Iba1), myelin loss by Kluver-Barrera staining and myelin basic protein (MBP) IHC, and axonal loss by neurofilament protein (TA51) IHC, performed on 59 autopsy cases of ALS including 9 cases with C9ORF72 repeat expansion. Results Microglial pathology as depicted by CD68 and Iba1 was significantly more extensive in the corticospinal tract (CST) of ALS cases with a rapid progression of disease. Cases with C9ORF72 repeat expansion showed more extensive microglial pathology in the medulla and motor cortex which persisted after adjusting for disease duration in a logistic regression model. Higher scores on the clinical UMN scale correlated with increasing microglial pathology in the cervical CST. TDP-43 pathology was more extensive in the motor cortex of cases with rapid progression of disease. Conclusions This study demonstrates that microglial pathology in the CST of ALS correlates with disease progression and is linked to severity of UMN deficits. PMID:22720079

  8. Cell cycle accumulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCN-1 transitions from continuous in the adult germline to intermittent in the early embryo of C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kocsisova, Zuzana; Kornfeld, Kerry; Schedl, Tim

    2018-05-30

    The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA or PCN-1 in C. elegans), an essential processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ, has been widely used as a marker of S-phase. In C. elegans early embryos, PCN-1 accumulation is cyclic, localizing to the nucleus during S-phase and the cytoplasm during the rest of the cell cycle. The C. elegans larval and adult germline is an important model systems for studying cell cycle regulation, and it was observed that the cell cycle regulator cyclin E (CYE-1 in C. elegans) displays a non-cyclic, continuous accumulation pattern in this tissue. The accumulation pattern of PCN-1 has not been well defined in the larval and adult germline, and the objective of this study was to determine if the accumulation pattern is cyclic, as in other cells and organisms, or continuous, similar to cyclin E. To study the larval and adult germline accumulation of PCN-1 expressed from its native locus, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer a novel allele of pcn-1 that encodes an epitope-tagged protein. S-phase nuclei were labeled using EdU nucleotide incorporation, and FLAG::PCN-1 was detected by antibody staining. All progenitor zone nuclei, including those that were not in S-phase (as they were negative for EdU staining) showed PCN-1 accumulation, indicating that PCN-1 accumulated during all cell cycle phases in the germline progenitor zone. The same result was observed with a GFP::PCN-1 fusion protein expressed from a transgene. pcn-1 loss-of-function mutations were analyzed, and pcn-1 was necessary for robust fertility and embryonic development. In the C. elegans early embryo as well as other organisms, PCN-1 accumulates in nuclei only during S-phase. By contrast, in the progenitor zone of the germline of C. elegans, PCN-1 accumulated in nuclei during all cell cycle stages. This pattern is similar to accumulation pattern of cyclin E. These observations support the model that mitotic cell cycle regulation in the germline stem and progenitor

  9. Gemfibrozil, a lipid lowering drug, inhibits the activation of primary human microglia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β.

    PubMed

    Jana, Malabendu; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-08-01

    Microglial activation participates in the pathogenesis of various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. However, mechanisms by which microglial activation could be controlled are poorly understood. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor super family with diverse effect. This study underlines the importance of PPARβ/δ in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of gemfibrozil, an FDA-approved lipid-lowering drug, in primary human microglia. Bacterial lipopolysachharides (LPS) induced the expression of various proinflammatory molecules and upregulated the expression of microglial surface marker CD11b in human microglia. However, gemfibrozil markedly suppressed proinflammatory molecules and CD11b in LPS-stimulated microglia. Human microglia expressed PPAR-β and -γ, but not PPAR-α. Interestingly, either antisense knockdown of PPAR-β or antagonism of PPAR-β by a specific chemical antagonist abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of microglial activation. On the other hand, blocking of PPAR-α and -γ had no effect on gemfibrozil-mediated anti-inflammatory effect in microglia. These results highlight the fact that gemfibrozil regulates microglial activation by inhibiting inflammatory gene expression in a PPAR-β dependent pathway and further reinforce its therapeutic application in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Gemfibrozil, a lipid lowering drug, inhibits the activation of primary human microglia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Malabendu; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Microglial activation participates in the pathogenesis of various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. However, mechanisms by which microglial activation could be controlled are poorly understood. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor super family with diverse effect. This study underlines the importance of PPARβ/δ in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of gemfibrozil, an FDA-approved lipid-lowering drug, in primary human microglia. Bacterial lipopolysachharides (LPS) induced the expression of various proinflammatory molecules and upregulated the expression of microglial surface marker CD11b in human microglia. However, gemfibrozil markedly suppressed proinflammatory molecules and CD11b in LPS-stimulated microglia. Human microglia expressed PPAR-β and PPAR-γ, but not PPAR-α. Interestingly, either antisense knockdown of PPAR-β or antagonism of PPAR-β by a specific chemical antagonist abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of microglial activation. On the other hand, blocking of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ had no effect on gemfibrozil-mediated anti-inflammatory effect in microglia. These results highlight the fact that gemfibrozil regulates microglial activation by inhibiting inflammatory gene expression in a PPAR-β dependent pathway and further reinforce its therapeutic application in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22528839

  11. Correlation of Cytokine Levels and Microglial Cell Infiltration during Retinal Degeneration in RCS Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Yang, Xuesen; Utheim, Tor Paaaske; Guo, Chenying; Xiao, Mingchun; Liu, Yan; Yin, Zhengqin; Ma, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells, which are immunocompetent cells, are involved in all diseases of the central nervous system. During their activation in various diseases, a variety of soluble factors are released. In the present study, the correlation between cytokine levels and microglial cell migration in the course of retinal degeneration of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats was evaluated. MFG-E8 and CD11b were used to confirm the microglial cells. In the retina of RCS rats, the mRNA expression of seven genes (MFG-E8 and its integrins αυ and ß5, CD11b and the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and MCP-1) formed almost similar bimodal peak distributions, which were centred at P7 and P45 to P60. In contrast, in rdy rats, which comprised the control group, a unimodal peak distribution centred at P14 was observed. The gene expression accompanied the activation and migration of microglial cells from the inner to the outer layer of the retina during the process of degeneration. Principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis revealed that the expression of these seven genes, especially TNF-α and CD11b, positively correlated with retinal degeneration and microglial activity during retinal degeneration in RCS rats, but not in the control rats. Furthermore, linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the expression of these genes and the activation of microglial cells in the dystrophic retina. Our findings suggest that the suppression of microglial cells and the blockade of their cytotoxic effects may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for treating photoreceptor death in various retinal disorders. PMID:24349184

  12. Correlation of cytokine levels and microglial cell infiltration during retinal degeneration in RCS rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Yang, Xuesen; Utheim, Tor Paaaske; Guo, Chenying; Xiao, Mingchun; Liu, Yan; Yin, Zhengqin; Ma, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells, which are immunocompetent cells, are involved in all diseases of the central nervous system. During their activation in various diseases, a variety of soluble factors are released. In the present study, the correlation between cytokine levels and microglial cell migration in the course of retinal degeneration of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats was evaluated. MFG-E8 and CD11b were used to confirm the microglial cells. In the retina of RCS rats, the mRNA expression of seven genes (MFG-E8 and its integrins αυ and ß5, CD11b and the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and MCP-1) formed almost similar bimodal peak distributions, which were centred at P7 and P45 to P60. In contrast, in rdy rats, which comprised the control group, a unimodal peak distribution centred at P14 was observed. The gene expression accompanied the activation and migration of microglial cells from the inner to the outer layer of the retina during the process of degeneration. Principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis revealed that the expression of these seven genes, especially TNF-α and CD11b, positively correlated with retinal degeneration and microglial activity during retinal degeneration in RCS rats, but not in the control rats. Furthermore, linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the expression of these genes and the activation of microglial cells in the dystrophic retina. Our findings suggest that the suppression of microglial cells and the blockade of their cytotoxic effects may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for treating photoreceptor death in various retinal disorders.

  13. Influence of extracellular zinc on M1 microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Youichirou; Aratake, Takaaki; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Yawata, Toshio; Ueba, Tetuya; Saito, Motoaki

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular zinc, which is released from hippocampal neurons in response to brain ischaemia, triggers morphological changes in microglia. Under ischaemic conditions, microglia exhibit two opposite activation states (M1 and M2 activation), which may be further regulated by the microenvironment. We examined the role of extracellular zinc on M1 activation of microglia. Pre-treatment of microglia with 30–60 μM ZnCl2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secretion when M1 activation was induced by lipopolysaccharide administration. In contrast, the cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, the radical scavenger Trolox, and the P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 suppressed the effects of zinc pre-treatment on microglia. Furthermore, endogenous zinc release was induced by cerebral ischaemia–reperfusion, resulting in increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and the microglial M1 surface marker CD16/32, without hippocampal neuronal cell loss, in addition to impairments in object recognition memory. However, these effects were suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. These findings suggest that extracellular zinc may prime microglia to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via P2X7 receptor activation followed by reactive oxygen species generation in response to stimuli that trigger M1 activation, and that these inflammatory processes may result in deficits in object recognition memory. PMID:28240322

  14. Influence of extracellular zinc on M1 microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Youichirou; Aratake, Takaaki; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Yawata, Toshio; Ueba, Tetuya; Saito, Motoaki

    2017-02-27

    Extracellular zinc, which is released from hippocampal neurons in response to brain ischaemia, triggers morphological changes in microglia. Under ischaemic conditions, microglia exhibit two opposite activation states (M1 and M2 activation), which may be further regulated by the microenvironment. We examined the role of extracellular zinc on M1 activation of microglia. Pre-treatment of microglia with 30-60 μM ZnCl 2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secretion when M1 activation was induced by lipopolysaccharide administration. In contrast, the cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, the radical scavenger Trolox, and the P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 suppressed the effects of zinc pre-treatment on microglia. Furthermore, endogenous zinc release was induced by cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion, resulting in increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and the microglial M1 surface marker CD16/32, without hippocampal neuronal cell loss, in addition to impairments in object recognition memory. However, these effects were suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. These findings suggest that extracellular zinc may prime microglia to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via P2X7 receptor activation followed by reactive oxygen species generation in response to stimuli that trigger M1 activation, and that these inflammatory processes may result in deficits in object recognition memory.

  15. Effects of hypnotic bromovalerylurea on microglial BV2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Shun; Abe, Naoki; Ohtake, Fumito; Islam, Afsana; Choudhury, Mohammed Emamussalehin; Utsunomiya, Ryo; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Nishihara, Tasuku; Kuwabara, Jun; Yano, Hajime; Watanabe, Yuji; Aibiki, Mayuki; Yorozuya, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Junya

    2017-06-01

    An old sedative and hypnotic bromovalerylurea (BU) has anti-inflammatory effects. BU suppressed nitric oxide (NO) release and proinflammatory cytokine expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 cells, a murine microglial cell line. However, BU did not inhibit LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB and subsequent transcription. BU suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1). The Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) inhibitor filgotinib suppressed the NO release much more weakly than that of BU, although filgotinib almost completely prevented LPS-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. Knockdown of JAK1, STAT1, or IRF1 did not affect the suppressive effects of BU on LPS-induced NO release by BV2 cells. A combination of BU and filgotinib synergistically suppressed the NO release. The mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone, which did not prevent STAT1 phosphorylation or IRF1 expression, suppressed proinflammatory mediator expression less significantly than BU. BU and rotenone reduced intracellular ATP (iATP) levels to a similar extent. A combination of rotenone and filgotinib suppressed NO release by LPS-treated BV2 cells as strongly as BU. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory actions of BU may be attributable to the synergism of inhibition of JAK1/STAT1-dependent pathways and reduction in iATP level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  17. Peripheral formalin injection induces unique spinal cord microglial phenotypic changes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yuan; Tan, Yong-Hui; Sung, Backil; Mao, Jianren

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of brain and activated by peripheral tissue injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible induction of several microglial surface immunomolecules in the spinal cord, including leukocyte common antigen (LCA/CD45), MHC class I antigen, MHC class II antigen, Fc receptor, and CD11c following formalin injection into the rat’s hind paw. CD45 and MHC class I were upregulated in the activated microglia, which was evident on day 3 with the peak expression on day 7 following peripheral formalin injection. There was a very low basal expression of MHC class II, CD11c, and the Fc receptor, which did not change after the formalin injection. These results, for the first time, indicate that peripheral formalin injection can induce phenotypic changes of microglia with distinct upregulation of CD45 and MHC class I antigen. The data suggest that phenotypic changes of the activated microglia may be a unique pattern of central changes following peripheral tissue injury. PMID:19015000

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium alginate/gelatine porous scaffolds merged with fucoidan in murine microglial BV2 cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Tinh; Ko, Seok-Chun; Oh, Gun-Woo; Heo, Seong-Yeong; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan; Choi, Sung-Wook; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2016-12-01

    Microglia are the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Overexpression of inflammatory mediators by microglia can induce several neurological diseases. Thus, the underlying basic requirement for neural tissue engineering is to develop materials that exhibit little or no neuro-inflammatory effects. In this study, we have developed a method to create porous scaffolds by adding fucoidan (Fu) into porous sodium alginate (Sa)/gelatine (G) (SaGFu). For mechanical characterization, in vitro degradation, stress/strain, swelling, and pore size were measured. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was evaluated by assessing the adhesion and proliferation of BV2 microglial cells on the SaGFu porous scaffolds using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, respectively. Moreover, we studied the neuro-inflammatory effects of SaGFu on BV2 microglial cells. The effect of gelatine and fucoidan content on the various properties of the scaffold was investigated and the results showed that mechanical properties increased porosity and swelling ratio with an increase in the gelatine and fucoidan, while the in vitro biodegradability decreased. The average SaGFu diameter attained by fabrication of SaGFu ranged from 60 to 120μm with high porosity (74.44%-88.30%). Cell culture using gelatine 2.0% (SaG2Fu) and 4.0% (SaG4Fu), showed good cell proliferation; more than 60-80% that with Sa alone. Following stimulation with 0.5μg/mL LPS, microglia cultured in porous SaGFu decreased their expression of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). SaG2Fu and SaG4Fu also inhibited the activation and translocation of p65 NF-κB protein levels, resulting in reduction of NO, ROS, and PGE2 production. These results provide insights into the diverse biological effects and opens new avenues for the applications of SaGFu in neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-related memory decline is associated with vascular and microglial degeneration in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Kadar, Tamar; Sirimanne, Ernest; MacGibbon, Alastair; Guan, Jian

    2012-12-01

    The hippocampus processes memory is an early target of aging-related biological and structural lesions, leading to memory decline. With absent neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, which identified in rodent model of normal aging the pathology underlying age-related memory impairment is not complete. The effective glial-vascular networks are the key for maintaining neuronal functions. The changes of glial cells and cerebral capillaries with age may contribute to memory decline. Thus we examined age associated changes in neurons, glial phenotypes and microvasculature in the hippocampus of aged rats with memory decline. Young adult (6 months) and aged (35 months) male rats (Fisher/Norway-Brown) were used. To evaluate memory, four days of acquisition phase of Morris water maze tasks were carried out in both age groups and followed by a probe trial 2 h after the acquisition. The brains were then collected for analysis using immunochemistry. The aged rats showed a delayed latency (p<0.001) and longer swimming path (p<0.001) to locate a hidden platform. They also spent less time in and made delayed and fewer entries into the correct quadrant during the probe trial. Without seen neuronal degeneration, the aged rats with memory impairments have displayed dopamine depletion, profound vascular and microglial degeneration with reduced vascular endothelial growth factor and elevated GFAP expression in the hippocampus. The data indicate the memory decline with age is associated with neuronal dysfunction, possibly due to impaired glial-vascular-neuronal networks, but not neuronal degeneration. Glial and vascular degeneration found in aged rats may represent early event of aging pathology prior to neuronal degeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immortalized sheep microglial cells are permissive to a diverse range of ruminant viruses.

    PubMed

    Stanton, James B; Swanson, Beryl; Orozco, Edith; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-12-01

    Ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. Infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. Unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the permissibility of a stably immortalized, sheep microglial cell line to viruses that are reported to infect ruminants: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Sublines A and H of previously isolated, immortalized, and characterized (CD14-positive) ovine microglial cells were used. Bovine turbinate cells and goat synovial membrane cells were used for comparison. Cytopathic changes were used to confirm infection of individual wells, which were then counted and used to calculate the 50% tissue culture infectious dose. Uninoculated cells served as negative controls and confirmed that the cells were not previously infected with these viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inoculation of the two microglial cell sublines with laboratory and field isolates of BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV resulted in viral infection in a manner similar to bovine turbinate cells. Immortalized microglia cells are also permissive to SRLV, similar to goat synovial membrane cells. These immortalized sheep microglial cells provide a new tool for the study of ruminant viruses in ruminant microglial cell line.

  1. Novel cell-cell signaling by microglial transmembrane TNFα with implications for neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhigang; Peng, Xiangmin; Hagshenas, Jafar; Insolera, Ryan; Fink, David J.; Mata, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is accompanied by neuroimmune activation in dorsal horn of spinal cord. We have observed that in animal models this activation is characterized by increased expression of transmembrane tumor necrosis factor α (mTNFα) without release of soluble (sTNFα). Here we report that the pain-related neurotransmitter peptide substance P (SP) increases expression of mTNFα without release of sTNFα from primary microglial cells. We modeled this interaction using an immortalized microglial cell line; exposure of these cells to SP also resulted in increased expression of mTNFα but without any increase in expression of the TNF-cleaving enzyme (TACE) and no release of sTNFα. In order to evaluate the biological function of uncleaved mTNFα, we transfected COS-7 cells with a mutant full length TNFα construct resistant to cleavage by TACE. Co-culture of COS-7 cells expressing the mutant TNFα with microglial cells led to microglial cell activation indicated by increased OX-42 immunoreactivity and release of macrophage chemoattractant peptide 1 (CCL2) by direct cell-cell contact. These results suggest a novel pathway through which release of SP by primary afferents activates microglial expression of mTNFα, establishing a feed-forward loop that may contribute to the establishment of chronic pain. PMID:20609516

  2. Suppression of Brain Mast Cells Degranulation Inhibits Microglial Activation and Central Nervous System Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yiming; Zhou, Xiqiao; Qian, Yanning; Zhang, Shu

    2017-03-01

    Brain inflammation has a critical role in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, play an important role in brain inflammation, while brain mast cells are the "first responder" in the injury rather than microglia. Functional aspects of mast cell-microglia interactions remain poorly understood. Our results demonstrated that site-directed injection of the "mast cell degranulator" compound 48/80 (C48/80) in the hypothalamus induced mast cell degranulation, microglial activation, and inflammatory factor production, which initiated the acute brain inflammatory response. "Mast cell stabilizer" disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) inhibited this effect, including decrease of inflammatory cytokines, reduced microglial activation, inhibition of MAPK and AKT pathways, and repression of protein expression of histamine receptor 1 (H 1 R), histamine receptor 4 (H 4 R), protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in microglia. We also demonstrated that C48/80 had no effect on microglial activation in mast cell-deficient Kit W-sh/W-sh mice. These results implicate that activated brain mast cells trigger microglial activation and stabilization of mast cell inhibits microglial activation-induced central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Interactions between mast cells and microglia could constitute a new and unique therapeutic target for CNS immune inflammation-related diseases.

  3. Attenuated microglial activation mediates tolerance to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2005-02-01

    Methamphetamine causes persistent damage to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. Repeated, intermittent treatment of mice with low doses of methamphetamine leads to the development of tolerance to its neurotoxic effects. The mechanisms underlying tolerance are not understood but clearly involve more than alterations in drug bioavailability or reductions in the hyperthermia caused by methamphetamine. Microglia have been implicated recently as mediators of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. The purpose of the present studies was to determine if a tolerance regimen of methamphetamine would attenuate the microglial response to a neurotoxic challenge. Mice treated with a low-dose methamphetamine tolerance regimen showed minor reductions in striatal dopamine content and low levels of microglial activation. When the tolerance regimen preceded a neurotoxic challenge of methamphetamine, the depletion of dopamine normally seen was significantly attenuated. The microglial activation that occurs after a toxic methamphetamine challenge was blunted likewise. Despite the induction of tolerance against drug-induced toxicity and microglial activation, a neurotoxic challenge with methamphetamine still caused hyperthermia. These results suggest that tolerance to methamphetamine neurotoxicity is associated with attenuated microglial activation and they further dissociate its neurotoxicity from drug-induced hyperthermia.

  4. Microglial dystrophy in the aged and Alzheimer's disease brain is associated with ferritin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Kryslaine O; Sparks, D Larry; Streit, Wolfgang J

    2008-08-01

    Degeneration of microglial cells may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of aging-related neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we analyzed the morphological characteristics of microglial cells in the nondemented and Alzheimer's disease (AD) human brain using ferritin immunohistochemistry. The central hypothesis was that expression of the iron storage protein ferritin increases the susceptibility of microglia to degeneration, particularly in the aged brain since senescent microglia might become less efficient in maintaining iron homeostasis and free iron can promote oxidative damage. In a primary set of 24 subjects (age range 34-97 years) examined, microglial cells immunoreactive for ferritin were found to constitute a subpopulation of the larger microglial pool labeled with an antibody for HLA-DR antigens. The majority of these ferritin-positive microglia exhibited aberrant morphological (dystrophic) changes in the aged and particularly in the AD brain. No spatial correlation was found between ferritin-positive dystrophic microglia and senile plaques in AD tissues. Analysis of a secondary set of human postmortem brain tissues with a wide range of postmortem intervals (PMI, average 10.94 +/- 5.69 h) showed that the occurrence of microglial dystrophy was independent of PMI and consequently not a product of tissue autolysis. Collectively, these results suggest that microglial involvement in iron storage and metabolism contributes to their degeneration, possibly through increased exposure of the cells to oxidative stress. We conclude that ferritin immunohistochemistry may be a useful method for detecting degenerating microglia in the human brain. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Aripiprazole inhibits polyI:C-induced microglial activation possibly via TRPM7.

    PubMed

    Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kato, Takahiro A; Ohgidani, Masahiro; Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Sagata, Noriaki; Inamine, Shogo; Horikawa, Hideki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Kyuragi, Sota; Seki, Yoshihiro; Monji, Akira; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-12-01

    Viral infections during fetal and adolescent periods, as well as during the course of schizophrenia itself have been linked to the onset and/or relapse of a psychosis. We previously reported that the unique antipsychotic aripiprazole, a partial D2 agonist, inhibits the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from interferon-γ-activated rodent microglial cells. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) has recently been used as a standard model of viral infections, and recent in vitro studies have shown that microglia are activated by polyI:C. Aripiprazole has been reported to ameliorate behavioral abnormalities in polyI:C-induced mice. To clarify the anti-inflammatory properties of aripiprazole, we investigated the effects of aripiprazole on polyI:C-induced microglial activation in a cellular model of murine microglial cells and possible surrogate cells for human microglia. PolyI:C treatment of murine microglial cells activated the production of TNF-α and enhanced the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, whereas aripiprazole inhibited these responses. In addition, polyI:C treatment of possible surrogate cells for human microglia markedly increased TNF-α mRNA expression in cells from three healthy volunteers. Aripiprazole inhibited this increase in cells from two individuals. PolyI:C consistently increased intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in murine microglial cells by influx of extracellular Ca 2+ . We demonstrated that transient receptor potential in melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channels contributed to this polyI:C-induced increase in [Ca 2+ ] i . Taken together, these data suggest that aripiprazole may be therapeutic for schizophrenia by reducing microglial inflammatory reactions, and TRPM7 may be a novel therapeutic target for schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to validate these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishment of mouse neuron and microglial cell co-cultured models and its action mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Yunfeng; Tang, Jun; Tao, Yihao; Jiang, Bing; Chen, Zhi; Feng, Hua; Yang, Liming; Zhu, Gang

    2017-06-27

    The objective of this study is to establish a co-culture model of mouse neurons and microglial cells, and to analyze the mechanism of action of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and transient oxygen glucose deprivation (tOGD) preconditioning cell models. Mouse primary neurons and BV2 microglial cells were successfully cultured, and the OGD and tOGD models were also established. In the co-culture of mouse primary neurons and microglial cells, the cell number of tOGD mouse neurons and microglial cells was larger than the OGD cell number, observed by a microscope. CCK-8 assay result showed that at 1h after treatment, the OD value in the control group is lower compared to all the other three groups (P < 0.05). The treatment group exhibited the highest OD value among the four groups. The results observed at 5h were consistent with the results at 1 h. Flow cytometry results showed that at 1h after treatment the apoptosis percentages is higher in the control group compared to other three groups (P < 0.05). Mouse brain tissues were collected and primary neurons cells were cultured. In the meantime mouse BV2 microglia cells were cultured. Two types of cells were co-cultured, and OGD and tOGD cell models were established. There were four groups in the experiment: control group (OGD), treatment group (tOGD+OGD), placebo group (tOGD+OGD+saline) and minocycline intervention group (tOGD+OGD+minocycline). CCK-8 kit was used to detect cell viability and flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis. In this study, mouse primary neurons and microglial cells were co-cultured. The OGD and tOGD models were established successfully. tOGD was able to effectively protect neurons and microglial cells from damage, and inhibit the apoptosis caused by oxygen glucose deprivation.

  7. Role and Mechanism of Microglial Activation in Iron-Induced Selective and Progressive Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhao-fen; Gao, Jun-hua; Sun, Li; Huang, Xi-yan; Liu, Zhuo; Yu, Shu-yang; Cao, Chen-Jie; Zuo, Li-jun; Chen, Ze-Jie; Hu, Yang; Wang, Fang; Hong, Jau-shyong; Wang, Xiao-min

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients have excessive iron depositions in substantia nigra (SN). Neuroinflammation characterized by microglial activation is pivotal for dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. However, the role and mechanism of microglial activation in iron-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in SN remain unclear yet. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of microglial β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation in iron-induced selective and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Multiple primary midbrain cultures from rat, NOX2+/+ and NOX2−/− mice were used. Dopaminergic neurons, total neurons, and microglia were visualized by immunostainings. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Superoxide (O2·−) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) were determined by measuring SOD-inhibitable reduction of tetrazolium salt WST-1 and DCFH-DA assay. mRNA and protein were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot. Iron induces selective and progressive dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rat neuron–microglia–astroglia cultures and microglial activation potentiates the neurotoxicity. Activated microglia produce a magnitude of O2·− and iROS, and display morphological alteration. NOX2 inhibitor diphenylene iodonium protects against iron-elicited dopaminergic neurotoxicity through decreasing microglial O2·− generation, and NOX2−/− mice are resistant to the neurotoxicity by reducing microglial O2·− production, indicating that iron-elicited dopaminergic neurotoxicity is dependent of NOX2, a O2·−-generating enzyme. NOX2 activation is indicated by the increased mRNA and protein levels of subunits P47 and gp91. Molecules relevant to NOX2 activation include PKC-σ, P38, ERK1/2, JNK, and NF-ΚBP65 as their mRNA and protein levels are enhanced by NOX2 activation. Iron causes selective and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration, and microglial NOX2 activation potentiates the

  8. Inhibition of cell proliferation by nobiletin, a dietary phytochemical, associated with apoptosis and characteristic gene expression, but lack of effect on early rat hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Asamoto, Makoto; Tujimura, Kazunari; Hokaiwado, Naomi; Takahashi, Satoru; Ogawa, Kumiko; Kuribayashi, Masanori; Ogiso, Tadashi; Okuyama, Harumi; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2004-12-01

    Dietary phytochemicals can inhibit the development of certain types of tumors. We here investigated the effects of nobiletin (Nob), garcinol (Gar), auraptene (Aur), beta-cryptoxanthin- and hesperidine-rich pulp (CHRP) and 1,1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) on hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat medium-term liver bioassay, and also examined their influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle kinetics, apoptosis and cell invasion of rat and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, MH1C1 and HepG2, respectively. While there were no obvious suppressive effects on the development of putative preneoplastic liver lesions, inhibition of hepatocarcinoma cell proliferation was evident in the Nob group. Nob also caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified a set of genes specifically regulated by Nob, and these are likely to be involved in the observed growth suppression of HCC cells. These results suggest that phytochemicals might have chemopreventive potential in late stages of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  9. Progesterone and DNA Damage Encourage Uterine Cell Proliferation and Decidualization through Up-regulating Ribonucleotide Reductase 2 Expression during Early Pregnancy in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Feng, Xu-Hui; Deng, Wen-Bo; Ni, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Jia, Bo; Yang, Xin-Ling; Wang, Tong-Song; Liu, Ji-Long; Su, Ren-Wei; Liang, Xiao-Huan; Qi, Qian-Rong; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Embryo implantation into the maternal uterus is a crucial step for the successful establishment of mammalian pregnancy. Following the attachment of embryo to the uterine luminal epithelium, uterine stromal cells undergo steroid hormone-dependent decidualization, which is characterized by stromal cell proliferation and differentiation. The mechanisms underlying steroid hormone-induced stromal cell proliferation and differentiation during decidualization are still poorly understood. Ribonucleotide reductase, consisting of two subunits (RRM1 and RRM2), is a rate-limiting enzyme in deoxynucleotide production for DNA synthesis and plays an important role in cell proliferation and tumorgenicity. Based on our microarray analysis, Rrm2 expression was significantly higher at implantation sites compared with interimplantation sites in mouse uterus. However, the expression, regulation, and function of RRM2 in mouse uterus during embryo implantation and decidualization are still unknown. Here we show that although both RRM1 and RRM2 expression are markedly induced in mouse uterine stromal cells undergoing decidualization, only RRM2 is regulated by progesterone, a key regulator of decidualization. Further studies showed that the induction of progesterone on RRM2 expression in stromal cells is mediated by the AKT/c-MYC pathway. RRM2 can also be induced by replication stress and DNA damage during decidualization through the ATR/ATM-CHK1-E2F1 pathway. The weight of implantation sites and deciduoma was effectively reduced by specific inhibitors for RRM2. The expression of decidual/trophoblast prolactin-related protein (Dtprp), a reliable marker for decidualization in mice, was significantly reduced in deciduoma and steroid-induced decidual cells after HU treatment. Therefore, RRM2 may be an important effector of progesterone signaling to induce cell proliferation and decidualization in mouse uterus. PMID:22403396

  10. The Ames dwarf gene, df, is required early in pituitary ontogeny for the extinction of Rpx transcription and initiation of lineage-specific cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gage, P J; Brinkmeier, M L; Scarlett, L M; Knapp, L T; Camper, S A; Mahon, K A

    1996-12-01

    Two nonallelic dwarfing mutations in mice define genes important for pituitary development and function. Mice homozygous for either the Ames (df) or Snell (Pit 1dw) dwarf mutations exhibit severe proportional dwarfism, hypothyroidism, and infertility due to the cytodifferentiation failure of three anterior pituitary cell types: thyrotropes, somatotropes, and lactotropes. Analysis of double heterozygotes and double mutants has provided evidence that the df and dw genes act sequentially in the same genetic pathway. Double heterozygotes had no reduction in growth rate or final adult size. Double homozygotes had essentially the same phenotype as the single mutants and were recovered at the predicted frequency, indicating that there are no previously unrecognized, redundant functions of the two genes. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that df acts earlier in the differentiation pathway than Pit1. The df mutants fail to extinguish expression of the homeobox gene Rpx on embryonic day 13.5 (e13.5), and the size of their nascent pituitary glands is reduced by e14.5. In contrast, Pit1dw mutants down-regulate Rpx appropriately and exhibit normal cell proliferation up to e14.5. The failure to extinguish Rpx and the concomitant hypocellularity of df pituitaries suggest the importance of Rpx repression in lineage-specific cell proliferation before the appearance of lineage-specific markers. Later, Pit-1 and hypothalamic neuropeptides act sequentially to regulate marker gene transcription and cell proliferation. These results establish the time of df action in a cascade of genes that regulate pituitary ontogeny.

  11. Novel, Moon and Mars, partial gravity simulation paradigms and their effects on the balance between cell growth and cell proliferation during early plant development.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Aránzazu; Herranz, Raúl; den Toom, Leonardus A; Te Slaa, Sjoerd; Borst, Guus; Visser, Martijn; Medina, F Javier; van Loon, Jack J W A

    2018-01-01

    Clinostats and Random Positioning Machine (RPM) are used to simulate microgravity, but, for space exploration, we need to know the response of living systems to fractional levels of gravity (partial gravity) as they exist on Moon and Mars. We have developed and compared two different paradigms to simulate partial gravity using the RPM, one by implementing a centrifuge on the RPM (RPM HW ), the other by applying specific software protocols to driving the RPM motors (RPM SW ). The effects of the simulated partial gravity were tested in plant root meristematic cells, a system with known response to real and simulated microgravity. Seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were germinated under simulated Moon (0.17  g ) and Mars (0.38  g ) gravity. In parallel, seeds germinated under simulated microgravity (RPM), or at 1  g control conditions. Fixed root meristematic cells from 4-day grown seedlings were analyzed for cell proliferation rate and rate of ribosome biogenesis using morphometrical methods and molecular markers of the regulation of cell cycle and nucleolar activity. Cell proliferation appeared increased and cell growth was depleted under Moon gravity, compared with the 1  g control. The effects were even higher at the Moon level than at simulated microgravity, indicating that meristematic competence (balance between cell growth and proliferation) is also affected at this gravity level. However, the results at the simulated Mars level were close to the 1  g static control. This suggests that the threshold for sensing and responding to gravity alteration in the root would be at a level intermediate between Moon and Mars gravity. Both partial g simulation strategies seem valid and show similar results at Moon g -levels, but further research is needed, in spaceflight and simulation facilities, especially around and beyond Mars g levels to better understand more precisely the differences and constrains in the use of these facilities for the space biology community.

  12. NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION. M.L. Block1,2, X. Wu1, P. Zhong1, G. Li1, T. Wang1, J.S. Hong1 & B.Veronesi.2
    1The Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, RTP, NC and 2 National Health and Envi...

  13. The PI3K/Akt pathway is required for LPS activation of microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Saponaro, Concetta; Cianciulli, Antonia; Calvello, Rosa; Dragone, Teresa; Iacobazzi, Francesco; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2012-10-01

    Upregulation of inflammatory responses in the brain is associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are activated in neurodegenerative diseases, producing pro-inflammatory mediators. Critically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo. The signaling mechanisms triggered by LPS to stimulate the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in microglial cells are still incompletely understood. To further explore the mechanisms of LPS-mediated inflammatory response of microglial cells, we studied the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal transduction pathways known to be activated by toll-like receptor-4 signaling through LPS. In the current study, we report that the activation profile of LPS-induced pAkt activation preceded those of LPS-induced NF-κB activation, suggesting a role for PI3K/Akt in the pathway activation of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses of activated microglia. These results, providing the first evidence that PI3K dependent signaling is involved in the inflammatory responses of microglial cells following LPS stimulation, may be useful in preventing inflammatory based neurodegenerative processes.

  14. MK-801 and dextromethorphan block microglial activation and protect against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2005-07-19

    Methamphetamine causes long-term toxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. Evidence is emerging that microglia can contribute to the neuronal damage associated with disease, injury, or inflammation, but their role in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has received relatively little attention. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the neurotoxic HIV Tat protein, which cause dopamine neuronal toxicity after direct infusion into brain, cause activation of cultured mouse microglial cells as evidenced by increased expression of intracellular cyclooxygenase-2 and elevated secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist that is known to protect against methamphetamine neurotoxicity, prevents microglial activation by LPS and HIV Tat. Dextromethorphan, an antitussive agent with NMDA receptor blocking properties, also prevents microglial activation. In vivo, MK-801 and dextromethorphan reduce methamphetamine-induced activation of microglia in striatum and they protect dopamine nerve endings against drug-induced nerve terminal damage. The present results indicate that the ability of MK-801 and dextromethorphan to protect against methamphetamine neurotoxicity is related to their common property as blockers of microglial activation.

  15. Hirsutine, an indole alkaloid of Uncaria rhynchophylla, inhibits inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity and microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwan Yong; Nam, Kyong Nyon; Woo, Byung-Choel; Kim, Kyoo-Pil; Kim, Sung-Ok; Lee, Eunjoo H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation endangers neuronal survival through the release of various pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic factors. As such, negative regulators of microglial activation have been considered as potential therapeutic candidates to reduce the risk of neurodegeneration associated with inflammation. Uncaria rhynchophylla (U. rhynchophylla) is a traditional oriental herb that has been used for treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Hirsutine (HS), one of the major indole alkaloids of U. rhynchophylla, has demonstrated neuroprotective potential. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of HS in the repression of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and microglial cell activation. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, HS blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-related hippocampal cell death and production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and interleukin-1β. HS was demonstrated to effectively inhibit LPS-induced NO release from cultured rat brain microglia. The compound reduced the LPS-stimulated production of PGE2 and intracellular reactive oxygen species. HS significantly decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling proteins. In conclusion, HS reduces the production of various neurotoxic factors in activated microglial cells and possesses neuroprotective activity in a model of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity.

  16. Doxycycline Suppresses Microglial Activation by Inhibiting the p38 MAPK and NF-kB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Socias, Benjamin; Ouidja, Mohand O; Sepulveda-Diaz, Julia E; Acuña, Leonardo; Silva, Rangel L; Michel, Patrick P; Del-Bel, Elaine; Cunha, Thiago M; Raisman-Vozari, Rita

    2016-05-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases, the inflammatory response is mediated by activated glial cells, mainly microglia, which are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system. Activated microglial cells release proinflammatory mediators and neurotoxic factors that are suspected to cause or exacerbate these diseases. We recently demonstrated that doxycycline protects substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. This effect was associated with a reduction of microglial cell activation, which suggests that doxycycline may operate primarily as an anti-inflammatory drug. In the present study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory potential of doxycycline using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary microglial cells in culture as a model of neuroinflammation. Doxycycline attenuated the expression of key activation markers in LPS-treated microglial cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. More specifically, doxycycline treatment lowered the expression of the microglial activation marker IBA-1 as well as the production of ROS, NO, and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). In primary microglial cells, we also found that doxycycline inhibits LPS-induced p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and NF-kB nuclear translocation. The present results indicate that the effect of doxycycline on LPS-induced microglial activation probably occurs via the modulation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kB signaling pathways. These results support the idea that doxycycline may be useful in preventing or slowing the progression of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases that exhibit altered glia function.

  17. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Exposure Reduces Hypoxia and Inflammation Damage in Neuron-Like and Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Ravani, Annalisa; Pasquini, Silvia; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Setti, Stefania; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of low-frequency, low-energy pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been investigated by using different cell lines derived from neuron-like cells and microglial cells. In particular, the primary aim was to evaluate the effect of PEMF exposure in inflammation- and hypoxia-induced injury in two different neuronal cell models, the human neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells and rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in N9 microglial cells. In neuron-like cells, live/dead and apoptosis assays were performed in hypoxia conditions from 2 to 48 h. Interestingly, PEMF exposure counteracted hypoxia damage significantly reducing cell death and apoptosis. In the same cell lines, PEMFs inhibited the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), the master transcriptional regulator of cellular response to hypoxia. The effect of PEMF exposure on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both neuron-like and microglial cells was investigated considering their key role in ischemic injury. PEMFs significantly decreased hypoxia-induced ROS generation in PC12, SH-SY5Y, and N9 cells after 24 or 48 h of incubation. Moreover, PEMFs were able to reduce some of the most well-known pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 release in N9 microglial cells stimulated with different concentrations of LPS for 24 or 48 h of incubation time. These results show a protective effect of PEMFs on hypoxia damage in neuron-like cells and an anti-inflammatory effect in microglial cells suggesting that PEMFs could represent a potential therapeutic approach in cerebral ischemic conditions. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1200-1208, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) do not prevent LPS-induced behavioral alterations and microglial activation.

    PubMed

    van Buel, E M; Bosker, F J; van Drunen, J; Strijker, J; Douwenga, W; Klein, H C; Eisel, U L M

    2015-12-12

    Long-term neuroimmune activation is a common finding in major depressive disorder (MDD). Literature suggests a dual effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a highly effective treatment strategy for MDD, on neuroimmune parameters: while ECT acutely increases inflammatory parameters, such as serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, there is evidence to suggest that repeated ECT sessions eventually result in downregulation of the inflammatory response. We hypothesized that this might be due to ECT-induced attenuation of microglial activity upon inflammatory stimuli in the brain. Adult male C57Bl/6J mice received a series of ten electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) or sham shocks, followed by an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) injection. Brains were extracted and immunohistochemically stained for the microglial marker ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1). In addition, a sucrose preference test and an open-field test were performed to quantify behavioral alterations. LPS induced a short-term reduction in sucrose preference, which normalized within 3 days. In addition, LPS reduced the distance walked in the open field and induced alterations in grooming and rearing behavior. ECS did not affect any of these parameters. Phenotypical analysis of microglia demonstrated an LPS-induced increase in microglial activity ranging from 84 to 213 % in different hippocampal regions (CA3 213 %; CA1 84 %; dentate gyrus 131 %; and hilus 123 %). ECS-induced alterations in microglial activity were insignificant, ranging from -2.6 to 14.3 % in PBS-injected mice and from -20.2 to 6.6 % in LPS-injected mice. We were unable to demonstrate an effect of ECS on LPS-induced microglial activity or behavioral alterations.

  19. Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and microglial activation are not mediated by fractalkine receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, David M.; Francescutti-Verbeem, Dina M.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) damages dopamine (DA) nerve endings by a process that has been linked to microglial activation but the signaling pathways that mediate this response have not yet been delineated. Cardona et al. [Nat. Neurosci. 9 (2006), 917] recently identified the microglial-specific fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) as an important mediator of MPTP-induced neurodegeneration of DA neurons. Because the CNS damage caused by METH and MPTP is highly selective for the DA neuronal system in mouse models of neurotoxicity, we hypothesized that the CX3CR1 plays a role in METH-induced neurotoxicity and microglial activation. Mice in which the CX3CR1 gene has been deleted and replaced with a cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) were treated with METH and examined for striatal neurotoxicity. METH depleted DA, caused microglial activation, and increased body temperature in CX3CR1 knockout mice to the same extent and over the same time course seen in wild-type controls. The effects of METH in CX3CR1 knockout mice were not gender-dependent and did not extend beyond the striatum. Striatal microglia expressing eGFP constitutively show morphological changes after METH that are characteristic of activation. This response was restricted to the striatum and contrasted sharply with unresponsive eGFP-microglia in surrounding brain areas that are not damaged by METH. We conclude from these studies that CX3CR1 signaling does not modulate METH neurotoxicity or microglial activation. Furthermore, it appears that striatal-resident microglia respond to METH with an activation cascade and then return to a surveying state without undergoing apoptosis or migration. PMID:18410508

  20. Microglial Morphology and Dynamic Behavior Is Regulated by Ionotropic Glutamatergic and GABAergic Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Fontainhas, Aurora M.; Wang, Minhua; Liang, Katharine J.; Chen, Shan; Mettu, Pradeep; Damani, Mausam; Fariss, Robert N.; Li, Wei; Wong, Wai T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Microglia represent the primary resident immune cells in the CNS, and have been implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Under basal or “resting” conditions, microglia possess ramified morphologies and exhibit dynamic surveying movements in their processes. Despite the prominence of this phenomenon, the function and regulation of microglial morphology and dynamic behavior are incompletely understood. We investigate here whether and how neurotransmission regulates “resting” microglial morphology and behavior. Methods We employed an ex vivo mouse retinal explant system in which endogenous neurotransmission and dynamic microglial behavior are present. We utilized live-cell time-lapse confocal imaging to study the morphology and behavior of GFP-labeled retinal microglia in response to neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists. Patch clamp electrophysiology and immunohistochemical localization of glutamate receptors were also used to investigate direct-versus-indirect effects of neurotransmission by microglia. Results Retinal microglial morphology and dynamic behavior were not cell-autonomously regulated but are instead modulated by endogenous neurotransmission. Morphological parameters and process motility were differentially regulated by different modes of neurotransmission and were increased by ionotropic glutamatergic neurotransmission and decreased by ionotropic GABAergic neurotransmission. These neurotransmitter influences on retinal microglia were however unlikely to be directly mediated; local applications of neurotransmitters were unable to elicit electrical responses on microglia patch-clamp recordings and ionotropic glutamatergic receptors were not located on microglial cell bodies or processes by immunofluorescent labeling. Instead, these influences were mediated indirectly via extracellular ATP, released in response to glutamatergic neurotransmission through probenecid-sensitive pannexin hemichannels. Conclusions Our

  1. Antipsychotics, chlorpromazine and haloperidol inhibit voltage-gated proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyewon; Song, Jin-Ho

    2014-09-05

    Microglial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Some antipsychotic drugs have anti-inflammatory activity and can reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species from activated microglial cells. Voltage-gated proton channels on the microglial cells participate in the generation of reactive oxygen species and neuronal toxicity by supporting NADPH oxidase activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of two typical antipsychotics, chlorpromazine and haloperidol, on proton currents in microglial BV2 cells using the whole-cell patch clamp method. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol potently inhibited proton currents with IC50 values of 2.2 μM and 8.4 μM, respectively. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol are weak bases that can increase the intracellular pH, whereby they reduce the proton gradient and affect channel gating. Although the drugs caused a marginal positive shift of the activation voltage, they did not change the reversal potential. This suggested that proton current inhibition was not due to an alteration of the intracellular pH. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol are strong blockers of dopamine receptors. While dopamine itself did not affect proton currents, it also did not alter proton current inhibition by the two antipsychotics, indicating dopamine receptors are not likely to mediate the proton current inhibition. Given that proton channels are important for the production of reactive oxygen species and possibly pro-inflammatory cytokines, the anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic activities of chlorpromazine and haloperidol may be partly derived from their ability to inhibit microglial proton currents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and microglial activation are not mediated by fractalkine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Francescutti-Verbeem, Dina M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2008-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) damages dopamine (DA) nerve endings by a process that has been linked to microglial activation but the signaling pathways that mediate this response have not yet been delineated. Cardona et al. [Nat. Neurosci. 9 (2006), 917] recently identified the microglial-specific fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) as an important mediator of MPTP-induced neurodegeneration of DA neurons. Because the CNS damage caused by METH and MPTP is highly selective for the DA neuronal system in mouse models of neurotoxicity, we hypothesized that the CX3CR1 plays a role in METH-induced neurotoxicity and microglial activation. Mice in which the CX3CR1 gene has been deleted and replaced with a cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) were treated with METH and examined for striatal neurotoxicity. METH depleted DA, caused microglial activation, and increased body temperature in CX3CR1 knockout mice to the same extent and over the same time course seen in wild-type controls. The effects of METH in CX3CR1 knockout mice were not gender-dependent and did not extend beyond the striatum. Striatal microglia expressing eGFP constitutively show morphological changes after METH that are characteristic of activation. This response was restricted to the striatum and contrasted sharply with unresponsive eGFP-microglia in surrounding brain areas that are not damaged by METH. We conclude from these studies that CX3CR1 signaling does not modulate METH neurotoxicity or microglial activation. Furthermore, it appears that striatal-resident microglia respond to METH with an activation cascade and then return to a surveying state without undergoing apoptosis or migration.

