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Sample records for early modern atlantic

  1. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M.; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500–1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400–1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change. PMID:24403343

  2. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  3. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  4. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    PubMed Central

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  5. Spider crabs of the Western Atlantic with special reference to fossil and some modern Mithracidae

    PubMed Central

    Portell, Roger W.; Klier, Aaron T.; Prueter, Vanessa; Tucker, Alyssa L.

    2015-01-01

    Spider crabs (Majoidea) are well-known from modern oceans and are also common in the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. When spider crabs appeared in the Western Atlantic in deep time, and when they became diverse, hinges on their fossil record. By reviewing their fossil record, we show that (1) spider crabs first appeared in the Western Atlantic in the Late Cretaceous, (2) they became common since the Miocene, and (3) most species and genera are found in the Caribbean region from the Miocene onwards. Furthermore, taxonomic work on some modern and fossil Mithracidae, a family that might have originated in the Western Atlantic, was conducted. Specifically, Maguimithrax gen. nov. is erected to accommodate the extant species Damithrax spinosissimus, while Damithrax cf. pleuracanthus is recognized for the first time from the fossil record (late Pliocene–early Pleistocene, Florida, USA). Furthermore, two new species are described from the lower Miocene coral-associated limestones of Jamaica (Mithrax arawakum sp. nov. and Nemausa windsorae sp. nov.). Spurred by a recent revision of the subfamily, two known species from the same deposits are refigured and transferred to new genera: Mithrax donovani to Nemausa, and Mithrax unguis to Damithrax. The diverse assemblage of decapods from these coral-associated limestones underlines the importance of reefs for the abundance and diversity of decapods in deep time. Finally, we quantitatively show that these crabs possess allometric growth in that length/width ratios drop as specimens grow, a factor that is not always taken into account while describing and comparing among taxa. PMID:26557432

  6. Preterit Loss in Early Modern Nuremberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Angela Catania

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates "Prateritumschwund," one of the most salient developments in the Upper German dialect area during the Early Modern period. Drawing on a wide range of text types originating in Nuremberg and its surrounding areas from the 13th to the 17th centuries, this study tests various hypotheses put forward as alleged causes…

  7. Making Early Modern Medicine: Reproducing Swedish Bitters.

    PubMed

    Ahnfelt, Nils-Otto; Fors, Hjalmar

    2016-05-01

    Historians of science and medicine have rarely applied themselves to reproducing the experiments and practices of medicine and pharmacy. This paper delineates our efforts to reproduce "Swedish Bitters," an early modern composite medicine in wide European use from the 1730s to the present. In its original formulation, it was made from seven medicinal simples: aloe, rhubarb, saffron, myrrh, gentian, zedoary and agarikon. These were mixed in alcohol together with some theriac, a composite medicine of classical origin. The paper delineates the compositional history of Swedish Bitters and the medical rationale underlying its composition. It also describes how we go about to reproduce the medicine in a laboratory using early modern pharmaceutical methods, and analyse it using contemporary methods of pharmaceutical chemistry. Our aim is twofold: first, to show how reproducing medicines may provide a path towards a deeper understanding of the role of sensual and practical knowledge in the wider context of early modern medical culture; and second, how it may yield interesting results from the point of view of contemporary pharmaceutical science.

  8. Mid-Pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Not Unlike Modern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Z.-S.; Nisancioglu, K. H.; Chandler, M. A.; Haywood, A. M.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Ramstein, G.; Stepanek, C.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Chan, W. -L.; Sohl, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    In the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), eight state-of-the-art coupled climate models have simulated the mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP, 3.264 to 3.025 Ma). Here, we compare the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), northward ocean heat transport and ocean stratification simulated with these models. None of the models participating in PlioMIP simulates a strong mid-Pliocene AMOC as suggested by earlier proxy studies. Rather, there is no consistent increase in AMOC maximum among the PlioMIP models. The only consistent change in AMOC is a shoaling of the overturning cell in the Atlantic, and a reduced influence of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) at depth in the basin. Furthermore, the simulated mid-Pliocene Atlantic northward heat transport is similar to the pre-industrial. These simulations demonstrate that the reconstructed high-latitude mid-Pliocene warming can not be explained as a direct response to an intensification of AMOC and concomitant increase in northward ocean heat transport by the Atlantic.

  9. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  10. Abrupt cooling over the North Atlantic in modern climate models

    PubMed Central

    Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier; Drijfhout, Sybren; Mary, Yannick; Bennabi, Amine

    2017-01-01

    Observations over the 20th century evidence no long-term warming in the subpolar North Atlantic (SPG). This region even experienced a rapid cooling around 1970, raising a debate over its potential reoccurrence. Here we assess the risk of future abrupt SPG cooling in 40 climate models from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Contrary to the long-term SPG warming trend evidenced by most of the models, 17.5% of the models (7/40) project a rapid SPG cooling, consistent with a collapse of the local deep-ocean convection. Uncertainty in projections is associated with the models' varying capability in simulating the present-day SPG stratification, whose realistic reproduction appears a necessary condition for the onset of a convection collapse. This event occurs in 45.5% of the 11 models best able to simulate the observed SPG stratification. Thus, due to systematic model biases, the CMIP5 ensemble as a whole underestimates the chance of future abrupt SPG cooling, entailing crucial implications for observation and adaptation policy. PMID:28198383

  11. Modern coral reefs of western Atlantic: new geological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    MacIntyre, I.G.

    1988-11-01

    Contrary to popular belief of the late 1960s, western Atlantic Holocene reefs have a long history and are not feeble novice nearshore veneers that barely survived postglacial temperatures. Rather, the growth of these reefs kept pace with the rising seas of the Holocene transgression and their development was, for the most part, controlled by offshore wave-energy conditions and the relationship between changing sea levels and local shelf topography. Thus, the outer shelves of the eastern Caribbean in areas of high energy have relict reefs consisting predominantly of Acropora palmata, a robust shallow-water coral. The flooding of adjacent shelves during themore » postglacial transgression introduced stress conditions that terminated the growth of these reefs. When, about 7000 yr ago, shelf-water conditions improved, scattered deeper water coral communities reestablished themselves on these stranded shelf-edge reefs, and fringing and bank-barrier reefs began to flourish in shallow coastal areas. At the same time, the fragile and rapidly growing Acropora cervicornis and other corals flourished at greater depths on the more protected shelves of the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, late Holocene buildups more than 30 m thick developed in those areas. 7 figures.« less

  12. Characterising Atlantic deep waters during the extreme warmth of the early Eocene 'greenhouse'.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, A.; Sexton, P. F.; Anand, P.; Huck, C. E.; Fehr, M.; Dickson, A.; Scher, H. D.; van de Flierdt, T.; Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.

    2014-12-01

    The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a planetary-scale oceanic flow that is of direct importance to the climate system because it transports heat, salt and nutrients to high latitudes and regulates the exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. The Atlantic Ocean plays a strong role in the modern day MOC however, it is unclear what role it may have played during extreme climate conditions such as those found in the early Eocene 'greenhouse'. In order to resolve the Atlantic's role in the MOC during the early/middle Eocene, we present a multi-proxy approach to investigate changes in ocean circulation, water mass geometry, sediment supply to the deep oceans and the physical strength of deep waters from four different IODP drill sites. Neodymium isotopes (ɛNd), REE profiles and cerium anomalies measured in fossilised fish teeth help to characterise geochemical changes to water masses throughout the Atlantic whilst bulk sediment ɛNd and XRF-core scan data documents changes in sediment supply to the region. Sortable silt data provides a physical constraint on the strength of deep-water movements during the extreme climatic conditions of the early Eocene. We utilise expanded and continuous sequences from two sites in the North west Atlantic spanning the early to middle Eocene recently recovered on IODP Exp. 342 (1403, 1409) that are located on the Newfoundland Ridge, directly in the flow path of today's Deep Western Boundary Current. We also present data from equatorial Demerara Rise (IODP site 1258) and from further north at the mouth of the Labrador Sea (ODP Site 647).

  13. An alternative early opening scenario for the Central Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labails, Cinthia; Olivet, Jean-Louis; Aslanian, Daniel; Roest, Walter R.

    2010-09-01

    The opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean basin that separated North America from northwest Africa is well documented and assumed to have started during the Late Jurassic. However, the early evolution and the initial breakup history of Pangaea are still debated: most of the existing models are based on one or multiple ridge jumps at the Middle Jurassic leaving the oldest crust on the American side, between the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) and the Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (BSMA). According to these hypotheses, the BSMA represents the limit of the initial basin and the footprint subsequent to the ridge jump. Consequently, the evolution of the northwest African margin is widely different from the northeast American margin. However, this setting is in contradiction with the existing observations. In this paper, we propose an alternative scenario for the continental breakup and the Mesozoic spreading history of the Central Atlantic Ocean. The new model is based on an analysis of geophysical data (including new seismic lines, an interpretation of the newly compiled magnetic data, and satellite derived gravimetry) and recently published results which demonstrate that the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean started already during the Late Sinemurian (190 Ma), based on a new identification of the African conjugate to the ECMA and on the extent of salt provinces off Morocco and Nova Scotia. The identification of an African conjugate magnetic anomaly to BSMA, the African Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (ABSMA), together with the significant change in basement topography, are in good agreement with that initial reconstruction. The early opening history for the Central Atlantic Ocean is described in four distinct phases. During the first 20 Myr after the initial breakup (190-170 Ma, from Late Sinemurian to early Bajocian), oceanic accretion was extremely slow (˜ 0.8 cm/y). At the time of Blake Spur (170 Ma, early Bajocian), a drastic change occurred both in the relative

  14. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals.

    PubMed

    Kuhlwilm, Martin; Gronau, Ilan; Hubisz, Melissa J; de Filippo, Cesare; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Kircher, Martin; Fu, Qiaomei; Burbano, Hernán A; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajkovic, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Andrés, Aida M; Viola, Bence; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias; Siepel, Adam; Castellano, Sergi

    2016-02-25

    It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000-65,000 years ago. Here we analyse the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.

  15. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  16. "Old Poems Have Heart": Teenage Students Reading Early Modern Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The proposals for the revised National Curriculum in English suggest limiting the pre-twentieth century poetry that GCSE pupils read to "representative Romantic poetry" (Department for Education [DFE], 2013, p. 4). This paper argues that poetry of the early modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…

  17. Archives and the Boundaries of Early Modern Science.

    PubMed

    Popper, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This contribution argues that the study of early modern archives suggests a new agenda for historians of early modern science. While in recent years historians of science have begun to direct increased attention toward the collections amassed by figures and institutions traditionally portrayed as proto-scientific, archives proliferated across early modern Europe, emerging as powerful tools for creating knowledge in politics, history, and law as well as natural philosophy, botany, and more. The essay investigates the methods of production, collection, organization, and manipulation used by English statesmen and Crown officers such as Keeper of the State Papers Thomas Wilson and Secretary of State Joseph Williamson to govern their disorderly collections. Their methods, it is shown, were shared with contemporaries seeking to generate and manage other troves of evidence and in fact reflect a complex ecosystem of imitation and exchange across fields of inquiry. These commonalities suggest that historians of science should look beyond the ancestors of modern scientific disciplines to examine how practices of producing knowledge emerged and migrated throughout cultures of learning in Europe and beyond. Creating such a map of knowledge production and exchange, the essay concludes, would provide a renewed and expansive ambition for the field.

  18. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlwilm, Martin; Gronau, Ilan; Hubisz, Melissa J.; de Filippo, Cesare; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Kircher, Martin; Fu, Qiaomei; Burbano, Hernán A.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajkovic, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Andrés, Aida M.; Viola, Bence; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias; Siepel, Adam; Castellano, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000–65,000 years ago. Here, we analyze the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and of modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously reported. PMID:26886800

  19. European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than ≈33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and/or plesiomorphic (ancestral) aspects that had been lost among the African Middle Paleolithic modern humans. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions. The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data. PMID:17452632

  20. Early modern human lithic technology from Jerimalai, East Timor.

    PubMed

    Marwick, Ben; Clarkson, Chris; O'Connor, Sue; Collins, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene. Second, the assemblage is dominated by small chert cores and implements rather than pebble tools and choppers, a pattern we argue pattern, we argue, that is common in island SE Asian sites as opposed to mainland SE Asian sites. Third, the Jerimalai assemblage bears a striking resemblance to the assemblage from Liang Bua, argued by the Liang Bua excavation team to be associated with Homo floresiensis. We argue that the near proximity of these two islands along the Indonesian island chain (c.100 km apart), the long antiquity of modern human occupation in the region (as documented at Jerimalai), and the strong resemblance of distinctive flake stone technologies seen at both sites, raises the intriguing possibility that both the Liang Bua and Jerimalai assemblages were created by modern humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Atlantic Deep-water Response to the Early Pliocene Shoaling of the Central American Seaway.

    PubMed

    Bell, David B; Jung, Simon J A; Kroon, Dick; Hodell, David A; Lourens, Lucas J; Raymo, Maureen E

    2015-07-20

    The early Pliocene shoaling of the Central American Seaway (CAS), ~4.7-4.2 million years ago (mega annum-Ma), is thought to have strengthened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The associated increase in northward flux of heat and moisture may have significantly influenced the evolution of Pliocene climate. While some evidence for the predicted increase in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation exists in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, similar evidence is missing in the wider Atlantic. Here, we present stable carbon (δ(13)C) and oxygen (δ(18)O) isotope records from the Southeast Atlantic-a key region for monitoring the southern extent of NADW. Using these data, together with other δ(13)C and δ(18)O records from the Atlantic, we assess the impact of the early Pliocene CAS shoaling phase on deep-water circulation. We find that NADW formation was vigorous prior to 4.7 Ma and showed limited subsequent change. Hence, the overall structure of the deep Atlantic was largely unaffected by the early Pliocene CAS shoaling, corroborating other evidence that indicates larger changes in NADW resulted from earlier and deeper shoaling phases. This finding implies that the early Pliocene shoaling of the CAS had no profound impact on the evolution of climate.

  2. Atlantic Deep-water Response to the Early Pliocene Shoaling of the Central American Seaway

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David B.; Jung, Simon J. A.; Kroon, Dick; Hodell, David A.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    The early Pliocene shoaling of the Central American Seaway (CAS), ~4.7–4.2 million years ago (mega annum-Ma), is thought to have strengthened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The associated increase in northward flux of heat and moisture may have significantly influenced the evolution of Pliocene climate. While some evidence for the predicted increase in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation exists in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, similar evidence is missing in the wider Atlantic. Here, we present stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope records from the Southeast Atlantic-a key region for monitoring the southern extent of NADW. Using these data, together with other δ13C and δ18O records from the Atlantic, we assess the impact of the early Pliocene CAS shoaling phase on deep-water circulation. We find that NADW formation was vigorous prior to 4.7 Ma and showed limited subsequent change. Hence, the overall structure of the deep Atlantic was largely unaffected by the early Pliocene CAS shoaling, corroborating other evidence that indicates larger changes in NADW resulted from earlier and deeper shoaling phases. This finding implies that the early Pliocene shoaling of the CAS had no profound impact on the evolution of climate. PMID:26193070

  3. Malocclusion in Early Anatomically Modern Human: A Reflection on the Etiology of Modern Dental Misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Sarig, Rachel; Slon, Viviane; Abbas, Janan; May, Hila; Shpack, Nir; Vardimon, Alexander Dan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusions are common in modern populations. Yet, as the study of occlusion requires an almost intact dentition in both the maxilla and mandible, searching for the ultimate cause of malocclusion is a challenge: relatively little ancient material is available for research on occlusal states. The Qafzeh 9 skull is unique, as its preserved dentition allowed us to investigate the presence and manifestations of malocclusion. The aim of this study was thus to examine the occlusal condition in the Qafzeh 9 specimen in light of modern knowledge regarding the etiology of malocclusion. We revealed a pathologic occlusion in the Qafzeh 9 skull that probably originated in the early developmental stage of the dentition, and was aggravated by forces applied by mastication. When arch continuity is interrupted due to misalignment of teeth as in this case, force transmission is not equal on both sides, causing intra-arch outcomes such as mesialization of the teeth, midline deviation, rotations and the aggravation of crowding. All are evident in the Qafzeh 9 skull: the midline deviates to the left; the incisors rotate mesio-buccally; the left segment is constricted; the left first molar is buccally positioned and the left premolars palatally tilted. The inter-arch evaluation revealed anterior cross bite with functional shift that might affect force transmission and bite force. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that malocclusion of developmental origin was already present in early anatomically modern humans (AMH) (the present case being the oldest known case, dated to ca. 100,000 years); that there is no basis to the notion that early AMH had a better adjustment between teeth and jaw size; and that jaw-teeth size discrepancy could be found in prehistoric populations and is not a recent phenomenon. PMID:24278319

  4. Early 20th Century Arctic Warming Intensified by Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokinaga, H.; Xie, S. P.; Mukougawa, H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the influence of Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability on the Arctic temperature, with a particular focus on the early 20th century Arctic warming. Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing than at present. We find that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability is the major driver for the early 20th century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early Arctic warming is associated with the cold-to-warm phase shifts of Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal variability modes, a SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal and Atlantic multidecadal oscillations. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air to the North American Arctic. Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, cold-to-warm phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region.

  5. The Modern Value of Early Writings in Medicine and Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Peck, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates three examples supporting the modern value of early writings in dentistry and medicine. First, by studying cases described in works published long before the era of genetic science, we are able to develop new hypotheses about familial conditions and their genetic roots. Tooth transposition is presented as an example. Second, old writings may lead us to valuable historical insights and perspectives in medicine that can be revealed only in retrospective analysis. An example of this kind of historical analysis uncovers why dentistry became unnaturally separated from mainstream medicine in the 19th century. Third, early writings become keys to unlocking forgotten knowledge that enriches our understanding of historically significant people and events. The discovery of Norman Kingsley's long forgotten pyrographic paintings after Rembrandt portraits is used as an example. Libraries, the traditional custodians of these valued old texts, must continue to be supported, and not undermined by the paperless digital revolution. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  6. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.

  7. Marginalia, commonplaces, and correspondence: scribal exchange in early modern science.

    PubMed

    Yale, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, historians of science have increasingly turned their attention to the "print culture" of early modern science. These studies have revealed that printing, as both a technology and a social and economic system, structured the forms and meanings of natural knowledge. Yet in early modern Europe, naturalists, including John Aubrey, John Evelyn, and John Ray, whose work is discussed in this paper, often shared and read scientific texts in manuscript either before or in lieu of printing. Scribal exchange, exemplified in the circulation of writings like commonplace books, marginalia, manuscript treatises, and correspondence, was the primary means by which communities of naturalists constructed scientific knowledge. Print and manuscript were necessary partners. Manuscript fostered close collaboration, and could be circulated relatively cheaply; but, unlike print, it could not reliably secure priority or survival for posterity. Naturalists approached scribal and print communication strategically, choosing the medium that best suited their goals at any given moment. As a result, print and scribal modes of disseminating information, constructing natural knowledge, and organizing communities developed in tandem. Practices typically associated with print culture manifested themselves in scribal texts and exchanges, and vice versa. "Print culture" cannot be hived off from "scribal culture." Rather, in their daily jottings and exchanges, naturalists inhabited, and produced, one common culture of communication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-28

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  9. Hippocrates' complaint and the scientific ethos in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Among the elements of the modern scientific ethos, as identified by R.K. Merton and others, is the commitment of individual effort to a long-term inquiry that may not bring substantial results in a lifetime. The challenge this presents was encapsulated in the aphorism of the ancient Greek physician, Hippocrates of Kos: vita brevis, ars longa (life is short, art is long). This article explores how this complaint was answered in the early modern period by Francis Bacon's call for the inauguration of the sciences over several generations, thereby imagining a succession of lives added together over time. However, Bacon also explored another response to Hippocrates: the devotion of a 'whole life', whether brief or long, to science. The endorsement of long-term inquiry in combination with intensive lifetime involvement was embraced by some leading Fellows of the Royal Society, such as Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke. The problem for individuals, however, was to find satisfaction in science despite concerns, in some fields, that current observations and experiments would not yield material able to be extended by future investigations.

  10. Smallpox vaccination: an early start of modern medicine in America.

    PubMed

    Liebowitz, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980. Before its eradication thedisease had a mortality rate upwards of 50% and had a significant impact on society. During theAmerican Revolutionary war, smallpox outbreaks were impeding the American war effort until1777 when George Washington carried out a mass inoculation campaign in the ContinentalArmy that reduced the mortality from smallpox to less than 2%. Inoculation was an early formof vaccination that used live virus from active pustules to induce a milder, but still sometimesdeadly, case of disease. Washington has been credited with helping to ease the burden ofsmallpox on the Army which improved the odds of success against the British. When EdwardJenner's vaccine reached America it was more readily accepted by political and medical leadersdue the success of Washington's inoculation campaign. The Founding Fathers argued thatsmallpox vaccination was the greatest discovery in modern medicine and they were likely correctthat it helped to usher in the modern era of vaccinology.

  11. Metaphors and images of cancer in early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on learned medical writing about cancer and on nonmedical texts that used cancer as a metaphor for hateful cultural, social, religious, or political phenomena that warranted drastic measures, this article traces the metaphors and images that framed the perception and experience of cancer in the early modern period. It finds that cancer was closely associated with notions of impurity and a visible destruction of the body's surface and was diagnosed primarily in women, as breast and uterine cancer. Putrid, corrosive cancerous humor was thought not only to accumulate and eat its way into the surrounding flesh but also to spread, like the seeds of a plant, "infecting" the whole body. This infectious quality, the putrid secretions, and the often horrendous smell emanating from cancer victims raised fears, in turn, of contagion and were taken to justify a separation of cancer patients from the rest of society.

  12. Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England.

    PubMed

    Skuse, Alanna

    2014-11-01

    This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c .1580-1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over 'aggravating' the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous 'cures' including caustics and surgery.

  13. Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Alanna

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

  14. Assessing an early modern Fenland population: Whittlesey (Cambridgeshire).

    PubMed

    Falvey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Improvement writers argued that drainage would bring prosperity and population growth to fenland communities; locals counter-argued that their communities were already thriving. The detailed surviving records from early modern Whittlesey, in the Isle of Ely, are analysed here to test the accuracy of these opposing claims. Using the returns of the 1523 Lay Subsidy, the 1563 ecclesiastical census, the Lady Day 1674 Hearth Tax records and the 1676 Compton Census, together with bishops' transcripts and probate inventories, this article finds that although the population did indeed increase after drainage, the pre-drainage population was also increasing. The Michaelmas 1664 Hearth Tax records are analysed to uncover something of the character of the inhabitants and the 1674 Lady Day returns are then used to test the relative wealth of the community compared with that of sub-regions throughout England identified by Tom Arkell. Finally, there is a discussion of Whittlesey's housing stock.

  15. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms."

  16. SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surface temperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflaumann, Uwe; Duprat, Josette; Pujol, Claude; Labeyrie, Laurent D.

    1996-02-01

    We present a data set of 738 planktonic foraminiferal species counts from sediment surface samples of the eastern North Atlantic and the South Atlantic between 87°N and 40°S, 35°E and 60°W including published Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) data. These species counts are linked to Levitus's [1982] modern water temperature data for the four caloric seasons, four depth ranges (0, 30, 50, and 75 m), and the combined means of those depth ranges. The relation between planktonic foraminiferal assemblages and sea surface temperature (SST) data is estimated using the newly developed SIMMAX technique, which is an acronym for a modern analog technique (MAT) with a similarity index, based on (1) the scalar product of the normalized faunal percentages and (2) a weighting procedure of the modern analog's SSTs according to the inverse geographical distances of the most similar samples. Compared to the classical CLIMAP transfer technique and conventional MAT techniques, SIMMAX provides a more confident reconstruction of paleo-SSTs (correlation coefficient is 0.994 for the caloric winter and 0.993 for caloric summer). The standard deviation of the residuals is 0.90°C for caloric winter and 0.96°C for caloric summer at 0-m water depth. The SST estimates reach optimum stability (standard deviation of the residuals is 0.88°C) at the average 0- to 75-m water depth. Our extensive database provides SST estimates over a range of -1.4 to 27.2°C for caloric winter and 0.4 to 28.6°C for caloric summer, allowing SST estimates which are especially valuable for the high-latitude Atlantic during glacial times. An electronic supplement of this material may be obtained on adiskette or Anonymous FTP from KOSMOS.AGU.ORG. (LOGIN toAGU's FTP account using ANONYMOUS as the username and GUESTas the password. Go to the right directory by typing CD APPEND. TypeLS to see what files are available. Type GET and the name of the file toget it. Finally type EXIT to

  17. Sensitivity of the North Atlantic Basin to cyclic climatic forcing during the early Cretaceous

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Arthur, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Striking cyclic interbeds of laminated dark-olive to black marlstone and bioturbated white to light-gray limestone of Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) age have been recovered at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) sites in the North Atlantic. These Neocomian sequences are equivalent to the Maiolica Formation that outcrops in the Tethyan regions of the Mediterranean and to thick limestone sequences of the Vocontian Trough of France. This lithologic unit marks the widespread deposition of biogenic carbonate over much of the North Atlantic and Tethyan seafloor during a time of overall low sealevel and a deep carbonate compensation depth. The dark clay-rich interbeds typically are rich in organic carbon (OC) with up to 5.5% OC in sequences in the eastern North Atlantic. These eastern North Atlantic sequences off northwest Africa, contain more abundant and better preserved hydrogen-rich, algal organic matter (type II kerogen) relative to the western North Atlantic, probably in response to coastal upwelling induced by an eastern boundary current in the young North Atlantic Ocean. The more abundant algal organic matter in sequences in the eastern North Atlantic is also expressed in the isotopic composition of the carbon in that organic matter. In contrast, organic matter in Neocomian sequences in the western North Atlantic along the continental margin of North America has geochemical and optical characteristics of herbaceous, woody, hydrogen-poor, humic, type III kerogen. The inorganic geochemical characteristics of the dark clay-rich (80% CaCO3) interbeds in both the eastern and western basins of the North Atlantic suggest that they contain minor amounts of relatively unweathered eolian dust derived from northwest Africa during dry intervals.

  18. The Home Network: Identity and Materiality in Early Modern and Modern Ulster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Kathryn M.

    This dissertation looks at three categories of ceramics and the creation of a hybrid culture during the Early Modern and Modern period in Ireland. During these time periods Ireland was a part of the English global colonial enterprises, and was the site of many legal and cultural changes due to its subordinate position in the hierarchy of socio-political and economic phenomenon that characterize the pinnacle of British global power. This study looks to understand how these powers articulated with England's one European colony, Ireland, and if that articulation has similarities to other colonial cultures across time and space. To study the possibility of hybridity between the Irish and English inhabitants of Ireland during the Post-Medieval Period, three categories of ceramics have been analyzed. Fine earthenwares in the form of tablewares and tea sets were macroscopically analyzed for patterns, age, and place of origin. Coarse earthenwares were subjected to X-ray florescence to look for patterns in the spectral data to see if a point of origin could be ascribed to them. And lastly, white ball clay pipe fragments were both macroscopically analyzed for makers' marks and subjected to X-ray florescence to verify their point of origin. The relationship between where these artifacts come from- if they are local productions or imports- and where they were disposed of- either across the landscaper or only associated with households of particular ethnicities- says something about how people negotiate their ethnic identities in colonial settings. As people in Ireland adopt the English style of tea drinking and start to use English mass-produced fine earthenwares, it disrupts the local cottage industry of coarse earthenware manufacturing. What this study seeks to know is if there is a difference in the adoption of English tea drinking, and if the purchasing of certain types of ceramic vessels contributes to the performance of ethnic identity in a colonial setting.

  19. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    PubMed

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Pejrani Baricco, Luisella; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  20. Genealogical Relationships between Early Medieval and Modern Inhabitants of Piedmont

    PubMed Central

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Baricco, Luisella Pejrani; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration. PMID:25635682

  1. Early 20th-century Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability

    PubMed Central

    Tokinaga, Hiroki; Xie, Shang-Ping; Mukougawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we show that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal variability modes is the major driver for the rapid early 20th-century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations successfully reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early 20th-century Arctic warming is associated with positive SST anomalies over the tropical and North Atlantic and a Pacific SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmospheric circulation changes are important for the early 20th-century Arctic warming. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air into the North American Arctic. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. Coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, negative-to-positive phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal modes. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region. PMID:28559341

  2. Early 20th-century Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokinaga, Hiroki; Xie, Shang-Ping; Mukougawa, Hitoshi

    2017-06-01

    With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we show that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal variability modes is the major driver for the rapid early 20th-century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations successfully reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early 20th-century Arctic warming is associated with positive SST anomalies over the tropical and North Atlantic and a Pacific SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmospheric circulation changes are important for the early 20th-century Arctic warming. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air into the North American Arctic. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, negative-to-positive phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal modes. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region.

  3. Enhanced Biennial Variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic Capacitor Effect after the Early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, L.; Yu, J. Y.; Paek, H.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems through their influences on severe natural hazards including tropical storms, coastal erosions, droughts and floods. The ability to forecast ENSO and PSHs requires an understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that drive their variability. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest the Atlantic as a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including ENSO and PSHs in recent decades, while the pacemaker was previously considered to be mainly lied within the Pacific or Indian Oceans. The "charging" (i.e., ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and "discharging" (i.e., the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) process works alternately, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. After the early-1990s, the positive phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and global warming provides more favorable background states over the NTA that enable the Atlantic capacitor effect to operate more efficiently, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific which may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events. The results highlight the increasing important role of the Atlantic-Pacific coupling as an important pacemaker of the ENSO cycle in recent decades.

  4. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    PubMed

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  5. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Plescia, J.B.; Molzer, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Three ancient impact craters (Chesapeake Bay - 35.7 Ma; Toms Canyon - 35.7 Ma; Montagnais - 51 Ma) and one multiring impact basin (Chicxulub - 65 Ma) are currently known to be buried beneath modern continental shelves. All occur on the passive Atlantic margin of North America in regions extensively explored by seismic reflection surveys in the search for oil and gas reserves. We limit our discussion herein to the three youngest structures. These craters were created by submarine impacts, which produced many structural and morphological features similar in construction, composition, and variability to those documented in well-preserved subaerial and planetary impact craters. The subcircular Chesapeake Bay (diameter 85 km) and ovate Montagnais (diameter 45-50 km) structures display outer-rim scarps, annular troughs, peak rings, inner basins, and central peaks similar to those incorporated in the widely cited conceptual model of complex impact craters. These craters differ in several respects from the model, however. For example, the Montagnais crater lacks a raised lip on the outer rim, the Chesapeake Bay crater displays only small remnants of a raised lip, and both craters contain an unusually thick body of impact breccia. The subtriangular Toms Canyon crater (diameter 20-22 km), on the other hand, contains none of the internal features of a complex crater, nor is it typical of a simple crater. It displays a prominent raised lip on the outer rim, but the lip is present only on the western side of the crater. In addition, each of these craters contains some distinct features, which are not present in one or both of the others. For example, the central peak at Montagnais rises well above the elevation of the outer rim, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the outer rim is higher than the central peak. The floor of the Toms Canyon crater is marked by parallel deep troughs and linear ridges formed of sedimentary rocks, whereas at Chesapeake Bay, the crater floor contains

  6. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damsen, Silver

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

  7. The increasing control of the Atlantic Ocean on ENSO after the early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J. Y.; Paek, H.; Wang, L.; Lyu, K.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most powerful interannual variability in Earth's climate system. Previous studies have emphasized processes within the tropical Pacific or Indian Oceans for the generation of ENSO. Recent studies have increasingly suggested that the Atlantic Ocean may play an active role in forcing ENSO variability. In this talk, we will present evidence from observational analyses and modeling experiments to show that the Atlantic Ocean became more capable of influencing ENSO properties after the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) changed to its positive phase in the early-1990s. A wave source mechanism is proposed to explain how the positive phase of the AMO can intensify the North Pacific Subtropical High (NPSH) to change the ENSO from the Eastern Pacific (EP) type to the Central Pacific (CP) type. A sequence of processes are identified to suggest that the AMO can displace the Pacific Walker circulation, induce a wave source in the tropical central Pacific, and excite a barotropic wave train toward higher-latitudes to enhance the NPSH, which then triggers subtropical Pacific atmospheric forcing and atmosphere-ocean coupling to increase the occurrence of the CP ENSO. An Atlantic capacitor mechanism is also proposed to explain how the positive phase of the AMO can intensify the quasi-biennial (QB) component of ENSO resulting in a more frequent occurrence of ENSO events. We will show that the capacitor mechanism works only after the AMO warmed up the Atlantic sea surface temperatures after the early-1990s. The increased feedback from the Atlantic to the Pacific has enabled the Atlantic capacitor mechanism to intensify the biennial variability in the Pacific during the past two decades. Our suggestion is very different from the previous prevailing views that have emphasized the Indo-Pacific Oceans as the pacemaker for the biennial variability in ENSO. The increasing control of the Atlantic has enabled the CP ENSO dynamics to

  8. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  9. Modeling North Atlantic Nor'easters With Modern Wave Forecast Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrie, Will; Toulany, Bechara; Roland, Aron; Dutour-Sikiric, Mathieu; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Qi, Jianhua; Hu, Yongcun; Casey, Michael P.; Shen, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Three state-of-the-art operational wave forecast model systems are implemented on fine-resolution grids for the Northwest Atlantic. These models are: (1) a composite model system consisting of SWAN implemented within WAVEWATCHIII® (the latter is hereafter, WW3) on a nested system of traditional structured grids, (2) an unstructured grid finite-volume wave model denoted "SWAVE," using SWAN physics, and (3) an unstructured grid finite element wind wave model denoted as "WWM" (for "wind wave model") which uses WW3 physics. Models are implemented on grid systems that include relatively large domains to capture the wave energy generated by the storms, as well as including fine-resolution nearshore regions of the southern Gulf of Maine with resolution on the scale of 25 m to simulate areas where inundation and coastal damage have occurred, due to the storms. Storm cases include three intense midlatitude cases: a spring Nor'easter storm in May 2005, the Patriot's Day storm in 2007, and the Boxing Day storm in 2010. Although these wave model systems have comparable overall properties in terms of their performance and skill, it is found that there are differences. Models that use more advanced physics, as presented in recent versions of WW3, tuned to regional characteristics, as in the Gulf of Maine and the Northwest Atlantic, can give enhanced results.

  10. Carbonate Formation And Diagenesis In Pastos Grandes Laguna (Bolivia): Modern Analog For The South Atlantic Cretaceous Presalt Travertinoid Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, E.; Ader, M.; Gérard, E.; Virgone, A.; Gaucher, E.; Bougeault, C.; Durlet, C.; Moreira, M. A.; Virgile, R.; Vennin, E.; Agogué, H.; Hugoni, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous Presalt travertinoid deposits of the South Atlantic are usually considered as "strange deposits" having poor equivalents in modern environments. Pastos Grandes Laguna, which is located in a 2.9 Ma caldera on the andean-bolivian Altiplano (at 4450 m), is intersected by active faults with hydrothermal fluids and presents a spherulitic plateform with similar sedimentological facies to the Presalt: halite and bedded evaporites, shrub-shaped calcites, ooids, pisolites and various stromatolites. Pastos Grandes Laguna is certainly one of the best modern analog of the Presalt for investigating the on going processes of carbonate deposition and diagenesis and the influence of biology. During two expeditions, we recovered samples of gas, water and microbial mats from the hydrothermal sources to the evaporating zones on the spherulitic plateform. These samples are being analyzed to determine 1) the influence of the gases emitted at the hydrothermal sources (chemical and isotopic composition) on the chemistry of the Laguna and the mineralogy of its sediments and 2) the role of ecosystems that develop in this environment on carbonate formation. Preliminary results on gas composition, corrected for the atmospheric contribution, indicates a magmatic source of CO2 partly mantellic associated with a small crustal contribution. Other initial results have so far indicated that CO2 gas emissions, evaporation, as well as photosynthesis and respiration play a role on water chemistry and carbonate precipitation. This study will contribute to the overall understanding of the role of organisms in sedimentation and the predictive diagenetic evolution of hydrothermal and lacustrine deposits.

  11. Modern Workflow Full Waveform Inversion Applied to North America and the Northern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, Lion; Fichtner, Andreas; Igel, Heiner

    2015-04-01

    We present the current state of a new seismic tomography model obtained using full waveform inversion of the crustal and upper mantle structure beneath North America and the Northern Atlantic, including the westernmost part of Europe. Parts of the eastern portion of the initial model consists of previous models by Fichtner et al. (2013) and Rickers et al. (2013). The final results of this study will contribute to the 'Comprehensive Earth Model' being developed by the Computational Seismology group at ETH Zurich. Significant challenges include the size of the domain, the uneven event and station coverage, and the strong east-west alignment of seismic ray paths across the North Atlantic. We use as much data as feasible, resulting in several thousand recordings per event depending on the receivers deployed at the earthquakes' origin times. To manage such projects in a reproducible and collaborative manner, we, as tomographers, should abandon ad-hoc scripts and one-time programs, and adopt sustainable and reusable solutions. Therefore we developed the LArge-scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF - http://lasif.net), an open-source toolbox for managing seismic data in the context of non-linear iterative inversions that greatly reduces the time to research. Information on the applied processing, modelling, iterative model updating, what happened during each iteration, and so on are systematically archived. This results in a provenance record of the final model which in the end significantly enhances the reproducibility of iterative inversions. Additionally, tools for automated data download across different data centers, window selection, misfit measurements, parallel data processing, and input file generation for various forward solvers are provided.

  12. Religion in the National Historical Narrative of the Early Modern Times in Contemporary Ukrainian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevchenko, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with religious discourse in modern history school textbooks in Ukraine that cover early modern times in Ukrainian history. It analyzes the place of religious discourse within national discourse, the correlation between local Ukrainian religious and more general discourse, and the representation of the relationships between…

  13. Delayed Phenotypic Expression of Growth Hormone Transgenesis during Early Ontogeny in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)?

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Darek T. R.; Gamperl, A. Kurt; Fletcher, Garth L.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Should growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon escape, there may be the potential for ecological and genetic impacts on wild populations. This study compared the developmental rate and respiratory metabolism of GH transgenic and non-transgenic full sibling Atlantic salmon during early ontogeny; a life history period of intense selection that may provide critical insight into the fitness consequences of escaped transgenics. Transgenesis did not affect the routine oxygen consumption of eyed embryos, newly hatched larvae or first-feeding juveniles. Moreover, the timing of early life history events was similar, with transgenic fish hatching less than one day earlier, on average, than their non-transgenic siblings. As the start of exogenous feeding neared, however, transgenic fish were somewhat developmentally behind, having more unused yolk and being slightly smaller than their non-transgenic siblings. Although such differences were found between transgenic and non-transgenic siblings, family differences were more important in explaining phenotypic variation. These findings suggest that biologically significant differences in fitness-related traits between GH transgenic and non-transgenic Atlantic salmon were less than family differences during the earliest life stages. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the ecological risk assessment of genetically modified animals. PMID:24763675

  14. Delayed phenotypic expression of growth hormone transgenesis during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)?

    PubMed

    Moreau, Darek T R; Gamperl, A Kurt; Fletcher, Garth L; Fleming, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    Should growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon escape, there may be the potential for ecological and genetic impacts on wild populations. This study compared the developmental rate and respiratory metabolism of GH transgenic and non-transgenic full sibling Atlantic salmon during early ontogeny; a life history period of intense selection that may provide critical insight into the fitness consequences of escaped transgenics. Transgenesis did not affect the routine oxygen consumption of eyed embryos, newly hatched larvae or first-feeding juveniles. Moreover, the timing of early life history events was similar, with transgenic fish hatching less than one day earlier, on average, than their non-transgenic siblings. As the start of exogenous feeding neared, however, transgenic fish were somewhat developmentally behind, having more unused yolk and being slightly smaller than their non-transgenic siblings. Although such differences were found between transgenic and non-transgenic siblings, family differences were more important in explaining phenotypic variation. These findings suggest that biologically significant differences in fitness-related traits between GH transgenic and non-transgenic Atlantic salmon were less than family differences during the earliest life stages. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the ecological risk assessment of genetically modified animals.

  15. Planktic foraminiferal photosymbiont bleaching during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (Site 1051, northwestern Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald Roy; Wade, Bridget

    2017-04-01

    The symbiotic relationship with algae is a key strategy adopted by many modern species and by early Paleogene shallow-dwelling planktic foraminifera. The endosymbionts play an important role in foraminiferal calcification, longevity and growth, allowing the host to succeed in oligotrophic environment. We have indirect evidence on the presence and loss of algae photosymbionts because symbionts modify the chemistry of the microenvironment where a foraminifer calcifies, resulting in a characteristic geochemical signature between test size and δ13C. We present here the result of a test on loss of algal photosymbiont (bleaching) in planktic foraminifera from the northwest Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1051 across the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), the interval ( 49-53 Ma) when Earth surface temperatures and probably atmospheric pCO2 reached their Cenozoic maximum. We select this interval because two symbiont-bearing planktic foraminiferal genera Morozovella and Acarinina, that were important calcifiers of the early Paleogene tropical-subtropical oceans, experienced a marked and permanent switch in abundance at the beginning of the EECO, close to the carbon isotope excursion known as J event. Specifically, the relative abundance of Morozovella permanently decreased by at least half, along with a progressive decrease in the number of species. Concomitantly, the genus Acarinina almost doubled its abundance and diversified within the EECO. Many stressors inducing loss of photosymbiosis may have occurred during the long-lasting environmental conditions relating to the EECO extreme warmth, such as high pCO2 and possible decrease of the surface-water pH. The bleaching may therefore represent a potential mechanism to explain the rapid morozovellid decline at the start of the EECO. Our geochemical data from Site 1051 demonstrate that there was indeed a reduction of algal-symbiosis in morozovellids at the EECO beginning. This bleaching event occurred at the

  16. Gender and the Social Order in Early Modern England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amussen, Susan Dwyer