  3. Data from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with Withaferin A (WA).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Malathi; Seeley, Kent W; Jinwal, Umesh K

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry data collected in a study analyzing the effect of withaferin A (WA) on a mouse microglial (N9) cell line is presented in this article. Data was collected from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with either WA or DMSO vehicle control. This article reports all the proteins that were identified in this analysis. The data presented here is related to the published research article on the effect of WA on the differential regulation of proteins in mouse microglial cells [1]. Mass spectrometry data has also been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD003032.

  4. Insufficient interleukin-2 production from splenic CD4+ T cells causes impaired cell proliferation and early apoptosis in SAMP1, a strain of senescence-accelerated mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Hosokawa, Tomohide; Hosono, Masamichi; Baba, Mitsuo; Hosokawa, Masanori

    2002-01-01

    We examined the proliferative and cytokine-producing activities of CD4+ T cells from young mice of the senescence-accelerated mouse strain SAMP1, which had shown markedly low T-dependent antibody-producing responses. When splenic T cells were cultured with concanavalin A (Con A), the percentage of CD4+ cells decreased earlier in SAMP1 than in C3H/He mice. At 40 hr of culture, the percentage of BrdU-labelled proliferating CD4+ cells increased strongly in C3H/He, but only slightly in SAMP1. When purified CD4+ T cells were cultured with Con A, the percentage of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled cells peaked at around 48 hr of culture in both strains, but decreased significantly at 64 hr in SAMP1. The production of interleukin (IL)-2 but not IL-4 or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was significantly lower in SAMP1 than in C3H/He at 48 hr of culture. IL-2 production was also markedly low in SAMP1, even under the stimulation of anti-CD3 with anti-CD28 antibodies. The frequency of cells producing IL-2 was significantly lower in SAMP1 than in C3H/He at 6–24 hr of culture with Con A. The percentage of annexin-positive and propidium iodide (PI)-negative apoptotic cells was significantly higher in SAMP1 than in C3H/He at 96 hr of culture. Exogenous IL-2 prevented the decrease in BrdU-labelled cells and the increase in apoptotic cells in the SAMP1 cell culture. These results indicate that SAMP1 CD4+ T cells cannot produce IL-2 at levels sufficient to support cell proliferation and survival. This may account for the weak T-dependent antibody response in SAMP1 mice. PMID:12383198

  5. Up-regulation of microglial cathepsin C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kai; Wu, Xuefei; Fan, Bin; Li, Ning; Lin, Yongzhong; Yao, Yiwen; Ma, Jianmei

    2012-05-20

    Cathepsin C (Cat C) functions as a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in inflammatory cells. It has been recognized that Cat C is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and production of chemokines and cytokines in many inflammatory diseases. However, Cat C expression and its functional role in the brain under normal conditions or in neuroinflammatory processes remain unclear. Our previous study showed that Cat C promoted the progress of brain demyelination in cuprizone-treated mice. The present study further investigated the Cat C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and in vitro. C57BL/6 J mice were intraperitoneally injected with either 0.9% saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to analyze microglial activation, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS mRNAs expressions and cellular localization of Cat C in the brain. Nitrite assay was used to examine microglial activation in vitro; RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression and release of Cat C. Cat C activity was analyzed by cellular Cat C assay kit. Data were evaluated for statistical significance with paired t test. Cat C was predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons in C57BL/6 J mice under normal conditions. Six hours after LPS injection, Cat C expression was detected in cerebral cortical neurons; whereas, twenty-four hours later, Cat C expression was captured in activated microglial cells throughout the entire brain. The duration of induced Cat C expression in neurons and in microglial cells was ten days and three days, respectively. In vitro, LPS, IL-1β and IL-6 treatments increased microglial Cat C expression in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated Cat C secretion and its activity. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 induce the expression, release and upregulate enzymatic activity of Cat C in

  6. Up-regulation of microglial cathepsin C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cathepsin C (Cat C) functions as a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in inflammatory cells. It has been recognized that Cat C is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and production of chemokines and cytokines in many inflammatory diseases. However, Cat C expression and its functional role in the brain under normal conditions or in neuroinflammatory processes remain unclear. Our previous study showed that Cat C promoted the progress of brain demyelination in cuprizone-treated mice. The present study further investigated the Cat C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods C57BL/6 J mice were intraperitoneally injected with either 0.9% saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to analyze microglial activation, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS mRNAs expressions and cellular localization of Cat C in the brain. Nitrite assay was used to examine microglial activation in vitro; RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression and release of Cat C. Cat C activity was analyzed by cellular Cat C assay kit. Data were evaluated for statistical significance with paired t test. Results Cat C was predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons in C57BL/6 J mice under normal conditions. Six hours after LPS injection, Cat C expression was detected in cerebral cortical neurons; whereas, twenty-four hours later, Cat C expression was captured in activated microglial cells throughout the entire brain. The duration of induced Cat C expression in neurons and in microglial cells was ten days and three days, respectively. In vitro, LPS, IL-1β and IL-6 treatments increased microglial Cat C expression in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated Cat C secretion and its activity. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that LPS and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 induce the expression, release and

  7. Exosomal miR-9 Released from HIV Tat Stimulated Astrocytes Mediates Microglial Migration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Niu, Fang; Yao, Honghong; Liao, Ke; Chen, Xufeng; Kook, Yeonhee; Ma, Rong; Hu, Guoku; Buch, Shilpa

    2018-03-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation still remains a common underlying feature of HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Previous studies have reported that despite near complete suppression of virus replication by cART, cytotoxic viral proteins such as HIV trans-activating regulatory protein (Tat) continue to persist in tissues such as the brain and the lymph nodes, thereby contributing, in part, to chronic glial activation observed in HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). Understanding how the glial cells cross talk to mediate neuropathology is thus of paramount importance. MicroRNAs (miR) also known as regulators of gene expression, have emerged as key paracrine signaling mediators that regulate disease pathogenesis and cellular crosstalk, through their transfer via the extracellular vesicles (EV). In the current study we have identified a novel function of miR-9, that of mediating microglial migration. We demonstrate that miR-9 released from Tat-stimulated astrocytes can be taken up by microglia resulting in their migratory phenotype. Exposure of human astrocytoma (A172) cells to HIV Tat resulted in induction and release of miR-9 in the EVs, which, was taken up by microglia, leading in turn, increased migration of the latter cells, a process that could be blocked by both an exosome inhibitor GW4869 or a specific target protector of miR-9. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that EV miR-9 mediated inhibition of the expression of target PTEN, via its binding to the 3'UTR seed sequence of the PTEN mRNA, was critical for microglial migration. To validate the role of miR-9 in this process, microglial cells were treated with EVs loaded with miR-9, which resulted in significant downregulation of PTEN expression with a concomitant increase in microglial migration. These findings were corroborated by transfecting microglia with a specific target protector of PTEN, that blocked miR-9-mediated downregulation of PTEN as well as microglial

  8. Neuronal precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: a comparative study of two rat strains using stereological tools.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Jesper; Larsen, Marianne H; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Møller, Arne; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren; Nyengaard, Jens R; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Rønn, Lars Christian B

    2010-04-06

    We are currently investigating microglial activation and neuronal precursor cell (NPC) proliferation after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in rats. This study aimed: (1) to investigate differences in hippocampal NPC proliferation in outbred male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Sprague-Dawley rats (SDs) one week after tMCAo; (2) to present the practical use of the optical fractionator and 2D nucleator in stereological brain tissue analyses; and (3) to report our experiences with an intraluminal tMCAo model where the occluding filament is advanced 22 mm beyond the carotid bifurcation and the common carotid artery is clamped during tMCAo. Twenty-three SDs and twenty SHRs were randomized into four groups subjected to 90 minutes tMCAo or sham. BrdU (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally twice daily on Day 4 to 7 after surgery. On Day 8 all animals were euthanized. NeuN-stained tissue sections were used for brain and infarct volume estimation with the 2D nucleator and Cavalieri principle. Brains were studied for the presence of activated microglia (ED-1) and hippocampal BrdU incorporation using the optical fractionator. We found no significant difference or increase in post-ischemic NPC proliferation between the two strains. However, the response to remote ischemia may differ between SDs and SHRs. In three animals increased post-stroke NPC proliferation was associated with hippocampal ischemic injury. The mean infarct volume was 89.2 +/- 76.1 mm3 in SHRs and 16.9 +/- 22.7 mm3 in SDs (p < 0.005). Eight out of eleven SHRs had ischemic neocortical damage in contrast to only one out of 12 SDs. We observed involvement of the anterior choroidal and hypothalamic arteries in several animals from both strains and the anterior cerebral artery in two SHRs. We found no evidence of an early hippocampal NPC proliferation one week after tMCAo in both strains. Infarction within the anterior choroidal artery could induce hippocampal ischemia and

  9. Dystrophic (senescent) rather than activated microglial cells are associated with tau pathology and likely precede neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Braak, Heiko; Xue, Qing-Shan; Bechmann, Ingo

    2009-10-01

    The role of microglial cells in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurodegeneration is unknown. Although several works suggest that chronic neuroinflammation caused by activated microglia contributes to neurofibrillary degeneration, anti-inflammatory drugs do not prevent or reverse neuronal tau pathology. This raises the question if indeed microglial activation occurs in the human brain at sites of neurofibrillary degeneration. In view of the recent work demonstrating presence of dystrophic (senescent) microglia in aged human brain, the purpose of this study was to investigate microglial cells in situ and at high resolution in the immediate vicinity of tau-positive structures in order to determine conclusively whether degenerating neuronal structures are associated with activated or with dystrophic microglia. We used a newly optimized immunohistochemical method for visualizing microglial cells in human archival brain together with Braak staging of neurofibrillary pathology to ascertain the morphology of microglia in the vicinity of tau-positive structures. We now report histopathological findings from 19 humans covering the spectrum from none to severe AD pathology, including patients with Down's syndrome, showing that degenerating neuronal structures positive for tau (neuropil threads, neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques) are invariably colocalized with severely dystrophic (fragmented) rather than with activated microglial cells. Using Braak staging of Alzheimer neuropathology we demonstrate that microglial dystrophy precedes the spread of tau pathology. Deposits of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) devoid of tau-positive structures were found to be colocalized with non-activated, ramified microglia, suggesting that Abeta does not trigger microglial activation. Our findings also indicate that when microglial activation does occur in the absence of an identifiable acute central nervous system insult, it is likely to be the result of systemic infectious

  10. The role of microglial cells and astrocytes in fibrillar plaque evolution in transgenic APP(SW) mice.

    PubMed

    Wegiel, J; Wang, K C; Imaki, H; Rubenstein, R; Wronska, A; Osuchowski, M; Lipinski, W J; Walker, L C; LeVine, H

    2001-01-01

    Ultrastructural reconstruction of 27 fibrillar plaques in different stages of formation and maturation was undertaken to characterize the development of fibrillar plaques in the brains of human APP(SW) transgenic mice (Tg2576). The study suggests that microglial cells are not engaged in Abeta removal and plaque degradation, but in contrast, are a driving force in plaque formation and development. Fibrillar Abeta deposition at the amyloid pole of microglial cells appears to initiate three types of neuropil response: degeneration of neurons, protective activation of astrocytes, and attraction and activation of microglial cells sustaining plaque growth. Enlargement of neuronal processes and synapses with accumulation of degenerated mitochondria, dense bodies, and Hirano-type bodies is the marker of toxic injury of neurons by fibrillar Abeta. Separation of amyloid cores from neurons and degradation of amyloid cores by cytoplasmic processes of hypertrophic astrocytes suggest the protective and defensive character of astrocytic response to fibrillar Abeta. The growth of cored plaque from a small plaque with one microglial cell with an amyloid star and a few dystrophic neurites to a large plaque formed by several dozen microglial cells seen in old mice is the effect of attraction and activation of microglial cells residing outside of the plaque perimeter. This mechanism of growth of plaques appears to be characteristic of cored plaques in transgenic mice. Other features in mouse microglial cells that are absent in human brain are clusters of vacuoles, probably of lysosomal origin. They evolve into circular cisternae and finally into large vacuoles filled with osmiophilic, amorphous material and bundles of fibrils that are poorly labeled with antibody to Abeta. Microglial cells appear to release large amounts of fibrillar Abeta and accumulate traces of fibrillar Abeta in a lysosomal pathway.

  11. Insensitivity of Astrocytes to Interleukin-10 Signaling following Peripheral Immune Challenge Results in Prolonged Microglial Activation in the Aged Brain

    PubMed Central

    Norden, Diana M.; Trojanowski, Paige J.; Walker, Frederick R.; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Immune-activated microglia from aged mice produce exaggerated levels of cytokines. Despite high levels of microglial IL-10 in the aged brain, neuroinflammation was prolonged and associated with depressive-like deficits. Because astrocytes respond to IL-10 and, in turn, attenuate microglial activation, we investigated if astrocyte-mediated resolution of microglial activation was impaired with age. Here, aged astrocytes had a dysfunctional profile with higher GFAP, lower glutamate transporter expression, and significant cytoskeletal re-arrangement. Moreover, aged astrocytes had reduced expression of growth factors and IL-10 Receptor-1 (IL-10R1). Following in vivo LPS immune challenge, aged astrocytes had a molecular signature associated with reduced responsiveness to IL-10. This IL-10 insensitivity of aged astrocytes resulted in a failure to induce IL-10R1 and TGFβ and resolve microglial activation. Additionally, adult astrocytes reduced microglial activation when co-cultured ex vivo, while aged astrocytes did not. Consistent with the aging studies, IL-10RKO astrocytes did not augment TGFβ after immune challenge and failed to resolve microglial activation. Collectively, a major cytokine-regulatory loop between activated microglia and astrocytes is impaired in the aged brain. PMID:27318131

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline in mouse N9 microglial cells and the molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dan; Ma, Bin; Yang, Jing-yu; Xie, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Li-jia; Kano, Yoshihiro; Wu, Chun-fu

    2009-12-01

    Excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines from activated microglia contributes to human neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous study demonstrated the potent inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in rat primary microglial cells by rhynchophylline (RIN) and isorhynchophylline (IRN), a pair of isomeric alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. that has been used in China for centuries as a "cognitive enhancer" as well as to treat strokes. We further investigated whether RIN and IRN effectively suppress release of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-activated microglial cells and the underling molecular mechanism for the inhibition of microglial activation. RIN and IRN concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta as well as NO in mouse N9 microglial cells, with IRN showing more potent inhibition of microglial activation. The western blotting analysis indicated that the potential molecular mechanism for RIN or IRN-mediated attenuation was implicated in suppressions of iNOS protein level, phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPKs, and degradation of IkappaBalpha. In addition, the differential regulation of the three signaling pathways by two isomers was shown. Our results suggest that RIN and IRN may be effective therapeutic candidates for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation.

  13. Early controlled release of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ agonist GW501516 improves diabetic wound healing through redox modulation of wound microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Sng, Ming Keat; Foo, Selin; Chong, Han Chung; Lee, Wei Li; Tang, Mark Boon Yang; Ng, Kee Woei; Luo, Baiwen; Choong, Cleo; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong; Tong, Benny Meng Kiat; Chiba, Shunsuke; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Zhu, Pengcheng; Tan, Nguan Soon

    2015-01-10

    Diabetic wounds are imbued with an early excessive and protracted reactive oxygen species production. Despite the studies supporting PPARβ/δ as a valuable pharmacologic wound-healing target, the therapeutic potential of PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516 (GW) as a wound healing drug was never investigated. Using topical application of polymer-encapsulated GW, we revealed that different drug release profiles can significantly influence the therapeutic efficacy of GW and consequently diabetic wound closure. We showed that double-layer encapsulated GW microparticles (PLLA:PLGA:GW) provided an earlier and sustained dose of GW to the wound and reduced the oxidative wound microenvironment to accelerate healing, in contrast to single-layered PLLA:GW microparticles. The underlying mechanism involved an early GW-mediated activation of PPARβ/δ that stimulated GPx1 and catalase expression in fibroblasts. GPx1 and catalase scavenged excessive H2O2 accumulation in diabetic wound beds, prevented H2O2-induced ECM modification and facilitated keratinocyte migration. The microparticles with early and sustained rate of GW release had better therapeutic wound healing activity. The present study underscores the importance of drug release kinetics on the therapeutic efficacy of the drug and warrants investigations to better appreciate the full potential of controlled drug release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced miR-433 expression is associated with advanced stages and early relapse of colorectal cancer and restored miR-433 expression suppresses the migration, invasion and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Tong; Dong, Xin-Min; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Long-Hua

    2018-05-01

    The expression of microRNA (miR-433) is altered in various types of human cancer. The present study analyzed the prognostic and biological value of miR-433 expression in colorectal cancer using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 125 colorectal tissue specimens (including a test cohort of 40 cases of paired colorectal cancer and adjacent normal mucosae and a confirmation cohort of 85 cases of stage I-III colorectal cancer). In vitro and nude mouse xenograft experiments were subsequently used to assess the effects of miR-433 expression on the regulation of colorectal cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion. The data indicated that miR-433 expression was significantly downregulated in colorectal cancer tissues in the test and confirmation patient cohorts and that low miR-433 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage and early relapse. Furthermore, the restoration of miR-433 expression was able to significantly inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing G1-S cell cycle arrest, suppressing cyclinD1 and CDK4 expression, and markedly inhibited the migratory and invasive capacities of tumor cells in vitro . The restoration of miR-433 expression or liposome-based delivery of miR-433 mimics suppressed the growth of colorectal cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, miR-433 may be a putative tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, and the detection of low miR-433 expression will be investigated in further studies as a putative biomarker for the detection of early relapse in patients with colorectal cancer.

  15. Reduced miR-433 expression is associated with advanced stages and early relapse of colorectal cancer and restored miR-433 expression suppresses the migration, invasion and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Tong; Dong, Xin-Min; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Long-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The expression of microRNA (miR-433) is altered in various types of human cancer. The present study analyzed the prognostic and biological value of miR-433 expression in colorectal cancer using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 125 colorectal tissue specimens (including a test cohort of 40 cases of paired colorectal cancer and adjacent normal mucosae and a confirmation cohort of 85 cases of stage I–III colorectal cancer). In vitro and nude mouse xenograft experiments were subsequently used to assess the effects of miR-433 expression on the regulation of colorectal cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion. The data indicated that miR-433 expression was significantly downregulated in colorectal cancer tissues in the test and confirmation patient cohorts and that low miR-433 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage and early relapse. Furthermore, the restoration of miR-433 expression was able to significantly inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing G1-S cell cycle arrest, suppressing cyclinD1 and CDK4 expression, and markedly inhibited the migratory and invasive capacities of tumor cells in vitro. The restoration of miR-433 expression or liposome-based delivery of miR-433 mimics suppressed the growth of colorectal cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, miR-433 may be a putative tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, and the detection of low miR-433 expression will be investigated in further studies as a putative biomarker for the detection of early relapse in patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:29740483

  16. Microglial cells and peritoneal macrophages release activin A upon stimulation with Toll-like receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Sandra; Zeretzke, Moritz; Nau, Roland; Michel, Uwe

    2007-02-21

    Activin A levels are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningitis and in the sera of patients with sepsis. The source(s) of the elevated concentrations of activin A in CSF and serum have not yet been discovered. Here we demonstrate that primary mouse microglial cells and peritoneal macrophages release activin A after treatment with agonists of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, and 9. These findings provide further evidence for a role of activin in the innate immune response and suggest that microglial cells and macrophages are a source of elevated activin A concentrations observed in the CSF during bacterial meningitis and in the systemic circulation during sepsis.

  17. LAT1 targeted delivery of methionine based imaging probe derived from M(III) metal ions for early diagnosis of proliferating tumours using molecular imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Puja Panwar; Prakash, Surbhi; Meena, Virendra K; Jaswal, Ambika; Khurana, Harleen; Mishra, Surabhi Kirti; Bhonsle, Hemanth Kumar; Singh, Lokendra; Mishra, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential of DTPA-bis(Methionine), a target specific amino acid based probe for detection of L-type amino acid transporters (LAT1) known to over express in proliferating tumours using multimodality imaging. The ligand, DTPA-bis(Met) was readily converted to lanthanide complexes and was found capable of targeting cancer cells using multimodality imaging. DTPA-bis(Met) complexes were synthesized and characterized by mass spectroscopy. MR longitudinal relaxivity, r₁ = 4.067 ± 0.31 mM⁻¹s⁻¹ and transverse relaxivity, r₂ = 8.61 ± 0.07 mM⁻¹s⁻¹ of Gd(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) were observed at pH 7.4 at 7 T. Bright, localized fluorescence of Eu(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) was observed with standard microscopy and displacement studies indicated ligand functionality. K(D) value determined for Eu(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) on U-87 MG cells was found to be 17.3 pM and showed appreciable fluorescence within the cells. Radio HPLC showed a radiochemical purity more than 95% (specific activity = 400-500 MBq/μmol, labelling efficiency 78 %) for ⁶⁸Ga(III)-DTPA-bis(Met). Pre-treatment of xenografted U-87 MG athymic mice with ⁶⁸Ga(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) following unlabelled L-methionine administration reduced tumour uptake by 10-folds in Micro PET. These data support the specific binding of ⁶⁸Ga(III)-DTPA-bis(Met) to the LAT1 transporter. To summarize, this agent possesses high stability in biological environment and exhibits effective interaction with its LAT1 transporters giving high accumulation in tumour area, excellent tumour/non-tumour ratio and low non-specific retention in vivo.

  18. Activation of PPARδ attenuates neurotoxicity by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-triggered glutamate release in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Jin; Ham, Sun Ah; Yoo, Hyunjin; Hwang, Jung Seok; Yoo, Taesik; Paek, Kyung Shin; Lim, Dae-Seog; Han, Sung Gu; Lee, Chi-Ho; Hong, Kwonho; Seo, Han Geuk

    2018-02-01

    Neuroinflammation-associated release of glutamate from activated microglia has been implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying this glutamate release are poorly understood. Here, we show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) modulates neurotoxicity by inhibiting glutamate release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglial cells. Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific PPARδ agonist, inhibited glutamate release in BV-2 cells. This effect of GW501516 was significantly blocked by shRNA-mediated knockdown of PPARδ and by treatment with GSK0660, a specific PPARδ antagonist, indicating that PPARδ is associated with blockade of glutamate release. Additionally, GW501516-activated PPARδ suppressed generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of gp91phox, a functional subunit of NADPH oxidase 2, in BV-2 cells stimulated with LPS. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on gp91phox expression and glutamate release was further potentiated in the presence of AG490, a specific inhibitor of janus kinase 2 (JAK2), leading to the inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). By contrast, GW501516 upregulated the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), an endogenous inhibitor of JAK2. Furthermore, neurotoxicity induced by conditioned media from LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells was significantly reduced when conditioned media from BV-2 cells treated with both LPS and GW501516 were used. These results indicate that PPARδ attenuates LPS-triggered neuroinflammation by enhancing SOCS1-mediated inhibition of JAK2/STAT1 signaling, thereby inhibiting neurotoxicity associated with glutamate release. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A common carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene causes neuronal death in mouse via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Kallol; Ghosh, Debapriya; Nazmi, Arshed; Kumawat, Kanhaiya Lal; Basu, Anirban

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked) food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are reports available that also suggests neurotoxicity as a result of B[a]P exposure, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown. Using neuroblastoma cell line and primary cortical neuron culture, we demonstrated that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic effect. We utilized both in vivo and in vitro systems to demonstrate that B[a]P causes microglial activation. Using microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we showed for the first time that B[a]P administration results in elevation of reactive oxygen species within the microglia thereby causing depression of antioxidant protein levels; enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, that results in increased production of NO from the cells. Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were also elevated within the microglia, possibly via the p38MAP kinase pathway. All these factors contributed to bystander death of neurons, in vitro. When administered to animals, B[a]P was found to cause microglial activation and astrogliosis in the brain with subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Contrary to earlier published reports we found that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic activity. However, it kills neurons in a bystander mechanism by activating the immune cells of the brain viz the microglia. For the first time, we have provided conclusive evidence regarding the mechanism by which the micropollutant B[a]P may actually cause damage to the central nervous system. In today's perspective, where rising pollution levels globally are a matter of grave concern, our study throws light on other health hazards that such pollutants may exert.

  20. APP Regulates Microglial Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Manocha, Gunjan D.; Floden, Angela M.; Rausch, Keiko; Kulas, Joshua A.; McGregor, Brett A.; Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Puig, Kelley R.; Puig, Kendra L.; Karki, Sanjib; Nichols, Michael R.; Darland, Diane C.; Porter, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Prior work suggests that amyloid precursor protein (APP) can function as a proinflammatory receptor on immune cells, such as monocytes and microglia. Therefore, we hypothesized that APP serves this function in microglia during Alzheimer's disease. Although fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ)-stimulated cytokine secretion from both wild-type and APP knock-out (mAPP−/−) microglial cultures, oligomeric Aβ was unable to stimulate increased secretion from mAPP−/− cells. This was consistent with an ability of oligomeric Aβ to bind APP. Similarly, intracerebroventricular infusions of oligomeric Aβ produced less microgliosis in mAPP−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. The mAPP−/− mice crossed to an APP/PS1 transgenic mouse line demonstrated reduced microgliosis and cytokine levels and improved memory compared with wild-type mice despite robust fibrillar Aβ plaque deposition. These data define a novel function for microglial APP in regulating their ability to acquire a proinflammatory phenotype during disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide within plaques robustly invested with reactive microglia. This supports the notion that Aβ stimulation of microglial activation is one source of brain inflammatory changes during disease. Aβ is a cleavage product of the ubiquitously expressed amyloid precursor protein (APP) and is able to self-associate into a wide variety of differently sized and structurally distinct multimers. In this study, we demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that nonfibrillar, oligomeric forms of Aβ are able to interact with the parent APP protein to stimulate microglial activation. This provides a mechanism by which metabolism of APP results in possible autocrine or paracrine Aβ production to drive the microgliosis associated with AD brains. PMID:27511018

  1. Minocycline reduces neuronal death and attenuates microglial response after pediatric asphyxial cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minke; Alexander, Henry; Clark, Robert S B; Kochanek, Patrick M; Kagan, Valerian E; Bayir, Hülya

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to delayed neuronal death after asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA) in the developing brain are unknown. This study aimed at investigating the possible role of microglial activation in neuronal death in developing brain after ACA. Postnatal day-17 rats were subjected to 9 mins of ACA followed by resuscitation. Rats were randomized to treatment with minocycline, (90 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or vehicle (saline, i.p.) at 1 h after return of spontaneous circulation. Thereafter, minocycline (22.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated every 12 h until sacrifice. Microglial activation (evaluated by immunohistochemistry using ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba1) antibody) coincided with DNA fragmentation and neurodegeneration in CA1 hippocampus and cortex (assessed by deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), Fluoro-Jade-B and Nissl stain). Minocycline significantly decreased both the microglial response and neuronal degeneration compared with the vehicle. Asphyxial CA significantly enhanced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in hippocampus versus control (assessed by multiplex bead array assay), specifically tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and growth-related oncogene (GRO-KC) (P<0.05). Minocycline attenuated ACA-induced increases in MIP-1alpha and RANTES (P<0.05). These data show that microglial activation and cytokine production are increased in immature brain after ACA. The beneficial effect of minocycline suggests an important role for microglia in selective neuronal death after pediatric ACA, and a possible therapeutic target.

  2. Treatment with polyamine oxidase inhibitor reduces microglial activation and limits vascular injury in ischemic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, C.; Xu, Z.; Shosha, E.; Xing, J.; Lucas, R.; Caldwell, R.W.; Caldwell, R.B.; Narayanan, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vascular injury is a major cause of vision impairment in ischemic retinopathies. Insults such as hyperoxia, oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to this pathology. Previously, we showed that hyperoxia-induced retinal neurodegeneration is associated with increased polyamine oxidation. Here, we are studying the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced injury and death of retinal vascular endothelial cells. Newborn C57BL6/J mice were exposed to hyperoxia (70% O2) from postnatal day (P) 7 to 12 and were treated with the polyamine oxidase inhibitor MDL 72527 or vehicle starting at P6. Mice were sacrificed after different durations of hyperoxia and their retinas were analyzed to determine the effects on vascular injury, microglial cell activation, and inflammatory cytokine profiling. The results of this analysis showed that MDL 72527 treatment significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and enhanced vascular sprouting as compared with the vehicle controls. These protective effects were correlated with significant decreases in microglial activation as well as levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In order to model the effects of polyamine oxidation in causing microglial activation in vitro, studies were performed using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells treated with conditioned-medium from rat retinal microglia stimulated with hydrogen peroxide. Conditioned-medium from activated microglial cultures induced cell stress signals and cell death in microvascular endothelial cells. These studies demonstrate the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and retinal inflammation in ischemic retinopathy, through mechanisms involving cross-talk between endothelial cells and resident retinal microglia. PMID:27239699

  3. Cannabidiol enhances microglial phagocytosis via transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activation

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Samia; Eldeeb, Khalil; Millns, Paul J; Bennett, Andrew J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Microglial cells are important mediators of the immune response in the CNS. The phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have central anti-inflammatory properties, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CBD and other phytocannabinoids on microglial phagocytosis. Experimental Approach Phagocytosis was assessed by measuring ingestion of fluorescently labelled latex beads by cultured microglial cells. Drug effects were probed using single-cell Ca2+ imaging and expression of mediator proteins by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Key Results CBD (10 μM) enhanced bead phagocytosis to 175 ± 7% control. Other phytocannabinoids, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids were without effect. The enhancement was dependent upon Ca2+ influx and was abolished in the presence of EGTA, the Ca2+ channel inhibitor SKF96365, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red, and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and AMG9810. CBD produced a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in BV-2 microglia and this was abolished by ruthenium red. CBD rapidly increased the expression of TRPV2 and TRPV1 proteins and caused a translocation of TRPV2 to the cell membrane. Wortmannin blocked CBD enhancement of BV-2 cell phagocytosis, suggesting that it is mediated by PI3K signalling downstream of the Ca2+ influx. Conclusions and Implications The TRPV-dependent phagocytosis-enhancing effect of CBD suggests that pharmacological modification of TRPV channel activity could be a rational approach to treating neuroinflammatory disorders involving changes in microglial function and that CBD is a potential starting point for future development of novel therapeutics acting on the TRPV receptor family. PMID:24641282

  4. Extracellular caspase-6 drives murine inflammatory pain via microglial TNF-α secretion

    PubMed Central

    Berta, Temugin; Park, Chul-Kyu; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Xie, Ruo-Gang; Liu, Tong; Lü, Ning; Liu, Yen-Chin; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain is mediated through spinal cord microglia activation. The intracellular protease caspase-6 (CASP6) is known to regulate neuronal apoptosis and axonal degeneration; however, the contribution of microglia and CASP6 in modulating synaptic transmission and pain is unclear. Here, we found that CASP6 is expressed specifically in C-fiber axonal terminals in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn. Animals exposed to intraplantar formalin or bradykinin injection exhibited CASP6 activation in the dorsal horn. Casp6-null mice had normal baseline pain, but impaired inflammatory pain responses. Furthermore, formalin-induced second-phase pain was suppressed by spinal injection of CASP6 inhibitor or CASP6-neutralizing antibody, as well as perisciatic nerve injection of CASP6 siRNA. Recombinant CASP6 (rCASP6) induced marked TNF-α release in microglial cultures, and most microglia within the spinal cord expressed Tnfa. Spinal injection of rCASP6 elicited TNF-α production and microglia-dependent pain hypersensitivity. Evaluation of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) revealed that rCASP6 rapidly increased synaptic transmission in spinal cord slices via TNF-α release. Interestingly, the microglial inhibitor minocycline suppressed rCASP6 but not TNF-α–induced synaptic potentiation. Finally, rCASP6-activated microglial culture medium increased EPSCs in spinal cord slices via TNF-α. Together, these data suggest that CASP6 released from axonal terminals regulates microglial TNF-α secretion, synaptic plasticity, and inflammatory pain. PMID:24531553

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ginsenoside Rg5 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Young; Park, Jin-Sun; Jung, Ji-Sun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system. They play a role in normal brain development and neuronal recovery. However, overactivation of microglia causes neuronal death, which is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, controlling microglial activation has been suggested as an important target for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rg5 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells and rat primary microglia. The data showed that Rg5 suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory TNF-α secretion. In addition, Rg5 inhibited the mRNA expressions of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and MMP-9 induced by LPS. Further mechanistic studies revealed that Rg5 inhibited the phophorylations of PI3K/Akt and MAPKs and the DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1, which are upstream molecules controlling inflammatory reactions. Moreover, Rg5 suppressed ROS production with upregulation of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Overall, microglial inactivation by ginsenoside Rg5 may provide a therapeutic potential for various neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:23698769

  6. Immunological Demyelination Triggers Macrophage/Microglial Cells Activation without Inducing Astrogliosis

    PubMed Central

    Sears-Kraxberger, Ilse; Keirstead, Hans S.

    2013-01-01

    The glial scar formed by reactive astrocytes and axon growth inhibitors associated with myelin play important roles in the failure of axonal regeneration following central nervous system (CNS) injury. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that immunological demyelination of the CNS facilitates regeneration of severed axons following spinal cord injury. In the present study, we evaluate whether immunological demyelination is accompanied with astrogliosis. We compared the astrogliosis and macrophage/microglial cell responses 7 days after either immunological demyelination or a stab injury to the dorsal funiculus. Both lesions induced a strong activated macrophage/microglial cells response which was significantly higher within regions of immunological demyelination. However, immunological demyelination regions were not accompanied by astrogliosis compared to stab injury that induced astrogliosis which extended several millimeters above and below the lesions, evidenced by astroglial hypertrophy, formation of a glial scar, and upregulation of intermediate filaments glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Moreover, a stab or a hemisection lesion directly within immunological demyelination regions did not induced astrogliosis within the immunological demyelination region. These results suggest that immunological demyelination creates a unique environment in which astrocytes do not form a glial scar and provides a unique model to understand the putative interaction between astrocytes and activated macrophage/microglial cells. PMID:24319469

  7. Orexin Impairs the Phagocytosis and Degradation of Amyloid-β Fibrils by Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Dong-Hou; Chung, Seockhoon; Yoon, Seung-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a characteristic finding of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought to be the result of Aβ overproduction by neurons and impaired clearance by several systems, including degradation by microglia. Sleep disturbance is now considered a risk factor for AD, but studies focusing on how sleep modulates microglial handling of Aβ have been scarce. To determine whether phagocytosis and degradation of extracellular Aβ fibrils by BV2 microglial cells were impaired by treatment with orexin-A/B, a major modulator of the sleep-wake cycle, which may mimic sleep deprivation conditions. BV2 cells were treated with orexin and Aβ for various durations and phagocytic and autophagic processes for degradation of extracellular Aβ were examined. After treatment with orexin, the formation of actin filaments around Aβ fibrils, which is needed for phagocytosis, was impaired, and phagocytosis regulating molecules such as PI3K, Akt, and p38-MAPK were downregulated in BV2 cells. Orexin also suppressed autophagic flux, through disruption of the autophagosome-lysosome fusion process, resulting in impaired Aβ degradation in BV2 cells. Our results demonstrate that orexin can hinder clearance of Aβ through the suppression of phagocytosis and autophagic flux in microglia. This is a novel mechanism linking AD and sleep, and suggests that attenuated microglial function, due to sleep deprivation, may increase Aβ accumulation in the brain.

  8. Experience-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in V1 Occurs without Microglial CX3CR1

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance and reduces the density of thalamic synapses in layer 4 of the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). We found that microglial lysosome content is also increased as a result of MD. Previous studies have shown that the microglial fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 is involved in synaptic development and hippocampal plasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that neuron-to-microglial communication via CX3CR1 is an essential component of visual cortical development and plasticity in male mice. Our data show that CX3CR1 is not required for normal development of V1 responses to visual stimulation, multiple forms of experience-dependent plasticity, or the synapse loss that accompanies MD in layer 4. By ruling out an essential role for fractalkine signaling, our study narrows the search for understanding how microglia respond to active synapse modification in the visual cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Microglia in the visual cortex respond to monocular deprivation with increased lysosome content, but signaling through the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 is not an essential component in the mechanisms of visual cortical development or experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. PMID:28951447

  9. Social influences on microglial reactivity and neuronal damage after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Gaudier-Diaz, Monica M; Haines, Adam H; Zhang, Ning; Courtney DeVries, A

    2018-06-19

    Social isolation presents a risk factor and worsens outcome to cerebrovascular diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms remain underspecified. This study examines the effect of social environment on microglial reactivity after global cerebral ischemia, to test the hypothesis that social isolation leads to greater microglial responses. Adult female and male mice were pair-housed or socially isolated for one week prior to cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) or the sham procedure, and following either 2 or 24 h of reperfusion, microglia samples were enriched and analyzed for gene expression. At the 2-hour time point, microglia from both females and males exhibited ischemia-induced inflammation, characterized by the gene expression increase of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), regardless of the housing conditions. However, at 24 h post-ischemia, social housing attenuated microglial pro-inflammatory gene expression in a sex-specific manner. At this time point, the ischemia-induced increased expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was attenuated by social interaction in microglia from male mice, while among female mice social attenuation of the inflammatory response was observed in the microglial expression of cell surface protein major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II). A second study examined behavioral and physiological measures 96 h after ischemic injury. At this time point, female and male mice displayed increased locomotion and exploratory behavior following CA/CPR relative to controls. Regardless of sex, ischemia also elicited neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, both of which were modulated by the social environment. Hippocampal nitric oxide (iNOS), cortical TNF-α, and counts of Fluoro-Jade C positive stained cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, were increased in the isolated CA/CPR group relative to sham controls and the pair-housed CA/CPR groups. Together, these data

  10. Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids Reduce Microglial Activation In Vitro and In Vivo: Relevance to Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Moreno, Ana María; Reigada, David; Ramírez, Belén G.; Mechoulam, R.; Innamorato, Nadia; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Microglial activation is an invariant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is noteworthy that cannabinoids are neuroprotective by preventing β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglial activation both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has shown anti-inflammatory properties in different paradigms. In the present study, we compared the effects of CBD with those of other cannabinoids on microglial cell functions in vitro and on learning behavior and cytokine expression after Aβ intraventricular administration to mice. CBD, (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo-[1,2,3-d,e]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone [WIN 55,212-2 (WIN)], a mixed CB1/CB2 agonist, and 1,1-dimethylbutyl-1-deoxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [JWH-133 (JWH)], a CB2-selective agonist, concentration-dependently decreased ATP-induced (400 μM) increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in cultured N13 microglial cells and in rat primary microglia. In contrast, 4-[4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl]-6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-methanol [HU-308 (HU)], another CB2 agonist, was without effect. Cannabinoid and adenosine A2A receptors may be involved in the CBD action. CBD- and WIN-promoted primary microglia migration was blocked by CB1 and/or CB2 antagonists. JWH and HU-induced migration was blocked by a CB2 antagonist only. All of the cannabinoids decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite generation, which was insensitive to cannabinoid antagonism. Finally, both CBD and WIN, after subchronic administration for 3 weeks, were able to prevent learning of a spatial navigation task and cytokine gene expression in β-amyloid-injected mice. In summary, CBD is able to modulate microglial cell function in vitro and induce beneficial effects in an in vivo model of AD. Given that CBD lacks psychoactivity, it may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this neurological disease. PMID:21350020

  11. Persimmon tannin represses 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation via up-regulating expression of miR-27 and down-regulating expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in the early phase of adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bo; Ge, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Ze; Li, Chunmei

    2015-12-01

    Currently, obesity has become a worldwide health problem. Adipocyte differentiation is closely associated with the onset of obesity. Our previous studies suggested that persimmon tannin might be a potent anti-adipogenic dietary bioactive compound. However, the mechanism of persimmon tannin on adipocyte differentiation is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of persimmon tannin on adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. Adipogenic differentiation was induced by cocktail in the presence or absence of persimmon tannin. Intracellular lipid accumulation was determined by Oil red O staining and enzymatic colorimetric methods. Gene expression and protein levels were measured by real time RT-PCR and Western blot. Persimmon tannin inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation markedly, and the inhibitory effect was largely limited to the early stage of adipocyte differentiation. Persimmon tannin suppressed the expression of C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), significantly. Furthermore, genes related to lipogenesis, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, were down-regulated by persimmon tannin. In addition, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), which is a target gene of PPARγ, was suppressed by persimmon tannin notably. Correspondingly, the expression of miR-27a and miR-27b were up-regulated by persimmon tannin from Day 2 to Day 8 significantly. Persimmon tannin inhibited adipocyte differentiation through regulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα and miR-27 in early stage of adipogenesis.

  12. Exaggerated Increases in Microglia Proliferation, Brain Inflammatory Response and Sickness Behaviour upon Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    McGuiness, Barry; Gibney, Sinead M; Beumer, Wouter; Versnel, Marjan A; Sillaber, Inge; Harkin, Andrew; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2016-01-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, an established model for autoimmune diabetes, shows an exaggerated reaction of pancreas macrophages to inflammatory stimuli. NOD mice also display anxiety when immune-stimulated. Chronic mild brain inflammation and a pro-inflammatory microglial activation is critical in psychiatric behaviour. To explore brain/microglial activation and behaviour in NOD mice at steady state and after systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Affymetrix analysis on purified microglia of pre-diabetic NOD mice (8-10 weeks) and control mice (C57BL/6 and CD1 mice, the parental non-autoimmune strain) at steady state and after systemic LPS (100 μg/kg) administration. Quantitative PCR was performed on the hypothalamus for immune activation markers (IL-1β, IFNγ and TNFα) and growth factors (BDNF and PDGF). Behavioural profiling of NOD, CD1, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice at steady state was conducted and sickness behaviour/anxiety in NOD and CD1 mice was monitored before and after LPS injection. Genome analysis revealed cell cycle/cell death and survival aberrancies of NOD microglia, substantiated as higher proliferation on BrdU staining. Inflammation signs were absent. NOD mice had a hyper-reactive response to novel environments with some signs of anxiety. LPS injection induced a higher expression of microglial activation markers, a higher brain pro-inflammatory set point (IFNγ, IDO) and a reduced expression of BDNF and PDGF after immune stimulation in NOD mice. NOD mice displayed exaggerated and prolonged sickness behaviour after LPS administration. After stimulation with LPS, NOD mice display an increased microglial proliferation and an exaggerated inflammatory brain response with reduced BDNF and PDGF expression and increased sickness behaviour as compared to controls. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Influence of CSN1S2 protein from Caprine milk Etawah Breed (EB) on histology of microglial cells in rat (Rattus norvegicus) Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rika, Margareth; Fatchiyah

    2017-11-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a degenerative disease that causes an imbalance in the metabolism. The aim of this research is to determine the influences of CSN1S2 on the structure of microglial cells in T2DM. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into eight groups of treatment with looping three times each between treatment groups (CM) Control. The control is given a milk treatment with doses of 375 mg/kg (CM375), 750 mg/kg (CM750), and 1500 mg/kg (CM1500), T2DM (DMK), and T2DM with CSN1S2 375 mg/kg dose (DM375), 750mg/kg (DM750), and 1500 mg/kg (DM1500). The animal model T2DM was induced by a high-fat diet in the form of feed followed by injection of STZ (dose of 25 mg/kg of animal treatment) and treatment of CSN1S2 for 28 days. Brain organs were taken and analysed in histopathology stained by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed using Olympus BX53. Based on the results, it was concluded that CSN1S2 protein is influential for induction of microglial cell proliferation in animal models of T2DM, as immunity responds to the inflammatory condition in T2DM.

  14. Runx1t1 (Runt-Related Transcription Factor 1; Translocated to, 1) Epigenetically Regulates the Proliferation and Nitric Oxide Production of Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Nimmi; Li, Yali; Ling, Eng-Ang; Lu, Jia; Dheen, S. Thameem

    2014-01-01

    Background Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, undergo rapid proliferation and produce several proinflammatory molecules and nitric oxide (NO) when activated in neuropathological conditions. Runx1t1 (Runt-related transcription factor 1, translocated to 1) has been implicated in recruiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) for transcriptional repression, thereby regulating cell proliferation. In the present study, Runx1t1 expression was shown to localize in amoeboid microglial cells of the postnatal rat brain, being hardly detectable in ramified microglia of the adult brain. Moreover, a marked expression of Runx1t1was induced and translocated to nuclei in activated microglia in vitro and in vivo. In view of these findings, it was hypothesized that Runx1t1 regulates microglial functions during development and in neuropathological conditions. Methods and Findings siRNA-mediated knockdown of Runx1t1 significantly decreased the expression level of cell cycle-related gene, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) and proliferation index in activated BV2 microglia. It was also shown that HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment mimics the effects of Runx1t1 knockdown on microglial proliferation, confirming that microglial proliferation is associated with Runx1t1 expression and HDACs activity. Further, Runx1t1 and HDACs were shown to promote neurotoxic effect of microglia by repressing expression of LAT2, L-aminoacid transporter-2 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), which normally inhibits NO production. This was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, which revealed that Runx1t1 binds to the promoter region of LAT2 and this binding increased upon microglial activation. However, the enhanced binding of Runx1t1 to the LAT2 promoter could not repress the LAT2 expression when the BV2 microglia cells were treated with HDACi, indicating that Runx1t1 requires HDACs to transcriptionally repress the expression of LAT2. Conclusion/Interpretation In conclusion

  15. Low-level laser therapy regulates microglial function through Src-mediated signaling pathways: implications for neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Activated microglial cells are an important pathological component in brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of He-Ne (632.8 nm, 64.6 mW/cm2) low-level laser therapy (LLLT), a non-damaging physical therapy, on activated microglia, and the subsequent signaling events of LLLT-induced neuroprotective effects and phagocytic responses. Methods To model microglial activation, we treated the microglial BV2 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For the LLLT-induced neuroprotective study, neuronal cells with activated microglial cells in a Transwell™ cell-culture system were used. For the phagocytosis study, fluorescence-labeled microspheres were added into the treated microglial cells to confirm the role of LLLT. Results Our results showed that LLLT (20 J/cm2) could attenuate toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated proinflammatory responses in microglia, characterized by down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression and nitric oxide (NO) production. LLLT-triggered TLR signaling inhibition was achieved by activating tyrosine kinases Src and Syk, which led to MyD88 tyrosine phosphorylation, thus impairing MyD88-dependent proinflammatory signaling cascade. In addition, we found that Src activation could enhance Rac1 activity and F-actin accumulation that typify microglial phagocytic activity. We also found that Src/PI3K/Akt inhibitors prevented LLLT-stimulated Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) phosphorylation and blocked Rac1 activity and actin-based microglial phagocytosis, indicating the activation of Src/PI3K/Akt/Rac1 signaling pathway. Conclusions The present study underlines the importance of Src in suppressing inflammation and enhancing microglial phagocytic function in activated microglia during LLLT stimulation. We have identified a new and important neuroprotective signaling pathway that consists of regulation of microglial phagocytosis and inflammation under LLLT treatment. Our research

  16. Evaluation of the Effect of Fingolimod Treatment on Microglial Activation Using Serial PET Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sucksdorff, Marcus; Rissanen, Eero; Tuisku, Jouni; Nuutinen, Salla; Paavilainen, Teemu; Rokka, Johanna; Rinne, Juha; Airas, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) has been considered a white matter disease with focal inflammatory lesions. It is, however, becoming clear that significant pathology, such as microglial activation, also takes place outside the plaque areas, that is, in areas of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (GM). Microglial activation can be detected in vivo using 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO)-binding radioligands and PET. It is unknown whether fingolimod affects microglial activation in MS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serial PET can be used to evaluate the effect of fingolimod treatment on microglial activation. Methods: Ten relapsing-remitting MS patients were studied using the TSPO radioligand 11 C-( R )-PK11195. Imaging was performed at baseline and after 8 and 24 wk of fingolimod treatment. Eight healthy individuals were imaged for comparison. Microglial activation was evaluated as distribution volume ratio of 11 C-( R )-PK11195. Results: The patients had MS for an average of 7.9 ± 4.3 y (mean ± SD), their total relapses averaged 4 ± 2.4, and their Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.7 ± 0.5. The patients were switched to fingolimod because of safety reasons or therapy escalation. The mean washout period before the initiation of fingolimod was 2.3 ± 1.1 mo. The patients were clinically stable on fingolimod. At baseline, microglial activation was significantly higher in the combined NAWM and GM areas of MS patients than in healthy controls ( P = 0.021). 11 C-( R )-PK11195 binding was reduced (-12.31%) within the combined T2 lesion area after 6 mo of fingolimod treatment ( P = 0.040) but not in the areas of NAWM or GM. Conclusion: Fingolimod treatment reduced microglial/macrophage activation at the site of focal inflammatory lesions, presumably by preventing leukocyte trafficking from the periphery. It did not affect the widespread, diffuse microglial activation in the NAWM and GM. The study opens new vistas for

  17. Pain intensity and duration can be enhanced by prior challenge: Initial evidence suggestive of a role of microglial priming

    PubMed Central

    Hains, Leah E.; Loram, Lisa C.; Weiseler, Julie L.; Frank, Matthew G.; Bloss, Erik B.; Sholar, Paige; Taylor, Frederick R; Harrison, Jacqueline A; Martin, Thomas J.; Eisenach, James C.; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of spinal microglia and consequent release of pro-inflammatory mediators facilitate pain. Under certain conditions, responses of activated microglia can become enhanced. Enhanced microglial production of pro-inflammatory products may result from priming (sensitization), similar to macrophage priming. We hypothesized that if spinal microglia were primed by an initial inflammatory challenge, subsequent challenges may create enhanced pain. Here, we used a "two-hit" paradigm using two successive challenges, which affect overlapping populations of spinal microglia, presented two weeks apart. Mechanical allodynia and/or activation of spinal glia were assessed. Initially, laparotomy preceded systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Prior laparotomy caused prolonged microglial (not astrocyte) activation plus enhanced LPS-induced allodynia. In this “two-hit” paradigm, minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, significantly reduced later exaggerated pain induced by prior surgery when minocycline was administered intrathecally for 5 days starting either at the time of surgery or 5 days before LPS administration. To test generality of the priming effect, subcutaneous formalin preceded intrathecal HIV-1 gp120, which activates spinal microglia and causes robust allodynia. Prior formalin enhanced intrathecal gp120-induced allodynia, suggesting that microglial priming is not limited to laparotomy and again supporting a spinal site of action. Therefore, spinal microglial priming may increase vulnerability to pain enhancement. PMID:20434956

  18. Naegleria fowleri Lysate Induces Strong Cytopathic Effects and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Release in Rat Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Park, Chang-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2011-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous free-living ameba, causes fatal primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. N. fowleri trophozoites are known to induce cytopathic changes upon contact with microglial cells, including necrotic and apoptotic cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In this study, we treated rat microglial cells with amebic lysate to probe contact-independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity, determining through a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy whether N. fowleri lysate could effect on both necrosis and apoptosis on microglia in a time- as well as dose-dependent fashion. A 51Cr release assay demonstrated pronounced lysate induction of cytotoxicity (71.5%) toward microglial cells by 24 hr after its addition to cultures. In an assay of pro-inflammatory cytokine release, microglial cells treated with N. fowleri lysate produced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, though generation of the former 2 cytokines was reduced with time, and that of the last increased throughout the experimental period. In summary, N. fowleri lysate exerted strong cytopathic effects on microglial cells, and elicited pro-inflammatory cytokine release as a primary immune response. PMID:22072830

  19. Naegleria fowleri lysate induces strong cytopathic effects and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in rat microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Park, Chang-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Jung, Suk-Yul; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2011-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous free-living ameba, causes fatal primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. N. fowleri trophozoites are known to induce cytopathic changes upon contact with microglial cells, including necrotic and apoptotic cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In this study, we treated rat microglial cells with amebic lysate to probe contact-independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity, determining through a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy whether N. fowleri lysate could effect on both necrosis and apoptosis on microglia in a time- as well as dose-dependent fashion. A (51)Cr release assay demonstrated pronounced lysate induction of cytotoxicity (71.5%) toward microglial cells by 24 hr after its addition to cultures. In an assay of pro-inflammatory cytokine release, microglial cells treated with N. fowleri lysate produced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, though generation of the former 2 cytokines was reduced with time, and that of the last increased throughout the experimental period. In summary, N. fowleri lysate exerted strong cytopathic effects on microglial cells, and elicited pro-inflammatory cytokine release as a primary immune response.

  20. Microglial priming through the lung–brain axis: the role of air pollution–induced circulating factors

    PubMed Central

    Mumaw, Christen L.; Levesque, Shannon; McGraw, Constance; Robertson, Sarah; Lucas, Selita; Stafflinger, Jillian E; Campen, Matthew J.; Hall, Pamela; Norenberg, Jeffrey P.; Anderson, Tamara; Lund, Amie K.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Block, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is implicated in neurodegenerative disease risk and progression and in microglial activation, but the mechanisms are unknown. In this study, microglia remained activated 24 h after ozone (O3) exposure in rats, suggesting a persistent signal from lung to brain. Ex vivo analysis of serum from O3-treated rats revealed an augmented microglial proinflammatory response and β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42) neurotoxicity independent of traditional circulating cytokines, where macrophage-1 antigen-mediated microglia proinflammatory priming. Aged mice exhibited reduced pulmonary immune profiles and the most pronounced neuroinflammation and microglial activation in response to mixed vehicle emissions. Consistent with this premise, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36)−/− mice exhibited impaired pulmonary immune responses concurrent with augmented neuroinflammation and microglial activation in response to O3. Further, aging glia were more sensitive to the proinflammatory effects of O3 serum. Together, these findings outline the lung–brain axis, where air pollutant exposures result in circulating, cytokine-independent signals present in serum that elevate the brain proinflammatory milieu, which is linked to the pulmonary response and is further augmented with age.—Mumaw, C. L., Levesque, S., McGraw, C., Robertson, S., Lucas, S., Stafflinger, J. E., Campen, M. J., Hall, P., Norenberg, J. P., Anderson, T., Lund, A. K., McDonald, J. D., Ottens, A. K., Block, M. L. Microglial priming through the lung–brain axis: the role of air pollution–induced circulating factors. PMID:26864854

  1. Bisphenol A exposure induces increased microglia and microglial related factors in the murine embryonic dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mifumi; Komada, Munekazu; Miyazawa, Ken; Goto, Shigemi; Ikeda, Yayoi

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used compound in the food packaging industry. Prenatal exposure to BPA induces histological abnormalities in the neocortex and hypothalamus in association with abnormal behaviors. Yet, the molecular and cellular neurodevelopmental toxicological mechanisms of BPA are incompletely characterized on neuroinflammatory-related endopoints. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effects of BPA exposure in mouse embryos, we examined microglial numbers as well as the expression of microglial-related factors in the E15.5 embryonic brain. BPA-exposed embryos exhibited significant increases in Iba1-immunoreactive microglial numbers in the dorsal telencephalon and the hypothalamus compared to control embryos. Further, the expression levels of microglial markers (Iba1, CD16, iNOS, and CD206), inflammatory factors (TNFα and IL4), signal transducing molecules (Cx3Cr1 and Cx3Cl1), and neurotrophic factor (IGF1) were altered in BPA-exposed embryos. These findings suggest that BPA exposure increases microglial numbers in the brain and alters the neuroinflammatory status at a transcriptional level. Together, these changes may represent a novel target for neurodevelopmental toxicity assessment after BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mir143-BBC3 cascade reduces microglial survival via interplay between apoptosis and autophagy: Implications for methamphetamine-mediated neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Shen, Kai; Bai, Ying; Lv, Xuan; Huang, Rongrong; Zhang, Wei; Chao, Jie; Nguyen, Lan K.; Hua, Jun; Gan, Guangming; Hu, Gang; Yao, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BBC3 (BCL2 binding component 3) is a known apoptosis inducer; however, its role in microglial survival remains poorly understood. In addition to the classical transcription factor TRP53, Mir143 is involved in BBC3 expression at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we identify unique roles of Mir143-BBC3 in mediating microglial survival via the regulation of the interplay between apoptosis and autophagy. Autophagy inhibition accelerated methamphetamine-induced apoptosis, whereas autophagy induction attenuated the decrease in microglial survival. Moreover, anti-Mir143-dependent BBC3 upregulation reversed the methamphetamine-induced decrease in microglial survival via the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy. The in vivo relevance of these findings was confirmed in mouse models, which demonstrated that the microinjection of anti-Mir143 into the hippocampus ameliorated the methamphetamine-induced decrease in microglia as well as that observed in heterozygous Mir143+/− mice. These findings provide new insight regarding the specific contributions of Mir143-BBC3 to microglial survival in the context of drug abuse. PMID:27464000

  3. Deletion of galectin-3 exacerbates microglial activation and accelerates disease progression and demise in a SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Bruce J; Hoffman, Eric P; Sutherland, Margaret L; Bouri, Khaled; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Knoblach, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Galectins are pleiotropic carbohydrate-binding lectins involved in inflammation, growth/differentiation, and tissue remodeling. The functional role of galectins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unknown. Expression studies revealed increases in galectin-1 mRNA and protein in spinal cords from SOD1G93A mice, and in galectin-3 and -9 mRNAs and proteins in spinal cords of both SOD1G93A mice and sporadic ALS patients. As the increase in galectin-3 appeared in early presymptomatic stages and increased progressively through to end stage of disease in the mouse, it was selected for additional study, where it was found to be mainly expressed by microglia. Galectin-3 antagonists are not selective and do not readily cross the blood–brain barrier; therefore, we generated SOD1G93A/Gal-3−/− transgenic mice to evaluate galectin-3 deletion in a widely used mouse model of ALS. Disease progression, neurological symptoms, survival, and inflammation were assessed to determine the effect of galectin-3 deletion on the SOD1G93A disease phenotype. Galectin-3 deletion did not change disease onset, but resulted in more rapid progression through functionally defined disease stages, more severely impaired neurological symptoms at all stages of disease, and expiration, on average, 25 days earlier than SOD1G93A/Gal-3+/+ cohorts. In addition, microglial staining, as well as TNF-α, and oxidative injury were increased in SOD1G93A/Gal-3−/− mice compared with SOD1G93A/Gal-3+/+ cohorts. These data support an important functional role for microglial galectin-3 in neuroinflammation during chronic neurodegenerative disease. We suggest that elevations in galectin-3 by microglia as disease progresses may represent a protective, anti-inflammatory innate immune response to chronic motor neuron degeneration. PMID:23139902

  4. The non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid, cannabidiol affects cholesterol metabolism-related genes in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Rimmerman, Neta; Juknat, Ana; Kozela, Ewa; Levy, Rivka; Bradshaw, Heather B; Vogel, Zvi

    2011-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that is clinically used in a 1:1 mixture with the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for the treatment of neuropathic pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Our group previously reported that CBD exerts anti-inflammatory effects on microglial cells. In addition, we found that CBD treatment increases the accumulation of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA), thus enhancing endocannabinoid signaling. Here we proceeded to investigate the effects of CBD on the modulation of lipid-related genes in microglial cells. Cell viability was tested using FACS analysis, AEA levels were measured using LC/MS/MS, gene array analysis was validated with real-time qPCR, and cytokine release was measured using ELISA. We report that CBD significantly upregulated the mRNAs of the enzymes sterol-O-acyl transferase (Soat2), which synthesizes cholesteryl esters, and of sterol 27-hydroxylase (Cyp27a1). In addition, CBD increased the mRNA of the lipid droplet-associated protein, perilipin2 (Plin2). Moreover, we found that pretreatment of the cells with the cholesterol chelating agent, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD), reversed the CBD-induced increase in Soat2 mRNA but not in Plin2 mRNA. Incubation with AEA increased the level of Plin2, but not of Soat2 mRNA. Furthermore, MBCD treatment did not affect the reduction by CBD of the LPS-induced release of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. CBD treatment modulates cholesterol homeostasis in microglial cells, and pretreatment with MBCD reverses this effect without interfering with CBD's anti-inflammatory effects. The effects of the CBD-induced increase in AEA accumulation on lipid-gene expression are discussed.

  5. The Role of Angiotensin II/AT1 Receptor Signaling in Regulating Retinal Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Joanna A; Vessey, Kirstan A; Brandli, Alice; Nag, Nupur; Tran, Mai X; Jobling, Andrew I; Fletcher, Erica L

    2018-01-01

    This study explored whether the proangiogenic factor Angiotensin II (AngII) had a direct effect on the activation state of microglia via the Angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1-R). Microglial dynamic activity was investigated in live retinal flatmounts from adult Cx3Cr1+/GFP mice under control, AngII (5 μM) or AngII (5 μM) + candesartan (0.227 μM) conditions. The effects of intravitreal administration of AngII (10 mM) were also investigated at 24 hours, with retinae processed for immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, or inflammatory quantitative PCR arrays. We found FACS isolated retinal microglia expressed AT1-R. In retinal flatmounts, microglia showed characteristic movement of processes under control conditions. Perfusion of AngII induced an immediate change in process length (-42%, P < 0.05) and activation state of microglia that was ameliorated by AT1-R blockade, suggesting a direct effect of AngII on microglia via the AT1-R. Intravitreal injection of AngII induced microglial activation after 24 hours, which was characterized by increased soma size (23%, P < 0.001) and decreased process length (20%, P < 0.05). Further analysis indicated a significant decrease in the number of microglial contacts with retinal neurons (saline 15.6 ± 2.31 versus AngII 7.8 ± 1.06, P < 0.05). Retinal cytokine and chemokine expression was modulated, indicative of an inflammatory retinal phenotype. We show that retinal microglia express AT1-R and their activation state is significantly altered by the angiogenic factor, AngII. Specifically, AngII may directly activate AT1-Rs on microglia and contribute to retinal inflammation. This may have implications for diseases like diabetic retinopathy where increases in AngII and inflammation have been shown to play an important role.

  6. Attenuation of dichlorvos-induced microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis by 4-hydroxy TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Sunkaria, Aditya; Sharma, Deep Raj; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2014-02-01

    The neurotoxic consequences of acute high-level as well as chronic low-level organophosphates exposure are associated with a range of abnormalities in nerve functions. Previously, we have shown that after 24 h of dichlorvos exposure, microglia become activated and secrete pro-inflammatory molecules like nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Here, we extended our findings and focused on the neuronal damage caused by dichlorvos via microglial activation. For this, neurons and microglia were isolated separately from 1-day-old Wistar rat pups. Microglia were treated with dichlorvos for 24 h and supernatant was collected (dichlorvos-induced conditioned medium, DCM). However, when 4-hydroxy TEMPO (4-HT) pretreatment was given, we observed significant attenuation of dichlorvos-induced microglial activation; we also collected the supernatant of this culture (4-HT + DCM, TDCM). Next, we checked the effects of DCM on neurons and found heavy loss in viability as evident from NF-H immunostaining and MTT results, whereas dichlorvos alone-treated neurons showed comparatively less damage. However, we observed significant increase in neuronal viability when cells were treated with TDCM. Semi-quantitative PCR and western blot results revealed significant increase in p53, Bax and cytochrome c levels along with caspase 3 activation after 24 h of DCM treatment. However, TDCM-treated neurons showed significant decrease in the expression of these pro-apoptotic molecules. Taken together, these findings suggest that 4-HT can significantly attenuate dichlorvos-induced microglial activation and prevent apoptotic neuronal cell death.

  7. Computational identification of potential multi-drug combinations for reduction of microglial inflammation in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Like other neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer Disease (AD) has a prominent inflammatory component mediated by brain microglia. Reducing microglial inflammation could potentially halt or at least slow the neurodegenerative process. A major challenge in the development of treatments targeting brain inflammation is the sheer complexity of the molecular mechanisms that determine whether microglia become inflammatory or take on a more neuroprotective phenotype. The process is highly multifactorial, raising the possibility that a multi-target/multi-drug strategy could be more effective than conventional monotherapy. This study takes a computational approach in finding combinations of approved drugs that are potentially more effective than single drugs in reducing microglial inflammation in AD. This novel approach exploits the distinct advantages of two different computer programming languages, one imperative and the other declarative. Existing programs written in both languages implement the same model of microglial behavior, and the input/output relationships of both programs agree with each other and with data on microglia over an extensive test battery. Here the imperative program is used efficiently to screen the model for the most efficacious combinations of 10 drugs, while the declarative program is used to analyze in detail the mechanisms of action of the most efficacious combinations. Of the 1024 possible drug combinations, the simulated screen identifies only 7 that are able to move simulated microglia at least 50% of the way from a neurotoxic to a neuroprotective phenotype. Subsequent analysis shows that of the 7 most efficacious combinations, 2 stand out as superior both in strength and reliability. The model offers many experimentally testable and therapeutically relevant predictions concerning effective drug combinations and their mechanisms of action. PMID:26097457

  8. Neuroprotection of Scutellarin is mediated by inhibition of microglial inflammatory activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Wang, H; Guo, H; Kang, L; Gao, X; Hu, L

    2011-06-30

    Inhibition of microglial over-reaction and the inflammatory processes may represent a therapeutic target to alleviate the progression of neurological diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. Scutellarin is the major active component of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz, a herbal medicine in treatment of cerebrovascular diseases for a long time in the Orient. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of neuroprotection by Scutellarin, particularly its anti-inflammatory effects in microglia. We observed that Scutellarin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), suppressed LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNFα, and IL-1β mRNA expression in rat primary microglia or BV-2 mouse microglial cell line. Scutellarin inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). It repressed the LPS-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation without affecting the activity of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, Scutellarin also inhibited interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced NO production, iNOS mRNA expression and transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1α (STAT1α) activation. Concomitantly, conditioned media from Scutellarin pretreated BV-2 cells significantly reduced neurotoxicity compared with conditioned media from LPS treated alone. Together, the present study reported the anti-inflammatory activity of Scutellarin in microglial cells along with their underlying molecular mechanisms, and suggested Scutellarin might have therapeutic potential for various microglia mediated neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Minocycline causes widespread cell death and increases microglial labeling in the neonatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Strahan, J Alex; Walker, William H; Montgomery, Taylor R; Forger, Nancy G

    2017-06-01

    Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, inhibits microglia in many paradigms and is among the most commonly used tools for examining the role of microglia in physiological processes. Microglia may play an active role in triggering developmental neuronal cell death, although findings have been contradictory. To determine whether microglia influence developmental cell death, we treated perinatal mice with minocycline (45 mg/kg) and quantified effects on dying cells and microglial labeling using immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 (AC3) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), respectively. Contrary to our expectations, minocycline treatment from embryonic day 18 to postnatal day (P)1 caused a > tenfold increase in cell death 8 h after the last injection in all brain regions examined, including the primary sensory cortex, septum, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Iba1 labeling was also increased in most regions. Similar effects, although of smaller magnitude, were seen when treatment was delayed to P3-P5. Minocycline treatment from P3 to P5 also decreased overall cell number in the septum at weaning, suggesting lasting effects of the neonatal exposure. When administered at lower doses (4.5 or 22.5 mg/kg), or at the same dose 1 week later (P10-P12), minocycline no longer increased microglial markers or cell death. Taken together, the most commonly used microglial "inhibitor" increases cell death and Iba1 labeling in the neonatal mouse brain. Minocycline is used clinically in infant and pediatric populations; caution is warrented when using minocycline in developing animals, or extrapolating the effects of this drug across ages. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 753-766, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Minocycline Causes Widespread Cell Death and Increases Microglial Labeling in the Neonatal Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Strahan, J. Alex; Walker, William H.; Montgomery, Taylor R.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2016-01-01

    Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, inhibits microglia in many paradigms, and is among the most commonly used tools for examining the role of microglia in physiological processes. Microglia may play an active role in triggering developmental neuronal cell death, although findings have been contradictory. To determine whether microglia influence developmental cell death, we treated perinatal mice with minocycline (45 mg/kg) and quantified effects on dying cells and microglial labeling using immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 (AC3) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), respectively. Contrary to our expectations, minocycline treatment from embryonic day 18 to postnatal day (P)1 caused a >10-fold increase in cell death 8 h after the last injection in all brain regions examined, including the primary sensory cortex (S1), septum, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Iba1 labeling was also increased in most regions. Similar effects, although of smaller magnitude, were seen when treatment was delayed to P3-P5. Minocycline treatment from P3-P5 also decreased overall cell number in the septum at weaning, suggesting lasting effects of the neonatal exposure. When administered at lower doses (4.5 or 22.5 mg/kg), or at the same dose one week later (P10-P12), minocycline no longer increased microglial markers or cell death. Taken together, the most commonly used microglial “inhibitor” increases cell death and Iba1 labeling in the neonatal mouse brain. Minocycline is used clinically in infant and pediatric populations; caution is warrented when using minocycline in developing animals, or extrapolating the effects of this drug across ages. PMID:27706925

  11. Ultrafine carbon particles promote rotenone-induced dopamine neuronal loss through activating microglial NADPH oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yinxi; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Huifeng

    Background: Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) and pesticide rotenone were considered as potential environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether and how UFPs alone and in combination with rotenone affect the pathogenesis of PD remains largely unknown. Methods: Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, a surrogate of UFPs) and rotenone were used individually or in combination to determine their roles in chronic dopaminergic (DA) loss in neuron-glia, and neuron-enriched, mix-glia cultures. Immunochemistry using antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase was performed to detect DA neuronal loss. Measurement of extracellular superoxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed to examine activation of NADPHmore » oxidase. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase and MAC-1 receptor in microglia were employed to examine their role in DA neuronal loss triggered by ufCB and rotenone. Results: In rodent midbrain neuron-glia cultures, ufCB and rotenone alone caused neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner. In particularly, ufCB at doses of 50 and 100 μg/cm{sup 2} induced significant loss of DA neurons. More importantly, nontoxic doses of ufCB (10 μg/cm{sup 2}) and rotenone (2 nM) induced synergistic toxicity to DA neurons. Microglial activation was essential in this process. Furthermore, superoxide production from microglial NADPH oxidase was critical in ufCB/rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. Studies in mix-glia cultures showed that ufCB treatment activated microglial NADPH oxidase to induce superoxide production. Firstly, ufCB enhanced the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (gp91{sup phox}, p47{sup phox} and p40{sup phox}); secondly, ufCB was recognized by microglial surface MAC-1 receptor and consequently promoted rotenone-induced p47{sup phox} and p67{sup phox} translocation assembling active NADPH oxidase. Conclusion: ufCB and rotenone worked in synergy to activate NADPH oxidase in microglia, leading to

  12. Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of microglial changes in a mouse model of virus encephalitis: age and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Aline A; Dos Reis, Renata R; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Fernandes, Taiany N; Gomes, Giovanni F; Diniz, Daniel G; Magalhães, Nara M; Diniz, Cristovam G; Sosthenes, Marcia C K; Bento-Torres, João; Diniz, José Antonio P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F da C; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley P

    2015-08-01

    Many RNA virus CNS infections cause neurological disease. Because Piry virus has a limited human pathogenicity and exercise reduces activation of microglia in aged mice, possible influences of environment and aging on microglial morphology and behavior in mice sublethal encephalitis were investigated. Female albino Swiss mice were raised either in standard (S) or in enriched (EE) cages from age 2 to 6 months (young - Y), or from 2 to 16 months (aged - A). After behavioral tests, mice nostrils were instilled with Piry-virus-infected or with normal brain homogenates. Brain sections were immunolabeled for virus antigens or microglia at 8 days post-infection (dpi), when behavioral changes became apparent, and at 20 and 40 dpi, after additional behavioral testing. Young infected mice from standard (SYPy) and enriched (EYPy) groups showed similar transient impairment in burrowing activity and olfactory discrimination, whereas aged infected mice from both environments (EAPy, SAPy) showed permanent reduction in both tasks. The beneficial effects of an enriched environment were smaller in aged than in young mice. Six-hundred and forty microglial cells, 80 from each group were reconstructed. An unbiased, stereological sampling approach and multivariate statistical analysis were used to search for microglial morphological families. This procedure allowed distinguishing between microglial morphology of infected and control subjects. More severe virus-associated microglial changes were observed in young than in aged mice, and EYPy seem to recover microglial homeostatic morphology earlier than SYPy . Because Piry-virus encephalitis outcomes were more severe in aged mice, it is suggested that the reduced inflammatory response in those individuals may aggravate encephalitis outcomes. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxicmore » concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IkB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation

  14. A Phenotypic Change But Not Proliferation Underlies Glial Responses in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    Classical immunohistochemical studies in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain reveal prominent glial reactions, but whether this pathological feature is due primarily to cell proliferation or to a phenotypic change of existing resting cells remains controversial. We performed double-fluorescence immunohistochemical studies of astrocytes and microglia, followed by unbiased stereology-based quantitation in temporal cortex of 40 AD patients and 32 age-matched nondemented subjects. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC2) were used as markers of astrocytic and microglial activation, respectively. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 L1 and glutamine synthetase were used as constitutive astrocytic markers, and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1) as a constitutive microglial marker. As expected, AD patients had higher numbers of GFAP+ astrocytes and MHC2+ microglia than the nondemented subjects. However, both groups had similar numbers of total astrocytes and microglia and, in the AD group, these total numbers remained essentially constant over the clinical course of the disease. The GFAP immunoreactivity of astrocytes, but not the MHC2 immunoreactivity of microglia, increased in parallel with the duration of the clinical illness in the AD group. Cortical atrophy contributed to the perception of increased glia density. We conclude that a phenotypic change of existing glial cells, rather than a marked proliferation of glial precursors, accounts for the majority of the glial responses observed in the AD brain. PMID:23602650

  15. Microglial brain region-dependent diversity and selective regional sensitivities to ageing

    PubMed Central

    Grabert, Kathleen; Michoel, Tom; Karavolos, Michail H; Clohisey, Sara; Baillie, J Kenneth; Stevens, Mark P; Freeman, Tom C; Summers, Kim M; McColl, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    Microglia play critical roles in neural development, homeostasis and neuroinflammation and are increasingly implicated in age-related neurological dysfunction. Neurodegeneration often occurs in disease-specific spatially-restricted patterns, the origins of which are unknown. We performed the first genome-wide analysis of microglia from discrete brain regions across the adult lifespan of the mouse and reveal that microglia have distinct region-dependent transcriptional identities and age in a regionally variable manner. In the young adult brain, differences in bioenergetic and immunoregulatory pathways were the major sources of heterogeneity and suggested that cerebellar and hippocampal microglia exist in a more immune vigilant state. Immune function correlated with regional transcriptional patterns. Augmentation of the distinct cerebellar immunophenotype and a contrasting loss in distinction of the hippocampal phenotype among forebrain regions were key features during ageing. Microglial diversity may enable regionally localised homeostatic functions but could also underlie region-specific sensitivities to microglial dysregulation and involvement in age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:26780511

  16. Does microglial dysfunction play a role in autism and Rett syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    MAEZAWA, IZUMI; CALAFIORE, MARCO; WULFF, HEIKE; JIN, LEE-WAY

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) including classic autism is a group of complex developmental disabilities with core deficits of impaired social interactions, communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors. Although the neurobiology of ASDs has attracted much attention in the last two decades, the role of microglia has been ignored. Existing data are focused on their recognized role in neuroinflammation, which only covers a small part of the pathological repertoire of microglia. This review highlights recent findings on the broader roles of microglia, including their active surveillance of brain microenvironments and regulation of synaptic connectivity, maturation of brain circuitry and neurogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that microglia respond to pre- and postnatal environmental stimuli through epigenetic interface to change gene expression, thus acting as effectors of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Impairments of these microglial functions could substantially contribute to several major etiological factors of autism, such as environmental toxins and cortical underconnectivity. Our recent study on Rett syndrome, a syndromic autistic disorder, provides an example that intrinsic microglial dysfunction due to genetic and epigenetic aberrations could detrimentally affect the developmental trajectory without evoking neuroinflammation. We propose that ASDs provide excellent opportunities to study the influence of microglia on neurodevelopment, and this knowledge could lead to novel therapies. PMID:22717189

  17. Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Gene CD33 Inhibits Microglial Uptake of Amyloid Beta

    PubMed Central

    Griciuc, Ana; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Parrado, Antonio R.; Lesinski, Andrea N.; Asselin, Caroline N.; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Choi, Se Hoon; Hyman, Bradley T.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The transmembrane protein CD33 is a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin that regulates innate immunity but has no known functions in the brain. We have previously shown that the CD33 gene is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we observed increased expression of CD33 in microglial cells in AD brain. The minor allele of the CD33 SNP rs3865444, which confers protection against AD, was associated with reductions in both CD33 expression and insoluble amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) levels in AD brain. Furthermore, the numbers of CD33-immunoreactive microglia were positively correlated with insoluble Aβ42 levels and plaque burden in AD brain. CD33 inhibited uptake and clearance of Aβ42 in microglial cell cultures. Finally, brain levels of insoluble Aβ42 as well as amyloid plaque burden were markedly reduced in APPSwe/PS1ΔE9/CD33−/− mice. Therefore, CD33 inactivation mitigates Aβ pathology and CD33 inhibition could represent a novel therapy for AD. PMID:23623698

  18. Alzheimer's disease risk gene CD33 inhibits microglial uptake of amyloid beta.

    PubMed

    Griciuc, Ana; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Parrado, Antonio R; Lesinski, Andrea N; Asselin, Caroline N; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Choi, Se Hoon; Hyman, Bradley T; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2013-05-22

    The transmembrane protein CD33 is a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin that regulates innate immunity but has no known functions in the brain. We have previously shown that the CD33 gene is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we observed increased expression of CD33 in microglial cells in AD brain. The minor allele of the CD33 SNP rs3865444, which confers protection against AD, was associated with reductions in both CD33 expression and insoluble amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) levels in AD brain. Furthermore, the numbers of CD33-immunoreactive microglia were positively correlated with insoluble Aβ42 levels and plaque burden in AD brain. CD33 inhibited uptake and clearance of Aβ42 in microglial cell cultures. Finally, brain levels of insoluble Aβ42 as well as amyloid plaque burden were markedly reduced in APP(Swe)/PS1(ΔE9)/CD33(-/-) mice. Therefore, CD33 inactivation mitigates Aβ pathology and CD33 inhibition could represent a novel therapy for AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gabapentin decreases microglial cells and reverses bilateral hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats with chronic myositis.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A S; Freitas, M F; Rocha, I R C; Chacur, M

    2017-03-15

    In the present work, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of gabapentin in a chronic myositis model and its interference in spinal glial cells. Chronic myositis was induced by injection of Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) into the right gastrocnemius (GS) muscle of rats and tests for evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were performed. Pharmacological treatment with gabapentin was administrated intrathecally and 100μg and 200μg doses were tested. For analyzing astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord, immunochemistry assay was performed. It was found that gabapentin 200μg reverted CFA-induced chronic muscle pain bilaterally, in all applied tests and it was able to attenuate microglial but not astrocytes activation in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. In conclusion, gabapentin was able to inhibit hyperalgesia and allodynia in chronic myositis and also to attenuate spinal microglial activation. Therefore, gabapentin could be used as treatment for targeting chronic muscle pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diverse requirements for microglial survival, specification, and function revealed by defined-medium cultures

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Christopher J.; Bennett, F. Chris; Tucker, Andrew F.; Collins, Hannah Y.; Mulinyawe, Sara B.; Barres, Ben A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), engage in various CNS-specific functions that are critical for development and health. To better study microglia and the properties that distinguish them from other tissue macrophage populations, we have optimized serum-free culture conditions to permit robust survival of highly ramified adult microglia under defined-medium conditions. We find that astrocyte-derived factors prevent microglial death ex vivo and that this activity results from three primary components, CSF-1/IL-34, TGF-β2, and cholesterol. Using microglial cultures that have never been exposed to serum, we demonstrate a dramatic and lasting change in phagocytic capacity after serum exposure. Finally, we find that mature microglia rapidly lose signature gene expression after isolation, and that this loss can be reversed by engrafting cells back into an intact CNS environment. These data indicate that the specialized gene expression profile of mature microglia requires continuous instructive signaling from the intact CNS. PMID:28521131

  1. Substance P Exacerbates Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration through Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Independent Activation of Microglial NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1−/−), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose–response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91phox and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox. The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25209287

  2. Diverse Requirements for Microglial Survival, Specification, and Function Revealed by Defined-Medium Cultures.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Christopher J; Bennett, F Chris; Tucker, Andrew F; Collins, Hannah Y; Mulinyawe, Sara B; Barres, Ben A

    2017-05-17

    Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, engage in various CNS-specific functions that are critical for development and health. To better study microglia and the properties that distinguish them from other tissue macrophage populations, we have optimized serum-free culture conditions to permit robust survival of highly ramified adult microglia under defined-medium conditions. We find that astrocyte-derived factors prevent microglial death ex vivo and that this activity results from three primary components, CSF-1/IL-34, TGF-β2, and cholesterol. Using microglial cultures that have never been exposed to serum, we demonstrate a dramatic and lasting change in phagocytic capacity after serum exposure. Finally, we find that mature microglia rapidly lose signature gene expression after isolation, and that this loss can be reversed by engrafting cells back into an intact CNS environment. These data indicate that the specialized gene expression profile of mature microglia requires continuous instructive signaling from the intact CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory effects of antihistamines, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, on proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwon; Song, Jin-Ho

    2017-03-05

    Microglial NADPH oxidase is a major source of toxic reactive oxygen species produced during chronic neuroinflammation. Voltage-gated proton channel (H V 1) functions to maintain the intense activity of NADPH oxidase, and channel inhibition alleviates the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke and multiple sclerosis associated with oxidative neuroinflammation. Antagonists of histamine H 1 receptors have beneficial effects against microglia-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. We examined the effects of the H 1 antihistamines, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, on proton currents in BV2 microglial cells recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reduced the proton currents with almost the same potency, yielding IC 50 values of 42 and 43μM, respectively. Histamine did not affect proton currents, excluding the involvement of histamine receptors in their action. Neither drug shifted the voltage-dependence of activation or the reversal potential of the proton currents, even though diphenhydramine slowed the activation and deactivation kinetics. The inhibitory effects of the two antihistamines on proton currents could be utilized to develop therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases and other diseases associated with H V 1 proton channel abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective Effects of Curcumin on Manganese-Induced BV-2 Microglial Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Chun, Hong Sung

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin, a bioactive component in tumeric, has been shown to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective effects, but the effects of curcumin against manganese (Mn)-mediated neurotoxicity have not been studied. This study examined the protective effects of curcumin on Mn-induced cytotoxicity in BV-2 microglial cells. Curcumin (0.1-10 µM) dose-dependently prevented Mn (250 µM)-induced cell death. Mn-induced mitochondria-related apoptotic characteristics, such as caspase-3 and -9 activation, cytochrome c release, Bax increase, and Bcl-2 decrease, were significantly suppressed by curcumin. In addition, curcumin significantly increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) and moderately potentiated superoxide dismutase (SOD), both which were diminished by Mn treatment. Curcumin pretreatment effectively suppressed Mn-induced upregulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), total reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, curcumin markedly inhibited the Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss. Furthermore, curcumin was able to induce heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Curcumin-mediated inhibition of ROS, down-regulation of caspases, restoration of MMP, and recovery of cell viability were partially reversed by HO-1 inhibitor (SnPP). These results suggest the first evidence that curcumin can prevent Mn-induced microglial cell death through the induction of HO-1 and regulation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptotic events.

  5. Transient early neurotrophin release and delayed inflammatory cytokine release by microglia in response to PAR-2 stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on neurons, but the signaling mechanism controlling these distinct responses remain unclear. We demonstrated that treatment of microglial cultures with the PAR-2 agonist, 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, evoked early transient release of BDNF, while sustained PAR-2 stimulation evoked the delayed release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and nitric oxide. Culture medium harvested during the early phase (at 1 h) of microglial activation induced by 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (microglial conditioned medium, MCM) had no deleterious effects on cultured neurons, while MCM harvested during the late phase (at 72 h) promoted DNA fragmentation and apoptosis as indicated by TUNEL and annexin/PI staining. Blockade of PAR-1 during the early phase of PAR-2 stimulation enhanced BDNF release (by 11%, small but significant) while a PAR-1 agonist added during the late phase (24 h after 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 addition) suppressed the release of cytokines and NO. The neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of activated microglial exhibit distinct temporal profiles that are regulated by PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation. It may be possible to facilitate neuronal recovery and repair by appropriately timed stimulation and inhibition of microglial PAR-1 and PAR-2 receptors. PMID:22731117

  6. Transient early neurotrophin release and delayed inflammatory cytokine release by microglia in response to PAR-2 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Wen; Chen, Qian-Bo; Ouyang, Qing; Sun, Ji-Hu; Liu, Fang-Ting; Song, Dian-Wen; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2012-06-25

    Activated microglia exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on neurons, but the signaling mechanism controlling these distinct responses remain unclear. We demonstrated that treatment of microglial cultures with the PAR-2 agonist, 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, evoked early transient release of BDNF, while sustained PAR-2 stimulation evoked the delayed release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β and TNF-α) and nitric oxide. Culture medium harvested during the early phase (at 1 h) of microglial activation induced by 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (microglial conditioned medium, MCM) had no deleterious effects on cultured neurons, while MCM harvested during the late phase (at 72 h) promoted DNA fragmentation and apoptosis as indicated by TUNEL and annexin/PI staining. Blockade of PAR-1 during the early phase of PAR-2 stimulation enhanced BDNF release (by 11%, small but significant) while a PAR-1 agonist added during the late phase (24 h after 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 addition) suppressed the release of cytokines and NO. The neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of activated microglial exhibit distinct temporal profiles that are regulated by PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation. It may be possible to facilitate neuronal recovery and repair by appropriately timed stimulation and inhibition of microglial PAR-1 and PAR-2 receptors.

  7. Cromolyn Reduces Levels of the Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Amyloid β-Protein by Promoting Microglial Phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Griciuc, Ana; Hudry, Eloise; Wan, Yu; Quinti, Luisa; Ward, Joseph; Forte, Angela M; Shen, Xunuo; Ran, ChongZhao; Elmaleh, David R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2018-01-18

    Amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) deposition is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ deposition triggers both pro-neuroinflammatory microglial activation and neurofibrillary tangle formation. Cromolyn sodium is an asthma therapeutic agent previously shown to reduce Aβ levels in transgenic AD mouse brains after one-week of treatment. Here, we further explored these effects as well as the mechanism of action of cromolyn, alone, and in combination with ibuprofen in APP Swedish -expressing Tg2576 mice. Mice were treated for 3 months starting at 5 months of age, when the earliest stages of β-amyloid deposition begin. Cromolyn, alone, or in combination with ibuprofen, almost completely abolished longer insoluble Aβ species, i.e. Aβ40 and Aβ42, but increased insoluble Aβ38 levels. In addition to its anti-aggregation effects on Aβ, cromolyn, alone, or plus ibuprofen, but not ibuprofen alone, increased microglial recruitment to, and phagocytosis of β-amyloid deposits in AD mice. Cromolyn also promoted Aβ42 uptake in microglial cell-based assays. Collectively, our data reveal robust effects of cromolyn, alone, or in combination with ibuprofen, in reducing aggregation-prone Aβ levels and inducing a neuroprotective microglial activation state favoring Aβ phagocytosis versus a pro-neuroinflammatory state. These findings support the use of cromolyn, alone, or with ibuprofen, as a potential AD therapeutic.