    The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…

  17. Evidence of a modern deep water magmatic hydrothermal system in the Canary Basin (eastern central Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medialdea, T.; Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Vázquez, J. T.; de Ignacio, C.; Sumino, H.; Sánchez-Guillamón, O.; Orihashi, Y.; León, R.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    New seismic profiles, bathymetric data, and sediment-rock sampling document for the first time the discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes and volcanic cones at 4800-5200 m depth related to recent volcanic and intrusive activity in an unexplored area of the Canary Basin (Eastern Atlantic Ocean, 500 km west of the Canary Islands). A complex of sill intrusions is imaged on seismic profiles showing saucer-shaped, parallel, or inclined geometries. Three main types of structures are related to these intrusions. Type I consists of cone-shaped depressions developed above inclined sills interpreted as hydrothermal vents. Type II is the most abundant and is represented by isolated or clustered hydrothermal domes bounded by faults rooted at the tips of saucer-shaped sills. Domes are interpreted as seabed expressions of reservoirs of CH4 and CO2-rich fluids formed by degassing and contact metamorphism of organic-rich sediments around sill intrusions. Type III are hydrothermal-volcanic complexes originated above stratified or branched inclined sills connected by a chimney to the seabed volcanic edifice. Parallel sills sourced from the magmatic chimney formed also domes surrounding the volcanic cones. Core and dredges revealed that these volcanoes, which must be among the deepest in the world, are constituted by OIB-type, basanites with an outer ring of blue-green hydrothermal Al-rich smectite muds. Magmatic activity is dated, based on lava samples, at 0.78 ± 0.05 and 1.61 ± 0.09 Ma (K/Ar methods) and on tephra layers within cores at 25-237 ky. The Subvent hydrothermal-volcanic complex constitutes the first modern system reported in deep water oceanic basins related to intraplate hotspot activity.Plain Language SummarySubmarine volcanism and associated hydrothermal systems are relevant processes for the evolution of the ocean basins, due their impact on the geochemistry of the oceans, their potential to form significant ore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H43H..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H43H..08M"><span>An Alternative to Channel-Centered Views of the Landscape for Understanding <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Streams in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Piedmont Region, Eastern USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merritts, D. J.; Walter, R. C.; Rahnis, M. A.; Oberholtzer, W.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Stream channels generally are the focus of conceptual models of valley bottom geomorphology. The channel-centered model prevalent in the tectonically inactive eastern U. S. invokes meandering stream channels migrating laterally across valley floors, eroding one bank while depositing relatively coarse sediment in point bars on the other. According to this model, overbank deposition during flooding deposits a veneer of fine sediment over the gravel substrate. Erosion is considered normal, and the net volume of sediment is relatively constant with time. A dramatic change in conditions-land-clearing during European settlement--led to widespread aggradation on valley bottoms. This historic sedimentation was incorporated in the channel-centered view by assuming that meandering streams were overwhelmed by the increased sediment load and rapidly aggraded vertically. Later, elevated stream channels cut through these deposits because of decreased sediment supply and increased stormwater runoff accompanying urbanization. This view can be traced to <span class="hlt">early</span> ideas of stream equilibrium in which incoming sediment supply and runoff determine stream-channel form. We propose a different conceptual model. Our trenching and field work along hundreds of km of stream length in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Piedmont reveal no point bars prior to European settlement. Instead, a polygenetic valley-bottom landscape underlies the drape of historic sediment. The planar surface of this veneer gives the appearance of a broad floodplain generated by long-term meandering and overbank deposition, but the "floodplain" is a recent aggradational surface from regional base-level rise due to thousands of <span class="hlt">early</span> American dams that spanned valley bottoms. As <span class="hlt">modern</span> streams incise into the historic fine-grained slackwater sediment, they expose organic-rich hydric soils along original valley bottom centers; talus, colluvium, bedrock, and saprolite with forest soils along valley margins; and weathered Pleistocene (and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058707"><span>Factors regulating <span class="hlt">early</span> life history dispersal of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cod (Gadus morhua) from coastal Newfoundland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanley, Ryan R E; deYoung, Brad; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Gregory, Robert S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in <span class="hlt">early</span> July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day(-1) with a net mortality of 27%•day(-1). Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10-20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3776752','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3776752"><span>Factors Regulating <span class="hlt">Early</span> Life History Dispersal of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Cod (Gadus morhua) from Coastal Newfoundland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stanley, Ryan R. E.; deYoung, Brad; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Gregory, Robert S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in <span class="hlt">early</span> July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day−1 with a net mortality of 27%•day–1. Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10–20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. PMID:24058707</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GGG....18.2177A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GGG....18.2177A"><span>The onset of <span class="hlt">modern</span>-like <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition: Evidence, causes, and possible implications for global cooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abelson, Meir; Erez, Jonathan</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>A compilation of benthic δ18O from the whole <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Southern Ocean (<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector) shows two major jumps in the interbasinal gradient of δ18O (Δδ18O) during the Eocene and the Oligocene: one at ˜40 Ma and the second concomitant with the isotopic event of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ˜33.7 Ma ago. From previously published circulation models and proxies, we show that the first Δδ18O jump reflects the thermal isolation of Antarctica associated with the proto-Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC). The second marks the onset of interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell, similar to the <span class="hlt">modern</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The onset of AMOC-like circulation slightly preceded (100-300 kyr) the EOT, as we show by the high-resolution profiles of δ18O and δ13C previously published from DSDP/ODP sites in the Southern Ocean and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These events coincide with the onset of antiestuarine circulation between the Nordic seas and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> which started around the EOT and may be connected to the deepening of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. We suggest that while the shallow proto-ACC supplied the energy for deep ocean convection in the Southern Hemisphere, the onset of the interhemispheric northern circulation cell was due to the significant EOT intensification of deepwater formation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> driven by the Nordic antiestuarine circulation. This onset of the interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell could have prompted the EOT global cooling.<abstract type="synopsis"><title type="main">Plain Language SummaryThe Eocene-Oligocene transition is the major abrupt climatic event during the Cenozoic, which marks the major step to the icehouse world. We show that this transition is a shift to a world with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and slightly preceded this transition. Thus, possibly was a major factor in this climatic shift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..245e2045K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..245e2045K"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Period of <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Architecture in Turkey - A Case Study of Eskisehir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karasozen, Rana</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modern</span> architecture in the Western World bore fruit at the beginning of the 20th Century in consequence of the process of <span class="hlt">modernity</span> and seeking of the proper architecture for it. It was formed firstly towards the end of the 1920s. The main reason of this nonsynchronous development was the inadequacy of enlightenment and industrial revolution during the Ottoman Empire and the lack of formation of an intellectual infrastructure which provides the basis of <span class="hlt">modernity</span>. However, the Ottoman Westernization occurring in the 19th century constituted the foundations of the Republic <span class="hlt">modernity</span> founded in 1923. The earliest <span class="hlt">modern</span> architectural designs in Turkey were first practised by European architects after the foundation of the Republic and internalised and practised extensively by the native architects afterwards. The <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> architecture of Turkey, named as “1930s Modernism”, continued until the beginning of the World War II. This period was formed in between the periods of first and second nationalist architecture movements. The <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> architecture period of Turkey was a period which high-quality designs were made. It was practised and internalised not only in big cities such as Ankara and in Istanbul, but also in the medium and small cities of the country. This situation was not just about a formal exception but about the internalisation of <span class="hlt">modernity</span> by the society. Eskisehir is one of the most important pioneering cities of the Republic period in terms of industrial and educational developments. The earliest <span class="hlt">modern</span> buildings were built as the public buildings by the state and non-citizen architects in the inadequate conditions of the country in terms of economy and professional people. The earliest <span class="hlt">modern</span> houses of the city designed by these architects were the prototypes for the later practices which offered the citizens a new lifestyle. The <span class="hlt">modern</span> houses were the symbols of prestige and status for the owners and the dwellers. The features of <span class="hlt">early</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19999638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19999638"><span>Tracing sexual identities in "old age": gender and seniority in advice literature of the <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> and <span class="hlt">modern</span> periods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Tilburg, Marja</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Thus far, historians have interpreted representations of elderly women with reference to women's roles or to women's positions in society. This article proposes a different approach toward gender: to relate representations of the aged to the sexual identities of both men and women. This article analyzes representations of old age in conduct books of the <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> period and the nineteenth century. By drawing a comparison, the eighteenth-century change of "identity regime" in European culture is brought to the fore. The article points to the influence of sexual identities on the representations of senior persons in advice literature both in Dutch and translated into Dutch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28366884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28366884"><span>Zilsel's Thesis, Maritime Culture, and Iberian Science in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leitão, Henrique; Sánchez, Antonio</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Zilsel's thesis on the artisanal origins of <span class="hlt">modern</span> science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific <span class="hlt">modernity</span>. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period using Zilsel's ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel's thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel's thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17372199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17372199"><span>Earliest evidence of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human life history in North African <span class="hlt">early</span> Homo sapiens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Tanya M; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J; Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques</p> <p>2007-04-10</p> <p>Recent developmental studies demonstrate that <span class="hlt">early</span> fossil hominins possessed shorter growth periods than living humans, implying disparate life histories. Analyses of incremental features in teeth provide an accurate means of assessing the age at death of developing dentitions, facilitating direct comparisons with fossil and <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans. It is currently unknown when and where the prolonged <span class="hlt">modern</span> human developmental condition originated. Here, an application of x-ray synchrotron microtomography reveals that an <span class="hlt">early</span> Homo sapiens juvenile from Morocco dated at 160,000 years before present displays an equivalent degree of tooth development to <span class="hlt">modern</span> European children at the same age. Crown formation times in the juvenile's macrodont dentition are higher than <span class="hlt">modern</span> human mean values, whereas root development is accelerated relative to <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans but is less than living apes and some fossil hominins. The juvenile from Jebel Irhoud is currently the oldest-known member of Homo with a developmental pattern (degree of eruption, developmental stage, and crown formation time) that is more similar to <span class="hlt">modern</span> H. sapiens than to earlier members of Homo. This study also underscores the continuing importance of North Africa for understanding the origins of human anatomical and behavioral <span class="hlt">modernity</span>. Corresponding biological and cultural changes may have appeared relatively late in the course of human evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388508','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388508"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Humans and Morphological Variation in Southeast Asia: Fossil Evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Little is known about the timing of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a <span class="hlt">modern</span> human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling‘s cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully <span class="hlt">modern</span> human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3. PMID:25849125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP54B..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP54B..07H"><span>The NAO Influence on the <span class="hlt">Early</span> to Mid-Holocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Upwelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernandez, A.; Cachão, M.; Sousa, P.; Trigo, R. M.; Freitas, M. C.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Coastal upwelling regions yield some of the oceanic most productive ecosystems, being crucial for the worldwide social and economic development. Most upwelling systems, emerging cold nutrient-rich deep waters, are located in the eastern boundaries of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific basins, and are driven by meridional wind fields parallel to the coastal shore. These winds are associated with the subsiding branch of the large-scale Anticyclonic high pressure systems that dominate the subtropical ocean basins, and therefore can be displaced or intensified within the context of past and future climate changes. However, the role of the current global warming influencing the coastal upwelling is, as yet, unclear. Therefore it is essential to derive a long-term perspective, beyond the era of instrumental measurements, to detect similar warm periods in the past that have triggered changes in the upwelling patterns. In this work, the upwelling dynamics in the Iberian North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin during the <span class="hlt">early</span> and mid-Holocene is reconstructed, using calcareous nannofossils from a decadally resolved estuarine sediment core located in southwestern Portugal. Results suggest that the coastal dynamics reflects changes in winds direction likely related to shifts in the NAO-like conditions. Furthermore, the reconstructed centennial-scale variations in the upwelling are synchronous with changes in solar irradiance, a major external forcing factor of the climate system that is known to exert influence in atmospheric circulation patterns. In addition, these proxy-based data interpretations are in agreement with wind field and solar irradiance simulation modelling for the mid-Holocene. Therefore, the conclusion that the solar activity via the NAO modulation controlled the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> upwelling of western Iberia during the <span class="hlt">early</span> and mid-Holocene at decadal to centennial timescales can be derived. The financial support for attending this meeting was possible through FCT project UID/GEO/50019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007843','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007843"><span>Connecting Paleo and <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Oceanographic Data to Understand <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation Over Decades to Centuries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kilbourne, Hali; Klockmann, Marlene; Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Ortega, Pablo; Romanou, Anastasia; Srokosz, Meric; Szuts, Zoltan; Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Hall, Ian; Heimbach, Patrick; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20170007843'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170007843_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170007843_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170007843_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170007843_hide"></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Modeling is an important tool for understanding AMOC on all timescales. Mechanistic studies of <span class="hlt">modern</span> AMOC variability have been hampered by a lack of consistency between free-running models and the sensitivity of AMOC to resolution and parameterization. Recent work within the framework of the phase two Coordinated Ocean- Reference Experiments (CORE-II) addresses this issue head on, looking at model differences of AMOC mean state and interannual variability. One consistent feature across the models is that AMOC mean transport is related to mixed layer depths and Labrador Sea salt content, whereas interannual variability is primarily associated with Labrador Sea temperature anomalies. This is consistent with the hypothesized importance of salt balance for AMOC variability on geological timescales. The simulated relationships between AMOC and subsurface temperature anomalies in fully coupled climate models reveal subsurface AMOC fingerprints that could be used to reconstruct historical AMOC variations at low frequency.With the lack of long-term AMOC observations, models of ocean state that assimilate observational data have been explored as a way to reconstruct AMOC, but comparisons between models indicate they are quite variable in their AMOC representations. Karspeck et al. (2015) found that historical reconstructions of AMOC in such models are sensitive to the details of the data assimilation procedure. The ocean data assimilation community continues to address these issues through improved models and methods for estimating and representing error information.Two objectives of paleoclimate modeling are 1) to provide mechanistic information for interpretation of paleoclimate observations, and 2) to test the ability of predictive models to simulate Earth's climate under different background forcing states. In a good example of the first objective, Schmittner and Lund (2015) and Menviel et al. (2014) provided key information about the proxy signals expected under</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27024941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27024941"><span>Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Popplow, Marcus</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4268699','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4268699"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> warning signals of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation collapse in a fully coupled climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boulton, Chris A.; Allison, Lesley C.; Lenton, Timothy M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) exhibits two stable states in models of varying complexity. Shifts between alternative AMOC states are thought to have played a role in past abrupt climate changes, but the proximity of the climate system to a threshold for future AMOC collapse is unknown. Generic <span class="hlt">early</span> warning signals of critical slowing down before AMOC collapse have been found in climate models of low and intermediate complexity. Here we show that <span class="hlt">early</span> warning signals of AMOC collapse are present in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, subject to a freshwater hosing experiment. The statistical significance of signals of increasing lag-1 autocorrelation and variance vary with latitude. They give up to 250 years warning before AMOC collapse, after ~550 years of monitoring. Future work is needed to clarify suggested dynamical mechanisms driving critical slowing down as the AMOC collapse is approached. PMID:25482065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25482065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25482065"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> warning signals of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation collapse in a fully coupled climate model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boulton, Chris A; Allison, Lesley C; Lenton, Timothy M</p> <p>2014-12-08</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) exhibits two stable states in models of varying complexity. Shifts between alternative AMOC states are thought to have played a role in past abrupt climate changes, but the proximity of the climate system to a threshold for future AMOC collapse is unknown. Generic <span class="hlt">early</span> warning signals of critical slowing down before AMOC collapse have been found in climate models of low and intermediate complexity. Here we show that <span class="hlt">early</span> warning signals of AMOC collapse are present in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, subject to a freshwater hosing experiment. The statistical significance of signals of increasing lag-1 autocorrelation and variance vary with latitude. They give up to 250 years warning before AMOC collapse, after ~550 years of monitoring. Future work is needed to clarify suggested dynamical mechanisms driving critical slowing down as the AMOC collapse is approached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E5752B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E5752B"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> warning signals of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation collapse in a fully coupled climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boulton, Chris A.; Allison, Lesley C.; Lenton, Timothy M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) exhibits two stable states in models of varying complexity. Shifts between alternative AMOC states are thought to have played a role in past abrupt climate changes, but the proximity of the climate system to a threshold for future AMOC collapse is unknown. Generic <span class="hlt">early</span> warning signals of critical slowing down before AMOC collapse have been found in climate models of low and intermediate complexity. Here we show that <span class="hlt">early</span> warning signals of AMOC collapse are present in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, subject to a freshwater hosing experiment. The statistical significance of signals of increasing lag-1 autocorrelation and variance vary with latitude. They give up to 250 years warning before AMOC collapse, after ~550 years of monitoring. Future work is needed to clarify suggested dynamical mechanisms driving critical slowing down as the AMOC collapse is approached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29245604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29245604"><span>Benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from bathyal and abyssal depths of the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> held in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> <i>Discovery</i> <i>Collections</i>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cantero, Álvaro L Peña; Horton, Tammy</p> <p>2017-11-10</p> <p>The deep-sea benthic hydroid fauna remains poorly known, in part because of less frequent sampling than the shelf fauna, in part owing to the immense study area, and partly also because available samples have been little studied by experts. In order to correct this, deep-sea benthic hydroid material from the <span class="hlt">modern</span> Discovery Collections has been studied. Samples come from localities in the North-East <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> including the Porcupine Seabight, Porcupine Abyssal Plain, Rockall Trough, Rockall Bank, and the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge. Sixteen species belonging to 12 families and 16 genera were found. Leptothecata are clearly dominant, being represented by 14 species; the remaining species belong to Anthoathecata. Lafoeidae and Tiarannidae are the most diverse families with three species each; the remaining families being represented by a single species. The low species diversity is remarkable at the generic level, with each genus being represented by a single species. Hydroid occurrence is low: twelve species were found in ≤ 9% of stations; Amphinema biscayana has the highest occurrence (27% of stations). Fifteen species were recorded in the Porcupine Seabight, two in the Rockall Trough, one at Rockall Bank, one on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, and two at the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge. The known bathymetric range for a third of the species is extended; the increase is particularly noteworthy in Amphinema biscayana, Acryptolaria crassicaulis, Clytia gigantea and Schizotricha profunda. Two distinct bathymetric groups are recognized: strictly deep-sea inhabitants and eurybathic species. Most species are globally distributed, some are widely distributed in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and others are limited to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> or the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70193529','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70193529"><span>The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of <span class="hlt">early</span>-rearing <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Waldrop, Thomas; Summerfelt, Steven T.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Good, Christopher</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Swimming exercise, typically measured in body-lengths per second (BL/s), and dissolved oxygen (DO), are important environmental variables in fish culture. While there is an obvious physiological association between these two parameters, their interaction has not been adequately studied in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar. Because exercise and DO are variables that can be easily manipulated in <span class="hlt">modern</span> aquaculture systems, we sought to assess the impact of these parameters, alone and in combination, on the performance, health and welfare of juvenile <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon. In our study, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon fry were stocked into 12 circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5–2 BL/s) or low (<0.5 BL/s) swimming speeding and high (100% saturation) or low (70% saturation) DO while being raised from 10 g to approximately 350 g in weight. Throughout the study period, we assessed the impacts of exercise and DO concentration on growth, feed conversion, survival and fin condition. By study's end, both increased swimming speed and higher DO were independently associated with a statistically significant increase in growth performance (p < .05); however, no significant differences were noted in survival and feed conversion. Caudal fin damage was associated with low DO, while right pectoral fin damage was associated with higher swimming speed. Finally, precocious male sexual maturation was associated with low swimming speed. These results suggest that providing exercise and dissolved oxygen at saturation during <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon <span class="hlt">early</span> rearing can result in improved growth performance and a lower incidence of precocious parr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26946692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26946692"><span>Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stolberg, Michael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This chapter looks from an <span class="hlt">early</span> modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of <span class="hlt">modern</span> diagnostic labels to pre-<span class="hlt">modern</span> accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Importance+AND+financial+AND+consideration&pg=6&id=EJ748400','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Importance+AND+financial+AND+consideration&pg=6&id=EJ748400"><span>A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Sweden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lindmark, Daniel</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1055352.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1055352.pdf"><span>Teaching Petrarchan and Anti-Petrarchan Discourses in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> English Lyrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ribes, Purificación</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the present article is to help students realize that Petrarchism has been an influential source of inspiration for <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> English lyrics. Its topics and conventions have lent themselves to a wide variety of appropriations which the present selection of texts for analysis tries to illustrate. A few telling examples from Spenser,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=socialisation+AND+gender&id=EJ959298','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=socialisation+AND+gender&id=EJ959298"><span>Elementary Education and the Practices of Literacy in Catholic Girls' Schools in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rutz, Andreas</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Girls' schools in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> era were largely run by nuns and can therefore be distinguished as Catholic institutions of learning. These schools flourished in the Catholic parts of Europe since the turn of the seventeenth century. Despite their focus on religious education, elementary skills such as reading, writing and sometimes arithmetic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cambridge+AND+mathematics&pg=3&id=EJ924789','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cambridge+AND+mathematics&pg=3&id=EJ924789"><span>The Commerce of Utility: Teaching Mathematical Geography in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> England</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cormack, Lesley B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The teaching and learning of geographical and mathematical knowledge in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England was a complex interaction among scholars, practitioners, merchants, and gentry. Each group had different values and goals associated with geographical knowledge and therefore different educational venues and different topics to be investigated. This paper…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=materiality+AND+method&pg=3&id=EJ1094250','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=materiality+AND+method&pg=3&id=EJ1094250"><span>School Jailhouse: Discipline, Space and the Materiality of School Morale in <span class="hlt">Early-Modern</span> Sweden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Norlin, Björn</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper uses a specific phenomenon of <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> education in Sweden, the school jail, as a point of departure for a broader analysis of educational policy in the areas of discipline and moral instruction. The paper demonstrates how the jail evolved as a part of a wider network of objects, pedagogical technologies and social routines in this…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853978"><span>Sex differences of dental pathology in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> samurai and commoners at Kokura in Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oyamada, Joichi; Kitagawa, Yoshikazu; Hara, Masahito; Sakamoto, Junya; Matsushita, Takayuki; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Manabe, Yoshitaka</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>So-called "Ohaguro", teeth blackening, in the married females was a general custom regardless of class in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period. As a result, Ohaguro was thought to have enhanced the acid resistance of tooth substance and tightened gingiva and prevented tooth morbidity due to periodontal disease. For investigation into the influence of Ohaguro, the skeletal remains of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> samurai and commoners at Kokura were examined for differences in the dental pathology based on sex. Though females from archeological sites have significantly more carious teeth and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) than males in the previous studies, the prevalence of caries and AMTL in males was higher than in females among the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> samurai and commoners in Kokura. The efficacies of Ohaguro may influence the good dental health of females. On the other hand, as females were considered inferior to males under the feudal system in Japan, males, including children, might tend to consume more nutritious foods compared to females. However, those foods are certainly not better with regard to dental health, since those foods are more highly cariogenic. These factors may have caused higher caries and AMTL prevalence among males compared to females in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Kokura.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21797075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21797075"><span>Alchemical poetry in medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kahn, Didier</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cady&pg=4&id=ED521621','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cady&pg=4&id=ED521621"><span>The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> English Drama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cady, Christina J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=german+AND+risk+AND+study&pg=4&id=EJ862051','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=german+AND+risk+AND+study&pg=4&id=EJ862051"><span>Between Charity and Education: Orphans and Orphanages in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobi, Juliane</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> times orphans have been children who could not expect sufficient support from their family because of lack of at least one parent, in most cases the father. This article will clarify of whom we are talking if we talk about orphans and what have been the conditions of living in a society which was organised by a high variety of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=urban+AND+landscape&pg=3&id=EJ996708','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=urban+AND+landscape&pg=3&id=EJ996708"><span>From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> London, 1570-1640</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chamberland, Celeste</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23488236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23488236"><span>Trading secrets: Jews and the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> quest for clandestine knowledge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jütte, Daniel</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This essay explores the significance and function of secrecy and secret sciences in Jewish-Christian relations and in Jewish culture in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period. It shows how the trade in clandestine knowledge and the practice of secret sciences became a complex, sometimes hazardous space for contact between Jews and Christians. By examining this trade, the essay clarifies the role of secrecy in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> marketplace of knowledge. The attribution of secretiveness to Jews was a widespread topos in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> European thought. However, relatively little is known about the implications of such beliefs in science or in daily life. The essay pays special attention to the fact that trade in secret knowledge frequently offered Jews a path to the center of power, especially at court. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the practice of secret sciences, the trade in clandestine knowledge, and a mercantile agenda were often inextricably interwoven. Special attention is paid to the Italian-Jewish alchemist, engineer, and entrepreneur Abramo Colorni (ca. 1544-1599), whose career illustrates the opportunities provided by the marketplace of secrets at that time. Much scholarly (and less scholarly) attention has been devoted to whether and what Jews "contributed" to what is commonly called the "Scientific Revolution." This essay argues that the question is misdirected and that, instead, we should pay more attention to the distinctive opportunities offered by the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> economy of secrecy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematicians&pg=5&id=EJ1002710','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematicians&pg=5&id=EJ1002710"><span>A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maffioli, Cesare S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=modern+AND+philosophy&pg=4&id=EJ1036177','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=modern+AND+philosophy&pg=4&id=EJ1036177"><span>Translation, Hybridization, and <span class="hlt">Modernization</span>: John Dewey and Children's Literature in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Twentieth Century China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Xu, Xu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the <span class="hlt">early</span> twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of <span class="hlt">modern</span> childhood that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JAfES.140..267A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JAfES.140..267A"><span>Late Paleogene-<span class="hlt">early</span> Neogene dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of the eastern Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Awad, Walaa K.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca E.</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Six dinoflagellate cyst biozones (zone 1-zone 5, subzones 1a and 1b) are recognized in the late Paleogene-<span class="hlt">early</span> Neogene interval of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 (Hole 959 A), Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin in the eastern Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The biozones are based on palynological analysis of 30 samples covering a 273.2-m interval with generally fair preservation and good to poor recovery. We propose a new age of Late Eocene (Priabonian) for subunit IIB as opposed to the previously published mid-<span class="hlt">Early</span> Oligocene age (middle Rupelian). This age assignment is mainly based on the presence of Late Eocene marker taxa, such as Hemiplacophora semilunifera and Schematophora speciosa in the lower part of the studied interval. We also document for the first time a hiatus event within dinoflagellate cyst zone 3, based on the last occurrences of several taxa. This interval is assigned to an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Miocene age and is barren of other microfossils. Furthermore, we propose new last occurrences for two species. The last occurrence of Cerebrocysta bartonensis is observed in the late Aquitanian-<span class="hlt">early</span> Burdigalian in this study vs. Priabonian-<span class="hlt">early</span> Rupelian in mid and high latitude regions. Also, the last occurrence of Chiropteridium galea extends to the latest <span class="hlt">Early</span> Miocene (Burdigalian) in ODP Hole 959 A; this event was previously identified in other studies as Chattian in equatorial regions, and Aquitanian in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. We suspect that these differences are due to physical (offshore vs. nearshore) and latitudinal locations of the areas studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17218523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17218523"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Forman, Steven L; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Kuz'mina, I E; Burova, N D; Goldberg, Paul; Macphail, Richard I; Giaccio, Biagio; Praslov, N D</p> <p>2007-01-12</p> <p>Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating and magnetic stratigraphy indicate Upper Paleolithic occupation-probably representing <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans-at archaeological sites on the Don River in Russia 45,000 to 42,000 years ago. The oldest levels at Kostenki underlie a volcanic ash horizon identified as the Campanian Ignimbrite Y5 tephra that is dated elsewhere to about 40,000 years ago. The occupation layers contain bone and ivory artifacts, including possible figurative art, and fossil shells imported more than 500 kilometers. Thus, <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans appeared on the central plain of Eastern Europe as <span class="hlt">early</span> as anywhere else in northern Eurasia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP53A2319S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP53A2319S"><span>On the Recurrence of Enigmatic Nannoplankton Blooms in the Subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Oligocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shanks, L. V.; Kelly, D. C.; Meyers, S. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Climatic cooling and expansion of Antarctic ice sheets was accompanied by a global reorganization in ocean circulation during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Oligocene. Such a change in the ocean-climate system is expected to alter the pelagic ecosystem through elevated rates of extinction and increased biogeographic provincialism. A well documented, but poorly understood, example of this provincialism is the recurrence of unusual chalks composed of the nannofossil genus Braarudosphaera across the subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Here we present preliminary findings from a study of the paleoceanographic conditions that fostered these Braarudosphaera "blooms" at Deep Sea Drilling Site 516 (Rio Grande Rise, southwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). Within the <span class="hlt">early</span> Oligocene stratigraphy at this site, there are four chalky (recrystallized) layers in which braarudosphaerids compose ~70% of the nannofossil assemblages. Astronomical tuning was performed on conventional benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C records encompassing the four layers to determine the timing of their recurrence. A strong astronomical rhythm is preserved with the blooms occurring during nodes in the theoretical obliquity solution. In addition, planktic foraminiferal stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) records were generated for the study section using both secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and conventional gas-source isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The SIMS-based δ13C record for the thermocline-dwelling genus Catapsydrax registers substantial (~1.5‰) decreases during the blooms, signaling pulsed increases in the upwelling of 13C-depleted waters. By contrast, the IRMS-based δ13C record for this same genus show no appreciable change in hydrographic conditions during the blooms. We attribute the invariant nature of the IRMS-based δ13C record to the smoothing effects of diagenesis. These results demonstrate how marine plankton respond to changing oceanographic conditions driven by astronomical forcing of ice-sheet dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26351665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26351665"><span>Ancient genomes link <span class="hlt">early</span> farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to <span class="hlt">modern</span>-day Basques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias</p> <p>2015-09-22</p> <p>The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe--one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory--is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and <span class="hlt">modern</span>-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as <span class="hlt">early</span> farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern <span class="hlt">early</span> European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter-gatherers. The proportion of hunter-gatherer-related admixture into <span class="hlt">early</span> farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to <span class="hlt">modern</span>-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European <span class="hlt">early</span> farmers show greater genetic similarity to <span class="hlt">modern</span>-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all <span class="hlt">modern</span>-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to <span class="hlt">modern</span>-day people.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816442K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816442K"><span>Floods of the Maros river in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> and <span class="hlt">modern</span> period (16th-20th centuries)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiss, Andrea</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-<span class="hlt">early</span> 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and <span class="hlt">early</span> spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22826222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22826222"><span>Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans to natural hazards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C</p> <p>2012-08-21</p> <p>Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in Europe. We infer that <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3427068','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3427068"><span>Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans to natural hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Borić, Dušan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in Europe. We infer that <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3002236','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3002236"><span>Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates <span class="hlt">Early</span> Clothing Use by Anatomically <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Humans in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Toups, Melissa A.; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Clothing use is an important <span class="hlt">modern</span> behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as <span class="hlt">early</span> as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. PMID:20823373</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U13A0808S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U13A0808S"><span>Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coral-Based Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity Reconstructions From the Little Ice Age and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saenger, C.; Cohen, A.; Oppo, D.; Hubbard, D.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the magnitude and spatial extent of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) cooling during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1850 A.D.; LIA) is important for elucidating low-latitude paleoclimate, but present estimates are poorly constrained. We used Sr/Ca and δ18O variability within the aragonitic skeleton of the coral genus Montastrea to reconstruct SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) during the LIA and <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene (EH) in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Four seasonally-resolved coral Sr/Ca records from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Bermuda indicate SST is highly correlated (r2 = 0.94) with <span class="hlt">modern</span> Montastrea Sr/Ca and mean annual coral extension. A Sr/Ca -SST calibration that combines temperature and growth rate effects on coral Sr/Ca was applied to fossil St. Croix corals to reconstruct Caribbean climate during 5-10 year intervals of the LIA (440 ± 30 yBP) and EH (7200 ± 30; EH). Contrary to previous coral-based LIA proxy reconstructions, we find mean SST during the LIA was similar to today, but approximately 1.2°C cooler during the EH. Both periods exhibited higher amplitude seasonal variability indicating other SST estimates may be seasonally biased. Based on residual coral δ18O, we find the LIA and EH were saltier, which suggests previous cooling estimates of 1-3°C relative to today may be exaggerated by changes in seawater δ18O. Our results are consistent with a southerly migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the LIA, but their corroboration requires longer, high-resolution proxy reconstructions that place our two brief multi-annual coral records from the LIA and EH, respectively, within the context of multi-decadal variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29902573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29902573"><span>Connecting Amazonian, Cerrado, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Forest histories: Paraphyly, old divergences, and <span class="hlt">modern</span> population dynamics in tyrant-manakins (Neopelma/Tyranneutes, Aves: Pipridae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Capurucho, João Marcos Guimarães; Ashley, Mary V; Ribas, Camila C; Bates, John M</p> <p>2018-06-11</p> <p>Several biogeographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain connections between Amazonian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> forest biotas. These hypotheses are related to the timing of the connections and their geographic patterns. We performed a phylogeographic investigation of Tyrant-manakins (Aves: Pipridae, Neopelma/Tyranneutes) which include species inhabiting the Amazon and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> forests, as well as gallery forests of the Cerrado. Using DNA sequence data, we determined phylogenetic relationships, temporal and geographic patterns of diversification, and recent intraspecific population genetic patterns, relative to the history of these biomes. We found Neopelma to be a paraphyletic genus, as N. chrysolophum is sister to Neopelma + Tyranneutes, with an estimated divergence of approximately 18 Myrs BP, within the oldest estimated divergence times of other Amazonian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> forest avian taxa. Subsequent divergences in the group occurred from Mid Miocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pliocene and involved mainly the Amazonian species, with an expansion into and subsequent speciation in the Cerrado gallery forests by N. pallescens. We found additional structure within N. chrysocephalum and N. sulphureiventer. Analysis of recent population dynamics in N. chrysocephalum, N. sulphureiventer, and N. pallescens revealed recent demographic fluctuations and restrictions to gene flow related to environmental changes since the last glacial cycle. No genetic structure was detected across the Amazon River in N. pallescens. The tyrant-manakins represent an old historical connection between the Amazon and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Forest. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618687"><span>Kant's disputation of 1770: the dissertation and the communication of knowledge in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Kevin</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Kant's disputation of 1770 at his inauguration as the metaphysics professor at Königsberg is a good example of the nature of the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> dissertation and its use as a means of communicating knowledge. The public disputation played an important part in the teaching, examination, publication and ceremonial life of the medieval university. Originally prepared as a text for the public disputation, the dissertation communicated the teachings of individual scholars and institutions and was used by eminent <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> scholars to introduce their ideas and findings. Kant's use of his 1770 disputation also reveals the different channels of communication, both private and public, that paid close attention to knowledge published in dissertations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28791892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28791892"><span>Voluntarist theology and <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> science: The matter of the divine power, absolute and ordained.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oakley, Francis</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>This paper is an intervention in the debate inaugurated by Peter Harrison in 2002 when he called into question the validity of what has come to be called 'the voluntarism and <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> science thesis'. Though it subsequently drew support from such historians of science as J. E. McGuire, Margaret Osler, and Betty-Joe Teeter Dobbs, the origins of the thesis are usually traced back to articles published in 1934 and 1961 respectively by the philosopher Michael Foster and the historian of ideas Francis Oakley. Central to Harrison's critique of the thesis are claims he made about the meaning of the scholastic distinction between the potentia dei absoluta et ordinata and the role it played in the thinking of <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> theologians and natural philosophers. This paper calls directly into question the accuracy of Harrison's claims on that very matter.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28757493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28757493"><span>Testing Drugs and Trying Cures: Experiment and Medicine in Medieval and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leong, Elaine; Rankin, Alisha</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This article examines traditions of testing drugs (as substances) and trying cures (on patients) in medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe. It argues that the history of drug testing needs to be a more central story to overall histories of scientific experiment. The practice of conducting thoughtful-and sometimes contrived-tests on drugs has a rich and varied tradition dating back to antiquity, which expanded in the Middle Ages and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period. Learned physicians paired text-based knowledge (reason) with hands-on testing (experience or experiment) in order to make claims about drugs' properties or effects on humans. Lay practitioners similarly used hands-on testing to gain knowledge of pharmaceutical effects. Although drug testing practices expanded in scale, actors, and sites, therpublished a work extolling the virtues of drugs froe was significant continuity from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hi&pg=5&id=EJ1093523','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hi&pg=5&id=EJ1093523"><span>Juan Ruiz De Alarcón: Impairment as Empowerment in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clark, Gloria Bodtorf</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, a seventeenth-century writer and native of New Spain, so excelled at the craft of writing "comedias" that he is recognized as one of the great writers of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Spain. In his personal life Ruiz de Alarcón struggled with a significant bodily impairment, a large hump on both his back and front, which made him…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29149845','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29149845"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> nutritional programming affects liver transcriptome in diploid and triploid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon, Salmo salar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vera, L M; Metochis, C; Taylor, J F; Clarkson, M; Skjærven, K H; Migaud, H; Tocher, D R</p> <p>2017-11-17</p> <p>To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during <span class="hlt">early</span> development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon. In the present study we explored the molecular mechanisms occurring in the liver of salmon when challenged with a plant-based diet in order to determine the metabolic processes affected, and the effect of ploidy. Microarray analysis revealed that nutritional history had a major impact on the expression of genes. Key pathways of intermediary metabolism were up-regulated, including oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis and fatty acid metabolism. Other differentially expressed pathways affected by diet included protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, RNA transport, endocytosis and purine metabolism. The interaction between diet and ploidy also had an effect on the hepatic transcriptome of salmon. The biological pathways with the highest number of genes affected by this interaction were related to gene transcription and translation, and cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation, communication and membrane trafficking. The present study revealed that nutritional programming induced changes in a large number of metabolic processes in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon, which may be associated with the improved fish performance and nutrient utilisation demonstrated previously. In addition, differences between diploid and triploid salmon were found, supporting recent data that indicate nutritional requirements of triploid salmon may differ from those of their diploid counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PalOc..17.1004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PalOc..17.1004B"><span>Late Oligocene to <span class="hlt">early</span> Miocene geochronology and paleoceanography from the subantarctic South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Billups, K.; Channell, J. E. T.; Zachos, J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>At Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1090 on the Agulhas Ridge (subantarctic South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records span the late Oligocene through the <span class="hlt">early</span> Miocene (25-16 Ma) at a temporal resolution of ~10 kyr. In the same time interval a magnetic polarity stratigraphy can be unequivocally correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS), thereby providing secure correlation of the isotope record to the GPTS. On the basis of the isotope-magnetostratigraphic correlation we provide refined age calibration of established oxygen isotope events Mi1 through Mi2 as well as several other distinctive isotope events. Our data suggest that the δ18O maximum commonly associated with the Oligocene/Miocene (O/M) boundary falls within C6Cn.2r (23.86 Ma). The δ13C maximum coincides, within the temporal resolution of our record, with C6Cn.2n/r boundary and hence to the O/M boundary. Comparison of the stable isotope record from ODP Site 1090 to the orbitally tuned stable isotope record from ODP Site 929 across the O/M boundary shows that variability in the two records is very similar and can be correlated at and below the O/M boundary. Site 1090 stable isotope records also provide the first deep Southern Ocean end-member for reconstructions of circulation patterns and late Oligocene to <span class="hlt">early</span> Miocene climate change. Comparison to previously published records suggests that basin to basin carbon isotope gradients were small or nonexistent and are inconclusive with respect to the direction of deep water flow. Oxygen isotope gradients between sites suggest that the deep Southern Ocean was cold in comparison to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, Indian, and the Pacific Oceans. Dominance of cold Southern Component Deep Water at Site 1090, at least until 17 Ma, suggests that relatively cold circumpolar climatic conditions prevailed during the late Oligocene and <span class="hlt">early</span> Miocene. We believe that a relatively cold Southern Ocean reflects unrestricted circumpolar flow through</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..687H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..687H"><span>Subsurface North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidence from the <span class="hlt">early</span> Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt ice-rafted detritus (IRD) events during cold periods of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Pleistocene. We used paired Mg / Ca and δ18O measurements of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral - sin.), deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, to estimate the subsurface temperatures and seawater δ18O from a sediment core from Gardar Drift, in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Carbon isotopes of benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / Ca-based temperatures and seawater δ18O suggest increased subsurface temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during periods of weaker <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of IRD. Subsurface accumulation of warm waters would have resulted in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The release of heat stored at the subsurface to the atmosphere would have helped to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in response to AMOC slowdown during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19019438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19019438"><span>All that glitters: fool's gold in the <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> era.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roos, Anna Marie</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Natural philosophers of the <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23926360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23926360"><span>Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> English Household.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leong, Elaine</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this 'treasury for health.' Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax 'family books,' this essay traces on the process through which <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> households.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3709121','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3709121"><span>Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> English Household</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leong, Elaine</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this ‘treasury for health.’ Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax ‘family books,’ this essay traces on the process through which <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> households. PMID:23926360</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156795','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156795"><span>An <span class="hlt">early</span> to mid-Pleistocene deep Arctic Ocean ostracode fauna with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> affinities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Rodriquez-Lazaro, J.; Brenner, Alec R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Pleistocene ostracode fauna was discovered in sediment core P1-93-AR-23 (P23, 76.95°N, 155.07°W) from 951 meter water depth from the Northwind Ridge, western Arctic Ocean. Piston core P23 yielded more than 30,000 specimens and a total of about 30 species. Several <span class="hlt">early</span> to mid-Pleistocene species in the genera Krithe,Echinocythereis, Pterygocythereis, and Arcacythere are now extinct in the Arctic and show taxonomic affinities to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean species. Our results suggest that there was a major ostracode faunal turnover during the global climate transitions known as the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, ~ 1.2 to 0.7 Ma) and the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE, ~ 400 ka) reflecting the development of perennial sea ice during interglacial periods and large ice shelves during glacial periods over the last 400,000 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5963893-very-early-archean-crustal-accretion-complexes-preserved-north-atlantic-craton','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5963893-very-early-archean-crustal-accretion-complexes-preserved-north-atlantic-craton"><span>Very <span class="hlt">early</span> Archean crustal-accretion complexes preserved in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> craton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nutman, A.P.; Collerson, K.D.</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> craton contains very <span class="hlt">early</span> Archean supracrustal rocks, orthogneisses, and massive ultramafic rocks. Most units of supracrustal rocks are dominated by mafic volcanic rocks, layered gabbros, and banded iron formations, bust some also contain abundant felsic volcanic-sedimentary rocks, quartzites, and marbles. Some quartzites contain detrital zircons derived from rocks identical in age to felsic volcanic-sedimentary rocks in these sequences (ca. 3800 Ma) and also from older (ca. 3850 Ma) sources. The presence of the ca. 3850 Ma detrital zircons suggests that the supracrustal units containing them were deposited on, or close to, ca. 3850 Ma sialic crust. Themore » massive ultramafic rocks have chemical affinities to upper mantle rocks. The voluminous suites of tonalitic gneisses are dominated by 3700-3730 Ma bodies that intrude the supracrustal sequences, but they also locally contain components with ages between 3820 and 3920 Ma. The diverse supracrustal units, upper mantle rocks, and {ge} 3820 Ma components in the gneisses were tectonically interleaved in very <span class="hlt">early</span> Archean convergent plate boundaries, giving rise to accretion complexes. In the period 3700-3730 Ma, voluminous tonalitic magmas produced by partial melting of predominantly mafic rocks in the base of the accretion complexes were emplaced at higher levels, forming juvenile continental crust and leaving behind a refractory lower crustal to upper mantle substrate.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGP43B1244V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGP43B1244V"><span>Astrochronology of a Late Oligocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Miocene Magnetostratigraphy from the Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Peer, T. E.; Xuan, C.; Liebrand, D.; Lippert, P. C.; Wilson, P. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Oligocene-Miocene Boundary is defined by the geomagnetic polarity reversal C6Cn.2n/C6Cn.2r with an astronomically tuned age of 23 Ma. For late Oligocene to <span class="hlt">early</span> Miocene reversals, only a few records (mainly from the equatorial Pacific and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) integrate magneto- and cyclo-stratigraphy with astronomical tuning. Reversal ages acquired from these records show differences up to 100 kyr. We report new astronomically tuned ages for reversals between 21-26.5 Ma, based on integrated palaeomagnetic and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) data from rapidly accumulated drift sediments (mean sedimentation rate of 2.5 cm/kyr) at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1406 (northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). The natural remanence preserved in the sediments is relatively weak (especially at high demagnetisation steps) and prone to influence from measurement noise. We introduce an optimisation protocol to improve the estimation of component directions used to define the reversals. For each 1-cm interval measurement, the protocol searches for the combination of a fixed number of steps of demagnetisation data that minimises the maximum angular deviation, statistically excluding the noisy measurement steps. For the tuning, we use the logarithm of the calcium over potassium ratio ln(Ca/K) from XRF core scanning data, a proxy of carbonate content in the sediment. Spectral and wavelet analyses of the 140-m long ln(Ca/K) record highlight dominant obliquity (including the 178 and 1200 kyr modulation) and additional eccentricity forcing. Supported by preliminary stable isotope analysis on benthic foraminifera, we tuned ln(Ca/K) minima to obliquity minima and eccentricity maxima. The resulting age model yield new independent ages for all reversals between C6Ar/C6AAn to C8r/C9n. Our results are generally consistent (within an obliquity cycle) with the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1090 age model [Billups et al., 2004], but deviate up to 80 kyr relative to ODP Site 1218 [Pälike et al</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140712','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140712"><span>Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in <span class="hlt">early</span> life stages of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon, Salmo salar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during <span class="hlt">early</span> development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four <span class="hlt">early</span> life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in <span class="hlt">early</span> development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15798920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15798920"><span>Heat shock during <span class="hlt">early</span> somitogenesis induces caudal vertebral column defects in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wargelius, Anna; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Hansen, Tom</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>In several terrestrial vertebrates, heat shock (HS) during somitogenesis causes vertebral deformities. To determine if vertebral deformities can occur due to sudden temperature changes during <span class="hlt">early</span> development in fish, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon embryos were HS treated during somitogenesis. Ten months later these individuals displayed a high prevalence of caudal vertebral column condensations (27-34%). The defects were located caudally of the abdominal cavity, displaying an even distribution in this region independent of time of HS. To determine if HS disturbed vertebral development during somitogenesis, two genes coding for markers of skeletal development were identified, namely, the secreted protein Shh (Sashh) and the transcription factor Twist (Satwist). These proteins are involved in the proliferation and specification of presumptive skeletal cells (sclerotome) in vertebrates. The spatial expression pattern of sashh and satwist in salmon indicated a functional conservation of these proteins. Furthermore, HS embryos displayed expressional disturbance in both sashh and satwist, indicating an effect of HS on sclerotomal cell patterning. However, the HS-protecting ability in embryos seems to be individually regulated because reduction in gene expression was not detected at all stages; in addition, HS did not induce somitic disturbance and vertebral deformity in all embryos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...145..130B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...145..130B"><span>The demise of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene greenhouse - Decoupled deep and surface water cooling in the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bornemann, André; D'haenens, Simon; Norris, Richard D.; Speijer, Robert P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> Paleogene greenhouse climate culminated during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 50 to 53 Ma). This episode of global warmth is subsequently followed by an almost 20 million year-long cooling trend leading to the Eocene-Oligocene glaciation of Antarctica. Here we present the first detailed planktic and benthic foraminiferal isotope single site record (δ13C, δ18O) of late Paleocene to middle Eocene age from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 401, Bay of Biscay). Good core recovery in combination with well preserved foraminifera makes this site suitable for correlations and comparison with previously published long-term records from the Pacific Ocean (e.g. Allison Guyot, Shatsky Rise), the Southern Ocean (Maud Rise) and the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Demerara Rise). Whereas our North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C data agree with the global trend showing the long-term shift toward heavier δ18O values, we only observe minor surface water δ18O changes during the middle Eocene (if at all) in planktic foraminiferal data. Apparently, the surface North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> did not cool substantially during the middle Eocene. Thus, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> appears to have had a different surface ocean cooling history during the middle Eocene than the southern hemisphere, whereas cooler deep-water masses were comparatively well mixed. Our results are in agreement with previously published findings from Tanzania, which also support the idea of a muted post-EECO surface-water cooling outside the southern high-latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28691535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28691535"><span>Promoting free flow in the networks: Reimagining the body in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Suzhou.