  8. Phenotypic dysregulation of microglial activation in young offspring rats with maternal sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiuying; Xie, Xiaofang; Fan, Yonghua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Shuo; Chen, Yubo; Peng, Cheng; You, Zili

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential adverse effects of maternal sleep deprivation (MSD) on physiological and behavioral aspects of offspring, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study was intended to investigate the roles of microglia on neurodevelopment and cognition in young offspring rats with prenatal sleep deprivation. Pregnant Wistar rats received 72 h sleep deprivation in the last trimester of gestation, and their prepuberty male offspring were given the intraperitoneal injection with or without minocycline. The results showed the number of Iba1+ microglia increased, that of hippocampal neurogenesis decreased, and the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were impaired in MSD offspring. The classical microglial activation markers (M1 phenotype) IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CD68 and iNOS were increased, while the alternative microglial activation markers (M2 phenotype) Arg1, Ym1, IL-4, IL-10 and CD206 were reduced in hippocampus of MSD offspring. After minocycline administration, the MSD offspring showed improvement in MWM behaviors and increase in BrdU+/DCX+ cells. Minocycline reduced Iba1+ cells, suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, and reversed the reduction of M2 microglial markers in the MSD prepuberty offspring. These results indicate that dysregulation in microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory activation is involved in MSD-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and impairment of spatial learning and memory. PMID:25830666

  9. The Role of MAC1 in Diesel Exhaust Particle-induced Microglial Activation and Loss of Dopaminergic Neuron Function

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E.; Johnson, Jo Anne; McGraw, Constance; Block, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing reports support that air pollution causes neuroinflammation and is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease/damage. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of urban air pollution, which has been linked to microglial activation and Parkinson’s disease-like pathology. To begin to address how DEP may exert CNS effects, microglia and neuron-glia cultures were treated with either nanometer-sized DEP (<0.22 µM; 50µg/mL), ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 50µg/ml), or DEP extracts (eDEP; from 50 µg/ml DEP) and the effect of microglial activation and dopaminergic (DA) neuron function was assessed. All three treatments showed enhanced amoeboid microglia morphology, increased H2O2 production, and decreased DA uptake. Mechanistic inquiry revealed that the scavenger receptor inhibitor fucoidan blocked DEP internalization in microglia, but failed to alter DEP-induced H2O2 production in microglia. However, pretreatment with the MAC1/CD11b inhibitor antibody blocked microglial H2O2 production in response to DEP. MAC1−/− mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures were protected from DEP-induced loss of DA neuron function, as measured by DA uptake. These findings support that DEP may activate microglia through multiple mechanisms, where scavenger receptors regulate internalization of DEP and the MAC1 receptor is mandatory for both DEP-induced microglial H2O2 production and loss of DA neuron function. PMID:23470120

  10. Cell proliferation and differentiation in chemical leukemogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tissues such as bone marrow with normally high rates of cell division, proliferation is tightly coordinated with cell differentiation. Survival, proliferation and differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells depend on the growth factors, interleukin 3 (IL-3) and/or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and their synergism with other cytokines. We provide evidence that a characteristic shared by a diverse group of compounds with demonstrated leukemogenic potential is the ability to act synergistically with GM-CSF. This results in an increase in recruitment of a resting population of hematopoietic progenitor cells normally unresponsive to the cytokine and a twofold increase in the size of the proliferating cell population normally regarded to be at risk of transformation in leukemogenesis. These findings support the possibility that transient alterations in hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation may be an important factor in the early stages of development of leukemia secondary to chemical or drug exposure.

  11. Neuroadhesive L1 coating attenuates acute microglial attachment to neural electrodes as revealed by live two-photon microscopy.

    PubMed

    Eles, James R; Vazquez, Alberto L; Snyder, Noah R; Lagenaur, Carl; Murphy, Matthew C; Kozai, Takashi D Y; Cui, X Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Implantable neural electrode technologies for chronic neural recordings can restore functional control to paralysis and limb loss victims through brain-machine interfaces. These probes, however, have high failure rates partly due to the biological responses to the probe which generate an inflammatory scar and subsequent neuronal cell death. L1 is a neuronal specific cell adhesion molecule and has been shown to minimize glial scar formation and promote electrode-neuron integration when covalently attached to the surface of neural probes. In this work, the acute microglial response to L1-coated neural probes was evaluated in vivo by implanting coated devices into the cortex of mice with fluorescently labeled microglia, and tracking microglial dynamics with multi-photon microscopy for the ensuing 6 h in order to understand L1's cellular mechanisms of action. Microglia became activated immediately after implantation, extending processes towards both L1-coated and uncoated control probes at similar velocities. After the processes made contact with the probes, microglial processes expanded to cover 47.7% of the control probes' surfaces. For L1-coated probes, however, there was a statistically significant 83% reduction in microglial surface coverage. This effect was sustained through the experiment. At 6 h post-implant, the radius of microglia activation was reduced for the L1 probes by 20%, shifting from 130.0 to 103.5 μm with the coating. Microglia as far as 270 μm from the implant site displayed significantly lower morphological characteristics of activation for the L1 group. These results suggest that the L1 surface treatment works in an acute setting by microglial mediated mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Involvement of microglial cells in infrasonic noise-induced stress via upregulated expression of corticotrophin releasing hormone type 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Du, F; Yin, L; Shi, M; Cheng, H; Xu, X; Liu, Z; Zhang, G; Wu, Z; Feng, G; Zhao, G

    2010-05-19

    Infrasound is a kind of environmental noise and threatens the public health as a nonspecific biological stressor. Upregulated expression of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor CRH-R1 in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was reported to be responsible for infrasonic noise-induced stress and injuries. Recent studies revealed that CRH-R1 is expressed in activated microglial cells, lending support to the hypothesis that microglial cells may be also responsible for infrasonic noise-induced stress. In this work, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats and in vitro cultured microglial cells to infrasound with a main frequency of 16 Hz and a sound pressure level of 130 dB for 2 h, and examined the changes in the expression of CRH-R1 at different time points after infrasound exposure by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We found that infrasound exposure resulted in a significant activation of microglia cells and upregulated their expression of CRH-R1 in the PVN in vivo. Upregulated expression of CRH-R1 can be blocked by antalarmin, a selective CRH-R1 antagonist. Our in vitro data further revealed that in the absence of neurons, infrasound can directly induce microglial activation and upregulate their CRH-R1 expression. These findings suggest that in addition to the PVN neurons, microglial cells are the effector cells for infrasound as well, and involve in the infrasound-induced stress through upregulated expression of CRH-R1. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Annexin-1 Mediates Microglial Activation and Migration via the CK2 Pathway during Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuangxi; Gao, Yan; Yu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Baoming; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Yin; Luo, Zhenzhao; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Annexin-1 (ANXA1) has shown neuroprotective effects and microglia play significant roles during central nervous system injury, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study sought to determine whether ANXA1 regulates microglial response to oxygen–glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) treatment and to clarify the downstream molecular mechanism. In rat hippocampal slices, OGD/R treatment enhanced the ANXA1 expression in neuron, the formyl peptide receptor (FPRs) expression in microglia, and the microglial activation in the CA1 region (cornu ammonis 1). These effects were reversed by the FPRs antagonist Boc1. The cell membrane currents amplitude of BV-2 microglia (the microglial like cell-line) was increased when treated with Ac2-26, the N-terminal peptide of ANXA1. Ac2-26 treatment enhanced BV-2 microglial migration whereas Boc1 treatment inhibited the migration. In BV-2 microglia, both the expression of the CK2 target phosphorylated α-E-catenin and the binding of casein kinase II (CK2) with α-E-catenin were elevated by Ac2-26, these effects were counteracted by the CK2 inhibitor TBB and small interfering (si) RNA directed against transcripts of CK2 and FPRs. Moreover, both TBB and siRNA-mediated inhibition of CK2 blocked Ac2-26-mediated BV-2 microglia migration. Our findings indicate that ANXA1 promotes microglial activation and migration during OGD/R via FPRs, and CK2 target α-E-catenin phosphorylation is involved in this process. PMID:27782092

  14. Hyperforin protects against acute cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of interleukin-17A-mediated microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Pan, Xia; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Kang; Wang, Long

    2018-01-01

    Hyperforin, a pharmacologically active component of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), has been shown to be neuroprotective against acute ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and need to be fully elucidated. C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice or interleukin (IL)-17A knock-out mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (60min) followed by reperfusion for 72h. Hyperforin (0.5μg) was injected slowly into the right ventricle of WT mice 1, 24 and 48h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) onset. Here, we found that hyperforin treatment decreased the mRNA and protein expression of IL-17A at 72h after MCAO onset. Hyperforin reduced infarct volumes and increased neurologic scores accompanied by a decrease in microglial activation and a shift from M1 to M2 phenotypes in the peri-infarct striatum. Furthermore, we revealed that IL-17A was essential to the microglial activation in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. IL-17A knock-out (il-17a -/- ) or anti-IL-17 A monoclonal antibody treatment markedly decreased the microglial activation and induced a shift from M1 to M2 phenotypes of activated microglia. In addition, treatment with recombinant mouse IL-17A abolished the protective effects of hyperforin on acute ischemic brain injury, attenuated the inhibitory effects of hyperforin on the microglial activation, and inhibited the enhanced shift from M1 to M2 phenotypes mediated by hyperforin. In conclusion, our results clearly showed that hyperforin could protect against acute cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of interleukin-17A-mediated microglial activation and polarization of microglia to M2 phenotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A novel pleiotropic effect of aspirin: Beneficial regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kata, Diana; Földesi, Imre; Feher, Liliana Z; Hackler, Laszlo; Puskas, Laszlo G; Gulya, Karoly

    2017-06-01

    Aspirin, one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has extensively studied effects on the cardiovascular system. To reveal further pleiotropic, beneficial effects of aspirin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial mechanisms, we performed morphometric and functional studies relating to phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) and analyzed the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above functions, in pure microglial cells. We examined the effects of aspirin (0.1mM and 1mM) in unchallenged (control) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged secondary microglial cultures. Aspirin affected microglial morphology and functions in a dose-dependent manner as it inhibited LPS-elicited microglial activation by promoting ramification and the inhibition of phagocytosis in both concentrations. Remarkably, aspirin strongly reduced the pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α production, while it increased the anti-inflammatory IL-10 level in LPS-challenged cells. Moreover, aspirin differentially regulated the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes as it downregulated such pro-inflammatory genes as Nos2, Kng1, IL1β, Ptgs2 or Ccr1, while it upregulated some anti-inflammatory genes such as IL10, Csf2, Cxcl1, Ccl5 or Tgfb1. Thus, the use of aspirin could be beneficial for the prophylaxis of certain neurodegenerative disorders as it effectively ameliorates inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Safinamide and flecainide protect axons and reduce microglial activation in models of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Morsali, Damineh; Bechtold, David; Lee, Woojin; Chauhdry, Summen; Palchaudhuri, Upayan; Hassoon, Paula; Snell, Daniel M; Malpass, Katy; Piers, Thomas; Pocock, Jennifer; Roach, Arthur; Smith, Kenneth J

    2013-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a major cause of permanent disability in the inflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis, but no therapies are known to be effective in axonal protection. Sodium channel blocking agents can provide effective protection of axons in the white matter in experimental models of multiple sclerosis, but the mechanism of action (directly on axons or indirectly via immune modulation) remains uncertain. Here we have examined the efficacy of two sodium channel blocking agents to protect white matter axons in two forms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a common model of multiple sclerosis. Safinamide is currently in phase III development for use in Parkinson's disease based on its inhibition of monoamine oxidase B, but the drug is also a potent state-dependent inhibitor of sodium channels. Safinamide provided significant protection against neurological deficit and axonal degeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, even when administration was delayed until after the onset of neurological deficit. Protection of axons was associated with a significant reduction in the activation of microglia/macrophages within the central nervous system. To clarify which property of safinamide was likely to be involved in the suppression of the innate immune cells, the action of safinamide on microglia/macrophages was compared with that of the classical sodium channel blocking agent, flecainide, which has no recognized monoamine oxidase B activity, and which has previously been shown to protect the white matter in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Flecainide was also potent in suppressing microglial activation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. To distinguish whether the suppression of microglia was an indirect consequence of the reduction in axonal damage, or possibly instrumental in the axonal protection, the action of safinamide was examined in separate experiments in vitro. In cultured primary rat microglial

  17. Vitamin K2 suppresses rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan-xia; Li, Yi-pei; Gao, Feng; Hu, Qing-song; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Dong; Wang, Guang-hui

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Increasing evidence has shown that environmental factors such as rotenone and paraquat induce neuroinflammation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the repression by menaquinone-4 (MK-4), a subtype of vitamin K2, of rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro. Methods: A microglial cell line (BV2) was exposed to rotenone (1 μmol/L) with or without MK-4 treatment. The levels of TNF-α or IL-1β in 100 μL of cultured media of BV2 cells were measured using ELISA kits. BV2 cells treated with rotenone with or without MK4 were subjected to mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, immunofluorescence or immunoblot assays. The neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated with conditioned media (CM) of BV2 cells that were exposed to rotenone with or without MK-4 treatment, and the cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. Results: In rotenone-treated BV2 cells, MK-4 (0.5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed the upregulation in the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in the cells, as well as the production of TNF-α and IL-1β in the cultured media. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced p38 activation, ROS production, and caspase-1 activation in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) also restored the mitochondrial membrane potential that had been damaged by rotenone. Exposure to CM from rotenone-treated BV2 cells markedly decreased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. However, this rotenone-activated microglia-mediated death of SH-SY5Y cells was significantly attenuated when the BV2 cells were co-treated with MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin K2 can directly suppress rotenone-induced activation of microglial BV2 cells in vitro by repressing ROS production and p38 activation. PMID:27498777

  18. Evidence for Neuroinflammatory and Microglial Changes in the Cerebral Response to Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wisor, Jonathan P.; Schmidt, Michelle A.; Clegern, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep loss has pro-inflammatory effects, but the roles of specific cell populations in mediating these effects have not been delineated. We assessed the modulation of the electroencephalographic and molecular responses to sleep deprivation (S-DEP) by minocycline, a compound that attenuates microglial activation occurring in association with neuroinflammatory events. Design: Laboratory rodents were subjected to assessment of sleep and wake in baseline and sleep deprived conditions. Participants: Adult male CD-1 mice (30-35 g) subjected to telemetric electroencephalography. Interventions: Minocycline was administered daily. Mice were subjected to baseline data collection on the first day of minocycline administration and, on subsequent days, 2 S-DEP sessions, 1 and 3 h in duration, followed by recovery sleep. Following EEG studies, mice were euthanized either at the end of a 3 h S-DEP or as time-of day controls for sampling of brain messenger RNAs. Gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Measurements and Results: Minocycline-treated mice exhibited a reduction in time spent asleep, relative to saline-treated mice, in the 3-h interval immediately after administration. S-DEP resulted in an increase in EEG slow wave activity relative to baseline in saline-treated mice. This response to S-DEP was abolished in animals subjected to chronic minocycline administration. S-DEP suppressed the expression of the microglial-specific transcript cd11b and the neuroinflammation marker peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, in the brain at the mRNA level. Minocycline attenuated the elevation of c-fos expression by S-DEP. Brain levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs interleukin-1β (il-1β), interleukin-6 (il-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (tnfα) were unaffected by S-DEP, but were elevated in minocycline-treated mice relative to saline-treated mice. Conclusions: The anti-neuroinflammatory agent minocycline prevents either the buildup or

  19. Exposure of cultured astroglial and microglial brain cells to 900 MHz microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Thorlin, Thorleif; Rouquette, Jean-Michel; Hamnerius, Yngve; Hansson, Elisabeth; Persson, Mikael; Björklund, Ulrika; Rosengren, Lars; Rönnbäck, Lars; Persson, Mikael

    2006-08-01

    The rapid rise in the use of mobile communications has raised concerns about health issues related to low-level microwave radiation. The head and brain are usually the most exposed targets in mobile phone users. In the brain, two types of glial cells, the astroglial and the microglial cells, are interesting in the context of biological effects from microwave exposure. These cells are widely distributed in the brain and are directly involved in the response to brain damage as well as in the development of brain cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 900 MHz radiation could affect these two different glial cell types in culture by studying markers for damage-related processes in the cells. Primary cultures enriched in astroglial cells were exposed to 900 MHz microwave radiation in a temperature-controlled exposure system at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 3 W/kg GSM modulated wave (mw) for 4, 8 and 24 h or 27 W/kg continuous wave (cw) for 24 h, and the release into the extracellular medium of the two pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (Il6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnfa) was analyzed. In addition, levels of the astroglial cell-specific reactive marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), whose expression dynamics is different from that of cytokines, were measured in astroglial cultures and in astroglial cell-conditioned cell culture medium at SARs of 27 and 54 W/kg (cw) for 4 or 24 h. No significant differences could be detected for any of the parameters studied at any time and for any of the radiation characteristics. Total protein levels remained constant during the experiments. Microglial cell cultures were exposed to 900 MHz radiation at an SAR of 3 W/kg (mw) for 8 h, and I16, Tnfa, total protein and the microglial reactivity marker ED-1 (a macrophage activation antigen) were measured. No significant differences were found. The morphology of the cultured astroglial cells and microglia was studied and appeared to be

  20. The sp2-iminosugar glycolipid 1-dodecylsulfonyl-5N,6O-oxomethylidenenojirimycin (DSO2-ONJ) as selective anti-inflammatory agent by modulation of hemeoxygenase-1 in Bv.2 microglial cells and retinal explants.

    PubMed

    Alcalde-Estévez, Elena; Arroba, Ana I; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena M; Mellet, Carmen Ortiz; García Fernández, Jose M; Masgrau, Laura; Valverde, Ángela M

    2018-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is an early event during diabetic retinopathy (DR) that impacts the dynamics of microglia polarization. Gliosis is a hallmark of DR and we have reported the beneficial effects of 1R-DSO-ONJ, a member of the sp 2 -iminosugar glycolipid (sp 2 -IGL) family, in targeting microglia and reducing gliosis in diabetic db/db mice. Herein, we analyzed the effect of DSO 2 -ONJ, another family compound incorporating a sulfone group that better mimics the phosphate group of phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogues (PIAs), in Bv.2 microglial cells treated with bacterial lipopolysaccaride (LPS) and in retinal explants from db/db mice. In addition to decreasing iNOS and inflammasome activation, the anti-inflammatory effect of DSO 2 -ONJ was mediated by direct p38α MAPK activation. Computational docking experiments demonstrated that DSO 2 -ONJ binds to p38α MAPK at the same site where PIAs and the alkyl phospholipid perifosine activators do, suggesting similar mechanism of action. Moreover, treatment of microglial cells with DSO 2 -ONJ increased both heme-oxygenase (HO)-1 and Il10 expression regardless the presence of LPS. In retinal explants from db/db mice, DSO 2 -ONJ also induced HO-1 and reduced gliosis. Since IL-10-mediated induction of HO-1 expression is mediated by p38α MAPK activation, our results suggest that this molecular mechanism is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of DSO 2 -ONJ in microglia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Astroglial and microglial contributions to iron metabolism disturbance in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Junxia

    2018-03-01

    Understandings of the disturbed iron metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD) are largely from the perspectives of neurons. Neurodegenerative processes in PD trigger universal and conserved astroglial dysfunction and microglial activation. In this review, we start with astroglia and microglia in PD with an emphasis on their roles in spreading α-synuclein pathology, and then focus on their contributions in iron metabolism under normal conditions and the diseased state of PD. Elevated iron in the brain regions affects glial features, meanwhile, glial effects on neuronal iron metabolism are largely dependent on their releasing factors. These advances might be valuable for better understanding and modulating iron metabolism disturbance in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resveratrol counteracts lipopolysaccharide-mediated microglial inflammation by modulating a SOCS-1 dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dragone, Teresa; Cianciulli, Antonia; Calvello, Rosa; Porro, Chiara; Trotta, Teresa; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2014-09-01

    Brain damage or exposure to inflammatory agents provokes the activation of microglia and secretion of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators responsible for neuronal loss. Several lines of evidence show that resveratrol, a natural non-flavonoid polyphenol, may exert a neuroprotective action in neurodegenerative diseases. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are a family of eight members expressed by immune cells and the central nervous system (CNS) cells, that regulate immune processes within the CNS, including microglia activation. We demonstrate that resveratrol had anti-inflammatory effects in murine N13 microglial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), through up-regulating SOCS-1 expression. Interestingly, in SOCS-1-silenced cells resveratrol failed to play a protective role after LPS treatment. Our data demonstrate that resveratrol can impair microglia activation by activating a SOCS-1 mediated signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kevin P; Kiernan, Elizabeth A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Williams, Justin C; Watters, Jyoti J

    2016-02-17

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS.

  4. The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Anna Carolina Carvalho; Matias, Diana; Garcia, Celina; Amaral, Rackele; Geraldo, Luiz Henrique; Freitas, Catarina; Lima, Flavia Regina Souza

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25404894

  5. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kevin P.; Kiernan, Elizabeth A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS. PMID:26883795

  6. Distinct dynamic profiles of microglial activation are associated with progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Lorraine; Lagarde, Julien; Dorothée, Guillaume; Potier, Marie Claude; Corlier, Fabian; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Caillé, Fabien; Dubois, Bruno; Fillon, Ludovic; Chupin, Marie; Bottlaender, Michel; Sarazin, Marie

    2018-06-01

    Although brain neuroinflammation may play an instrumental role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, its actual impact on disease progression remains controversial, being reported as either detrimental or protective. This work aimed at investigating the temporal relationship between microglial activation and clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease. First, in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease we analysed the predictive value of microglial activation assessed by 18F-DPA-714 PET imaging on functional, cognitive and MRI biomarkers outcomes after a 2-year follow-up. Second, we analysed the longitudinal progression of 18F-DPA-714 binding in patients with Alzheimer's disease by comparison with controls, and assessed its influence on clinical progression. At baseline, all participants underwent a clinical assessment, brain MRI, 11C-PiB, 18F-DPA-714 PET imaging and TSPO genotyping. Participants were followed-up annually for 2 years. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to repeat a second 18F-DPA-714-PET imaging. Initial 18F-DPA-714 binding was higher in prodromal (n = 33) and in demented patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 19) compared to controls (n = 17). After classifying patients into slow and fast decliners according to functional (Clinical Dementia Rating change) or cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination score decline) outcomes, we found a higher initial 18F-DPA-714 binding in slow than fast decliners. Negative correlations were observed between initial 18F-DPA-714 binding and the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes score increase, the MMSE score loss and the progression of hippocampal atrophy. This suggests that higher initial 18F-DPA-714 binding is associated with better clinical prognosis. Twenty-four patients with Alzheimer's disease and 15 control subjects performed a second DPA-PET. We observed an increase of 18F-DPA-714 in patients with Alzheimer's disease as compared with controls (mean 13.2% per year versus 4

  7. Functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder): A role for microglial-based plasticity mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Chris P; Baguley, Ian J

    2018-02-01

    Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically. Core to our argument is microglia's dual role in modulating neuroimmunity and their control of synaptic plasticity, which places them at a pathophysiological nexus wherein coincident physical trauma and psychological stress could cause long-term change in neuronal networks without producing macroscopic structural abnormality. This model proposes a range of hypotheses that are testable with current technologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. HSP60 mediates the neuroprotective effects of curcumin by suppressing microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Feijia; Li, Fan; Li, Yunhong; Hou, Xiaolin; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Nan; Ma, Jiao; Zhang, Rui; Lang, Bing; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yin

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and has been widely used to treat or prevent neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of curcumin are not well known. In the present study, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 mouse microglia cells was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the culture medium and western blotting of cell lysates. The results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression and release of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) in the BV2 cells. The level of heat shock factor (HSF)-1 was upregulated in LPS-activated BV2 microglia, indicating that the increased expression of HSP60 was driven by HSF-1 activation. However, the increased HSF-1 level was downregulated by curcumin. Extracellular HSP60 is a ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and the level of the latter was increased in the LPS-activated BV2 microglia and inhibited by curcumin. The activation of TLR-4 is known to be associated with the activation of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, with the subsequent production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. In the present study, curcumin demonstrated marked suppression of the LPS-induced expression of MyD88, NF-κB, caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the microglia. These results indicate that curcumin may exert its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting microglial activation through the HSP60/TLR-4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling wpathway. Therefore, curcumin may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with microglial activation.

  9. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Temporal Proteomic Changes in Signaling Pathways during BV2 Mouse Microglial Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jongmin; Han, Dohyun; Wang, Joseph Injae; Park, Joonho; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Youngsoo

    2017-09-01

    The development of systematic proteomic quantification techniques in systems biology research has enabled one to perform an in-depth analysis of cellular systems. We have developed a systematic proteomic approach that encompasses the spectrum from global to targeted analysis on a single platform. We have applied this technique to an activated microglia cell system to examine changes in the intracellular and extracellular proteomes. Microglia become activated when their homeostatic microenvironment is disrupted. There are varying degrees of microglial activation, and we chose to focus on the proinflammatory reactive state that is induced by exposure to such stimuli as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Using an improved shotgun proteomics approach, we identified 5497 proteins in the whole-cell proteome and 4938 proteins in the secretome that were associated with the activation of BV2 mouse microglia by LPS or IFN-γ. Of the differentially expressed proteins in stimulated microglia, we classified pathways that were related to immune-inflammatory responses and metabolism. Our label-free parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) approach made it possible to comprehensively measure the hyper-multiplex quantitative value of each protein by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Over 450 peptides that corresponded to pathway proteins and direct or indirect interactors via the STRING database were quantified by label-free PRM in a single run. Moreover, we performed a longitudinal quantification of secreted proteins during microglial activation, in which neurotoxic molecules that mediate neuronal cell loss in the brain are released. These data suggest that latent pathways that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases can be discovered by constructing and analyzing a pathway network model of proteins. Furthermore, this systematic quantification platform has tremendous potential for applications in large-scale targeted analyses. The proteomics data for

  10. Effects of chronic low dose rotenone treatment on human microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to toxins/chemicals is considered to be a significant risk factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD); one putative chemical is the naturally occurring herbicide rotenone that is now used widely in establishing PD models. We, and others, have shown that chronic low dose rotenone treatment induces excessive accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), inclusion body formation and apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons of animal and human origin. Some studies have also suggested that microglia enhance the rotenone induced neurotoxicity. While the effects of rotenone on neurons are well established, there is little or no information available on the effect of rotenone on microglial cells, and especially cells of human origin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of chronic low dose rotenone treatment on human microglial CHME-5 cells. Methods We have shown previously that rotenone induced inclusion body formation in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and therefore used these cells as a control for inclusion body formation in this study. SH-SY5Y and CHME-5 cells were treated with 5 nM rotenone for four weeks. At the end of week 4, both cell types were analysed for the presence of inclusion bodies, superoxide dismutases and cell activation (only in CHME-5 cells) using Haematoxylin and Eosin staining, immunocytochemical and western blotting methods. Levels of active caspases and ROS (both extra and intra cellular) were measured using biochemical methods. Conclusion The results suggest that chronic low dose rotenone treatment activates human microglia (cell line) in a manner similar to microglia of animal origin as shown by others. However human microglia release excessive amounts of ROS extracellularly, do not show excessive amounts of intracellular ROS and active caspases and most importantly do not show any protein aggregation or inclusion body formation. Human microglia appear to be resistant to rotenone (chronic, low

  11. Galectin-3 controls the response of microglial cells to limit cuprizone-induced demyelination.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, H C; Rinaldi, M; Mendez-Huergo, S P; Marder, M; Rabinovich, G A; Pasquini, J M; Pasquini, L A

    2014-02-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin that plays an important role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination is characterized by the loss of mature oligodendrocytes (OLG) by apoptosis, myelin sheath degeneration and recruitment of microglia and astrocytes to the lesioned area. We compared CPZ-induced demyelination of 8-week-old Lgals3(-/-) vs WT mice. Lgals3(-/-) mice displayed a similar susceptibility to CPZ-induced demyelination up to the fifth week, as evaluated by MBP immunostaining and electronic microscopy. However, OLG progenitors (OPC) generated in CPZ-treated Lgals3(-/-) mice showed diminished arborization, suggesting decreased ability of these cells to differentiate. Surprisingly, while WT mice experienced spontaneous remyelination in the fifth week of CPZ treatment-even though the CPZ diet was maintained up to sixth week-Lgals3(-/-) mice lacked this capacity and suffered continuous demyelination up to the sixth week, accompanied by pronounced astroglial activation. Moreover, after 2weeks of CPZ treatment, WT and Lgals3(-/-) mice showed lower innate anxiety as compared with respective naive mice, but only CPZ-treated Lgals3(-/-) mice showed decreased locomotor activity and exhibited spatial working memory impairment. Expression of Gal-3 increased during CPZ-induced demyelination in microglia but not in astrocytes. While CPZ-treated WT mice displayed heightened microglial activation associated with ED1 expression and pronounced upregulation of the phagocytic receptor TREM-2b, this effect was not observed in CPZ-treated Lgals3(-/-) mice which, in spite of showing an increased number of microglia, these cells evidenced caspase-3 activation. Our results indicate that Gal-3 is expressed in microglial cells to modulate their phenotype, facilitating the onset of remyelination and OLG differentiation. © 2013.

  12. The adaptive immune system restrains Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis by modulating microglial function

    PubMed Central

    Abud, Edsel M.; Lakatos, Anita; Karimzadeh, Alborz; Yeung, Stephen T.; Davtyan, Hayk; Fote, Gianna M.; Lau, Lydia; Weinger, Jason G.; Lane, Thomas E.; Inlay, Matthew A.; Poon, Wayne W.; Blurton-Jones, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In contrast, the role of adaptive immunity in AD remains largely unknown. However, numerous clinical trials are testing vaccination strategies for AD, suggesting that T and B cells play a pivotal role in this disease. To test the hypothesis that adaptive immunity influences AD pathogenesis, we generated an immune-deficient AD mouse model that lacks T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. The resulting “Rag-5xfAD” mice exhibit a greater than twofold increase in β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology. Gene expression analysis of the brain implicates altered innate and adaptive immune pathways, including changes in cytokine/chemokine signaling and decreased Ig-mediated processes. Neuroinflammation is also greatly exacerbated in Rag-5xfAD mice as indicated by a shift in microglial phenotype, increased cytokine production, and reduced phagocytic capacity. In contrast, immune-intact 5xfAD mice exhibit elevated levels of nonamyloid reactive IgGs in association with microglia, and treatment of Rag-5xfAD mice or microglial cells with preimmune IgG enhances Aβ clearance. Last, we performed bone marrow transplantation studies in Rag-5xfAD mice, revealing that replacement of these missing adaptive immune populations can dramatically reduce AD pathology. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that adaptive immune cell populations play an important role in restraining AD pathology. In contrast, depletion of B cells and their appropriate activation by T cells leads to a loss of adaptive–innate immunity cross talk and accelerated disease progression. PMID:26884167

  13. Cocaine promotes oxidative stress and microglial-macrophage activation in rat cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    López-Pedrajas, Rosa; Ramírez-Lamelas, Dolores T.; Muriach, Borja; Sánchez-Villarejo, María V.; Almansa, Inmaculada; Vidal-Gil, Lorena; Romero, Francisco J.; Barcia, Jorge M.; Muriach, María

    2015-01-01

    Different mechanisms have been suggested for cocaine neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress alterations. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), considered a sensor of oxidative stress and inflammation, is involved in drug toxicity and addiction. NF-κB is a key mediator for immune responses that induces microglial/macrophage activation under inflammatory processes and neuronal injury/degeneration. Although cerebellum is commonly associated to motor control, muscular tone, and balance. Its relation with addiction is getting relevance, being associated to compulsive and perseverative behaviors. Some reports indicate that cerebellar microglial activation induced by cannabis or ethanol, promote cerebellar alterations and these alterations could be associated to addictive-related behaviors. After considering the effects of some drugs on cerebellum, the aim of the present work analyzes pro-inflammatory changes after cocaine exposure. Rats received daily 15 mg/kg cocaine i.p., for 18 days. Reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and glutamate were determined in cerebellar homogenates. NF-κB activity, CD68, and GFAP expression were determined. Cerebellar GPx activity and GSH/GSSG ratio are significantly decreased after cocaine exposure. A significant increase of glutamate concentration is also observed. Interestingly, increased NF-κB activity is also accompanied by an increased expression of the lysosomal mononuclear phagocytic marker ED1 without GFAP alterations. Current trends in addiction biology are focusing on the role of cerebellum on addictive behaviors. Cocaine-induced cerebellar changes described herein fit with previosus data showing cerebellar alterations on addict subjects and support the proposed role of cerebelum in addiction. PMID:26283916

  14. Substance P exacerbates dopaminergic neurodegeneration through neurokinin-1 receptor-independent activation of microglial NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingshan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2014-09-10

    Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1(-/-)), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose-response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91(phox) and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox). The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412490-14$15.00/0.

  15. Inhibition of microglial activation by elderberry extracts and its phenolic components

    PubMed Central

    Simonyi, Agnes; Chen, Zihong; Jiang, Jinghua; Zong, Yijia; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Gu, Zezong; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Greenlief, C. Michael; Rottinghaus, George E.; Thomas, Andrew L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) is one of the oldest medicinal plants noted for its cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) pomace as well as some of the anthocyanins (cyanidin chloride and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside) and flavonols (quercetin and rutin) in bv-2 mouse microglial cells. Main methods The bv-2 cells were pretreated with elderberry pomace (extracted with ethanol or ethyl acetate) or its anthocyanins and flavonols and stimulated by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon-γ (IFNγ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (indicating oxidative stress and inflammatory response) were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Key findings Analysis of total monomeric anthocyanin (as cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalents) indicated five-fold higher amount in the freeze-dried ethanol extract as compared to that of the oven-dried extract; anthocyanin was not detected in the ethyl acetate extracts. Elderberry ethanol extracts (freeze-dried or oven-dried) showed higher anti-oxidant activities and better ability to inhibit LPS or IFNγ-induced NO production as compared with the ethyl acetate extracts. The phenolic compounds strongly inhibited LPS or IFNγ-induced ROS production, but except for quercetin, they were relatively poor in inhibiting NO production. Significance These results demonstrated difference in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of elderberry extracts depending on solvents used. Results further identified quercetin as the most active component in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses on microglial cells. PMID:25744406

  16. Cocaine promotes oxidative stress and microglial-macrophage activation in rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    López-Pedrajas, Rosa; Ramírez-Lamelas, Dolores T; Muriach, Borja; Sánchez-Villarejo, María V; Almansa, Inmaculada; Vidal-Gil, Lorena; Romero, Francisco J; Barcia, Jorge M; Muriach, María

    2015-01-01

    Different mechanisms have been suggested for cocaine neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress alterations. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), considered a sensor of oxidative stress and inflammation, is involved in drug toxicity and addiction. NF-κB is a key mediator for immune responses that induces microglial/macrophage activation under inflammatory processes and neuronal injury/degeneration. Although cerebellum is commonly associated to motor control, muscular tone, and balance. Its relation with addiction is getting relevance, being associated to compulsive and perseverative behaviors. Some reports indicate that cerebellar microglial activation induced by cannabis or ethanol, promote cerebellar alterations and these alterations could be associated to addictive-related behaviors. After considering the effects of some drugs on cerebellum, the aim of the present work analyzes pro-inflammatory changes after cocaine exposure. Rats received daily 15 mg/kg cocaine i.p., for 18 days. Reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and glutamate were determined in cerebellar homogenates. NF-κB activity, CD68, and GFAP expression were determined. Cerebellar GPx activity and GSH/GSSG ratio are significantly decreased after cocaine exposure. A significant increase of glutamate concentration is also observed. Interestingly, increased NF-κB activity is also accompanied by an increased expression of the lysosomal mononuclear phagocytic marker ED1 without GFAP alterations. Current trends in addiction biology are focusing on the role of cerebellum on addictive behaviors. Cocaine-induced cerebellar changes described herein fit with previosus data showing cerebellar alterations on addict subjects and support the proposed role of cerebelum in addiction.

  17. Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide on energy metabolism in murine microglial N9 and cholinergic SN56 neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Łata, Joanna; Gul-Hinc, Sylwia; Bielarczyk, Hanna; Ronowska, Anna; Zyśk, Marlena; Grużewska, Katarzyna; Pawełczyk, Tadeusz; Szutowicz, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    There are significant differences between acetyl-CoA and ATP levels, enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism, and toll-like receptor 4 contents in non-activated microglial N9 and non-differentiated cholinergic SN56 neuroblastoma cells. Exposition of N9 cells to lipopolysaccharide caused concentration-dependent several-fold increases of nitrogen oxide synthesis, accompanied by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, aconitase, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex activities, and by nearly proportional depletion of acetyl-CoA, but by relatively smaller losses in ATP content and cell viability (about 5%). On the contrary, SN56 cells appeared to be insensitive to direct exposition to high concentration of lipopolysaccharide. However, exogenous nitric oxide resulted in marked inhibition pyruvate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities, depletion of acetyl-CoA, along with respective loss of SN56 cells viability. These data indicate that these two common neurodegenerative signals may differentially affect energy-acetyl-CoA metabolism in microglial and cholinergic neuronal cell compartments in the brain. Moreover, microglial cells appeared to be more resistant than neuronal cells to acetyl-CoA and ATP depletion evoked by these neurodegenerative conditions. Together, these data indicate that differential susceptibility of microglia and cholinergic neuronal cells to neurotoxic signals may result from differences in densities of toll-like receptors and degree of disequilibrium between acetyl-CoA provision in mitochondria and its utilization for energy production and acetylation reactions in each particular group of cells. There are significant differences between acetyl-CoA and ATP levels and enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism in non-activated microglial N9 and non-differentiated cholinergic SN56 neuroblastoma cells. Pathological stimulation of microglial toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggered excessive synthesis of microglia-derived nitric oxide (NO)/NOO radicals that

  18. System xC- is a mediator of microglial function and its deletion slows symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.

    PubMed

    Mesci, Pinar; Zaïdi, Sakina; Lobsiger, Christian S; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Escartin, Carole; Seilhean, Danielle; Sato, Hideyo; Mallat, Michel; Boillée, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease and evidence from mice expressing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-causing SOD1 mutations suggest that neurodegeneration is a non-cell autonomous process where microglial cells influence disease progression. However, microglial-derived neurotoxic factors still remain largely unidentified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. With excitotoxicity being a major mechanism proposed to cause motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, our hypothesis was that excessive glutamate release by activated microglia through their system [Formula: see text] (a cystine/glutamate antiporter with the specific subunit xCT/Slc7a11) could contribute to neurodegeneration. Here we show that xCT expression is enriched in microglia compared to total mouse spinal cord and absent from motor neurons. Activated microglia induced xCT expression and during disease, xCT levels were increased in both spinal cord and isolated microglia from mutant SOD1 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice. Expression of xCT was also detectable in spinal cord post-mortem tissues of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and correlated with increased inflammation. Genetic deletion of xCT in mice demonstrated that activated microglia released glutamate mainly through system [Formula: see text]. Interestingly, xCT deletion also led to decreased production of specific microglial pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic factors including nitric oxide, TNFa and IL6, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective markers such as Ym1/Chil3 were increased, indicating that xCT regulates microglial functions. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice, xCT deletion surprisingly led to earlier symptom onset but, importantly, this was followed by a significantly slowed progressive disease phase, which resulted in more surviving motor neurons. These results are consistent with a deleterious contribution of microglial-derived glutamate during symptomatic

  19. Differential effects of minocycline on microglial activation and neurodegeneration following closed head injury in the neonate rat

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, L.A.; Raghupathi, R.; Huh, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The role of microglia in the pathophysiology of injury to the developing brain has been extensively studied. In children under the age of 4 who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), markers of microglial/macrophage activation were increased in the cerebrospinal fluid and were associated with worse neurologic outcome. Minocycline is an antibiotic that decreases microglial/macrophage activation following hypoxic-ischemia in neonatal rodents and TBI in adult rodents thereby reducing neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. In study 1, 11-day-old rats received an impact to the intact skull and were treated for 3 days with minocycline. Immediately following termination of minocycline administration, microglial reactivity was reduced in the cortex and hippocampus (p<0.001) and was accompanied by an increase in the number of fluoro-Jade B profiles (p<0.001) suggestive of a reduced clearance of degenerating cells; however, this effect was not sustained at 7 days post-injury. Although microglial reactivity was reduced in the white matter tracts (p<0.001), minocycline treatment did not reduce axonal injury or degeneration. In the thalamus, minocycline treatment did not affect microglial reactivity, axonal injury and degeneration, and neurodegeneration. Injury-induced spatial learning and memory deficits were also not affected by minocycline. In study 2, to test whether extended dosing of minocycline may be necessary to reduce the ongoing pathologic alterations, a separate group of animals received minocycline for 9 days. Immediately following termination of treatment, microglial reactivity and neurodegeneration in all regions examined were exacerbated in minocycline-treated brain-injured animals compared to brain-injured animals that received vehicle (p<0.001), an effect that was only sustained in the cortex and hippocampus up to 15 days post-injury (p<0.001). Whereas injury-induced spatial learning deficits remained unaffected by minocycline treatment, memory

  20. Differential effects of minocycline on microglial activation and neurodegeneration following closed head injury in the neonate rat.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, L A; Raghupathi, R; Huh, J W

    2017-04-01

    The role of microglia in the pathophysiology of injury to the developing brain has been extensively studied. In children under the age of 4 who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), markers of microglial/macrophage activation were increased in the cerebrospinal fluid and were associated with worse neurologic outcome. Minocycline is an antibiotic that decreases microglial/macrophage activation following hypoxic-ischemia in neonatal rodents and TBI in adult rodents thereby reducing neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. In study 1, 11-day-old rats received an impact to the intact skull and were treated for 3days with minocycline. Immediately following termination of minocycline administration, microglial reactivity was reduced in the cortex and hippocampus (p<0.001) and was accompanied by an increase in the number of fluoro-Jade B profiles (p<0.001) suggestive of a reduced clearance of degenerating cells; however, this effect was not sustained at 7days post-injury. Although microglial reactivity was reduced in the white matter tracts (p<0.001), minocycline treatment did not reduce axonal injury or degeneration. In the thalamus, minocycline treatment did not affect microglial reactivity, axonal injury and degeneration, and neurodegeneration. Injury-induced spatial learning and memory deficits were also not affected by minocycline. In study 2, to test whether extended dosing of minocycline may be necessary to reduce the ongoing pathologic alterations, a separate group of animals received minocycline for 9days. Immediately following termination of treatment, microglial reactivity and neurodegeneration in all regions examined were exacerbated in minocycline-treated brain-injured animals compared to brain-injured animals that received vehicle (p<0.001), an effect that was only sustained in the cortex and hippocampus up to 15days post-injury (p<0.001). Whereas injury-induced spatial learning deficits remained unaffected by minocycline treatment, memory

  1. PDGF is Required for Remyelination-Promoting IgM Stimulation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-01-01

    Background Promotion of remyelination is a major goal in treating demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The recombinant human monoclonal IgM, rHIgM22, targets myelin and oligodendrocytes (OLs) and promotes remyelination in animal models of MS. It is unclear whether rHIgM22-mediated stimulation of lesion repair is due to promotion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation and survival, OPC differentiation into myelinating OLs or protection of mature OLs. It is also unknown whether astrocytes or microglia play a functional role in IgM-mediated lesion repair. Methods We assessed the effect of rHIgM22 on cell proliferation in mixed CNS glial and OPC cultures by tritiated-thymidine uptake and by double-label immunocytochemistry using the proliferation marker, Ki-67. Antibody-mediated signaling events, OPC differentiation and OPC survival were investigated and quantified by Western blots. Results rHIgM22 stimulates OPC proliferation in mixed glial cultures but not in purified OPCs. There is no proliferative response in astrocytes or microglia. rHIgM22 activates PDGFαR in OPCs in mixed glial cultures. Blocking PDGFR-kinase inhibits rHIgM22-mediated OPC proliferation in mixed glia. We confirm in isolated OPCs that rHIgM22-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling and inhibition of OPC differentiation requires PDGF and FGF-2. We observed no IgM-mediated effect in mature OLs in the absence of PDGF and FGF-2. Conclusion Stimulation of OPC proliferation by rHIgM22 depends on co-stimulatory astrocytic and/or microglial factors. We demonstrate that rHIgM22-mediated activation of PDGFαR is required for stimulation of OPC proliferation. We propose that rHIgM22 lowers the PDGF threshold required for OPC proliferation and protection, which can result in remyelination of CNS lesions. PMID:23383310

  2. Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Saih, Fatima-Ezzahra; Andreoletti, Pierre; Mandard, Stéphane; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2017-01-07

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Escherichia coli -LPS decreased ACOX1 activity while Salmonella minnesota -LPS reduced only catalase activity. Different cactus cladode extracts showed an antioxidant effect through microglial catalase activity activation and an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing nitric oxide (NO) LPS-dependent production. These results suggest that cactus extracts may possess a neuroprotective activity through the induction of peroxisomal antioxidant activity and the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells.

  3. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract (VBME) on microglial activation and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action of these effects. The anti-inflammatory properties of VBME were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. We measured the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory parameters. We also examined the effect of VBME on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65). VBME significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and PGE2 and LPS-mediated upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, VBME was not cytotoxic. VBME also significantly reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, VBME significantly dampened intracellular ROS production and suppressed NF-κB p65 translocation by blocking IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our findings indicate that VBME inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB signaling. Thus, VBME may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases due to its ability to inhibit inflammatory mediator production in activated BV-2 microglial cells. PMID:27169820

  4. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract (VBME) on microglial activation and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action of these effects. The anti-inflammatory properties of VBME were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. We measured the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory parameters. We also examined the effect of VBME on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65). VBME significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and PGE2 and LPS-mediated upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, VBME was not cytotoxic. VBME also significantly reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, VBME significantly dampened intracellular ROS production and suppressed NF-κB p65 translocation by blocking IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our findings indicate that VBME inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB signaling. Thus, VBME may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases due to its ability to inhibit inflammatory mediator production in activated BV-2 microglial cells.

  5. Tangeretin exerts anti-neuroinflammatory effects via NF-κB modulation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zunpeng; Yang, Bingyou; Zhao, Hong; Xu, Bingqing; Jiao, Wenjuan; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Zhibin; Kuang, Haixue

    2014-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that tangeretin, a flavonoid from citrus fruit peels, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and neuroprotective effects in animal disease models. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated whether tangeretin suppresses excessive microglial activation implicated in the resulting neurotoxicity following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in primary rat microglia and BV-2 microglial cell culture models. The results showed that tangeretin decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, it inhibited the LPS-induced expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (examined at the protein level) as well as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (examined at the mRNA level) in microglial cells. To explore the possible mechanisms underlying these inhibitions by tangeretin, we examined the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels and the NF-κB protein signaling pathway. Tangeretin clearly inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK, N-terminal Kinase (JNK), and p38. In addition, tangeretin markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of IκB-α and IKK-β, as well as the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Taken together, these results support further exploration of the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of tangeretin in relation to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc is released by cultured astrocytes as a gliotransmitter under hypoosmotic stress-loaded conditions and regulates microglial activity.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Shohei; Nishiura, Takeshi; Furuta, Takahiro; Ohsato, Yuki; Tani, Misaki; Nishida, Kentaro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2014-01-17

    Astrocytes contribute to the maintenance of brain homeostasis via the release of gliotransmitters such as ATP and glutamate. Here we examined whether zinc was released from astrocytes under stress-loaded conditions, and was involved in the regulation of microglial activity as a gliotransmitter. Hypoosmotic stress was loaded to astrocytes using balanced salt solution prepared to 214-314 mOsmol/L, and then intra- and extra-cellular zinc levels were assessed using Newport Green DCF diacetate (NG) and ICP-MS, respectively. Microglial activation by the astrocytic supernatant was assessed by their morphological changes and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer accumulation. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoosmotic buffer, increased the extracellular ATP level in osmolarity-dependent manners, indicating a load of hypoosmotic stress. In hypoosmotic stress-loaded astrocytes, there were apparent increases in the intra- and extra-cellular zinc levels. Incubation of microglia in the astrocytic conditioned medium transformed them into the activated "amoeboid" form and induced PAR formation. Administration of an extracellular zinc chelator, CaEDTA, to the astrocytic conditioned medium almost completely prevented the microglial activation. Treatment of astrocytes with an intracellular zinc chelator, TPEN, suppressed the hypoosmotic stress-increased intracellular, but not the extracellular, zinc level, and the increase in the intracellular zinc level was blocked partially by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, but not by CaEDTA, indicating that the mechanisms underlying the increases in the intra- and extra-cellular zinc levels might be different. These findings suggest that under hypoosmotic stress-loaded conditions, zinc is released from astrocytes and then plays a primary role in microglial activation as a gliotransmitter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of MAC1 in diesel exhaust particle-induced microglial activation and loss of dopaminergic neuron function.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E; Johnson, Jo Anne; McGraw, Constance; Block, Michelle L

    2013-06-01

    Increasing reports support that air pollution causes neuroinflammation and is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease/damage. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of urban air pollution, which has been linked to microglial activation and Parkinson's disease-like pathology. To begin to address how DEP may exert CNS effects, microglia and neuron-glia cultures were treated with either nanometer-sized DEP (< 0.22 μM; 50 μg/mL), ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 50 μg/mL), or DEP extracts (eDEP; from 50 μg/mL DEP), and the effect of microglial activation and dopaminergic (DA) neuron function was assessed. All three treatments showed enhanced ameboid microglia morphology, increased H2 O2 production, and decreased DA uptake. Mechanistic inquiry revealed that the scavenger receptor inhibitor fucoidan blocked DEP internalization in microglia, but failed to alter DEP-induced H2 O2 production in microglia. However, pre-treatment with the MAC1/CD11b inhibitor antibody blocked microglial H2 O2 production in response to DEP. MAC1(-/-) mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures were protected from DEP-induced loss of DA neuron function, as measured by DA uptake. These findings support that DEP may activate microglia through multiple mechanisms, where scavenger receptors regulate internalization of DEP and the MAC1 receptor is mandatory for both DEP-induced microglial H2 O2 production and loss of DA neuron function. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Regulators of Cholangiocyte Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Chad; Sato, Keisaku; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Tianhao; Kyritsi, Konstantina; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2017-02-10

    Cholangiocytes, a small population of cells within the normal liver, have been the focus of a significant amount of research over the past two decades because of their involvement in cholangiopathies such as primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis. This article summarizes landmark studies in the field of cholangiocyte physiology and aims to provide an updated review of biliary pathogenesis. The historical approach of rodent extrahepatic bile duct ligation and the relatively recent utilization of transgenic mice have led to significant discoveries in cholangiocyte pathophysiology. Cholangiocyte physiology is a complex system based on heterogeneity within the biliary tree and a number of signaling pathways that serve to regulate bile composition. Studies have expanded the list of neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and hormones that have been shown to be key regulators of proliferation and biliary damage. The peptide histamine and hormones, such as melatonin and angiotensin, angiotensin, as well as numerous sex hormones, have been implicated in cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis. Numerous pathways promote cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis, and there is growing evidence to suggest that cholangiocyte proliferation may promote hepatic fibrosis. These pathways may represent significant therapeutic potential for a subset of cholestatic liver diseases that currently lack effective therapies.

  9. Proliferation: Threat and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    weapons program threatens Japan, South Korea, and U.S. forces and interests in the region. In North Africa and the Middle East, states of proliferation...fanatical terrorists or self-proclaimed apocalyptic prophets. The followers of Usama bin Laden have, in fact, already trained with toxic chemicals...18 SOUTH ASIA

  10. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Stafman, Laura L.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed. PMID:26771642

  11. COX-2 contributes to LPS-induced Stat3 activation and IL-6 production in microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Li, Shuzhen; Zhang, Yue; Ding, Guixia; Zhu, Chunhua; Huang, Songming; Zhang, Aihua; Jia, Zhanjun; Li, Mei

    2018-01-01

    Many stimuli including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could activate microglial cells to subsequently cause inflammatory nerve injury. However, the mechanism of LPS-induced neuroinflammation in microglial cells is still elusive. Thus, the present study was undertaken to examine the role of COX-2 in mediating the activation of Stat3 and the production of IL-6 in BV2 cells challenged with LPS. After 24 h treatment, LPS dose-dependently enhanced COX-2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Meanwhile, IL-6 with other inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were similarly enhanced by LPS. Then a specific COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398) was administered to BV2 before LPS treatment. Significantly, COX-2 inhibition suppressed the upregulation of IL-6 at both mRNA and protein levels in line with the trend blockade on IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1. Stat3 drives proinflammatory signaling pathways and contributes to IL-6 production via a transcriptional mechanism in many diseases. Here we found that inhibition of COX-2 entirely blocked LPS-induced Stat3 phosphorylation, which might contribute to the blockade of IL-6 production to some extent. Meanwhile, COX-2 siRNA approach largely reproduced the phenotypes shown by specific COX-2 inhibitor in LPS-treated BV2 cells. Together, these findings suggested that COX-2 might contribute to LPS-induced IL-6 production possibly through activating Stat3 signaling pathway in microglial cells. PMID:29636886

  12. High-mobility group box 1 is an important mediator of microglial activation induced by cortical spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Tsubasa; Shibata, Mamoru; Kayama, Yohei; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Toriumi, Haruki; Ebine, Taeko; Unekawa, Miyuki; Koh, Anri; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2017-03-01

    Single episodes of cortical spreading depression (CSD) are believed to cause typical migraine aura, whereas clusters of spreading depolarizations have been observed in cerebral ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We recently demonstrated that the release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from cortical neurons after CSD in a rodent model is dependent on the number of CSD episodes, such that only multiple CSD episodes can induce significant HMGB1 release. Here, we report that only multiple CSD inductions caused microglial hypertrophy (activation) accompanied by a greater impact on the transcription activity of the HMGB1 receptor genes, TLR2 and TLR4, while the total number of cortical microglia was not affected. Both an HMGB1-neurtalizing antibody and the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin abrogated multiple CSD-induced microglial hypertrophy. Moreover, multiple CSD inductions failed to induce microglial hypertrophy in TLR2/4 double knockout mice. These results strongly implicate the HMGB1-TLR2/4 axis in the activation of microglia following multiple CSD inductions. Increased expression of the lysosomal acid hydrolase cathepsin D was detected in activated microglia by immunostaining, suggesting that lysosomal phagocytic activity may be enhanced in multiple CSD-activated microglia.

  13. Bone mesenchymal stem cells attenuate radicular pain by inhibiting microglial activation in a rat noncompressive disk herniation model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaodong; Wang, Weiheng; Liu, Xilin; Xi, Yanhai; Yu, Jiangming; Yang, Xiangqun; Ye, Xiaojian

    2018-06-01

    Spinal disk herniation can induce radicular pain through chemical irritation caused by proinflammatory and immune responses. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a unique type of adult stem cell with the functions of suppressing inflammation and modulating immune responses. This study was undertaken to observe the effect of intrathecal BMSCs on the treatment of mechanical allodynia and the suppression of microglial activation in a rat noncompressive disk herniation model. The model was induced by the application of nucleus pulposus (NP) to the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). The study found that the use of NP in the DRG can induce abnormal mechanical pain, increase the contents of the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β, decrease the content of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 and activate microglia in the spinal dorsal horns (L5) (P < 0.05). BMSC administration could increase the mechanical withdrawal thresholds dramatically, decrease the contents of IL-1β and TNF-α, increase the content of TGF-β1 significantly (P < 0.05) and inhibit microglial activation in the bilateral spinal dorsal horn. Our results indicate that BMSC administration can reduce mechanical allodynia and downregulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting microglial activation in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat noncompressive disk herniation model.

  14. Mitochondrial Lysates Induce Inflammation and Alzheimer’s Disease-Relevant Changes in Microglial and Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Heather M.; Carl, Steven M.; Weber, Sam G.; Ramanujan, Suruchi A.; Festoff, Barry W.; Linseman, Daniel A.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation occurs in AD. While AD genetic studies implicate inflammation-relevant genes and fibrillar amyloid β protein promotes inflammation, our understanding of AD neuroinflammation nevertheless remains incomplete. In this study we hypothesized damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules arising from mitochondria, intracellular organelles that resemble bacteria, could contribute to AD neuroinflammation. To preliminarily test this possibility, we exposed neuronal and microglial cell lines to enriched mitochondrial lysates. BV2 microglial cells treated with mitochondrial lysates showed decreased TREM2 mRNA, increased TNFα mRNA, increased MMP-8 mRNA, increased IL-8 mRNA, redistribution of NFκB to the nucleus, and increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells treated with mitochondrial lysates showed increased TNFα mRNA, increased NFκB protein, decreased IκBα protein, increased AβPP mRNA, and increased AβPP protein. Enriched mitochondrial lysates from SH-SY5Y cells lacking detectable mitochondrial DNA (ρ0 cells) failed to induce any of these changes, while mtDNA obtained directly from mitochondria (but not PCR-amplified mtDNA) increased BV2 cell TNFα mRNA. These results indicate at least one mitochondrial-derived DAMP molecule, mtDNA, can induce inflammatory changes in microglial and neuronal cell lines. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that a mitochondrial-derived DAMP molecule or molecules could contribute to AD neuroinflammation. PMID:25537010

  15. Macrophagic and microglial responses after focal traumatic brain injury in the female rat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background After central nervous system injury, inflammatory macrophages (M1) predominate over anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2). The temporal profile of M1/M2 phenotypes in macrophages and microglia after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats is unknown. We subjected female rats to severe controlled cortical impact (CCI) and examined the postinjury M1/M2 time course in their brains. Methods The motor cortex (2.5 mm left laterally and 1.0 mm anteriorly from the bregma) of anesthetized female Wistar rats (ages 8 to 10 weeks; N = 72) underwent histologically moderate to severe CCI with a 5-mm impactor tip. Separate cohorts of rats had their brains dissociated into cells for flow cytometry, perfusion-fixed for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging or flash-frozen for RNA and protein analysis. For each analytical method used, separate postinjury times were included for 24 hours; 3 or 5 days; or 1, 2, 4 or 8 weeks. Results By IHC, we found that the macrophagic and microglial responses peaked at 5 to 7 days post-TBI with characteristics of mixed populations of M1 and M2 phenotypes. Upon flow cytometry examination of immunological cells isolated from brain tissue, we observed that peak M2-associated staining occurred at 5 days post-TBI. Chemokine analysis by multiplex assay showed statistically significant increases in macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-related oncogene on the ipsilateral side within the first 24 hours after injury relative to controls and to the contralateral side. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated expression of both M1- and M2-associated markers, which peaked at 5 days post-TBI. Conclusions The responses of macrophagic and microglial cells to histologically severe CCI in the female rat are maximal between days 3 and 7 postinjury. The response to injury is a mixture of M1 and M2 phenotypes. PMID:24761998

  16. Interruption of spinal cord microglial signaling by alpha-2 agonist dexmedetomidine in a murine model of delayed paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Marshall T; Agoston, Viktor A; Freeman, Kirsten A; Puskas, Ferenc; Herson, Paco S; Mares, Joshua; Fullerton, David A; Reece, T Brett

    2014-04-01

    Despite investigation into preventable pharmacologic adjuncts, paraplegia continues to complicate thoracoabdominal aortic interventions. The alpha 2a adrenergic receptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, has been shown to preserve neurologic function and neuronal viability in a murine model of spinal cord ischemia reperfusion, although the mechanism remains elusive. We hypothesize that dexmedetomidine will blunt postischemic inflammation in vivo following thoracic aortic occlusion with in vitro demonstration of microglial inhibition following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Adult male C57BL/6 mice underwent 4 minutes of aortic occlusion. Mice received 25 μg/kg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine (n = 8) or 0.9% normal saline (n = 7) at reperfusion and 12-hour intervals postoperatively until 48 hours. Additionally, sham mice (n = 3), which had aortic arch exposed with no occlusion, were included for comparison. Functional scoring was done at 6 hours following surgery and 12-hour intervals until 60 hours when spinal cords were removed and examined for neuronal viability and cytokine production. Additional analysis of microglia activation was done in 12 hours following surgery. Age- and sex-matched mice had spinal cord removed for microglial isolation culture. Cells were grown to confluence and stimulated with toll-like receptor-4 agonist LPS 100 ng/mL in presence of dexmedetomidine or vehicle control for 24 hours. Microglia and media were then removed for analysis of protein expression. Dexmedetomidine treatment at reperfusion significantly preserved neurologic function with mice in treatment group having a Basso Score of 6.3 in comparison to 2.3 in ischemic control group. Treatment was associated with a significant reduction in microglia activation and in interleukin-6 production. Microglial cells in isolation when stimulated with LPS had an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and markers of activation. Treatment with dexmedetomidine significantly

  17. Characterization of Macrophage/Microglial Activation and Effect of Photobiomodulation in the Spared Nerve Injury Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Kobiela Ketz, Ann; Byrnes, Kimberly R; Grunberg, Neil E; Kasper, Christine E; Osborne, Lisa; Pryor, Brian; Tosini, Nicholas L; Wu, Xingjia; Anders, Juanita J

    2017-05-01

    Neuropathic pain is common and debilitating with limited effective treatments. Macrophage/microglial activation along ascending somatosensory pathways following peripheral nerve injury facilitates neuropathic pain. However, polarization of macrophages/microglia in neuropathic pain is not well understood. Photobiomodulation treatment has been used to decrease neuropathic pain, has anti-inflammatory effects in spinal injury and wound healing models, and modulates microglial polarization in vitro. Our aim was to characterize macrophage/microglia response after peripheral nerve injury and modulate the response with photobiomodulation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham (N = 13), spared nerve injury (N = 13), or injury + photobiomodulation treatment groups (N = 7). Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed with electronic von Frey. Photobiomodulation (980 nm) was applied to affected hind paw (output power 1 W, 20 s, 41cm above skin, power density 43.25 mW/cm 2 , dose 20 J), dorsal root ganglia (output power 4.5W, 19s, in skin contact, power density 43.25 mW/cm 2 , dose 85.5 J), and spinal cord regions (output power 1.5 W, 19s, in skin contact, power density 43.25 mW/cm 2 , dose 28.5 J) every other day from day 7-30 post-operatively. Immunohistochemistry characterized macrophage/microglial activation. Injured groups demonstrated mechanical hypersensitivity 1-30 days post-operatively. Photobiomodulation-treated animals began to recover after two treatments; at day 26, mechanical sensitivity reached baseline. Peripheral nerve injury caused region-specific macrophages/microglia activation along spinothalamic and dorsal-column medial lemniscus pathways. A pro-inflammatory microglial marker was expressed in the spinal cord of injured rats compared to photobiomodulation-treated and sham group. Photobiomodulation-treated dorsal root ganglion macrophages expressed anti-inflammatory markers. Photobiomodulation effectively reduced

  18. Size-Dependent Deposition, Translocation, and Microglial Activation of Inhaled Silver Nanoparticles in the Rodent Nose and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Patchin, Esther Shin; Anderson, Donald S.; Silva, Rona M.; Uyeminami, Dale L.; Scott, Grace M.; Guo, Ting; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are present in personal, commercial, and industrial products, which are often aerosolized. Current understanding of the deposition, translocation, and health-related impacts of AgNP inhalation is limited. Objectives: We determined a) the deposition and retention of inhaled Ag in the nasal cavity from nose-only exposure; b) the timing for Ag translocation to and retention/clearance in the olfactory bulb (OB); and c) whether the presence of Ag in the OB affects microglial activity. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed nose-only to citrate-buffered 20- or 110-nm AgNP (C20 or C110, respectively) or citrate buffer alone for 6 hr. The nasal cavity and OB were examined for the presence of Ag and for biological responses up to 56 days post-exposure (8 weeks). Results: The highest nasal Ag deposition was observed on Day 0 for both AgNP sizes. Inhalation of aerosolized C20 resulted in rapid translocation of Ag to the OB and in microglial activation at Days 0, 1, and 7. In contrast, inhalation of C110 resulted in a gradual but progressive transport of Ag to and retention in the OB, with a trend for microglial activation to variably be above control. Conclusions: The results of this study show that after rats experienced a 6-hr inhalation exposure to 20- and 110-nm AgNP at a single point in time, Ag deposition in the nose, the rate of translocation to the brain, and subsequent microglial activation in the OB differed depending on AgNP size and time since exposure. Citation: Patchin ES, Anderson DS, Silva RM, Uyeminami DL, Scott GM, Guo T, Van Winkle LS, Pinkerton KE. 2016. Size-dependent deposition, translocation, and microglial activation of inhaled silver nanoparticles in the rodent nose and brain. Environ Health Perspect 124:1870–1875; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP234 PMID:27152509

  19. Contact-independent cell death of human microglial cells due to pathogenic Naegleria fowleri trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Daesik; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-12-01

    Free-living Naegleria fowleri leads to a fatal infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Previously, the target cell death could be induced by phagocytic activity of N. fowleri as a contact-dependent mechanism. However, in this study we investigated the target cell death under a non-contact system using a tissue-culture insert. The human microglial cells, U87MG cells, co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites for 30 min in a non-contact system showed morphological changes such as the cell membrane destruction and a reduction in the number. By fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, U87MG cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system showed a significant increase of apoptotic cells (16%) in comparison with that of the control or N. fowleri lysate. When U87MG cells were co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system for 30 min, 2 hr, and 4 hr, the cytotoxicity of amebae against target cells was 40.5, 44.2, and 45.6%, respectively. By contrast, the cytotoxicity of non-pathogenic N. gruberi trophozoites was 10.2, 12.4, and 13.2%, respectively. These results suggest that the molecules released from N. fowleri in a contact-independent manner as well as phagocytosis in a contact-dependent manner may induce the host cell death.

  20. Contact-Independent Cell Death of Human Microglial Cells due to Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri Trophozoites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Free-living Naegleria fowleri leads to a fatal infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Previously, the target cell death could be induced by phagocytic activity of N. fowleri as a contact-dependent mechanism. However, in this study we investigated the target cell death under a non-contact system using a tissue-culture insert. The human microglial cells, U87MG cells, co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites for 30 min in a non-contact system showed morphological changes such as the cell membrane destruction and a reduction in the number. By fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, U87MG cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system showed a significant increasse of apoptotic cells (16%) in comparison with that of the control or N. fowleri lysate. When U87MG cells were co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system for 30 min, 2 hr, and 4 hr, the cytotoxicity of amebae against target cells was 40.5, 44.2, and 45.6%, respectively. By contrast, the cytotoxicity of non-pathogenic N. gruberi trophozoites was 10.2, 12.4, and 13.2%, respectively. These results suggest that the molecules released from N. fowleri in a contact-independent manner as well as phagocytosis in a contact-dependent manner may induce the host cell death. PMID:19127326

  1. Cofilin Knockdown Attenuates Hemorrhagic Brain Injury-induced Oxidative Stress and Microglial Activation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Alhadidi, Qasim; Nash, Kevin M; Alaqel, Saleh; Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin; Shah, Zahoor A

    2018-05-08

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) resulting from the rupture of the blood vessels in the brain is associated with significantly higher mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies focused on alleviating the primary injury, hematoma formation and expansion, were largely ineffective, suggesting that secondary injury-induced inflammation and the formation of reactive species also contribute to the overall injury process. In this study, we explored the effects of cofilin knockdown in a mouse model of ICH. Animals given stereotaxic injections of cofilin siRNA, 72-h prior to induction of ICH by collagenase injection within the area of siRNA administration showed significantly decreased cofilin expression levels and lower hemorrhage volume and edema, and the animals performed significantly better in neurobehavioral tasks i.e., rotarod, grip strength and neurologic deficit scores. Cofilin siRNA knocked-down mice had reduced ICH-induced DNA fragmentation, blood-brain barrier disruption and microglial activation, with a concomitant increase in astrocyte activation. Increased expression of pro-survival proteins and decreased markers of oxidative stress were also observed in cofilin siRNA-treated mice possibly due to the reduced levels of cofilin. Our results suggest that cofilin plays a major role in ICH-induced secondary injury, and could become a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Excitotoxicity-induced prostaglandin D2 production induces sustained microglial activation and delayed neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yagishita, Sosuke; Maruyama, Kei; Yoshikawa, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Excitotoxicity is the pivotal mechanism of neuronal death. Prostaglandins (PGs) produced during excitotoxicity play important roles in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we demonstrated that initial burst productions of PGD 2 , PGE 2 , and PGF 2α are produced by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the hippocampus following a single systemic kainic acid (KA) administration. In addition, we showed that blocking of all PG productions ameliorated hippocampal delayed neuronal death at 30 days after KA administration. To investigate the role of individual PGs in the delayed neuronal death, we performed intracerebroventricular injection of PGD 2 , PGE 2 , or PGF 2α in rats whose hippocampal PG productions were entirely blocked by pretreatment of NS398, a COX-2 selective inhibitor. Administration of PGD 2 and PGF 2α had a latent contribution to the delayed neuronal death, sustained over 30 days after a single KA treatment. Furthermore, PGD 2 enhanced microglial activation, which may be involved in the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that excitotoxic delayed neuronal death is mediated through microglia activated by PGD 2 . Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Dynamics of the microglial/amyloid interaction indicate a role in plaque maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bolmont, Tristan; Haiss, Florent; Eicke, Daniel; Radde, Rebecca; Mathis, Chester A; Klunk, William E; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Jucker, Mathias; Calhoun, Michael E

    2008-04-16

    Microglial cells aggregate around amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease, but, despite their therapeutic potential, various aspects of their reactive kinetics and role in plaque pathogenesis remain hypothetical. Through use of in vivo imaging and quantitative morphological measures in transgenic mice, we demonstrate that local resident microglia rapidly react to plaque formation by extending processes and subsequently migrating toward plaques, in which individual transformed microglia somata remain spatially stable for weeks. The number of plaque-associated microglia increased at a rate of almost three per plaque per month, independent of plaque volume. Larger plaques were surrounded by larger microglia, and a subset of plaques changed in size over time, with an increase or decrease related to the volume of associated microglia. Far from adopting a more static role, plaque-associated microglia retained rapid process and membrane movement at the plaque/glia interface. Microglia internalized systemically injected amyloid-binding dye at a much higher rate in the vicinity of plaques. These results indicate a role for microglia in plaque maintenance and provide a model with multiple targets for therapeutic intervention.

  4. Dynamics of the Microglial/Amyloid Interaction Indicate a Role in Plaque Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Bolmont, Tristan; Haiss, Florent; Eicke, Daniel; Radde, Rebecca; Mathis, Chester A.; Klunk, William E.; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Jucker, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    Microglial cells aggregate around amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease, but, despite their therapeutic potential, various aspects of their reactive kinetics and role in plaque pathogenesis remain hypothetical. Through use of in vivo imaging and quantitative morphological measures in transgenic mice, we demonstrate that local resident microglia rapidly react to plaque formation by extending processes and subsequently migrating toward plaques, in which individual transformed microglia somata remain spatially stable for weeks. The number of plaque-associated microglia increased at a rate of almost three per plaque per month, independent of plaque volume. Larger plaques were surrounded by larger microglia, and a subset of plaques changed in size over time, with an increase or decrease related to the volume of associated microglia. Far from adopting a more static role, plaque-associated microglia retained rapid process and membrane movement at the plaque/glia interface. Microglia internalized systemically injected amyloid-binding dye at a much higher rate in the vicinity of plaques. These results indicate a role for microglia in plaque maintenance and provide a model with multiple targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:18417708

  5. KCa 3.1-a microglial target ready for drug repurposing?

    PubMed

    Dale, Elena; Staal, Roland G W; Eder, Claudia; Möller, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Over the past decade, glial cells have attracted attention for harboring unexploited targets for drug discovery. Several glial targets have attracted de novo drug discovery programs, as highlighted in this GLIA Special Issue. Drug repurposing, which has the objective of utilizing existing drugs as well as abandoned, failed, or not yet pursued clinical development candidates for new indications, might provide a faster opportunity to bring drugs for glial targets to patients with unmet needs. Here, we review the potential of the intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels KCa 3.1 as the target for such a repurposing effort. We discuss the data on KCa 3.1 expression on microglia in vitro and in vivo and review the relevant literature on the two KCa 3.1 inhibitors TRAM-34 and Senicapoc. Finally, we provide an outlook of what it might take to harness the potential of KCa 3.1 as a bona fide microglial drug target. GLIA 2016;64:1733-1741. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-23

    reactor with earlier United Nations specialists arriving into the dis- limited capability from an Argentine specialist company puted area had found no...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 PROLIFERATION ISSUES JPRS-TND-92-035 CONTENTS 23 September 1992...thought that joining this treaty would constitute a sort of given national resource. impediment to the commercialization of Niger’s ura- [Ouhoumoudou

  7. Ketamine Alters Hippocampal Cell Proliferation and Improves Learning in Mice after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Peters, Austin J; Villasana, Laura E; Schnell, Eric

    2018-04-30

    Traumatic brain injury induces cellular proliferation in the hippocampus, which generates new neurons and glial cells during recovery. This process is regulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors, which are inhibited by ketamine. The authors hypothesized that ketamine treatment after traumatic brain injury would reduce hippocampal cell proliferation, leading to worse behavioral outcomes in mice. Traumatic brain injury was induced in mice using a controlled cortical impact injury, after which mice (N = 118) received either ketamine or vehicle systemically for 1 week. The authors utilized immunohistochemical assays to evaluate neuronal, astroglial, and microglial cell proliferation and survival 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postintervention. The Morris water maze reversal task was used to assess cognitive recovery. Ketamine dramatically increased microglial proliferation in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus 3 days after injury (injury + vehicle, 2,800 ± 2,700 cells/mm, n = 4; injury + ketamine, 11,200 ± 6,600 cells/mm, n = 6; P = 0.012). Ketamine treatment also prevented the production of astrocytes 2 weeks after injury (sham + vehicle, 2,400 ± 3,200 cells/mm, n = 13; injury + vehicle, 10,500 ± 11,300 cells/mm, n = 12; P = 0.013 vs. sham + vehicle; sham + ketamine, 3,500 ± 4,900 cells/mm, n = 14; injury + ketamine, 4,800 ± 3,000 cells/mm, n = 13; P = 0.955 vs. sham + ketamine). Independent of injury, ketamine temporarily reduced neurogenesis (vehicle-exposed, 105,100 ± 66,700, cells/mm, n = 25; ketamine-exposed, 74,300 ± 29,200 cells/mm, n = 27; P = 0.031). Ketamine administration improved performance in the Morris water maze reversal test after injury, but had no effect on performance in sham-treated mice. Ketamine alters hippocampal cell proliferation after traumatic brain injury. Surprisingly, these changes were associated with improvement in a neurogenesis-related behavioral recall task, suggesting a possible benefit from ketamine

  8. Microglial SMAD4 regulated by microRNA-146a promotes migration of microglia which support tumor progression in a glioma environment

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Aparna; Gupta, Neelima; Tang, Carol; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Silambarasan, Maskomani; Shi, Meng; Lu, Lei; Ang, Beng Ti; Ling, Eng-Ang; Dheen, S. Thameem

    2018-01-01

    Glioma tumors constitute a significant portion of microglial cells, which are known to support tumor progression. The present study demonstrates that transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling pathway in microglia in a glioma environment is involved in tumor progression and pathogenesis. It has been shown that the TGFβ level is elevated in higher grades of gliomas and its signaling pathway regulates tumor progression through phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3, which form a complex with SMAD4 to regulate target gene transcription. In an in vitro cell line-based model increased protein levels of pSMAD2/3, total SMAD2/3 and SMAD4 were observed in murine BV2 microglia cultured in glioma conditioned medium (GCM), indicative of the activated TGFβ signaling pathway in microglia associated with glioma environment. Immunofluorescence labeling further revealed the expression of SMAD4 in microglial and non-microglial cells of human glioblastomas tissue in vivo. Functional analysis through shRNA-mediated stable knockdown of SMAD4 in microglia revealed the downregulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), which has been shown to be involved in tumor progression and cell migration. Further, knockdown of SMAD4 in microglia decreased the migration of microglial cells towards GCM, indicating that SMAD4 promotes microglial migration in glioma environment. In addition, SMAD4 has been shown to be post-transcriptionally regulated by microRNA-146a, which was downregulated in microglia treated with GCM. Overexpression of miR-146a resulted in decreased expression of SMAD4 together with tumor supportive gene MMP9 in microglia, and subsequently suppressed microglial migration towards GCM, possibly through regulation of SMAD4. On the other hand, the cell viability assay revealed decreased viability of glioma cells when they were treated with conditioned medium derived from SMAD4 knockdown microglia or miR-146a overexpressed microglia as compared to glioma cells

  9. Proinflammatory effects of S100A8/A9 via TLR4 and RAGE signaling pathways in BV-2 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Qing; Yao, Shang-Long

    2017-01-01

    S100A8/A9, a heterodimer of the two calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9, has emerged as an important proinflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation. However, whether S100A8/A9 is implicated in microglial-induced neuroinflammatory response remains unclear. Here, we found that S100A8/A9 significantly increased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cultured BV-2 microglial cells. Inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) with C225 and a RAGE-blocking antibody, respectively significantly reduced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 from S100A8/A9-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Furthermore, S100A8/A9 markedly enhanced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and the DNA-binding activities of NF-κB in BV-2 microglial cells, and suppression of ERK and JNK/MAPK signaling pathways by PD98059 or SP600125 significantly inhibited NF-κB activity and the release of TNF-α and IL-6 in the S100A8/A9-treated BV-2 microglial cells. Our data also showed that inhibition of NF-κB with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) significantly reduced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 from BV-2 microglial cells treated with S100A8/A9. Taken together, our data suggest that S100A8/A9 acts directly on BV-2 microglial cells via binding to TLR4 and RAGE on the membrane and then stimulates the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through ERK and JNK-mediated NF-κB activity in BV-2 microglial cells. Targeting S100A8/A9 may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in microglial-induced neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:28498464

  10. Activin A increases phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by primary murine microglial cells activated by toll-like receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Diesselberg, Catharina; Ribes, Sandra; Seele, Jana; Kaufmann, Annika; Redlich, Sandra; Bunkowski, Stephanie; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Michel, Uwe; Nau, Roland; Schütze, Sandra

    2018-06-07

    Bacterial meningitis is associated with high mortality and long-term neurological sequelae. Increasing the phagocytic activity of microglia could improve the resistance of the CNS against infections. We studied the influence of activin A, a member of the TGF-β family with known immunoregulatory and neuroprotective effects, on the functions of microglial cells in vitro. Primary murine microglial cells were treated with activin A (0.13 ng/ml-13 μg/ml) alone or in combination with agonists of TLR2, 4, and 9. Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 as well as release of TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL1, and NO was assessed. Activin A dose-dependently enhanced the phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by microglial cells activated by agonists of TLR2, 4, and 9 without further increasing NO and proinflammatory cytokine release. Cell viability of microglial cells was not affected by activin A. Priming of microglial cells with activin A could increase the elimination of bacteria in bacterial CNS infections. This preventive strategy could improve the resistance of the brain to infections, particularly in elderly and immunocompromised patients.

  11. Excretory and Secretory Proteins of Naegleria fowleri Induce Inflammatory Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kang, Jung-Mi; Kim, Tae Im; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2017-03-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that is found in diverse environmental habitats, can cause a type of fulminating hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), in humans. The pathogenesis of PAM is not fully understood, but it is likely to be primarily caused by disruption of the host's nervous system via a direct phagocytic mechanism by the amoeba. Naegleria fowleri trophozoites are known to secrete diverse proteins that may indirectly contribute to the pathogenic function of the amoeba, but this factor is not clearly understood. In this study, we analyzed the inflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells induced by excretory and secretory proteins of N. fowleri (NfESP). Treatment of BV-2 cells with NfESP induced the expression of various cytokines and chemokines, including the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and TNF-α. NfESP-induced IL-1α and TNF-α expression in BV-2 cells were regulated by p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. NfESP-induced IL-1α and TNF-α production in BV-2 cells were effectively downregulated by inhibition of NF-kB and AP-1. These results collectively suggest that NfESP stimulates BV-2 cells to release IL-1α and TNF-α via NF-kB- and AP-1-dependent MAPK signaling pathways. The released cytokines may contribute to inflammatory responses in microglia and other cell types in the brain during N. fowleri infection. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  12. Phosphorylation of p53 by LRRK2 induces microglial tumor necrosis factor α-mediated neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Dong Hwan, E-mail: ethan2887@gmail.com; Seol, Wongi; Eun, Jin Hwan

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2), a major causal gene of Parkinson's disease (PD), functions as a kinase. The most prevalent mutation of LRRK2 is G2019S. It exhibits increased kinase activity compared to the wildtype LRRK2. Previous studies have shown that LRRK2 can phosphorylate p53 at T304 and T377 of threonine-X-arginine (TXR) motif in neurons. Reduction of LRRK2 expression or inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity has been shown to be able to alleviate LPS-induced neuroinflammation in microglia cells. In this study, we found that LRRK2 could also phosphorylate p53 in microglia model BV2 cells. Transfection of BV2 with phosphomimetic p53 T304/377D significantlymore » increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα compared to BV2 transfected with p53 wild type after LPS treatment. In addition, conditioned media from these transfected cells increased the death of dopaminergic neuronal SN4741 cells. Moreover, such neurotoxic effect was rescued by co-treatment with the conditioned media and etanercept, a TNFα blocking antibody. Furthermore, TNFα secretion was significantly increased in primary microglia derived from G2019S transgenic mice treated with LPS compared to that in cells derived from their littermates. These results suggest that LRRK2 kinase activity in microglia can contribute to neuroinflammation in PD via phosphorylating p53 at T304 and T377 site. - Highlights: • LPS stimulates LRRK2-mediated p53 phosphorylation and its nuclear localization. • Phosphorylation of p53 by LRRK2 in microglia enhances TNFα expression. • Microglial TNFα via LRRK2-induced p53 phosphorylation decreases neuronal survival.« less

  13. Potential roles of microglial cell progranulin in HIV-associated CNS pathologies and neurocognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyeon-Sook; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lee, Sunhee C.

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a highly unusual molecule with both neuronal and microglial expression with two seemingly unrelated functions, i.e., as a neuronal growth factor and a modulator of neuroinflammation. Haploinsufficiency due to loss of function mutations lead to a fatal presenile dementing illness (frontotemporal lobar degeneration), indicating that adequate expression of PGRN is essential for successful aging. PGRN might be a particularly relevant factor in the pathogenesis of HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We present emerging data and a review of the literature which show that cells of myeloid lineage such as macrophages and microglia are the primary sources of PGRN and that PGRN expression contributes to pathogenesis of CNS diseases. We also present evidence that PGRN is a macrophage antiviral cytokine. For example, PGRN mRNA and protein expression are significantly upregulated in brain specimens with HIVE, and in HIV-infected microglia in vitro. Paradoxically, our preliminary CHARTER data analyses indicate that lower PGRN levels in CSF trended towards an association with HAND, particularly in those without detectable virus. Based upon these findings, we introduce the hypothesis that PGRN plays dual roles in modulating antiviral immunity and neuronal dysfunction in the context of HIV infection. In the presence of active viral replication, PGRN expression is increased functioning as an anti-viral factor as well as a neuroprotectant. In the absence of active HIV replication, ongoing inflammation or other stressors suppress PGRN production from macrophages/microglia contributing to neurocognitive dysfunction. We propose CSF PGRN as a candidate surrogate marker for HAND. PMID:23959579

  14. Recurrent/moderate hypoglycemia induces hippocampal dendritic injury, microglial activation, and cognitive impairment in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recurrent/moderate (R/M) hypoglycemia is common in type 1 diabetes. Although mild or moderate hypoglycemia is not life-threatening, if recurrent, it may cause cognitive impairment. In the present study, we sought to determine whether R/M hypoglycemia leads to neuronal death, dendritic injury, or cognitive impairment. Methods The experiments were conducted in normal and in diabetic rats. Rats were subjected to moderate hypoglycemia by insulin without anesthesia. Oxidative stress was evaluated by 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal immunostaining and neuronal death was determined by Fluoro-Jade B staining 7 days after R/M hypoglycemia. To test whether oxidative injury caused by NADPH oxidase activation, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, was used. Cognitive function was assessed by Barnes maze and open field tests at 6 weeks after R/M hypoglycemia. Results The present study found that oxidative injury was detected in the dendritic area of the hippocampus after R/M hypoglycemia. Sparse neuronal death was found in the cortex, but no neuronal death was detected in the hippocampus. Significant cognitive impairment and thinning of the CA1 dendritic region was detected 6 weeks after hypoglycemia. Oxidative injury, cognitive impairment, and hippocampal thinning after R/M hypoglycemia were more severe in diabetic rats than in non-diabetic rats. Oxidative damage in the hippocampal CA1 dendritic area and microglial activation were reduced by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Conclusion The present study suggests that oxidative injury of the hippocampal CA1 dendritic region by R/M hypoglycemia is associated with chronic cognitive impairment in diabetic patients. The present study further suggests that NADPH oxidase inhibition may prevent R/M hypoglycemia-induced hippocampal dendritic injury. PMID:22830525

  15. Rapamycin suppresses microglial activation and reduces the development of neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Satoshi; Kanno, Haruo; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Akira; Yahata, Kenichiro; Yamaya, Seiji; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, plays an important role in multiple cellular functions. Our previous study showed rapamycin treatment in acute phase reduced the neural tissue damage and locomotor impairment after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there has been no study to investigate the therapeutic effect of rapamycin on neuropathic pain after SCI. In this study, we examined whether rapamycin reduces neuropathic pain following SCI in mice. We used a mouse model of thoracic spinal cord contusion injury, and divided the mice into the rapamycin-treated and the vehicle-treated groups. The rapamycin-treated mice were intraperitoneally injected with rapamycin (1 mg/kg) 4 h after SCI. The rapamycin treatment suppressed phosphorylated-p70S6K in the injured spinal cord that indicated inhibition of mTOR. The rapamycin treatment significantly improved not only locomotor function, but also mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in the hindpaws after SCI. In an immunohistochemical analysis, Iba-1-stained microglia in the lumbar spinal cord was significantly decreased in the rapamycin-treated mice. In addition, the activity of p38 MAPK in the lumbar spinal cord was significantly attenuated by rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, phosphorylated-p38 MAPK-positive microglia was relatively decreased in the rapamycin-treated mice. These results indicated rapamycin administration in acute phase to reduce secondary neural tissue damage can contribute to the suppression of the microglial activation in the lumbar spinal cord and attenuate the development of neuropathic pain after SCI. The present study first demonstrated that rapamycin has significant therapeutic potential to reduce the development of neuropathic pain following SCI. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:93-103, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cannabinoid effects on β amyloid fibril and aggregate formation, neuronal and microglial-activated neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Janefjord, Emelie; Mååg, Jesper L V; Harvey, Benjamin S; Smid, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid (CB) ligands have demonstrated neuroprotective properties. In this study we compared the effects of a diverse set of CB ligands against β amyloid-mediated neuronal toxicity and activated microglial-conditioned media-based neurotoxicity in vitro, and compared this with a capacity to directly alter β amyloid (Aβ) fibril or aggregate formation. Neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were exposed to Aβ1-42 directly or microglial (BV-2 cells) conditioned media activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of the CB1 receptor-selective agonist ACEA, CB2 receptor-selective agonist JWH-015, phytocannabinoids Δ(9)-THC and cannabidiol (CBD), the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide or putative GPR18/GPR55 ligands O-1602 and abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD). TNF-α and nitrite production was measured in BV-2 cells to compare activation via LPS or albumin with Aβ1-42. Aβ1-42 evoked a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability in SH-SY5Y cells but negligible TNF-α and nitrite production in BV-2 cells compared to albumin or LPS. Both albumin and LPS-activated BV-2 conditioned media significantly reduced neuronal cell viability but were directly innocuous to SH-SY5Y cells. Of those CB ligands tested, only 2-AG and CBD were directly protective against Aβ-evoked SH-SY5Y cell viability, whereas JWH-015, THC, CBD, Abn-CBD and O-1602 all protected SH-SY5Y cells from BV-2 conditioned media activated via LPS. While CB ligands variably altered the morphology of Aβ fibrils and aggregates, there was no clear correlation between effects on Aβ morphology and neuroprotective actions. These findings indicate a neuroprotective action of CB ligands via actions at microglial and neuronal cells.

  17. Identification of a novel dehydroergosterol enhancing microglial anti-inflammatory activity in a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum.

    PubMed

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Hoshi, Ayaka; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of dementia patients worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to treat this disease remain to be established. Preventive approaches such as diet, exercise and learning attract attention. Several epidemiological studies suggest that ingestion of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. These reports indicate that specific ingredients in the fermented dairy products elicit an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative activity that facilitates neuroprotection. The responsible components remain to be investigated. A number of studies have shown that inflammation caused by microglia is closely related to exaggeration of the pathology and cognitive decline seen in the elderly. Many researchers have proposed that controlling microglial activities could be effective in preventing and possibly curing dementia. In the present study, to elucidate specific compounds that regulate microglial activity from dairy products, repeated purification by HPLC, combined with evaluation using primary microglia, facilitated the identification of dehydroergosterol (DHE) as a novel component of the extract that enhances microglial anti-inflammatory activity. DHE contains three conjugated double bonds in a steroid ring system and is an analogue of ergosterol. Despite their related chemical structures, the anti-inflammatory activity of DHE is markedly stronger than that of ergosterol. P. candidum for camembert cheese produces DHE, but P. Roqueforti for blue cheese and Aspergillus do not. DHE also induces CD11b-positive microglia cells into CD206-positive M2 type microglia. Neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death induced by excessively activated microglia is suppressed by treatment with DHE. Thus, this is the first report to demonstrate that DHE, identified as a responsible compound in dairy products, can induce microglia into a preferable phenotype for our brain environment and can be safely introduced into the body by consumption of

  18. Identification of a Novel Dehydroergosterol Enhancing Microglial Anti-Inflammatory Activity in a Dairy Product Fermented with Penicillium candidum

    PubMed Central

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Hoshi, Ayaka; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of dementia patients worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to treat this disease remain to be established. Preventive approaches such as diet, exercise and learning attract attention. Several epidemiological studies suggest that ingestion of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. These reports indicate that specific ingredients in the fermented dairy products elicit an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative activity that facilitates neuroprotection. The responsible components remain to be investigated. A number of studies have shown that inflammation caused by microglia is closely related to exaggeration of the pathology and cognitive decline seen in the elderly. Many researchers have proposed that controlling microglial activities could be effective in preventing and possibly curing dementia. In the present study, to elucidate specific compounds that regulate microglial activity from dairy products, repeated purification by HPLC, combined with evaluation using primary microglia, facilitated the identification of dehydroergosterol (DHE) as a novel component of the extract that enhances microglial anti-inflammatory activity. DHE contains three conjugated double bonds in a steroid ring system and is an analogue of ergosterol. Despite their related chemical structures, the anti-inflammatory activity of DHE is markedly stronger than that of ergosterol. P. candidum for camembert cheese produces DHE, but P. Roqueforti for blue cheese and Aspergillus do not. DHE also induces CD11b-positive microglia cells into CD206-positive M2 type microglia. Neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death induced by excessively activated microglia is suppressed by treatment with DHE. Thus, this is the first report to demonstrate that DHE, identified as a responsible compound in dairy products, can induce microglia into a preferable phenotype for our brain environment and can be safely introduced into the body by consumption of

  19. Sleep Deprivation Aggravates Median Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Enhances Microglial Activation by Suppressing Melatonin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chen, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common in patients with neuropathic pain, but the effect of sleep deprivation on pathological pain remains uncertain. This study investigated whether sleep deprivation aggravates neuropathic symptoms and enhances microglial activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) in a median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Also, we assessed if melatonin supplements during the sleep deprived period attenuates these effects. Design: Rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 3 days by the disc-on-water method either before or after CCI. In the melatonin treatment group, CCI rats received melatonin supplements at doses of 37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg during sleep deprivation. Melatonin was administered at 23:00 once a day. Participants: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-250 g (n = 190), were used. Measurements: Seven days after CCI, behavioral testing was conducted, and immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microglial activation and measurements of proinflammatory cytokines. Results: In rats who underwent post-CCI sleep deprivation, microglia were more profoundly activated and neuropathic pain was worse than those receiving pre-CCI sleep deprivation. During the sleep deprived period, serum melatonin levels were low over the 24-h period. Administration of melatonin to CCI rats with sleep deprivation significantly attenuated activation of microglia and development of neuropathic pain, and markedly decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation makes rats more vulnerable to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, probably because of associated lower melatonin levels. Melatonin supplements to restore a circadian variation in melatonin concentrations during the sleep deprived period could alleviate nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. Citation: Huang CT, Chiang RP, Chen CL, Tsai YJ. Sleep

  20. Effects of early nerve repair on experimental brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Gráinne; McGrath, Aleksandra M; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikov, Lev N

    2018-03-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus injury refers to injury observed at the time of delivery, which may lead to major functional impairment in the upper limb. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of early nerve repair following complete brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats was examined. Brachial plexus injury induced 90% loss of spinal motoneurons and 70% decrease in biceps muscle weight at 28 days after injury. Retrograde degeneration in spinal cord was associated with decreased density of dendritic branches and presynaptic boutons and increased density of astrocytes and macrophages/microglial cells. Early repair of the injured brachial plexus significantly delayed retrograde degeneration of spinal motoneurons and reduced the degree of macrophage/microglial reaction but had no effect on muscle atrophy. The results demonstrate that early nerve repair of neonatal brachial plexus injury could promote survival of injured motoneurons and attenuate neuroinflammation in spinal cord.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuguo; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Takero

    2006-08-11

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPAR{alpha} dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11{alpha}, might be associated with the PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part.