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scheid, Volker</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The history of Chinese medicine is still widely imagined in terms dictated by the discourse of <span class="hlt">modernity</span>, that is as 'traditional' and 'Chinese.' And yet, so as to be intelligible to us <span class="hlt">moderns</span>, it must simultaneously be framed through categories that make it comparable somehow to the 'West' and the '<span class="hlt">modern</span>' from which it is said to be essentially different. This is accomplished, for instance, by viewing Chinese medicine as fundamentally shaped by cosmological thinking, as focusing on process rather than matter, and as forever hampered by attachments to the past even when it tries to innovate. At the same time, it is described as pursuing its objectives in ways that make sense in 'our' terms, too, such as the goal of creating physiological homeostasis through methods of supplementation and drainage. In this paper, I seek to move beyond this kind of analysis through a two-pronged approach. First, by focusing on the concept of tong - a character that calls forth images of free flow, connectivity, relatedness and understanding - I foreground an important aspect of Chinese medical thinking and practice that has virtually been ignored by Western historians of medicine and science. Second, by exploring how the influential physician Ye Tianshi (1664-1746) employed tong to advance medical thinking and practice at a crucial moment of change in the history of Chinese medicine, I demonstrate that physicians in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> China moved towards new understandings of the body readily intelligible by <span class="hlt">modern</span> biomedical anatomy. I argue that this mode of analysis allows us to transcend the limitations inherent in the current historiography of Chinese medicine: because it allows for comparison to emerge from our subject matter rather than imposing our imaginaries onto it in advance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2740336','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2740336"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous of North America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>Major groups of <span class="hlt">modern</span> mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to <span class="hlt">modern</span> mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous with the evolution of tribosphenic molars, which characterize marsupials and placentals, the two most abundant and diverse extant groups of mammals. A tooth from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous (110 million years before present) of Texas tests previous predictions (based on lower molars) of the morphology of upper molars in <span class="hlt">early</span> tribosphenic dentitions. The lingual cusp (protocone) is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived (advanced) in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=297542','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=297542"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous of North America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Major groups of <span class="hlt">modern</span> mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to <span class="hlt">modern</span> mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous with the evolution of tribosphenic molars, which characterize marsupials and placentals, the two most abundant and diverse extant groups of mammals. A tooth from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous (110 million years before present) of Texas tests previous predictions (based on lower molars) of the morphology of upper molars in <span class="hlt">early</span> tribosphenic dentitions. The lingual cusp (protocone) is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived (advanced) in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials. Images PMID:2740336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3890866','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3890866"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human-like hand morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ward, Carol V.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Plavcan, J. Michael; Brown, Francis H.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two <span class="hlt">early</span> hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record between 800,000 and 1.8 My old, a time interval well documented for the emergence and subsequent proliferation of Acheulian technology (shaped bifacial stone tools). <span class="hlt">Modern</span> and Middle to Late Pleistocene humans share a suite of derived features in the thumb, wrist, and radial carpometacarpal joints that is noticeably absent in <span class="hlt">early</span> hominins. Here we show that one of the most distinctive features of this suite in the Middle Pleistocene to recent human hand, the third metacarpal styloid process, was present ∼1.42 Mya in an East African hominin from Kaitio, West Turkana, Kenya. This fossil thus provides the earliest unambiguous evidence for the evolution of a key shared derived characteristic of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human and Neandertal hand morphology and suggests that the distinctive complex of radial carpometacarpal joint features in the human hand arose <span class="hlt">early</span> in the evolution of the genus Homo and probably in Homo erectus sensu lato. PMID:24344276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24612646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24612646"><span>Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neanderthals and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henry, Amanda G; Brooks, Alison S; Piperno, Dolores R</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>One of the most important challenges in anthropology is understanding the disappearance of Neanderthals. Previous research suggests that Neanderthals had a narrower diet than <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans, in part because they lacked various social and technological advances that lead to greater dietary variety, such as a sexual division of labor and the use of complex projectile weapons. The wider diet of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans would have provided more calories and nutrients, increasing fertility, decreasing mortality and supporting large population sizes, allowing them to out-compete Neanderthals. However, this model for Neanderthal dietary behavior is based on analysis of animal remains, stable isotopes, and other methods that provide evidence only of animal food in the diet. This model does not take into account the potential role of plant food. Here we present results from the first broad comparison of plant foods in the diets of Neanderthals and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans from several populations in Europe, the Near East, and Africa. Our data comes from the analysis of plant microremains (starch grains and phytoliths) in dental calculus and on stone tools. Our results suggest that both species consumed a similarly wide array of plant foods, including foods that are often considered low-ranked, like underground storage organs and grass seeds. Plants were consumed across the entire range of individuals and sites we examined, and none of the expected predictors of variation (species, geographic region, or associated stone tool technology) had a strong influence on the number of plant species consumed. Our data suggest that Neanderthal dietary ecology was more complex than previously thought. This implies that the relationship between Neanderthal technology, social behavior, and food acquisition strategies must be better explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20715315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20715315"><span>"None Must Meddle Betueene Man and Wife": assessing family and the fluidity of public and private in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Scotland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nugent, Janay</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The physical and ideological boundaries between public and private in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Scotland were constantly contested, resulting in a shifting reality of what was public and private. This fluidity has been recognized by historians, but how, when, and why the shifting took place is not as clear. The moral church courts (Kirk Sessions) of Reformation Scotland allow a unique opportunity to begin to understand the largely elusive boundaries between public and private in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> era.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22329064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22329064"><span>Investigating <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Ottoman consumer culture in the light of Bursa probate inventories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karababa, Eminegül</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the development of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Ottoman consumer culture. In particular, the democratization of consumption, which is a significant indicator of the development of western consumer cultures, is examined in relation to Ottoman society. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century probate inventories of the town of Bursa combined with literary and official sources are used in order to identify democratization of consumption and the macro conditions shaping this development. Findings demonstrate that commercialization, international trade, urbanization which created a fluid social structure, and the ability of the state to negotiate with guilds were possible contextual specificities which encouraged the democratization of consumption in the Bursa context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778053"><span>A nearly <span class="hlt">modern</span> amphibious bird from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous of northwestern China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>You, Hai-Lu; Lamanna, Matthew C; Harris, Jerald D; Chiappe, Luis M; O'connor, Jingmai; Ji, Shu-An; Lü, Jun-Chang; Yuan, Chong-Xi; Li, Da-Qing; Zhang, Xing; Lacovara, Kenneth J; Dodson, Peter; Ji, Qiang</p> <p>2006-06-16</p> <p>Three-dimensional specimens of the volant fossil bird Gansus yumenensis from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of northwestern China demonstrate that this taxon possesses advanced anatomical features previously known only in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic ornithuran birds. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Gansus within the Ornithurae, making it the oldest known member of the clade. The Xiagou Formation preserves the oldest known ornithuromorph-dominated avian assemblage. The anatomy of Gansus, like that of other non-neornithean (nonmodern) ornithuran birds, indicates specialization for an amphibious life-style, supporting the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds originated in aquatic or littoral niches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22702173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22702173"><span>(See symbol in text) in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kraye, Jill</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080642"><span>Philosophy of experiment in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anstey, Peter R</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20533801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20533801"><span>[Mental interiority in the <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> age. The "Cartesian theater"].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillot, Pascale</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper looks into the notion of mental interiority in the <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> age and, more specifically, into the Cartesian conception of the mind as an "inner theater". The main claim emphasizes a close connexion at work between the representative theory of the mind, associated with internalism, on the one hand, and a "neuropsychological" view on the other hand. Cartesian mentalism, in so far as it is based upon a disjunction between representation and resemblance, can therefore not be separated from the general project, already at work in the Dioptrique, of an intra-cerebral localization of the mental.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28757495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28757495"><span>The Live Chicken Treatment for Buboes: Trying a Plague Cure in Medieval and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heinrichs, Erik A</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This article traces a seven-hundred-year history of one puzzling treatment for plague buboes that used the rumps of chickens to draw out the bubo's poisons. It traces the origin of the recipe to Avicenna's Canon and explores how medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> physicians altered the treatment and explained its workings up to the <span class="hlt">early</span> eighteenth century. Much of the analysis focuses on the variants of the recipe that German physicians created as they adapted or elaborated on older recipes. This article argues that most variations of the treatment likely resulted from physicians trying ideas on paper, rather than in practice, as they attempted to unlock the mysteries of the plague's underlying poisons. Starting in the sixteenth century, however, evidence suggests that practice began to play an important role in the adaptation and interpretation of the "live chicken" recipes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24713117','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24713117"><span>Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in <span class="hlt">early</span> life stages of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon, Salmo salar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during <span class="hlt">early</span> development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four <span class="hlt">early</span> life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in <span class="hlt">early</span> development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5916G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5916G"><span>An <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pennsylvanian threshold for the influence of vegetation on fluvial landscapes, based on the geological record of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibling, Martin; Ielpi, Alessandro; Bashforth, Arden; Davies, Neil</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Vegetation profoundly influences <span class="hlt">modern</span> fluvial systems, depending on plant life-history strategies, tolerance to disturbance, and habitat drainage. However, direct evidence for these dynamic relationships is cryptic and has commonly been overlooked in ancient deposits. We report evidence for profound interactions between channels, in situ and transported vegetation in Lower Pennsylvanian formations of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada (~310 Ma), attributed to braided, meandering and fixed-channel (anastomosing) systems. Plant groups include lycopsids that preferred stable wetland settings, disturbance-tolerant calamitaleans, and deeply rooted cordaitaleans (<span class="hlt">early</span> gymnosperms) that originated in the late Mississippian and colonised both wetland and dryland settings. For the meandering and anastomosing channel deposits, upright vegetation was observed within channel-based bedforms and bars and on channel margins. Lycopsids and calamitalean groves colonized the channel bed and bank-attached bars during periods of reduced flow, nucleating bar growth after flow resumed. Upright lycopsids and cordaitaleans are common along channel cutbanks and are locally tilted towards the channel, implying involvement in bank stabilization. Rhizoconcretions that formed around deep cordaitalean roots may have aided bank reinforcement. Tetrapod and arthropod trackways in the channel deposits indicate a close linkage between riparian and aquatic ecosystems. In the braided systems, sediments that contain abundant cordaitalean logs constitute nearly 20% of channel deposits, and the logs form channel-base lags, fill channels up to 6 m deep, and form nuclei for shallow sandbars. Log accumulations overlain by shale lenses imply a contribution to channel avulsion. Rooted channel-sandstones containing upright trees are interpreted as vegetated islands in an island-braided system. Anastomosing systems are abundant in these Lower Pennsylvanian formations but rare in older strata, and the multi-channel island</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6489C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6489C"><span>Palaeogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous times: palaeotopographic and geodynamic implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaboureau, A. C.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.; Rohais, S.; Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous rift of the central segment of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is debated. Our objective is to better constraint the timing of its evolution by drawing palaeogeographic and deformation maps. Eight palaeogeographic and deformations maps were drawn from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollens) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is composed of two domains that have a different history in terms of deformation and palaeogeography. The southern domain includes Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the South, to Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the North. Extension started in the northern domain during Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain. This is time of emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp (Late Hauterivian-<span class="hlt">Early</span> Barremian). Extension started in this southern domain during <span class="hlt">Early</span> Barremian. The brittle extensional period is shorter in the South (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the North (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to Base Aptian). From Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower one, organic-rich with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until <span class="hlt">Early</span> Barremian, North of Walvis Ridge. The Sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the southern domain, the transition between the brittle rift and the sag phase is continuous. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of <span class="hlt">Early</span> to Middle Aptian age, possible period of mantle exhumation. Marine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7862M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7862M"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th century warming and impact on European summer: Mechanisms and Predictability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller, Wolfgang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>During the last century, substantial climate variations in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have occurred, such as the warmings in the 1920s and 1990s. Such variations are considered to be part of the variability known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Variations (AMV) and have a strong impact on local climates such as European summers. Here a synthesis of previous works is presented which describe the occurrence of the warming in the 1920s in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and its impact on the European summer climate (Müller et al. 2014, 2015). For this the 20th century reanalysis (20CR) and 20CR forced ocean experiments are evaluated. It can be shown that the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current and Sub-Polar Gyre are strengthened as a result of an increased pressure gradient over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Concurrently, Labrador Sea convection and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) increase. The intensified NAC, SPG, and AMOC redistribute sub-tropical water into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Nordic Seas, thereby increasing observed and modelled temperature and salinity during the 1920s. Further a mechanism is proposed by which North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat fluxes associated with the AMV modulate European decadal summer climate (Ghosh et al. 2016). By using 20CR, it can be shown that multi-decadal variations in the European summer temperature are associated to a linear baroclinic atmospheric response to the AMV-related surface heat flux. This response induce a sea level pressure structure modulating meridional temperature advection over north-western Europe and Blocking statistics over central Europe. This structure is shown to be the leading mode of variability and is independent of the summer North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation. Ghosh, R., W.A. Müller, J. Bader, and J. Baehr, 2016: Impact of observed North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal variations to European summer climate: A linear baroclinic response to surface heating. Clim. Dyn. doi:10.10007/s00382-016-3283-4 Müller W. A., D. Matei, M. Bersch, J. H. Jungclaus, H. Haak, K</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11639295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11639295"><span>A never-ending succession of epidemics? Mortality in <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> York.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galley, C</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early-modern</span> cities are often perceived to be centres of high mortality and under constant siege from a barrage of epidemics. However, few urban mortality rates have been calculated and by employing parish register evidence from the regional capital of York, the thesis that the city was subjected to continual sudden increases in mortality can be firmly rejected. Infant mortality was high but remained virtually constant between 1561 and 1700. About a quarter of all infants did not survive to reach their first birthday and neonatal mortality was especially severe. From the mid-seventeenth century a series of epidemics increased child mortality although overall levels of mortality were not significantly affected. Relatively little can be said about adult mortality and apart from two periods of 'crisis' mortality there is little to suggest that adults were greatly affected by epidemics. Indeed, for many adults the urban environment appears to have posed no great threat to health and most could look forward to a relatively long life in the city. York's mortality regime was very similar to that of the smaller market town of Gainsborough where high levels of mortality remained stable throughout much of the <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4373165','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4373165"><span>‘Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leong, Elaine</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=22133','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=22133"><span>The <span class="hlt">early</span> Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and <span class="hlt">modern</span> human emergence in Iberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duarte, Cidália; Maurício, João; Pettitt, Paul B.; Souto, Pedro; Trinkaus, Erik; van der Plicht, Hans; Zilhão, João</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of an <span class="hlt">early</span> Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans from southern Iberia. The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a ≈4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca. 24,500 years B.P. The cranium, mandible, dentition, and postcrania present a mosaic of European <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> human and Neandertal features. The temporal bone has an intermediate-sized juxtamastoid eminence. The mandibular mentum osseum and the dental size and proportions, supported by mandibular ramal features, radial tuberosity orientation, and diaphyseal curvature, as well as the pubic proportions align the skeleton with <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans. Body proportions, reflected in femorotibial lengths and diaphyseal robusticity plus tibial condylar displacement, as well as mandibular symphyseal retreat and thoracohumeral muscle insertions, align the skeleton with the Neandertals. This morphological mosaic indicates admixture between regional Neandertals and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans dispersing into southern Iberia. It establishes the complexities of the Late Pleistocene emergence of <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans and refutes strict replacement models of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human origins. PMID:10377462</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17254986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17254986"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian origin of <span class="hlt">modern</span> food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vannier, J; Steiner, M; Renvoisé, E; Hu, S-X; Casanova, J-P</p> <p>2007-03-07</p> <p>Although palaeontological evidence from exceptional biota demonstrates the existence of diverse marine communities in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian (approx. 540-520 Myr ago), little is known concerning the functioning of the marine ecosystem, especially its trophic structure and the full range of ecological niches colonized by the fauna. The presence of a diverse zooplankton in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian oceans is still an open issue. Here we provide compelling evidence that chaetognaths, an important element of <span class="hlt">modern</span> zooplankton, were present in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian Chengjiang biota with morphologies almost identical to Recent forms. New information obtained from the lowermost Cambrian of China added to previous studies provide convincing evidence that protoconodont-bearing animals also belonged to chaetognaths. Chaetognaths were probably widespread and diverse in the earliest Cambrian. The obvious raptorial function of their circumoral apparatuses (grasping spines) places them among the earliest active predator metazoans. Morphology, body ratios and distribution suggest that the ancestral chaetognaths were planktonic with possible ecological preferences for hyperbenthic niches close to the sea bottom. Our results point to the <span class="hlt">early</span> introduction of prey-predator relationships into the pelagic realm, and to the increase of trophic complexity (three-level structure) during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition, thus laying the foundations of present-day marine food chains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian origin of <span class="hlt">modern</span> food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vannier, J; Steiner, M; Renvoisé, E; Hu, S.-X; Casanova, J.-P</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Although palaeontological evidence from exceptional biota demonstrates the existence of diverse marine communities in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian (approx. 540–520 Myr ago), little is known concerning the functioning of the marine ecosystem, especially its trophic structure and the full range of ecological niches colonized by the fauna. The presence of a diverse zooplankton in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian oceans is still an open issue. Here we provide compelling evidence that chaetognaths, an important element of <span class="hlt">modern</span> zooplankton, were present in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian Chengjiang biota with morphologies almost identical to Recent forms. New information obtained from the lowermost Cambrian of China added to previous studies provide convincing evidence that protoconodont-bearing animals also belonged to chaetognaths. Chaetognaths were probably widespread and diverse in the earliest Cambrian. The obvious raptorial function of their circumoral apparatuses (grasping spines) places them among the earliest active predator metazoans. Morphology, body ratios and distribution suggest that the ancestral chaetognaths were planktonic with possible ecological preferences for hyperbenthic niches close to the sea bottom. Our results point to the <span class="hlt">early</span> introduction of prey–predator relationships into the pelagic realm, and to the increase of trophic complexity (three-level structure) during the Precambrian–Cambrian transition, thus laying the foundations of present-day marine food chains. PMID:17254986</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310825"><span>Unexpected <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> evolutionary fauna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L. J.; Botting, Joseph P.; Jenks, James F.; Bylund, Kevin G.; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A.; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage—the Paris Biota—from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200–million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an <span class="hlt">early</span> and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era. PMID:28246643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28246643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28246643"><span>Unexpected <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> evolutionary fauna.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L J; Botting, Joseph P; Jenks, James F; Bylund, Kevin G; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage-the Paris Biota-from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200-million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an <span class="hlt">early</span> and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=503736','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=503736"><span>Resistant tissues of <span class="hlt">modern</span> marchantioid liverworts resemble enigmatic <span class="hlt">Early</span> Paleozoic microfossils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Graham, Linda E.; Wilcox, Lee W.; Cook, Martha E.; Gensel, Patricia G.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Absence of a substantial pretracheophyte fossil record for bryophytes (otherwise predicted by molecular systematics) poses a major problem in our understanding of earliest land-plant structure. In contrast, there exist enigmatic Cambrian–Devonian microfossils (aggregations of tubes or sheets of cells or possibly a combination of both) controversially interpreted as an extinct group of <span class="hlt">early</span> land plants known as nematophytes. We used an innovative approach to explore these issues: comparison of tube and cell-sheet microfossils with experimentally degraded <span class="hlt">modern</span> liverworts as analogues of ancient <span class="hlt">early</span> land plants. Lower epidermal surface tissues, including rhizoids, of Marchantia polymorpha and Conocephalum conicum were resistant to breakdown after rotting for extended periods or high-temperature acid treatment (acetolysis), suggesting fossilization potential. Cell-sheet and rhizoid remains occurred separately or together depending on the degree of body degradation. Rhizoid break-off at the lower epidermal surface left rimmed pores at the centers of cell rosettes; these were similar in structure, diameter, and distribution to pores characterizing nematophyte cell-sheet microfossils known as Cosmochlaina. The range of Marchantia rhizoid diameters overlapped that of Cosmochlaina pores. Approximately 14% of dry biomass of Marchantia vegetative thalli and 40% of gametangiophores was resistant to acetolysis. Pre- and posttreatment cell-wall autofluorescence suggested the presence of phenolic compounds that likely protect lower epidermal tissues from soil microbe attack and provide dimensional stability to gametangiophores. Our results suggest that at least some microfossils identified as nematophytes may be the remains of <span class="hlt">early</span> marchantioid liverworts similar in some ways to <span class="hlt">modern</span> Marchantia and Conocephalum. PMID:15263095</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRG..123..760L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRG..123..760L"><span>Linking the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Distribution of Biogenic Proxies in High Arctic Greenland Shelf Sediments to Sea Ice, Primary Production, and Arctic-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Inflow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Limoges, Audrey; Ribeiro, Sofia; Weckström, Kaarina; Heikkilä, Maija; Zamelczyk, Katarzyna; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Tallberg, Petra; Massé, Guillaume; Rysgaard, Søren; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Niels; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The eastern north coast of Greenland is considered to be highly sensitive to the ongoing Arctic warming, but there is a general lack of data on <span class="hlt">modern</span> conditions and in particular on the <span class="hlt">modern</span> distribution of climate and environmental proxies to provide a baseline and context for studies on past variability. Here we present a detailed investigation of 11 biogenic proxies preserved in surface sediments from the remote High Arctic Wandel Sea shelf, the entrance to the Independence, Hagen, and Danmark fjords. The composition of organic matter (organic carbon, C:N ratios, δ13C, δ15N, biogenic silica, and IP25) and microfossil assemblages revealed an overall low primary production dominated by benthic diatoms, especially at the shallow sites. While the benthic and planktic foraminiferal assemblages underline the intrusion of chilled <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters into the deeper parts of the study area, the distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts is controlled by the local bathymetry and sea ice conditions. The distribution of the dinoflagellate cyst Polarella glacialis matches that of seasonal sea ice and the specific biomarker IP25, highlighting the potential of this species for paleo sea ice studies. The information inferred from our multiproxy study has important implications for the interpretation of the biogenic-proxy signal preserved in sediments from circum-Arctic fjords and shelf regions and can serve as a baseline for future studies. This is the first study of its kind in this area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7249H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7249H"><span>Subsurface warming in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during rapid climate events in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Mid-Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Sierro, Francisco; Cacho, Isabel; Abel Flores, José</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A new high-resolution reconstruction of the temperature and salinity of the subsurface waters using paired Mg/Ca-δ18O measurements on the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistrorsa (sin.) was conducted on a deep-sea sediment core in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Site U1314). This study aims to reconstruct millennial-scale subsurface hydrography variations during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Mid-Pleistocene (MIS 31-19). These rapid climate events are characterized by abrupt shifts between warm/cold conditions, and ice-sheet oscillations, as evidenced by major ice rafting events recorded in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediments (Hernández-Almeida et al., 2012), similar to those found during the Last Glacial period (Marcott et al, 2011). The Mg/Ca derived paleotemperature and salinity oscillations prior and during IRD discharges at Site U1314 are related to changes in intermediate circulation. The increases in Mg/Ca paleotemperatures and salinities during the IRD event are preceded by short episodes of cooling and freshening of subsurface waters. The response of the AMOC to this perturbation is an increased of warm and salty water coming from the south, transported to high latitudes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> beneath the thermocline. This process is accompanied by a southward shift in the convection cell from the Nordic Seas to the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and better ventilation of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at mid-depths. Poleward transport of warm and salty subsurface subtropical waters causes intense basal melting and thinning of marine ice-shelves, that culminates in large-scale instability of the ice sheets, retreat of the grounding line and iceberg discharge. The mechanism proposed involves the coupling of the AMOC with ice-sheet dynamics, and would explain the presence of these fluctuations before the establishment of high-amplitude 100-kyr glacial cycles. Hernández-Almeida, I., Sierro, F.J., Cacho, I., Flores, J.A., 2012. Impact of suborbital climate changes in the North</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4033H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4033H"><span>Subsurface North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidences from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt IRD events during cold periods of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene. We used Mg / Ca-based temperatures of deep-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral) planktonic foraminifera and paired Mg / Ca-δ18O measurements to estimate the subsurface temperatures and δ18O of seawater at Site U1314. Carbon isotopes on benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / Ca-based temperatures and δ18O of seawater suggest increased temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to enhanced northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during periods of AMOC reduction. Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of ice-rafted detritus (IRD). Warm waters accumulated at subsurface would result in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Release of heat and salt stored at subsurface would help to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in response to AMOC slowdown during the MIS3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPD...9.6495K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPD...9.6495K"><span>A major change in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water circulation during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene transition 1.6 million years ago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khélifi, N.; Frank, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The global ocean-climate system has been highly sensitive to the formation and advection of deep water in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> but its evolution over the Pliocene-Pleistocene global cooling is not fully understood. In particular, changes in the sources and mixing of prevailing deep waters are not well constrained. Here we present new records of the bottom-water radiogenic neodymium isotope (ϵNd) variability obtained from three DSDP/ODP sites at water depths between 2100 and 5000 m in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to reconstruct changes in deep water circulation over the past 4 million years. Prior to 1.6 million years ago (Ma), we find ϵNd values primarily oscillating between -9 and -11 at all sites, consistent with enhanced vertical mixing of water masses. At 1.6 Ma, the ϵNd signatures synchronously shifted to less radiogenic values around -12 at different water depths and water mass signatures gradually became more distinct. Since then values and amplitudes of "glacial/interglacial" ϵNd oscillations have been similar to the Late Quaternary at each site. This change 1.6 Ma reflects a major reorganization of deep water circulation in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> towards a more stratified water column with distinct water masses accompanying the enhanced response of climate to the Earth's obliquity forcing during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27346229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27346229"><span>Insecticide ADME for support of <span class="hlt">early</span>-phase discovery: combining classical and <span class="hlt">modern</span> techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>David, Michael D</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The two factors that determine an insecticide's potency are its binding to a target site (intrinsic activity) and the ability of its active form to reach the target site (bioavailability). Bioavailability is dictated by the compound's stability and transport kinetics, which are determined by both physical and biochemical characteristics. At BASF Global Insecticide Research, we characterize bioavailability in <span class="hlt">early</span> research with an ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) approach, combining classical and <span class="hlt">modern</span> techniques. For biochemical assessment of metabolism, we purify native insect enzymes using classical techniques, and recombinantly express individual insect enzymes that are known to be relevant in insecticide metabolism and resistance. For analytical characterization of an experimental insecticide and its metabolites, we conduct classical radiotracer translocation studies when a radiolabel is available. In discovery, where typically no radiolabel has been synthesized, we utilize <span class="hlt">modern</span> high-resolution mass spectrometry to probe complex systems for the test compounds and its metabolites. By using these combined approaches, we can rapidly compare the ADME properties of sets of new experimental insecticides and aid in the design of structures with an improved potential to advance in the research pipeline. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5927395','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5927395"><span>‘They are called Imperfect men’: Male Infertility and Sexual Health in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> England</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Evans, Jennifer</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Scholars of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> gender and medicine have tended to focus on female infertility. Discussions that have included male reproductive failure have considered sexual ability and impotence, rather than infertility. Nonetheless, fathering children was important to male social standing and the fulfilment of their patriarchal roles. This article will demonstrate that male infertility was not absent from medical literature, but appeared in a variety of settings including tests for infertility, seventeenth-century handbills for treatments, and surgical treatises. It will show that medical and surgical writers accepted that men could be rendered infertile, but still sexually capable, in a variety of ways. Moreover, the article will show that seventeenth-century surgeons expected male readers to be concerned about their reproductive potential and constructed a framework of efficacy based upon their ability to secure on-going fertility. PMID:29731544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19999636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19999636"><span>Prophecy, patriarchy, and violence in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> household: the revelations of Anne Wentworth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnston, Warren</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>In 1676 the apostate Baptist prophet Anne Wentworth (1629/30-1693?) published "A True Account of Anne Wentworths Being Cruelly, Unjustly, and Unchristianly Dealt with by Some of Those People called Anabaptists," the first in a series of pamphlets that would continue to the end of the decade. Orignially a member of a London Baptist church, Wentworth left the congregation and eventually her own home after her husband used physical force to stop her writing and prophesying. Yet Wentworth persisted in her "revelations." These prophecies increasingly focused on her response to those who were trying to stop her efforts, especially within her own household. This article examines Wentworth's writings as an effort by an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> woman, using arguments of spiritual agency, to assert ideas about proper gender roles and household responsibilities to denounce her husband and rebut those who criticized and attempted to suppress her.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3376001','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3376001"><span>Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McHugh, Tim</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Brittany. PMID:21724643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16809862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16809862"><span>Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Venice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McGough, Laura J</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24341260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24341260"><span>Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> astronomy texts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Throughout the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21724643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21724643"><span>Expanding women's rural medical work in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Brittany: the Daughters of the Holy Spirit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McHugh, Tim</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Brittany.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162047','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162047"><span>Book review: Mapping gendered routes and spaces in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> world</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Varanka, Dalia E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This book encapsulates and extends many seminal ideas presented at the eighth “Attending to <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Women” conference held at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee in June 2012. Merry Wiesner-Hanks has done a masterful job editing these papers within a central theme of the interaction of spatial domains with gender-based phenomena. The fifteen chapters of this book are organized into four sections: “Framework,” discussing theoretical concepts; “Embodied Environments,” focusing on physicality; “Communities and Networks” of social patterns; and “Exchanges” across geographic space. Together, a global society shaped by gender and sexuality and intersected by race and class emerges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20196248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20196248"><span>"Secrets of the female sex": Jane Sharp, the reproductive female body, and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> midwifery manuals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hobby, E</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> midwifery manuals in Britain were usually the work of men. These books were a significant source of information about the body to the wider reading public: many sold well, and their prefatory materials include injunctions to readers not to make improper use of them. What is particularly interesting about Jane Sharp's Midwives Book (1671) is that it both provides a compendium of current beliefs concerning reproduction, and indicates the author's ironic perception of the misogyny that underpinned accepted ideas about the female reproductive body. This article gives key examples of Sharp's interventions, and also refers to Thomas Bartholin, Bartholinus Anatomy (1688); Richard Bunworth, The Doctresse (1656); Hugh Chamberlen, The Accomplisht Midwife (1673); The Compleat Midwifes Practice (1656); Helkiah Crooke, Microcosmographia (1615); Nicholas Culpeper, A Directory for Midwives (1651); Jacques Guillemeau, Childbirth (1612); Jean Riolan, A Sure Guide (1657); Daniel Sennert, Practical Physick (1664); William Sermon, The Ladies Companion (1671); and Percival Willughby, Observations in Midwifery (c. 1675).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21114067','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21114067"><span>"This base stallion trade": he-whores and male sexuality on the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> stage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Panek, Jennifer</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Recent scholarship on <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> male sexuality has stressed the threat that sexual relations with women were believed to pose to manhood. Focusing on such plays as Middleton's Your Five Gallants (c. 1608), Fletcher and Massinger's The Custom of The Country (c.1620), and Davenant's The Just Italian (1630), this paper analyzes representations of male prostitutes for women to argue that cultural attitudes toward male sexual performance were more complex and self-contradictory than generally acknowledged. The patriarchal codes that warned against effeminating sexual desire and advocated parsimonious seminal “spending” are undermined by their own inherent corollary: the most masculine man is one who can demonstrate unlimited seminal capacity. Furthermore, it has been posited that the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period marked the beginning of a shift from “reproductive” to “performative” constructions of manhood, in which the manhood-affirming aspects of male sexuality gradually became unmoored from their traditional association with bloodlines and attached instead to penetrative sexual conquest. The class implications of this shift inform patriarchal anxieties about the superior sexual stamina of servant-class men and their bodily “service” to elite women. Representing a fantasy of empowering male sexuality that relies on detaching virile performance from effeminating desire—a physiologically absurd notion—and on providing sexual “service” while leaving intact both class and gender hierarchies, a successful he-whore like Middleton's Tailby or Davenant's Sciolto playfully challenges the dictates of patriarchal masculinity by fulfilling them in absurd and unorthodox ways. Ultimately, he illuminates just how untenable those dictates might be.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643784"><span>Dental enamel defects in German medieval and <span class="hlt">early-modern</span>-age populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lang, J; Birkenbeil, S; Bock, S; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in a medieval and an <span class="hlt">early-modern</span>-age population from Thuringia, Germany. Sixty-six skeletons subdivided into 31 single burials (12 th /13 th c.) and 35 individuals buried in groups (15 th /16 th c.) were examined. DDE were classified on 1,246 teeth according to the DDE index. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH), a special type of DDE, was recorded according to the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria. DDE was found in 89.4% of the individuals (single burials 90.3% and group burials 88.6%). Hypoplastic pits were the most frequent defect in primary teeth and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) in permanent teeth. 13 individuals (24.1%) showed at least one hypomineralised permanent tooth, 12.2% had MIH on at least one first permanent molar and 10.0% in permanent incisors. Second primary molars were affected in 8.0% of the children and juveniles. No individual suffered from affected molars and incisors in combination. Endogenous factors like nutritional deficiencies and health problems in <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood could have been aetiological reasons of DDE and MIH. The frequency of DDE and MIH might have been masked by extended carious lesions, dental wear and ante-mortem tooth loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19618523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19618523"><span>"The Root is Hidden and the Material Uncertain": the challenges of prosecuting witchcraft in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Venice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seitz, Jonathan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The rich archival records of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Venice have yielded much information about <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> society and culture. The transcripts of witchcraft trials held before the Inquisition reveal the complexities of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> conceptions of natural and supernatural. The tribunal found itself entirely unable to convict individuals charged with performing harmful magic, or maleficio, as different worldviews clashed in the courtroom. Physicians, exorcists, and inquisitors all had different approaches to distinguishing natural phenomena from supernatural, and without a consensus guilty verdicts could not be obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.464....1P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.464....1P"><span>The combined influence of Pacific decadal oscillation and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation on central Mexico since the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1600s</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Jungjae; Byrne, Roger; Böhnel, Harald</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Periodic droughts have been one of the most serious environmental issues in central Mexico since the earliest times. The impacts of future droughts are likely to become even more severe as the current global warming trend increases potential evaporation and moisture deficits. A full understanding of the mechanism underlying climate variability is imperative to narrow the uncertainty about future droughts and predict water availability. The climatic complexity generated by the combined influence of both <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific forcings, however, causes considerable difficulty in interpreting central Mexican climate records. Also, the lack of high-resolution information regarding the climate in the recent past makes it difficult to clearly understand current drought mechanisms. Our new high-resolution δ18 O record from Hoya Rincon de Parangueo in central Mexico provides useful information on climate variations since the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1600s. According to our results, the central Mexican climate has been predominantly controlled by the combined influence of the 20-year Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the 70-year <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). However, the AMO probably lost much of its influence in central Mexico in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th century and the PDO has mostly driven climate change since. Marked dryness was mostly associated with co-occurrence of highly positive PDO and negative AMO between ∼1600 and 1900.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681694"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> postdisaster health outreach to <span class="hlt">modern</span> families: a cross-sectional study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haga, Jon Magnus; Stene, Lise Eilin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Thoresen, Siri; Dyb, Grete</p> <p>2015-12-17</p> <p>This study investigated whether the <span class="hlt">early</span> outreach programme following the Utøya massacre reached out to the parents of the young survivors. Additionally, we explored whether specialised mental healthcare services were provided to parents presenting elevated levels of PTSD and depression reactions. Cross-sectional survey, face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. Norway, aftermath of the Utøya massacre, 4-7 months postdisaster. Following the Utøya massacre, proactive <span class="hlt">early</span> outreach programmes were launched in all municipalities that were affected, facilitating access to appropriate healthcare services. A total of 453 parents of the Utøya survivors aged 13-33 years took part. Overall, 59.8% of the survivors were represented by one or more parent in our study. Engagement with the proactive <span class="hlt">early</span> outreach programme (psychosocial crisis teams and contact persons in the municipalities), utilisation of healthcare services (general practitioner and specialised mental healthcare services) and mental distress (UCLA PTSD-RI and HSCL-8). A majority of the participants reported contact with the proactive <span class="hlt">early</span> outreach programme (crisis team, 73.9%; and contact person, 73.0%). Failure of outreach to parents was significantly associated with non-intact family structure (crisis team: OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.72, p=0.032) and non-Norwegian origin (crisis team: OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.14 to 4.98, p=0.021). Gender of the parent was not significantly associated with failure of the outreach programme (p ≥ 0.075). Provision of specialised mental healthcare services was significantly associated with higher levels of PTSD (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.79, p<0.001) and depression (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.71 to 3.43, p<0.001) and not with the sociodemography (p ≥ 0.122). Proactive <span class="hlt">early</span> outreach strategies may be helpful in identifying healthcare needs and facilitating access to the required services in a population struck by disaster. Our findings prompt increased attention to the complexity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21465995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21465995"><span>Alchemical poetry in medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part I--Preliminary survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kahn, Didier</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11609051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11609051"><span>The women of the family? Speculations around <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> British physicians.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pelling, M</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>In the extensively explored areas of professionalization, domestic ideology, and the relationships between women and medicine, the debate on the British case has given little consideration to issues of identity arising for the male medical practitioner as a result of family life. For the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period, these issues can be seen as among a broad-ranging set of problems posed by the female gender connotations of the medical role. Such problems were most pronounced for the élite physicians who sought membership of the London College of Physicians. Their attitudes and dilemmas are important because of their influence, over the long term, on the criteria for professionalization. Using biographical data, a contrast can be shown between the dynastic ideals of physicians, which stressed the male line, and the high incidence among such physicians of celibacy, childlessness, and small families. Families of origin of physicians, on the other hand, tended to be large. Assumptions about the role of women in medical care, especially in clerical and gentry families, entail a recognition of the possible influence of female relatives on the vocations of male physicians. Given the low status of women's work, physicians developed ambivalences which affected the construction of their identities, their families, and the passing on of their skills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11590893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11590893"><span>Curiosity, forbidden knowledge, and the reformation of natural philosophy in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harrison, P</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>From the patristic period to the beginning of the seventeenth century curiosity was regarded as an intellectual vice. Curious individuals were considered to be proud and "puffed up," and the objects of their investigations were deemed illicit, dispute engendering, unknowable, or useless. Seventeenth-century projects for the advancement of learning had to distance themselves from curiosity and its dubious fruits or, alternatively, enhance the moral status of the curious sensibility. Francis Bacon's proposals for the instauration of knowledge were an integral part of a process by which curiosity underwent a remarkable transformation from vice to virtue over the course of the seventeenth century. The changing fortunes of this human propensity highlight the morally charged nature of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> debates over the status of natural philosophy and the particular virtues required of its practitioners. The rehabilitation of curiosity was a crucial element in the objectification of scientific knowledge and led to a gradual shift of focus away from the moral qualities of investigators and the propriety of particular objects of knowledge to specific procedures and methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25404262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25404262"><span>Thinking in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modernity</span> and the separation process between philosophy and psychology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klempe, Sven Hroar</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>One of the big questions in psychology is when and how psychology disentangled from philosophy. Usually it is referred to the laboratory Wundt established in Leipzig in 1879 as the birth for psychology as an independent science. However this separation process can also be traced in other ways, like by focusing on how the two sciences approach and understand thinking. Although thinking and language were not included in the research in this laboratory, Wundt (1897) regarded thinking as the core of psychology. As a commentary to Papanicolaou (Integr Psychol Behav Sci doi:10.1007/s12124-014-9273-3, 2014), this paper investigates the differences in how psychology and philosophy conceptualized thinking in <span class="hlt">early</span> Western <span class="hlt">modernity</span>. Thus one of the findings is that the separation process between the two was more or less initiated by Immanuel Kant. By defining thinking in terms of the pure reason he excluded the psychological understanding of thinking because psychology basically defined thinking in terms of ideas derived from qualia and sensation. Another finding is that psychology itself has not completely realized the differences between the philosophical and the psychological understanding of thinking by having been influenced by Kant's ideal of the pure reason. This may also explain some of the crises psychology went through during the twentieth century.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23278189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23278189"><span>The <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eknoyan, Garabed</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12938716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12938716"><span>Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keiser, George R</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29359852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29359852"><span>Glass and Alchemy in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Europe: An Analytical Study of Glassware from the Oberstockstall Laboratory in Austria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Veronesi, Umberto; Martinón-Torres, Marcos</p> <p>2018-06-18</p> <p>Glass distillation equipment from an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> alchemical laboratory was analyzed for its technology of manufacture and potential origin. Chemical data show that the assemblage can be divided into sodium-rich, colorless distillation vessels made with glass from Venice or its European imitation, and potassium-rich dark-brown non-specialized forms produced within the technological tradition of forest glass typical for central and north-western Europe. These results complete our understanding of the supply of technical apparatus at one of the best-preserved alchemical laboratories and highlight an <span class="hlt">early</span> awareness of the need for high-quality instruments to guarantee the successful outcome of specialized chemical operations. This study demonstrates the potential of archaeological science to inform historical research around the practice of <span class="hlt">early</span> chemistry and the development of <span class="hlt">modern</span> science. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27804261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27804261"><span>A Dental Prosthesis from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age in Tuscany (Italy).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Minozzi, Simona; Panetta, Daniele; De Sanctis, Massimo; Giuffra, Valentina</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>During archaeological excavation, carried out in the S. Francesco Monastery at Lucca (Tuscany, Italy), a golden dental appliance was discovered. The prosthesis was found, together with commingled human remains, in the collective tomb of the aristocratic family of the Guinigi, a powerful family who governed Lucca from 1392 until 1429. The exact archaeological dating of the prosthesis was not possible, but some elements suggest a dating to the beginning of the 17th century. Aim of the paper is to study and describe the dental appliance trough a multidisciplinary approach. Macroscopical and micro-CT examinations were performed to investigate the technics used for the realization of the dental prosthesis. SEM analysis was performed to study alloy composition of the metallic fixing lamina and microstructure of the deposits on the dental surface. The dental prosthesis consists in five mandibular teeth: three central incisors and two lateral canines linked together by a golden band inserted into the dental roots to replace the anterior arch of the jaw. Micro-CT scan revealed the presence of two small golden pins inserted into each tooth crossing the root and fixing the teeth to the internal gold band. SEM examination of the lamina indicated a homogeneous composition, with average contents of 73 wt% gold, 15.6 wt% Ag, and 11.4 wt% Cu. Apposition of dental calculus on the teeth indicated that the prosthesis had been worn for a long period. This dental prosthesis provides a unique finding of technologically advanced dentistry in this period. In fact, during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age, some authors described gold band technology for the replacement of missing teeth; nevertheless, no direct evidences of these devices have been brought to light up so far. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22343704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22343704"><span>[Development of <span class="hlt">modern</span> medical doctors in Japan from late Edo to <span class="hlt">early</span> Meiji].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, OckJoo; Takuya, Miyagawa</p> <p>2011-12-31</p> <p>Western medicine began to be introduced to Japan since late 16th century. Japanese encounter with Western medicine centered on Dejima in Nagasaki in the seventeenth and eighteenth century and the initial process of introduction was gradual and slow. In the mid-nineteenth century, facing threats from Western countries, Tokugawa bakufu asked Dutch naval surgeon, J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort to teach western medicine at the Kaigun Denshujo naval academy in Nagasaki. The government also supported the western medical school in Edo. This paper deals with how <span class="hlt">modern</span> western medical doctors were developed in Japan from late Edo to <span class="hlt">early</span> Meiji. The publication of the New Text on Anatomy in 1774 translated by Sugita Genpaku and his colleagues stimulated Japanese doctors and scholars to study western medicine, called Rangaku. During the Edo period, western medicine spread into major cities and countryside in Japan through Rangaku doctors. In 1838, for example, Dr. Ogata Koan established the Rangaku school named Tekijuku and educated many people with western medicine. When smallpox vaccination was introduced in Japan in 1849, Rangaku doctors played an important role in practiving the vaccination in cities and in countryside. After the Edo bakufu and the feudal lords of han(han) actively pursued to introduce western medicine to their hans by sending their Samurai to Edo or Nagasaki or abroad and by establishing medical schools and hospitals until their abolition in 1871. In late Edo and <span class="hlt">early</span> Meiii military doctors were the main focus of training to meet the urgent need of military doctors in the battle fields of civil wars. The new Meiji government initiated a series of top-down reformations concerning army recruitment, national school system, public health and medical system. In 1874, the government introduced a law on medicine to adopt western medicine only and to launch a national licence system for medical doctors. Issuing supplementary regulations in the following</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21786648','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21786648"><span>[Dynamics of numbers of commercial fish in <span class="hlt">early</span> ontogenesis in different areas of the Central-Eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arkhipov, A G; Mamedov, A A; Simonova, T A; Tenitskaia, I A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Changes in the quantitative composition of mass fish species at <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of ontogenesis in different areas of the Central-Eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (CEA) in warm and cold seasons in 1994-2008 were analyzed in the paper. The most widespread representatives of ichthyocenosis of CEA were: European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus), common scad (Trachurus trachurus), round sardinella (Sardinella aurita), and West-African scad (Trachrus trecae). The data obtained indicate that, within the economic zone of Morocco, fluctuations of numbers at <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of development in European pilchard and common scad are close over the entire water area under consideration (36 degrees-21 degrees N). The regularities of fluctuations of the numbers of ichthyoplankton are similar to the interannual changes in the biomass of fish in the area of Morocco. In the area of Mauritania (21 degrees-16 degrees N), fluctuations of numbers of the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of development of commercial fish cannot be unambiguously correlated with changes in the biomass of adult fish. It is known that, in the economic zone of Mauritania, there are Senegal-Mauritanian populations of round sardinella and West-African scad that inhabit waters of different states and are not completely assessed by our surveys. Therefore, no obvious relation was observed between the considered data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1124667','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1124667"><span>Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room <span class="hlt">Modernization</span>: A Practical Guide for <span class="hlt">Early</span> Design Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>As control rooms are <span class="hlt">modernized</span> with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the <span class="hlt">early</span> design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room <span class="hlt">modernization</span>. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how themore » process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room <span class="hlt">modernization</span> activities.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45.4218T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoRL..45.4218T"><span>Mechanisms and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Detections of Multidecadal Oxygen Changes in the Interior Subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tjiputra, J. F.; Goris, N.; Lauvset, S. K.; Heinze, C.; Olsen, A.; Schwinger, J.; Steinfeldt, R.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>The oxygen response in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (SPNA) to future climate change is poorly understood. We investigate the multidecadal variability in interior oxygen and its association with the subpolar gyre index (a gyre strength proxy) for models and data. During positive phases, persistent strong Labrador Sea (LS) lateral and vertical mixing entrains oxygen-rich water into the interior southern SPNA and vice versa during negative phases. This is indicated by the observed anomalously fresh, cold, and low apparent oxygen utilization, resembling LS water mass during positive phases. We use this relationship to benchmark Earth system models. Under a high CO2 future, the best performing models project a steady decline in SPNA oxygen, driven partly by lower solubility and increases in apparent oxygen utilization. The deoxygenation depends on the sensitivity of the LS mixing to warming. The time of emergence of interior oxygen is projected to be decades earlier than that of temperature and salinity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25929354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25929354"><span>Farmed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar L. parr may reduce <span class="hlt">early</span> survival of wild fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sundt-Hansen, L; Huisman, J; Skoglund, H; Hindar, K</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The study examined the density-mediated effects on growth, survival and dispersal of wild and farmed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar offspring in the period immediately following emergence, using a substitutive design. In small confined stream channels, wild parr coexisting with farmed parr had a significantly poorer survival, than wild parr alone. Density did not affect this relationship. In larger unconfined stream channels, wild parr coexisting with farmed parr entered a downstream trap in higher numbers than wild parr in allopatry. The results suggests that during the earliest life stages, farmed S. salar can outcompete wild S. salar, resulting in a reduced survival of wild S. salar. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN43B1152F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN43B1152F"><span>AN APPLIED ONTOLOGY TO THE MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CABLE: HISTORICAL TO <span class="hlt">MODERN</span> INFORMATICS CONSIDERATION FROM A MATH PERSPECTIVE KAIEM L. FRINK ELIZABETH CITY STATE UNIVERSITY(ECSU)KAIEM_FRINK@HOTMAIL.COM, DR. DEWAYNE B. BRANCH ECSU, DR. ROB RASKIN JET PROPULSIONS LABORATORY GLENDA THOMAS ECSU,KENNETH JONES ECSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frink, K.; Branch, B. D.; Raskin, R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">early</span> as the 1600's scientists in various fields world to address a global human need of human communication on a global basis by implementing the trans-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cable. The Mid 4Trans-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cable is one of the earliest forms of global commutation. Here may be the first evidence of informatics needs where science, data, and engineering were collaborated across disciplines to advance a world standard of living. This work investigates what applied ontology may have been consisting with the thought pattern of such expertise who conducted informatics arguably without computers, ontology’s, and a cyber infrastructure. In <span class="hlt">modern</span> context, an applied ontology may best represent the body of intentional learning, research and collaboration among scientists to achieve a human goal. Perhaps if such intentional non-partisan work can achieve a solution such as Trans-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Cable, climate change may benefit from intentional collaborative ontology’s and systems of multi user knowledgebase or expert informatics systems. 1Bruce C. Heezen 1924 -1977 American Geologist famous for mapping the Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Mountain Ridge in the 1950’s. Heezen died in 1977 on a submarine cruise to study the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ridge near Ice land aboard the NR-1 submarine. 7Marie Tharp academic background is Bachelors Degree in English, Master Degree in Geology University of Michigan, and Mathematics Degree at the University of Tulsa. Tharp worked at Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University. History of the Digital Divide during the 1600’s touches on the availability of information. 3Issue of Mathematics during the 1600’s would be lack of communications and assessment. The scientific communities cannot address climate change most largely due to language barriers amongst humans. Weight per meter for the cable and the ships weight capacity in the 1600’sWeight/per meter 2w/m=X1 taking into account that maximum depths or <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean was unknown at that time and still is.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26306061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26306061"><span>Children's Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> England, c. 1580-1720.