  2. Long Noncoding RNA H19 Promotes Neuroinflammation in Ischemic Stroke by Driving Histone Deacetylase 1-Dependent M1 Microglial Polarization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Zhao, Haiping; Fan, Zhibin; Li, Guangwen; Ma, Qingfeng; Tao, Zhen; Wang, Rongliang; Feng, Juan; Luo, Yumin

    2017-08-01

    Long noncoding RNA H19 is repressed after birth, but can be induced by hypoxia. We aim to investigate the impact on and underlying mechanism of H19 induction after ischemic stroke. Circulating H19 levels in stroke patients and mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. H19 siRNA and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) plasmid were used to knock down H19 and overexpress HDAC1, respectively. Microglial polarization and ischemic outcomes were assessed in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice and BV2 microglial cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Circulating H19 levels were significantly higher in stroke patients compared with healthy controls, indicating high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, plasma H19 levels showed a positive correlation with National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. After middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice, H19 levels increased in plasma, white blood cells, and brain. Intracerebroventricular injection of H19 siRNA reduced infarct volume and brain edema, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β levels in brain tissue and plasma, and increased plasma interleukin-10 concentrations 24 hours poststroke. Additionally, H19 knockdown attenuated brain tissue loss and neurological deficits 14 days poststroke. BV2 cell-based experiments showed that H19 knockdown blocked oxygen-glucose deprivation-driven M1 microglial polarization, decreased production of tumor necrosis factor-α and CD11b, and increased the expression of Arg-1 and CD206. Furthermore, H19 knockdown reversed oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced upregulation of HDAC1 and downregulation of acetyl-histone H3 and acetyl-histone H4. In contrast, HDAC1 overexpression negated the effects of H19 knockdown. Our findings indicate that H19 promotes neuroinflammation by driving HDAC1-dependent M1 microglial polarization, suggesting a novel H19-based diagnosis

  3. Blueberry Opposes β-Amyloid Peptide-Induced Microglial Activation Via Inhibition of p44/42 Mitogen-Activation Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuyan; Bickford, Paula C.; Sanberg, Paul; Giunta, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common age-related dementia, with a current prevalence in excess of five million individuals in the United States. The aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) into fibrillar amyloid plaques is a key pathological event in the development of the disease. Microglial proinflammatory activation is widely known to cause neuronal and synaptic damage that correlates with cognitive impairment in AD. However, current pharmacological attempts at reducing neuroinflammation mediated via microglial activation have been largely negative in terms of slowing AD progression. Previously, we have shown that microglia express proinflammatory cytokines and a reduced capacity to phagocytose Aβ in the context of CD40, Aβ peptides and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, a phenomenon that can be opposed by attenuation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Other groups have found that blueberry (BB) extract both inhibits phosphorylation of this MAPK module and also improves cognitive deficits in AD model mice. Given these considerations and the lack of reduced Aβ quantities in behaviorally improved BB-fed mice, we wished to determine whether BB supplementation would alter the microglial proinflammatory activation state in response to Aβ. We found that BB significantly enhances microglial clearance of Aβ, inhibits aggregation of Aβ1–42, and suppresses microglial activation, all via suppression of the p44/42 MAPK module. Thus, these data may explain the previously observed behavioral recovery in PSAPP mice and suggest a means by which dietary supplementation could mitigate an undesirable microglial response toward fibrillar Aβ. PMID:18789000

  4. Proinflammatory effects of S100A8/A9 via TLR4 and RAGE signaling pathways in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Qing; Yao, Shang-Long

    2017-07-01

    S100A8/A9, a heterodimer of the two calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9, has emerged as an important proinflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation. However, whether S100A8/A9 is implicated in microglial‑induced neuroinflammatory response remains unclear. Here, we found that S100A8/A9 significantly increased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines inclu-ding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cultured BV-2 microglial cells. Inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) with C225 and a RAGE-blocking antibody, respectively significantly reduced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 from S100A8/A9-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Furthermore, S100A8/A9 markedly enhanced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and the DNA-binding activities of NF-κB in BV-2 microglial cells, and suppression of ERK and JNK/MAPK signaling pathways by PD98059 or SP600125 significantly inhibited NF-κB activity and the release of TNF-α and IL-6 in the S100A8/A9-treated BV-2 microglial cells. Our data also showed that inhibition of NF-κB with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) significantly reduced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 from BV-2 microglial cells treated with S100A8/A9. Taken together, our data suggest that S100A8/A9 acts directly on BV-2 microglial cells via binding to TLR4 and RAGE on the membrane and then stimulates the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through ERK and JNK-mediated NF-κB activity in BV-2 microglial cells. Targeting S100A8/A9 may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in microglial-induced neuroinflammatory diseases.

  5. Immediate initiation of cART is associated with lower levels of cerebrospinal fluid YKL-40, a marker of microglial activation, in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Michael J; Valcour, Victor; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Fletcher, James L K; Chalermchai, Thep; Krebs, Shelly J; Robb, Merlin L; Hellmuth, Joanna; Gisslén, Magnus; Zetterberg, Henrik; Spudich, Serena

    2017-01-14

    To characterize cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) YKL-40, a unique biomarker that reflects activation of microglial cells, in acute (AHI) and chronic HIV-1 infection (CHI) and to determine the effect of treatment initiation on levels of this marker. A cross-sectional study of two groups of HIV-infected participants at baseline and follow-up timepoints. AHI (n = 33) and CHI (n = 34) participants underwent CSF and blood sampling before treatment initiation with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and at follow-up on cART in a subset of these individuals [6 months in AHI participants (n = 24), 1 year in CHI participants (n = 10)]. Measured parameters were analyzed at each timepoint. Analyses employed Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlations. Baseline median YKL-40 was higher in CHI than AHI (96844 versus 80754 ng/l; P = 0.011). Elevations in the CHI group relative to the AHI group persisted at follow-up despite treatment (87414 versus 66130 ng/l; P = 0.003). In untreated CHI, YKL-40 correlated with neopterin (r = 0.51, P = 0.0025), chemokine (CXC-motif) ligand-10 (r = 0.44, P = 0.011), and neurofilament light chain (r = 0.56, P = 0.0008) in CSF. This study is the first to describe the dynamics of CSF YKL-40 in two groups of HIV-infected individuals before and after cART and demonstrates the value of this marker in understanding HIV neuropathogenesis. The results suggest the utility of further exploring the prognostic value of YKL-40, particularly in individuals with early HIV infection or those initiating treatment during CHI.

  6. Immediate initiation of cART is associated with lower levels of cerebrospinal fluid YKL-40, a marker of microglial activation, in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Michael J.; Valcour, Victor; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Fletcsher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Krebs, Shelly J.; Robb, Merlin L.; Hellmuth, Joanna; Gisslén, Magnus; Zetterberg, Henrik; Spudich, Serena

    2018-01-01

    Objective To characterize cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) YKL-40, a unique biomarker that reflects activation of microglial cells, in acute (AHI) and chronic HIV-1 infection (CHI) and to determine the effect of treatment initiation on levels of this marker. Design Cross-sectional study of two groups of HIV-infected participants at baseline and follow-up timepoints. Methods AHI (n=33) and CHI (n=34) participants underwent CSF and blood sampling before treatment initiation with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and at follow up on cART in a subset of these individuals (6 months in AHI participants [n=24], 1 year in CHI participants [n=10]). Measured parameters were analyzed at each timepoint. Analyses employed Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlations. Results Baseline median YKL-40 was higher in CHI than AHI (96844 versus 80754 ng/L; p=0.011). Elevations in the CHI group relative to the AHI group persisted at follow-up despite treatment (87414 versus 66130 ng/L; p=0.003). In untreated CHI, YKL-40 correlated with neopterin (r=0.51, p=0.0025), chemokine (CXC-motif) ligand-10 (r=0.44, p=0.011), and neurofilament light chain (r=0.56, p=0.0008) in CSF. Conclusions This study is the first to describe the dynamics of CSF YKL-40 in two groups of HIV-infected individuals before and after cART and demonstrates the value of this marker in understanding HIV neuropathogenesis. The results suggest the utility of further exploring the prognostic value of YKL-40, particularly in individuals with early HIV infection or those initiating treatment during CHI. PMID:27819802

  7. Limiting nuclear proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Cecelski, L.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of the 1977 experience, it is shown that the U.S. no longer dominates the world nuclear market and must change its approach from coercion to persuasion. President Carter, implementing his campaign promises on nuclear nonproliferation, has used direct pressure, negotiated with nuclear suppliers, and asked for legislation to impose rigid criteria for the export of nuclear materials. Unilateral actions included the deferment of facilities for fuel reprocessing and breeder reactors, but were followed by efforts for international cooperation as the year progressed. While global non-proliferation policies reinforced with international technical cooperation are seen as admirable goals, themore » response to U.S. initiatives is not seen to be encouraging.« less

  8. The changing proliferation threat

    SciTech Connect

    Sopko, J.F.

    Technological advances and new adversaries with new motives have reduced the relevancy and effectiveness of the American nonproliferation strategy that was developed during the Cold War. The Cold War`s end and the breakup of the Soviet Union have created new proliferation dangers even as they have reduced others. The familiar balance of nuclear terror that linked the superpowers and their client states for nearly 50 years in a choreographed series of confrontations has given way to a much less predictable situation, where weapons of unthinkable power appear within the grasp of those more willing to use them. Rogue nations andmore » {open_quotes}clientless{close_quotes} states, terrorist groups, religious cults, ethnic minorities, disaffected political groups, and even individuals appear to have jointed a new arms race toward mass destruction. The author describes recent events that suggest the new trends and a serious challenge to US national security.« less

  9. Nuclear Proliferation: A Historical Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Talbert, “Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis ,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL -14480 (September 2005), p. 92. 1973: Closed...L. Coles, and R. J. Talbert, “Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis ,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL -14480 (September 2005...D. Zentner, G. L. Coles, and R. J. Talbert, “Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis ,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL -14480

  10. Microglial Immune Response to Low Concentrations of Combustion-Generated Nanoparticles: An In Vitro Model of Brain Health

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Cayla M.; Swanson, Jacob; Northrop, William; Nixon, Joshua P.; Butterick, Tammy A.

    2018-01-01

    The brain is the central regulator for integration and control of responses to environmental cues. Previous studies suggest that air pollution may directly impact brain health by triggering the onset of chronic neuroinflammation. We hypothesize that nanoparticle components of combustion-generated air pollution may underlie these effects. To test this association, a microglial in vitro biological sensor model was used for testing neuroinflammatory response caused by low-dose nanoparticle exposure. The model was first validated using 20 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNP). Next, neuroinflammatory response was tested after exposure to size-selected 20 nm combustion-generated nanoparticles (CGNP) collected from a modern diesel engine. We show that low concentrations of CGNPs promote low-grade inflammatory response indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine release (tumor necrosis factor-α), similar to that observed after AgNP exposure. We also demonstrate increased production of reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) p65 phosphorylation in microglia after CGNP stimulation. Finally, we show conditioned media from CGNP-stimulated microglia significantly reduced hypothalamic neuronal survival in vitro. To our knowledge, this data show for the first time that exposure to AgNP and CGNP elicits microglial neuroinflammatory response through the activation of NF-κB. PMID:29522448

  11. Enhanced cerebral expression of MCT1 and MCT2 in a rat ischemia model occurs in activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Tiago J T P; Pierre, Karin; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Repond, Cendrine; Cebere, Aleta; Liljequist, Sture; Pellerin, Luc

    2009-07-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are essential for the use of lactate, an energy substrate known to be overproduced in brain during an ischemic episode. The expression of MCT1 and MCT2 was investigated at 48 h of reperfusion from focal ischemia induced by unilateral extradural compression in Wistar rats. Increased MCT1 mRNA expression was detected in the injured cortex and hippocampus of compressed animals compared to sham controls. In the contralateral, uncompressed hemisphere, increases in MCT1 mRNA level in the cortex and MCT2 mRNA level in the hippocampus were noted. Interestingly, strong MCT1 and MCT2 protein expression was found in peri-lesional macrophages/microglia and in an isolectin B4+/S100beta+ cell population in the corpus callosum. In vitro, MCT1 and MCT2 protein expression was observed in the N11 microglial cell line, whereas an enhancement of MCT1 expression by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was shown in these cells. Modulation of MCT expression in microglia suggests that these transporters may help sustain microglial functions during recovery from focal brain ischemia. Overall, our study indicates that changes in MCT expression around and also away from the ischemic area, both at the mRNA and protein levels, are a part of the metabolic adaptations taking place in the brain after ischemia.

  12. Glioma-secreted soluble factors stimulate microglial activation: The role of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Sun; Jung, Eun-Hye; Kwon, Mi-Youn; Han, Inn-Oc

    2016-09-15

    We aimed to elucidate the effect of soluble factors secreted by glioma on microglial activation. Conditioned medium (CM) from glioma cells, CRT-MG and C6, significantly induced nitric oxide (NO) production and stimulated the mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in BV2 cells. Glioma CM stimulated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, suppressed CM-induced NO production in BV2 cells. In addition, CM stimulated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) DNA binding and transcriptional activity, which was repressed by SB203580. Gliomas displayed higher mRNA expression and release of TNF-α and IL-1β than primary astrocyte cells. Neutralization of TNF-α and IL-1β in C6-CM using a neutralizing antibody inhibited NO/iNOS expression in BV-2 cells. These results indicate potential contribution of diffusible tumor-derived factors to regulate microglial activation and subsequent tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Cellular demise and inflammatory microglial activation during beta-amyloid toxicity are governed by Wnt1 and canonical signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Li, Faqi; Maiese, Kenneth

    2007-06-01

    Initially described as a modulator of embryogenesis for a number of organ systems, Wnt1 has recently been linked to the development of several neurodegenerative disorders, none being of greater significance than Alzheimer's disease. We therefore examined the ability of Wnt1 to oversee vital pathways responsible for cell survival during beta-amyloid (Abeta1-42) exposure. Here we show that Wnt1 is critical for protection in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line against genomic DNA degradation, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and microglial activation, since these neuroprotective attributes of Wnt1 are lost during gene silencing of Wnt1 protein expression. Intimately tied to Wnt1 protection is the presence and activation of Akt1. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI 3-K pathway or gene silencing of Akt1 expression can abrogate the protective capacity of Wnt1. Closely aligned with Wnt1 and Akt1 are the integrated canonical pathways of synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and beta-catenin. Through Akt1 dependent pathways, Wnt1 phosphorylates GSK-3beta and maintains beta-catenin integrity to insure its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus to block apoptosis. Our work outlines a highly novel role for Wnt1 and its integration with Akt1, GSK-3beta, and beta-catenin to foster neuronal cell survival and repress inflammatory microglial activation that can identify new avenues of therapy against neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Compartmentalization of endocannabinoids into lipid rafts in a microglial cell line devoid of caveorrlin-1

    PubMed Central

    Rimmerman, Neta; Bradshaw, Heather B; Kozela, Ewa; Levy, Rivka; Juknat, Ana; Vogel, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are endogenous cannabinoids and along with related lipids are synthesized on demand from membrane phospholipids. Here, we have studied the compartmentalization of NAEs and 2-AG into lipid raft fractions isolated from the caveolin-1-lacking microglial cell line BV-2, following vehicle or cannabidiol (CBD) treatment. Results were compared with those from the caveolin-1-positive F-11 cell line. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH BV-2 cells were incubated with CBD or vehicle. Cells were fractionated using a detergent-free continuous OptiPrep density gradient. Lipids in fractions were quantified using HPLC/MS/MS. Proteins were measured using Western blot. KEY RESULTS BV-2 cells were devoid of caveolin-1. Lipid rafts were isolated from BV-2 cells as confirmed by co-localization with flotillin-1 and sphingomyelin. Small amounts of cannabinoid CB1 receptors were found in lipid raft fractions. After incubation with CBD, levels and distribution in lipid rafts of 2-AG, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA), and N-oleoyl ethanolamine (OEA) were not changed. Conversely, the levels of the saturated N-stearoyl ethanolamine (SEA) and N-palmitoyl ethanolamine (PEA) were elevated in lipid raft fractions. In whole cells with growth medium, CBD treatment increased AEA and OEA time-dependently, while levels of 2-AG, PEA and SEA did not change. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Whereas levels of 2-AG were not affected by CBD treatment, the distribution and levels of NAEs showed significant changes. Among the NAEs, the degree of acyl chain saturation predicted the compartmentalization after CBD treatment suggesting a shift in cell signalling activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-8. To view Part I of Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine visit http://dx.doi.org/10

  15. Analysis of monocyte infiltration in MPTP mice reveals that microglial CX3CR1 protects against neurotoxic over-induction of monocyte-attracting CCL2 by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Parillaud, Vincent R; Lornet, Guillaume; Monnet, Yann; Privat, Anne-Laure; Haddad, Andrei T; Brochard, Vanessa; Bekaert, Amaury; de Chanville, Camille Baudesson; Hirsch, Etienne C; Combadière, Christophe; Hunot, Stéphane; Lobsiger, Christian S

    2017-03-21

    Evidence from mice suggests that brain infiltrating immune cells contribute to neurodegeneration, and we previously identified a deleterious lymphocyte infiltration in Parkinson's disease mice. However, this remains controversial for monocytes, due to artifact-prone techniques used to distinguish them from microglia. Our aim was to reassess this open question, by taking advantage of the recent recognition that chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 can differentiate between inflammatory monocytes and microglia, enabling to test whether CCR2 + monocytes infiltrate the brain during dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration and whether they contribute to neuronal death. This revealed unexpected insights into possible regulation of monocyte-attracting CCL2 induction. We used acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mice and assessed monocyte infiltration by combining laser microdissection-guided chemokine RNA profiling of the substantia nigra (SN) with immunohistochemistry and CCR2-GFP reporter mice. To determine contribution to neuronal loss, we used CCR2-deletion and CCL2-overexpression, to reduce and increase CCR2 + monocyte infiltration, and CX3CR1-deletion to assess a potential implication in CCL2 regulation. Nigral chemokine profiling revealed early CCL2/7/12-CCR2 axis induction, suggesting monocyte infiltration in MPTP mice. CCL2 protein showed early peak induction in nigral astrocytes, while CCR2-GFP mice revealed early but limited nigral monocyte infiltration. However, blocking infiltration by CCR2 deletion did not influence DA neuronal loss. In contrast, transgenic astrocytic CCL2 over-induction increased CCR2 + monocyte infiltration and DA neuronal loss in MPTP mice. Surprisingly, CCL2 over-induction was also detected in MPTP intoxicated CX3CR1-deleted mice, which are known to present increased DA neuronal loss. Importantly, CX3CR1/CCL2 double-deletion suggested that increased neurotoxicity was driven by astrocytic CCL2 over-induction. We show that

  16. Vertical nuclear proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2007-01-01

    All the nuclear-weapon states are working to develop new nuclear-weapon systems and upgrade their existing ones. Although the US Congress has recently blocked further development of small nuclear weapons and earth-penetrating nuclear weapons, the United States is planning a range of new warheads under the Reliable Replacement Warhead programme, and renewing its nuclear weapons infrastructure. The United Kingdom is spending 1 billion pounds sterling on updating the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston, and about 20 billion pounds sterling on replacing its Vanguard submarines and maintaining its Trident warhead stockpile. The US has withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and plans to install missile defence systems in Poland and the Czech Republic; Russia threatens to upgrade its nuclear countermeasures. The nuclear-weapon states should comply with their obligations under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, as summarised in the 13-point plan agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, and they should negotiate a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  17. Label Structured Cell Proliferation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    and (, + ) are the cell proliferation and death rates , respectively, relative to the moving label coordinate system + . Daughter...proliferation and death rates relative to this new coordinate system. While not common in the biological sciences, it is altogether common in the physical

  18. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-16

    March 29 [date as received] (YON- HAP)-Foreign Minister Han Sung-chu said Monday Defence Minister Najib Tun Razak said he had no that South Korea and the...company armed forces would have at least six hours of early basis and has nothing to do with the government," Najib warning time, according to...is said to have expressed concern and Najib said he did not believe local firms had the tech- indirect disapproval over the North Korean withdrawal

  19. Microglial activation as a measure of stress in mouse brains exposed acutely (60 minutes) and long-term (2 years) to mobile telephone radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W; Cai, Zhao; Manavis, Jim; Helps, Stephen; Blumbergs, Peter C

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether acute or long-term exposure of the brain to mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) fields produces activation of microglia, which normally respond rapidly to any change in their microenvironment. Using a purpose designed exposure system at 900 MHz, mice were given a single, far-field whole body exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg for 60 min (acute) or on five successive days per week for 104 weeks (long-term). Control mice were sham-exposed or freely mobile in a cage to control for any stress caused by immobilisation in the exposure module. Positive control brains subjected to a stab wound were also included to confirm the ability of microglia to react to any neural stress. Brains were perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and representative regions of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus immunostained for ionised calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba1), a specific microglial marker. There was no increase in microglial Iba1 expression in brains short or long-term exposed to mobile telephony microwaves compared to control (sham-exposed or freely moving caged mice) brains, while substantial microglial activation occurred in damaged positive control neural tissue. Acute (60 minutes) or longer duration (2 years) exposure of murine brains to mobile telephone RF fields did not produce any microglial activation detectable by Iba1 immunostaining.

  20. Epigallocatechin gallate protects dopaminergic neurons against 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Peng, Ning; Du, Fang; Li, Xu-ping; Le, Wei-dong

    2006-04-01

    To observe whether the dopaminergic neuroprotective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is associated with its inhibition of microglial cell activation in vivo. The effects of EGCG at different doses on dopaminergic neuronal survival were tested in a methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury model in the primary mesencephalic cell cultures. With unbiased stereological method, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells were counted in the A8, A9 and A10 regions of the substantia nigra (SN) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL/6 mice. The effect of EGCG on microglial activation in the SN was also investigated. Pretreatment with EGCG (1 to 100 micromol/L) significantly attenuated MPP+-induced TH-ir cell loss by 22.2% to 80.5% in the mesencephalic cell cultures. In MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice, EGCG at a low concentration (1 mg/kg) provided significant protection against MPTP-induced TH-ir cell loss by 50.9% in the whole nigral area and by 71.7% in the A9 region. EGCG at 5 mg/kg showed more prominent protective effect than at 1 or 10 mg/kg. EGCG pretreatment significantly inhibited microglial activation and CD11b expression induced by MPTP. EGCG exerts potent dopaminergic neuroprotective activity by means of microglial inhibition, which shed light on the potential use of EGCG in treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Anthocyanin-rich acai (Euterpe oleracea mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Age-related increases in oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of the high polypheno...

  2. GPNMB promotes proliferation of developing eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sae Mi; Kang, Jin Hyun; Kim, Bo Kyum; Uhm, Tae Gi; Kim, Hye Jeong; Lee, Hyune-Hwan; Binas, Bert; Chung, Il Yup

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is a type I transmembrane protein that is expressed in a wide variety of cell types, including haematopoietic lineages. We previously demonstrated that GPNMB is one of the most highly expressed genes at an early and intermediate stage of eosinophil development. We herein examined GPNMB expression and its possible functional effect using cord blood (CB) CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells differentiating toward eosinophils during a 24-day culture period. Western blot and confocal microscopy analyses showed that GPNMB reached its highest levels at day 12 with most GPNMB-positive cells also expressing major basic protein 1 (MBP1), an eosinophil granule protein. GPNMB declined thereafter, but was still present at an appreciable level at day 24, the time when CB eosinophils most abundantly expressed MBP1 and were thus considered fully differentiated. When the developing CB cells were cultured in the presence of a blocking anti-GPNMB antibody, cell proliferation was significantly reduced. In agreement, ectopic expression of GPNMB in heterologous cells resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation, while small interfering RNA of GPNMB inhibited the GPNMB-mediated proliferation. Thus, GPNMB is expressed in a temporal manner during eosinophil development and delivers a proliferative signal upon activation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is key to peroxynitrite-mediated, LPS-induced protein radical formation in murine microglial BV2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Chen, Shih-Heng; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Zielonka, Jacek; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Mason, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain. Microglial activation is characteristic of several inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Though LPS-induced microglial activation in models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is well documented, the free radical-mediated protein radical formation and its underlying mechanism during LPS-induced microglial activation is not known. Here we have used immuno-spin trapping and RNA interference to investigate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in peroxynitrite-mediated protein radical formation in murine microglial BV2 cells treated with LPS. Treatment of BV2 cells with LPS resulted in morphological changes, induction of iNOS and increased protein radical formation. Pretreatments with FeTPPS (a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst), L-NAME (total NOS inhibitor), 1400W (iNOS inhibitor) and apocynin significantly attenuated LPS-induced protein radical formation and tyrosine nitration. Results obtained with coumarin-7-boronic acid, a highly specific probe for peroxynitrite detection, correlated with LPS-induced tyrosine nitration, which demonstrated involvement of peroxynitrite in protein radical formation. A similar degree of protection conferred by 1400W and L-NAME led us to conclude that only iNOS, and no other forms of NOS, are involved in LPS-induced peroxynitrite formation. Subsequently, siRNA for iNOS, the iNOS-specific inhibitor 1400W, the NF-kB inhibitor PDTC and the P38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 were used to inhibit iNOS directly or indirectly. Inhibition of iNOS precisely correlated with decreased protein radical formation in LPS-treated BV2 cells. The time course of protein radical formation also matched the time course of iNOS expression. Taken together, these results prove the role of iNOS in peroxynitrite-mediated protein radical formation in LPS-treated microglial BV2 cells. PMID:24746617

  5. Microglial expression of the B7 family member B7 homolog 1 confers strong immune inhibition: implications for immune responses and autoimmunity in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Tim; Schreiner, Bettina; Korn, Thomas; Jack, Carolyn; Guo, Hong; Antel, Jack; Ifergan, Igal; Chen, Lieping; Bischof, Felix; Bar-Or, Amit; Wiendl, Heinz

    2005-03-09

    Inflammation of the CNS is usually locally limited to avoid devastating consequences. Critical players involved in this immune regulatory process are the resident immune cells of the brain, the microglia. Interactions between the growing family of B7 costimulatory ligands and their receptors are increasingly recognized as important pathways for costimulation and/or inhibition of immune responses. Human and mouse microglial cells constitutively express B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) in vitro. However, under inflammatory conditions [presence of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or T-helper 1 supernatants], a significant upregulation of B7-H1 was detectable. Expression levels of B7-H1 protein on microglial cells were substantially higher compared with astrocytes or splenocytes. Coculture experiments of major histocompatibility complex class II-positive antigen-presenting cells (APC) with syngeneic T cells in the presence of antigen demonstrated the functional consequences of B7-H1 expression on T-cell activation. In the presence of a neutralizing anti-B7-H1 antibody, both the production of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma and interleukin-2) and the upregulation of activation markers (inducible costimulatory signal) by T cells were markedly enhanced. Interestingly, this effect was clearly more pronounced when microglial cells were used as APC, compared with astrocytes or splenocytes. Furthermore, B7-H1 was highly upregulated during the course of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced and proteolipid protein-induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in vivo. Expression was predominantly localized to areas of strongest inflammation and could be colocalized with microglial cells/macrophages as well as T cells. Together, our data propose microglial B7-H1 as an important immune inhibitory molecule capable of downregulating T-cell activation in the CNS and thus confining immunopathological damage.

  6. Comparison of the Expression Changes after Botulinum Toxin Type A and Minocycline Administration in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rat Microglial and Astroglial Cultures.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Anna; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Pavone, Flaminia; Mika, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) and minocycline are potent drugs used in clinical therapies. The primary molecular mechanism of BoNT/A is the cleavage of SNARE proteins, which prevents cells from releasing neurotransmitters from vesicles, while the effects of minocycline are related to the inhibition of p38 activation. Both BoNT/A and minocycline exhibit analgesic effects, however, their direct impact on glial cells is not fully known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of those drugs on microglial and astroglial activity after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and their potential synergistic action. Our results show that BoNT/A and minocycline influenced primary microglial cells by inhibiting intracellular signaling pathways, such as p38, ERK1/2, NF-κB, and the release of pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and NOS2. We have revealed that, in contrast to minocycline, BoNT/A treatment did not decrease LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory factors in the astroglia. In addition, BoNT/A decreased SNAP-23 in both types of glial cells and also SNAP-25 expressed only in astrocytes. Moreover, BoNT/A increased TLR2 and its adaptor protein MyD88, but not TLR4 exclusively in microglial cells. Furthermore, we have shown the impact of BoNT/A on microglial and astroglial cells, with a particular emphasis on its molecular target, TLR2. In contrast, minocycline did not affect any of those factors. We have revealed that despite of different molecular targets, minocycline, and BoNT/A reduced the release of microglia-derived pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we have shown that BoNT/A and minocycline are effective drugs for the management of neuroinflammation by dampening the activation of microglial cells, with minocycline also affecting astroglial activity.

  7. Comparison of the Expression Changes after Botulinum Toxin Type A and Minocycline Administration in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rat Microglial and Astroglial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Anna; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Pavone, Flaminia; Mika, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) and minocycline are potent drugs used in clinical therapies. The primary molecular mechanism of BoNT/A is the cleavage of SNARE proteins, which prevents cells from releasing neurotransmitters from vesicles, while the effects of minocycline are related to the inhibition of p38 activation. Both BoNT/A and minocycline exhibit analgesic effects, however, their direct impact on glial cells is not fully known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of those drugs on microglial and astroglial activity after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and their potential synergistic action. Our results show that BoNT/A and minocycline influenced primary microglial cells by inhibiting intracellular signaling pathways, such as p38, ERK1/2, NF-κB, and the release of pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and NOS2. We have revealed that, in contrast to minocycline, BoNT/A treatment did not decrease LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory factors in the astroglia. In addition, BoNT/A decreased SNAP-23 in both types of glial cells and also SNAP-25 expressed only in astrocytes. Moreover, BoNT/A increased TLR2 and its adaptor protein MyD88, but not TLR4 exclusively in microglial cells. Furthermore, we have shown the impact of BoNT/A on microglial and astroglial cells, with a particular emphasis on its molecular target, TLR2. In contrast, minocycline did not affect any of those factors. We have revealed that despite of different molecular targets, minocycline, and BoNT/A reduced the release of microglia-derived pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we have shown that BoNT/A and minocycline are effective drugs for the management of neuroinflammation by dampening the activation of microglial cells, with minocycline also affecting astroglial activity. PMID:28491822

  8. Krüppel-like factor 4, a novel transcription factor regulates microglial activation and subsequent neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Deepak K; Gupta, Malvika; Das, Sulagna; Basu, Anirban

    2010-10-15

    Activation of microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), is the hallmark of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases and other pathological conditions associated with CNS infection. The activation of microglia is often associated with bystander neuronal death. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is one of the important transcription factors known to be associated with microglial activation which upregulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have focused on the role of Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), one of the zinc-finger transcription factors, in mediating inflammation. However, these studies were limited to peripheral system and its role in CNS is not understood. Our studies focused on the possible role of Klf4 in mediating CNS inflammation. For in vitro studies, mouse microglial BV-2 cell lines were treated with 500 ng/ml Salmonella enterica lipopolysacchride (LPS). Brain tissues were isolated from BALB/c mice administered with 5 mg/kg body weight of LPS. Expressions of Klf4, Cox-2, iNOS and pNF-κB were evaluated using western blotting, quantitative real time PCR, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs). Klf4 knockdown was carried out using SiRNA specific for Klf4 mRNA and luciferase assays and electromobility shift assay (EMSA) were performed to study the interaction of Klf4 to iNOS promoter elements in vitro. Co-immunoprecipitation of Klf4 and pNF-κB was done in order to study a possible interaction between the two transcription factors. LPS stimulation increased Klf4 expression in microglial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Klf4 resulted in decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6, along with a significant decrease in iNOS and Cox-2 expression. NO production also decreased as a result of Klf4 knockdown. We found that Klf4 can potentially interact with

  9. The new politics of missile proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, A.

    1996-10-01

    The author addresses the most consequential proliferation battle of the 1990s which occurred in Washington over the interpretation of the long-term threat to the United States from ballistic missiles. In the early 1970s, the stabilization of the US-Soviet strategic relationship led to new disputes over the other side`s future intentions, seen most graphically in Western debates over the implications of the Soviet SS-18 and SS-20 missile programs. Today, in much the same way, proliferation politics has matured to the point that surprises are few and the most challenging problem is anticipating the more distant future. Washington`s ballistic missile proliferation battlemore » was sparked by National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) 95-19, entitled {open_quotes}Emerging Threats to North America During the Next 15 Years,{close_quotes} released by the National Intelligence Council in November 1995. This document updated the evidence of regional missile programs reviewed in a similar report issued in 1993, and recapitulated the previous finding that {open_quotes}No country, other than the major declared nuclear powers, will develop or otherwise acquire a ballistic missile in the next 15 years that could threatened the contiguous 48 states or Canada.{close_quotes} The new report confirmed what several other studies of missile proliferation had already established: that besides the five nuclear-weapon states (the United States, Russia, China, France and Britain), only India, Israel and Japan are in a position to develop an ICBM during the foreseeable future, and while all have relevant capabilities, none are undertaking the steps necessary to develop an actual ICBM.« less

  10. M-CSF increases proliferation and phagocytosis while modulating receptor and transcription factor expression in adult human microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microglia are the primary immune cells of the brain whose phenotype largely depends on their surrounding micro-environment. Microglia respond to a multitude of soluble molecules produced by a variety of brain cells. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a cytokine found in the brain whose receptor is expressed by microglia. Previous studies suggest a critical role for M-CSF in brain development and normal functioning as well as in several disease processes involving neuroinflammation. Methods Using biopsy tissue from patients with intractable temporal epilepsy and autopsy tissue, we cultured primary adult human microglia to investigate their response to M-CSF. Mixed glial cultures were treated with 25 ng/ml M-CSF for 96 hours. Proliferation and phagocytosis assays, and high through-put immunocytochemistry, microscopy and image analysis were performed to investigate microglial phenotype and function. Results We found that the phenotype of primary adult human microglia was markedly changed following exposure to M-CSF. A greater number of microglia were present in the M-CSF- treated cultures as the percentage of proliferating (BrdU and Ki67-positive) microglia was greatly increased. A number of changes in protein expression occurred following M-CSF treatment, including increased transcription factors PU.1 and C/EBPβ, increased DAP12 adaptor protein, increased M-CSF receptor (CSF-1R) and IGF-1 receptor, and reduced HLA-DP, DQ, DR antigen presentation protein. Furthermore, a distinct morphological change was observed with elongation of microglial processes. These changes in phenotype were accompanied by a functional increase in phagocytosis of Aβ1-42 peptide. Conclusions We show here that the cytokine M-CSF dramatically influences the phenotype of adult human microglia. These results pave the way for future investigation of M-CSF-related targets for human therapeutic benefit. PMID:23866312

  11. Fluoxetine treatment affects the inflammatory response and microglial function according to the quality of the living environment.

    PubMed

    Alboni, Silvia; Poggini, Silvia; Garofalo, Stefano; Milior, Giampaolo; El Hajj, Hassan; Lecours, Cynthia; Girard, Isabelle; Gagnon, Steven; Boisjoly-Villeneuve, Samuel; Brunello, Nicoletta; Wolfer, David P; Limatola, Cristina; Tremblay, Marie-Ève; Maggi, Laura; Branchi, Igor

    2016-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most common treatment for major depression, affect mood through changes in immune function. However, the effects of SSRIs on inflammatory response are contradictory since these act either as anti- or pro-inflammatory drugs. Previous experimental and clinical studies showed that the quality of the living environment moderates the outcome of antidepressant treatment. Therefore, we hypothesized that the interplay between SSRIs and the environment may, at least partially, explain the apparent incongruence regarding the effects of SSRI treatment on the inflammatory response. In order to investigate such interplay, we exposed C57BL/6 mice to chronic stress to induce a depression-like phenotype and, subsequently, to fluoxetine treatment or vehicle (21days) while being exposed to either an enriched or a stressful condition. At the end of treatment, we measured the expression levels of several anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in the whole hippocampus and in isolated microglia. We also determined microglial density, distribution, and morphology to investigate their surveillance state. Results show that the effects of fluoxetine treatment on inflammation and microglial function, as compared to vehicle, were dependent on the quality of the living environment. In particular, fluoxetine administered in the enriched condition increased the expression of pro-inflammatory markers compared to vehicle, while treatment in a stressful condition produced anti-inflammatory effects. These findings provide new insights regarding the effects of SSRIs on inflammation, which may be crucial to devise pharmacological strategies aimed at enhancing antidepressant efficacy by means of controlling environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of the kynurenine pathway protects against reactive microglial-associated reductions in the complexity of primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Katherine; Fagan, Eimear; Connor, Thomas J; Harkin, Andrew

    2017-09-05

    Brain glia possess the rate limiting enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) which catalyses the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Microglia also express kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) and kynureninase (KYNU) which lead to the production of the free radical producing metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid respectively and subsequently production of the NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of IFNγ-stimulated kynurenine pathway (KP) induction in microglia on neurite outgrowth and complexity, and to determine whether alterations could be abrogated using pharmacological inhibitors of the KP. BV-2 microglia were treated with IFNγ (5ng/ml) for 24h and conditioned media (CM) was placed on primary cortical neurons 3 days in vitro (DIV) for 48h. Neurons were fixed and neurite outgrowth and complexity was assessed using fluorescent immunocytochemistry followed by Sholl analysis. Results show increased mRNA expression of IDO, KMO and KYNU, and increased concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine in the CM of IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 microglia. The IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 microglial CM reduced neurite outgrowth and complexity with reductions in various parameters of neurite outgrowth prevented when BV-2 microglia were pre-treated with either the IDO inhibitor, 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT) (L) (0.5mM; 30min), the KMO inhibitor, Ro 61-8048 (1μM; 30min), the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (1μM; 2h) -which suppresses IFNγ-induced IDO - and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK801 (0.1μM; 30min). Overall this study indicates that inhibition of the KP in microglia may be targeted to protect against reactive microglial-associated neuronal atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep deprivation aggravates median nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and enhances microglial activation by suppressing melatonin secretion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chen, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2014-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is common in patients with neuropathic pain, but the effect of sleep deprivation on pathological pain remains uncertain. This study investigated whether sleep deprivation aggravates neuropathic symptoms and enhances microglial activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) in a median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Also, we assessed if melatonin supplements during the sleep deprived period attenuates these effects. Rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 3 days by the disc-on-water method either before or after CCI. In the melatonin treatment group, CCI rats received melatonin supplements at doses of 37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg during sleep deprivation. Melatonin was administered at 23:00 once a day. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-250 g (n = 190), were used. Seven days after CCI, behavioral testing was conducted, and immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microglial activation and measurements of proinflammatory cytokines. In rats who underwent post-CCI sleep deprivation, microglia were more profoundly activated and neuropathic pain was worse than those receiving pre-CCI sleep deprivation. During the sleep deprived period, serum melatonin levels were low over the 24-h period. Administration of melatonin to CCI rats with sleep deprivation significantly attenuated activation of microglia and development of neuropathic pain, and markedly decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. Sleep deprivation makes rats more vulnerable to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, probably because of associated lower melatonin levels. Melatonin supplements to restore a circadian variation in melatonin concentrations during the sleep deprived period could alleviate nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Isl-1 down-regulates DRG cell proliferation during chicken embryo development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Wang, Guoxin; Luo, Haoshu; Liu, Jiali; Cui, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Protein Isl-1 RNA interference and over expression in early chicken embryo dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were used to investigate the function of Isl-1 in DRG cell proliferation. Isl-1 targeted shRNA expression vector and Isl-1 over-expression vector were transfected into chicken embryo DRG by in ovo electroporation. Then, the DRG proliferation rate was detected by BrdU immunohistochemistry. The rate of DRG cell proliferation increased after Isl-1 knock-down and decreased after Isl-1 over-expression. In this study, we found that Isl-1 negatively modulates DRG cell proliferation.

  16. Synergistic Effects of Psychosocial Stress and Mild Peripheral Infection on Inducing Microglial Activation in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus and Long-Lasting Deficits in Hippocampus-Related Memory.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Su, Chien-Chou; Sun, Li-Han; Cherng, Chianfang G.; Yu, Lung

    2018-04-30

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice. The social defeat regimen did not cause observable microglial activation in dentate gyrus (DG) 24 h after the conclusion of the regimen. Microglial activation peaked in DG 24 h following a single 1 mg/kg intra-peritoneal LPS injection. At this time point, DG microglial activation was not evident providing 0.125 mg/kg or lower of LPS was used, this dose of LPS was, thus, regarded as the “sub-threshold” in this study. Twenty-four h after the conclusion of the defeat regimen, mice received a social interaction test to determine their defeat stress susceptibility and a “sub-threshold” LPS injection. DG microglial activation was observed in the defeat-stress susceptible, but not in the resilient, mice. Furthermore, the stress-susceptible mice showed impairment in object location and Y maze tasks 24 and 72 h after the “sub-threshold” LPS injection. These results suggest that psychosocial stress, when combined with a negligible peripheral infection, may induce long-lasting hippocampus-related memory deficits exclusively in subjects susceptible to psychosocial stresses.

  17. Chronic ethanol intake induces partial microglial activation that is not reversed by long-term ethanol withdrawal in the rat hippocampal formation.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Catarina; Meireles, Manuela; Silva, Susana M

    2017-05-01

    Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders. Activation of microglia leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial-mediated neuroinflammation has been proposed as one of the alcohol-induced neuropathological mechanisms. The present study aimed to examine the effect of chronic ethanol exposure and long-term withdrawal on microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampal formation. Male rats were submitted to 6 months of ethanol treatment followed by a 2-month withdrawal period. Stereological methods were applied to estimate the total number of microglia and activated microglia detected by CD11b immunohistochemistry in the hippocampal formation. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, COX-2 and IL-15 were measured by qRT-PCR. Alcohol consumption was associated with an increase in the total number of activated microglia but morphological assessment indicated that microglia did not exhibit a full activation phenotype. These data were supported by functional evidence since chronic alcohol consumption produced no changes in the expression of TNF-α or COX-2. The levels of IL-15 a cytokine whose expression is increased upon activation of both astrocytes and microglia, was induced by chronic alcohol treatment. Importantly, the partial activation of microglia induced by ethanol was not reversed by long-term withdrawal. This study suggests that chronic alcohol exposure induces a microglial phenotype consistent with partial activation without significant increase in classical cytokine markers of neuroinflammation in the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, long-term cessation of alcohol intake is not sufficient to alter the microglial partial activation phenotype induced by ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuation of microglial RANTES by NEMO-binding domain peptide inhibits the infiltration of CD8(+) T cells in the nigra of hemiparkinsonian monkey.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Mondal, S; Kordower, J H; Pahan, K

    2015-08-27

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Despite intense investigations, little is known about its pathological mediators. Here, we report the marked upregulation of RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and eotaxin, chemokines that are involved in T cell trafficking, in the serum of hemiparkinsonian monkeys. Interestingly, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), a Parkinsonian toxin, increased the expression of RANTES and eotaxin in mouse microglial cells. The presence of NF-κB binding sites in promoters of RANTES and eotaxin and down-regulation of these genes by NEMO-binding domain (NBD) peptide, selective inhibitor of induced NF-κB activation, in MPP(+)-stimulated microglial cells suggest that the activation of NF-κB plays an important role in the upregulation of these two chemokines. Consistently, serum enzyme-linked immuno assay (ELISA) and nigral immunohistochemistry further confirmed that these chemokines were strongly upregulated in MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian monkeys and that treatment with NBD peptides effectively inhibited the level of these chemokines. Furthermore, the microglial upregulation of RANTES in the nigra of hemiparkinsonian monkeys could be involved in the altered adaptive immune response in the brain as we observed greater infiltration of CD8(+) T cells around the perivascular niche and deep brain parenchyma of hemiparkinsonian monkeys as compared to control. The treatment of hemiparkinsonian monkeys with NBD peptides decreased the microglial expression of RANTES and attenuated the infiltration of CD8(+) T cells in nigra. These results indicate the possible involvement of chemokine-dependent adaptive immune response in Parkinsonism. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-allodynic effect of intrathecal processed Aconitum jaluense is associated with the inhibition of microglial activation and P2X7 receptor expression in spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jihoon; Park, Keun Suk; Yoon, Jae Joon; Bae, Hong-Beom; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2016-07-13

    For their analgesic and anti-arthritic effects, Aconitum species have been used in folk medicine in some East Asian countries. Although their analgesic effect is attributed to its action on voltage-dependent sodium channels, they also suppress purinergic receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats with neuropathic pain. In vitro study also demonstrated that the Aconitum suppresses ATP-induced P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)-mediated inflammatory responses in microglial cell lines. Herein, we examined the effect of intrathecal administration of thermally processed Aconitum jaluense (PA) on pain behavior, P2X7R expression and microglial activation in a rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. Mechanical allodynia induced by L5 SNL in Sprague-Dawley rats was measured using the von Frey test to evaluate the effect of intrathecal injection of PA. Changes in the expression of P2X7R in the spinal cord were examined using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, the effect of intrathecal PA on microglial activation was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Intrathecal PA attenuated mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner showing both acute and chronic effects with 65 % of the maximal possible effect. The expression and production of spinal P2X7R was increased five days after SNL, but daily intrathecal PA injection significantly inhibited the increase to the level of naïve animals. Immunofluorescence of the spinal cord revealed a significant increase in P2X7R expression and activation of microglia in the dorsal horn, which was inhibited by intrathecal PA treatment. P2X7R co-localized with microglia marker, but not neurons. Intrathecal PA exerts anti-allodynic effects in neuropathic pain, possibly by suppressing P2X7R production and expression as well as reducing microglial activation in the spinal cord.

  20. Spinal versus brain microglial and macrophage activation traits determine the differential neuroinflammatory responses and analgesic effect of minocycline in chronic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhilin; Wei, Hong; Piirainen, Sami; Chen, Zuyue; Kalso, Eija; Pertovaara, Antti; Tian, Li

    2016-11-01

    Substantial evidence indicates involvement of microglia/macrophages in chronic neuropathic pain. However, the temporal-spatial features of microglial/macrophage activation and their pain-bound roles remain elusive. Here, we evaluated microglia/macrophages and the subtypes in the lumbar spinal cord (SC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and analgesic-anxiolytic effect of minocycline at different stages following spared nerve injury (SNI) in rats. While SNI enhanced the number of spinal microglia/macrophages since post-operative day (POD)3, pro-inflammatory MHCII + spinal microglia/macrophages were unexpectedly less abundant in SNI rats than shams on POD21. By contrast, less abundant anti-inflammatory CD172a (SIRPα) + microglia/macrophages were found in the PFC of SNI rats. Interestingly in naïve rats, microglial/macrophage expression of CD11b/c, MHCII and MHCII + /CD172a + ratio were higher in the SC than the cortex. Consistently, multiple immune genes involved in anti-inflammation, phagocytosis, complement activation and M2 microglial/macrophage polarization were upregulated in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia but downregulated in the PFC of SNI rats. Furthermore, daily intrathecal minocycline treatment starting from POD0 for two weeks alleviated mechanical allodynia most robustly before POD3 and attenuated anxiety on POD9. Although minocycline dampened spinal MHCII + microglia/macrophages until POD13, it failed to do so on cortical microglia/macrophages, indicating that dampening only spinal inflammation may not be enough to alleviate centralized pain at the chronic stage. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that basal microglial/macrophage traits underlie differential region-specific responses to SNI and minocycline treatment, and suggest that drug treatment efficiently targeting not only spinal but also brain inflammation may be more effective in treating chronic neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Toll-like receptor prestimulation increases phagocytosis of Escherichia coli DH5alpha and Escherichia coli K1 strains by murine microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Sandra; Ebert, Sandra; Czesnik, Dirk; Regen, Tommy; Zeug, Andre; Bukowski, Stephanie; Mildner, Alexander; Eiffert, Helmut; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Nau, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality. When an infection occurs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by microglial cells can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activate multiple steps in the inflammatory response that coordinate the brain's local defense, such as phagocytosis of invading pathogens. An upregulation of the phagocytic ability of reactive microglia could improve the host defense in immunocompromised patients against pathogens such as E. coli. Here, murine microglial cultures were stimulated with the TLR agonists Pam(3)CSK(4) (TLR1/TLR2), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9) for 24 h. Upon stimulation, levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1 were increased, indicating microglial activation. Phagocytic activity was studied after adding either E. coli DH5alpha or E. coli K1 strains. After 60 and 90 min of bacterial exposure, the number of ingested bacteria was significantly higher in cells prestimulated with TLR agonists than in unstimulated controls (P < 0.01). Addition of cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, blocked >90% of phagocytosis. We also analyzed the ability of microglia to kill the ingested E. coli strains. Intracellularly surviving bacteria were quantified at different time points (90, 150, 240, and 360 min) after 90 min of phagocytosis. The number of bacteria killed intracellularly after 6 h was higher in cells primed with the different TLR agonists than in unstimulated microglia. Our data suggest that microglial stimulation by the TLR system can increase bacterial phagocytosis and killing. This approach could improve central nervous system resistance to infections in immunocompromised patients.

  2. Visuospatial learning and memory in the Cebus apella and microglial morphology in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and CA1 lacunosum molecular layer.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, Carlos; de Lima, Camila M; Fôro, César A R; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Magalhães, Nara G M; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Diniz, Daniel G; Vasconcelos, Pedro F da C; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2014-11-01

    We investigated whether the morphology of microglia in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG-Mol) or in the lacunosum molecular layer of CA1 (CA1-LMol) was correlated with spatial learning and memory in the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Learning and memory was tested in 4 monkeys with visuo-spatial, paired associated learning (PAL) tasks from the Cambridge battery of neuropsychological tests. After testing, monkeys were sacrificed, and hippocampi were sectioned. We specifically immunolabeled microglia with an antibody against the adapter binding, ionized calcium protein. Microglia were selected from the middle and outer thirds of the DG-Mol (n=268) and the CA1-LMol (n=185) for three-dimensional reconstructions created with Neurolucida and Neuroexplorer software. Cluster and discriminant analyses, based on microglial morphometric parameters, identified two major morphological microglia phenotypes (types I and II) found in both the CA1-LMol and DG-Mol of all individuals. Compared to type II, type I microglia were significantly smaller, thinner, more tortuous and ramified, and less complex (lower fractal dimensions). PAL performance was both linearly and non-linearly correlated with type I microglial morphological features from the rostral and caudal DG-Mol, but not with microglia from the CA1-LMol. These differences in microglial morphology and correlations with PAL performance were consistent with previous proposals of hippocampal regional contributions for spatial learning and memory. Our results suggested that at least two morphological microglial phenotypes provided distinct physiological roles to learning-associated activity in the rostral and caudal DG-Mol of the monkey brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PET imaging of putative microglial activation in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis, recently diagnosed and chronically ill with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Di Biase, M A; Zalesky, A; O'keefe, G; Laskaris, L; Baune, B T; Weickert, C S; Olver, J; McGorry, P D; Amminger, G P; Nelson, B; Scott, A M; Hickie, I; Banati, R; Turkheimer, F; Yaqub, M; Everall, I P; Pantelis, C; Cropley, V

    2017-08-29

    We examined putative microglial activation as a function of illness course in schizophrenia. Microglial activity was quantified using [ 11 C](R)-(1-[2-chrorophynyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3 isoquinoline carboxamide ( 11 C-(R)-PK11195) positron emission tomography (PET) in: (i) 10 individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis; (ii) 18 patients recently diagnosed with schizophrenia; (iii) 15 patients chronically ill with schizophrenia; and, (iv) 27 age-matched healthy controls. Regional-binding potential (BP ND ) was calculated using the simplified reference-tissue model with four alternative reference inputs. The UHR, recent-onset and chronic patient groups were compared to age-matched healthy control groups to examine between-group BP ND differences in 6 regions: dorsal frontal, orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, medial temporal, thalamus and insula. Correlation analysis tested for BP ND associations with gray matter volume, peripheral cytokines and clinical variables. The null hypothesis of equality in BP ND between patients (UHR, recent-onset and chronic) and respective healthy control groups (younger and older) was not rejected for any group comparison or region. Across all subjects, BP ND was positively correlated to age in the thalamus (r=0.43, P=0.008, false discovery rate). No correlations with regional gray matter, peripheral cytokine levels or clinical symptoms were detected. We therefore found no evidence of microglial activation in groups of individuals at high risk, recently diagnosed or chronically ill with schizophrenia. While the possibility of 11 C-(R)-PK11195-binding differences in certain patient subgroups remains, the patient cohorts in our study, who also displayed normal peripheral cytokine profiles, do not substantiate the assumption of microglial activation in schizophrenia as a regular and defining feature, as measured by 11 C-(R)-PK11195 BP ND .

  4. Inhibition of Peripheral TNF-α and Downregulation of Microglial Activation by Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Etanercept Protect Rat Brain Against Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Huang, Chao-Ching; Chio, Chung-Ching; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Chang, Ching-Ping; Lin, Nan-Kai; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic stroke, caused by obstruction of blood flow to the brain, would initiate microglia activation which contributes to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation could be a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid and etanercept given either singly or in combination in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Both α-lipoic acid and etanercept markedly reduced cerebral infarct, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neurological motor deficits with the former drug being more effective with the dosage used. Furthermore, when used in combination, the reduction was more substantial. Remarkably, a greater diminution in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as the brain levels of microglial activation (e.g., microgliosis, amoeboid microglia, and microglial overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α) was observed with the combined drug treatment as compared to the drugs given separately. We conclude that inhibition of peripheral tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as downregulation of brain microglial activation by alpha-lipoic acid or etanercept protect rat brain against ischemic stroke. Moreover, when both drugs were used in combination, the stroke recovery was promoted more extensively.

  5. Deferoxamine inhibits microglial activation, attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption, rescues dendritic damage, and improves spatial memory in a mouse model of microhemorrhages.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Fei; Lan, Yue; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Dong-Xu; Wang, Qinmei; Liang, Feng-Ying; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Xu, Guang-Qing; Pei, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral microbleeds are strongly linked to cognitive dysfunction in the elderly. Iron accumulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intracranial hemorrhage. Deferoxamine (DFX), a metal chelator, removes iron overload and protects against brain damage in intracranial hemorrhage. In this study, the protective effects of DFX against microhemorrhage were examined in mice. C57BL6 and Thy-1 green fluorescent protein transgenic mice were subjected to perforating artery microhemorrhages on the right posterior parietal cortex using two-photon laser irradiation. DFX (100 mg/kg) was administered 6 h after microhemorrhage induction, followed by every 12 h for three consecutive days. The water maze task was conducted 7 days after induction of microhemorrhages, followed by measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability, iron deposition, microglial activation, and dendritic damage. Laser-induced multiple microbleeds in the right parietal cortex clearly led to spatial memory disruption, iron deposits, microglial activation, and dendritic damage, which were significantly attenuated by DFX, supporting the targeting of iron overload as a therapeutic option and the significant potential of DFX in microhemorrhage treatment. Irons accumulation after intracranial hemorrhage induced a serious secondary damage to the brain. We proposed that irons accumulation after parietal microhemorrhages impaired spatial cognition. After parietal multiple microhemorrhages, increased irons and ferritin contents induced blood-brain barrier disruption, microglial activation, and further induced dendrites loss, eventually impaired the water maze, deferoxamine treatment protected from these damages. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Shikonin Isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon Downregulates Proinflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing Crosstalk between Reactive Oxygen Species and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajapaksha Gedara; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young

    2015-03-01

    According to the expansion of lifespan, neuronal disorder based on inflammation has been social problem. Therefore, we isolated shikonin from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of shikonin in lipopolysaccharide (LSP)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Shikonin dose-dependently inhibits the expression of the proinflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as their main regulatory genes and products such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Additionally, shikonin suppressed the LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to regulate the key regulatory genes of the proinflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α, accompanied with downregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The results indicate that shikonin may downregulate the expression of proinflammatory genes involved in the synthesis of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α in LPS-treated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing ROS and NF-κB. Taken together, our results revealed that shikonin exerts downregulation of proinflammatory mediators by interference the ROS and NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Shikonin Isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon Downregulates Proinflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing Crosstalk between Reactive Oxygen Species and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rajapaksha Gedara; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young

    2015-01-01

    According to the expansion of lifespan, neuronal disorder based on inflammation has been social problem. Therefore, we isolated shikonin from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of shikonin in lipopolysaccharide (LSP)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Shikonin dose-dependently inhibits the expression of the proinflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as their main regulatory genes and products such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Additionally, shikonin suppressed the LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to regulate the key regulatory genes of the proinflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α, accompanied with downregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The results indicate that shikonin may downregulate the expression of proinflammatory genes involved in the synthesis of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α in LPS-treated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing ROS and NF-κB. Taken together, our results revealed that shikonin exerts downregulation of proinflammatory mediators by interference the ROS and NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:25767678

  8. Evolution of microglial activation in ischaemic core and peri-infarct regions after stroke: a PET study with the TSPO molecular imaging biomarker [((11))C]vinpocetine.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Tóth, Miklós; Schain, Martin; Airaksinen, Anu; Vas, Adám; Kostulas, Konstantinos; Lindström, Per; Hillert, Jan; Halldin, Christer

    2012-09-15

    Although there is increasing evidence for microglial activation after an ischaemic stroke in the infarct core and the peri-infarct region, the "evolution" of the process in stroke patients is poorly known. Using PET and [((11))C]vinpocetine, we measured the regional changes of TSPO in the brain of nine ischaemic stroke patients up to 14weeks after the insult. Already a week after stroke there was an increased radioligand uptake, indicating the up-regulation of TSPO and the presence of activated microglia, in both the ischaemic core and the peri-infarct zone. This increased activation showed a steady decrease with post stroke time. The proportion between %SUV values in the peri-infarct zone and the ischaemic core increased with time. There were no time-dependent TSPO activity changes in other regions, not affected directly by the stroke. The present observations demonstrate that increased regional microglia activation, as a consequence of stroke, can be visualised with PET, using the TSPO molecular imaging biomarker [((11))C]vinpocetine. The evolution of this microglial activation shows a time dependent decrease the gradient of which is different between the peri-infarct zone and the ischaemic core. The findings indicate an increased microglial activation in the peri-stroke region for several weeks after the insult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Progranulin Gene Therapy Improves Lysosomal Dysfunction and Microglial Pathology Associated with Frontotemporal Dementia and Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Onyilo, Vincent C; Unger, Daniel E; Roberson, Erik D

    2018-02-28

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin, a lysosomal glycoprotein, cause neurodegenerative disease. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and complete progranulin deficiency causes CLN11 neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). Progranulin replacement is a rational therapeutic strategy for these disorders, but there are critical unresolved mechanistic questions about a progranulin gene therapy approach, including its potential to reverse existing pathology. Here, we address these issues using an AAV vector (AAV- Grn ) to deliver progranulin in Grn -/- mice (both male and female), which model aspects of NCL and FTD pathology, developing lysosomal dysfunction, lipofuscinosis, and microgliosis. We first tested whether AAV- Grn could improve preexisting pathology. Even with treatment after onset of pathology, AAV- Grn reduced lipofuscinosis in several brain regions of Grn -/- mice. AAV- Grn also reduced microgliosis in brain regions distant from the injection site. AAV-expressed progranulin was only detected in neurons, not in microglia, indicating that the microglial activation in progranulin deficiency can be improved by targeting neurons and thus may be driven at least in part by neuronal dysfunction. Even areas with sparse transduction and almost undetectable progranulin showed improvement, indicating that low-level replacement may be sufficiently effective. The beneficial effects of AAV- Grn did not require progranulin binding to sortilin. Finally, we tested whether AAV- Grn improved lysosomal function. AAV-derived progranulin was delivered to the lysosome, ameliorated the accumulation of LAMP-1 in Grn -/- mice, and corrected abnormal cathepsin D activity. These data shed light on progranulin biology and support progranulin-boosting therapies for NCL and FTD due to GRN mutations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Heterozygous loss-of-function progranulin ( GRN ) mutations cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and homozygous mutations cause neuronal

  10. Differential transcriptional profiles mediated by exposure to the cannabinoids cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in BV-2 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Juknat, Ana; Pietr, Maciej; Kozela, Ewa; Rimmerman, Neta; Levy, Rivka; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel; Vogel, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Apart from their effects on mood and reward, cannabinoids exert beneficial actions such as neuroprotection and attenuation of inflammation. The immunosuppressive activity of cannabinoids has been well established. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We previously showed that the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) differ in their anti-inflammatory signalling pathways. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH To characterize the transcriptional effects of CBD and THC, we treated BV-2 microglial cells with these compounds and performed comparative microarray analysis using the Illumina MouseRef-8 BeadChip platform. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was performed to identify functional subsets of genes and networks regulated by CBD and/or THC. KEY RESULTS Overall, CBD altered the expression of many more genes; from the 1298 transcripts found to be differentially regulated by the treatments, 680 gene probe sets were up-regulated by CBD and 58 by THC, and 524 gene products were down-regulated by CBD and only 36 by THC. CBD-specific gene expression profile showed changes associated with oxidative stress and glutathione depletion, normally occurring under nutrient limiting conditions or proteasome inhibition and involving the GCN2/eIF2α/p8/ATF4/CHOP-TRIB3 pathway. Furthermore, CBD-stimulated genes were shown to be controlled by nuclear factors known to be involved in the regulation of stress response and inflammation, mainly via the (EpRE/ARE)-Nrf2/ATF4 system and the Nrf2/Hmox1 axis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These observations indicated that CBD, but much less than THC, induced a cellular stress response in microglial cells and suggested that this effect could underlie its anti-inflammatory activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012

  11. Proliferating macrophages prevail in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions during the inflammation that is part of atherosclerosis development and progression. A new study in mice indicates that the accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques depends on local macrophage proliferation rather than the recruitment of circulating monocytes.

  12. Thrombin-induced microglial activation impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory ability in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Meikui; Kang, Xiaoni; Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pei; Li, Jingjing

    2015-09-26

    To investigate the effects of microglia/macrophages activation induced by intrastriatal thrombin injection on dentate gyrus neurogenesis and spatial memory ability in mice. The male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups of 10: sham, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), ICH + hirudin (thrombin inhibitor), and ICH + indometacin (Indo, an anti-inflammation drug). ICH model was created by intrastriatal thrombin (1U) injection. BrdU (50 mg/kg) was administrated on the same day after surgery for 6 consecutive days. Motor functions were evaluated with rotarod and beam walking tests. The spatial memory deficit was measured with Morris water maze (MWM). Cell quantification was performed for doublecortin (DCX, immature neuron), BrdU (S-phase proliferating cell population) and CD68 (activated microglia/macrophage) immune-reactive cells. Microglia/macrophages activation induced by intrastriatal thrombin injection reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired spatial memory ability, but did not affect the motor function at 3 and 5 days post-injury. Both hirudin and indometacin reduced microglia/macrophages activation, enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis, and improved spatial memory ability in mice. Microglia/macrophages activation induced by intrastriatal thrombin injection might be responsible for the spatial memory deficit. Targeting both thrombin and inflammation systems in acute phase of ICH might be important in alleviating the significant spatial memory deficits.

  13. Effect of different wound dressings on cell viability and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Paddle-Ledinek, Joanne E; Nasa, Zeyad; Cleland, Heather J

    2006-06-01

    Many new dressings have been developed since the early 1980s. Wound healing comprises cleansing, granulation/vascularization, and epithelialization phases. An optimum microenvironment and the absence of cytotoxic factors are essential for epithelialization. This study examines the effect of extracts of different wound dressings on keratinocyte survival and proliferation. Keratinocyte cultures were exposed for 40 hours to at least three extracts of each of the following wound dressings, which were tested in octuplicate: Acticoat, Aquacel-Ag, Aquacel, Algisite M, Avance, Comfeel Plus transparent, Contreet-H, Hydrasorb, and SeaSorb. Silicone extract provided the reference material. Controls were included of cells cultured in medium that had been incubated under conditions identical to those used with the extracts. Cell survival (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction) and proliferation (5-bromo-2':-deoxyuridine incorporation) were measured. Extracts of silver-containing dressings (Acticoat, Aquacel-Ag, Contreet-H, and Avance) were most cytotoxic. Extracts of Hydrasorb were less cytotoxic but markedly affected keratinocyte proliferation and morphology. Extracts of alginate-containing dressings (Algisite M, SeaSorb, and Contreet-H) demonstrated high calcium concentrations, markedly reduced keratinocyte proliferation, and affected keratinocyte morphology. Extracts of Aquacel and Comfeel Plus transparent induced small but significant inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation. The principle of minimizing harm should be applied to the choice of wound dressing. Silver-based dressings are cytotoxic and should not be used in the absence of infection. Alginate dressings with high calcium content affect keratinocyte proliferation probably by triggering terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Such dressings should be used with caution in cases in which keratinocyte proliferation is essential. All dressings should be tested in vitro before

  14. The role of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in pro-inflammatory responses of EMF-stimulated N9 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) activates cultured microglia to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) through signal transduction involving the activator of transcription STAT3. Here, we investigated the role of STAT3 signaling in EMF-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory responses in more detail than the previous study. Methods N9 microglial cells were treated with EMF exposure or a sham treatment, with or without pretreatment with an inhibitor (Pyridone 6, P6) of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (JAK). The activation state of microglia was assessed via immunoreaction using the microglial marker CD11b. Levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and NO were measured using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the nitrate reductase method. Activation of JAKs and STAT3 proteins was evaluated by western blotting for specific tyrosine phosphorylation. The ability of STAT3 to bind to DNA was detected with an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results EMF was found to significantly induce phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and DNA-binding ability of STAT3 in N9 microglia. In addition, EMF dramatically increased the expression of CD11b, TNF-α and iNOS, and the production of NO. P6 strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and diminished STAT3 activity in EMF-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, expression of CD11b as well as gene expression and production of TNF-α and iNOS were suppressed by P6 at 12 h, but not at 3 h, after EMF exposure. Conclusions EMF exposure directly triggers initial activation of microglia and produces a significant pro-inflammatory response. Our findings confirm that

  15. Microglial Priming and Enhanced Reactivity to Secondary Insult in Aging, and Traumatic CNS injury, and Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Norden, Diana M.; Muccigrosso, Megan M.; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Glia of the central nervous system (CNS) help to maintain homeostasis in the brain and support efficient neuronal function. Microglia are innate immune cells of the brain that mediate responses to pathogens and injury. They have key roles in phagocytic clearing, surveying the local microenvironment and propagating inflammatory signals. An interruption in homeostasis induces a cascade of conserved adaptive responses in glia. This response involves biochemical, physiological and morphological changes and is associated with the production of cytokines and secondary mediators that influence synaptic plasticity, cognition and behavior. This reorganization of host priorities represents a beneficial response that is normally adaptive but may become maladaptive when the profile of microglia is compromised. For instance, microglia can develop a primed or pro-inflammatory mRNA, protein and morphological profile with aging, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. As a result, primed microglia exhibit an exaggerated inflammatory response to secondary and sub-threshold challenges. Consequences of exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia include the development of cognitive deficits, impaired synaptic plasticity and accelerated neurodegeneration. Moreover, impairments in regulatory systems in these circumstances may make microglia more resistant to negative feedback and important functions of glia can become compromised and dysfunctional. Overall, the purpose of this review is to discuss key concepts of microglial priming and immune-reactivity in the context of aging, traumatic CNS injury and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25445485

  16. Does minocycline, an antibiotic with inhibitory effects on microglial activation, sharpen a sense of trust in social interaction?

    PubMed

    Watabe, Motoki; Kato, Takahiro A; Monji, Akira; Horikawa, Hideki; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2012-04-01

    Minocycline has long been applied to various infectious diseases as a tetracycline antibiotic and recently has found new application in the treatment of brain diseases such as stroke and multiple sclerosis. In addition, minocycline has also been suggested as an effective drug for psychiatric diseases. These suggestions imply that minocycline may modulate our mental activities, while the underlying mechanism remains to be clarified. To investigate how minocycline influences human mental activity, we experimentally examined how minocycline works on human social decision making in a double-blind randomized trial. Forty-nine healthy volunteers were administered minocycline or placebo over four days, after which they played (1) a trust game, in which they decided how much to trust an anonymous partner, and (2) a dictator game, in which they decided how to divide resources between themselves and an anonymous partner. The minocycline group did not display increased trusting behavior or more altruistic resource allocation. In fact, the minocycline group displayed a slight reduction in trusting behavior. However, the minocycline group did show a strong positive correlation between the degree of risk taking in the trust game and in a separate evaluation of others' trustworthiness, whereas the placebo group showed no such correlation. These results suggest that minocycline led to more rational decision-making strategies, possibly by increasing emotion regulation. Since minocycline is a well-known inhibitor of microglial activation, our findings may open a new optional pathway for treating mental states in which a component of rational decision making is impaired.

  17. Statins Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytokine and Inflammatory Mediator Release in an In Vitro Model of Microglial-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) within the cardiovascular system are well-established; however, their neuroinflammatory potential is unclear. It is currently unknown whether statins' neurological effects are lipid-dependent or due to pleiotropic mechanisms. Therefore, the assumption that all statin compounds will have the same effect within the central nervous system is potentially inappropriate, with no studies to date having compared all statins in a single model. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of the six statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin) within a single in vitro model of neuroinflammation. To achieve this, PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were used as surrogate microglial cells, and LPS was used to induce inflammatory conditions. Here, we show that pretreatment with all statins was able to significantly reduce LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α release, as well as decrease LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Similarly, global reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were decreased following pretreatment with all statins. Based on these findings, it is suggested that more complex cellular models should be considered to further compare individual statin compounds, including translation into in vivo models of acute and/or chronic neuroinflammation. PMID:28546657

  18. Two-dimensional zymography differentiates gelatinase isoforms in stimulated microglial cells and in brain tissues of acute brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanyan; Meng, Fanjun; Chen, Zhenzhou; Tomlinson, Brittany N; Wesley, Jennifer M; Sun, Grace Y; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2015-01-01

    Excessive activation of gelatinases (MMP-2/-9) is a key cause of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. A single-dimension zymography has been widely used to determine gelatinase expression and activity, but this method is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity could be modified at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In this study, we investigated gelatinase isoforms under in vitro and in vivo conditions using two-dimensional (2D) gelatin zymography electrophoresis, a protocol allowing separation of proteins based on isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights. We observed organomercuric chemical 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate-induced activation of MMP-2 isoforms with variant pI values in the conditioned medium of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Studies with murine BV-2 microglial cells indicated a series of proform MMP-9 spots separated by variant pI values due to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The MMP-9 pI values were shifted after treatment with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting presence of phosphorylated isoforms due to the proinflammatory stimulation. Similar MMP-9 isoforms with variant pI values in the same molecular weight were also found in mouse brains after ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. In contrast, there was no detectable pI differentiation of MMP-9 in the brains of chronic Zucker obese rats. These results demonstrated effective use of 2D zymography to separate modified MMP isoforms with variant pI values and to detect posttranslational modifications under different pathological conditions.

  19. Increased miR-124-3p in microglial exosomes following traumatic brain injury inhibits neuronal inflammation and contributes to neurite outgrowth via their transfer into neurons.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shan; Ge, Xintong; Yu, Jinwen; Han, Zhaoli; Yin, Zhenyu; Li, Ying; Chen, Fanglian; Wang, Haichen; Zhang, Jianning; Lei, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Neuronal inflammation is the characteristic pathologic change of acute neurologic impairment and chronic traumatic encephalopathy after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inhibiting the excessive inflammatory response is essential for improving the neurologic outcome. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of microglial exosomes on neuronal inflammation in TBI, we focused on studying the impact of microglial exosomal miRNAs on injured neurons in this research. We used a repetitive (r)TBI mouse model and harvested the injured brain extracts from the acute to the chronic phase of TBI to treat cultured BV2 microglia in vitro The microglial exosomes were collected for miRNA microarray analysis, which showed that the expression level of miR-124-3p increased most apparently in the miRNAs. We found that miR-124-3p promoted the anti-inflamed M2 polarization in microglia, and microglial exosomal miR-124-3p inhibited neuronal inflammation in scratch-injured neurons. Further, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling was implicated as being involved in the regulation of miR-124-3p by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses. Using the mTOR activator MHY1485 we confirmed that the inhibitory effect of exosomal miR-124-3p on neuronal inflammation was exerted by suppressing the activity of mTOR signaling. PDE4B was predicted to be the target gene of miR-124-3p by pathway analysis. We proved that it was directly targeted by miR-124-3p with a luciferase reporter assay. Using a PDE4B overexpressed lentivirus transfection system, we suggested that miR-124-3p suppressed the activity of mTOR signaling mainly through inhibiting the expression of PDE4B. In addition, exosomal miR-124-3p promoted neurite outgrowth after scratch injury, characterized by an increase on the number of neurite branches and total neurite length, and a decreased expression on RhoA and neurodegenerative proteins [Aβ-peptide and p-Tau]. It also improved the neurologic outcome and

  20. Proliferation resistance assessments during the design phase of a recycling facility as a means of reducing proliferation risks

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, M.A.; Grape, S.; Haekansson, A.

    The sustainability criterion for Gen IV nuclear energy systems inherently presumes the availability of efficient fuel recycling capabilities. One area for research on advanced fuel recycling concerns safeguards aspects of this type of facilities. Since a recycling facility may be considered as sensitive from a non-proliferation perspective, it is important to address these issues early in the design process, according to the principle of Safeguards By Design. Presented in this paper is a mode of procedure, where assessments of the proliferation resistance (PR) of a recycling facility for fast reactor fuel have been performed so as to identify the weakestmore » barriers to proliferation of nuclear material. Two supplementing established methodologies have been applied; TOPS (Technological Opportunities to increase Proliferation resistance of nuclear power Systems) and PR-PP (Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection evaluation methodology). The chosen fuel recycling facility belongs to a small Gen IV lead-cooled fast reactor system that is under study in Sweden. A schematic design of the recycling facility, where actinides are separated using solvent extraction, has been examined. The PR assessment methodologies make it possible to pinpoint areas in which the facility can be improved in order to reduce the risk of diversion. The initial facility design may then be slightly modified and/or safeguards measures may be introduced to reduce the total identified proliferation risk. After each modification of design and/or safeguards implementation, a new PR assessment of the revised system can then be carried out. This way, each modification can be evaluated and new ways to further enhance the proliferation resistance can be identified. This type of iterative procedure may support Safeguards By Design in the planning of new recycling plants and other nuclear facilities. (authors)« less

  1. Activated microglia proliferate at neurites of mutant huntingtin-expressing neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Andrew D.; Kaltenbach, Linda S.; Lo, Donald C.; Harry, G. Jean

    2011-01-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD), mutated huntingtin (mhtt) causes striatal neurodegeneration which is paralleled by elevated microglia cell numbers. In vitro cortico-striatal slice and primary neuronal culture models, in which neuronal expression of mhtt fragments drives HD-like neurotoxicity, were employed to examine wild type microglia during both the initiation and progression of neuronal pathology. As neuronal pathology progressed, microglia initially localized in the vicinity of neurons expressing mhtt fragments increased in number, demonstrated morphological evidence of activation, and expressed the proliferation marker, Ki67. These microglia were positioned along irregular neurites, but did not localize with mhtt inclusions nor exacerbate mhtt fragment-induced neurotoxicity. Prior to neuronal pathology, microglia upregulated Iba1, signaling a functional shift. With neurodegeneration, interleukin-6 and complement component 1q were increased. The results suggest a stimulatory, proliferative signal for microglia present at the onset of mhtt fragment-induced neurodegeneration. Thus, microglia effect a localized inflammatory response to neuronal mhtt expression that may serve to direct microglial removal of dysfunctional neurites or aberrant synapses, as is required for reparative actions in vivo. PMID:21482444

  2. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activitiesmore » (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.« less

  3. Russia’s Proliferation Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2002. Russia’s willingness to provide the facilities and related support was also appealing because Moscow did not attach conditions related to human ...much higher level of risk than is already the case. In line with this wholly instrumental or utilitarian approach to the proliferation issue we also...hightened dispute with Georgia. Georgia’s leadership in turn beseeched the U.S. and Europe to stand up for democracy, human rights, and other Western norms

  4. Cell proliferation assessment in oncology.

    PubMed

    Hofstädter, F; Knüchel, R; Rüschoff, J

    1995-01-01

    A review of the current knowledge on cell cycle control and the techniques used to assess proliferation of normal and neoplastic cells was the focus of a workshop in Regensburg, Germany, held under the joint auspices of the Graduiertenkolleg: Therapieforschung Onkologie and the Committee on AgNOR Quantification. An overview of the recently discovered group of cyclins and their specific kinases, and of other proliferation-associated antigens, such as Ki67, PCNA and topoiseromase II alpha, was given. The topics continued with a reappraisal of modern imaging and flow-cytometric techniques. An update of the relation of AgNORs to cellular proliferation and differentiation was the link to presentations on clinical data, problems and strategies for standardization, as well as guidelines to establish the prognostic value of marker molecules. These lectures were supported by posters. Bringing together researchers from life sciences, technically oriented workers, pathologists, and clinicians resulted in a lively and constructive discussion, which is briefly summarized in the Concluding remarks.

  5. Neural control of colonic cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-03-15

    The mitotic rate in rat colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomas was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. In sympathectomized animals cell proliferation was retarded in the crypts but not in the tumors, whereas in animals treated with Metaraminol, a drug which releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, crypt cell but not tumor cell proliferation was accelerated. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors also inhibited crypt cell proliferation. However, stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibited and blockade of beta-adrenoceptors accelerated tumor cell proliferation without influencing crypt cell proliferation. Injection of either serotonin or histamine stimulated tumor but not crypt cell proliferation and blockade or serotonin receptors or histamine H2-receptors inhibited tumor cell proliferation. It is postulated that cell proliferation in the colonic crypts, like that in the jejunal crypts, is under both endocrine and autonomic neural control whereas colonic tumor cell division is subject to endocrine regulation alone.

  6. Apoptosis and proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the irradiated rodent spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Shelley L.; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Oligodendrocytes undergo early apoptosis after irradiation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between oligodendroglial apoptosis and proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) in the irradiated central nervous system. Methods and Materials: Adult rats and p53 transgenic mice were given single doses of 2 Gy, 8 Gy, or 22 Gy to the cervical spinal cord. Apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL (Tdt-mediated dUTP terminal nick-end labeling) staining or by examining nuclear morphology. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were identified with an NG2 antibody or by in situ hybridization for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. Proliferation of OPC was assessedmore » by in vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and subsequent immunohistochemistry. Because radiation-induced apoptosis of oligodendroglial cells is p53 dependent, p53 transgenic mice were used to study the relationship between apoptosis and cell proliferation. Results: Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of irradiation in the rat. That did not result in a change in OPC density at 24 h. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell density was significantly reduced by 2-4 weeks, but showed recovery by 6 weeks after irradiation. An increase in BrdU-labeled cells was observed at 2 weeks after 8 Gy or 22 Gy, and proliferating cells in the rat spinal cord were immunoreactive for NG2. The mouse spinal cord showed a similar early cell proliferation after irradiation. No difference was observed in the proliferation response in the spinal cord of p53 -/- mice compared with wild type animals. Conclusions: Oligodendroglial cells undergo early apoptosis and OPC undergo early proliferation after ionizing radiation. However, apoptosis is not likely to be the trigger for early proliferation of OPC in the irradiated central nervous system.« less

  7. Soman poisoning increases neural progenitor proliferation and induces long-term glial activation in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Collombet, Jean-Marc; Four, Elise; Bernabé, Denis; Masqueliez, Catherine; Burckhart, Marie-France; Baille, Valérie; Baubichon, Dominique; Lallement, Guy

    2005-03-30

    To date, only short-term glial reaction has been extensively studied following soman or other warfare neurotoxicant poisoning. In a context of cell therapy by neural progenitor engraftment to repair brain damage, the long-term effect of soman on glial reaction and neural progenitor division was analyzed in the present study. The effect of soman poisoning was estimated in mouse brains at various times ranging from 1 to 90 days post-poisoning. Using immunochemistry and dye staining techniques (hemalun-eosin staining), the number of degenerating neurons, the number of dividing neural progenitors, and microglial, astroglial or oligodendroglial cell activation were studied. Soman poisoning led to rapid and massive (post-soman day 1) death of mature neurons as assessed by hemalun-eosin staining. Following this acute poisoning phase, a weak toxicity effect on mature neurons was still observed for a period of 1 month after poisoning. A massive short-termed microgliosis peaked on day 3 post-poisoning. Delayed astrogliosis was observed from 3 to 90 days after soman poisoning, contributing to glial scar formation. On the other hand, oligodendroglial cells or their precursors were practically unaffected by soman poisoning. Interestingly, neural progenitors located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ) or in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain survived soman poisoning. Furthermore, soman poisoning significantly increased neural progenitor proliferation in both SGZ and SVZ brain areas on post-soman day 3 or day 8, respectively. This increased proliferation rate was detected up to 1 month after poisoning.

  8. The effects of chronic alcoholism on cell proliferation in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, G T; Sheahan, P J; Matthews, J; Dennis, C V P; Sheedy, D S; McCrossin, T; Curtis, M A; Kril, J J

    2013-09-01

    Neurogenesis continues in the human subventricular zone and to a lesser extent in the hippocampal subgranular zone throughout life. Subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb where survivors become integrated as interneurons and are postulated to contribute to odor discrimination. Adult neurogenesis is dysregulated in many neurological, neurovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Alcohol abuse can result in a neurodegenerative condition called alcohol-related brain damage. Alcohol-related brain damage manifests clinically as cognitive dysfunction and the loss of smell sensation (hyposmia) and pathologically as generalized white matter atrophy and focal neuronal loss. The exact mechanism linking chronic alcohol intoxication with alcohol-related brain damage remains largely unknown but rodent models suggest that decreased neurogenesis is an important component. We investigated this idea by comparing proliferative events in the subventricular zone and olfactory bulb of a well-characterized cohort of 15 chronic alcoholics and 16 age-matched controls. In contrast to the findings in animal models there was no difference in the number of proliferative cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the subventricular zone of alcoholics (mean±SD=28.7±20.0) and controls (27.6±18.9, p=1.0). There were also no differences in either the total (p=0.89) or proliferative cells (p=0.98) in the granular cell layer of the olfactory bulb. Our findings show that chronic alcohol consumption does not affect cell proliferation in the human SVZ or olfactory bulb. In fact only microglial proliferation could be demonstrated in the latter. Therefore neurogenic deficits are unlikely to contribute to hyposmia in chronic alcoholics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation attenuates microglial-induced inflammation by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway following experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangrong; Wu, Shukai; Chen, Chunnuan; Xie, Baoyuan; Fang, Zhongning; Hu, Weipeng; Chen, Junyan; Fu, Huangde; He, Hefan

    2017-07-24

    Microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response in the central nervous system play important roles in secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an important mediator in late inflammatory responses, interacts with transmembrane receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate downstream signaling pathways, such as the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway, leading to a cascade amplification of inflammatory responses, which are related to neuronal damage after TBI. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) is a commonly used clinical immunonutrient, which has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of ω-3 PUFA on HMGB1 expression and HMGB1-mediated activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway are not clear. The Feeney DM TBI model was adopted to induce brain injury in rats. Modified neurological severity scores, brain water content, and Nissl staining were employed to determine the neuroprotective effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Assessment of microglial activation in lesioned sites and protein markers for proinflammatory, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and HMGB1 were used to evaluate neuroinflammatory responses and anti-inflammation effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis were used to detect HMGB1 nuclear translocation, secretion, and HMGB1-mediated activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway to evaluate the effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation and gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of the neuroinflammatory response after TBI. It was found that ω-3 PUFA supplementation inhibited TBI-induced microglial activation and expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ), reduced brain edema, decreased neuronal apoptosis, and improved neurological

  10. Prominent microglial activation in cortical white matter is selectively associated with cortical atrophy in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Ohm, D T; Kim, G; Gefen, T; Rademaker, A; Weintraub, S; Bigio, E H; Mesulam, M-M; Rogalski, E; Geula, C

    2018-04-21

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by selective language impairments associated with focal cortical atrophy favouring the language dominant hemisphere. PPA is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and significant accumulation of activated microglia. Activated microglia can initiate an inflammatory cascade that may contribute to neurodegeneration, but their quantitative distribution in cortical white matter and their relationship with cortical atrophy remain unknown. We investigated white matter activated microglia and their association with grey matter atrophy in 10 PPA cases with either AD or FTLD-TDP pathology. Activated microglia were quantified with optical density measures of HLA-DR immunoreactivity in two regions with peak cortical atrophy, and one nonatrophied region within the language dominant hemisphere of each PPA case. Nonatrophied contralateral homologues of the language dominant regions were examined for hemispheric asymmetry. Qualitatively, greater densities of activated microglia were observed in cortical white matter when compared to grey matter. Quantitative analyses revealed significantly greater densities of activated microglia in the white matter of atrophied regions compared to nonatrophied regions in the language dominant hemisphere (P < 0.05). Atrophied regions of the language dominant hemisphere also showed significantly more activated microglia compared to contralateral homologues (P < 0.05). White matter activated microglia accumulate more in atrophied regions in the language dominant hemisphere of PPA. While microglial activation may constitute a response to neurodegenerative processes in white matter, the resultant inflammatory processes may also exacerbate disease progression and contribute to cortical atrophy. © 2018 British Neuropathological Society.

  11. Aging with a traumatic brain injury: Could behavioral morbidities and endocrine symptoms be influenced by microglial priming?