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Newton, Hannah</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors' casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of 'children's physic' existed in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children's physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child's humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children's bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28786473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28786473"><span>OH 83: A new <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> human fossil cranium from the Ndutu beds of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reiner, Whitney B; Masao, Fidelis; Sholts, Sabrina B; Songita, Agustino Venance; Stanistreet, Ian; Stollhofen, Harald; Taylor, R E; Hlusko, Leslea J</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Herein we introduce a newly recovered partial calvaria, OH 83, from the upper Ndutu Beds of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We present the geological context of its discovery and a comparative analysis of its morphology, placing OH 83 within the context of our current understanding of the origins and evolution of Homo sapiens. We comparatively assessed the morphology of OH 83 using quantitative and qualitative data from penecontemporaneous fossils and the W.W. Howells <span class="hlt">modern</span> human craniometric dataset. OH 83 is geologically dated to ca. 60-32 ka. Its morphology is indicative of an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> human, falling at the low end of the range of variation for post-orbital cranial breadth, the high end of the range for bifrontal breadth, and near average in frontal length. There have been numerous attempts to use cranial anatomy to define the species Homo sapiens and identify it in the fossil record. These efforts have not met wide agreement by the scientific community due, in part, to the mosaic patterns of cranial variation represented by the fossils. The variable, mosaic pattern of trait expression in the crania of Middle and Late Pleistocene fossils implies that morphological <span class="hlt">modernity</span> did not occur at once. However, OH 83 demonstrates that by ca. 60-32 ka <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in Africa included individuals that are at the fairly small and gracile range of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human cranial variation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20617610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20617610"><span>[Academy idea and Curiositas as leitmotif of the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Leopoldina].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boehm, Laetitia</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>, it deals with aspects of privilege law, regarding the development of new kinds of higher learning institutions and university politics in the imperial city in the confessional era ("Semi-Universities"/"Academies" Strassburg, Nuremberg-Altdorf). This is followed by a thematic balancing.--Chapter III. Curiositas as an <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Leitmotif of Natural Science Academies refers first to the multivalent popular usage of the fashionable and borrowed German word "Kuriosität" [curiosity] during the Enlightenment, then inquires about the word's original definitions in ancient and medieval scholarly traditions. In the age of humanist source study and expeditions into "new worlds", the concept of curiositas as an (ethically ambivalent) "desire for knowledge" was revitalized; this is exemplified by two types of sources: the report of the Orient and Brazil explorer André Thevet and the literarily virulent figure (around 1600) of knowledge-thirsty Faust. A reexamination of the academy's foundational documents, in conjunction with the peregrinatio academica of Schweinfurt doctors to Italy, confirms the old question, now newly posed, about the methodological and programmatic signal of the curiositas device. The self-reflection of the naturae-curiosi and their focus on observational development and natural-historical classifications in the area of "materia medica" show--besides other advances in scholarship in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 17th century--clear correlation with the "phenomenology of <span class="hlt">modern</span> thought" that is so often discussed today. However, there must be an evolutionary and innovative differentiation from what would later be called "natural science" disciplines (like biology, zoology, mineralogy, chemistry), as opposed to an all-inclusively defined "scientific revolution", which pertains to astronomical and mathematical ways of thinking, as well as new insights in the physical-instrumental field.--Chapter IV. The Urban Medical Profession Between Scholarly Medicine and Practice applies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026872','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026872"><span>Movements and habitat use by PIT-tagged <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon parr in <span class="hlt">early</span> winter: The influence of anchor ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Roussel, J.-M.; Cunjak, R.A.; Newbury, R.; Caissie, D.; Haro, A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>1. Movements and habitat use by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon parr in Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick, were studied using Passive Integrated Transponder technology. The fish were tagged in the summer of 1999, and a portable reading system was used to collect data on individual positions within a riffle-pool sequence in the <span class="hlt">early</span> winter of 1999. Two major freezing events occurred on November 11-12 (Ice 1) and November 18-19 (Ice 2) that generated significant accumulations of anchor ice in the riffle. 2. Individually tagged parr (fork length 8.4-12.6 cm, n = 15) were tracked from 8 to 24 November 1999. Over this period, emigration (40%) was higher from the pool than from the riffle. Of the nine parr that were consistently located, seven parr moved <5 m up- or downstream, and two parr moved more than 10 m (maximum 23 m). Parr moved significantly more by night than by day, and diel habitat shifts were more pronounced in the pool with some of the fish moving closer to the bank at night. 3. During Ice 2, there was relatively little movement by most of the parr in the riffle beneath anchor ice up to 10 cm in thickness. Water temperature was 0.16??C above the freezing point beneath anchor ice, suggesting the existence of suitable habitats where salmon parr can avoid supercooling conditions and where they can have access to low velocity shelters. To our knowledge, these are the first data on habitat use by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon parr under anchor ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000097046','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000097046"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Spring in Europe: A Result of More Dominant North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Southwesterlies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Otterman, J.; Atlas, R.; Chase, T. N.; Chou, S.-H.; Jusem, J. C.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.; Rogers, J.; Russell, G. L.; Schubert, S. D.; Sud, Y. C.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20000097046'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20000097046_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20000097046_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20000097046_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20000097046_hide"></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Abstract A 1999 study reports an advancement of spring in Europe by 0.2 days per year in the 30 years since 1960. Our analysis indicates that this trend results directly from a change in the late-winter surface winds over the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: the southwesterly direction became more dominant, and the speed of these southwesterlies increased slightly. Splitting the 52-year NCEP reanalysis dataset into the First Half, FH (1948-1973)), and the Second Half, SH (1974-1999), we analyze the wind direction for the February mean at three sites at 45N: site A at 30W, site B at 20W, and site C at 10W. The incidence (number of years) of the southwesterlies in SH Vs. (FH) at these sites respectively increased in SH as follows: 24(18), 19(12), 14(l 1); whereas the incidence of northeasterlies decreased: 0(2), 1(2), and 1(6). When the February mean wind is southwesterly, the monthly mean sensible heat flux from the ocean at these sites takes zero or slightly negative values, that is, the surface air is warmer than the ocean. Analyzing the scenario in the warm late winter 1990, we observe that the sensible heat flux from the ocean surface in February 1990 shows a "tongue" of negative values extending southwest from southern England to 7N. This indicates that the source of the maritime air advected into Europe lies to the south of the "tongue." Streamline analysis suggests that the Southwestern or southcentral North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is the source. For February 1990, we find strong, ascending motions over Europe at 700 mb, up to -0.4 Pa/s as monthly averages. Associated with the unstable low-levels of the troposphere are positive rain and cloud anomalies. Thus, positive in situ feedback over land in late winter (when shortwave absorption is not significant) apparently further enhances the surface temperature through an increase in the greenhouse effect due to increased water vapor and cloudiness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25263187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25263187"><span>Effects of feeding regimes and <span class="hlt">early</span> maturation on migratory behaviour of landlocked hatchery-reared <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar smolts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norrgård, J R; Bergman, E; Schmitz, M; Greenberg, L A</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The migratory behaviour of hatchery-reared landlocked <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar raised under three different feeding regimes was monitored through the lower part of the River Klarälven, Sweden. The smolts were implanted with acoustic transmitters and released into the River Klarälven, 25 km upstream of the outlet in Lake Vänern. <span class="hlt">Early</span> mature males, which had matured the previous autumn, were also tagged and released. To monitor migration of the fish, acoustic receivers were deployed along the migratory route. The proportion of S. salar that reached Lake Vänern was significantly greater for fish fed fat-reduced feed than for fish given rations with higher fat content, regardless of ration size. Fish from the <span class="hlt">early</span> mature male group remained in the river to a greater extent than fish from the three feeding regimes. Smolt status (degree of silvering), as visually assessed, did not differ among the feeding regime groups, and moreover, fully-silvered fish, regardless of feeding regime, migrated faster and had a greater migration success than fish with less developed smolt characteristics. Also, successful migrants had a lower condition factor than unsuccessful ones. These results indicate that the migration success of hatchery-reared S. smolts released to the wild can be enhanced by relatively simple changes in feeding regimes and by matching stocking time with smolt development. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CliPa...1...19G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CliPa...1...19G"><span>Seasonal mean pressure reconstruction for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (1750 1850) based on <span class="hlt">early</span> marine data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gallego, D.; Garcia-Herrera, R.; Ribera, P.; Jones, P. D.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Measurements of wind strength and direction abstracted from European ships' logbooks during the recently finished CLIWOC project have been used to produce the first gridded Sea Level Pressure (SLP) reconstruction for the 1750-1850 period over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> based solely on marine data. The reconstruction is based on a spatial regression analysis calibrated by using data taken from the ICOADS database. An objective methodology has been developed to select the optimal calibration period and spatial domain of the reconstruction by testing several thousands of possible models. The finally selected area, limited by the performance of the regression equations and by the availability of data, covers the region between 28° N and 52° N close to the European coast and between 28° N and 44° N in the open Ocean. The results provide a direct measure of the strength and extension of the Azores High during the 101 years of the study period. The comparison with the recent land-based SLP reconstruction by Luterbacher et al. (2002) indicates the presence of a common signal. The interannual variability of the CLIWOC reconstructions is rather high due to the current scarcity of abstracted wind data in the areas with best response in the regression. Guidelines are proposed to optimize the efficiency of future abstraction work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CliPD...1...57G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CliPD...1...57G"><span>Seasonal mean pressure reconstruction for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (1750 1850) based on <span class="hlt">early</span> marine data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gallego, D.; Garcia-Herrera, R.; Ribera, P.; Jones, P. D.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Measures of wind strength and direction abstracted from European ships' logbooks during the recently finished CLIWOC project have been used to produce the first gridded Sea Level Pressure (SLP) reconstruction for the 1750-1850 period over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> based solely on marine data. The reconstruction is based on a spatial regression analysis calibrated by using data taken from the ICOADS database. An objective methodology has been developed to select the optimal calibration period and spatial domain of the reconstruction by testing several thousands of possible models. The finally selected area, limited by the performance of the regression equations and by the availability of data, covers the region between 28°N and 52°N close to the European coast and between 28°N and 44°N in the open Ocean. The results provide a direct measure of the strength and extension of the Azores High during the 101 years of the study period. The comparison with the recent land-based SLP reconstruction by Luterbacher et al. (2002) indicates the presence of a common signal. The interannual variability of the CLIWOC reconstructions is rather high due to the current scarcity of abstracted wind data in the areas with best response in the regression. Guidelines are proposed to optimize the efficiency of future abstraction work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612064H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612064H"><span>Community replacement instead of drowning: Evolution of proto-North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate-platform production in the run-up to of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aptian OAE1a</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huck, Stefan; Stein, Melody; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.; Immenhauser, Adrian; Heimhofer, Ulrich</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In the proto-North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> realm (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal), carbonate platform production witnessed a major biotic turnover during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aptian. Here, Urgonian-type rudist-nerinid dominated limestones were replaced by an orbitolinid-rich, oyster and serpulid-bearing marly facies. Integrated biostratigraphic-chemostratigraphic studies (Burla et al., 2008; Huck et al., 2012) provided evidence that this change coincides with the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aptian carbonate platform drowning episode in the run-up of oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a (transition D. forbesi to D. deshayesi ammonite zones), which has been recorded, from many localities in the Tethyan Ocean (Godet, 2013). Unlike Helvetic and Arabian carbonate platforms, which are characterised by a punctuated mass occurrence of orbitolinids marking the onset of the Aptian (Rawil and Hawar members, respectively), orbitolinids are an abundant constituent of the proto-North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate platform community from the Late Barremian onwards. Orbitolinid-rich packstones and marls showing mass-occurrences of orbitolinids indicate repeated short-term installation of specific environmental conditions (eutrophication and/or deepening). In order to critically assess the influence of regional palaeoenvironmental against global palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanographic changes on the Proto-North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate platform evolution, several outcrop successions in the Lusitanian Basin covering the critical interval have been investigated in detail with regard to facies and petrographic characteristics and geochemical (C-/O-isotopes, P content, bulk-rock and clay mineralogy,) inventory. The aims of the present study are three-fold: (1) to characterise proto-North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Lower Aptian shallow-water carbonates with respect to diagenetic history, microfacies, and distribution of fossils useful for the analysis of palaeoenvironments (corals, rudists and orbitolinids); (2) to evaluate the influence of sea-level and humidity changes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993DSRI...40.1087W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993DSRI...40.1087W"><span>Marine and terrigenous origin of organic matter in <span class="hlt">modern</span> sediments of the equatorial East <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: the σ 13C and molecular record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westerhausen, L.; Poynter, J.; Eglinton, G.; Erlenkeuser, H.; Sarnthein, M.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The contributions of marine and terrigenous organic carbon in <span class="hlt">modern</span> organic sediments from the equatorial East <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was quantified, based on the stable carbon isotope composition standardized for sea surface temperature and water depth. In our binary σ 13C mixing model, the marine end member -26 ∞ is redefined at 23°C and 0 m water depth and the terrigenous end member, independent of SST and water depth, at - 26 ∞. Terrigenous carbon fractions account for more than 60% of total organic carbon (TOC) on the shelf off East Liberia and the Ivory Coast and off Gabon. On the upper slope the land-derived fraction decreases in general to less than 20% of the high TOC concentrations, which can reach 3.5 wt%. The distribution of plant wax n-alkanes (C 27, C 29, C 31) and C:N ratios do not parallel those of land-derived organic carbon, but may be controlled largely by carbon degradation and aeolian/aquatic sorting. The ratio of n-alkanols vs n-alkanes (HPA index) varies with water depth in a nonlinear mode. Since both groups of compounds stem from the same source, plant waxes, it is proposed that the HPA index is controlled mainly by degradation and to a lesser extent by sorting prior to degradation. Enhanced n-alkane concentrations (up to 580 μg/gTOC) in the Gambia Basin and in the central Guinea Basin clearly reflect the influx of aeolian organic matter from northeasterly trades near and below the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The particle flux from marine plankton is traced by high concentrations of both dinosterol, long-chain unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (C 37-C 39), and alkandiols in marine organic matter. Whereas alkenones, synthetized by prymnesiophyte algae generally, reflect upwelling-related productivity off-shore, dinosterol, synthetized by dinoflagellates, is enriched in near-shore areas of high marine productivity linked to fluvial fertilization. All marine biomarker groups show a surprisingly low concentration below the equatorial</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265008"><span>Socio-cultural factors in dental diseases in the Medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age of northern Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lopez, Belen; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Dopico, Eduardo</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to present, discuss and compare the results of pathological conditions in teeth from skeletal remains found in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) in four Medieval cemeteries (late 15th century) and three cemeteries from the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age (late 18th century). The final objective was to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic and cultural changes that took place during the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age in Spain, on oral health. Dental caries and antemortem tooth loss were considered as indicators of dental disease. A significant increase of both dental caries and antemortem tooth loss occurred in <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age individuals when compared to Medieval values, as reported for other regions. Increased trade with other continents may explain this deterioration of dental health, as food exchanges (mainly with America) contributed to diet changes for the overall population, including higher carbohydrate consumption (introduction of potatoes) at the expense of other vegetables. A sex-specific increase of dental disease with age, and a significantly higher prevalence of carious lesions in <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age females than in males, were also found. These changes can be explained by women having had limited access to dental care after the Middle-<span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age transition, as a consequence of socio-cultural and political changes. In these changes, an increasing influence of the Catholic Church in Spanish society has to be noted, as it can contribute to the explanation of the unequal dental health of men and women. Women were socially excluded from dental care by regulations inspired by religious precepts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664409','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664409"><span>The Gondwana Breakup and the History of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian Oceans Unveils Two New Clades for <span class="hlt">Early</span> Neobatrachian Diversification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frazão, Annelise; da Silva, Hélio Ricardo; Russo, Claudia Augusta de Moraes</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The largest anuran diversity belongs to the Neobatrachia, which harbor more than five thousand extant species. Here, we propose a new hypothesis for the historical aspects of the neobatrachian evolution with a formal biogeographical analysis. We selected 12 genes for 144 neobatrachian genera and four archaeobatrachian outgroups and performed a phylogenetic analysis using a maximum likelihood algorithm with the rapid bootstrap test. We also estimated divergence times for major lineages using a relaxed uncorrelated clock method. According to our time scale, the diversification of crown Neobatrachia began around the end of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous. Our phylogenetic tree suggests that the first split of Neobatrachia is related to the geological events in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian Oceans. Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura. The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia. On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides. The biogeographical analysis indicates that many neobatrachian splits occurred as a result of geological events such as the separation between South America and Africa, between India and the Seychelles, and between Australia and South America. PMID:26618546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28499850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28499850"><span>Skeletal muscle protease activities in the <span class="hlt">early</span> growth and development of wild <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar L.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lysenko, Liudmila A; Kantserova, Nadezda P; Kaivarainen, Elena I; Krupnova, Marina Yu; Nemova, Nina N</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Growth-related dynamics of intracellular protease activities in four year classes of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar L. 1758) parr and smolts inhabiting salmon rivers of northwestern Russia (the White Sea basin) were studied. Cathepsin B, cathepsin D, proteasome, and calpain activities in the skeletal muscles of salmon were assessed to investigate their relative contribution to the total protein degradation as well as to young fish growth process. It was confirmed that calpain activity dominates in salmon muscles while proteasome plays a minor role, in contrast to terrestrial vertebrates. Calpain and proteasome activities were maximal at the <span class="hlt">early</span> post-larval stage (in parrs 0+) and declined with age (parrs 1+ through 2+) dropping to the lowest level in salmon smolts. Annual growth increments and proteolytic activities of calpains and proteasome in the muscles of salmon juveniles changed with age in an orchestrated manner, while lysosomal cathepsin activities increased with age. Comparing protease activities and growth increments in salmon parr and smolts we suggested that the partial suppression of the protein degradation could be a mechanism stimulating efficient growth in smoltifying salmon. Growth and smoltification-related dynamics of protease activities was quite similar in salmon populations from studied spawning rivers, such as Varzuga and Indera; however, some habitat-related differences were observed. Growth increments and protease activities varied in salmon parr 0+ (but not on later ages) inhabiting either main rivers or small tributaries apparently due to habitat difference on the resources for fish growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhTea..56..286G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhTea..56..286G"><span>"Physics Stories": How the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Technologies of High Voltage and High Vacuum Led to "<span class="hlt">Modern</span> Physics"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenslade, Thomas B.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Some of you may remember the 1979 television series "Connections" that was written and narrated by James Burke, a British science writer. Burke's technique was to choose a number of seemingly unrelated ideas and show how they led to developments in science and technology. This is an enjoyable business, even if some of the connections seem to be stretched at times, and led to a book by Burke. In a number of talks that I have given over the years, I have made somewhat less fanciful connections that suggest how the technologies of high vacuum and high voltage led to what used to be called "<span class="hlt">modern</span> physics." Today we might limit the "<span class="hlt">modern</span>" era to the years from 1890 to 1920 that gave the first workable theories of small-scale physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4424280','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4424280"><span>‘To[o] much eating stifles the child’: fat bodies and reproduction in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Toulalan, Sarah</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Abstract This article examines associations between fat bodies and reproductive dysfunction that were prevalent in medical, midwifery and other literature in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England. In a period when fertility and successful reproduction were regarded as hugely important for social, economic and political stability such associations further contributed to negative attitudes towards fat bodies that were fuelled by connection with the vices of sloth and gluttony. Fat bodies were categorized as inherently, constitutionally, less sexual and reproductively successful. Consequently they were perceived as unhealthy and unfit for their primary purpose once they had reached sexual maturity: marriage and the production of children. PMID:25960608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8960L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8960L"><span>Major <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene carbon cycle perturbations and changes in planktic foraminiferal assemblages from the southeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (ODP Site 1263)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald Roy; Wade, Bridget</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>On a paleoclimatic perspective the <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleogene represents one of the most interesting and dynamic intervals of the Earth's history. Present record indicates that the Earth climate system reached its Cenozoic maximum peak of global warming and probably of pCO2 during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene climatic optimum (EECO, 49-53 Ma). Superimposed to the general trend, our planet experienced short-term ( 40-200 kyr) repeated peaks in global temperatures and major changes in the carbon cycle, known as hyperthermals. Great scientific interest has been focused on the <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleogene hyperthermal events, given the assumed similarity with the current climatic scenario. Less attention has been dedicated to the EECO long lasting perturbation of extraordinary warming thus many characters of this interval still remain largely unconstrained, especially as for the biotic response. We present here results on <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene planktic foraminiferal analysis from the southeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, Leg 208) to explore possible relationship between changes in assemblages and carbon cycle perturbation. The time interval is of particular interest for an abrupt switch occurred at low-latitude of the northern hemisphere between two important calcifiers of the tropical-subtropical <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleogene oceans, the genera Morozovella and Acarinina at the carbon isotopic excursion known as J event, at the EECO onset. Precisely, the relative abundance of Morozovella permanently decreased by at least half, along with a progressive decrease in the number of species. Concomitantly, Acarinina almost doubled its abundance and diversified. Site 1263 was located during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene at a latitude of 40° south therefore representing a temperate setting of southern hemisphere not yet explored for planktic foraminiferal changes. We document a permanent decrease in Morozovella abundance at the beginning of the EECO, although this decline is delayed by 165 kyr with respect to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28792933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28792933"><span>An <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> human presence in Sumatra 73,000-63,000 years ago.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Westaway, K E; Louys, J; Awe, R Due; Morwood, M J; Price, G J; Zhao, J-X; Aubert, M; Joannes-Boyau, R; Smith, T M; Skinner, M M; Compton, T; Bailey, R M; van den Bergh, G D; de Vos, J; Pike, A W G; Stringer, C; Saptomo, E W; Rizal, Y; Zaim, J; Santoso, W D; Trihascaryo, A; Kinsley, L; Sulistyanto, B</p> <p>2017-08-17</p> <p>Genetic evidence for anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans (AMH) out of Africa before 75 thousand years ago (ka) and in island southeast Asia (ISEA) before 60 ka (93-61 ka) predates accepted archaeological records of occupation in the region. Claims that AMH arrived in ISEA before 60 ka (ref. 4) have been supported only by equivocal or non-skeletal evidence. AMH evidence from this period is rare and lacks robust chronologies owing to a lack of direct dating applications, poor preservation and/or excavation strategies and questionable taxonomic identifications. Lida Ajer is a Sumatran Pleistocene cave with a rich rainforest fauna associated with fossil human teeth. The importance of the site is unclear owing to unsupported taxonomic identification of these fossils and uncertainties regarding the age of the deposit, therefore it is rarely considered in models of human dispersal. Here we reinvestigate Lida Ajer to identify the teeth confidently and establish a robust chronology using an integrated dating approach. Using enamel-dentine junction morphology, enamel thickness and comparative morphology, we show that the teeth are unequivocally AMH. Luminescence and uranium-series techniques applied to bone-bearing sediments and speleothems, and coupled uranium-series and electron spin resonance dating of mammalian teeth, place <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in Sumatra between 73 and 63 ka. This age is consistent with biostratigraphic estimations, palaeoclimate and sea-level reconstructions, and genetic evidence for a pre-60 ka arrival of AMH into ISEA. Lida Ajer represents, to our knowledge, the earliest evidence of rainforest occupation by AMH, and underscores the importance of reassessing the timing and environmental context of the dispersal of <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans out of Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Natur.548..322W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Natur.548..322W"><span>An <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> human presence in Sumatra 73,000-63,000 years ago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westaway, K. E.; Louys, J.; Awe, R. Due; Morwood, M. J.; Price, G. J.; Zhao, J.-X.; Aubert, M.; Joannes-Boyau, R.; Smith, T. M.; Skinner, M. M.; Compton, T.; Bailey, R. M.; van den Bergh, G. D.; de Vos, J.; Pike, A. W. G.; Stringer, C.; Saptomo, E. W.; Rizal, Y.; Zaim, J.; Santoso, W. D.; Trihascaryo, A.; Kinsley, L.; Sulistyanto, B.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Genetic evidence for anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans (AMH) out of Africa before 75 thousand years ago (ka) and in island southeast Asia (ISEA) before 60 ka (93-61 ka) predates accepted archaeological records of occupation in the region. Claims that AMH arrived in ISEA before 60 ka (ref. 4) have been supported only by equivocal or non-skeletal evidence. AMH evidence from this period is rare and lacks robust chronologies owing to a lack of direct dating applications, poor preservation and/or excavation strategies and questionable taxonomic identifications. Lida Ajer is a Sumatran Pleistocene cave with a rich rainforest fauna associated with fossil human teeth. The importance of the site is unclear owing to unsupported taxonomic identification of these fossils and uncertainties regarding the age of the deposit, therefore it is rarely considered in models of human dispersal. Here we reinvestigate Lida Ajer to identify the teeth confidently and establish a robust chronology using an integrated dating approach. Using enamel-dentine junction morphology, enamel thickness and comparative morphology, we show that the teeth are unequivocally AMH. Luminescence and uranium-series techniques applied to bone-bearing sediments and speleothems, and coupled uranium-series and electron spin resonance dating of mammalian teeth, place <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in Sumatra between 73 and 63 ka. This age is consistent with biostratigraphic estimations, palaeoclimate and sea-level reconstructions, and genetic evidence for a pre-60 ka arrival of AMH into ISEA. Lida Ajer represents, to our knowledge, the earliest evidence of rainforest occupation by AMH, and underscores the importance of reassessing the timing and environmental context of the dispersal of <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans out of Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4545517','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4545517"><span>Children’s Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> England, c. 1580–1720</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Newton, Hannah</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors’ casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of ‘children’s physic’ existed in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children’s physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child’s humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children’s bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature. PMID:26306061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28694447','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28694447"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Life Stress on the Methylome and Transcriptome of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Salmon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moghadam, Hooman K; Johnsen, Hanne; Robinson, Nicholas; Andersen, Øivind; H Jørgensen, Even; Johnsen, Helge K; Bæhr, Vegar J; Tveiten, Helge</p> <p>2017-07-10</p> <p>Exposure to environmental stressors during <span class="hlt">early</span>-life stages can change the rate and timing of various developmental processes. Epigenetic marks affecting transcriptional regulation can be altered by such environmental stimuli. To assess how stress might affect the methylome and transcriptome in salmon, fish were treated using cold-shock and air-exposure from the eye-stage until start-feeding. The fish were either stressed prior to hatching (E), post-hatching (PH), pre- and post-hatching (EPH) or not stressed (CO). Assessing transcriptional abundances just prior to start feeding, E and PH individuals were found to have modified the expression of thousands of genes, many with important functions in developmental processes. The EPH individuals however, showed expression similar to those of CO, suggesting an adaptive response to extended periods of stress. The methylome of stressed individuals differed from that of the CO, suggesting the importance of environment in shaping methylation signatures. Through integration of methylation with transcription, we identified bases with potential regulatory functions, some 10s of kb away from the targeted genes. We then followed fish growth for an additional year. Individuals in EPH showed superior growth compared to other treatment groups, highlighting how stress can potentially have long-lasting effects on an organism's ability to adapt to environmental perturbations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598545"><span>'A WONDERFULL MONSTER BORNE IN GERMANY': HAIRY GIRLS IN MEDIEVAL AND <span class="hlt">EARLY</span> <span class="hlt">MODERN</span> GERMAN BOOK, COURT AND PERFORMANCE CULTURE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katritzky, M A</p> <p>2014-09-24</p> <p>Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. <span class="hlt">Modern</span> investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, <span class="hlt">modern</span> historians routinely link <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the 'Wild Man' of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veländerungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die <span class="hlt">moderne</span> Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des Wilden</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22653696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22653696"><span>How the <span class="hlt">early</span> voltage clamp studies of José del Castillo inform "<span class="hlt">modern</span>" neuroscience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zottoli, Steven J</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The description of ionic currents that flow across the membrane of the squid giant axon during an action potential sparked an interest in determining whether there were similar currents in vertebrates. The preparation of choice was the node of Ranvier in single myelinated fibers in frog. José del Castillo spent 3 years on the United States mainland from 1956 to 1959. During that time, he collaborated with Jerome Y. Lettvin and John W. Moore. I discuss how these individuals met one another and some of their scientific discoveries using the voltage clamp to study squid giant axons and frog nodes. Much of this work was conducted at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, and I attempt to convey a sense of the unique scientific "melting pot" that existed at the Marine Biological Laboratory and the broader effect that del Castillo had on "<span class="hlt">modern</span>" neuroscience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21273486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21273486"><span>The southern route "out of Africa": evidence for an <span class="hlt">early</span> expansion of <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans into Arabia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Armitage, Simon J; Jasim, Sabah A; Marks, Anthony E; Parker, Adrian G; Usik, Vitaly I; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter</p> <p>2011-01-28</p> <p>The timing of the dispersal of anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans (AMH) out of Africa is a fundamental question in human evolutionary studies. Existing data suggest a rapid coastal exodus via the Indian Ocean rim around 60,000 years ago. We present evidence from Jebel Faya, United Arab Emirates, demonstrating human presence in eastern Arabia during the last interglacial. The tool kit found at Jebel Faya has affinities to the late Middle Stone Age in northeast Africa, indicating that technological innovation was not necessary to facilitate migration into Arabia. Instead, we propose that low eustatic sea level and increased rainfall during the transition between marine isotope stages 6 and 5 allowed humans to populate Arabia. This evidence implies that AMH may have been present in South Asia before the Toba eruption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23E2882J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23E2882J"><span>Forecasted Flood Depth Grids Providing <span class="hlt">Early</span> Situational Awareness to FEMA during the 2017 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Hurricane Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, M.; Longenecker, H. E., III</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>-event observed depth grids and remote sensing-derived flood extents for the 2017 hurricane season. These newly available forecasted models were used for pre-event response planning and <span class="hlt">early</span> estimated hazard exposure counts, allowing FEMA to plan for and stand up operations several days sooner than previously possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=measurement+AND+properties&pg=6&id=EJ915626','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=measurement+AND+properties&pg=6&id=EJ915626"><span>Contributions of <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4470C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4470C"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span>-middle Eocene transition in calcareous nannofossil assemblages at IODP Site U1410 (Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, NW <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cappelli, Carlotta; Agnini, Claudia; Yamamoto, Yuhji</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">early</span>-middle Eocene interval documents the shift from the warmest greenhouse conditions occurred during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 52-50 Ma) to the beginning of the cooling phase which led to the Oligocene icehouse regime. This important transition is well expressed as a reversal in the global oxygen and carbonate isotope trends (Zachos et al., 2001). Moreover, this interval was a time of remarkable transformation in the marine biosphere. Communities of calcareous nannoplankton, marine calcifying algae at the base of the oceans food chain, experienced transient and permanent profound changes. Calcareous nannofossil are regarded as remarkable tools both in biostratigraphy and paleoecology, with several taxa that show different responses to changes in physical parameters of surface waters. Here, we aim to document calcareous nannoplankton assemblage changes across the <span class="hlt">early</span>-middle Eocene transition, in order to upset the biostratigraphic framework and to increase comprehension of how phytoplankton communities responded to paleoenvironmental changes at that time. The sedimentary successions recovered at IODP Site U1410 (Exp. 342; 41˚ 19.6987'N; 49˚ 10.1995'W, Norris et al., 2012) on the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (NW <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) offer an expanded record of the <span class="hlt">early</span>-middle Eocene interval that is marked by an increase in accumulation rate related to sedimentation of clay-rich nannofossil oozes. Quantitative analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages was conducted, encompassing calcareous nannofossil Zones NP12 -NP15 or CNE4-CNE10 (Martini, 1971; Agnini et al., 2014). The study interval records the appearance and proliferation of Noelaerhabdaceae family (i.e, Reticulofenestra/Dictyococcites group), which can be considered one of the most significant shifts in the assemblage structure of the Paleogene. This change was probably favored by modifications in surface water chemistry. The middle Eocene clay-rich sediments contain well preserved</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090009323&hterms=Science+modern&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DScience%2Bmodern','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090009323&hterms=Science+modern&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DScience%2Bmodern"><span>NASA's <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): <span class="hlt">Early</span> Results and Future Directions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schubert, Siegfried</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This talk will review the status and progress of the NASA/Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) atmospheric global reanalysis project called the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). An overview of NASA's emerging capabilities for assimilating a variety of other Earth Science observations of the land, ocean, and atmospheric constituents will also be presented. MERRA supports NASA Earth science by synthesizing the current suite of research satellite observations in a climate data context (covering the period 1979-present), and by providing the science and applications communities with of a broad range of weather and climate data with an emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle. MERRA is based on a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5), that includes the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and the new NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) unified grid-point statistical interpolation (GST) analysis scheme developed as a collaborative effort between NCEP and the GMAO. In addition to MERRA, the GMAO is developing new capabilities in aerosol and constituent assimilation, ocean, ocean biology, and land surface assimilation. This includes the development of an assimilation capability for tropospheric air quality monitoring and prediction, the development of a carbon-cycle modeling and assimilation system, and an ocean data assimilation system for use in coupled short-term climate forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405904','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405904"><span>Whole-genome analyses resolve <span class="hlt">early</span> branches in the tree of life of <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jarvis, Erich D.; Mirarab, Siavash; Aberer, Andre J.; Li, Bo; Houde, Peter; Li, Cai; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Nabholz, Benoit; Howard, Jason T.; Suh, Alexander; Weber, Claudia C.; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Li, Jianwen; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zhou, Long; Narula, Nitish; Liu, Liang; Ganapathy, Ganesh; Boussau, Bastien; Bayzid, Md. Shamsuzzoha; Zavidovych, Volodymyr; Subramanian, Sankar; Gabaldón, Toni; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Munch, Kasper; Schierup, Mikkel; Lindow, Bent; Warren, Wesley C.; Ray, David; Green, Richard E.; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Li, Shengbin; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sheldon, Frederick H.; Brumfield, Robb T.; Mello, Claudio V.; Lovell, Peter V.; Wirthlin, Morgan; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Velazquez, Amhed Missael Vargas; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Campos, Paula F.; Petersen, Bent; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Pas, An; Bailey, Tom; Scofield, Paul; Bunce, Michael; Lambert, David M.; Zhou, Qi; Perelman, Polina; Driskell, Amy C.; Shapiro, Beth; Xiong, Zijun; Zeng, Yongli; Liu, Shiping; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Binghang; Wu, Kui; Xiao, Jin; Yinqi, Xiong; Zheng, Qiuemei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Smeds, Linnea; Rheindt, Frank E.; Braun, Michael; Fjeldsa, Jon; Orlando, Ludovic; Barker, F. Keith; Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Johnson, Warren; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; O’Brien, Stephen; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Rahbek, Carsten; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Glenn, Travis C.; McCormack, John; Burt, Dave; Ellegren, Hans; Alström, Per; Edwards, Scott V.; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Mindell, David P.; Cracraft, Joel; Braun, Edward L.; Warnow, Tandy; Jun, Wang; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To better determine the history of <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago. PMID:25504713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25504713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25504713"><span>Whole-genome analyses resolve <span class="hlt">early</span> branches in the tree of life of <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jarvis, Erich D; Mirarab, Siavash; Aberer, Andre J; Li, Bo; Houde, Peter; Li, Cai; Ho, Simon Y W; Faircloth, Brant C; Nabholz, Benoit; Howard, Jason T; Suh, Alexander; Weber, Claudia C; da Fonseca, Rute R; Li, Jianwen; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zhou, Long; Narula, Nitish; Liu, Liang; Ganapathy, Ganesh; Boussau, Bastien; Bayzid, Md Shamsuzzoha; Zavidovych, Volodymyr; Subramanian, Sankar; Gabaldón, Toni; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Munch, Kasper; Schierup, Mikkel; Lindow, Bent; Warren, Wesley C; Ray, David; Green, Richard E; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Li, Shengbin; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sheldon, Frederick H; Brumfield, Robb T; Mello, Claudio V; Lovell, Peter V; Wirthlin, Morgan; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Vargas Velazquez, Amhed Missael; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Campos, Paula F; Petersen, Bent; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Pas, An; Bailey, Tom; Scofield, Paul; Bunce, Michael; Lambert, David M; Zhou, Qi; Perelman, Polina; Driskell, Amy C; Shapiro, Beth; Xiong, Zijun; Zeng, Yongli; Liu, Shiping; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Binghang; Wu, Kui; Xiao, Jin; Yinqi, Xiong; Zheng, Qiuemei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Smeds, Linnea; Rheindt, Frank E; Braun, Michael; Fjeldsa, Jon; Orlando, Ludovic; Barker, F Keith; Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Johnson, Warren; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; O'Brien, Stephen; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A; Rahbek, Carsten; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R; Glenn, Travis C; McCormack, John; Burt, Dave; Ellegren, Hans; Alström, Per; Edwards, Scott V; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Mindell, David P; Cracraft, Joel; Braun, Edward L; Warnow, Tandy; Jun, Wang; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie</p> <p>2014-12-12</p> <p>To better determine the history of <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QSRv...66..112S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QSRv...66..112S"><span>Benthic ostracode δ13C as sensor for <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene establishment of <span class="hlt">modern</span> circulation patterns in Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwalb, Antje; Dean, Walter; Güde, Hans; Hanisch, Sabine; Sobek, Sebastian; Wessels, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Shells from adult specimen of the benthic ostracodes Limnocytherina sanctipatricii and Leucocythere mirabilis selected from a 8.7 m long piston core provide continuous stable oxygen and carbon records for the past approximately 16 ka. Oxygen isotopes from both species show identical values and track the general North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and European temperature history since deglaciation in great detail. Values of ostracode δ18O values suggest that about 16 cal ka the average annual air temperatures were about 11 °C colder than today. Carbon isotopic values from both species of ostracodes are similar during the Lateglacial and <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene, and show an overall decrease from -4‰ to -7‰ that is probably related to an increase in photosynthetic productivity in the water column, as suggested by an increase in organic carbon, delivering 13C-depleted organic matter to the bottom waters (carbon pump). About 9 cal ka only L. mirabilis δ13C values decreased about -2.5‰ within 300 years. Higher δ13C variability and ecological evidence suggests that L. mirabilis represents a summer signal, whereas L. sanctipatricii displays a more subdued annual average. After about 7 cal ka another -1.5% decrease for both species, accompanied by an increase in magnetic susceptibility, a decrease in carbonate content, and more positive bulk carbonate isotope values followed, suggesting higher detrital-clastic input into the lake. In order to provide a possible mechanism explaining the negative L. mirabilis δ13C-values, sediment pore water profiles of O2 and CH4 in short cores collected from sites distal to proximal to the Alpine Rhine River delta, were inspected. Sediments in cores from more proximal sites to the Rhine delta become anoxic at shallower sediment depth due to the decay of high allochthonous organic carbon input to the sediment, which greatly increases concentrations of methane in pore waters closer to the Rhine inflow. When methane is oxidized close to the sediment</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16382689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16382689"><span>[Strategies of medical self-authorization in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> medicine: the example of Volcher Coiter (1534-1576)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gross, Dominik; Steinmetzer, Jan</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on the example of Volcher Coiter--a town physician at Nuremberg and one of the leading anatomists in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> medicine--, this essay points out that the authoritative status of contemporary physicians mainly was predicated on an interplay of self-fashioning and outside perception. It provides ample evidence that Coiter made use of several characteristic rhetorical and discourse-related strategies of self-authorisation such as the participation in social networks, a highly convincing technique of self-fashioning by emphasizing particular erudition, the presentation of academic medicine as a science authorised by god and the concurrent devaluation of non-academic healers. Furthermore, graphic and visual strategies of self-authorisation could be ascertained: Coiter took care for a premium typography of his books. He also used his talent as a graphic artist in his books to visualise his medical concepts. Moreover, the so-called 'Nuremberg Portrait' of Coiter served to illustrate his outstanding authority.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5526455','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5526455"><span>‘Elderly years cause a Total dispaire of Conception’: Old Age, Sex and Infertility in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> England</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Toulalan, Sarah</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Although the history of old age has been studied in much greater detail in recent years, the subject of sexuality in old age remains relatively under-explored. This article examines <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> ideas about old bodies and sex in relation to fertility, to argue that because old bodies were understood as either infertile (post-menopausal women) or sub-fertile (old men) they were therefore characterised as unsuitable, undesirable and inappropriate sexual partners. Perceptions of old bodies, their sexual abilities, desirability and behaviour were remarkably consistent from the sixteenth through to the eighteenth century. The ridiculing of old men and women's sexual behaviour that permeated contemporary culture in stories, ballads and jokes, alongside medical literature that characterised old bodies as sexually unappetising as well as unreproductive, carried the message that sexual activity was not for the old, and in large part because they were infertile. PMID:28751815</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4513889','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4513889"><span>‘Nature Concocts & Expels’: The Agents and Processes of Recovery from Disease in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> England</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Newton, Hannah</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The ‘golden saying’ in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> medicine was ‘Nature is the healer of disease’. This article uncovers the meaning and significance of this forgotten axiom by investigating perceptions of the agents and physiological processes of recovery from illness in England, c.1580–1720. Drawing on sources such as medical texts and diaries, it shows that doctors and laypeople attributed recovery to three agents—God, Nature and the practitioner. While scholars are familiar with the roles of providence and medicine, the vital agency of Nature has been overlooked. In theory, the agents operated in a hierarchy: Nature was ‘God's instrument’, and the physician, ‘Nature's servant’; but in practice the power balance was more ambivalent. Nature was depicted both as a housewife who cooked and cleaned the humours, and as a warrior who defeated the disease. Through exploring these complex dynamics, the article sheds fresh light on concepts of gender, disease and bodies. PMID:26217069</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824873"><span>The Evolution of Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers from <span class="hlt">Early</span> to <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Devices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roche, Nicolas; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) are sometimes viewed as old-fashioned and as having been superseded by dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Here, we review the technological advances that characterize <span class="hlt">modern</span> pMDIs, and consider how they can influence the effectiveness of drug delivery for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compared with old chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based inhalers, many hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-driven pMDIs have more favorable plume characteristics such as a reduced velocity and a higher fine particle fraction; together, these advances have resulted in the development of pMDIs with reduced oropharyngeal deposition and increased lung deposition. In addition, the plume from many HFA-pMDIs is warmer, which may facilitate their use by patients; moreover, devices are equipped with dose counters, which improves their reliability. As well as reviewing the technological advances of pMDIs, we also discuss the importance of individualizing inhaler therapies to each patient by accounting for their personal preferences and natural breathing patterns. Because pMDIs and DPIs differ considerably in their handling characteristics, matching the right inhaler to the right patient is key to ensuring effective therapy and good compliance. Finally, the majority of patients can be trained successfully in the correct use of their pMDI; training and regular monitoring of inhalation technique are essential prerequisites for effective therapy. While the 'ideal inhaler' may not exist, pMDIs are an effective device option suitable for many patients. pMDIs, together with other types of devices, offer opportunities for the effective individualization of treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22902064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22902064"><span>Mechanism of disease in <span class="hlt">early</span> osteoarthritis: application of <span class="hlt">modern</span> MR imaging techniques -- a technical report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jobke, Bjoern; Bolbos, Radu; Saadat, Ehsan; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of <span class="hlt">early</span> cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1ρ relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MRI sequence, T1ρ, was able to detect <span class="hlt">early</span> intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-weighted sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3504629','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3504629"><span>Mechanism of Disease in <span class="hlt">early</span> Osteoarthritis: Application of <span class="hlt">modern</span> MR imaging techniques – A technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jobke, B.; Bolbos, R.; Saadat, E.; Cheng, J.; Li, X.; Majumdar, S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of <span class="hlt">early</span> cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1<rho> relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MR imaging sequence, T1<rho>, was able to detect <span class="hlt">early</span> intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-w sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in-vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future. PMID:22902064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Natur.474..631L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Natur.474..631L"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian arthropods from Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Michael S. Y.; Jago, James B.; García-Bellido, Diego C.; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Gehling, James G.; Paterson, John R.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Despite the status of the eye as an ``organ of extreme perfection'', theory suggests that complex eyes can evolve very rapidly. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the <span class="hlt">early</span> evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes. However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes, virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. Here we report exceptionally preserved fossil eyes from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian (~515 million years ago) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, revealing that some of the earliest arthropods possessed highly advanced compound eyes, each with over 3,000 large ommatidial lenses and a specialized `bright zone'. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later. The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light. The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3200K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3200K"><span>"Soft-shelled" monothalamid foraminifers as a <span class="hlt">modern</span> analogue of <span class="hlt">early</span> life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Nina; Gooday, Andrew</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>According to the fossil record, the earliest undoubted foraminifers are found in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian, where they are represented by tubular agglutinated forms, thought to be the most primitive foraminiferal morphotypes. The numerous foraminifers with single-chambered, organic-walled tests (i.e. 'soft-shelled' monothalamids) exist in the deep sea and are difficult to preserve as fossils. Molecular phylogenetic data tell us that these 'primitive' taxa include the deepest foraminiferal clades, originating around 600 - 900 Ma. We found many soft-shelled monothalamids in sediment samples from deep trenches, including the Challenger Deep (Marianas Trench) and the Horizon Deep (Tonga Trench). Both deeps exceed 10,000 m water depth, well below the carbonate compensation depth, which represents an environmental barrier for calcareous foraminifera. The foraminifera at these extreme hadal sites include tubular and globular forms with organic walls, among which species of the genera Nodellum and Resigella are particularly abundant. Some forms selectively agglutinate minute flakes of clay minerals on the surface of the organic test. Many soft-shelled monothalamids, including most of those in deep tranches, contain stercomata, the function of which is currently unknown. Gromiids (a rhizarian group related to foraminifera) also accumulate stercomata in their sack-shaped tests. This suggests the possibility that the function of these waste particles is to add bulk, like the filling of soft bags or pillows. We suggest that the monothalamid foraminifera that dominate small-sized eukaryotes in extreme hadal settings may provide clues to understanding the biology and ecology of <span class="hlt">early</span> life in Neoproterozoic sedimented habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1619904','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1619904"><span>Famine relief and imperial policy in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Morocco: the political functions of public health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meyers, A R</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The <span class="hlt">early</span> Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080643"><span>Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which <span class="hlt">early</span> modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29752560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29752560"><span>Anthracycline Use for <span class="hlt">Early</span> Stage Breast Cancer in the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Era: a Review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jasra, Sakshi; Anampa, Jesus</p> <p>2018-05-11</p> <p>Anthracycline-based regimens have been an important treatment component for patients with breast cancer. As demonstrated in the last <span class="hlt">Early</span> Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) meta-analysis, anthracycline-based regimens decrease breast cancer mortality by 20-30%. Anthracycline toxicities include the rare-but potential morbid-cardiotoxicity or leukemogenic effect, and the almost universal-but very distressing-alopecia. Due to potential toxicities, and large number of patients being exposed, several worldwide trials have re-examined the role of anthracycline-based regimens in the management of breast cancer. Current literature supports that anthracyclines are not required for all patients with breast cancer and should be avoided in those with high cardiac risk. Recent results from the ABC trials suggest that anthracyclines should not be spared for patients with triple negative breast cancer (regardless of axillary node involvement) or HER2-/ER+ with significant node involvement. Based on current literature, for HER2-negative patients with low-risk breast cancer, anthracyclines could be spared with regimens such as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) or docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC). Patients with intermediate or high-risk breast cancer should be considered for anthracycline-based regimens based on other factors such as age, comorbidities, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and genomic profiling. Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer with low risk could be treated with paclitaxel and trastuzumab. For the remaining patients with HER2 overexpression, while docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab (TCH) has demonstrated to improve disease-free survival (DFS), anthracycline-containing regimens should be discussed, especially for those with very high-risk breast cancer. Although several biomarkers, such as topoisomerase II (TOP2A) and chromosome 17 centromeric duplication (Ch17CEP) have been proposed to predict benefit from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4919965','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4919965"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> effects of <span class="hlt">modern</span> electroconvulsive therapy on subjective memory in patients with mania or depression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bag, Sevda; Canbek, Ozge; Atagun, Ilhan Murat; Kutlar, Tarik Mehmet</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Context: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered a very effective tool for the treatment of psychiatric diseases, memory disturbances are among the most important adverse effects. Aims: This study aimed to assess prospectively <span class="hlt">early</span> subjective memory complaints in depressive and manic patients due to bilateral, brief-pulse ECT, at different stages of the treatment, compare the associations between psychiatric diagnosis, sociodemographic characteristics, and ECT characteristics. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done with patients undergoing ECT between November 2008 and April 2009 at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital of 2000 beds. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 patients, scheduled for ECT with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (depressive or manic episode) or unipolar depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV diagnostic criteria, were included in the study and invited to complete the Squire Subjective Memory Questionnaire (SSMQ) before ECT, after the first and third sessions and end of ECT treatment. Statistical Analysis: Mean values were compared with the Kruskal–Wallis test and comparison of the longitudinal data was performed with a nonparametric longitudinal data analysis method, F1_LD_F1 design. Results: SSMQ scores of the patients before ECT were zero. SSMQ scores showed a decrease after the first and third ECT sessions and before discharge, showing a memory disturbance after ECT and were significantly less severe in patients with mania in comparison to those with depression. Conclusions: These findings suggest an increasing degree of subjective memory complaints with bilateral brief-pulse ECT parallel to the increasing number of ECT sessions. PMID:27385854</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4694551','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4694551"><span>Who says this is a <span class="hlt">modern</span> disorder? The <span class="hlt">early</span> history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still’s lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the <span class="hlt">early</span> history of ADHD, prior to the 20th century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18th century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19th century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders, as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4209988','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4209988"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The first settlement of Europe by <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, <span class="hlt">modern</span> human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages—demonstrably made by <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans—are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its <span class="hlt">Early</span> Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and <span class="hlt">modern</span> human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an <span class="hlt">early</span> appearance of behaviorally <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP13A2271P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP13A2271P"><span>New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Oceans using <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Analytical Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this <span class="hlt">early</span> chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only α-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced greater preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a steady</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019459','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019459"><span>New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Oceans Using <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Analytical Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parker, Eric T.; Brinton, Karen L.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this <span class="hlt">early</span> chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only alpha-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced great-er preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP52B..06H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP52B..06H"><span>Penetration of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Walker Circulation Into East Africa During <span class="hlt">Early</span> to mid-Holocene: Hydrogen Isotope Evidence From Sacred Lake, Mt. Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hou, J.; Russell, J. M.; Huang, Y.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The tropics play a very important role in global climate variability, yet the mechanisms behind the tropical climate variation remain poorly understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, well-dated record from Sacred Lake, Kenya, East Africa. We measured D/H ratios of botryococcenes, a class of highly specific biomarkers produced by freshwater algae ( Botrycoccus braunii) in a sediment core obtained from this open lake. Our main goal is to examine changes in East African rainfall amount and moisture source during the past 18kyr BP. During the late Pleistocene and late Holocene, the hydrogen isotope records track local hydrological variations inferred from numerous lake level and pollen records from the region. However, during the <span class="hlt">early</span> to mid-Holocene (10-5ka cal yr BP), the D/H values from Sacred Lake were as much as 90 per mil heavier than during the late Pleistocene and late Holocene. If the "amount effect" is the main control on the isotopic compositions of rainfall during the <span class="hlt">early</span> to mid Holocene, Our data would suggest drier conditions, which is inconsistent with the "African Humid Period" inferred by numerous records of the mid-Holocene. We propose that the high isotopic ratios in precipitation in East Africa during the <span class="hlt">early</span> to mid-Holocene is due to an eastward shift in the large-scale atmospheric circulation of the tropics. In East Africa, this shift involves a major increase in moisture source from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean relative to Indian Ocean. Heavier isotope ratios of precipitation originated from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean result from the intensive convection and recycling of water vapor over the Congo Basin, as opposed to Indian moisture that traverses dry land masses and losses moisture rapidly. In comparison to the late Holocene, the <span class="hlt">early</span> to mid-Holocene is characterized by relatively northerly positioning of the ITCZ and intense monsoon systems as well as weak ENSO. These factors combine to shift the walker circulation eastward, allowing the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JMicP..37..195A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JMicP..37..195A"><span>Two new bairdiid ostracod species from the <span class="hlt">early</span> Barremian-Hauterivian of the northern and central North Sea to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin off Norway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayress, Michael; Gould, Tom</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Two new species of bairdiid Ostracoda are described from the lower Barremian - Hauterivian interval of the Valhall and Åsgard formations in the northern and central North Sea and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin off Norway. The new species are Pontocyprella valhalla (lsid:zoobank.org:act:CA6B273F-CFF6-4C38-B9F4-18188225A711, 18 January 2018) and Bairdia asgarda (lsid:zoobank.org:act:4A4DC817-A028-45FB-9287-ABF3794F2FCB, 18 January 2018). These species dominate the ostracod assemblage that occurs abundantly in <span class="hlt">early</span> Barremian-Hauterivian deep marine sediments of the northern and central North Sea and Haltenbanken area off Norway. Pontocyprella valhalla is restricted to this interval and because of its large size and distinct shape is a useful stratigraphic marker species, its last appearance being within the <span class="hlt">early</span> Barremian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9333999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9333999"><span>["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> times].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freller, T</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29779448','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29779448"><span>The Duke, the Soldier of Fortune, and a Rosicrucian Legacy: Exploring the Roles of Manuscripts in <span class="hlt">Early-Modern</span> Alchemy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zuber, Mike A</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>By the time it was published in 1705, the Speculum Sapientiae claimed to have had a long history going back to 1672. However, the fact that exaggerated stories were commonplace in alchemical literature leads us to question its credibility. This paper explores the secret lives of this alchemical text prior to its print publication to clarify the roles of manuscripts in <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> alchemy. Specifically, I argue that there were three aspects that could distinguish manuscript from print: provenance, materiality, and exclusivity. These can be seen at work in the fate of Johann Heinrich Vierordt, an itinerant alchemist and cavalry captain whose career is inextricably linked to the scribal dissemination of the Speculum Sapientiae. In addition to manuscript copies of that text at libraries across Europe, a significant cache of correspondence preserved in Gotha documents Vierordt's dealings with Duke Friedrich I of Saxe-Gotha. The verisimilitudinous provenance of Vierordt's alchemical secrets and tincture played a crucial role in allowing him to gain Friedrich's trust. Yet it was only after Vierordt presented him with a precious parchment manuscript of the Speculum Sapientiae that he truly succeeded in gaining the duke's patronage. Subsequently, reports of multiple conflicting copies surfacing in Amsterdam sealed Vierordt's fall from favour.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP23A1737L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP23A1737L"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Eocene to Late Miocene Variations in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> CCD: Constraints from the Walvis Ridge Depth-Transect (ODP Leg 208)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindsey, M. M.; Schellenberg, S. A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Carbonate saturation profiles are complex and dynamic products of processes operating on spatiotemporal scales from the "short-term local" (e.g. carbonate export production, carbonate ion concentration) to the "long- term global" (e.g. carbonate-silicate weathering, shelf:basin carbonate partitioning). Thus, a refined history of carbonate saturation may provide insight on global carbon-cycle dynamics. An established, if crude, proxy for reconstructing carbonate saturation is the wt% carbonate content of pelagic sediments, where <20 wt% is ascribed to deposition below the carbonate compensation depth (CCD). A number of now classic works (e.g. Berger and Roth, 1975; van Andel, 1977) established first-order and presumably global Cenozoic CCD fluctuations. The Walvis Ridge depth-transect of ODP Leg 208 represents an excellent opportunity to refine our understanding of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Cenozoic CCD. Wt% carbonate determinations (n = 299) through the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Eocene to Late Miocene section at Site 1267 are significantly correlated with associated natural gamma ray values (r2 = 0.92). This relationship was used to produce a cm-scale synthetic wt% carbonate record ordinated in the time-domain via the ship-board age-model and in the paleodepth-domain via Sclater and Parsons (1977) crustal age-depth relationship. The Site 1267 record shows good general agreement with previous low-resolution (>10^{5-6} yr) CCD reconstructions and correlates relatively well with estimates of eustatic sea level fluctuations. Ongoing research expands this general approach to shallower and deeper ODP Leg 208 sites to provide greater constraints on the history of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> CCD. These data, combined with other proxies (e.g. planktonic foraminifer fragmentation, stable isotopes) and placed within evolving Leg 208 age-models, will provide valuable constraints on cyclic and secular fluctuations in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate saturation profile and their relation to various components of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26103756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26103756"><span>An Empire's Extract: Chemical Manipulations of Cinchona Bark in the Eighteenth-Century Spanish <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> World.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crawford, Matthew James</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In 1790, the Spanish Crown sent a "botanist-chemist" to South America to implement production of a chemical extract made from cinchona bark, a botanical medicament from the Andes used throughout the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> World to treat malarial fevers. Even though the botanist-chemist's efforts to produce the extract failed, this episode offers important insight into the role of chemistry in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> World. Well before the Spanish Crown tried to make it a tool of empire, chemistry provided a vital set of techniques that circulated among a variety of healers, who used such techniques to make botanical medicaments useful and intelligible in new ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620577"><span>Risk of second malignancies in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage classical Hodgkin's lymphoma treated in a <span class="hlt">modern</span> era.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LeMieux, Melissa H; Solanki, Abhishek A; Mahmood, Usama; Chmura, Steven J; Koshy, Matthew</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Second malignancies remain an issue affecting morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors of <span class="hlt">early</span> stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). We undertook this study to determine if treatment in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> era resulted in decreased second malignancies. Patients diagnosed with stage I-II cHL between 1988 and 2009 who received radiation therapy (RT) were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Freedom from second malignancy (FFSM) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analysis (UVA) was performed using the Log-Rank test, and included age, gender, year of diagnosis, and stage. Multivariable analysis (MVA) was performed using Cox Proportional Hazards modeling. The study cohort included 8807 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 32 years (range: 2-85). The majority of patients had stage II disease (n = 6044, 69%), 597 (7%) had extranodal involvement (ENI), and 1925 (22%) had B symptoms. Median follow-up for the entire cohort was 7.2 years (range: 0-22). Five hundred twenty-three (6%) patients developed a second malignancy. Median latency to second malignancy was 5.8 years (range: 0.1-21.5). Of the 523 patients that developed a second malignancy, 228 (44%) occurred in the first 5 years, 139 (27%) were diagnosed between years 5-10, and 156 (30%) beyond 10 years. The 10 year FFSM for patients treated between 1988 and 1999 was 93.0% versus 95.1% for patients treated between 2000 and 2009 (P = 0.04), On MVA, treatment between 2000 and 2009 was associated with a HR for second malignancy of 0.77 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.62-0.96, P = 0.02) compared to the treatment between 1988 and 1999. Our analysis suggests that in patients treated with RT for stage I or II cHL, treatment prior to 2000 had a slightly higher risk of second malignancy compared to treatment in 2000 and later. Further studies, with longer follow-up of patients treated in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> era are needed to confirm these findings. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24976161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24976161"><span>Yaws, syphilis, sexuality, and the circulation of medical knowledge in the British Caribbean and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paugh, Katherine</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This history of the disease categories "yaws" and "syphilis" explores the interplay between European and African medical cultures in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> world. The assertion made by both <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> and <span class="hlt">modern</span> medical authorities, that yaws and syphilis are the same disease, prompts a case study of the history of disease that reflects on a variety of issues in the history of medicine: the use of ideas about contagion to demarcate racial and sexual difference at sites around the British Empire; the contrast between persistently holistic ideas about disease causation in the Black <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the growth of ontological theories of disease among Europeans and Euro-Americans; and the controversy over the African practice of yaws inoculation, which may once have been an effective treatment but was stamped out by plantation owners who viewed it as a waste of their enslaved laborers' valuable time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=malina&id=ED288879','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=malina&id=ED288879"><span>Physical Activity in <span class="hlt">Early</span> and <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Populations. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (59th, Las Vegas, Nevada, April 11-13, 1987). No. 21.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Malina, Robert M., Ed.; Eckert, Helen M., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Eleven conference papers explore physical activity in ancient societies as well as human adaptation of physical activities in <span class="hlt">modern</span> society. The following papers are included: (1) "Physical Activity in <span class="hlt">Early</span> and <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Populations: An Evolutionary View" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "How Active Were <span class="hlt">Early</span> Populations? or Squeezing the Fossil Record"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2644686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2644686"><span>Three days in October of 1630: detailed examination of mortality during an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> plague epidemic in Venice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ell, S R</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The epidemiology of medieval and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> European plague remains highly controversial. It now seems likely that the epidemiology was not uniform throughout either the geographic or temporal boundaries of the plague in Western Europe. The Venetian plague of 1630 was extensively documented; day-by-day records were kept, and each mortality in the city was recorded in a set format. The days 23-25 October 1630, representing a period when mortality was beginning to increase sharply, are examined. In all, 1,163 deaths were recorded. They show a large preponderance of women; a mean age of 28, but a majority of cases clumped between ages 0 and 25 years; and an unequal sex ratio among children. Further, there was an identifiable smallpox epidemic raging simultaneously with plague, and more than one-quarter of all the deaths in this period of high mortality were clearly due to nonplague causes. Deaths due to wounds and associated with violence were prominent in one parish, which suggests that in times of plague the breakdown in the normal machinery of government, in everyday patterns of life, and possibly of mental well being resulted in an even more exaggerated death toll. These factors--violence, accidents, and other epidemics--have never been so definitively tied to a European plague epidemic. In addition, there are hints that plague has a marked proclivity to kill pregnant women--their deaths far outnumber those anticipated--and that plague was very localized at a given moment within Venice itself, even during times of peak mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25747862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25747862"><span>Effects of emergence time and <span class="hlt">early</span> social rearing environment on behaviour of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larsen, Martin H; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D M; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: <span class="hlt">early</span>, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for <span class="hlt">early</span> emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29539441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29539441"><span>Sex-related risks of trauma in medieval to <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Denmark, and its relationship to change in interpersonal violence over time.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Milner, G R; Boldsen, J L; Weise, S; Lauritsen, J M; Freund, U H</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Skeletons from three Danish cemeteries, Sortebrødre, Tirup, and St. Mikkel, that collectively held 822 adults (>15 years) and spanned the medieval to <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> periods (ca. AD 1100-1610) show that men, in general, experienced more bone fractures than women. Men were three times more likely to have healed cranial vault and ulnar shaft fractures than women, with many of these bones presumably broken in interpersonal violence. More women, however, broke distal radii, presumably often the result of falls. Both sexes suffered more cranial fractures than <span class="hlt">modern</span> Danes, with the proportional difference for men and women being about the same. The difference in cranial trauma frequencies between historic-period and <span class="hlt">modern</span> Danes has implications for a decline over the past several centuries in interpersonal violence that scholars in other disciplines have inferred from historical sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018SedG..367..164A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018SedG..367..164A"><span>Uranium accumulation in <span class="hlt">modern</span> and ancient Fe-oxide sediments: Examples from the Ashadze-2 hydrothermal sulfide field (Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge) and Yubileynoe massive sulfide deposit (South Urals, Russia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayupova, N. R.; Melekestseva, I. Yu.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Tseluyko, A. S.; Blinov, I. A.; Beltenev, V. E.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Fe-oxyhydroxide sediments (gossans) from the Ashadze-2 hydrothermal sulfide field (Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge) and hematite-carbonate-quartz rocks (gossanites) from the Yubileynoe Cu-Zn VHMS deposit (South Urals) are characterized by anomalously high U contents (up to 352 ppm and 73 ppm, respectively). In gossans from the Ashadze-2 hydrothermal sulfide field, rare isometric anhedral uraninite grains (up to 2 μm) with outer P- and Ca-rich rims, and numerous smaller (<1 μm) grains, occur in Fe-oxyhydroxides and sepiolite, associated with pyrite, isocubanite, chalcopyrite, galena, atacamite and halite. In gossanites from the Yubileynoe deposit, numerous uraninite particles (<3 μm) are associated with apatite, V-rich Mg-chlorite, micro-nodules of pyrite, Se-bearing galena, hessite and acanthite in a hematite-carbonate-quartz matrix. Small (1-3 μm) round grains of uraninite, which locally coalesce to large grains up to 10 μm in size, are associated with authigenic chalcopyrite. The similar diagenetic processes of U accumulation in <span class="hlt">modern</span> and ancient Fe-oxyhydroxide sediments were the result of U fixation from seawater during the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Uraninite in gossanites was mainly deposited from diagenetic pore fluids, which circulated in the sulfide-hyaloclast-carbonate sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28488356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28488356"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> life traits of farm and wild <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar and first generation hybrids in the south coast of Newfoundland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamoutene, D; Perez-Casanova, J; Burt, K; Lush, L; Caines, J; Collier, C; Hinks, R</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>This study examined fertilization rates, survival and <span class="hlt">early</span> life-trait differences of pure farm, wild and first generation (F1) hybrid origin embryos after crossing farm and wild <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar. Results show that despite a trend towards higher in vitro fertilization success for wild females, differences in fertilization success in river water are not significantly different among crosses. In a hatchery environment, wild females' progeny (pure wild and hybrids with wild maternal parent) hatched 7-11 days earlier than pure farm crosses and hybrids with farm maternal parents. In addition, pure wild progeny had higher total lengths (L T ) at hatch than pure farm crosses and hybrids. Directions in trait differences need to be tested in a river environment, but results clearly show the maternal influence on <span class="hlt">early</span> stages beyond egg-size differences. Differences in L T were no longer significant at 70 days post hatch (shortly after the onset of exogenous feeding) showing the need to investigate later developmental stages to better assess somatic growth disparities due to genetic differences. Higher mortality rates of the most likely hybrids (farm female × wild male hybrids) at egg and fry stages and their delayed hatch suggest that these F1 hybrids might be less likely to survive the <span class="hlt">early</span> larval stages than wild stocks. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Fish Biology © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27071301','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27071301"><span>Circles of Confidence in Correspondence: Modeling Confidentiality and Secrecy in Knowledge Exchange Networks of Letters and Drawings in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van den Heuvel, Charles; Weingart, Scott B; Spelt, Nils; Nellen, Henk</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Science in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> world depended on openness in scholarly communication. On the other hand, a web of commercial, political, and religious conflicts required broad measures of secrecy and confidentiality; similar measures were integral to scholarly rivalries and plagiarism. This paper analyzes confidentiality and secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchange via letters and drawings. We argue that existing approaches to understanding knowledge exchange in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe--which focus on the Republic of Letters as a unified entity of corresponding scholars--can be improved upon by analyzing multilayered networks of communication. We describe a data model to analyze circles of confidence and cultures of secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchanges. Finally, we discuss the outcomes of a first experiment focusing on the question of how personal and professional/official relationships interact with confidentiality and secrecy, based on a case study of the correspondence of Hugo Grotius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3066672','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3066672"><span>‘Very Sore Nights and Days’: The Child’s Experience of Illness in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> England, c.1580–1720</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>NEWTON, HANNAH</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Sick children were ubiquitous in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children’s experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfilment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children’s emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors’ casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26926850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26926850"><span>Is Blast Injury a <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Phenomenon?: <span class="hlt">Early</span> Historical Descriptions of Mining and Volcanic Traumatic Brain Injury With Relevance to <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Terrorist Attacks and Military Warfare.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bowen, Lauren N; Moore, David F; Okun, Michael S</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Given the recent interest in blast injury spurred by returning soldiers from overseas conflicts, we sought to research the <span class="hlt">early</span> historical descriptions of blast injuries and their treatments. Consideration was given to specific descriptions of survivors of closed head injury and their treatment. A review of the medical and nonmedical literature was undertaken, with particular emphasis on pre-1800 descriptions of volcanic eruptions and mining accidents. Compilations of accounts of the Etna eruptions dating from 126 BC were translated into English, and <span class="hlt">early</span> mining texts from the 1600s and 1700s were reviewed. Accumulations of flammable gases were recorded in many medieval sources and this knowledge of toxic gas which could lead to blast injury was known in the mining community by 1316. No direct attribution of injuries to blast forces was present in the historical record examined before the 1300s, although mining accounts in the 1600s detail deaths due to blast. No specific descriptions of survivors of a closed head injury were found in the mining and volcanic eruption literature. Descriptions and warnings of blast forces were commonly written about in the medieval and Renaissance mining communities. Personal narratives as <span class="hlt">early</span> as 1316 recognize the traumatic effects of blast injury. No mining or volcanic blast descriptions before 1800 detailed severe closed head injury survivors, suggesting greater mortality than morbidity from blast injury in the premodern era. This review also uncovered that there was no historical treatment or remedy recommended to survivors of blast injury. Blast explosions resulting in injury or death were frequently described, although in simplistic terminology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26404820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26404820"><span>Response to Comment on "Whole-genome analyses resolve <span class="hlt">early</span> branches in the tree of life of <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cracraft, Joel; Houde, Peter; Ho, Simon Y W; Mindell, David P; Fjeldså, Jon; Lindow, Bent; Edwards, Scott V; Rahbek, Carsten; Mirarab, Siavash; Warnow, Tandy; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Braun, Edward L; Jarvis, Erich D</p> <p>2015-09-25</p> <p>Mitchell et al. argue that divergence-time estimates for our avian phylogeny were too young because of an "inappropriate" maximum age constraint for the most recent common ancestor of <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds and that, as a result, most <span class="hlt">modern</span> bird orders diverged before the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event 66 million years ago instead of after. However, their interpretations of the fossil record and timetrees are incorrect. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15641198','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15641198"><span>[Longlived examples. Function and formal principles of historical exempla of old age in the <span class="hlt">early-modern</span> dietetic literature].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schäfer, Daniel</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Since antiquity, the exemplum can be proven in numerous types of texts, as it fulfills a notable didactic and rhetorical function: On the one hand it serves to a deductive illustration of common doctrines; on the other it is until the Enlightenment the scientific basis of cognition: in the view of medieval artistotelists, of who FRANCIS BACON was (in a special sense) one of the last champions, the exemplum takes on an inductive function: the sensual perception of the exampla generates the understanding of the universal, as the exemplum always refers to the exemplar, to the original form. Regarding the eminent deductive/inductive significance of the exempla, it is not surprising that they are an essential factor in dietetic literature. Whereas such exemples were very rare in the general literature on health care written by physicians and in specific papers of old-age assistance, they formed an integral part of texts composed for a large public by medical laymen such as (Ps.-) ROGER BACON, MARSILIO FICINO, ALVISE CORNARO or FRANCIS BACON. In these studies, the issue of a natural limit of human life was discussed intensively. In this context the "historical" sources were of high importance, even if, from a todays point of view, their use was completely non-historical. Often their crude instrumentalization and new interpretations can only be understood in the scholarly context of the time: E.g. in debates of specialists with outsiders or when serving as argument for physiological theories and therapeutical regimes. Not until late Renaissance, the historical exemple was replaced by the individual experience. It is striking that most of all historical exemples found in dietetic papers were positive. This humanistic and Christian ideal concept of old age, which completely contradicts the medical reality, had obviously a stronger fascination on the authors of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> times than the inductive function of negative exempla (which are very important for a rational</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25301270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25301270"><span>A comparison of gene transcription profiles of domesticated and wild <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar L.) at <span class="hlt">early</span> life stages, reared under controlled conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bicskei, Beatrix; Bron, James E; Glover, Kevin A; Taggart, John B</p> <p>2014-10-09</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon have been subject to domestication for approximately ten generations, beginning in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1970s. This process of artificial selection will have created various genetic differences between wild and farmed stocks. Each year, hundreds of thousands of farmed fish escape into the wild. These escapees may interbreed with wild conspecifics raising concerns for both the fish-farming industry and fisheries managers. Thus, a better understanding of the interactions between domesticated and wild salmon is essential to the continued sustainability of the aquaculture industry and to the maintenance of healthy wild stocks. We compared the transcriptomes of a wild Norwegian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon population (Figgjo) and a Norwegian farmed strain (Mowi) at two life stages: yolk sac fry and post first-feeding fry. The analysis employed 44 k oligo-microarrays to analyse gene expression of 36 farmed, wild and hybrid (farmed dam x wild sire) individuals reared under identical hatchery conditions. Although some of the transcriptional differences detected overlapped between sampling points, our results highlighted the importance of studying various life stages. Compared to the wild population, the Mowi strain displayed up-regulation in mRNA translation-related and down regulation in nervous and immune system -related pathways in the sac fry, whereas up-regulation of digestive and endocrine activities, carbohydrate, energy, amino acid and lipid metabolism and down-regulation of environmental information processing and immune system pathways were evident in the feeding fry. Differentially regulated pathways that were common among life stages generally belonged to environmental information processing and immune system functional groups. In addition, we found indications of strong maternal effects, reinforcing the importance of including reciprocal hybrids in the analysis. In agreement with previous studies we showed that domestication has caused changes in the transcriptome of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21352840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21352840"><span>Consistent boldness behaviour in <span class="hlt">early</span> emerging fry of domesticated <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar): Decoupling of behavioural and physiological traits of the proactive stress coping style.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vaz-Serrano, J; Ruiz-Gomez, M L; Gjøen, H M; Skov, P V; Huntingford, F A; Overli, O; Höglund, E</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Individual variation in the way animals cope with stressors has been documented in a number of animal groups. In general, two distinct sets of behavioural and physiological responses to stress have been described: the proactive and the reactive coping styles. Some characteristics of stress coping style seem to be coupled to the time to emerge of fry from spawning redds in natural populations of salmonid fishes. In the present study, behavioural and physiological traits of stress coping styles were compared two and five months after emergence in farmed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar), using individuals with an <span class="hlt">early</span> or late time to emerge. Initially, compared to late emerging individuals, <span class="hlt">early</span> emerging individuals showed a shorter time to resume feeding after transfer to rearing in isolation. Resumption of feeding after isolation was suggested to be related to boldness behaviour, rather than hunger, in the present study. This observation was repeated five months after emergence, demonstrating behavioural consistency over time in this trait. However, in other traits of proactive and reactive stress coping styles, such as social status, resting metabolism or post stress cortisol concentrations, <span class="hlt">early</span> and late emerging individuals did not differ. Therefore, this study demonstrates that boldness in a novel environment is uncoupled from other traits of the proactive and reactive stress coping styles in farmed salmonids. It is possible that this decoupling is caused by the low competitive environment in which fish were reared. In natural populations of salmonids, however, the higher selection pressure at emergence could select for <span class="hlt">early</span> emerging individuals with a proactive coping style. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26069390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26069390"><span>The mating brain: <span class="hlt">early</span> maturing sneaker males maintain investment into the brain also under fast body growth in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kotrschal, Alexander; Trombley, Susanne; Rogell, Björn; Brannström, Ioana; Foconi, Eric; Schmitz, Monika; Kolm, Niclas</p> <p></p> <p>It has been suggested that mating behaviours require high levels of cognitive ability. However, since investment into mating and the brain both are costly features, their relationship is likely characterized by energetic trade-offs. Empirical data on the subject remains equivocal. We investigated if <span class="hlt">early</span> sexual maturation was associated with brain development in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon ( Salmo salar ), in which males can either stay in the river and sexually mature at a small size (sneaker males) or migrate to the sea and delay sexual maturation until they have grown much larger (anadromous males). Specifically, we tested how sexual maturation may induce plastic changes in brain development by rearing juveniles on either natural or ad libitum feeding levels. After their first season we compared brain size and brain region volumes across both types of male mating tactics and females. Body growth increased greatly across both male mating tactics and females during ad libitum feeding as compared to natural feeding levels. However, despite similar relative increases in body size, <span class="hlt">early</span> maturing sneaker males maintained larger relative brain size during ad libitum feeding levels as compared to anadromous males and females. We also detected several differences in the relative size of separate brain regions across feeding treatments, sexes and mating strategies. For instance, the relative size of the cognitive centre of the brain, the telencephalon, was largest in sneaker males. Our data support that a large relative brain size is maintained in individuals that start reproduction <span class="hlt">early</span> also during fast body growth. We propose that the cognitive demands during complex mating behaviours maintain a high level of investment into brain development in reproducing individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22026034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22026034"><span>"It is caused of the womans part or of the mans part": the role of gender in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunction in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> England.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Jennifer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Philip Barrough wrote in 1590 that barrenness 'is caused of the womans part or of the mans part'. By the eighteenth century, however, barrenness was perceived as a female disorder distinguished from male impotence. Few historians have addressed the uncertainty surrounding <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> definitions of infertility, choosing instead to adopt set terms that fit comfortably with <span class="hlt">modern</span> ideas. This article will highlight the difficulties surrounding the gender distinction of the terms 'barrenness' and 'impotence' during this period. Moreover, the discussion will examine the role of gender in diagnosing these disorders to sufferers. The article will argue that ideas of gender were more central to diagnosis of poor sexual health than to effectual treatment. Although it appears that barrenness and impotence were treated with separate remedies, many treatments were described as effectual for both sexes. Additionally, the ingredients used in such recipes were often sexual stimulants explained without reference to gender.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15202443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15202443"><span>The turning point from an archaic Arab medical system to an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> European system in Jerusalem according to the Swiss physician Titus Tobler (1806-77).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lev, Efraim; Amar, Zohar</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Until the end of the Ottoman period the Hippocratic-Galenic doctrine, which had been improved by medieval Muslim medicine, was the pre-dominant medicine in the Holy Land. The penetration of <span class="hlt">modern</span> medicine into the region was a slow process, advancing step by step over the years until it was established around the end of the 19th century.Dr. Titus Tobler, a Swiss physician of many talents, first visited Jerusalem in 1835, then again in 1845, 1857, and 1865. He reported his experiences and impressions in several books and articles. His publications portray the condition of medicine in the city before the advent of European physicians, their arrival, and the establishment of the first hospitals in the city. Thanks to his endeavours, a professional description of the medical conditions prevailing in Jerusalem in the mid-19th century is available to the public. Tobler's writings include descriptions of the healers, blood-letters, quacks, medicinal substances and their market, and the diseases and illnesses from which the inhabitants suffered. In addition, Tobler produced a detailed report of the different hospitals, pharmacies, European physicians, and their experiences. A digest of Tobler's information, its fresh systematic arrangement, and its comparison with other historical sources, <span class="hlt">early</span> as well as recent, produces a better picture than ever previously available of the medical conditions of the city in the final years of the ascendancy of Arab medical systems and in the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> European medicine in Jerusalem and the Holy Land.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26404819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26404819"><span>Comment on "Whole-genome analyses resolve <span class="hlt">early</span> branches in the tree of life of <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Kieren J; Cooper, Alan; Phillips, Matthew J</p> <p>2015-09-25</p> <p>Jarvis et al. (Research Articles, 12 December 2014, p. 1320) presented molecular clock analyses that suggested that most <span class="hlt">modern</span> bird orders diverged just after the mass extinction event at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (about 66 million years ago). We demonstrate that this conclusion results from the use of a single inappropriate maximum bound, which effectively precludes the Cretaceous diversification overwhelmingly supported by previous molecular studies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/189/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/189/"><span>PRISM3 DOT1 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin Reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dowsett, Harry; Robinson, Marci; Dwyer, Gary S.; Chandler, Mark; Cronin, Thomas</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>PRISM3 DOT1 (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping 3, Deep Ocean Temperature 1) provides a three-dimensional temperature reconstruction for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin, the first of several regional data sets that will comprise a global mid-Pliocene reconstruction. DOT1 is an alteration of <span class="hlt">modern</span> temperature values for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean in 4 degree x 5 degree cells in 13 depth layers for December 1 based on Mg/Ca-derived BWT estimates from seventeen DSDP and ODP Sites and SST estimates from the PRISM2 reconstruction (Dowsett et al., 1999). DOT1 reflects a vaguely <span class="hlt">modern</span> circulation system, assuming similar processes of deep-water formation; however, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) production is increased, and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production is decreased. Pliocene NADW was approximately 2 degreesC warmer than <span class="hlt">modern</span> temperatures, and Pliocene AABW was approximately 0.3 degreesC warmer than <span class="hlt">modern</span> temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8364T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8364T"><span>Using Global Plate Velocity Boundary Conditions for Embedded Regional Geodynamic Models: Application to 3-D Modeling of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Rifting of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taramón, Jorge M.; Morgan, Jason P.; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>-zero within the high-resolution sub-region, elsewhere, motions are constrained by surface plate-motion constraints. The total number of unknowns needed to solve an embedded regional model with this approach is less than 1/3 larger than that needed for a structured-mesh solution on a Cartesian or spherical cap sub-regional mesh. Here we illustrate the steps within this workflow for modeling the potential mantle flow associated with the <span class="hlt">early</span> rifting evolution of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, in particular studying the potential effects of a 'Parana Plume' during the transition from rift to drift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...158..119L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...158..119L"><span>Planktic foraminiferal response to <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene carbon cycle perturbations in the southeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (ODP Site 1263)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald R.; Wade, Bridget S.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>At low latitude locations in the northern hemisphere, striking changes in the relative abundances and diversity of the two dominant planktic foraminifera genera, Morozovella and Acarinina, are known to have occurred close to the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO; 49-53 Ma). Lower Eocene carbonate-rich sediments at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 were deposited on a bathymetric high (Walvis Ridge) at 40° S, and afford an opportunity to examine such planktic foraminiferal assemblage changes in a temperate southern hemisphere setting. We present here quantified counts of <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene planktic foraminiferal assemblages from Hole 1263B, along with bulk sediment stable isotope analyses and proxy measurements for carbonate dissolution. The bulk sediment δ13C record at Site 1263 resembles similar records generated elsewhere, such that known and inferred hyperthermal events can be readily identified. Although some carbonate dissolution has occurred, the well-preserved planktic foraminiferal assemblages mostly represent primary changes in environmental conditions. Our results document the permanent decrease in Morozovella abundance and increase in Acarinina abundance at the beginning of the EECO, although this switch occurred 165 kyr after that at low-latitude northern hemisphere locations. This suggests that unfavourable environmental conditions for morozovellids at the start of the EECO, such as sustained passage of a temperature threshold or other changes in surface waters, occurred at lower latitudes first. The remarkable turnover from Morozovella to Acarinina was widely geographically widespread, although the causal mechanism remains elusive. In addition, at Site 1263, we document the virtual disappearance within the EECO of the biserial chiloguembelinids, commonly considered as inhabiting intermediate water depths, and a reduction in abundance of the thermocline-dwelling subbotinids. We interpret these changes as signals of subsurface water properties</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895817"><span>The Hidden History of a Famous Drug: Tracing the Medical and Public Acculturation of Peruvian Bark in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Western Europe (c. 1650-1720).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klein, Wouter; Pieters, Toine</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The history of the introduction of exotic therapeutic drugs in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe is usually rife with legend and obscurity and Peruvian bark is a case in point. The famous antimalarial drug entered the European medical market around 1640, yet it took decades before the bark was firmly established in pharmaceutical practice. This article argues that the history of Peruvian bark can only be understood as the interplay of its trajectories in science, commerce, and society. <span class="hlt">Modern</span> research has mostly focused on the first of these, largely due to the abundance of medico-historical data. While appreciating these findings, this article proposes to integrate the medical trajectory in a richer narrative, by drawing particular attention to the acculturation of the bark in commerce and society. Although the evidence we have for these two trajectories is still sketchy and disproportionate, it can nevertheless help us to make sense of sources that have not yet been an obvious focus of research. Starting from an apparently isolated occurrence of the drug in a letter, this article focuses on Paris as the location where medical and public appreciation of the bark took shape, by exploring several contexts of knowledge circulation and medical practice there. These contexts provide a new window on the <span class="hlt">early</span> circulation of knowledge of the bark, at a time when its eventual acceptance was by no means certain. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4296693','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4296693"><span>‘A Wonderfull Monster Borne in Germany’: Hairy Girls in Medieval and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> German Book, Court and Performance Culture*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katritzky, MA</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. <span class="hlt">Modern</span> investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, <span class="hlt">modern</span> historians routinely link <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the ‘Wild Man’ of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veränderungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die <span class="hlt">moderne</span> Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010000045&hterms=evolution+rock&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Devolution%2Brock','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010000045&hterms=evolution+rock&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Devolution%2Brock"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> Microbial Ecosystems are a Key to Understanding Our Biosphere's <span class="hlt">Early</span> Evolution and its Contributions To The Atmosphere and Rock Record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The survival of our <span class="hlt">early</span> biosphere depended upon efficient coordination anion- diverse microbial populations. Microbial mats exhibit a 3.46-billion-year fossil record, thus they are the oldest known ecosystems. Photosynthetic microbial mats were key because, today, sunlight powers more than 99 percent of global primary productivity. Thus photosynthetic ecosystems have affected the atmosphere profoundly and have created the most pervasive, easily-detected fossils. Photosynthetic biospheres elsewhere will be most detectible via telescopes or spacecraft. As a part of the Astrobiology Institute, our Ames Microbial Ecosystems group examines the roles played by ecological processes in the <span class="hlt">early</span> evolution of our biosphere, as recorded in geologic fossils and in the macromolecules of living cells: (1) We are defining the microbial mat microenvironment, which was an important milieu for <span class="hlt">early</span> evolution. (2) We are comparing mats in contrasting environments to discern strategies of adaptation and diversification, traits that were key for long-term survival. (3) We have selected sites that mimic key environmental attributes of <span class="hlt">early</span> Earth and thereby focus upon evolutionary adaptations to long-term changes in the global environment. (4) Our studies of gas exchange contribute to better estimates of biogenic gases in Earth's <span class="hlt">early</span> atmosphere. This group therefore directly addresses the question: How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time Our studies strengthen the systematics for interpreting the microbial fossil record and thereby enhance astrobiological studies of martian samples. Our models of biogenic gas emissions will enhance models of atmospheres that might be detected on inhabited extrasolar planets. This work therefore also addresses the question: How can other biospheres be recogniZed" Our choice of field sites helps us explore Earth's evolving <span class="hlt">early</span> environment. For example, <span class="hlt">modern</span> mats that occupy thermal springs and certain freshwater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4488358','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4488358"><span>Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Human Dispersals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Phillips, Natasha</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of <span class="hlt">early</span> human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with <span class="hlt">early</span> human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during <span class="hlt">early</span> MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing <span class="hlt">early</span> human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=H+Anton&id=EJ1006722','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=H+Anton&id=EJ1006722"><span>The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Twentieth Century Reform in <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Israel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Engel, Liba H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary <span class="hlt">early</span> Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..418B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..418B"><span>Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brocas, William M.; Felis, Thomas; Obert, J. Christina; Gierz, Paul; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Denis; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Reconstructions of last interglacial (LIG, MIS 5e, ∼127-117 ka) climate offer insights into the natural response and variability of the climate system during a period partially analogous to future climate change scenarios. We present well preserved fossil corals (Diploria strigosa) recovered from the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). These have been precisely dated by the 230Th/U-method to between 130 and 120 ka ago. Annual banding of the coral skeleton enabled construction of time windows of monthly resolved strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) temperature proxy records. In conjunction with a previously published 118 ka coral record, our eight records of up to 37 years in length, cover a total of 105 years within the LIG period. From these, sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality and variability in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is reconstructed. We detect similar to <span class="hlt">modern</span> SST seasonality of ∼2.9 °C during the <span class="hlt">early</span> (130 ka) and the late LIG (120-118 ka). However, within the mid-LIG, a significantly higher than <span class="hlt">modern</span> SST seasonality of 4.9 °C (at 126 ka) and 4.1 °C (at 124 ka) is observed. These findings are supported by climate model simulations and are consistent with the evolving amplitude of orbitally induced changes in seasonality of insolation throughout the LIG, irrespective of wider climatic instabilities that characterised this period. The climate model simulations suggest that the SST seasonality changes documented in our LIG coral Sr/Ca records are representative of larger regions within the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These simulations also suggest that the reconstructed SST seasonality increase during the mid-LIG is caused primarily by summer warming. A 124 ka old coral documents, for the first time, evidence of decadal SST variability in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the LIG, akin to that observed in <span class="hlt">modern</span> instrumental records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GGG....18.3910V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GGG....18.3910V"><span>Extracting a Detailed Magnetostratigraphy From Weakly Magnetized, Oligocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Miocene Sediment Drifts Recovered at IODP Site U1406 (Newfoundland Margin, Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Peer, Tim E.; Xuan, Chuang; Lippert, Peter C.; Liebrand, Diederik; Agnini, Claudia; Wilson, Paul A.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Fine-grained magnetic particles in deep-sea sediments often statistically align with the ambient magnetic field during (and shortly after) deposition and can therefore record geomagnetic reversals. Correlation of these reversals to a geomagnetic polarity time scale is an important geochronological tool that facilitates precise stratigraphic correlation and dating of geological records globally. Sediments often carry a remanence strong enough for confident identification of polarity reversals, but in some cases a low signal-to-noise ratio prevents the construction of a reliable and robust magnetostratigraphy. Here we implement a data-filtering protocol, which can be integrated with the UPmag software package, to automatically reduce the maximum angular deviation and statistically mask noisy data and outliers deemed unsuitable for magnetostratigraphic interpretation. This protocol thus extracts a clearer signal from weakly magnetized sediments recovered at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 342 Site U1406 (Newfoundland margin, northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean). The resulting magnetostratigraphy, in combination with shipboard and shore-based biostratigraphy, provides an age model for the study interval from IODP Site U1406 between Chrons C6Ar and C9n (˜21-27 Ma). We identify rarely observed geomagnetic directional changes within Chrons C6Br, C7r, and C7Ar, and perhaps within Subchron C8n.1n. Our magnetostratigraphy dates three intervals of unusual stratigraphic behavior within the sediment drifts at IODP Site U1406 on the Newfoundland margin. These lithostratigraphic changes are broadly concurrent with the coldest climatic phases of the middle Oligocene to <span class="hlt">early</span> Miocene and we hypothesize that they reflect changes in bottom water circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26186339','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26186339"><span>Implications of Habitat Loss on Seed Predation and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Recruitment of a Keystone Palm in Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Brazilian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Rainforest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soares, Leiza Aparecida S S; Faria, Deborah; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Vieira, Emerson M; Talora, Daniela C; Cazetta, Eliana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the <span class="hlt">early</span> recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%). We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E. edulis recruitment to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4505908','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4505908"><span>Implications of Habitat Loss on Seed Predation and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Recruitment of a Keystone Palm in Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Brazilian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Rainforest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soares, Leiza Aparecida S. S.; Faria, Deborah; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Vieira, Emerson M.; Talora, Daniela C.; Cazetta, Eliana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the <span class="hlt">early</span> recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%). We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E. edulis recruitment to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25263188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25263188"><span>Effects of feed quality and quantity on growth, <span class="hlt">early</span> maturation and smolt development in hatchery-reared landlocked <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norrgård, J R; Bergman, E; Greenberg, L A; Schmitz, M</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The effects of feed quality and quantity on growth, <span class="hlt">early</span> male parr maturation and development of smolt characteristics were studied in hatchery-reared landlocked <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar. The fish were subjected to two levels of feed rations and two levels of lipid content from first feeding until release in May of their second year. Salmo salar fed high rations, regardless of lipid content, grew the most and those fed low lipid feed with low rations grew the least. In addition, fish fed low lipid feed had lower body lipid levels than fish fed high lipid feed. Salmo salar from all treatments showed some reduction in condition factor (K) and lipid levels during their second spring. Smolt status was evaluated using both physiological and morphological variables. These results, based on gill Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase (NKA) enzyme activity, saltwater tolerance challenges and visual assessments, were consistent with each other, showing that S. salar from all treatments, except the treatment in which the fish were fed low rations with low lipid content, exhibited characteristics associated with smolting at 2 years of age. Sexually mature male parr from the high ration, high lipid content treatment were also subjected to saltwater challenge tests, and were found to be unable to regulate plasma sodium levels. The proportion of sexually mature male parr was reduced when the fish were fed low feed rations, but was not affected by the lipid content of the feed. Salmo salar fed low rations with low lipid content exhibited the highest degree of severe fin erosion. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26297077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26297077"><span>The economic benefits of disease triggered <span class="hlt">early</span> harvest: A case study of pancreas disease in farmed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon from Norway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pettersen, J M; Rich, K M; Jensen, B Bang; Aunsmo, A</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Pancreas disease (PD) is an important viral disease in Norwegian, Scottish and Irish aquaculture causing biological losses in terms of reduced growth, mortality, increased feed conversion ratio, and carcass downgrading. We developed a bio-economic model to investigate the economic benefits of a disease triggered <span class="hlt">early</span> harvesting strategy to control PD losses. In this strategy, the salmon farm adopts a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) diagnostic screening program to monitor the virus levels in stocks. Virus levels are used to forecast a clinical outbreak of pancreas disease, which then initiates a prescheduled harvest of the stock to avoid disease losses. The model is based on data inputs from national statistics, literature, company data, and an expert panel, and use stochastic simulations to account for the variation and/or uncertainty associated with disease effects and selected production expenditures. With the model, we compared the impacts of a salmon farm undergoing prescheduled harvest versus the salmon farm going through a PD outbreak. We also estimated the direct costs of a PD outbreak as the sum of biological losses, treatment costs, prevention costs, and other additional costs, less the costs of insurance pay-outs. Simulation results suggests that the economic benefit from a prescheduled harvest is positive once the average salmon weight at the farm has reached 3.2kg or more for an average Norwegian salmon farm stocked with 1,000,000smolts and using average salmon sales prices for 2013. The direct costs from a PD outbreak occurring nine months (average salmon weight 1.91kg) after sea transfer and using 2013 sales prices was on average estimated at NOK 55.4 million (5%, 50% and 90% percentile: 38.0, 55.8 and 72.4) (NOK=€0.128 in 2013). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the losses from a PD outbreak are sensitive to feed- and salmon sales prices, and that high 2013 sales prices contributed to substantial losses associated with a PD outbreak. Copyright </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13D..03X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13D..03X"><span>Deglacial Ocean Circulation Scheme at Intermediate Depths in the Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, R. C.; Marcantonio, F.; Schmidt, M. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">modern</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, intermediate water circulation is largely governed by the southward flowing upper North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) and the northward return flow Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). During the last deglaciation, it is commonly accepted that the southward flow Glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intermediate Water, the glacial analogue of NADW, contributed significantly to past variations in intermediate water circulation. However, to date, there is no common consensus of the role AAIW played during the last deglaciation, especially across abrupt climate events such as the Heinrich 1 and the Younger Dryas. This study aims to reconstruct intermediate northern- and southern-sourced water circulation in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the past 22 kyr and attempts to confine the boundary between AAIW and northern-sourced intermediate waters in the past. High-resolution Nd isotopic compositions (ɛNd thereafter) of fish debris and bulk sediment acid-reductive leachate from the Southern Caribbean (VM12-107; 1079 m) are inconsistent, again casting concerns, as already raised by recent studies, on the reliability of the leachate method in extracting seawater ɛNd signature. This urges the need to carefully verify the seawater ɛNd integrity in sediment acid-reductive leachate in various oceanic settings. Fish debris Nd isotope record in our study displays a two-step decreasing trend from the <span class="hlt">early</span> deglaciation to <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene. We interpret this as recording a two-step deglacial recovery of the upper NADW, given the assumption on a more radiogenic glacial northern-sourced water is valid. Comparing with authigenic ɛNd records in the Florida Straits [1] and the Demarara Rise [2], our new fish debris ɛNd results suggest that, in the tropical western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, glacial and deglacial AAIW never penetrated beyond the lower depth limit of <span class="hlt">modern</span> AAIW. [1] Xie et al., GCA (140) 2014; [2] Huang et al., EPSL (389) 2014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22977150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22977150"><span>Multiple nuclear genes and retroposons support vicariance and dispersal of the palaeognaths, and an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous origin of <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haddrath, Oliver; Baker, Allan J</p> <p>2012-11-22</p> <p>The origin and timing of the diversification of <span class="hlt">modern</span> birds remains controversial, primarily because phylogenetic relationships are incompletely resolved and uncertainty persists in molecular estimates of lineage ages. Here, we present a species tree for the major palaeognath lineages using 27 nuclear genes and 27 archaic retroposon insertions. We show that rheas are sister to the kiwis, emu and cassowaries, and confirm ratite paraphyly because tinamous are sister to moas. Divergence dating using 10 genes with broader taxon sampling, including emu, cassowary, ostrich, five kiwis, two rheas, three tinamous, three extinct moas and 15 neognath lineages, suggests that three vicariant events and possibly two dispersals are required to explain their historical biogeography. The age of crown group birds was estimated at 131 Ma (95% highest posterior density 122-138 Ma), similar to previous molecular estimates. Problems associated with gene tree discordance and incomplete lineage sorting in birds will require much larger gene sets to increase species tree accuracy and improve error in divergence times. The relatively rapid branching within neoaves pre-dates the extinction of dinosaurs, suggesting that the genesis of the radiation within this diverse clade of birds was not in response to the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20821878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20821878"><span>“Every woman counts”: a gender-analysis of numeracy in the Low Countries during the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Moor, Tine; van Zanden, Jan Luiten</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>New evidence from Flanders and the Netherlands demonstrates that age heaping was gradually diminishing in large parts of the Low Countries during the sixteenth century, that (unexpectedly) almost no gender gap was apparent in the change (women even outperforming men at times), and that differences between town and countryside were small. These findings suggest an <span class="hlt">early</span> rise in numeracy (or at least a “number sense”) in both urban and rural areas, linked to demographic change and commercial development. Between 1600 and 1800, Flanders, in particular, seems to have lost its strong distinctiveness in this regard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20715320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20715320"><span>The construction of the idea of the city in <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Europe: Pérez de Herrera and Nicolas Delamare.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fraile, Pedro</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>With the economic and social changes in Europe at the end of the sixteenth century and the formation and consolidation of an urban network throughout the continent, questions such as poverty, sanitation, and hygiene began to pose acute problems in the cities of the age. A new school of thought, known in Spain as Ciencia de Policía and in the Mediterranean area as Policy Science, proposed solutions for these problems and tested them through practical interventions inside the urban setting. In this article the author compares the work of two thinkers: Cristóbal Pérez de Herrera, a Spaniard, and Nicolas Delamare, a Frenchman. Writing in the late sixteenth and <span class="hlt">early</span> seventeenth centuries, Pérez de Herrera examined the organization of Madrid, the newly founded (though still not firmly established) capital of Spain. Delamare based his study on the Paris of the <span class="hlt">early</span> eighteenth century. The author stresses the coincidences in some of the ideas of both thinkers and shows how their writings begin to embody a new idea of the city, many aspects of which have survived until the present day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DokES.478..190M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DokES.478..190M"><span>Origin of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Sial Crust and U-Pb Isotope-Geochemical Heterogeneity of the Earth's Mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mishkin, M. A.; Nozhkin, A. D.; Vovna, G. M.; Sakhno, V. G.; Veldemar, A. A.</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>It is shown that presence of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Precambrian sial crust in the Indo-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> segment of the Earth and its absence in the Pacific has been caused by geochemical differences in the mantle underlying these segments. These differences were examined on the basis of Nd-Hf and U-Pb isotopes in <span class="hlt">modern</span> basalts. The U-Pb isotope system is of particular interest, since uranium is a member of a group of heat-generating radioactive elements providing heat for plumes. It is shown that in the Indo-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> segment, a distribution of areas of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> HIMU type mantle is typical, while it is almost completely absent in the Pacific segment. In the Archean, in the upper HIMU type paleo-mantle areas, plume generation and formation of the primordial basic crust occurred; this was followed by its remelting resulting in the appearance of an <span class="hlt">early</span> sial crust forming cratons of the Indo-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> segment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5902M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5902M"><span>The emergence of <span class="hlt">modern</span> type rain forests and mangroves and their traces in the palaeobotanical record during the Late Cretaceous and <span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohr, Barbara; Coiffard, Clément</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The origin of <span class="hlt">modern</span> rain forests is still very poorly known. This ecosystem could have potentially fully evolved only after the development of relatively high numbers of flowering plant families adapted to rain forest conditions. During the <span class="hlt">early</span> phase of angiosperm evolution in the <span class="hlt">early</span> Cretaceous the palaeo-equatorial region was located in a seasonally dry climatic belt, so that during this phase, flowering plants often show adaptations to drought, rather than to continuously wet climate conditions. Therefore it is not surprising that except for the Nymphaeales, the most basal members of extant angiosperm families have members that do not necessarily occur in the continuously wet tropics today. However, during the late <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous several clades emerged that later would give rise to families that are typically found today mostly in (shady) moist places in warmer regions. This is especially seen among the monocotyledons, a group of the mesangiosperms, that developed in many cases large leaves often with very specific venation patterns that make these leaves very unique and well recognizable. Especially members of three groups are here of interest: the arum family (Araceae), the palms (Arecaceae) and the Ginger and allies (Zingiberales). The earliest fossil of Araceae are restricted to low latitudes during the lower Cretaceous. Arecaceae and Zingiberales do not appear in the fossil record before the <span class="hlt">early</span> late Cretaceous and occur at mid latitudes. During the Late Cretaceous, Araceae are represented at mid latitudes by non-tropical <span class="hlt">early</span> diverging members and at low latitudes by derived rainforest members. Palms became widespread during the Late Cretataceous and also Nypa, a typical element of tropical to subtropical mangrove environments evolved during this time period. During the Paleocene Arecaceae appear to be restricted to lower latitudes as well as Zingiberales. All three groups are again widespread during the Eocene, reaching higher latitudes and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29804807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29804807"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Evolution of <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Birds Structured by Global Forest Collapse at the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Field, Daniel J; Bercovici, Antoine; Berv, Jacob S; Dunn, Regan; Fastovsky, David E; Lyson, Tyler R; Vajda, Vivi; Gauthier, Jacques A</p> <p>2018-06-04</p> <p>The fossil record and recent molecular phylogenies support an extraordinary <span class="hlt">early</span>-Cenozoic radiation of crown birds (Neornithes) after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction [1-3]. However, questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the survival of the deepest lineages within crown birds across the K-Pg boundary, particularly since this global catastrophe eliminated even the closest stem-group relatives of Neornithes [4]. Here, ancestral state reconstructions of neornithine ecology reveal a strong bias toward taxa exhibiting predominantly non-arboreal lifestyles across the K-Pg, with multiple convergent transitions toward predominantly arboreal ecologies later in the Paleocene and Eocene. By contrast, ecomorphological inferences indicate predominantly arboreal lifestyles among enantiornithines, the most diverse and widespread Mesozoic avialans [5-7]. Global paleobotanical and palynological data show that the K-Pg Chicxulub impact triggered widespread destruction of forests [8, 9]. We suggest that ecological filtering due to the temporary loss of significant plant cover across the K-Pg boundary selected against any flying dinosaurs (Avialae [10]) committed to arboreal ecologies, resulting in a predominantly non-arboreal post-extinction neornithine avifauna composed of total-clade Palaeognathae, Galloanserae, and terrestrial total-clade Neoaves that rapidly diversified into the broad range of avian ecologies familiar today. The explanation proposed here provides a unifying hypothesis for the K-Pg-associated mass extinction of arboreal stem birds, as well as for the post-K-Pg radiation of arboreal crown birds. It also provides a baseline hypothesis to be further refined pending the discovery of additional neornithine fossils from the Latest Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-098.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-098.pdf"><span>Habitat Suitability Index Models: Juvenile <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Croaker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Diaz, Robert J.; Onuf, Christopher P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker is an important commercial and recreational species. In the 1940's, the foodfish catch of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croakers was concentrated in Chesapeake Bay; in the 1950's and <span class="hlt">early</span> 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico; and in the late 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> States (Wilk 1981). Industrial and recreational catches of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croakers have been concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico, where the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker is the most important species of bottomfish for industrial uses (Knudsen and Herke 1978), and has ranked first, second, or third in number caught by recreational anglers, depending on survey year (Nakamura 1981). Today, Virginia or Delaware is considered to be the northern extent of the species. During climatically warmer periods, such as the 1930's and 1940's, the croaker extended its range north at least to New York, where it was commercially fished. The southern extent of its range is Argentina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710397F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710397F"><span>Astronomical forcing, insolation and millennial-scale climate variability: evidence from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (IODP Expedition 306, Site U1313) during the <span class="hlt">Early</span>-Middle Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferretti, Patrizia; Crowhurst, Simon; Naafs, David; Barbante, Carlo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Since the seminal work by Hays, Imbrie and Shackleton (1976), a plethora of studies mostly based on marine sediments collected during DSDP-ODP-IODP Expeditions has demonstrated a correlation between orbital variations and climatic change. However, information on how changes in orbital boundary conditions affected the frequency and amplitude of millennial-scale climate variability is still fragmentary. Here we examine the record of climatic conditions from MIS 23 to 17 (c. 920-670 ka) using high-resolution stable isotope records from benthic and planktonic foraminifera from a sedimentary sequence in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 306, Site U1313) in order to evaluate the climate system's response in the millennial band to known orbitally induced insolation changes. Special emphasis is placed on Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19, an interglacial centred at around 785 ka during which the insolation appears comparable to the current orbital geometry: MIS 19 is characterised by a minimum of the 400-kyr eccentricity cycle, subdued amplitude of precessional changes, and small amplitude variations in insolation making this marine isotopic stage a potential astronomical analogue for the Holocene and its future evolution, if this remains governed by natural forcing (Loutre and Berger 2000). Benthic and planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope values indicate relatively stable conditions during the peak warmth of MIS 19, but sea-surface and deep-water reconstructions start diverging during the transition towards the glacial MIS 18, when large, cold excursions disrupt the surface waters whereas low amplitude millennial scale fluctuations persist in the deep waters as recorded by the oxygen isotope signal (Ferretti et al., 2015). The glacial inception occurred at ˜779 ka, in agreement with an increased abundance of tetra-unsaturated alkenones, reflecting the influence of icebergs and associated meltwater pulses and high-latitude waters at the study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009088','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009088"><span>Coherent Multidecadal Atmospheric and Oceanic Variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Blocking Corresponds with Warm Subpolar Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hakkinen, Sirpa M.; Rhines, P. B.; Worthen, D. L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Winters with frequent atmospheric blocking, in a band of latitudes from Greenland to Western Europe, are found to persist over several decades and correspond to a warm North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. This is evident in atmospheric reanalysis data, both <span class="hlt">modern</span> and for the full 20th century. Blocking is approximately in phase with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal ocean variability (AMV). Wintertime atmospheric blocking involves a highly distorted jetstream, isolating large regions of air from the westerly circulation. It influences the ocean through windstress-curl and associated air/sea heat flux. While blocking is a relatively high-frequency phenomenon, it is strongly modulated over decadal timescales. The blocked regime (weaker ocean gyres, weaker air-sea heat flux, paradoxically increased transport of warm subtropical waters poleward) contributes to the warm phase of AMV. Atmospheric blocking better describes the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20thC warming and 1996-2010 warm period than does the NAO index. It has roots in the hemispheric circulation and jet stream dynamics. Subpolar <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability covaries with distant AMOC fields: both these connections may express the global influence of the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean on the global climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342078','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342078"><span>The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of <span class="hlt">early</span>-rearing <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon fry were stocked into twelve circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5-2 body-lengths per second, or BL/s) or low (less than 0.5 BL/s) swimming speeding and high (100% saturation) or low (70% saturation) dissolved oxygen (DO) while being raised fr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12635644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12635644"><span>The hidden truths of the belly: the uncertainties of pregnancy in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europe. (Society for the Social History of Medicine Student Prize Essay 1999, runner-up.