    PubMed

    Ziebell, Jenna M; Rowe, Rachel K; Muccigrosso, Megan M; Reddaway, Jack T; Adelson, P David; Godbout, Jonathan P; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A myriad of factors influence the developmental and aging process and impact health and life span. Mounting evidence indicates that brain injury, even moderate injury, can lead to lifetime of physical and mental health symptoms. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to discuss how recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI) depends on age-at-injury and how aging with a TBI affects long-term recovery. TBI initiates pathophysiological processes that dismantle circuits in the brain. In response, reparative and restorative processes reorganize circuits to overcome the injury-induced damage. The extent of circuit dismantling and subsequent reorganization depends as much on the initial injury parameters as other contributing factors, such as genetics and age. Age-at-injury influences the way the brain is able to repair itself, as a result of developmental status, extent of cellular senescence, and injury-induced inflammation. Moreover, endocrine dysfunction can occur with TBI. Depending on the age of the individual at the time of injury, endocrine dysfunction may disrupt growth, puberty, influence social behaviors, and possibly alter the inflammatory response. In turn, activation of microglia, the brain's immune cells, after injury may continue to fuel endocrine dysfunction. With age, the immune system develops and microglia become primed to subsequent challenges. Sustained inflammation and microglial activation can continue for weeks to months post-injury. This prolonged inflammation can influence developmental processes, behavioral performance and age-related decline. Overall, brain injury may influence the aging process and expedite glial and neuronal alterations that impact mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High resolution and dynamic imaging of biopersistence and bioreactivity of extra and intracellular MWNTs exposed to microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Carter, Daniel A.; Motskin, Michael; Pienaar, Ilse S.; Chen, Shu; Hu, Sheng; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Ryan, Mary P.; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Dexter, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are increasingly being developed both as neuro-therapeutic drug delivery systems to the brain and as neural scaffolds to drive tissue regeneration across lesion sites. MWNTs with different degrees of acid oxidation may have different bioreactivities and propensities to aggregate in the extracellular environment, and both individualised and aggregated MWNTs may be expected to be found in the brain. Before practical application, it is vital to understand how both aggregates and individual MWNTs will interact with local phagocytic immune cells, the microglia, and ultimately to determine their biopersistence in the brain. The processing of extra- and intracellular MWNTs (both pristine and when acid oxidised) by microglia was characterised across multiple length scales by correlating a range of dynamic, quantitative and multi-scale techniques, including: UV-vis spectroscopy, light microscopy, focussed ion beam scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Dynamic, live cell imaging revealed the ability of microglia to break apart and internalise micron-sized extracellular agglomerates of acid oxidised MWNT, but not pristine MWNTs. The total amount of MWNTs internalised by, or strongly bound to, microglia was quantified as a function of time. Neither the significant uptake of oxidised MWNTs, nor the incomplete uptake of pristine MWNTs affected microglial viability, pro-inflammatory cytokine release or nitric oxide production. However, after 24 hrs exposure to pristine MWNTs, a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Small aggregates and individualised oxidised MWNTs were present in the cytoplasm and vesicles, including within multilaminar bodies, after 72 hours. Some evidence of morphological damage to oxidised MWNT structure was observed including highly disordered graphitic structures, suggesting possible biodegradation. This work demonstrates the utility of dynamic

  13. Methyl-isobutyl amiloride reduces brain Lac/NAA, cell death and microglial activation in a perinatal asphyxia model.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Nicola J; Kato, Takenori; Bainbridge, Alan; Chandrasekaran, Manigandan; Iwata, Osuke; Kapetanakis, Andrew; Faulkner, Stuart; Cheong, Jeanie; Iwata, Sachiko; Hristova, Mariya; Cady, Ernest; Raivich, Gennadij

    2013-03-01

    Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE) blockade attenuates the detrimental consequences of ischaemia and reperfusion in myocardium and brain in adult and neonatal animal studies. Our aim was to use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers and immunohistochemistry to investigate the cerebral effects of the NHE inhibitor, methyl isobutyl amiloride (MIA) given after severe perinatal asphyxia in the piglet. Eighteen male piglets (aged < 24 h) underwent transient global cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia and were randomized to (i) saline placebo; or (ii) 3 mg/kg intravenous MIA administered 10 min post-insult and 8 hourly thereafter. Serial phosphorus-31 (³¹P) and proton (¹H) MRS data were acquired before, during and up to 48 h after hypoxia-ischaemia and metabolite-ratio time-series Area under the Curve (AUC) calculated. At 48 h, histological and immunohistochemical assessments quantified regional tissue injury. MIA decreased thalamic lactate/N-acetylaspartate and lactate/creatine AUCs (both p < 0.05) compared with placebo. Correlating with improved cerebral energy metabolism, transferase mediated biotinylated d-UTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) positive cell density was reduced in the MIA group in cerebral cortex, thalamus and white matter (all p < 0.05) and caspase 3 immunoreactive cells were reduced in pyriform cortex and caudate nucleus (both p < 0.05). Microglial activation was reduced in pyriform and midtemporal cortex (both p < 0.05). Treatment with MIA starting 10 min after hypoxia-ischaemia was neuroprotective in this perinatal asphyxia model. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Persistent Increase in Microglial RAGE Contributes to Chronic Stress-Induced Priming of Depressive-like Behavior.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Tina C; Wohleb, Eric S; Zhang, Yi; Fogaça, Manoela; Hare, Brendan; Duman, Ronald S

    2018-01-01

    Chronic stress-induced inflammatory responses occur in part via danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules, such as high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), but the receptor(s) underlying DAMP signaling have not been identified. Microglia morphology and DAMP signaling in enriched rat hippocampal microglia were examined during the development and expression of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced behavioral deficits, including long-term, persistent changes after CUS. The results show that CUS promotes significant morphological changes and causes robust upregulation of HMGB1 messenger RNA in enriched hippocampal microglia, an effect that persists for up to 6 weeks after CUS exposure. This coincides with robust and persistent upregulation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) messenger RNA, but not toll-like receptor 4 in hippocampal microglia. CUS also increased surface expression of RAGE protein on hippocampal microglia as determined by flow cytometry and returned to basal levels 5 weeks after CUS. Importantly, exposure to short-term stress was sufficient to increase RAGE surface expression as well as anhedonic behavior, reflecting a primed state that results from a persistent increase in RAGE messenger RNA expression. Further evidence for DAMP signaling in behavioral responses is provided by evidence that HMGB1 infusion into the hippocampus was sufficient to cause anhedonic behavior and by evidence that RAGE knockout mice were resilient to stress-induced anhedonia. Together, the results provide evidence of persistent microglial HMGB1-RAGE expression that increases vulnerability to depressive-like behaviors long after chronic stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Verapamil Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Damage through a Novel Anti-inflammatory Mechanism by Inhibition of Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuxin; Lo, Yi-Ching; Qian, Li; Crews, Fulton Tim; Wilson, Belinda; Chen, Hui-Ling; Wu, Hung-Ming; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wei, Ke; Lu, Ru-Band; Ali, Syed; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2010-01-01

    Verapamil has been shown to be neuroprotective in several acute neurotoxicity models due to blockade of calcium entry into neurons. However, the potential use of verapamil to treat chronic neurodegenerative diseases has not been reported. Using rat primary mesencephalic neuron/glia cultures, we report that verapamil significantly inhibited LPS-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in both pre- and post-treatment experiments. Reconstituted culture studies revealed that the presence of microglia was essential in verapamil-elicited neuroprotection. Mechanistic studies showed that decreased production of inflammatory mediators from LPS-stimulated microglia underlay neuroprotective property of verapamil. Further studies demonstrated that microglial NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not calcium channel in neurons, is the site of action for the neuroprotective effect of verapamil. This conclusion was supported by the following two observations: 1) Verapamil failed to show protective effect on LPS-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in PHOX-deficient (deficient in the catalytic subunit of gp91phox) neuron/glia cultures; 2) Ligand binding studies showed that the binding of [3H]Verapamil onto gp91phox transfected COS-7 cell membranes was higher than the non-transfected control. The calcium channel-independent neuroprotective property of verapamil was further supported by the finding that R(+)-verapamil, a less active form in blocking calcium channel, showed the same potency in neuroprotection, inhibition of pro-inflammatory factors production and binding capacity to gp91phox membranes as R(-)-verapamil, the active isomer of calcium channel blocker. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a new indication of verapamil-mediated neuroprotection through a calcium channel-independent pathway and provide a valuable avenue for the development of therapy for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20950631

  16. Triticum vulgare extract exerts an anti-inflammatory action in two in vitro models of inflammation in microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanguigno, Luca; Casamassa, Antonella; Funel, Niccola; Minale, Massimiliano; Riccio, Rodolfo; Riccio, Salvatore; Boscia, Francesca; Brancaccio, Paola; Pollina, Luca Emanuele; Anzilotti, Serenella; Di Renzo, Gianfranco

    2018-01-01

    Triticum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine thanks to its properties of accelerating tissue repair. The specific extract of Triticum vulgare manufactured by Farmaceutici Damor (TVE-DAMOR) is already present in some pharmaceutical formulations used in the treatment of decubitus ulcers, skin lesions and burns. It has been recently suggested that this Triticum vulgare extract may possess potential anti-inflammatory properties. In the light of these premises the aim of the present paper was to verify the anti-inflammatory role of TVE, using the LPS-stimulated microglia model of inflammation. In particular the effect of different concentrations of TVE on the release of several mediators of inflammation such as nitric oxide, IL-6, PGE2 and TNF alpha was evaluated. More important, the anti-inflammatory effect of TVE was confirmed also in primary rat microglia cultures. The results of the present study show that TVE exerts anti-inflammatory properties since it reduces the release of all the evaluated markers of inflammation, such as NO, IL6, TNF alpha and PGE2 in LPS-activated BV2 microglial cells. Intriguingly, TVE reduced microglia activation and NO release also in primary microglia. Indeed, to verify the pathway of modulation of the inflammatory markers reported above, we found that TVE restores the cytoplasmic expression of p65 protein, kwown as specific marker associated with activation of inflammatory response. The evidence for an inhibitory activity on inflammation of this specific extract of Triticum vulgare may open the way to the possibility of a therapeutical use of the Triticum vulgare extract as an anti-inflammatory compound in certain pathological states such as burns, decubitus ulcers, folliculitis and inflammation of peripheral nerve. PMID:29902182

  17. Minocycline Effects on IL-6 Concentration in Macrophage and Microglial Cells in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Moini-Zanjani, Taraneh; Ostad, Seyed-Nasser; Labibi, Farzaneh; Ameli, Haleh; Mosaffa, Nariman; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2016-11-01

    Evidence indicates that neuropathic pain pathogenesis is not confined to changes in the activity of neuronal systems but involves interactions between neurons, inflammatory immune and immune-like glial cells. Substances released from immune cells during inflammation play an important role in development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. It has been found that minocycline suppresses the development of neuropathic pain. Here, we evaluated the analgesic effect of minocycline in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rat and assessed IL-6 concentration from cultured macrophage and microglia cells. Male Wistar rat (n=6, 150-200 g) were divided into three different groups: 1) CCI+vehicle, 2) sham+vehicle, and 3) CCI+drug. Minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was injected one hour before surgery and continued daily to day 14 post ligation. Von Frey filaments and acetone, as pain behavioral tests, were used for mechanical allodynia and cold allodynia, respectively. Experiments were performed on day 0 (before surgery) and days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 post -injury. At day 14, rats were killed and monocyte-derived macrophage from right ventricle and microglia from lumbar part of the spinal cord were isolated and cultured in RPMI and Leibovitz's media, respectively. IL-6 concentration was evaluated in cell culture supernatant after 24 h. Minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) attenuated pain behavior, and a decrease in IL-6 concentration was observed in immune cells compared to CCI vehicle-treated animals. Minocycline reduced pain behavior and decreased IL-6 concentration in macrophage and microglial cells.

  18. Miglustat Improves Purkinje Cell Survival and Alters Microglial Phenotype in Feline Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Veronika M.; Crooks, Alexandra; Ding, Wenge; Prociuk, Maria; O’Donnell, Patricia; Bryan, Caroline; Sikora, Tracey; Dingemanse, Jasper; Vanier, Marie T.; Walkley, Steven U.; Vite, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC disease) is an incurable cellular lipid trafficking disorder characterized by neurodegeneration and intralysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Treatment with miglustat, a small imino sugar that reversibly inhibits glucosylceramide synthase, which is necessary for glycosphingolipid synthesis, has been shown to benefit patients with NPC disease. The mechanism(s) and extent of brain cellular changes underlying this benefit are not understood. To investigate the basis of the efficacy of miglustat, cats with disease homologous to the juvenile-onset form of human NPC disease received daily miglustat orally beginning at 3 weeks of age. The plasma half-life of miglustat was 6.6 ± 1.1 hours, with a tmax, Cmax, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve of 1.7 ± 0.6 hours, 20.3 ± 4.6 μg/ml, and 104.1 ± 16.6 μg hours/ml, respectively. Miglustat delayed the onset of neurological signs and increased the lifespan of treated cats, and was associated with decreased GM2 ganglioside accumulation in the cerebellum and improved Purkinje cell survival. Ex vivo examination of microglia from the brains of treated cats revealed normalization of CD1c and class II major histocompatibility complex expression, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species. Together, these results suggest that prolonged Purkinje cell survival, reduced glycosphingolipid accumulation, and/or the modulation of microglial immunophenotype and function contribute to miglustat-induced neurological improvement in treated cats. PMID:22487861

  19. Gestational Exposure to Air Pollution Alters Cortical Volume, Microglial Morphology, and Microglia-Neuron Interactions in a Sex-Specific Manner.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Jessica L; Marinero, Steven; Hassanzadeh, Tania; Natesan, Divya; Le, Dominic; Belliveau, Christine; Mason, S N; Auten, Richard L; Bilbo, Staci D

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents. We have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DEP in mice, i.e., to the pregnant dams throughout gestation, results in a persistent vulnerability to behavioral deficits in adult offspring, especially in males, which is intriguing given the greater incidence of ASD in males to females (∼4:1). Moreover, there is a striking upregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene expression within the brains of the same mice, and this expression is primarily in microglia. Here we explored the impact of gestational exposure to DEP or vehicle on microglial morphology in the developing brains of male and female mice. DEP exposure increased inflammatory cytokine protein and altered the morphology of microglia, consistent with activation or a delay in maturation, only within the embryonic brains of male mice; and these effects were dependent on TLR4. DEP exposure also increased cortical volume at embryonic day (E)18, which switched to decreased volume by post-natal day (P)30 in males, suggesting an impact on the developing neural stem cell niche. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found increased microglial-neuronal interactions in male offspring that received DEP compared to all other groups. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to environmental toxins may affect microglial development and long-term function, and thereby contribute to the risk of

  20. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia.

  1. Preventive Effects of a Fermented Dairy Product against Alzheimer’s Disease and Identification of a Novel Oleamide with Enhanced Microglial Phagocytosis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia. PMID:25760987

  2. Deletion of the Inflammasome Sensor Aim2 Mitigates Aβ Deposition and Microglial Activation but Increases Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in an Alzheimer Disease Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Hung, Yun-Fen; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is clearly associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Knockout of Nlrp3, a gene encoding an inflammasome sensor, has been shown to ameliorate AD pathology in a mouse model. Because AIM2 is the most dominant inflammasome sensor expressed in mouse brains, here we investigate whether Aim2 deletion also influences the phenotype of a 5XFAD AD mouse model. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining, immunoblotting, and behavioral analyses were applied to compare wild-type, Aim2-/-, 5XFAD, and Aim2-/-;5XFAD mice. We found that Aim2 knockout mitigates Aβ deposition in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of 5XFAD mice. The activation of microglial cells is also reduced in Aim2-/-;5XFAD brains compared with 5XFAD brains. However, Aim2 knockout does not improve memory and anxiety phenotypes of 5XFAD mice in an open field, cued Y-maze, or Barnes maze. Compared with 5XFAD mice, Il-1 expression levels are not reduced in Aim2-/-;5XFAD mice. Unexpectedly, Il-6 and Il-18 expression levels in 5XFAD brains were further increased when Aim2 was deleted. Thus, inflammatory cytokine expression in 5XFAD brains is upregulated by Aim2 deletion through an unknown mechanism. Although Aim2 knockout mitigates Aβ deposition and microglial activation, Aim2 deletion does not have a beneficial effect on the spatial memory or cytokine expression of 5XFAD mice. Our findings suggest that Aβ aggregation and microglial activation may not always be correlated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines or cognitive function of 5XFAD mice. Our study also implies that different inflammasomes likely perform distinct roles in different physiological and/or pathological events. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A synthetic diosgenin primary amine derivative attenuates LPS-stimulated inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB and JNK MAPK signaling in microglial BV2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bangrong; Seong, Kyung-Joo; Bae, Sun-Woong; Chun, Changju; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2018-06-08

    Diosgenin, a precursor of steroid hormones in plants, is known to exhibit diverse pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, (3β, 25R)‑spirost‑5‑en‑3‑oxyl (2‑((2((2‑aminoethyl)amino)ethyl)amino)ethyl) carbamate (DGP), a new synthetic diosgenin derivative incorporating primary amine was used to investigate its anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial BV2 cells. Pretreatment with DGP resulted in significant inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and down-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated microglial BV2 cells. In addition, DGP decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The inhibitory effects of DGP on these inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated microglial BV2 cells were regulated by NF-κB signaling through blocking p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB p65/DNA binding activity. DGP also blocked the phosphorylation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), but not p38 kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 and JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 significantly decreased NO production and IL-6 release in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells, respectively. The overall results demonstrate that DGP has anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated BV2 cells via inhibition of NF-κB and JNK activation, suggesting that DGP is a potential prophylactic agent in various neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Gestational Exposure to Air Pollution Alters Cortical Volume, Microglial Morphology, and Microglia-Neuron Interactions in a Sex-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Jessica L.; Marinero, Steven; Hassanzadeh, Tania; Natesan, Divya; Le, Dominic; Belliveau, Christine; Mason, S. N.; Auten, Richard L.; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents. We have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DEP in mice, i.e., to the pregnant dams throughout gestation, results in a persistent vulnerability to behavioral deficits in adult offspring, especially in males, which is intriguing given the greater incidence of ASD in males to females (∼4:1). Moreover, there is a striking upregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene expression within the brains of the same mice, and this expression is primarily in microglia. Here we explored the impact of gestational exposure to DEP or vehicle on microglial morphology in the developing brains of male and female mice. DEP exposure increased inflammatory cytokine protein and altered the morphology of microglia, consistent with activation or a delay in maturation, only within the embryonic brains of male mice; and these effects were dependent on TLR4. DEP exposure also increased cortical volume at embryonic day (E)18, which switched to decreased volume by post-natal day (P)30 in males, suggesting an impact on the developing neural stem cell niche. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found increased microglial-neuronal interactions in male offspring that received DEP compared to all other groups. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to environmental toxins may affect microglial development and long-term function, and thereby contribute to the risk of

  5. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Nuclear Factor kappa B Mediated iNOS/NO Production by Bromelain in Rat Primary Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Habashi, Soraya; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Moghimi, Ali; Ansari Majd, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Microglial cells act as the sentinel of the central nervous system .They are involved in neuroprotection but are highly implicated in neurodegeneration of the aging brain. When over-activated, microglia release pro-inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, which are critical in eliciting neuroinflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined whether bromelain, the pineapple-derived extract, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in primary microglia and may be neuroprotective by regulating microglial activation. Following the isolation of neonatal rat primary microglial cells, the activation profile of microglia was investigated by studying the effects of bromelain (5, 10, 20, and 30 µg/ml) on the levels of NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml). Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant, compared with the LPS-treated group without bromelain. Results showed that pretreatment of rat primary microglia with bromelain, decreased the production of NO induced by LPS (1 µg/ml) treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Bromelain (30 µg/ml) also significantly reduced the expression of iNOS at mRNA level and NF-κB at protein level. Moreover, the study of mitochondrial activity in microglia indicated that bromelain had no cytotoxicity at any of the applied doses, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain are not due to cell death. Bromelain can be of potential use as an agent for alleviation of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Nuclear Factor kappa B Mediated iNOS/NO Production by Bromelain in Rat Primary Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi Habashi, Soraya; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Moghimi, Ali; Ansari Majd, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microglial cells act as the sentinel of the central nervous system .They are involved in neuroprotection but are highly implicated in neurodegeneration of the aging brain. When over-activated, microglia release pro-inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, which are critical in eliciting neuroinflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined whether bromelain, the pineapple-derived extract, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in primary microglia and may be neuroprotective by regulating microglial activation. Methods: Following the isolation of neonatal rat primary microglial cells, the activation profile of microglia was investigated by studying the effects of bromelain (5, 10, 20, and 30 µg/ml) on the levels of NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml). Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant, compared with the LPS-treated group without bromelain. Results: Results showed that pretreatment of rat primary microglia with bromelain, decreased the production of NO induced by LPS (1 µg/ml) treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Bromelain (30 µg/ml) also significantly reduced the expression of iNOS at mRNA level and NF-κB at protein level. Moreover, the study of mitochondrial activity in microglia indicated that bromelain had no cytotoxicity at any of the applied doses, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain are not due to cell death. Conclusion: Bromelain can be of potential use as an agent for alleviation of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26459398

  7. Genetic deletion of P-glycoprotein alters stress responsivity and increases depression-like behavior, social withdrawal and microglial activation in the hippocampus of female mice.

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Natalia I; Smith, Kristie L; Zhou, Cilla; Waters, Peter M; Cavalcante, Ligia Menezes; Abelev, Sarah V; Kuligowski, Michael; Clarke, David J; Todd, Stephanie M; Arnold, Jonathon C

    2017-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC transporter expressed at the blood brain barrier and regulates the brain uptake of various xenobiotics and endogenous mediators including glucocorticoid hormones which are critically important to the stress response. Moreover, P-gp is expressed on microglia, the brain's immune cells, which are activated by stressors and have an emerging role in psychiatric disorders. We therefore hypothesised that germline P-gp deletion in mice might alter the behavioral and microglial response to stressors. Female P-gp knockout mice displayed an unusual, frantic anxiety response to intraperitoneal injection stress in the light-dark test. They also tended to display reduced conditioned fear responses compared to wild-type (WT) mice in a paradigm where a single electric foot-shock stressor was paired to a context. Foot-shock stress reduced social interaction and decreased microglia cell density in the amygdala which was not varied by P-gp genotype. Independently of stressor exposure, female P-gp deficient mice displayed increased depression-like behavior, idiosyncratic darting behavior, age-related social withdrawal and hyperactivity, facilitated sensorimotor gating and altered startle reactivity. In addition, P-gp deletion increased microglia cell density in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, and the microglial cells exhibited a reactive, hypo-ramified morphology. Further, female P-gp KO mice displayed increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, this research shows that germline P-gp deletion affected various behaviors of relevance to psychiatric conditions, and that altered microglial cell activity and enhanced GR expression in the hippocampus may play a role in mediating these behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Electroacupuncture ameliorating post-stroke cognitive impairments via inhibition of peri-infarct astroglial and microglial/macrophage P2 purinoceptors-mediated neuroinflammation and hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; You, Xiaofang; Liu, Weilin; Song, Changming; Lin, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiufeng; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2017-10-10

    During ischemic stroke (IS), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is released from damaged nerve cells of the infract core region to the extracellular space, invoking peri-infarct glial cellular P2 purinoceptors singling, and causing pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, which is likely to initiate or aggravate motor and cognitive impairment. It has been proved that electroacupuncture (EA) is an effective and safe strategy used in anti-inflammation. However, EA for the role of purine receptors in the central nervous system has not yet been reported. Ischemia-reperfusion injured rat model was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R). EA treatment at the DU 20 and DU 24 acupoints treatment were conducted to rats from the 12 h after MCAO/R injury for consecutive 7 days. The neurological outcomes, infarction volumes and the level of astroglial and microglial/macrophage hyperplasia, inflammatory cytokine and P2X7R and P2Y1R expression in the peri-infarct hippocampal CA1and sensorimotor cortex were investigated after IS to evaluate the MCAO/R model and therapeutic mechanism of EA treatment. EA effectively reduced the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as evidenced by reduction in astroglial and microglial/macrophage hyperplasia and the levels of P2X7R and ED1, P2X7R and GFAP, P2Y1R and ED1, P2Y1R and GFAP co-expression in peri-infarct hippocampal CA1 and sensorimotor cortex compared with that of MCAO/R model and Non-EA treatment, accompanied by the improved neurological deficit and the motor and memory impairment outcomes. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that EA could exert its anti-inflammatory effect via inhibiting the astroglial and microglial/macrophage P2 purinoceptors (P2X7R and P2Y1R)-mediated neuroinflammation after MCAO/R injury. Astroglial and microglial/macrophage P2 purinoceptors-mediated neuroinflammation and hyperplasia in peri-infarct hippocampal CA1 and sensorimotor cortex were attenuated by EA

  9. The possibility of life proliferation from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-07-01

    Enceladus is a medium sized icy satellite (MIS) of Saturn. MIS are built of mixtures of rocks and ices. According to [1]: "For life to have emerged […] on the early Earth, a sustained source of chemically transducible energy was essential. The serpentinization process is emerging as an increasingly likely source of that energy" (see also [2]). We consider here conditions for origin of life in the early Enceladus and later proliferation of the life. Mass of serpentinite: The serpentinization on the Earth is often considered with hydrothermal activity in neovolcanic zones along mid-oceanic spreading centers. However, only in small part the hydrothermal activity really occurs. A simple calculations (e.g. [3]) indicate that mass fraction of silicates in Enceladus is ~0.646, hence the total mass of its silicate is ~6.97 10^1^9 kg. [4] considered the process of differentiation and core forming in Enceladus. He found that the result of differentiation is a relatively cold core of loosely packed grains with water between them. The entire core of Enceladus was probably permeable. This could lead to formation of extensive hydrothermal convective systems. It indicates that total mass of serpententinized silicate in Enceladus could be larger than on the Earth. The evolution of temperature in the Enceladus interior for the first a few hundreds Myr is given in [4]. He found that the temperature allows for existing the life even in the center of the satellite. It is possible that for hundreds of Myr the conditions in Enceladus were more favorable for origin of life than on the Earth. Proliferation of life: The low gravity of the Enceladus and its volcanic activity make transport possible. Note that the low temperature of plumes from active region of Enceladus does not kill the organisms. The primitive bacteria could leave the Enceladus with volcanic jets in the same way as particles of the E ring. Other mechanisms could transport particles to terrestrial planets. Therefore it

  10. Sustained proliferation in cancer: mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Arzumanyan, Alla; Kulathinal, Rob J.; Blain, Stacy W.; Holcombe, Randall F.; Mahajna, Jamal; Marino, Maria; Martinez-Chantar, Maria L.; Nawroth, Roman; Sanchez-Garcia, Isidro; Sharma, Dipali; Saxena, Neeraj K.; Singh, Neetu; Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J.; Guo, Shanchun; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S. Salman; Boosani, Chandra S.; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Azmi, Asfar S.; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Nowsheen, Somaira

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation is an important part of cancer development and progression. This is manifest by altered expression and/or activity of cell cycle related proteins. Constitutive activation of many signal transduction pathways also stimulates cell growth. Early steps in tumor development are associated with a fibrogenic response and the development of a hypoxic environment which favors the survival and proliferation of cancer stem cells. Part of the survival strategy of cancer stem cells may manifested by alterations in cell metabolism. Once tumors appear, growth and metastasis may be supported by overproduction of appropriate hormones (in hormonally dependent cancers), by promoting angiogenesis, by undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition, by triggering autophagy, and by taking cues from surrounding stromal cells. A number of natural compounds (e.g., curcumin, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, brassinin, sulforaphane, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, genistein, ellagitannins, lycopene and quercetin) have been found to inhibit one or more pathways that contribute to proliferation (e.g., hypoxia inducible factor 1, nuclear factor kappa B, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1, Wnt, cell cycle associated proteins, as well as androgen and estrogen receptor signaling). This data, in combination with bioinformatics analyses, will be very important for identifying signaling pathways and molecular targets that may provide early diagnostic markers and/or critical targets for the development of new drugs or drug combinations that block tumor formation and progression. PMID:25892662

  11. Withaferin A down-regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and PGE2 production through the inhibition of STAT1/3 activation in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Jin; Choi, Kyounghwa; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-08-01

    Microglia are the major immune effector cells in the brain, and microglia activated by injury and infection can produce inflammatory mediators. A number of studies have reported that withaferin A has anti-inflammatory functions. However, the effects of withaferin A on the microglial inflammatory response have not been investigated. Our results show that withaferin A inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production in BV2 murine microglial cells. Withaferin A had no effect on LPS-induced Akt and ERK phosphorylation, but phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was slightly decreased by withaferin A. Withaferin A significantly inhibited LPS-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, withaferin A inhibited nuclear translocation of STAT1 and interferon-gamma activated sequence (GAS)-promoter activity. Taken together, these results suggest that withaferin A inhibits LPS-induced PGE(2) production and COX-2 expression, at least in part, by blocking STAT1 and STAT3 activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Time Courses of Cortical Glucose Metabolism and Microglial Activity Across the Life Span of Wild-Type Mice: A PET Study.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Matthias; Focke, Carola; Blume, Tanja; Peters, Finn; Deussing, Maximilian; Probst, Federico; Jaworska, Anna; Overhoff, Felix; Albert, Nathalie; Lindner, Simon; von Ungern-Sternberg, Barbara; Bartenstein, Peter; Haass, Christian; Kleinberger, Gernot; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2017-12-01

    Contrary to findings in the human brain, 18 F-FDG PET shows cerebral hypermetabolism of aged wild-type (WT) mice relative to younger animals, supposedly due to microglial activation. Therefore, we used dual-tracer small-animal PET to examine directly the link between neuroinflammation and hypermetabolism in aged mice. Methods: WT mice (5-20 mo) were investigated in a cross-sectional design using 18 F-FDG ( n = 43) and translocator protein (TSPO) ( 18 F-GE180; n = 58) small-animal PET, with volume-of-interest and voxelwise analyses. Biochemical analysis of plasma cytokine levels and immunohistochemical confirmation of microglial activity were also performed. Results: Age-dependent cortical hypermetabolism in WT mice relative to young animals aged 5 mo peaked at 14.5 mo (+16%, P < 0.001) and declined to baseline at 20 mo. Similarly, cortical TSPO binding increased to a maximum at 14.5 mo (+15%, P < 0.001) and remained high to 20 mo, resulting in an overall correlation between 18 F-FDG uptake and TSPO binding (R = 0.69, P < 0.005). Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the TSPO small-animal PET findings. Conclusion: Age-dependent neuroinflammation is associated with the controversial observation of cerebral hypermetabolism in aging WT mice. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  13. Recurrent hypoinsulinemic hyperglycemia in neonatal rats increases PARP-1 and NF-κB expression and leads to microglial activation in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Gisslen, Tate; Ennis, Kathleen; Bhandari, Vineet; Rao, Raghavendra

    2015-11-01

    Hyperglycemia is a common metabolic problem in extremely low-birth-weight preterm infants. Neonatal hyperglycemia is associated with increased mortality and brain injury. Glucose-mediated oxidative injury may be responsible. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear enzyme involved in DNA repair and cell survival. However, PARP-1 overactivation leads to cell death. NF-κB is coactivated with PARP-1 and regulates microglial activation. The effects of recurrent hyperglycemia on PARP-1/NF-κB expression and microglial activation are not well understood. Rat pups were subjected to recurrent hypoinsulinemic hyperglycemia of 2 h duration twice daily from postnatal (P) day 3-P12 and killed on P13. mRNA and protein expression of PARP-1/NF-κB and their downstream effectors were determined in the cerebral cortex. Microgliosis was determined using CD11 immunohistochemistry. Recurrent hyperglycemia increased PARP-1 expression confined to the nucleus and without causing PARP-1 overactivation and cell death. NF-κB mRNA expression was increased, while IκB mRNA expression was decreased. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA expressions were decreased. Hyperglycemia significantly increased the number of microglia. Recurrent hyperglycemia in neonatal rats is associated with upregulation of PARP-1 and NF-κB expression and subsequent microgliosis but not neuronal cell death in the cerebral cortex.

  14. Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons' Dendritic Remodeling and Increased Microglial Density in Primary Motor Cortex in a Murine Model of Facial Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Urrego, Diana; Troncoso, Julieta; Múnera, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at characterizing structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with microglial density induced by facial nerve lesion using a murine facial paralysis model. Adult transgenic mice, expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in projecting neurons, were submitted to either unilateral section of the facial nerve or sham surgery. Injured animals were sacrificed either 1 or 3weeks after surgery. Two-photon excitation microscopy was then used for evaluating both layer 5 pyramidal neurons and microglia in vibrissal primary motor cortex (vM1). It was found that facial nerve lesion induced long-lasting changes in the dendritic morphology of vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons and in their surrounding microglia. Dendritic arborization of the pyramidal cells underwent overall shrinkage. Apical dendrites suffered transient shortening while basal dendrites displayed sustained shortening. Moreover, dendrites suffered transient spine pruning. Significantly higher microglial cell density was found surrounding vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons after facial nerve lesion with morphological bias towards the activated phenotype. These results suggest that facial nerve lesions elicit active dendrite remodeling due to pyramidal neuron and microglia interaction, which could be the pathophysiological underpinning of some neuropathic motor sequelae in humans. PMID:26064916

  15. Anthocyanins Downregulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB and Akt/MAPKs Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Lee, Won Sup; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Byung Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants and have a variety of protective properties, which have generally been attributed to their antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins related to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we determined whether anthocyanins isolated from black soybean seed coats would inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglial cells. Our results showed that anthocyanins significantly inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, without significant cytotoxicity. Anthocyanins also downregulated excessive expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Moreover, anthocyanins inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) by reducing inhibitor of NF-κB alpha degradation as well as phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt. These findings suggest that anthocyanins may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation. PMID:23344054

  16. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from humanmore » skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.« less

  17. Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Neuroinflammation and Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, David M.; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Hernandez, Diana G.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are closely associated with the development of severe psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet preclinical studies on pathological changes after combined TBI with PTSD are lacking. In the present in vivo study, we assessed chronic neuroinflammation, neuronal cell loss, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in specific brain regions of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats following controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI with or without exposure to PTSD. Eight weeks post-TBI, stereology-based histological analyses revealed no significant differences between sham and PTSD alone treatment across all brain regions examined, whereas significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle, but not cerebellum, in animals that received TBI alone and combined TBI-PTSD compared with PTSD alone and sham treatment. Additional immunohistochemical results revealed a significant loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Further examination of neurogenic niches revealed a significant downregulation of Ki67-positive proliferating cells, but not DCX-positive neuronally migrating cells in the neurogenic subgranular zone and subventricular zone for both TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. Comparisons of levels of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis between TBI alone and TBI+PTSD revealed that PTSD did not exacerbate the neuropathological hallmarks of TBI. These results indicate a progressive deterioration of the TBI brain, which, under the conditions of the present approach, was not intensified by PTSD, at least within our time window and within the examined areas of the brain. Although the PTSD manipulation employed here did not exacerbate the pathological effects of TBI, the observed long-term inflammation and suppressed

  18. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field ofmore » nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.« less

  19. Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Planche, Vincent; Panatier, Aude; Hiba, Bassem; Ducourneau, Eva-Gunnel; Raffard, Gerard; Dubourdieu, Nadège; Maitre, Marlène; Lesté-Lasserre, Thierry; Brochet, Bruno; Dousset, Vincent; Desmedt, Aline; Oliet, Stéphane H; Tourdias, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormality of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases at prodromal and early stages of Alzheimer's disease: an association with early beta-amyloid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Suo, Zhiming; Wu, Min; Citron, Bruce A; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Festoff, Barry W

    2004-03-31

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that the effects of beta-amyloid (Abeta) are dose dependent both in vitro and in vivo, which implies that Abeta is not directly detrimental to brain cells until it reaches a threshold concentration. In an effort to understand early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, this study focused on the effects of subthreshold soluble Abeta and the underlying molecular mechanisms in murine microglial cells and an AD transgenic mouse model. We found that there were two phases of dose-dependent Abeta effects on microglial cells: at the threshold of 5 microm and above, Abeta directly induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release, and at subthreshold doses, Abeta indirectly potentiated TNF-alpha release induced by certain G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activators. Mechanistic studies revealed that subthreshold Abeta pretreatment in vitro reduced membrane GPCR kinase-2/5 (GRK2/5), which led to retarded GPCR desensitization, prolonged GPCR signaling, and cellular hyperactivity to GPCR agonists. Temporal analysis in an early-onset AD transgenic model, CRND8 mice, revealed that the membrane (functional) GRK2/5 in brain cortices were significantly reduced. More importantly, such a GRK abnormality took place before cognitive decline and changed in a manner corresponding with the mild to moderate soluble Abeta accumulation in these transgenic mice. Together, this study not only discovered a novel link between subthreshold Abeta and GRK dysfunction, it also demonstrated that the GRK abnormality in vivo occurs at prodromal and early stages of AD.

  1. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significantmore » decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in

  2. Identification of transcriptional networks involved in peroxisome proliferator chemical-induced hepatocyte proliferation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemical (PPC) exposure leads to increases in rodent liver tumors through a non-genotoxic mode of action (MOA). The PPC MOA includes increased oxidative stress, hepatocyte proliferation and decreased apoptosis. We investigated the putative genetic regulato...

  3. Teaching Activities on Horizontal Nuclear Proliferation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1990-01-01

    Provides learning activities concerning the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. Includes step-by-step directions for four activities: (1) the life cycle of nuclear weapons; (2) nuclear nonproliferation: pros and cons; (3) the nuclear power/nuclear weapons connection; and (4) managing nuclear proliferation. (NL)

  4. Proliferation resistance of small modular reactors fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polidoro, F.; Parozzi, F.; Fassnacht, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the proliferation resistance of different types of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) has been examined and classified with criteria available in the literature. In the first part of the study, the level of proliferation attractiveness of traditional low-enriched UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels to be used in SMRs based on pressurized water technology has been analyzed. On the basis of numerical simulations both cores show significant proliferation risks. Although the MOX core is less proliferation prone in comparison to the UO{sub 2} core, it still can be highly attractive for diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material. Inmore » the second part of the paper, calculations to assess the proliferation attractiveness of fuel in typical small sodium cooled fast reactor show that proliferation risks from spent fuel cannot be neglected. The core contains a highly attractive plutonium composition during the whole life cycle. Despite some aspects of the design like the sealed core that enables easy detection of unauthorized withdrawal of fissile material and enhances proliferation resistance, in case of open Non-Proliferation Treaty break-out, weapon-grade plutonium in sufficient quantities could be extracted from the reactor core.« less

  5. 15 CFR 12.2 - Undue proliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., he shall initiate an inquiry for the purpose of finding facts concerning the existence of undue... possible existence of undue proliferation. Such communications should be in writing and include supporting... regarding the possible existence of undue proliferation, the Secretary will determine whether there has been...

  6. 15 CFR 12.2 - Undue proliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., he shall initiate an inquiry for the purpose of finding facts concerning the existence of undue... possible existence of undue proliferation. Such communications should be in writing and include supporting... regarding the possible existence of undue proliferation, the Secretary will determine whether there has been...

  7. The amelioration of phagocytic ability in microglial cells by curcumin through the inhibition of EMF-induced pro-inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insufficient clearance by microglial cells, prevalent in several neurological conditions and diseases, is intricately intertwined with MFG-E8 expression and inflammatory responses. Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure can elicit the pro-inflammatory activation and may also trigger an alteration of the clearance function in microglial cells. Curcumin has important roles in the anti-inflammatory and phagocytic process. Here, we evaluated the ability of curcumin to ameliorate the phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed microglial cells (N9 cells) and documented relative pathways. Methods N9 cells were pretreated with or without recombinant murine MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8), curcumin and an antibody of toll-like receptor 4 (anti-TLR4), and subsequently treated with EMF or a sham exposure. Their phagocytic ability was evaluated using phosphatidylserine-containing fluorescent bioparticles. The pro-inflammatory activation of microglia was assessed via CD11b immunoreactivity and the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or the Griess test. We evaluated the ability of curcumin to ameliorate the phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed N9 cells, including checking the expression of MFG-E8, αvβ3 integrin, TLR4, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) using Western blotting. Results EMF exposure dramatically enhanced the expression of CD11b and depressed the phagocytic ability of N9 cells. rmMFG-E8 could clearly ameliorate the phagocytic ability of N9 cells after EMF exposure. We also found that EMF exposure significantly increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) and the production of NO; however, these increases were efficiently chilled by the addition of curcumin to the culture medium. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed N9 cells

  8. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech. PMID:22356764

  9. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Tahtouh, Muriel; Garçon-Bocquet, Annelise; Croq, Françoise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Van Camp, Christelle; Salzet, Michel; Nagnan-le Meillour, Patricia; Pestel, Joël; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2012-02-22

    In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech.

  10. Implicating Receptor Activator of NF-κB (RANK)/RANK Ligand Signalling in Microglial Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kichev, Anton; Eede, Pascale; Gressens, Pierre; Thornton, Claire; Hagberg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation in the perinatal brain caused by maternal or intrauterine fetal infection is now well established as an important contributor to the development of perinatal brain injury. Exposure to inflammatory products can impair perinatal brain development and act as a risk factor for neurological dysfunction, cognitive disorders, cerebral palsy, or preterm birth. Pre-exposure to inflammation significantly exacerbates brain injury caused by hypoxic/ischaemic insult. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a family of cytokines largely involved in inflammation signalling. In our previous study, we identified the importance of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) signalling in the development of perinatal brain injury. We observed a significant increase in the expression levels of a soluble decoy receptor for TRAIL, osteoprotegerin (OPG). Besides TRAIL, OPG is able to bind the receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and inhibit its signalling. The function of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system in the brain has not come under much scrutiny. The aim of this research study was to elucidate the role of RANK, RANKL, and OPG in microglial responses to the proinflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C). Here, we show that RANK signalling is important for regulating the activation of the BV2 microglial cell line. We found that LPS treatment causes a significant decrease in the expression of RANK in the BV2 cell line while significantly increasing the expression of OPG, Toll-like receptor (TLR)3, and the adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF. We found that pretreatment of BV2 cells with RANKL for 24 h before the LPS or Poly I:C exposure decreases the expression of inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase. This is accompanied by a decreased expression of the TLR adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF, which we observed after RANKL treatment. Similar results were obtained in our experiments with

  11. Implicating Receptor Activator of NF-κB (RANK)/RANK Ligand Signalling in Microglial Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kichev, Anton; Eede, Pascale; Gressens, Pierre; Thornton, Claire; Hagberg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation in the perinatal brain caused by maternal or intrauterine fetal infection is now well established as an important contributor to the development of perinatal brain injury. Exposure to inflammatory products can impair perinatal brain development and act as a risk factor for neurological dysfunction, cognitive disorders, cerebral palsy, or preterm birth. Pre-exposure to inflammation significantly exacerbates brain injury caused by hypoxic/ischaemic insult. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a family of cytokines largely involved in inflammation signalling. In our previous study, we identified the importance of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) signalling in the development of perinatal brain injury. We observed a significant increase in the expression levels of a soluble decoy receptor for TRAIL, osteoprotegerin (OPG). Besides TRAIL, OPG is able to bind the receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and inhibit its signalling. The function of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system in the brain has not come under much scrutiny. The aim of this research study was to elucidate the role of RANK, RANKL, and OPG in microglial responses to the proinflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C). Here, we show that RANK signalling is important for regulating the activation of the BV2 microglial cell line. We found that LPS treatment causes a significant decrease in the expression of RANK in the BV2 cell line while significantly increasing the expression of OPG, Toll-like receptor (TLR)3, and the adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF. We found that pretreatment of BV2 cells with RANKL for 24 h before the LPS or Poly I:C exposure decreases the expression of inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase. This is accompanied by a decreased expression of the TLR adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF, which we observed after RANKL treatment. Similar results were obtained in our experiments with

  12. Protective effects of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 combination treatment on rats following cerebral ischemia are mediated via microglial microRNA‑155‑5p inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Dan; Hou, Jincai; Lei, Hongtao

    2018-02-01

    Geniposide, an active component of Gardenia, has been reported to protect against cerebral ischemia in animals. Ginsenoside Rg1, a component of Panax notoginseng, is usually administered in combination with Gardenia for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke; however, there are unknown effects of ginsenoside Rg1 that require further investigation. In the present study, the effects of geniposide and ginsensoide Rg1 combination treatment on focal cerebral ischemic stroke were investigated. For in vivo analysis, male rats were separated into three groups, including the (control), model and geniposide + ginsenoside Rg1 groups (n=8 per group). A middle cerebral artery occlusion model was established as the model group. The treatment group was treated with geniposide (30 mg/kg, tail vein injection) + ginsenoside Rg1 (6 mg/kg, tail vein injection), and the model group received saline instead. Neurobehavioral deficits, infarct volume, brain edema, and the expression of microRNA (miR)‑155‑5p and CD11b by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, were assessed following 24 h of ischemia. For in vitro analysis, BV2 mouse microglial cells were cultured and exposed to geniposide (40 µg/ml) + ginsenoside Rg1 (8 µg/ml) during various durations of oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD). The expression levels of miR‑155‑5p, pri‑miR‑155 and pre‑miR‑155 were detected by RT‑qPCR. The results demonstrated that increases in brain infarct volume, edema volume, CD11b‑positive cells and miR‑155‑5p levels were alleviated following geniposide + ginsenoside administration in rats exposed to ischemia. Furthermore, geniposide + ginsenoside Rg1 treatment suppressed the miR‑155‑5p, pri‑miR‑155 and pre‑miR‑155 expression levels in OGD‑injured BV2 microglial cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that tail vein administration of geniposide in combination with ginsenoside Rg1

  13. Cell proliferation and apoptosis during histogenesis of the guinea pig and rabbit cerebellar cortex.

    PubMed

    Lossi, Laura; Coli, Alessandra; Giannessi, Elisabetta; Stornelli, Maria Rita; Marroni, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    Cell proliferation and apoptosis are essential for development of the nervous system. In this study we have investigated the histogenesis of the cerebellar cortex in guinea pig (a precocial species) and rabbit (an altricial species) at different stages of pregnancy and postnatal life. Proliferating cells were identified after labeling with antibodies against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and/or the Ki-67 antigen. Apoptotic cells were visualized in situ by the TUNEL method and by immunodetection of cleaved caspase 3 and 9. In guinea pigs, both proliferating and apoptotic cells were detected during pre-natal life (E0-E40). Conversely, cell proliferation and apoptosis in rabbits were temporally restricted to early postnatal weeks (P0-P20). In both species cell proliferation was mainly linked to differentiation and migration of the granule cells. In both species, the majority of cells undergoing programmed cell death likely corresponded to granule cells. They were mainly detected in the external granular layer, and were by far more common than previously reported in other locations of the postnatal brain. This study shows that apoptosis is a shared process of cell death during cerebellar development in both altricial and precocial animals, and that there is a direct spatial and temporal correlation between cell proliferation and death in two mammals with different time tables in cerebellar maturation.

  14. Zinc Promotes Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation towards a Neuronal Fate.

    PubMed

    Moon, Mi-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Bo Young; Sohn, Min; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Suh, Sang Won

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for cell division, migration, and proliferation. Under zinc-deficient conditions, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors are significantly impaired. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc on AD-MSC proliferation and differentiation. We initially examined the effect of zinc on stem cell proliferation at the undifferentiated stage. AD-MSCs showed high proliferation rates on day 6 in 30  μ M and 100  μ M of ZnCl 2 . Zinc chelation inhibited AD-MSC proliferation via downregulation of ERK1/2 activity. We then assessed whether zinc was involved in cell migration and neurite outgrowth during differentiation. After three days of neuronal differentiation, TUJ-1-positive cells were observed, implying that AD-MSCs had differentiated into early neuron or neuron-like cells. Neurite outgrowth was increased in the zinc-treated group, while the CaEDTA-treated group showed diminished, shrunken neurites. Furthermore, we showed that zinc promoted neurite outgrowth via the inactivation of RhoA and led to the induction of neuronal gene expression (MAP2 and nestin) in differentiated stem cells. Taken together, zinc promoted AD-MSC proliferation and affected neuronal differentiation, mainly by increasing neurite outgrowth.

  15. Zinc Promotes Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation towards a Neuronal Fate

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Mi-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Bo Young; Sohn, Min

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for cell division, migration, and proliferation. Under zinc-deficient conditions, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors are significantly impaired. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc on AD-MSC proliferation and differentiation. We initially examined the effect of zinc on stem cell proliferation at the undifferentiated stage. AD-MSCs showed high proliferation rates on day 6 in 30 μM and 100 μM of ZnCl2. Zinc chelation inhibited AD-MSC proliferation via downregulation of ERK1/2 activity. We then assessed whether zinc was involved in cell migration and neurite outgrowth during differentiation. After three days of neuronal differentiation, TUJ-1-positive cell