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McClive, Cathy</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> men and women and their medical practitioners, the experience and understanding of pregnancy was primarily uncertain. This uncertainty extended to the whole process of pregnancy--from the moment of conception to delivery, the detection and bearing of a 'true fruit' was doubtful. This 'uncertainty' was heightened by the fact that both body and language could conceal the truth. The woman herself was frequently uncertain and could be mistaken in her interpretation of the condition of her belly. This ambiguity is expressed in the vague and faltering language used to describe such experiences. Women's bodies were believed to conceal the truth more readily than their male counterparts. Equally a woman's physical narrative was more likely to be distrusted. Tensions surrounding the appropriate nature of women's 'knowledge' of such hidden 'secrets' also affected the ways in which women and their practitioners described the 'truths' of the belly. This article traces the ambiguities faced by women and their midwives/accoucheurs through three areas of pregnancy: quickening, false conceptions, and the threat of miscarriage. The much-neglected source of medical texts and observations is drawn upon, alongside letters and diaries and judicial material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=shakespeare&pg=6&id=EJ933710','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=shakespeare&pg=6&id=EJ933710"><span><span class="hlt">Early-Modern</span> "Speech" Marks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blackburn, Nick</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP32B..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP32B..04M"><span>The Interfaces Between Historical, Paleo-, and <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Climatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mock, C. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Historical climatology, commonly defined as the study of reconstructing past climates from documentary and <span class="hlt">early</span> instrumental data, has routinely utilized data within the last several hundred years down to sub-daily temporal resolution prior to the advent of "<span class="hlt">modern</span>" instrumental records beginning in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Historical climate reconstruction methods generally share similar aspects conducted in both paleoclimate reconstruction and <span class="hlt">modern</span> climatology, given the need to quantify, calibrate, and conduct careful data quality assessments. Although some studies have integrated historical climatic studies with other high resolution paleoclimatic proxies, very few efforts have integrated historical data with <span class="hlt">modern</span> "systematic" climate networks to further examine spatial and temporal patterns of climate variability. This presentation describes historical climate examples of how such data can be integrated within <span class="hlt">modern</span> climate timescales, including examples of documentary data on tropical cyclones from the Western Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basins, colonial records from Belize and Constantinople, ship logbooks in the Western Arctic, plantation diaries from the American Southeast, and newspaper data from the Fiji Islands and Bermuda. Some results include a unique wet period in Belize and active tropical cyclone periods in the Western and South Pacific in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th century - both are not reflected in conventional <span class="hlt">modern</span> climate datasets. Documentary data examples demonstrate high feasibility in further understanding extreme weather events at daily timeframes such as false spring/killing frost episodes and hydrological extremes in southeastern North America. Recent unique efforts also involve community participation, secondary education, and web- based volunteer efforts to digitize and archive historical weather and climate information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27549616','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27549616"><span>Restingomyces, a new sequestrate genus from the Brazilian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rainforest that is phylogenetically related to <span class="hlt">early</span>-diverging taxa in Trappeaceae (Phallales).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sulzbacher, Marcelo A; Grebenc, Tine; Cabral, Tiara S; Giachini, Admir J; Goto, Bruno T; Smith, Matthew E; Baseia, Iuri G</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Restingomyces reticulatus gen. et sp. nov. is a recently discovered false truffle species from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> "restinga" rainforest in northeastern Brazil. Molecular and morphological characters separate this new sequestrate species from other described taxa in the order Phallales (Phallomycetidae, Basidiomycota). In our phylogenetic analysis based on nuc 28S rDNA and atp6, R. reticulatus forms a sister clade to Trappea darkeri and Phallobata alba, with the three taxa forming the earliest diverging lineage within Phallales. Morphological and molecular data warrant the recognition of the new genus and species, described here, and we also amend the taxonomic description for the family Trappeaceae. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10578&hterms=chalk&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchalk','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10578&hterms=chalk&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchalk"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bloom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and <span class="hlt">early</span> summer, the cool waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B21A0004C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B21A0004C"><span>Pisolithus tinctorius, Fungal Extremophile and <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Analog to an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Earth Environment; An Unlikely Harbor for Deeply Diverging and Novel Chemoautrophic Microbes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cullings, K. C.; Lauzon, C.; Marinkovich, N.; Truong, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p> that branches at the base of the Archaeal clade indicating the presence of, at the very least, a new Phylum/Division within this group. Thus, the data provide a model for furthering our understanding of the diversification of life, in a novel <span class="hlt">modern</span> analog to an <span class="hlt">early</span> Earth environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22458715-risk-pathologic-upgrading-locally-advanced-disease-early-prostate-cancer-patients-based-biopsy-gleason-score-psa-population-based-study-modern-patients','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22458715-risk-pathologic-upgrading-locally-advanced-disease-early-prostate-cancer-patients-based-biopsy-gleason-score-psa-population-based-study-modern-patients"><span>Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D.; Hendrix, Laura H.</p> <p></p> <p> Gleason score upgrading based on clinically available information in <span class="hlt">modern</span> patients. These data inform the selection of radiation therapy strategies and an understanding of whether prostatectomy alone is likely to be curative for patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> prostate cancers.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-04/pdf/2011-7947.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-04/pdf/2011-7947.pdf"><span>76 FR 18504 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-04</p> <p>...-BA65 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries..., 2011, NMFS published a proposed rule to modify <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) base quotas for all domestic...); amend the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas possession at sea and landing regulations to allow removal of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T43C2696S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T43C2696S"><span>Did in-place rotation of South America during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous create both the <span class="hlt">early</span> South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rift/salt basin and the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province? Peter Szatmari1 and Edison J. Milani1 1Petrobras Research Center (CENPES) Geological Research & Development (PDGEO), Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szatmari, P.; Milani, E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Large igneous provinces with continental flood basalts, some related to rifting, have been traditionally attributed to mantle plume heads rising from the lower mantle. The <span class="hlt">early</span> Cretaceous South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rift, an archetype of plate tectonics, and the Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalts on land outside the rift, formed as South America rotated clockwise about a pole in its northeastern tip (Rabinowitz & LaBrecque, 1979), away from Africa and toward the subduction zone on its Pacific margin. This rotation opened the <span class="hlt">early</span> South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> southward while it kept the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gateway to the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Tethys closed by compression. Rifting started in the late Jurassic in the extreme south, near the subduction zone at the continent's southern tip. It rapidly propagated NNE, mainly along inherited late Proterozoic (mostly Ediacaran) fold belts, and reached what has later become the eastern end of the Equatorial margin still in latest Jurassic time. Massive mostly basaltic volcanism peaked about 20 Ma later in Hauterivian time (136 to 130 Ma), forming dike swarms which, in the south, are accompanied by flood basalts of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province. The massive rise of mostly tholeiitic magma resulted from hotspot-like high temperatures prevailing beneath the cold and thick Gondwana lithosphere that had remained unbroken since Proterozoic times for about 400 Ma. <span class="hlt">Early</span> basalt dike swarms trending E-W and SE-NW were transversal to the rift. They are two-three hundred kilometers long and 1000-2000 km apart, penetrating far into the continent's unrifted lithosphere and cutting through all inherited Proterozoic structures that controlled rifting. The successive basalt dike swarms (and their individual dikes) increase in thickness to the southwest, away from the continent's pole of rotation, as does the width of the rift. The E-W-trending Ceará-Mirim dike swarm occurs in the extreme northeast of the continent. Further southwest the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4447295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4447295"><span>Dual Annual Spawning Races in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sturgeon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to <span class="hlt">early</span> summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1579W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1579W"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> 21st-Century Mass loss of the North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Glaciers and Ice Caps (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wouters, Bert; Ligtenberg, Stefan; Moholdt, Geir; Gardner, Alex S.; Noel, Brice; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Bamber, Jonathan L.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Historically, ice loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps has been one of the largest contributors to sea level rise over the last century. Of particular interest are the glaciers and ice caps in the North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region of the Arctic. Despite the cold climate in this area, considerable melting and runoff occurs in summer. A small increase in temperature will have an immediate effect on these processes, so that a large change in the Arctic ice volume can be expected in response to the anticipated climate change in the coming century. Unfortunately, direct observations of glaciers are sparse and are biased toward glaciers systems in accessible, mostly maritime, climate conditions. Remote sensing is therefore essential to monitor the state of the the North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> glaciers and ice caps. In this presentation, we will discuss the progress that has been made in estimating the ice mass balance of these regions, with a particular focus on measurements made by ESA's Cryosat-2 radar altimeter mission (2010-present). Compared to earlier altimeter mission, Cryosat-2 provides unprecedented coverage of the cryosphere, with a resolution down to 1 km or better and sampling at monthly intervals. Combining the Cryosat-2 measurements with the laser altimetry data from ICESat (2003-2009) gives us a 12 yr time series of glacial mass loss in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. We find excellent agreement between the altimetry measurements and independent observations by the GRACE mission, which directly 'weighs' the ice caps, albeit at a much lower resolution. Mass loss in the region has increased from 120 Gigatonnes per year in 2003-2009 to roughly 140 Gt/yr in 2010-2014, with an important contribution from Greenland's peripheral glaciers and ice caps. Importantly, the mass loss is not stationary, but shows large regional interannual variability, with mass loss shifting between eastern and western regions from year to year. Comparison with regional climate models shows that these shifts can be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP43D..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP43D..02F"><span>Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Felis, T.; Brocas, W.; Obert, J. C.; Gierz, P.; Lohmann, G.; Scholz, D.; Kölling, M.; Pfeiffer, M.; Scheffers, S. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Reconstructions of last interglacial ( 127-117 ka) climate offer insights into the natural response and variability of the climate system during a period partially analogous to future climate change scenarios. However, the seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean are not well known for the last interglacial period. Here we present well preserved fossil corals (Diploria strigosa) recovered from the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire. These corals have been precisely dated by the 230Th/U-method to between 130 and 118 ka ago. Annual banding of the coral skeleton enabled construction of time windows of monthly resolved Sr/Ca temperature proxy records. Our eight coral records of up to 37 years in length cover a total of 105 years within the last interglacial period. From these coral records, sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is reconstructed. We detect similar to <span class="hlt">modern</span> SST seasonality of 2.9 °C during the <span class="hlt">early</span> (130 ka) and the late last interglacial (120 - 118 ka). However, within the mid-last interglacial, a significantly higher than <span class="hlt">modern</span> SST seasonality of 4.9 °C (at 126 ka) and 4.1 °C (at 124 ka) is observed. These findings are supported by climate model simulations (COSMOS) and are consistent with the evolving amplitude of orbitally induced changes in seasonality of insolation throughout the last interglacial, irrespective of wider climatic instabilities that characterised this period, e.g. at 118 ka ago. The climate model simulations suggest that the SST seasonality changes documented in our last interglacial coral Sr/Ca records are representative of larger regions within the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These simulations also suggest that the reconstructed SST seasonality increase during the mid-last interglacial is caused primarily by summer warming. Furthermore, a 124 ka old coral documents evidence of decadal SST variability in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last interglacial, akin to that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=318220','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=318220"><span>Salinity effects on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon growth and osmoregulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at <span class="hlt">early</span> life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> stur...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..141..112K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..141..112K"><span>Patagonian and southern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> view of Holocene climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Schwartz, R.; Travis, S. G.; Garcia, J. L.; Martini, M. A.; Nielsen, S. H. H.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We present a comprehensive 10Be chronology for Holocene moraines in the Lago Argentino basin, on the east side of the South Patagonian Icefield. We focus on three different areas, where prior studies show ample glacier moraine records exist because they were formed by outlet glaciers sensitive to climate change. The 10Be dated records are from the Lago Pearson, Herminita Península-Brazo Upsala, and Lago Frías areas, which span a distance of almost 100 km adjacent to the <span class="hlt">modern</span> Icefield. New 10Be ages show that expanded glaciers and moraine building events occurred at least at 6120 ± 390 (n = 13), 4450 ± 220 (n = 7), 1450 or 1410 ± 110 (n = 18), 360 ± 30 (n = 5), and 240 ± 20 (n = 8) years ago. Furthermore, other less well-dated glacier expansions of the Upsala Glacier occurred between 1400 and ∼1000 and ∼2300 and ∼2000 years ago. The most extensive glaciers occurred over the interval from ∼6100 to ∼4500 years ago, and their margins over the last ∼600 years were well within and lower than those in the middle Holocene. The 10Be ages agree with 14C-limiting data for the glacier histories in this area. We then link southern South American, adjacent South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and other Southern Hemisphere records to elucidate broader regional patterns of climate and their possible causes. In the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene, a far southward position of the westerly winds fostered warmth, small Patagonian glaciers, and reduced sea ice coverage over the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Although we infer a pronounced southward displacement of the westerlies during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene, these conditions did not occur throughout the southern mid-high latitudes, an important exception being over the southwest Pacific sector. Subsequently, a northward locus and/or expansion of the winds over the Patagonia-South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector promoted the largest glaciers between ∼6100 and ∼4500 years ago and greatest sea ice coverage. Over the last few millennia, the South Patagonian Icefield has experienced</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atomic+AND+spectroscopy&pg=5&id=EJ016324','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atomic+AND+spectroscopy&pg=5&id=EJ016324"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barrow, Gordon M.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Presents the basic ideas of <span class="hlt">modern</span> spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.T51C0477Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.T51C0477Z"><span>Comparison of Subsidence Rates for Conjugate Margins of the Equatorial and Northern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean as A First-Order Constraint on Symmetry of Underlying, <span class="hlt">Early</span> Rift Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zavala, O.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>We compared subsidence histories from wells into Cretaceous-Cenozoic conjugate margins in the Equatorial and northern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> as a first-order constraint on whether rifting occurred in a symmetrical, pure shear mode, or whether rifting occurred in an asymmetrical, simple shear mode. For the pure shear mode of rifting, the prediction is for longterm subsidence on both conjugate margins to be similar and reflective of underlying, rift symmetry; for the simple shear mode of rifting, the prediction is that subsidence above the more thinned and wider, lower plate margin is greater than subsidence above the less thinned and more narrow, upper plate margin. A major caveat of this approach is that subsidence variations can be affected by other external factors that include increased sedimentation related to local deltas and structural or hotspot-related uplifts of coastal areas. In the northern Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the longterm subsidence rate for the Guyana basin of northeastern South America of 18.52 m/Ma is less that of the Senegal area of west Africa of 54 m/Ma suggestive of an upper plate to the west and lower plate to the east. Moving southwards, the Potiguar basin of northern Brazil of 23 m/Ma is roughly the same as the Keta-Togo-Benin-Cote d'Ivoire basins of west Africa (21 m/Ma) and suggestive of an underlying rift symmetry. The Bahia Norte-Reconcavo-Sergipe-Alogoas basins of Brazil are less (28 m/Ma) than the Gabon basin (57 m/Ma) of west Africa suggesitive of an lower plate to the east and an upper plate to the west. The Bahia Sul-Espirito Santo basins of Brazil are less (20 m/Ma) than the Lower Congo basin (45 m/Ma) although the latter area includes the localized influence of the Congo delta. We compare additional evidence such as seismic reflection and refraction data and gravity modeling to the predictions of the subsidence values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.140..455X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.140..455X"><span>Reconstruction of intermediate water circulation in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the past 22,000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Ruifang C.; Marcantonio, Franco; Schmidt, Matthew W.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Decades of paleoceanographic studies have reconstructed a well-resolved water mass structure for the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, the variability of intermediate water circulation in the tropics over the LGM and deglacial abrupt climate events is still largely debated. This study aims to reconstruct intermediate northern- and southern-sourced water circulation in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the past 22 kyr and attempts to confine the boundary between Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and northern-sourced intermediate water (i.e., upper North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) or Glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intermediate Water) in the past. High-resolution Nd isotopic compositions of fish debris and acid-reductive leachate of bulk sediment in core VM12-107 (1079 m depth) from the Southern Caribbean are not in agreement. We suggest that the leachate method does not reliably extract the Nd isotopic compositions of seawater at this location, and that it needs to be tested in more detail in various oceanic settings. The fish debris εNd values display a general decrease from the <span class="hlt">early</span> deglaciation to the end of the Younger Dryas, followed by a greater drop toward less radiogenic values into the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene. We propose a potentially more radiogenic glacial northern endmember water mass and interpret this pattern as recording a recovery of the upper NADW during the last deglaciation. Comparing our new fish debris Nd isotope data to authigenic Nd isotope studies in the Florida Straits (546 and 751 m depth), we propose that both glacial and deglacial AAIW do not penetrate beyond the lower depth limit of <span class="hlt">modern</span> AAIW in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U11A0009M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U11A0009M"><span>Tropical Cyclones and Climate Controls in the Western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin during the First Half of the Nineteenth Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mock, C. J.; Dodds, S. F.; Rodgers, M. D.; Patwardhan, A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>This study describes new comprehensive reconstructions of individual Western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin tropical cyclones for each year of the first half of the nineteenth century in the Western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin that are directly compatible and supplement the National Hurricane Center's HURDAT (<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin hurricane database). Data used for reconstructing tropical cyclones come from ship logbooks, ship protests, diaries, newspapers, and <span class="hlt">early</span> instrumental records from more than 50 different archival repositories in the United States and the United Kingdom. Tropical cyclone strength was discriminated among tropical storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes, and non-tropical lows at least at tropical storm strength. The results detail the characteristics of several hundred storms, many of them being newly documented, and tracks for all storms were mapped. Overall, prominent active periods of tropical cyclones are evident along the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean in the 1830s but Caribbean and Gulf coasts exhibit active periods as being more evident in the 1810s and 1820s. Differences in decadal variations were even more pronounced when examining time series of activity at the statewide scale. High resolution paleoclimate and historical instrumental records of the AMO, NAO, ENSO, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs, West African rainfall, and volcanic activity explain how different modes in these forcing mechanisms may explain some of the multidecadal and interannual variations. The <span class="hlt">early</span> nineteenth century active hurricane activity appears to be particularly unique in corresponding with a low (negative index) AMO period, and as they relate to particular synoptic-scale patterns in the latter part of the Little Ice Age. Model simulations offer some hypotheses on such patterns, perhaps suggesting increased baroclinic-related storms and a slight later possible shift in the seasonal peak of tropical cyclones for some areas at times. Some years, such as 1806, 1837, 1838, 1842, and 1846 have particularly very active</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3596981','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3596981"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">early</span> salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997–2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice. PMID:23311746</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PalOc..27.3222P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PalOc..27.3222P"><span>Impact of restriction of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Mediterranean gateway on the Mediterranean Outflow Water and eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation during the Messinian</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>PéRez-Asensio, J. N.; Aguirre, J.; Schmiedl, G.; Civis, J.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Messinian foraminiferal stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of the Montemayor-1 core (Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain) have been investigated. This record is exceptional to study the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) impact on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and global climate during the Messinian because the core is near the Guadalhorce Corridor, the last Betic gateway to be closed during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Messinian. Our results allow dating accurately its closure at 6.18 Ma. Constant benthicδ18O values, high difference between benthic and planktonic δ18O, and low sedimentation rates before 6.18 Ma indicate the presence of a two-layer water column, with bottom winnowing due to an enhanced Mediterranean outflow current. The enhanced contribution of dense MOW to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean likely fostered the formation of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW). After 6.18 Ma, benthicδ18O values parallel that of the global glacioeustatic curve, the difference between benthic and planktonic δ18O is low, and sedimentation rates considerably increased. This indicates a good vertical mixing of the water column, interruption of the MOW, and a dominant glacioeustatic control on the isotopic signatures. According to the role of MOW in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation, the reduction of the MOW after the closure of the Guadalhorce Corridor might have resulted in a decreased NADW formation rate between 6.0 and 5.5 Ma weakening the AMOC and promoting northern hemisphere cooling. After the Gibraltar Strait opening, the restoration of the MOW and related salt export from the Mediterranean could have promoted an enhanced NADW formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29047327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29047327"><span>Integrative testis transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed miRNAs and their mRNA targets during <span class="hlt">early</span> puberty in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skaftnesmo, K O; Edvardsen, R B; Furmanek, T; Crespo, D; Andersson, E; Kleppe, L; Taranger, G L; Bogerd, J; Schulz, R W; Wargelius, A</p> <p>2017-10-18</p> <p>Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms implementing pubertal maturation of the testis in vertebrates is incomplete. This topic is relevant in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon aquaculture, since precocious male puberty negatively impacts animal welfare and growth. We hypothesize that certain miRNAs modulate mRNAs relevant for the initiation of puberty. To explore which miRNAs regulate mRNAs during initiation of puberty in salmon, we performed an integrated transcriptome analysis (miRNA and mRNA-seq) of salmon testis at three stages of development: an immature, long-term quiescent stage, a prepubertal stage just before, and a pubertal stage just after the onset of single cell proliferation activity in the testis. Differentially expressed miRNAs clustered into 5 distinct expression profiles related to the immature, prepubertal and pubertal salmon testis. Potential mRNA targets of these miRNAs were predicted with miRmap and filtered for mRNAs displaying negatively correlated expression patterns. In summary, this analysis revealed miRNAs previously known to be regulated in immature vertebrate testis (miR-101, miR-137, miR-92b, miR-18a, miR-20a), but also miRNAs first reported here as regulated in the testis (miR-new289, miR-30c, miR-724, miR-26b, miR-new271, miR-217, miR-216a, miR-135a, miR-new194 and the novel predicted n268). By KEGG enrichment analysis, progesterone signaling and cell cycle pathway genes were found regulated by these differentially expressed miRNAs. During the transition into puberty we found differential expression of miRNAs previously associated (let7a/b/c), or newly associated (miR-15c, miR-2184, miR-145 and the novel predicted n7a and b) with this stage. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that mRNAs of the Wnt, Hedgehog and Apelin signaling pathways were potential regulated targets during the transition into puberty. Likewise, several regulated miRNAs in the pubertal stage had earlier been associated (miR-20a, miR-25, miR-181a, miR-202, let7c/d/a, miR-125b</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..167D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..167D"><span>Evaluating climatic response to external radiative forcing during the late Miocene to <span class="hlt">early</span> Pliocene: New perspectives from eastern equatorial Pacific (IODP U1338) and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (ODP 982) locations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drury, Anna Joy; John, Cédric M.; Shevenell, Amelia E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Orbital-scale climate variability during the latest Miocene-<span class="hlt">early</span> Pliocene is poorly understood due to a lack of high-resolution records spanning 8.0-3.5 Ma, which resolve all orbital cycles. Assessing this variability improves understanding of how Earth's system sensitivity to insolation evolves and provides insight into the factors driving the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and the Late Miocene Carbon Isotope Shift (LMCIS). New high-resolution benthic foraminiferal Cibicidoides mundulus δ18O and δ13C records from equatorial Pacific International Ocean Drilling Program Site U1338 are correlated to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean Drilling Program Site 982 to obtain a global perspective. Four long-term benthic δ18O variations are identified: the Tortonian-Messinian, Miocene-Pliocene, and <span class="hlt">Early</span>-Pliocene Oxygen Isotope Lows (8-7, 5.9-4.9, and 4.8-3.5 Ma) and the Messinian Oxygen Isotope High (MOH; 7-5.9 Ma). Obliquity-paced variability dominates throughout, except during the MOH. Eleven new orbital-scale isotopic stages are identified between 7.4 and 7.1 Ma. Cryosphere and carbon cycle sensitivities, estimated from δ18O and δ13C variability, suggest a weak cryosphere-carbon cycle coupling. The MSC termination coincided with moderate cryosphere sensitivity and reduced global ice sheets. The LMCIS coincided with reduced carbon cycle sensitivity, suggesting a driving force independent of insolation changes. The response of the cryosphere and carbon cycle to obliquity forcing is established, defined as Earth System Response (ESR). Observations reveal that two late Miocene-<span class="hlt">early</span> Pliocene climate states existed. The first is a prevailing dynamic state with moderate ESR and obliquity-driven Antarctic ice variations, associated with reduced global ice volumes. The second is a stable state, which occurred during the MOH, with reduced ESR and lower obliquity-driven variability, associated with expanded global ice volumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915725V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915725V"><span>Astronomically paced middle Eocene deepwater circulation in the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pälike, Heiko; Zachos, James C.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The role of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as a key player for abrupt climatic changes (e.g. Heinrich Stadials) during the Pleistocene is relatively well constrained. However, the timing of the onset of a „<span class="hlt">modern</span>" North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deepwater (NADW) formation are still debated: Recent estimates range from the middle Miocene to the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Eocene [Davies et al., 2001, Stoker et al., 2005, Hohbein et al., 2012] and are mainly based on the seismic interpretation contourite drifts. Another understudied aspect of the AMOC is its behavior during climatic variations on orbital time scales and under different climatic boundary conditions (icehouse vs hothouse). IODP Expedition 342 drilled carbonate-rich sequences from sediment drifts offshore Newfoundland that cover the middle Eocene with high sedimentation rates ( 3 cm/ kyr). We present a 2 Myr long stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of benthic foraminifera nuttalides truempyi spanning magnetochron C20r in unprecedented resolution (< 2 kyr/sample), sufficient to resolve dominant Milankovic frequencies. Data from Site U1410 (3400m water depth) indicate an active overturning in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the middle Eocene, sensitively responding to variations in Earth's axial tilt (obliquity). Experiments in a GCM (ECHAM5 - MPIOM, OASIS 3 coupled) indicate that temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Sea could have allowed for sea ice during winter in a minimal obliquity setting (22.1°), whereas temperatures are too high to allow sea ice formation under maximum obliquity (24.5°) winter conditions depending on Eocene boundary conditions (atmospheric CO2 concentration). We hypothesize that the combined effect of low temperatures in the sinking areas, an increased latitudinal SST gradient seasonal, and the potential formation of sea ice during obliquity minima results in an initial shallow NADW formation during the middle Eocene. This hypothesis is in accordance with the astronomical imprint</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23071660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23071660"><span>Ancient origin of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> deep-sea fauna.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thuy, Ben; Gale, Andy S; Kroh, Andreas; Kucera, Michal; Numberger-Thuy, Lea D; Reich, Mike; Stöhr, Sabine</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The origin and possible antiquity of the spectacularly diverse <span class="hlt">modern</span> deep-sea fauna has been debated since the beginning of deep-sea research in the mid-nineteenth century. Recent hypotheses, based on biogeographic patterns and molecular clock estimates, support a latest Mesozoic or <span class="hlt">early</span> Cenozoic date for the origin of key groups of the present deep-sea fauna (echinoids, octopods). This relatively young age is consistent with hypotheses that argue for extensive extinction during Jurassic and Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) and the mid-Cenozoic cooling of deep-water masses, implying repeated re-colonization by immigration of taxa from shallow-water habitats. Here we report on a well-preserved echinoderm assemblage from deep-sea (1000-1500 m paleodepth) sediments of the NE-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous age (114 Ma). The assemblage is strikingly similar to that of extant bathyal echinoderm communities in composition, including families and genera found exclusively in <span class="hlt">modern</span> deep-sea habitats. A number of taxa found in the assemblage have no fossil record at shelf depths postdating the assemblage, which precludes the possibility of deep-sea recolonization from shallow habitats following episodic extinction at least for those groups. Our discovery provides the first key fossil evidence that a significant part of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> deep-sea fauna is considerably older than previously assumed. As a consequence, most major paleoceanographic events had far less impact on the diversity of deep-sea faunas than has been implied. It also suggests that deep-sea biota are more resilient to extinction events than shallow-water forms, and that the unusual deep-sea environment, indeed, provides evolutionary stability which is very rarely punctuated on macroevolutionary time scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28815371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28815371"><span>[Side Effects of <span class="hlt">Modernity</span> : Dam Building, Health Care, and the Construction of Power in the Context of the Control of Schistosomiasis in Egypt in the 1960s and <span class="hlt">early</span> 1970s].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brendel, Benjamin</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>This article analyzes the <span class="hlt">modernization</span> campaigns in Egypt in the 1960s and <span class="hlt">early</span> 1970s. The regulation of the Nile by the Aswan High Dam and the resulting irrigation projects caused the rate of schistosomiasis infestation in the population to rise. The result was a discourse between experts from the global north and Egyptian elites about <span class="hlt">modernization</span>, development aid, dam building and health care. The fight against schistosomiasis was like a cipher, which combined different power-laden concepts and arguments. This article will decode the cipher and allow a deeper look into the contemporary dimensions of power bound to this subject. The text is conceived around three thematic axes. The first deals with the discursive interplay of <span class="hlt">modernization</span>, health and development aid in and for Egypt. The second focuses on far-reaching and long-standing arguments within an international expert discourse about these concepts. Finally, the third presents an exemplary case study of West German health and development aid for fighting schistosomiasis in the Egyptian Fayoum oasis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP42B..07B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP42B..07B"><span>Climate change and carbon-cycling during the latest Cretaceous-<span class="hlt">Early</span> Paleogene; a new 13.5 million year-long, orbital-resolution, stable isotope record from the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnet, J.; Littler, K.; Kroon, D.; Leng, M. J.; Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The "greenhouse" world of the latest Cretaceous-<span class="hlt">Early</span> Paleogene ( 70-34 Ma) was characterised by multi-million year variability in climate and the carbon-cycle. Throughout this interval the pervasive imprint of orbital-cyclicity, particularly eccentricity and precession, is visible in elemental and stable isotope data obtained from multiple deep-sea sites. Periodic "hyperthermal" events, occurring largely in-step with these orbital cycles, have proved particularly enigmatic, and may be the closest, albeit imperfect, analogues for anthropogenic climate change. This project utilises CaCO3-rich marine sediments recovered from ODP Site 1262 at a paleo-depth of 3600 m on the Walvis Ridge, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, of late Maastrichtian-mid Paleocene age ( 67-60 Ma). We have derived high-resolution (2.5-4 kyr) carbon and oxygen isotope data from the epifaunal benthic foraminifera species Nuttallides truempyi. Combining the new record with the existing Late Paleocene-<span class="hlt">Early</span> Eocene record generated from the same site by Littler et al. (2014), yields a single-site reference curve detailing 13.5 million years of orbital cyclicity in paleoclimate and carbon cycle from the latest Cretaceous to near the peak warmth of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Paleogene greenhouse. Spectral analysis of this new combined dataset allows us to identify long (405-kyr) eccentricity, short (100-kyr) eccentricity, and precession (19-23-kyr) as the principle forcing mechanisms governing pacing of the background climate and carbon-cycle during this time period, with a comparatively weak obliquity (41-kyr) signal. Cross-spectral analysis suggests that changes in climate lead the carbon cycle throughout most of the record, emphasising the role of the release of temperature-sensitive carbon stores as a positive feedback to an initial warming induced by changes in orbital configuration. The expression of comparatively understudied <span class="hlt">Early</span> Paleocene events, including the Dan-C2 Event, Latest Danian Event, and Danian/Selandian Transition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3861316','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3861316"><span>Northern Hemisphere Glaciation during the Globally Warm <span class="hlt">Early</span> Late Pliocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Schepper, Stijn; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Naafs, B. David A; Van Renterghem, Cédéric; Hennissen, Jan; Head, Martin J.; Louwye, Stephen; Fabian, Karl</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">early</span> Late Pliocene (3.6 to ∼3.0 million years ago) is the last extended interval in Earth's history when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were comparable to today's and global climate was warmer. Yet a severe global glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) M2 interrupted this phase of global warmth ∼3.30 million years ago, and is seen as a premature attempt of the climate system to establish an ice-age world. Here we propose a conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> transect. Our records show that increased Pacific-to-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> flow via the Central American Seaway weakened the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current and attendant northward heat transport prior to MIS M2. The consequent cooling of the northern high latitude oceans permitted expansion of the continental ice sheets during MIS M2, despite near-<span class="hlt">modern</span> atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sea level drop during this glaciation halted the inflow of Pacific water to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> via the Central American Seaway, allowing the build-up of a Caribbean Warm Pool. Once this warm pool was large enough, the Gulf Stream–North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current system was reinvigorated, leading to significant northward heat transport that terminated the glaciation. Before and after MIS M2, heat transport via the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century. PMID:24349081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24108682','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24108682"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases - the long awaited Holy Grail and bottleneck of <span class="hlt">modern</span> brain research - 19th HUPO BPP workshop: May 22-24, 2013, Dortmund, Germany.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schrötter, Andreas; Magraoui, Fouzi El; Gröttrup, Bernd; Wiltfang, Jens; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 19th workshop in Dortmund, Germany, from May 22 to 24, 2013. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and developments concerning <span class="hlt">early</span> diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=silk+AND+road&pg=2&id=ED470491','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=silk+AND+road&pg=2&id=ED470491"><span>The Renaissance. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.8. World History and Geography: Medieval and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>California State Standard 7.8 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and diffusion of the Renaissance," in terms of the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts affected a new interest in humanism; the importance of Florence in the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of the Renaissance and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=nurse+AND+education+AND+today&pg=5&id=EJ670877','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=nurse+AND+education+AND+today&pg=5&id=EJ670877"><span>Socialising Nurse Probationers in the Late 19th and <span class="hlt">Early</span> 20th Centuries--Relevance of Historical Reflection for <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Policy Makers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lorentzon, Maria</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Historical records from London hospitals in the late 19th-<span class="hlt">early</span> 20th centuries were analyzed for their depiction of nursing trainees. Analysis reveals a strong emphasis on character traits rather than intellectual ability. In contrast, the literature of the last 3 decades shows a contemporary concern for nurses as knowledgeable doers. (Contains 31…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-21/pdf/2011-6563.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-21/pdf/2011-6563.pdf"><span>76 FR 15276 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-21</p> <p>.... 110210132-1133-01] RIN 0648-BA65 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... 14, 2011, NMFS published a proposed rule to modify <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) base quotas for all...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17575704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17575704"><span>[<span class="hlt">Modern</span> medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th century].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Jeongpil</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of <span class="hlt">modern</span> medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing <span class="hlt">modern</span> medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28885700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28885700"><span>Historical time to disease progression and progression-free survival in patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma treated in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> era on Children's Oncology Group <span class="hlt">early</span>-phase trials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>London, Wendy B; Bagatell, Rochelle; Weigel, Brenda J; Fox, Elizabeth; Guo, Dongjing; Van Ryn, Collin; Naranjo, Arlene; Park, Julie R</p> <p>2017-12-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span>-phase trials in patients with recurrent neuroblastoma historically used an objective "response" of measureable disease (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors [RECIST], without bone/bone marrow assessment) to select agents for further study. Historical cohorts may be small and potentially biased; to the authors' knowledge, disease recurrence studies from international registries are outdated. Using a large recent cohort of patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma from Children's Oncology Group (COG) <span class="hlt">modern</span>-era <span class="hlt">early</span>-phase trials, the authors determined outcome and quantified parameters for designing future studies. The first <span class="hlt">early</span>-phase COG trial enrollment (sequential) of 383 distinct patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma on 23 phase 1, 3 phase 1/2, and 9 phase 2 trials (August 2002 to January 2014) was analyzed for progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and time to disease progression (TTP). Planned frontline therapy for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma included hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (approximately two-thirds of patients underwent ≥1 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation); 13.2% of patients received dinutuximab. From the time of the patient's first <span class="hlt">early</span>-phase trial enrollment (383 patients), the 1-year and 4-year PFS rates ( ± standard error) were 21% ± 2% and 6% ± 1%, respectively, whereas the 1-year and 4-year OS rates were 57% ± 3% and 20% ± 2%, respectively. The median TTP was 58 days (interquartile range, 31-183 days [350 patients]); the median follow-up was 25.3 months (33 patients were found to be without disease recurrence/progression). The median time from diagnosis to first disease recurrence/progression was 18.7 months (range, 1.4-64.8 months) (176 patients). MYCN amplification and 11q loss of heterozygosity were prognostic of worse PFS and OS (P = .003 and P<.0001, respectively, and P = .02 and P = .03, respectively) after <span class="hlt">early</span>-phase trial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED097251.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED097251.pdf"><span>Education and <span class="hlt">Modernization</span> in Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kazamias, Andreas M.</p> <p></p> <p>This history of Greek education traces the path of <span class="hlt">modernization</span> from the emergence of Greece as an independent state in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1800's up to the present date. Educational philosophy and content are seen as pawns in the social and political struggles of those years. Detailed coverage of the historical events describes the structure of education…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP41C2272A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP41C2272A"><span>Modest Little Ice Age cooling of the Western Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> inferred from Sr-U Coral Paleothermometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alpert, A.; Cohen, A. L.; Oppo, D.; Gaetani, G. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Proxy records of the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450-1850CE) at high latitude Northern Hemisphere indicate temperatures 1-2°C cooler relative to the mid-20th century. However, estimates of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (WTA) range widely, indicating SSTs from 0- 4°C cooler than the mid-20th century. The largest of these cooling estimates indicate that the LIA tropics were more sensitive than the high latitudes, inconsistent with model predictions. Here we apply a novel coral thermometer, Sr-U, that has been demonstrated to accurately capture spatial and temporal variability across coral genera in both the Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans. A continuous section of reconstructed SSTs in the WTA (Puerto Rico) during the LIA (1465-1560CE) reveals a modest cooling relative to the late 20th century but no significant difference from the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th century prior. At this site sensitive to the <span class="hlt">modern</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) multidecadal variability was present during the LIA with amplitude comparable to the 20th century. Our record is consistent with weaker tropical sensitivity to external forcing than at higher latitudes during the LIA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JAESc..30..303A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JAESc..30..303A"><span>New tropical carcharhinids (chondrichthyes, carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene <span class="hlt">early</span> Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adnet, S.; Antoine, P.-O.; Hassan Baqri, S. R.; Crochet, J.-Y.; Marivaux, L.; Welcomme, J.-L.; Métais, G.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>New selachians (sharks and rays) have been collected from several late Eocene and <span class="hlt">early</span> Oligocene marine localities in the Bugti Hills (Balochistan, Pakistan). Two new species of Requiem sharks (close to the Recent "Bull shark") are described : Carcharhinus balochensis and Carcharhinus perseus. The rest of the fauna is notable for the strong representation of Carcharhiniformes. These selachian faunas represent a unique tropical association for the Oligocene period and one of the first <span class="hlt">modern</span> tropical selachian faunas, with <span class="hlt">modern</span> taxa such as the two new species of "Bull sharks", Negaprion sp. and one of the first occurrences of Sphyrna sp. Moreover, these faunas permit paleoenvironmental interpretation of adjacent land masses. The relatively <span class="hlt">modern</span> aspect of these faunas, compared with other contemporaneous and younger selachian associations from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Mediterranean seas, suggests biogeographic isolation of selachian communities living in eastern and western parts of the Tethys before its final closure during the <span class="hlt">early</span>-middle Miocene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7441V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7441V"><span>Revised Late Oligocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Miocene magnetic stratigraphy recorded by drift sediments at Sites U1405 and U1406, IODP Expedition 342 (Newfoundland, NW <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Peer, Tim; Xuan, Chuang; Wilson, Paul; Liebrand, Diederik; Lippert, Peter</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The nannofossil oozes drilled at IODP Expedition 342 (Paleogene Newfoundland Sediment Drifts) Sites U1405 and U1406 provide an exceptional sedimentary archive of the Late Oligocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Miocene due to high sedimentation rates (2-6 cm/kyr at U1406 and up to 20 cm/kyr at U1405) and their ideal location below the Deep Western Boundary Current. These drift sediment sequences provide a unique opportunity to study the Oligocene-Miocene Transition (OMT) and Mi1-event (a transient 1‰ positive oxygen isotope excursion) at an unprecedented resolution from a Northern Hemisphere perspective. The exact timing of the OMT and its rate of change require a reliable and high-resolution magnetic stratigraphic age control, as Chron C6Cn with its three subchrons roughly spans the Mi1 event and the reversal C6Cn.2n/C6Cn.2r defines the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Natural Remanent Magnetisation (NRM) was measured on 140 m of u-channel samples at U1405 and 190 m at U1406. The u-channel sample based magnetostratigraphy is in good agreement with that based on the shipboard data and reveal distinctive well-defined patterns of normal and reversed polarities, which can be correlated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale between C6Bn.2n and C9n (ca. 22.2 to 27 Ma) at U1406 and between C6Bn.2n and C6Cr (ca. 22.2 to 23.5 Ma) at U1405. Furthermore, putative cryptochrons in Chron C6Br and C7Ar, previously reported at Site U1334 (IODP Expedition 320), are observed in the u-channel magnetic stratigraphy for Sites U1405 and U1406. Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetisation (ARM) intensity variations are combined with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) generated elemental measurements to refine the shipboard splice of both U1405 and U1406. Latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene splice refinements are complicated by the presence of large-scale stratigraphic gaps (up to 25 m at U1405) unrelated to drilling disturbances. The depth and estimated age of these stratigraphic gaps vary from hole to hole, and do not appear</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050210032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050210032"><span>Microbial Paleontology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of <span class="hlt">Modern</span> and Ancient Thermal Spring Deposits and Their Recognition on the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Earth and Mars"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farmer, Jack D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The vision of this project was to improve our understanding of the processes by which microbiological information is captured and preserved in rapidly mineralizing sedimentary environments. Specifically, the research focused on the ways in which microbial mats and biofilms influence the sedimentology, geochemistry and paleontology of modem hydrothermal spring deposits in Yellowstone national Park and their ancient analogs. Toward that goal, we sought to understand how the preservation of fossil biosignatures is affected by 1) taphonomy- the natural degradation processes that affect an organism from the time of its death, until its discovery as a fossil and 2) diagenesis- longer-term, post-depositional processes, including cementation and matrix recrystallization, which collectively affect the mineral matrix that contains fossil biosignature information. <span class="hlt">Early</span> objectives of this project included the development of observational frameworks (facies models) and methods (highly-integrated, interdisciplinary approaches) that could be used to explore for hydrothermal deposits in ancient terranes on Earth, and eventually on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dance+AND+therapy&id=EJ378242','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dance+AND+therapy&id=EJ378242"><span>The Evolution of <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Dance Therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Levy, Fran</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The article traces the impact of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> dance movement from the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1900s and its emphasis on creativity and self-expression on the professional and institutional development of dance therapy. (CB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B24B..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B24B..06C"><span>Investigation of a <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Incipient Stromatolite from Obsidian Pool Prime, Yellowstone National Park: Implications for <span class="hlt">Early</span> Lithification in the Formation of Light-Dark Stromatolite Laminae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Mata, S. A.; Spear, J. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Stromatolites have been defined multiple ways, but the presence of lamination is common to all definitions. Despite this commonality, the origin of the lamination in many ancient stromatolites remains vague. Lamination styles vary, but sub-mm light-dark couplets are common in many ancient stromatolites. Here, we investigate an actively forming incipient stromatolite from Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, to better understand the formation of light-dark couplets similar to many ancient stromatolites in texture and structure. In the OPP stromatolites, a dense network of layer-parallel bundles of cyanobacterial filaments (a dark layer) is followed by an open network of layer-perpendicular or random filaments (a light layer) that reflect a diurnal cycle in the leading edge of the microbial mat that coats the stromatolite's surface. Silica crust encases the cyanobacterial filaments maintaining the integrity of the lamination. Bubbles formed via oxygenic photosynthesis are commonly trapped within the light layers, indicating that lithification occurs rapidly before the bubbles can collapse. The filamentous, non-heterocystous stromatoite-building cyanobacterium from OPP is most closely related to a stromatolite-building cyanobacterium from a hot spring in Japan. Once built, "tenants" from multiple microbial phyla move into the structure, mixing and mingling to produce a complicated integrated biogeochemical signal that may be difficult to untangle in ancient examples. While the cyanobacterial response to the diurnal cycle has been previously implicated in the formation of light-dark couplets, the OPP example highlights the importance of <span class="hlt">early</span> lithification in maintaining the fabric. Thus, the presence of light-dark couplets and bubble structures may indicate very <span class="hlt">early</span> lithification and therefore a certain degree of mineral saturation in the ancient ocean or other aquatic system, and that bubble structures, if present, may be evidence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/micropal/article-lookup/26/1/49','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/micropal/article-lookup/26/1/49"><span>Diatoms and stratigraphically significant silicoflagellates from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Margin Coring Project and other <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Abbott, W.H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>In 1976, 19 sites were cored along the U.S. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Continental Shelf and Slope by the Oceanographic Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey aboard the Glomar Conception. Only 6 sites contained siliceous microfossil assemblages of sufficient quantity and quality for biostratigraphic study. Two of the sites, AMCOR (<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Margin Coring Project) 6002 and AMCOR 6011, contained good Miocene assemblages: a small Pleistocene assemblage occurred at the top of AMCOR 6002. A Late Miocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pliocene assemblage was encountered in AMCOR 6007B. AMCOR 6013, 6019, and 6021 contained Pleistocene assemblages. In addition to the AMCOR cores, 3 additional <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Margin cores were studied. These were the JOIDES 1 (Caldrill) core, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Slope Project (ASP) cores 10 and 22. JOIDES 1 contains a Middle Miocene assemblage similar to AMCOR 6002. ASP 10 contains a Lower Pliocene assemblage and ASP 22 contains a Middle to Late Oligocene and a Pleistocene assemblage. Siliceous assemblages at all sites consisted mainly of shallow shelf species, including brackish and marine benthics and occasionally freshwater forms. Although planktonic forms were present, they were few and most were extant cosmopolitan species. This makes it difficult to correlate the biostratigraphy of the sediments with siliceous microfossil zonations from other oceans. The only biostratigraphic zonations for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shelf diatom assemblages are for the Miocene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896075"><span>Some quantitative indicators of postovulatory aging and its effect on larval and juvenile development of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mommens, Maren; Storset, Arne; Babiak, Igor</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modern</span> out-of-season egg production in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar) increases the risk of postovulatory aging (POA) of oocytes. Postovulatory aging is known to influence oocyte quality in salmonids, but reliable tests for POA are lacking in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon egg production. To address this problem, we have collected oocytes from the same 20 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon females sequentially in approximately 1-week intervals, from the start of ovulation until 28 days postovulation (dpo), to determine the effect of natural retention of matured oocytes in body coelomic cavity on further performance of embryos and juveniles produced from those oocytes. Also, we investigated oocyte water hardening and several coelomic fluid parameters as potential quantitative indicators of POA. Oocyte quality decreased significantly from 22 dpo onward, as inferred from decrease in fertilization success and survival of embryos, alevins, and juveniles and increase in alevin and juvenile deformity rates. The occurrence of head deformities was significantly related to postovulatory age of oocytes. Coelomic fluid pH decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated positively with fertilization rates (r = 0.45), normal eyed embryo rates (r = 0.67), and alevin relative survival rates (r = 0.63) and negatively correlated with total alevin deformity rates (r = -0.59). Oocyte weight gain at 60 minutes decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated negatively with total alevin deformities and the occurrence of cranial nodules (r = -0.99). Generally, quality of ovulated oocytes remained stable for the first 2 weeks after ovulation. Later on, POA negatively influenced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon embryo, alevin, and juvenile performance. For the first time, we show a long-term effect of POA on salmonid juvenile performance. Standardized pH measurements of coelomic fluid could potentially improve embryo and juvenile production by identifying low-quality oocytes at an <span class="hlt">early</span> stage during the production. Copyright © 2015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080039568','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080039568"><span>Cooling of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> by Saharan Dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Using aerosol optical depth, sea surface temperature, top-of-the-atmosphere solar radiation flux, and oceanic mixed-layer depth from diverse data sources that include NASA satellites, NCEP reanalysis, in situ observations, as well as long-term dust records from Barbados, we examine the possible relationships between Saharan dust and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature. Results show that the estimated anomalous cooling pattern of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during June 2006 relative to June 2005 due to attenuation of surface solar radiation by Saharan dust remarkably resemble observations, accounting for approximately 30-40% of the observed change in sea surface temperature. Historical data analysis show that there is a robust negative correlation between atmospheric dust loading and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST consistent with the notion that increased (decreased) Saharan dust is associated with cooling (warming) of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the <span class="hlt">early</span> hurricane season (July- August-September).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26PSL.492...12P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26PSL.492...12P"><span>Oceanographic and climatic evolution of the southeastern subtropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over the last 3.5 Ma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrick, Benjamin; McClymont, Erin L.; Littler, Kate; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Clarkson, Matthew O.; Maslin, Mark; Röhl, Ursula; Shevenell, Amelia E.; Pancost, Richard D.</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>The southeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is dominated by two major oceanic systems: the Benguela Upwelling System, one of the world's most productive coastal upwelling cells and the Agulhas Leakage, which is important for transferring warm salty water from the Indian Ocean to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Here, we present a multi-proxy record of marine sediments from ODP Site 1087. We reconstruct sea surface temperatures (U37K‧ and TEX86 indices), marine primary productivity (total chlorin and alkenone mass accumulation rates), and terrestrial inputs derived from southern Africa (Ti/Al and Ca/Ti via XRF scanning) to understand the evolution of the Southeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean since the late Pliocene. In the late Pliocene and <span class="hlt">early</span> Pleistocene, ODP Site 1087 was situated within the Benguela Upwelling System, which was displaced southwards relative to present. We recognize a series of events in the proxy records at 3.3, 3.0, 2.2, 1.5, 0.9 and 0.6 Ma, which are interpreted to reflect a combination of changes in the location of major global wind and oceanic systems and local variations in the strength and/or position of the winds, which influence nutrient availability. Although there is a temporary SST cooling observed around the initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (iNHG), proxy records from ODP Site 1087 show no clear climatic transition around 2.7 Ma but instead most of the changes occur before this time. This observation is significant because it has been previously suggested that there should be a change in the location and/or strength of upwelling associated with this climate transition. Rather, the main shifts at ODP Site 1087 occur at ca. 0.9 Ma and 0.6 Ma, associated with the <span class="hlt">early</span> mid-Pleistocene transition (EMPT), with a clear loss of the previous upwelling-dominated regime. This observation raises the possibility that reorganisation of southeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean circulation towards <span class="hlt">modern</span> conditions was tightly linked to the EMPT, but not to earlier climate transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://archive.defense.gov/home/features/2014/0514_atlanticresolve','SCIGOVWS'); return false;" href="http://archive.defense.gov/home/features/2014/0514_atlanticresolve"><span>Operation <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Resolve</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/aboutsearch.html">Science.gov Websites</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ukraine, Defense Secretary Ash Carter told <em>service</em> members aboard the USS San Antonio in Estonia. Story . Story U.S. Soldiers, Airmen Train With Latvian <em>Service</em> Members U.S. and Latvian troops conducted airborne <em>training</em> in Latvia while supporting Operation <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Resolve, which focuses on joint <em>training</em></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28484227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28484227"><span>Coupling of equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface stratification to glacial shifts in the tropical rainbelt.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Portilho-Ramos, R C; Chiessi, C M; Zhang, Y; Mulitza, S; Kucera, M; Siccha, M; Prange, M; Paul, A</p> <p>2017-05-08</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">modern</span> state of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation promotes a northerly maximum of tropical rainfall associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). For continental regions, abrupt millennial-scale meridional shifts of this rainbelt are well documented, but the behavior of its oceanic counterpart is unclear due the lack of a robust proxy and high temporal resolution records. Here we show that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ leaves a distinct signature in planktonic foraminifera assemblages. We applied this proxy to investigate the history of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ for the last 30,000 years based on two high temporal resolution records from the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Our reconstruction indicates that the shallowest mixed layer associated with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ unambiguously shifted meridionally in response to changes in the strength of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning with a southward displacement during Heinrich Stadials 2-1 and the Younger Dryas. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ was located at ca. 1°S (ca. 5° to the south of its <span class="hlt">modern</span> annual mean position) during Heinrich Stadial 1. This supports a previous hypothesis, which postulates a southern hemisphere position of the oceanic ITCZ during climatic states with substantially reduced or absent cross-equatorial oceanic meridional heat transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28317857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28317857"><span>Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> capacitor effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk</p> <p>2017-03-20</p> <p>The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The 'charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and 'discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1990s, a warmer <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> due to the positive phase of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814887W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814887W"><span>Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> capacitor effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The `charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and `discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1990s, a warmer <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> due to the positive phase of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=political+AND+romanticism&id=EJ977170','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=political+AND+romanticism&id=EJ977170"><span>The <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Religious Language of Education: Rousseau's "Emile"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Osterwalder, Fritz</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Republican education, its concepts, theories, and form of discourse belong to the shared European heritage of the pre-<span class="hlt">modern</span> Age. The pedagogy of humanism and its effects on the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age are represented by Republicanism. Even if Republicanism found a political continuation in liberalism and democratism of the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Age, the same…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=law+AND+competitive&pg=4&id=EJ1018706','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=law+AND+competitive&pg=4&id=EJ1018706"><span>Globalization, National Identity, and Citizenship Education: China's Search for <span class="hlt">Modernization</span> and a <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Chinese Citizenry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Law, Wing-Wah</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Since the <span class="hlt">early</span> 20th century, numerous scholars have proposed theories and models describing, interpreting, and suggesting the development paths countries have taken or should take. None of these, however, can fully explain China's efforts, mainly through education and citizenship education, to <span class="hlt">modernize</span> itself and foster a <span class="hlt">modern</span> citizenry since…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073401','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073401"><span>Changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep-sea temperature during climatic fluctuations of the last 25,000 years based on ostracode Mg/Ca ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dwyer, Gary S.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Baker, Paul A.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, Julio</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We reconstructed three time series of last glacial-to-present deep-sea temperature from deep and intermediate water sediment cores from the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> using Mg/Ca ratios of benthic ostracode shells. Although the Mg/Ca data show considerable variability (“scatter”) that is common to single-shell chemical analyses, comparisons between cores, between core top shells and <span class="hlt">modern</span> bottom water temperatures (BWT), and comparison to other paleo-BWT proxies, among other factors, suggest that multiple-shell average Mg/Ca ratios provide reliable estimates of BWT history at these sites. The BWT records show not only glacial-to-interglacial variations but also indicate BWT changes during the deglacial and within the Holocene interglacial stage. At the deeper sites (4500- and 3400-m water depth), BWT decreased during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the late Holocene, and possibly during the Younger Dryas. Maximum deep-sea warming occurred during the latest deglacial and <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene, when BWT exceeded <span class="hlt">modern</span> values by as much as 2.5°C. This warming was apparently most intense around 3000 m, the depth of the <span class="hlt">modern</span>-day core of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water (NADW). The BWT variations at the deeper water sites are consistent with changes in thermohaline circulation: warmer BWT signifies enhanced NADW influence relative to Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Thus maximum NADW production and associated heat flux likely occurred during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene and decreased abruptly around 6500 years B.P., a finding that is largely consistent with paleonutrient studies in the deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. BWT changes in intermediate waters (1000-m water depth) of the subtropical gyre roughly parallel the deep BWT variations including dramatic mid-Holocene cooling of around 4°C. Joint consideration of the Mg/Ca-based BWT estimates and benthic oxygen isotopes suggests that the cooling was accompanied by a decrease in salinity at this site. Subsequently, intermediate waters warmed to <span class="hlt">modern</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP21A2267S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP21A2267S"><span>Dueling Deglacial Depth Transects: A Synthesis of Isotope Records from the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific Oceans Provides Insight into Deglacial Ocean Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sikes, E. L.; Allen, K. A.; Lund, D. C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The end of the last ice age was marked by rapid increases in atmospheric CO2 and changes in ocean circulation and seawater δ13C and Δ14C, suggesting that enhanced ventilation of the deep ocean may have released sequestered CO2 to the atmosphere. Here we compare depth transects of Δ14C and high-resolution Cibicidoides sp. δ13C and δ18O records from the Southwest Pacific and the Southwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to gain insight into the changing extent and composition of water masses in the Southern Hemisphere. Our vertical transects document that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), water mass properties and boundaries in the Southwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific were very different from one another and from their respective <span class="hlt">modern</span> profiles. The shallow to deep δ13C difference (Δδ13C, 660- 2500 m) in the Pacific was 1.7‰, more than double the Holocene value ( 0.7‰) and a deep watermass boundary was situated above 1600m. LGM Δδ13C in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was similar to the Pacific, but the deep geochemical front was situated at 2500 m (as observed previously; e.g. Hoffman and Lund, 2012). At the onset of Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1; 18 - 14.5 ka), changes in the shallow isotope records (< 1500 m) from the two basins differed, indicating independent controls on intermediate water composition/formation in these two ocean basins. During HS1 in the Pacific, rapid δ13C and Δ14C enrichment above 1600 m coincided with δ13C depletion in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters between 1500 m and 2500 m. Benthic δ13C below 2500 m in both basins and D14C in the Pacific remained depleted until the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR; 14.7 to 12.7 ka). During the ACR, Pacific Δ14C below 1600 m increased while both the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific experienced a rapid increase in δ13C and decrease in δ18O below 2500 m. These simultaneous isotopic shifts in the Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> support the idea of a widespread pulse of deep-water ventilation driven by the resumption of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation during the ACR. Overall</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JAfES..43..275B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JAfES..43..275B"><span>Phanerozoic geological evolution of the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basile, Christophe; Mascle, Jean; Guiraud, René</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>The Phanerozoic geological evolution of the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> domain has been controlled since the end of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous by the Romanche and Saint Paul transform faults. These faults did not follow the PanAfrican shear zones, but were surimposed on Palæozoic basins. From Neocomian to Barremian, the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rift propagated southward in Cassiporé and Marajó basins, and the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rift propagated northward in Potiguar and Benue basins. During Aptian times, the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> transform domain appeared as a transfer zone between the northward propagating tip of South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Between the transform faults, oceanic accretion started during Late Aptian in small divergent segments, from south to north: Benin-Mundaú, deep Ivorian basin-Barreirinhas, Liberia-Cassiporé. From Late Aptian to Late Albian, the Togo-Ghana-Ceará basins appeared along the Romanche transform fault, and Côte d'Ivoire-Parà-Maranhão basins along Saint Paul transform fault. They were rapidly subsiding in intra-continental settings. During Late Cretaceous, these basins became active transform continental margins, and passive margins since Santonian times. In the same time, the continental edge uplifted leading either to important erosion on the shelf or to marginal ridges parallel to the transform faults in deeper settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PrOce..49..167P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PrOce..49..167P"><span>Climate variability and marine ecosystem impacts: a North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parsons, L. S.; Lear, W. H.</p> <p></p> <p>In recent decades it has been recognized that in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climatic variability has been largely driven by atmospheric forcing related to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO). The NAO index began a pronounced decline around 1950 to a low in the 1960s. From 1970 onward the NAO index increased to its most extreme and persistent positive phase during the late 1980s and <span class="hlt">early</span> 1990s. Changes in the pattern of the NAO have differential impacts on the opposite sides of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and differential impacts in the north and south. The changes in climate resulting from changes in the NAO appear to have had substantial impacts on marine ecosystems, in particular, on fish productivity, with the effects varying from region to region. An examination of several species and stocks, e.g. gadoids, herring and plankton in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and cod and shellfish in the Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, indicates that there is a link between long-term trends in the NAO and the productivity of various components of the marine ecosystem. While broad trends are evident, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of how this climate variability affects the productivity of various components of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine ecosystem.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814522C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814522C"><span>Late Eocene stable isotope stratigraphy of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> IODP Site U1411: Orbitally paced climatic heartbeat at the close of the Eocene greenhouse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coxall, Helen; Bohaty, Steve; Wilson, Paul; Liebrand, Diederik; Nyberg, Anna; Holmström, Max</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 342 drilled sediment drifts on the Newfoundland margin to recover high-resolution records of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean-climate history and track the evolution of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> climate system through the Late Cretaceous and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cenozoic. An <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleogene deep-sea benthic stable isotope composite record from multiple Exp. 342 sites is currently in development and will provide a key reference section for investigations of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and global climate dynamics. This study presents initial results for the late Eocene slice of the composite from Site U1411, located at mid depth (˜2850m Eocene paleodepth) on the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge. Stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios were measured on 640 samples hosting exceptionally well-preserved epifaunal benthic foraminifera obtained from the microfossil-rich uppermost Eocene clays at 4cm spacing. Sedimentation rates average 2-3 cm/kyr through the late Eocene, such that our sampling resolution is sufficient to capture the dominant Milankovitch frequencies. Late Eocene Site U1411 benthic δ18O values (1.4 to 0.5‰ VPDB) are comparable to the Pacific and elsewhere in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at similar depths; however, δ13C is lower by ˜0.5 ‰ with values intermediate between those of the Southern Labrador Sea to the north (-1 to 0) and mid latitude/South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (0.5 to 1.5) to the south, suggesting poorly ventilated bottom waters in the late Eocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and limited production of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water. Applying the initial shipboard magneto-biostratigraphic age framework, the Site U1411 benthic δ13C and δ18O records display clear cyclicity on orbital timescales. Spectral analysis of the raw unfiltered datasets identifies eccentricity (400 and 100 kyr), obliquity (40 kyr) and precession (˜20 kyr) signals imprinted on our time series, revealing distinct climatic heart beats in the late Eocene prior to the transition into the 'ice house'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050180334','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050180334"><span>Interannual Rainfall Variability in the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gu, Guojun</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Rainfall variability on seasonal and interannual-to-interdecadal time scales in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is quantified using a 25-year (1979-2003) monthly rainfall dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The ITCZ measured by monthly rainfall between 15-37.5 deg W attains its peak as moving to the northernmost latitude (4-10 deg N) during July-September in which the most total rainfall is observed in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin (17.5 deg S-22.5 deg N, 15 deg-37.5 deg W); the ITCZ becomes weakest during January-February with the least total rainfall as it moves to the south. In contrast, rainfall variability on interannual to interdecadal time scales shows a quite different seasonal preference. The most intense interannual variability occurs during March-May when the ITCZ tends to be near the equator and becomes weaker. Significant, negative correlations between the ITCZ strength and latitude anomalies are observed during boreal spring and <span class="hlt">early</span> summer. The ITCZ strength and total rainfall amount in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin are significantly modulated by the Pacific El Nino and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> equatorial mode (or <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino) particularly during boreal spring and summer; whereas the impact of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> interhemispheric mode is considerably weaker. Regarding the anomalous latitudes of the ITCZ, the influence can come from both local, i.e., the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> interhemispheric and equatorial modes, and remote forcings, i. e., El Nino; however, a direct impact of El Nino on the latitudes of the ITCZ can only be found during April-July, not in winter and <span class="hlt">early</span> spring in which the warmest SST anomalies are usually observed in the equatorial Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010711','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010711"><span>Two Distinct Roles of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Two distinct roles of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (NTA) SST and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17772056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17772056"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> turtle origins: the oldest known cryptodire.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gaffney, E S; Hutchison, J H; Jenkins, F A; Meeker, L J</p> <p>1987-07-17</p> <p>The discovery of a turtle in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic(185 million years before present) Kayenta Formation of northeastern Arizona provides significant evidence about the origin of <span class="hlt">modern</span> turtles. This new taxon possesses many of the primitive features expected in the hypothetical common ancestor of pleurodires and cryptodires, the two groups of <span class="hlt">modern</span> turtles. It is identified as the oldest known cryptodire because of the presence of a distinctive cryptodiran jaw mechanism consisting of a trochlea over the otic chamber that redirects the line of action of the adductor muscle. Aquatic habits appear to have developed very <span class="hlt">early</span> in turtle evolution. Kayentachelys extends the known record of cryptodires back at least 45 million years and documents a very <span class="hlt">early</span> stage in the evolution of <span class="hlt">modern</span> turtles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA171300','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA171300"><span>Propagation Impact on <span class="hlt">Modern</span> HF (High Frequency) Communications System Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-03-01</p> <p>received SNR is maximised and interference avoided. As a general principle, system availability and reliability should be improved by the use of...LECTURE SERIES No. 145 propagation Impact on <span class="hlt">Modern</span> HF Communications System Design. NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> TREATY ORGANIZATION gS ^, DISTRIBUTION ...civil and military communities for high frequency communications. It will discuss concepts of real time channel evaluation , system design, as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900023079&hterms=Phytoplankton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DPhytoplankton','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900023079&hterms=Phytoplankton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DPhytoplankton"><span>Temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Campbell, Janet W.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A time series of CZCS images is being developed to study phytoplankton distribution patterns in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The goal of this study is to observe temporal variability in phytoplankton pigments and other organic particulates, and to infer from these patterns the potential flux of biogenic materials from the euphotic layer to the deep ocean. <span class="hlt">Early</span> results of this project are presented in this paper. Specifically, the satellite data used were 13 monthly composited images of CZCS data for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from January 1979 to January 1980. Results are presented for seasonal patterns along the 20 deg W meridian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21267','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21267"><span>Restoration practicesin Brazil's <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rainforest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1596...21K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1596...21K"><span>Nuclear weapons <span class="hlt">modernizations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kristensen, Hans M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This article reviews the nuclear weapons <span class="hlt">modernization</span> programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy <span class="hlt">modernizing</span> their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual <span class="hlt">modernization</span> combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear <span class="hlt">modernizations</span> are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-02/pdf/2010-13204.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-02/pdf/2010-13204.pdf"><span>75 FR 30730 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-02</p> <p>...-XW54 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas General category daily <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted for... criteria regarding inseason adjustments. This action applies to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas General category permitted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-11/pdf/2013-13849.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-11/pdf/2013-13849.pdf"><span>78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City Offshore Race, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-11</p> <p>...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City Offshore Race, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is..., held on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, offshore of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, New Jersey. The marine event formerly originated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13..333R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13..333R"><span>Holocene evolution of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subsurface transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Repschläger, Janne; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Weinelt, Mara; Schneider, Ralph</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Previous studies suggested that short-term freshening events in the subpolar gyre can be counterbalanced by advection of saline waters from the subtropical gyre and thus stabilize the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, little is known about the inter-gyre transport pathways. Here, we infer changes in surface and subsurface transport between the subtropical and polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last 11 000 years, by combining new temperature and salinity reconstructions obtained from combined δ18O and Mg / Ca measurements on surface and subsurface dwelling foraminifera with published foraminiferal abundance data from the subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and with salinity and temperature data from the tropical and subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This compilation implies an overall stable subtropical warm surface water transport since 10 ka BP. In contrast, subsurface warm water transport started at about 8 ka but still with subsurface heat storage in the subtropical gyre. The full strength of intergyre exchange was probably reached only after the onset of northward transport of warm saline subsurface waters at about 7 ka BP, associated with the onset of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> AMOC mode. A critical evaluation of different potential forcing mechanisms leads to the assumption that freshwater supply from the Laurentide Ice Sheet was the main control on subtropical to subpolar ocean transport at surface and subsurface levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51G0812C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51G0812C"><span>A 320-year AMM+SOI Index Reconstruction from Historical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tropical Cyclone Records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chenoweth, M.; Divine, D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Trends in the frequency of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones, including major hurricanes, are dominated by those originating in the deep tropics. In addition, these tropical cyclones are stronger when making landfall and their total power dissipation is higher than storms forming elsewhere in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin. Both the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Mode (AMM) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the leading modes of coupled air-sea interaction in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific, respectively, and have well-established relationships with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane variability. Here we use a 320-year record of tropical cyclone activity in the Lesser Antilles region of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from historical manuscript and newspaper records to reconstruct a normalized seasonal (July-October) index combining the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and AMM employing both the <span class="hlt">modern</span> analog technique and back-propagation artificial neural networks. Our results indicate that the AMM+SOI index since 1690 shows no long-term trend but is dominated by both short-term (<10 years) and long-term (quasi-decadal to bi-decadal) variations. The decadal-scale variation is consistent with both instrumental and proxy records elsewhere from the global tropics. Distinct periods of high and low index values, corresponding to high and low tropical cyclone frequency, are regularly-appearing features in the record and provides further evidence that natural decadal -scale variability in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone frequency must be accounted for when determining trends in records and attribution of climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED015620.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED015620.pdf"><span>MATERIALS FOR <span class="hlt">MODERNIZATION</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>JACKSON, R. GRAHAM</p> <p></p> <p>CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR <span class="hlt">MODERNIZATION</span> OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE <span class="hlt">MODERNIZATION</span> PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GBioC..31.1608M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GBioC..31.1608M"><span>Tropical Dominance of N2 Fixation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marconi, Dario; Sigman, Daniel M.; Casciotti, Karen L.; Campbell, Ethan C.; Alexandra Weigand, M.; Fawcett, Sarah E.; Knapp, Angela N.; Rafter, Patrick A.; Ward, Bess B.; Haug, Gerald H.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>To investigate the controls on N2 fixation and the role of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in the global ocean's fixed nitrogen (N) budget, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> N2 fixation is calculated by combining meridional nitrate fluxes across World Ocean Circulation Experiment sections with observed nitrate 15N/14N differences between northward and southward transported nitrate. N2 fixation inputs of 27.1 ± 4.3 Tg N/yr and 3.0 ± 0.5 Tg N/yr are estimated north of 11°S and 24°N, respectively. That is, 90% of the N2 fixation in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> north of 11°S occurs south of 24°N in a region with upwelling that imports phosphorus (P) in excess of N relative to phytoplankton requirements. This suggests that, under the <span class="hlt">modern</span> iron-rich conditions of the equatorial and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, N2 fixation occurs predominantly in response to P-bearing, N-poor conditions. We estimate a N2 fixation rate of 30.5 ± 4.9 Tg N/yr north of 30°S, implying only 3 Tg N/yr between 30° and 11°S, despite evidence of P-bearing, N-poor surface waters in this region as well; this is consistent with iron limitation of N2 fixation in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Since the ocean flows through the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface in <2,500 years, similar to the residence time of oceanic fixed N, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> N2 fixation can stabilize the N-to-P ratio of the global ocean. However, the calculated rate of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> N2 fixation is a small fraction of global ocean estimates for either N2 fixation or fixed N loss. This suggests that, in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> ocean, an approximate balance between N loss and N2 fixation is achieved within the combined Indian and Pacific basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/369/1938/976.abstract','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/369/1938/976.abstract"><span>Anthropocene streams and base-level controls from historic dams in the unglaciated mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Merritts, Dorothy; Walter, Robert; Rahnis, Michael; Hartranft, Jeff; Cox, Scott; Gellis, Allen; Potter, Noel; Hilgartner, William; Langland, Michael; Manion, Lauren; Lippincott, Caitlin; Siddiqui, Sauleh; Rehman, Zain; Scheid, Chris; Kratz, Laura; Shilling, Andrea; Jenschke, Matthew; Datin, Katherine; Cranmer, Elizabeth; Reed, Austin; Matuszewski, Derek; Voli, Mark; Ohlson, Erik; Neugebauer, Ali; Ahamed, Aakash; Neal, Conor; Winter, Allison; Becker, Steven</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Recently, widespread valley-bottom damming for water power was identified as a primary control on valley sedimentation in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> US during the late seventeenth to <span class="hlt">early</span> twentieth century. The timing of damming coincided with that of accelerated upland erosion during post-European settlement land-use change. In this paper, we examine the impact of local drops in base level on incision into historic reservoir sediment as thousands of ageing dams breach. Analysis of lidar and field data indicates that historic milldam building led to local base-level rises of 2-5 m (typical milldam height) and reduced valley slopes by half. Subsequent base-level fall with dam breaching led to an approximate doubling in slope, a significant base-level forcing. Case studies in forested, rural as well as agricultural and urban areas demonstrate that a breached dam can lead to stream incision, bank erosion and increased loads of suspended sediment, even with no change in land use. After dam breaching, key predictors of stream bank erosion include number of years since dam breach, proximity to a dam and dam height. One implication of this work is that conceptual models linking channel condition and sediment yield exclusively with <span class="hlt">modern</span> upland land use are incomplete for valleys impacted by milldams. With no equivalent in the Holocene or late Pleistocene sedimentary record, <span class="hlt">modern</span> incised stream-channel forms in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region represent a transient response to both base-level forcing and major changes in land use beginning centuries ago. Similar channel forms might also exist in other locales where historic milling was prevalent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology+AND+furniture&pg=7&id=EJ638251','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology+AND+furniture&pg=7&id=EJ638251"><span>American <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Design for a New Age.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Mark M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Focuses on the exhibition titled "American <span class="hlt">Modern</span>, 1925-1940: Design for a New Age" that documents the efforts and achievements of the United States in the area of design arts. States that the exhibition features more than 150 objects, including furniture, posters, and radios, by leading designers of the <span class="hlt">early</span> and mid century. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=greek+AND+democracy&pg=3&id=EJ456533','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=greek+AND+democracy&pg=3&id=EJ456533"><span>Redefining Democracy for the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> State.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rahe, Paul A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Draws distinctions between classical and <span class="hlt">modern</span> concepts of democracy. Contrasts Pythagoras' dislike of factions with Madison's support for economic differentiation and religious toleration. Discusses Aristotle's and Noah Webster's ideas on addressing class tensions. Examines <span class="hlt">early</span> U.S. theorists' suspicions of direct democracy and support for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fermentation&pg=5&id=EJ268970','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fermentation&pg=5&id=EJ268970"><span>Escherichia Coli--Key to <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Genetics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bregegere, Francois</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to <span class="hlt">modern</span>-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from <span class="hlt">early</span> gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSA54A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSA54A..01G"><span>Influence of Solar Variability on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> / European Sector.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gray, L. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The 11year solar cycle signal in December-January-February averaged mean-sea-level pressure and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>/European blocking frequency is examined using multilinear regression with indices to represent variability associated with the solar cycle, volcanic eruptions, the El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Results from a previous 11-year solar cycle signal study of the period 1870-2010 (140 years; 13 solar cycles) that suggested a 3-4 year lagged signal in SLP over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are confirmed by analysis of a much longer reconstructed dataset for the period 1660-2010 (350 years; 32 solar cycles). Apparent discrepancies between earlier studies are resolved and stem primarily from the lagged nature of the response and differences between <span class="hlt">early</span>- and late-winter responses. Analysis of the separate winter months provide supporting evidence for two mechanisms of influence, one operating via the atmosphere that maximises in late winter at 0-2 year lags and one via the mixd-layer ocean that maximises in <span class="hlt">early</span> winter at 3-4 year lags. Corresponding analysis of DJF-averaged <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> / European blocking frequency shows a highly statistically significant signal at 1-year lag that originates promarily from the late winter response. The 11-year solar signal in DJF blocking frequency is compared with other known influences from ENSO and the AMO and found to be as large in amplitude and have a larger region of statistical significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=service+AND+processes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=service+AND+processes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Tidal Wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal wetlands. The book c...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850017717','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850017717"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2707130','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2707130"><span>Plasma Levels of Nitrite and Nitrate in <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Recent Classes of Fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in <span class="hlt">early</span> vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NOx in the water environment for fish in <span class="hlt">early</span> classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n = 167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NOx was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NOx differed significantly among <span class="hlt">early</span> bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among <span class="hlt">modern</span> bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NOx in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NOx levels across 3 groups of <span class="hlt">early</span> fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in <span class="hlt">early</span> and <span class="hlt">modern</span> fish. PMID:19004368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-16/pdf/2011-6118.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-16/pdf/2011-6118.pdf"><span>76 FR 14377 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-16</p> <p>...; telephone: (866) 358- 6255. Council address: South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place... Information Officer, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-28/pdf/2010-18456.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-28/pdf/2010-18456.pdf"><span>75 FR 44228 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-28</p> <p>... at the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council office, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North... Iverson, Public Information Officer, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-10/pdf/2010-5088.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-10/pdf/2010-5088.pdf"><span>75 FR 11133 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-10</p> <p>... of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston...: Kim Iverson, Public Information Officer, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=glottochronology&id=EJ122684','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=glottochronology&id=EJ122684"><span>Etymology and <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Linguistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Malkiel, Yakov</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the estrangement between etymology and <span class="hlt">modern</span> linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/energy/modernizing-electricity-delivery','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/energy/modernizing-electricity-delivery"><span><span class="hlt">Modernizing</span> Electricity Delivery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Explains how <span class="hlt">modern</span> grid, or smart grid, investments can enable grid operators to respond faster to changes in grid conditions and allow for two-way communication between utilities and electricity end-users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22280433-nuclear-weapons-modernizations','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22280433-nuclear-weapons-modernizations"><span>Nuclear weapons <span class="hlt">modernizations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristensen, Hans M.</p> <p></p> <p>This article reviews the nuclear weapons <span class="hlt">modernization</span> programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy <span class="hlt">modernizing</span> their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual <span class="hlt">modernization</span> combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludesmore » that new limits on nuclear <span class="hlt">modernizations</span> are needed.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/14437','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/14437"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> roundabouts for Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>This report reviews current research and practice on <span class="hlt">modern</span> roundabouts, both in the US and other countries. The report compares the advantages and disadvantages of roundabouts, summarizes safety implications, and discusses pedestrian and bicyclist c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA197948','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA197948"><span>Depot Maintenance <span class="hlt">Modernization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>process. However, this mobilization-planning process has not been implemented in the shipyards. Instead, NAVSEA has announcedl that " National economic...illustrate the type of <span class="hlt">modernization</span> planning that occurs at the ALCs, we draw upon Oklahoma City’s Technology Enhancement and <span class="hlt">Modernization</span> of Plant ... National Product - he concluded that the inflation-adjusted rate of return in the private sector was about 10 percent in 1965 (12 percent nominal rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24226889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24226889"><span>Evidence for high salinity of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanford, Ward E; Doughten, Michael W; Coplen, Tyler B; Hunt, Andrew G; Bullen, Thomas D</p> <p>2013-11-14</p> <p>High-salinity groundwater more than 1,000 metres deep in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal plain of the USA has been documented in several locations, most recently within the 35-million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution, osmosis and evaporation from heating associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (ECNA) sea water. We find that the sea water is probably 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of <span class="hlt">modern</span> sea water and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and palaeontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient sea water in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA sea water persist in deep sediments at many locations along the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70057876','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70057876"><span>Evidence for high salinity of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sanford, Ward E.; Doughten, Michael W.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Bullen, Thomas D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>High salinity groundwater more than 1000 metres deep in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Plain of the United States has been documented in several locations1,2, most recently within the 35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater3,4,5. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution6, osmosis6, and evaporation from heating7 associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (ECNA) seawater. We find that the seawater is likely 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of <span class="hlt">modern</span> seawater and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin8. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and paleontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient seawater in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA seawater persist in deep sediments at many locations along the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70196052','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70196052"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> continental margin of the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during <span class="hlt">Early</span> or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and <span class="hlt">early</span> sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Science+AND+meditation&pg=3&id=ED470485','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Science+AND+meditation&pg=3&id=ED470485"><span>Stoicism and Civic Duty. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.1. World History and Geography: Medieval and <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>California State Standard 7.1 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire." One important legacy of ancient Rome is the foundation it set for the development of <span class="hlt">modern</span> democracies. The Roman Stoics built upon the Greek Stoic model by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9371852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9371852"><span>Appendicular robusticity and the paleobiology of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human emergence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trinkaus, E</p> <p>1997-11-25</p> <p>The emergence of <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans in the Late Pleistocene, whatever its phylogenetic history, was characterized by a series of behaviorally important shifts reflected in aspects of human hard tissue biology and the archeological record. To elucidate these shifts further, diaphyseal cross-sectional morphology was analyzed by using cross-sectional areas and second moments of area of the mid-distal humerus and midshaft femur. The humeral diaphysis indicates a gradual reduction in habitual load levels from Eurasian late archaic, to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Upper Paleolithic <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span>, to Middle Upper Paleolithic <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> hominids, with the Levantine Middle Paleolithic <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans being a gracile anomalous outlier. The femoral diaphysis, once variation in ecogeographically patterned body proportions is taken into account, indicates no changes across the pre-30,000 years B.P. samples in habitual locomotor load levels, followed by a modest decrease through the Middle Upper Paleolithic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.T12C0933S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.T12C0933S"><span>Spreading History of a Segment of the Southern Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stock, J. M.; Clayton, R. W.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The Falkland-Agulhas fracture zone in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean separates crust that records the entire Cenozoic history of South America-Africa spreading (on the north) from crust on the south that experienced a more complicated plate motion history including major ridge jumps, an additional plate (Malvinas), and plate reorganizations in <span class="hlt">early</span> Cenozoic time. The Nathaniel B. Palmer cruise 01-02 in April 2001 measured gravity, magnetics, and swath bathymetry on a transit from Cape Town to Punta Arenas, including a survey line in Cenozoic crust on the north side of, and parallel to, the Falkland-Agulhas fracture zone. The objectives were to test previous models of Cenozoic plate motions for this region, and to examine the structure of the Falkland-Agulhas fracture zone by collection of limited single-channel seismic data. From 5° W to 3° W longitude, several seismic lines with accompanying SeaBeam data across the northern flank of the fracture zone reveal it to be a wide zone characterized by multiple parallel southward-facing fault scarps whose strike is 70-80° E of N. From chron 12 time to chron 6 time, the spreading history for this segment of the ridge was relatively simple, with slightly asymmetric spreading rates (more crust accreted to South America than to Africa), as has been previously noted for this part of the southern Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge. Between chron 5c and chron 2a, the magnetic anomalies are complex and disrupted, suggesting possible small-scale ridge jumps and continued asymmetric spreading. The <span class="hlt">modern</span> ridge axis is 40 km east of the topographic high ("ridge crest"). The zones of disrupted magnetic anomalies may be due to the effects of pseudofault traces in the same spreading corridor, visible in satellite gravity data in younger seafloor north of the transit. We recorded late Cretaceous and younger magnetic anomalies (chrons 34y to 18) on the Africa plate to improve the distribution of known magnetic anomaly locations in this part of the South</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3827445','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3827445"><span>The First <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Human Dispersals across Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B.; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0’s sister clade, L1’6. We propose that the last common ancestor of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human mtDNAs (carried by “mitochondrial Eve”) possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many <span class="hlt">modern</span>-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African “megadroughts” of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135–75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range <span class="hlt">modern</span> human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of <span class="hlt">modernity</span>. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP33B1554R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP33B1554R"><span>An atmosphere-ocean GCM modelling study of the climate response to changing Arctic seaways in the <span class="hlt">early</span> Cenozoic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roberts, C. D.; Legrande, A. N.; Tripati, A. K.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The report of fossil Azolla (a freshwater aquatic fern) in sediments from the Lomonosov Ridge suggests low salinity conditions occurred in the Arctic Ocean in the <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene. Restricted passages between the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding oceans are hypothesized to have caused this Arctic freshening. We investigate this scenario using a water-isotope enabled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with Eocene boundary conditions including 4xCO2, 7xCH4, altered bathymetry and topography, and an estimated distribution of Eocene vegetational types. In one experiment, oceanic exchange between the Arctic Ocean and other ocean basins was restricted to two shallow (~250 m) seaways, one in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the Greenland-Norwegian seaway, and the second connecting the Arctic Ocean with the Tethys Ocean, the Turgai Straits. In the restricted configuration, the Greenland-Norwegian seaway was closed and exchange through the Turgai Straits was limited to a depth of ~60 m. The simulations suggest that the severe restriction of Arctic seaways in the <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene may have been sufficient to freshen Arctic Ocean surface waters, conducive to Azolla blooms. When exchange with the Arctic Ocean is limited, salinities in the upper several hundred meters of the water column decrease by ~10 psu. In some regions, surface salinity is within 2-3 psu of the reported maximum <span class="hlt">modern</span> conditions tolerated by Azolla (~5 psu). In the restricted scenario, salt is stored preferentially in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Tethys oceans, resulting in enhanced meridional overturning, increased poleward heat transport in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> western boundary current, and warming of surface and intermediate waters in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> by several degrees. Increased sensible and latent heat fluxes from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, combined with a reduction in cloud albedo, also lead to an increase in surface air temperature of over much of North America, Greenland and Eurasia. Our work is consistent with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29376123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29376123"><span>The evolution of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human brain shape.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neubauer, Simon; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gunz, Philipp</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modern</span> humans have large and globular brains that distinguish them from their extinct Homo relatives. The characteristic globularity develops during a prenatal and <span class="hlt">early</span> postnatal period of rapid brain growth critical for neural wiring and cognitive development. However, it remains unknown when and how brain globularity evolved and how it relates to evolutionary brain size increase. On the basis of computed tomographic scans and geometric morphometric analyses, we analyzed endocranial casts of Homo sapiens fossils ( N = 20) from different time periods. Our data show that, 300,000 years ago, brain size in <span class="hlt">early</span> H. sapiens already fell within the range of present-day humans. Brain shape, however, evolved gradually within the H. sapiens lineage, reaching present-day human variation between about 100,000 and 35,000 years ago. This process started only after other key features of craniofacial morphology appeared <span class="hlt">modern</span> and paralleled the emergence of behavioral <span class="hlt">modernity</span> as seen from the archeological record. Our findings are consistent with important genetic changes affecting <span class="hlt">early</span> brain development within the H. sapiens lineage since the origin of the species and before the transition to the Later Stone Age and the Upper Paleolithic that mark full behavioral <span class="hlt">modernity</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5783678','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5783678"><span>The evolution of <span class="hlt">modern</span> human brain shape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neubauer, Simon; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gunz, Philipp</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modern</span> humans have large and globular brains that distinguish them from their extinct Homo relatives. The characteristic globularity develops during a prenatal and <span class="hlt">early</span> postnatal period of rapid brain growth critical for neural wiring and cognitive development. However, it remains unknown when and how brain globularity evolved and how it relates to evolutionary brain size increase. On the basis of computed tomographic scans and geometric morphometric analyses, we analyzed endocranial casts of Homo sapiens fossils (N = 20) from different time periods. Our data show that, 300,000 years ago, brain size in <span class="hlt">early</span> H. sapiens already fell within the range of present-day humans. Brain shape, however, evolved gradually within the H. sapiens lineage, reaching present-day human variation between about 100,000 and 35,000 years ago. This process started only after other key features of craniofacial morphology appeared <span class="hlt">modern</span> and paralleled the emergence of behavioral <span class="hlt">modernity</span> as seen from the archeological record. Our findings are consistent with important genetic changes affecting <span class="hlt">early</span> brain development within the H. sapiens lineage since the origin of the species and before the transition to the Later Stone Age and the Upper Paleolithic that mark full behavioral <span class="hlt">modernity</span>. PMID:29376123</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16...61S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16...61S"><span>Phase Variability of the Recent Climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri; Sidorova, Alexandra</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The atmospheric pressure and near-surface temperature differences between the Azores High and the Icelandic Low for the period of 1900-2012 within the spatial-temporal average-out (20º latitude, 20º longitude and 12 years) were considered. The secular term of phase states of the system under consideration was found to divide into three non-intersecting subsets. Each of that was put in consequence with one of three climatic scenarios related to the periods of 1905-1935 (relatively warm phase), 1940-1970 (colder phase) and 1980-2000 (warmer phase). A life time of such a scenario lasted about 20-35 years, and the transition from one scenario to another covered 4-6 years, i.e. it run comparatively quickly. The revealed non-overlapping sub-aggregates of the thermodynamic indices related to each particular climate scenario gave an idea to follow the circulation peculiarities and the interrelated temperature differences within the limits of the Northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean-atmosphere regional system. The results of this analysis bear evidence that the most probable intermittent strengthening and weakening of Hadley and Ferrell circulations occurred there in coincided phase. The analogous character of the climate system behavior was also detected in some other regional atmospheric activity centers that can be considered as a witness on the global nature of the detected phase type of <span class="hlt">modern</span> climate inter-decadal variability. Hence, we have the grounds to suppose that mentioned above the short-period inter-decadal excitations of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> climate have a global nature and appears everywhere. Finally, the attention was paid to the fact that at the <span class="hlt">early</span> XXI century the thermodynamic state of the Northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> regional climate system has shown a tendency to face towards the situation, similar to the cooler scenario of the 1940-1970. We used the heat content of upper 700m <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean layer data from NODC to calculate its anomalies for the periods of 1955-1970, 1980-2000 and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110230','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110230"><span>The Response of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bloom to NAO Forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mizoguchi, Ken-Ichi; Worthen, Denise L.; Hakkinen, Sirpa; Gregg, Watson W.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Results from the climatologically forced coupled ice/ocean/biogeochemical model that covers the Arctic and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans are presented and compared to the chlorophyll fields of satellite-derived ocean color measurements. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the interactions among four phytoplankton functional groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) and four nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, silicate and dissolved iron). The model simulates the general large-scale pattern in April, May and June, when compared to both satellite-derived and in situ observations. The subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was cool in the 1980s and warm in the latter 1990s, corresponding to the CZCS and SeaWiFS satellite observing periods, respectively. The oceanographic conditions during these periods resemble the typical subpolar upper ocean response to the NAO+ and NAO-phases, respectively. Thus, we use the atmospheric forcing composites from the two NAO phases to simulate the variability of the mid-ocean bloom during the satellite observing periods. The model results show that when the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is cool, the NAO+ case, more nutrients are available in <span class="hlt">early</span> spring than when the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is warm, the NAO-case. However, the NAO+ simulation produces a later bloom than the NAO-simulation. This difference in the bloom times is also identified in SeaWiFS and CZCS satellite measurements. In the model results, we can trace the difference to the <span class="hlt">early</span> diatom bloom due to a warmer upper ocean. The higher nutrient abundance in the NAO+ case did not provide larger total production than in the NAO- case, instead the two cases had a comparable area averaged amplitude. This leads us to conclude that in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom depends on surface temperature and the magnitude of the bloom is not significantly impacted by the nutrient abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMOS33C..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMOS33C..02M"><span>Pro<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> - The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Checkpoint - Data Availability and Adequacy in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGrath, F.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>DG MAREs <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Checkpoint is a basin scale wide monitoring system assessment activity based upon targeted end-user applications. It is designed to be a benchmark for the assessment of hydrographic, geological, habitat, climate and fisheries data existence and availability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin. DG MAREs <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Checkpoint service will be delivered by the Pro<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> project. The objective of this project is to investigate, through appropriate methodologies in the framework of 11 key marine challenges, how current international and national data providers - e.g. EMODNet, Copernicus - meet the requirements of the stakeholders and deliver fit for purpose data. By so doing, the main thematic and geographic gaps will be readily identified in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin for future consideration by DG MARE. For each challenge, specific web products in the form of maps, metadata, spreadsheets and reports will be delivered. These products are not an end by themselves but rather a means of showing whether data were available, let alone accessible. For example, the Fisheries Impact Challenge outputs include data grids (VMS/Seabed) and data adequacy reports. Production of gridded data layers in order to show the extent of fisheries impact on the seafloor involved the identification, acquisition and collation of data sources for the required data types (VMS/Seabed/Habitats Data) in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin. The resulting spatial coverage of these grids indicates the relatively low level of data availability and adequacy across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin. Aside from the data delivered by programmes such as EMODNet and Copernicus, there are a lot of initiatives by regional bodies such as OSPAR and ICES that consist of assembling and disseminating data to address specific issues. Several international projects have delivered research, data collection, and networking around several of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Checkpoint challenge topics, namely MPAs, renewable energy assessment, seabed mapping, oil spill</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26458007','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26458007"><span>The <span class="hlt">early</span> colonial <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> world: New insights on the African Diaspora from isotopic and ancient DNA analyses of a multiethnic 15th-17th century burial population from the Canary Islands, Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santana, Jonathan; Fregel, Rosa; Lightfoot, Emma; Morales, Jacob; Alamón, Martha; Guillén, José; Moreno, Marco; Rodríguez, Amelia</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Canary Islands are considered one of the first places where <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> slave plantations with labourers of African origin were established, during the 15th century AD. In Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), a unique cemetery dated to the 15th and 17th centuries was discovered adjacent to an ancient sugar plantation with funerary practices that could be related to enslaved people. In this article, we investigate the origin and possible birthplace of each individual buried in this cemetery, as well as the identity and social status of these people. The sample consists of 14 individuals radiocarbon dated to the 15th and 17th centuries AD. We have employed several methods, including the analysis of ancient human DNA, stable isotopes, and skeletal markers of physical activity. 1) the funerary practices indicate a set of rituals not previously recorded in the Canary Islands; 2) genetic data show that some people buried in the cemetery could have North-African and sub-Saharan African lineages; 3) isotopic results suggest that some individuals were born outside Gran Canaria; and 4) markers of physical activity show a pattern of labour involving high levels of effort. This set of evidence, along with information from historical sources, suggests that Finca Clavijo was a cemetery for a multiethnic marginalized population that had being likely enslaved. Results also indicate that this population kept practicing non-Christian rituals well into the 17th century. We propose that this was possible because the location of the Canaries, far from mainland Spain and the control of the Spanish Crown, allowed the emergence of a new society with multicultural origins that was more tolerant to foreign rituals and syncretism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410898D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410898D"><span>The last interglacial in eastern Canada and the northwest North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> : further evidence for warmer climate and ocean conditions than during the Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Vernal, A.; Fréchette, B.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; van Nieuwenhove, N.; Retailleau, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The climate conditions of the last interglacial (LI) in northeastern and southeastern Canada are documented from pollen data of Baffin Island and Cape Breton Island respectively. The LI pollen assemblages indicate very different vegetation than at present and a northern limit of the deciduous forest biome as far as 500 km north of its <span class="hlt">modern</span> position. The application of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> analogue technique also reveal warmer climate during the LI than at present, 4-5°C warmer on Baffin Island at ~67-70°N in the Canadian Arctic, and up to 7°C warmer on Cape Breton Island at ~45°N in the southeastern Canada. The contrast between LI and Holocene climates is also shown from marine data (dinocysts, foraminifers, oxygen and carbon isotopes) that document warmer than Holocene conditions in surface waters (up to 5.5°C in summer, notably off southwest Greenland) and very distinct distribution of intermediate to deep waters in northern and southern part of the Labrador Sea. An important zonal atmospheric circulation component at mid-latitudes of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is also evidenced from the pollen content of marine cores collected in central North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (IODP Site 1304), which strongly suggests an origin from southeastern Canada. Altogether the data demonstrate much warmer conditions along the eastern Canadian margins, from North to South. The mild conditions along the coastlines and the relatively warm waters off eastern Canada and southern Greenland suggest reduced Arctic outflow components through the East Greenland Current and Labrador Current. Comparisons with records from eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lead us to conclude in a more zonal climate during the LI than the Holocene, especially the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene that was marked by a particularly pronounced west to east gradient of temperatures. Hence, the thermal optimum of the LI and that of the Holocene provide two examples of very different climate and ocean circulation regimes in the circum-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region during the "warm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18784.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18784.pdf"><span>75 FR 44938 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Shark Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-30</p> <p>... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the moratorium, as required by the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Act...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-27/pdf/2011-19010.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-27/pdf/2011-19010.pdf"><span>76 FR 44834 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; Northern Area Trophy Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-27</p> <p>.... 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XA550 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries... category fishery for large medium and giant (``trophy'') <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations implemented under the authority of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas Convention Act (16...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-25/pdf/2012-1560.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-25/pdf/2012-1560.pdf"><span>77 FR 3637 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-25</p> <p>.... 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XA948 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries... category fishery for large medium and giant <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens...: Regulations implemented under the authority of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 971 et seq.) and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-26/pdf/2012-15575.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-26/pdf/2012-15575.pdf"><span>77 FR 38011 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-26</p> <p>.... 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XC055 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... northern area fishery for large medium and giant <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2012... INFORMATION: Regulations implemented under the authority of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 971...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-30/pdf/2012-7578.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-30/pdf/2012-7578.pdf"><span>77 FR 19175 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2012 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-30</p> <p>...-XA920 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2012 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications AGENCY... INFORMATION: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna, bigeye tuna, albacore tuna, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack tuna (hereafter referred to as ``<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas'') are managed under the dual authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-20/pdf/2013-03847.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-20/pdf/2013-03847.pdf"><span>78 FR 11788 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-20</p> <p>.... 120306154-2241-02] RIN 0648-XC506 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries... category fishery for large medium and giant <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens... implemented under the authority of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 971 et seq.) and the Magnuson...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-23/pdf/2010-15104.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-23/pdf/2010-15104.pdf"><span>75 FR 35767 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-23</p> <p>... the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a.... Council address: South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-13/pdf/2012-8910.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-13/pdf/2012-8910.pdf"><span>77 FR 22285 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-13</p> <p>... the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of a public meeting of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council's Technical Shrimp Review Panel. SUMMARY: The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Technical Shrimp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23877.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23877.pdf"><span>76 FR 57709 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-16</p> <p>...-BA17.e <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine... of Intent; control date for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice... would consider catch shares for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-31/pdf/2011-28083.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-31/pdf/2011-28083.pdf"><span>76 FR 67121 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2012 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Commercial Fishing Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-31</p> <p>.... 110913585-1625-01] RIN 0648-BB36 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2012 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2012 fishing season for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> commercial shark... 2011 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS proposes season openings based on...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA225440','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA225440"><span>Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Shortnosed Sturgeons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon were the St. Johns River, Florida, suggests that lack characterized by relatively slow current, turbid of documented spawning...apparently fccd mostly at spcees that might also spawn over sturgeon night or on windy d,.vs when turbidity is high spawning grounds include walleye...Beginning Feeding apparently occurs mostly at night or on in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1870’s, the taste of sturgeon flesh windy days when turbidity is high and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24554135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24554135"><span>[Capoeira circle or sports academy? The emergence of <span class="hlt">modern</span> styles of capoeira and their global context].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Assunção, Matthias Röhrig</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> styles of capoeira should be considered in the global context of the <span class="hlt">modernization</span> of martial arts currently in progress in Europe and Asia on the one hand, and the new phase of Afro-descendant <span class="hlt">modernity</span> on the other. The confrontation between the capoeira, jiu-jitsu and other martial arts circles led mestre Bimba to develop his regional Bahian fighting style. The revival of traditional capoeira as Angolan capoeira led by mestre Pastinha is part of the broader movement of affirmation of Afro-Bahian culture in Salvador and the growing visibility of the Afro-descendant body in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12614730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12614730"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drobniewski, F A; Caws, M; Gibson, A; Young, D</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>One-third of the global population is believed to be infected with bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. More than 8 million new cases of tuberculosis occur annually leading to 2 million deaths. Mortality is particularly high in those coinfected with HIV and where the bacteria are multiple-drug-resistant strains--ie, strains resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. <span class="hlt">Early</span> diagnosis of tuberculosis and drug resistance improves survival and by identifying infectious cases promotes contact tracing, implementation of institutional cross-infection procedures, and other public-health actions. This review addresses significant advances made in the diagnosis of infection, clinical disease, and drug resistance over the past decade. It proposes operational criteria for a <span class="hlt">modern</span> diagnostic service in the UK (as a model of a low-incidence country) and explores some of the economic issues surrounding the use of these techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211411','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211411"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Seaduck Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/127662-buried-mesozoic-rift-basins-moroccan-atlantic-continental-margin','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/127662-buried-mesozoic-rift-basins-moroccan-atlantic-continental-margin"><span>Buried Mesozoic rift basins of Moroccan <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> continental margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mohamed, N.; Jabour, H.; El Mostaine, M.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> continental margin is the largest frontier area for oil and gas exploration in Morocco. Most of the activity has been concentrated where Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks have been the drilling objectives, with only one significant but non commercial oil discovery. Recent exploration activities have focused on <span class="hlt">early</span> Mesozoic Rift basins buried beneath the post-rift sediments of the Middle <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal plain. Many of these basins are of interest because they contain fine-grained lacustrine rocks that have sufficient organic richness to be classified as efficient oil prone source rock. Location of inferred rift basins beneath the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal plainmore » were determined by analysis of drilled-hole data in combination with gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic maps. These rift basins are characterized by several half graben filled by synrift sediments of Triassic age probably deposited in lacustrine environment. Coeval rift basins are known to be present in the U.S. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> continental margin. Basin modeling suggested that many of the less deeply bored rift basins beneath the coastal plain are still within the oil window and present the most attractive exploration targets in the area.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cantonese+AND+social&pg=5&id=ED442295','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cantonese+AND+social&pg=5&id=ED442295"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chen, Ping</p> <p></p> <p>This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of <span class="hlt">modern</span> Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: <span class="hlt">modern</span> spoken Chinese, <span class="hlt">modern</span> written Chinese, and the <span class="hlt">modern</span> Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21048764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21048764"><span>Reversed flow of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water during the Last Glacial Maximum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Negre, César; Zahn, Rainer; Thomas, Alexander L; Masqué, Pere; Henderson, Gideon M; Martínez-Méndez, Gema; Hall, Ian R; Mas, José L</p> <p>2010-11-04</p> <p>The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is considered to be one of the most important components of the climate system. This is because its warm surface currents, such as the Gulf Stream, redistribute huge amounts of energy from tropical to high latitudes and influence regional weather and climate patterns, whereas its lower limb ventilates the deep ocean and affects the storage of carbon in the abyss, away from the atmosphere. Despite its significance for future climate, the operation of the MOC under contrasting climates of the past remains controversial. Nutrient-based proxies and recent model simulations indicate that during the Last Glacial Maximum the convective activity in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean was much weaker than at present. In contrast, rate-sensitive radiogenic (231)Pa/(230)Th isotope ratios from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have been interpreted to indicate only minor changes in MOC strength. Here we show that the basin-scale abyssal circulation of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean was probably reversed during the Last Glacial Maximum and was dominated by northward water flow from the Southern Ocean. These conclusions are based on new high-resolution data from the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean that establish the basin-scale north to south gradient in (231)Pa/(230)Th, and thus the direction of the deep ocean circulation. Our findings are consistent with nutrient-based proxies and argue that further analysis of (231)Pa/(230)Th outside the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin will enhance our understanding of past ocean circulation, provided that spatial gradients are carefully considered. This broader perspective suggests that the <span class="hlt">modern</span> pattern of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> MOC-with a prominent southerly flow of deep waters originating in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-arose only during the Holocene epoch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15295596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15295596"><span>Vigorous exchange between the Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceans at the end of the past five glacial periods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peeters, Frank J C; Acheson, Ruth; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; De Ruijter, Wilhelmus P M; Schneider, Ralph R; Ganssen, Gerald M; Ufkes, Els; Kroon, Dick</p> <p>2004-08-05</p> <p>The magnitude of heat and salt transfer between the Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceans through 'Agulhas leakage' is considered important for balancing the global thermohaline circulation. Increases or reductions of this leakage lead to strengthening or weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning and associated variation of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation. Here we show that <span class="hlt">modern</span> Agulhas waters, which migrate into the south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean in the form of an Agulhas ring, contain a characteristic assemblage of planktic foraminifera. We use this assemblage as a <span class="hlt">modern</span> analogue to investigate the Agulhas leakage history over the past 550,000 years from a sediment record in the Cape basin. Our reconstruction indicates that Indian-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water exchange was highly variable: enhanced during present and past interglacials and largely reduced during glacial intervals. Coherent variability of Agulhas leakage with northern summer insolation suggests a teleconnection to the monsoon system. The onset of increased Agulhas leakage during late glacial conditions took place when glacial ice volume was maximal, suggesting a crucial role for Agulhas leakage in glacial terminations, timing of interhemispheric climate change and the resulting resumption of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span>49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″ W...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713502R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713502R"><span>Annually resolved North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine climate over the last millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the <span class="hlt">modern</span> instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ESRv...96..279P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ESRv...96..279P"><span>Global Miocene tectonics and the <span class="hlt">modern</span> world</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Potter, Paul Edwin; Szatmari, Peter</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>An amazing congruence of seemingly unrelated, diverse global events began in the Middle and Upper Miocene and established our <span class="hlt">modern</span> world. Two global orogenic belts were active, mostly in the Middle and Upper Miocene, while backarc basins formed along the eastern margin of Asia. Coincident with these events global temperatures cooled in both the ocean and atmosphere, desertification occurred from Central Asia into and across most of northern Africa and also in Australia, and in southern South America. Coincident with the expansion of the Antarctic ice cap at 14 Ma, there was initial widespread deep sea erosion and changes in patterns of deep sea sedimentation. Muddy pelagic sedimentation increased six-fold in the North and Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific Oceans and global changes in circulation lead to more diatomites in the Pacific and fewer in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. By the end of the Miocene most of the Mediterranean Sea had evaporated. Broadly coincident with these events, many old, large river systems were destroyed and new ones formed as much of the world's landscape changed. Collectively, these global on-shore tectonic and ocean-atmospheric events provide the foundation for our <span class="hlt">modern</span> world—a mixture of new and rejuvenated orogenic belts and their far-field effects (distant epiorogenic uplift, rain-shadow deserts, large alluvial aprons, and distant deltas) as inherited Gondwanan landscapes persisted remote from plate boundaries. Thus at the end of the Miocene much of the world's landscape, except for that changed by Pleistocene continental glaciation, would be recognizable to us today. We argue that all of these events had the same ultimate common cause-an internal Earth engine-that drove plate motions in two broad ways: first, the opening and closing of seven key gateways to deep-water oceanic currents radically altered global heat transfer and changed a lingering Greenhouse to an Icehouse world; secondly, these events were in part coincident with renewed heat flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sigmund+AND+freud&pg=4&id=ED326311','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sigmund+AND+freud&pg=4&id=ED326311"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Elkind, David</p> <p></p> <p>In five sections, this paper explores dimensions of <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood education: schooling generally construed as nonparental instruction in knowledge, values, and skills. Section 1 looks at some of the factors which have contributed to the rapid growth of <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood education in <span class="hlt">modern</span> times. Section 2 briefly highlights the contributions of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=new+AND+Polymers&pg=4&id=EJ308974','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=new+AND+Polymers&pg=4&id=EJ308974"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> NMR Spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jelinski, Lynn W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from <span class="hlt">modern</span> nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=O%27Shaughnessy&pg=3&id=EJ382284','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=O%27Shaughnessy&pg=3&id=EJ382284"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> Languages and Antiracism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>O'Shaughnessy, Martin</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Discusses a school language department's antiracist/multicultural policy for <span class="hlt">modern</span> languages. The policy stresses the need for a multicultural curriculum, exploration of racism, acceptance of all languages, recognition of specialized knowledge, and positive images of people from ethnic minority groups. (CB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1189754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1189754"><span>[<span class="hlt">Modern</span> magic and medicine].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prokop, O</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>In a paper presented on the occasion of the 5th Congress of gynecology in the GDR the author discusses in details the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">modern</span> occultism and quackery. Preferably he examines the so called parapsychology and declares that this is a field without any scientific value. Therefore the course of action of parapsychologists is not to be accepted without resolute reply.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=college+AND+mathematics+AND+syllabus&pg=3&id=EJ106468','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=college+AND+mathematics+AND+syllabus&pg=3&id=EJ106468"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> Versus Traditional Mathematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roberts, A. M.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a <span class="hlt">modern</span> mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=short+AND+introduction&pg=3&id=EJ1121537','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=short+AND+introduction&pg=3&id=EJ1121537"><span>Meta <span class="hlt">Modernism</span>: An Introduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Snell, Joel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta <span class="hlt">modernism</span>." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=modern+AND+communication+AND+vs+AND+traditional+AND+communication&id=EJ601593','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=modern+AND+communication+AND+vs+AND+traditional+AND+communication&id=EJ601593"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> vs. Traditional.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhenhui, Rao</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and <span class="hlt">modern</span> methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810010111','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810010111"><span>Gnotobiology in <span class="hlt">modern</span> medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Podoprigora, G. I.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in <span class="hlt">modern</span> medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/13676','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/13676"><span>Rail <span class="hlt">Modernization</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-04-01</p> <p>This study summarizes the results of a multi-year assessment of the rail transit and commuter rail systems. The work was based on an earlier study design effort. The purposes of the study were to determine the costs of upgrading and <span class="hlt">modernizing</span> urban...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=periodic+AND+table&pg=7&id=EJ549769','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=periodic+AND+table&pg=7&id=EJ549769"><span>A <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Periodic Table.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herrenden-Harker, B. D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presents a <span class="hlt">modern</span> Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED031057.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED031057.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Modernizing</span> Mechanical Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rutgers, Norman L.</p> <p></p> <p>Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the <span class="hlt">modernization</span> of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166514"><span>Medicalized weapons & <span class="hlt">modern</span> war.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gross, Michael L</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>"Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in <span class="hlt">modern</span> asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2189570','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2189570"><span>Facial ontogeny in Neanderthals and <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bastir, Markus; O'Higgins, Paul; Rosas, Antonio</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>One hundred and fifty years after the discovery of Neanderthals, it is held that this morphologically and genetically distinct human species does not differ from <span class="hlt">modern</span> Homo sapiens in its craniofacial ontogenetic trajectory after the <span class="hlt">early</span> post-natal period. This is striking given the evident morphological differences between these species, since it implies that all of the major differences are established by the <span class="hlt">early</span> post-natal period and carried into adulthood through identical trajectories, despite the extent to which mechanical and spatial factors are thought to influence craniofacial ontogeny. Here, we present statistical and morphological analyses demonstrating that the spatio-temporal processes responsible for craniofacial ontogenetic transformations differ. The findings emphasize that pre-natal as well as post-natal ontogeny are both important in establishing the cranial morphological differences between adult Neanderthals and <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans. PMID:17311777</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JCli....9.2464N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JCli....9.2464N"><span>Variations of Sea Surface Temperature, Wind Stress, and Rainfall over the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and South America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nobre, Paulo; Srukla, J.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Empirical orthogonal functions (E0Fs) and composite analyses are used to investigate the development of sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly patterns over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The evolution of large-scale rainfall anomaly patterns over the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and South America are also investigated. 71e EOF analyses revealed that a pattern of anomalous SST and wind stress asymmetric relative to the equator is the dominant mode of interannual and longer variability over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The most important findings of this study are as follows.Atmospheric circulation anomalies precede the development of basinwide anomalous SST patterns over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Anomalous SST originate off the African coast simultaneously with atmospheric circulation anomalies and expand westward afterward. The time lag between wind stress relaxation (strengthening) and maximum SST warming (cooling) is about two months.Anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns over northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are phase locked to the seasonal cycle. Composite fields of SLP and wind stress over northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> can be distinguished from random only within a few months preceding the March-May (MAM) season. Observational evidence is presented to show that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the Pacific influences atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies over northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> through atmospheric teleconnection patterns into higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.The well-known droughts over northeastern Brazil (Nordeste) are a local manifestation of a much larger-scale rainfall anomaly pattern encompassing the whole equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Amazon region. Negative rainfall anomalies to the south of the equator during MAM, which is the rainy season for the Nordeste region, are related to an <span class="hlt">early</span> withdrawal of the intertropical convergence zone toward the warm SST anomalies over the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Also, it is shown that precipitation anomalies</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=witchcraft&id=EJ672251','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=witchcraft&id=EJ672251"><span>Witches in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> World.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Breslaw, Elaine</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056805&hterms=fadec&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dfadec','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056805&hterms=fadec&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dfadec"><span><span class="hlt">Modernizing</span> engine displays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schneider, E. T.; Enevoldson, E. K.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The introduction of electronic fuel control to <span class="hlt">modern</span> turbine engines has a number of advantages, which are related to an increase in engine performance and to a reduction or elimination of the problems associated with high angle of attack engine operation from the surface to 50,000 feet. If the appropriate engine display devices are available to the pilot, the fuel control system can provide a great amount of information. Some of the wealth of information available from <span class="hlt">modern</span> fuel controls are discussed in this paper. The considered electronic engine control systems in their most recent forms are known as the Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) and the Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC). Attention is given to some details regarding the control systems, typical engine problems, the solution of problems with the aid of displays, engine displays in normal operation, an example display format, a multipage format, flight strategies, and hardware considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA519393','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA519393"><span>2010 Army <span class="hlt">Modernization</span> Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...Science and Technology (S&T) Program, and shortening the time between requirement identification and solution delivery. • Continuously <span class="hlt">modernize</span> equipment...available, as quickly as possible, so they can succeed anywhere, every time . Our Soldiers deserve nothing less. Army Strong! U.S. Soldiers engage enemy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA350170','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA350170"><span>1998 Army <span class="hlt">Modernization</span> Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Biological (CB) Protective Duty Uniform (STO) • Biometrics (SRO) • Nanoscience (SRO) • Millimeter Wave Material and Dissemination Technology... Biometrics and Nanoscience SROs will enable the development of advanced NBC detection and characterization systems, including the exploitation of biologically...Requirements Trailers • Procure HEMAT Trailers Figure K-23 K-19 //;<?. U.S. Army 1997<span class="hlt">Modernization</span> Plan This final fleet assessment, made against the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PNAS..11411075Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PNAS..11411075Z"><span>Asynchronous warming and δ18O evolution of deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water masses during the last deglaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jiaxu; Liu, Zhengyu; Brady, Esther C.; Oppo, Delia W.; Clark, Peter U.; Jahn, Alexandra; Marcott, Shaun A.; Lindsay, Keith</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The large-scale reorganization of deep ocean circulation in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> involving changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) played a critical role in regulating hemispheric and global climate during the last deglaciation. However, changes in the relative contributions of NADW and AABW and their properties are poorly constrained by marine records, including δ18O of benthic foraminiferal calcite (δ18Oc). Here, we use an isotope-enabled ocean general circulation model with realistic geometry and forcing conditions to simulate the deglacial water mass and δ18O evolution. Model results suggest that, in response to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> freshwater forcing during the <span class="hlt">early</span> phase of the last deglaciation, NADW nearly collapses, while AABW mildly weakens. Rather than reflecting changes in NADW or AABW properties caused by freshwater input as suggested previously, the observed phasing difference of deep δ18Oc likely reflects <span class="hlt">early</span> warming of the deep northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> by ˜1.4 °C, while deep Southern Ocean temperature remains largely unchanged. We propose a thermodynamic mechanism to explain the <span class="hlt">early</span> warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, featuring a strong middepth warming and enhanced downward heat flux via vertical mixing. Our results emphasize that the way that ocean circulation affects heat, a dynamic tracer, is considerably different from how it affects passive tracers, like δ18O, and call for caution when inferring water mass changes from δ18Oc records while assuming uniform changes in deep temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28973944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28973944"><span>Asynchronous warming and δ18O evolution of deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water masses during the last deglaciation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jiaxu; Liu, Zhengyu; Brady, Esther C; Oppo, Delia W; Clark, Peter U; Jahn, Alexandra; Marcott, Shaun A; Lindsay, Keith</p> <p>2017-10-17</p> <p>The large-scale reorganization of deep ocean circulation in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> involving changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) played a critical role in regulating hemispheric and global climate during the last deglaciation. However, changes in the relative contributions of NADW and AABW and their properties are poorly constrained by marine records, including δ 18 O of benthic foraminiferal calcite (δ 18 O c ). Here, we use an isotope-enabled ocean general circulation model with realistic geometry and forcing conditions to simulate the deglacial water mass and δ 18 O evolution. Model results suggest that, in response to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> freshwater forcing during the <span class="hlt">early</span> phase of the last deglaciation, NADW nearly collapses, while AABW mildly weakens. Rather than reflecting changes in NADW or AABW properties caused by freshwater input as suggested previously, the observed phasing difference of deep δ 18 O c likely reflects <span class="hlt">early</span> warming of the deep northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> by ∼1.4 °C, while deep Southern Ocean temperature remains largely unchanged. We propose a thermodynamic mechanism to explain the <span class="hlt">early</span> warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, featuring a strong middepth warming and enhanced downward heat flux via vertical mixing. Our results emphasize that the way that ocean circulation affects heat, a dynamic tracer, is considerably different from how it affects passive tracers, like δ 18 O, and call for caution when inferring water mass changes from δ 18 O c records while assuming uniform changes in deep temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP21E..04Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP21E..04Z"><span>Asynchronous warming and δ18O evolution of deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water masses during the last deglaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, J.; Liu, Z.; Brady, E. C.; Oppo, D.; Clark, P. U.; Jahn, A.; Marcott, S. A.; Lindsay, K. T.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The large-scale reorganization of deep-ocean circulation in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> involving changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) played a critical role in regulating hemispheric and global climate during the last deglaciation. However, changes in the relative contributions of NADW and AABW and their properties are poorly constrained by marine records, including δ18O of benthic foraminiferal calcite (δ18Oc). Here we use an isotope-enabled ocean general circulation model with realistic geometry and forcing conditions to simulate the deglacial water mass and δ18O evolution. Model results suggest that in response to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> freshwater forcing during the <span class="hlt">early</span> phase of the last deglaciation, NADW nearly collapses while AABW mildly weakens. Rather than reflecting changes in NADW or AABW properties due to freshwater input as suggested previously, the observed phasing difference of deep δ18Oc likely reflects <span class="hlt">early</span> warming of the deep northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> by 1.4°C while deep Southern Ocean temperature remains largely unchanged. We propose a thermodynamic mechanism to explain the <span class="hlt">early</span> warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, featuring a strong mid-depth warming and enhanced downward heat flux via vertical mixing. Our results emphasize that the way ocean circulation affects heat, a dynamic tracer, is considerably different than how it affects passive tracers like δ18O, and call for caution when inferring water mass changes from δ18Oc records while assuming uniform changes in deep temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DPPG11156B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DPPG11156B"><span>Code <span class="hlt">Modernization</span> of VPIC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bird, Robert; Nystrom, David; Albright, Brian</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The ability of scientific simulations to effectively deliver performant computation is increasingly being challenged by successive generations of high-performance computing architectures. Code development to support efficient computation on these <span class="hlt">modern</span> architectures is both expensive, and highly complex; if it is approached without due care, it may also not be directly transferable between subsequent hardware generations. Previous works have discussed techniques to support the process of adapting a legacy code for <span class="hlt">modern</span> hardware generations, but despite the breakthroughs in the areas of mini-app development, portable-performance, and cache oblivious algorithms the problem still remains largely unsolved. In this work we demonstrate how a focus on platform agnostic <span class="hlt">modern</span> code-development can be applied to Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to facilitate effective scientific delivery. This work builds directly on our previous work optimizing VPIC, in which we replaced intrinsic based vectorisation with compile generated auto-vectorization to improve the performance and portability of VPIC. In this work we present the use of a specialized SIMD queue for processing some particle operations, and also preview a GPU capable OpenMP variant of VPIC. Finally we include a lessons learnt. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 and supported by the LANL LDRD program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP41A1280L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP41A1280L"><span>Compound-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Evidence of Late Quaternary Paleohydrologic Change from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Plain, North Carolina, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lane, C.; Taylor, A. K.; Spencer, J.; Jones, K.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Reconstructions of late Quaternary paleohydrology are rare from the U.S. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal plain (ACP). Here we present compound-specific hydrogen isotope analyses of terrestrially-derived n-alkanes (δ2Halkane) from Jones Lake and Singletary Lake in eastern North Carolina spanning the last 50,000 years. Combined with prior pollen, charcoal, and bulk sediment geochemical analyses, the δ2Halkane data indicate arid conditions during the late-Pleistocene, but marked differences in edaphic conditions at the two sites likely due to differing water table depths. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition is marked by rapid fluctuations in δ2Halkane values that resemble the Bølling Allerød and Younger Dryas climatic events indicating potential sensitivity of regional hydrology to rapid climate change. The δ2Halkane data indicate a generally mesic Holocene that supported colonization by Quercus-dominated ecosystems during the <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Holocene. Evidence of increased aridity on the in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina contrasts with evidence of mesic conditions in eastern North Carolina during the middle to late Holocene, a geographic pattern similar to <span class="hlt">modern</span> teleconnected precipitation responses to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This pattern may be indicative of a stronger Pacific basin influence on regional paleoprecipitation patterns than the distally-closer <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. A transition from Quercus-to Pinus-dominated ecosystems 5500 cal yr B.P. is accompanied by a large increase in charcoal abundance, but is not coincident with any high-amplitude changes in the δ2Halkane record, indicating that precipitation variability was not likely the mechanism responsible for this ecological transition. While further development of regional paleohydrological records is necessary, the lack of a clear change in middle Holocene precipitation dynamics and the temporally-heterogeneous nature of the Quercus-Pinus transition in the region indicate prehistoric anthropogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMGC21A..05L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMGC21A..05L"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Hurricane Activity: 1851-1900</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landsea, C. W.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>This presentation reports on the second year's work of a three year project to re-analyze the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane database (or HURDAT). The original database of six-hourly positions and intensities were put together in the 1960s in support of the Apollo space program to help provide statistical track forecast guidance. In the intervening years, this database - which is now freely and easily accessible on the Internet from the National Hurricane Center's (NHC's) Webpage - has been utilized for a wide variety of uses: climatic change studies, seasonal forecasting, risk assessment for county emergency managers, analysis of potential losses for insurance and business interests, intensity forecasting techniques and verification of official and various model predictions of track and intensity. Unfortunately, HURDAT was not designed with all of these uses in mind when it was first put together and not all of them may be appropriate given its original motivation. One problem with HURDAT is that there are numerous systematic as sell as some random errors in the database which need correction. Additionally, analysis techniques have changed over the years at NHC as our understanding of tropical cyclones has developed, leading to biases in the historical database that have not been addressed. Another difficulty in applying the hurricane database to studies concerned with landfalling events is the lack exact location, time and intensity at hurricane landfall. Finally, recent efforts into uncovering undocumented historical hurricanes in the late 1800s and <span class="hlt">early</span> 1900s led by Jose Fernandez-Partagas have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events, which are not yet incorporated into the HURDAT database. Because of all of these issues, a re-analysis of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane database is being attempted that will be completed in three years. As part of the re-analyses, three files will be made available: {* } The revised <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> HURDAT (with six hourly intensities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..916H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..916H"><span>Inter-decadal variation of the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Korea (TA-K) teleconnection pattern during boreal summer season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ham, Yoo-Geun; Hwang, YeonJi; Lim, Young-Kwon; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The inter-decadal variation of the positive relationship between the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST) and Korean precipitation during boreal summer season during 1900-2010 is examined. The 15-year moving correlation between the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST (TAtlSST) index (SST anomalies from 30°S to 30°N and 60°W to 20°E) and Korean precipitation (precipitation anomalies from 35°-40°N to 120°-130°E) during June-July-August exhibits strong inter-decadal variation, which becomes positive at the 95% confidence level after the 1980s. Intensification of the linkage between the TAtlSST index and Korean precipitation after the 1980s is attributed to global warming via the increased background SST. The increase in the background SST over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> provides background conditions that enhance anomalous convective activity by anomalous <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST warming. Therefore, the overall atmospheric responses associated with the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST warming could intensify. The correlation between the TAtlSST index and Korean precipitation also exhibits strong inter-decadal variation within 1980-2010, which is over 0.8 during <span class="hlt">early</span> 2000s, while it is relative low (i.e., around 0.6) during the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1980s. The enhanced co-variability between the tropical and the mid-latitude <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST during the <span class="hlt">early</span> 2000s indicates the intensification of TAtlSST-related Rossby wave source over the mid-latitude <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which excites stationary waves propagated from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to the Korean peninsula across northern Europe and northeast Asia. This Rossby-wave train induces a cyclonic flow over the northern edge of the Korea, which intensifies southwesterly and results in precipitation over Korea. This observed decadal difference is well simulated by the stationary wave model experiments with a prescribed TAtlSST-related Rossby wave source over the mid-latitude <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1025267','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1025267"><span>The Trilateral Force: The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Alliance and the Future of Nuclear Weapons Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-03</p> <p>Western World, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Council (2013), 46. s Paul Bracken, The Second Nuclear Age: Strategy, Danger, and the New Power Politics (New York: Times...Studies Institute (2013); Paul Bracken, "The Bomb Returns for a Second Act," Foreign Policy Research Institute E- Notes, November (2012). 11 David...Commission Report: <span class="hlt">Modernizing</span> US. Nuclear Strategy, Force Structure and Posture, Global Zero (2012), 6. 27 Dana Johnson, et al., "Triad, Dyad, Monad</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A41F..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A41F..01B"><span>An 800-Year Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sea Surface Temperature Variability Record From the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Black, D. E.; Thunell, R. C.; Kaplan, A.; Abahazi, M. A.; Tappa, E. J.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Here we present an eight century tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST record based on foraminiferal Mg/Ca recovered from Cariaco Basin sediments that have been calibrated to historical instrumental SSTs. Spatial correlations indicate that the proxy record is representative of SSTs over much of the Caribbean and tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The Mg/Ca-SST record also correlates well with global land and sea surface temperature anomalies, and captures decadal-scale variations in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical storm and hurricane frequency over the late-19th and 20th centuries. The long-term record displays a surprising amount of variability for a tropical location under essentially <span class="hlt">modern</span> boundary conditions. The tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> does not appear to have experienced a pronounced Medieval Warm Period relative to the complete record. However, strong Little Ice Age cooling of as much as 3 °C occurred between A. D. 1525 and 1625. Spring SSTs gradually rose between A. D. 1650 and 1900 followed by a 2.5 °C warming over the twentieth century. Viewed in the context of the complete record, twentieth century temperatures are not the warmest in the entire record on average, but they do show the largest increase in magnitude and fastest rate of SST change over the last eight hundred years. Spectral analysis of the Mg/Ca-SST data suggests that 2-5 and ~13 year SST variability that is characteristic of tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> instrumental records may change through time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP51A1052K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP51A1052K"><span>Reconstruction of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> end-member of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation over glacial-interglacial cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, J.; Seguí, M. J.; Knudson, K. P.; Yehudai, M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Pena, L. D.; Basak, C.; Ferretti, P.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) represents the major water mass that drives the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC), which undergoes substantial reorganization with changing climate. In order to understand its impact on ocean circulation and climate through time, it is necessary to constrain its composition. We report Nd isotope ratios of Fe-Mn oxide encrusted foraminifera and fish debris from DSDP Site 607 (41.00N 32.96W, 3427m), in the present-day core of NADW, and ODP 1063 (33.68N 57.62W, 4585m), on the deep abyssal plain at the interface between NADW and Antarctic Bottom Water. We provide a new North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> paleocirculation record covering 2 Ma. At Site 607 interglacial ɛNd-values are consistently similar to present-day NADW (ɛNd -13.5), with median ɛNd-values of -14.3 in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene and -13.8 in the Late Pleistocene. Glacial ɛNd-values are higher by 1 ɛNd-unit in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene, and 1.5-2 ɛNd-units in the Late Pleistocene. Site 1063 shows much greater variability, with ɛNd ranging from -10 to -26. We interpret the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> AMOC source as represented by the Site 607 interglacial ɛNd-values, which has remained nearly stable throughout the entire period. The higher glacial ɛNd-values reflect incursions of some southern-sourced waters to Site 607, which is supported by coeval shifts to lower benthic foraminiferal d13C. In contrast, the Site 1063 ɛNd-values do not appear to reflect the AMOC end-member, and likely reflects local effects from a bottom source. A period of greatly disrupted ocean circulation marks 950-850 Ma, which may have been triggered by enhanced ice growth in the Northern Hemisphere that began around 1.2 Ma, as suggested by possible input events of Nd from the surrounding cratons into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> observed in Site 607. Interglacial AMOC only recovers to the previously observed vigor over 200 ka following the disruption, whereas further intensified SSW incursion into the deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> come to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/1783?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22Nutrition%22%5D%7D&r=85','SCIGOV-CON-113'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/1783?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22Nutrition%22%5D%7D&r=85"><span>School Food <span class="hlt">Modernization</span> Act</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=113">THOMAS, 113th Congress </a></p> <p>Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-3</p> <p>2013-04-26</p> <p>House - 07/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP43A2063B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP43A2063B"><span>Sensitivity of climate and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation to uncertain ocean gateway configurations for the late Miocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradshaw, C.; Lunt, D. J.; Flecker, R.; Martinez-Mendez, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The palaeorecord documents late Miocene (11.6-5.3 Ma) climate to be much warmer and wetter than today yet CO2 reconstructions are similar to <span class="hlt">modern</span> levels. Given the apparent decoupling between CO2 and warmth for this period we investigate here the role of the oceans. The late Miocene experienced significant tectonic change including the restriction of some of the last ocean gateways to close (Panama Gateway and Indonesian Seaway) and open (Bering Strait and Barents/Kara Sea). However, the timing and configuration of these tectonic changes is uncertain. The final closure of the Panama Gateway is dated to the Pliocene, but continental mammal exchange suggests the existence of a Central American archipelago from the mid-late Miocene. The Bering Strait is typically assumed to have opened at the very end of the late Miocene/<span class="hlt">early</span> Pliocene based on diatom exchange, but other marine and terrestrial evidence points to a much earlier, perhaps intermittent, opening. The timing of the restriction of the Indonesian Seaway is very poorly constrained at middle Miocene to Pliocene. The Barents Sea and Kara Sea shelves are documented as having being subject to extensive glacial erosion and post-glacial uplift since the Pliocene and throughout the Quaternary but records of uplift and erosion during the earlier Cenozoic are limited. However, the presence of significant preglacial sediments suggests that this region underwent tectonic uplift, volcanism and subsequent erosion during the Eocene-Miocene period although the age assignment of the data remains controversial. The Panama Gateway has been suggested to influence North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) production through numerous modelling studies, the Bering Strait has been suggested to greatly impact NADW during the Quaternary, and the strength of Indonesian Throughflow is hypothesised to influence Agulhas Leakage, which, in turn, has been speculated to influence <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning and thus NADW production. Here, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995mps..book.....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995mps..book.....B"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> Physics Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64..954L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64..954L"><span>Our <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Stone Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lowry, W. D.</p> <p></p> <p>Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29167451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29167451"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation in the recent decline of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> major hurricane frequency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Rong; Knutson, Thomas R</p> <p>2017-11-22</p> <p>Observed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> major hurricane frequency has exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability since the 1940s. However, the cause of this variability is debated. Using observations and a coupled earth system model (GFDL-ESM2G), here we show that the decline of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is associated with a weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) inferred from ocean observations. Directly observed North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sulfate aerosol optical depth has not increased (but shows a modest decline) over this period, suggesting the decline of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is not likely due to recent changes in anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Instead, we find coherent multidecadal variations involving the inferred AMOC and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> major hurricane frequency, along with indices of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Variability and inverted vertical wind shear. Our results provide evidence for an important role of the AMOC in the recent decline of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> major hurricane frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-22/pdf/2013-24587.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-22/pdf/2013-24587.pdf"><span>78 FR 62587 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-22</p> <p>...: (727) 450-6200 Ext. 104. Council address: South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place... Information Officer, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-16/pdf/2011-6094.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-16/pdf/2011-6094.pdf"><span>76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-16</p> <p>...-6660. Council address: South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC 29405; telephone...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-01/pdf/2013-26066.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-01/pdf/2013-26066.pdf"><span>78 FR 65615 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>...: (877) 747-7301. Council address: South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive... Officer, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NatGe...1..444C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NatGe...1..444C"><span>Oceanic link between abrupt changes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and the African monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Ping; Zhang, Rong; Hazeleger, Wilco; Wen, Caihong; Wan, Xiuquan; Ji, Link; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Seidel, Howard</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Abrupt changes in the African monsoon can have pronounced socioeconomic impacts on many West African countries. Evidence for both prolonged humid periods and monsoon failures have been identified throughout the late Pleistocene and <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene epochs. In particular, drought conditions in West Africa have occurred during periods of reduced North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation, such as the Younger Dryas cold event. Here, we use an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model to examine the link between oceanographic changes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and changes in the strength of the African monsoon. Our simulations show that when North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation is substantially weakened, the flow of the subsurface North Brazil Current reverses. This leads to decreased upper tropical ocean stratification and warmer sea surface temperatures in the equatorial South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, and consequently reduces African summer monsoonal winds and rainfall over West Africa. This mechanism is in agreement with reconstructions of past climate. We therefore suggest that the interaction between thermohaline circulation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and wind-driven currents in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean contributes to the rapidity of African monsoon transitions during abrupt climate change events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23780876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23780876"><span>Climate and ecosystem linkages explain widespread declines in North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mills, Katherine E; Pershing, Andrew J; Sheehan, Timothy F; Mountain, David</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar) populations experienced substantial declines in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1990s, and many populations have persisted at low abundances in recent years. Abundance and productivity declined in a coherent manner across major regions of North America, and this coherence points toward a potential shift in marine survivorship, rather than local, river-specific factors. The major declines in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon populations occurred against a backdrop of physical and biological shifts in Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ecosystems. Analyses of changes in climate, physical, and lower trophic level biological factors provide substantial evidence that climate conditions directly and indirectly influence the abundance and productivity of North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon populations. A major decline in salmon abundance after 1990 was preceded by a series of changes across multiple levels of the ecosystem, and a subsequent population change in 1997, primarily related to salmon productivity, followed an unusually low NAO event. Pairwise correlations further demonstrate that climate and physical conditions are associated with changes in plankton communities and prey availability, which are ultimately linked to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon populations. Results suggest that poor trophic conditions, likely due to climate-driven environmental factors, and warmer ocean temperatures throughout their marine habitat area are constraining the productivity and recovery of North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5364382','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5364382"><span>Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> capacitor effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The ‘charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and ‘discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1990s, a warmer <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> due to the positive phase of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events. PMID:28317857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS043-96-002&hterms=worlds+oceans&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dworlds%2Boceans','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS043-96-002&hterms=worlds+oceans&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dworlds%2Boceans"><span>Dust Cloud, Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This view of a dust cloud from a Sahara Desert, North Africa dust storm was taken over the Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, some 1700 miles from the African coast (24.5N, 45.0W). Dust, sand and other particulate matter from arid regions is frequently stirred up by fast blowing desert winds and carried aloft to high altitudes where it may be transported great distances, sometimes as much as half way around the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP22A..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP22A..04K"><span>Northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (+NAO), and increased <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is important because the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/Ca and δ18O data from the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with <span class="hlt">modern</span> coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between <span class="hlt">modern</span> and sub-fossil Sr/Ca indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016715','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016715"><span>Mid-Mesozoic (Mid-Jurassic to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous) evolution of the Georges Bank Basin, U.S. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> outer continental shelf: Sedimentology of the Conoco 145-1 well</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poppe, L.J.; Poag, C.W.; Stanton, R.W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Conoco 145-1 exploratory well, located in the southeastern portion of the Georges Bank Basin, was drilled to a total depth of 4303 m below the sea floor. The oldest sedimentary rocks sampled are of Middle Jurassic age (Late Bathonian-Callovian). A dolomite-limestone-evaporite sequence dominates the section below 3917 m; limestone is the predominant lithology in the intervals of 3271-3774 m, 2274-3158 m, and 1548-1981 m. Siliciclastics dominate the remainder of the drilled section. Calcite tightly cements most of the rocks below 1548 m; dolomite, silica, siderite, and diagenetic clay cements are locally important. Restricted inner marine environments, representing lagoonal and tidal flat conditions, prevailed at the wellsite during much of the deposition recorded by the Callovian-Bathonian age Iroquois Formation. These environments gave way to a carbonate platform, which formed part of the > 5,000 km long Bahama-Grand Banks gigaplatform that lasted through the end of the Late Jurassic (encompassing the uppermost portion of the Iroquois Formation and the Scatarie Limestone and Bacarro Limestone Members of the Abenaki Formation). The absence of a skeletal-reef association and the dominance of muddy limestone fabrics are evidence that the 145-1 wellsite was located on the platform interior. Major periods of siticiclastic deposition interrupted carbonate deposition, and they are recorded by stratigraphic equivalents of the Mohican Formation, Misaine Shale Member of the Abenaki Formation, and the Mohawk and Mic Mac Formations. A series of sustained prograding delta systems, the earliest of which is preserved as the Missisauga Formation, buried the carbonate platform following its drowning in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous (Berriasian-Valanginian). The sparser, primarily allochthonous lignite content and better-sorted, glauconite-bearing sands of the Missisauga strata at the 145-1 wellsite suggest that shallow marine or barrier-bar environments were more prevalent than the low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.MW008H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.MW008H"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> quantitative schlieren techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Schlieren optical techniques have traditionally been used to qualitatively visualize refractive flowfields in transparent media. <span class="hlt">Modern</span> schlieren optics, however, are increasingly focused on obtaining quantitative information such as temperature and density fields in a flow -- once the sole purview of interferometry -- without the need for coherent illumination. Quantitative data are obtained from schlieren images by integrating the measured refractive index gradient to obtain the refractive index field in an image. Ultimately this is converted to a density or temperature field using the Gladstone-Dale relationship, an equation of state, and geometry assumptions for the flowfield of interest. Several quantitative schlieren methods are reviewed here, including background-oriented schlieren (BOS), schlieren using a weak lens as a "standard," and "rainbow schlieren." Results are presented for the application of these techniques to measure density and temperature fields across a supersonic turbulent boundary layer and a low-speed free-convection boundary layer in air. <span class="hlt">Modern</span> equipment, including digital cameras, LED light sources, and computer software that make this possible are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6863691-heliotropism-modern-stromatolites','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6863691-heliotropism-modern-stromatolites"><span>Heliotropism in <span class="hlt">modern</span> stromatolites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Awramik, S.M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Three different examples of <span class="hlt">modern</span> microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated bymore » surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these <span class="hlt">modern</span> heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22781582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22781582"><span>The first <span class="hlt">modern</span> Europeans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benazzi, Stefano</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-27/pdf/2010-9738.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-27/pdf/2010-9738.pdf"><span>75 FR 22103 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Shark Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-27</p> <p>... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Act), NMFS, upon a delegation of authority from the... Plan for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-29/pdf/2012-12929.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-29/pdf/2012-12929.pdf"><span>77 FR 31546 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-29</p> <p>.... 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XC035 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2012. Fishing for, retaining, possessing, or landing BFT in the... authority of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 971 et seq.) and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-20/pdf/2010-23438.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-20/pdf/2010-23438.pdf"><span>75 FR 57235 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-20</p> <p>... fish only in state waters, have asked what catch shares would mean for the shark fishery. To be.... 100825390-0431-01] RIN 0648-BA17 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures... on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark fishery to address...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=203408&keyword=genetic+AND+fish&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=203408&keyword=genetic+AND+fish&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Adaptation of the Estuarine Fish, Fundulus heterclitus (<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Killifish) to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To characterize intra-specific variation in sensitivity to highly toxic pollutants in the non-migratory estuarine <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), we compared <span class="hlt">early</span> life stage responses to the prototypical dioxin-like compound, 3,3’4,4’,5 hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3358...72B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3358...72B"><span>Old and <span class="hlt">modern</span> Lippmann photography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Jeong, Tung H.; Ro, Raymond J.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>At the end of the last century, Gabriel Lippmann was experimenting with color photography. His photographic color recording technique, Lippmann photography, produced very beautiful photographs and the fact that the colors are preserved in the <span class="hlt">early</span> Lippmann photographs indicates something about their archival properties. Recent progress in color reflection holography has made it possible to take a new look at this one hundred year old photographic technique. Today, high-resolution panchromatic recording materials suitable for Lippmann photography are on the market. In particular, the Slavich panchromatic ultra-high- resolution silver-halide holographic materials have been investigated for <span class="hlt">modern</span> Lippmann photography. Since the color photographs contain no dyes or pigments their archival stability may be high. In addition, a Lippmann photograph is difficult to copy which makes it a unique color photographic recording. Both of these features must attract a photographer interested in creating beautiful art photographs. It is also shown that Lippmann photographs can be made without the mercury reflector, instead by using the reflection from the gelatin-air interface. This eliminates the complications in dealing with mercury, while still maintaining the high resolution and picture quality at the expense of longer exposure times. Security application is a potential field for Lippmann photographs as well as optical filters. Another advantage is that no expensive equipment, such as lasers, is needed to explore this photographic recording technique; only a modified camera is required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e001001.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e001001.html"><span>Satellite Sees a Hyperactive Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-12-08</p> <p>Although there's only one formed tropical cyclone in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Hurricane Cristobal, there are three other developing areas of low pressure and all were captured in this panoramic image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite today at 8 a.m. EDT. Cristobal is a hurricane located east of the U.S. East coast and is forecast to move up toward eastern Canada tonight (and stay off-shore). The image was made at NASA's GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Low #1. A weak area of low pressure near the coast of South Texas is producing disorganized showers and thunderstorms. Significant development of this system is unlikely before it moves inland over South Texas and northern Mexico today. It has a ten percent chance of development into a tropical depression in the next 2 days. Low #2. A tropical wave located over the eastern Caribbean Sea continues to produce disorganized cloudiness and showers. Upper-level winds are expected to remain unfavorable for development during the next couple of days while the system moves across the eastern and central Caribbean Sea. However, environmental conditions could become conducive for some development when the system moves over the northwestern Caribbean Sea on Sunday and into the southwestern Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">early</span> next week. It has a near zero chance to develop in the next 2 days. Low #3. A tropical wave is forecast to move off the west coast of Africa on Friday. Environmental conditions could be conducive for some gradual development of this system while it moves westward at 10 to 15 mph across the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">early</span> next week. This has a near zero chance of development in the next two days. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e001000.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e001000.html"><span>Satellite Sees a Hyperactive Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> [annotated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-08-28</p> <p>Although there's only one formed tropical cyclone in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Hurricane Cristobal, there are three other developing areas of low pressure and all were captured in this panoramic image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite today at 8 a.m. EDT. Cristobal is a hurricane located east of the U.S. East coast and is forecast to move up toward eastern Canada tonight (and stay off-shore). The image was made at NASA's GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Low #1. A weak area of low pressure near the coast of South Texas is producing disorganized showers and thunderstorms. Significant development of this system is unlikely before it moves inland over South Texas and northern Mexico today. It has a ten percent chance of development into a tropical depression in the next 2 days. Low #2. A tropical wave located over the eastern Caribbean Sea continues to produce disorganized cloudiness and showers. Upper-level winds are expected to remain unfavorable for development during the next couple of days while the system moves across the eastern and central Caribbean Sea. However, environmental conditions could become conducive for some development when the system moves over the northwestern Caribbean Sea on Sunday and into the southwestern Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">early</span> next week. It has a near zero chance to develop in the next 2 days. Low #3. A tropical wave is forecast to move off the west coast of Africa on Friday. Environmental conditions could be conducive for some gradual development of this system while it moves westward at 10 to 15 mph across the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">early</span> next week. This has a near zero chance of development in the next two days. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...163..119J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...163..119J"><span>Annual changes in Arctic fjord environment and <span class="hlt">modern</span> benthic foraminiferal fauna: Evidence from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jernas, Patrycja; Klitgaard-Kristensen, Dorthe; Husum, Katrine; Koç, Nalan; Tverberg, Vigdis; Loubere, Paul; Prins, Maarten; Dijkstra, Noortje; Gluchowska, Marta</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>The relationships between <span class="hlt">modern</span> Arctic benthic foraminifera and their ecological controls, along with their sensitivity to rapid environmental changes, is still poorly understood. This study examines how <span class="hlt">modern</span> benthic foraminifera respond to annual environmental changes in the glaciated Arctic fjord Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard. Large environmental gradients due to the inflow of warm and saline <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water and the influence of tidewater glaciers characterise the fjord hydrography. A transect of six multi-corer stations, from the inner to the outer fjord, was sampled in the late summers of 2005 to 2008 to study the distribution of living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera. Physical properties of the water masses were measured concurrently. In general, nearly the entire Kongsfjorden region was dominated by ubiquitous N. labradorica foraminiferal assemblage that successfully exploited the local food resources and thrived particularly well in the presence of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-derived Transformed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water (TAW). Further, the annual investigation revealed that Kongsfjorden underwent large interannual hydrological changes during the studied years related to variable inflow of warm and saline <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water. This led to a strong fauna variability particularly at the two marginal sites: the glacially influenced inner fjord and marine influenced shelf region. We also observed significant species shift from the 'cold' to 'warm' years and an expansion of widespread and sub-arctic to boreal species into the fjord.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....8490H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....8490H"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> carbonate mound systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henriet, J. P.; Dullo, C.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Carbonate mounds are prominent features throughout the geological record. In many hydrocarbon provinces, they form prime reservoir structures. But recent investigations have increasingly reported occurrences of large mound clusters at the surface of the seabed, or buried at shallow depth on <span class="hlt">modern</span> ocean margins, and in particular in basins rich in hydrocarbons. Such exciting new observations along the West-European margin are promising for elucidating the setting and environment of <span class="hlt">modern</span> carbonate mounds, but at the same time they confront us with puzzling or sometimes contradictory observations in the quest for their genesis. Spectacular cold-water coral communities have colonized such mounds, but convincing arguments for recognizing them as prime builders are still lacking. The geological record provides ample evidence of microbial mediation in mound build-up and stabilisation, but as long as mound drilling is lacking, we have no opportunity to verify the role of such processes and identify the key actors in the earliest stage of onset and development of <span class="hlt">modern</span> mounds. Some evidence from the past record and from present very-high resolution observations in the shallow seabed suggest an initial control by fluid venting, and fluid migration pathways have been imaged or are tentatively reconstructed by modelling in the concerned basins, but the ultimate link in the shallow subsurface seems still to elude a large part of our efforts. Surface sampling and analyses of both corals and surface sediments have largely failed in giving any conclusive evidence of present-day or recent venting in the considered basins. But on the other hand, applying rigourously the interpretational keys derived from e.g. Porcupine Seabight settings off NW Ireland on brand new prospective settings e.g. on the Moroccan margin have resulted in the discovery of totally new mound settings, in the middle of a field of giant, active mud volcanoes. Keys are apparently working, but we still do not</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NatCC...8..493M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NatCC...8..493M"><span>Model tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> biases underpin diminished Pacific decadal variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGregor, Shayne; Stuecker, Malte F.; Kajtar, Jules B.; England, Matthew H.; Collins, Mat</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Pacific trade winds have displayed unprecedented strengthening in recent decades1. This strengthening has been associated with east Pacific sea surface cooling2 and the <span class="hlt">early</span> twenty-first-century slowdown in global surface warming2,3, amongst a host of other substantial impacts4-9. Although some climate models produce the timing of these recently observed trends10, they all fail to produce the trend magnitude2,11,12. This may in part be related to the apparent model underrepresentation of low-frequency Pacific Ocean variability and decadal wind trends2,11-13 or be due to a misrepresentation of a forced response1,14-16 or a combination of both. An increasingly prominent connection between the Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basins has been identified as a key driver of this strengthening of the Pacific trade winds12,17-20. Here we use targeted climate model experiments to show that combining the recent <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming trend with the typical climate model bias leads to a substantially underestimated response for the Pacific Ocean wind and surface temperature. The underestimation largely stems from a reduction and eastward shift of the atmospheric heating response to the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming trend. This result suggests that the recent Pacific trends and model decadal variability may be better captured by models with improved mean-state climatologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS22C..05N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS22C..05N"><span>Pb isotope signatures in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: initial results from the U.S. GEOTRACES North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Transect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noble, A.; Echegoyen-Sanz, Y.; Boyle, E. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This study presents Pb isotope data from the US GEOTRACES North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Transect (US-GT-NAT) sampled during two cruises that took place during Fall 2010 and 2011. Almost all of the Pb in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> ocean is derived from anthropogenic sources, and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> has received major Pb inputs from the United States and Europe due to emissions from leaded gasoline and high temperature industrial processes. During the past three decades, Pb fluxes to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have decreased following the phasing out of leaded gasoline in the United States and Europe. Following the concentrations and isotope ratios of Pb in this basin over time reveals the temporal evolution of Pb in this highly-affected basin. The Pb isotope signatures reflect the relative importance of changing inputs from the United States and Europe as leaded gasoline was phased out faster in the United States relative to Europe. In the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, a shallow (~100-200m) low Pb-206/Pb-207 ratio feature was observed near the Subtropical Underwater salinity peak at many stations across the transect, coincident with shallow subsurface maxima in Pb concentration. This water mass originates from high-salinity surface water near 25°N (Defant), which is in the belt of European-Pb-gas-contaminated African aerosols, which we confirmed by Pb-206/Pb-207 ~ 1.17 from upper ocean samples from US-GT-NAT station 18 (23.24degN,38.04degW). At the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge station, Pb scavenging onto iron oxides and sulfide was observed by a decrease in Pb concentrations within the TAG hydrothermal plume, although the isotopic signature within the plume was slightly (~3 permil) lower than the surrounding waters possibly indicating a small contribution of hydrothermal Pb or preferential uptake of the lighter isotope. In the Mediteranean Outflow plume near Lisbon, Pb-206/Pb-207 (~1.178) is also strongly influenced by European Pb. Further results from the section will be presented as more data will be available by the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.216H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.216H"><span>Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoceanography that favoured the cooling of the climate and culminated in the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The basis for the development of the <span class="hlt">modern</span> deepwater circulation pattern, e.g. thermohaline circulation, was hereby established. Tectonic events played a key role in the progressing Miocene oceanography, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990) and the possible linked changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation (Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. Within this study, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 12 Ma, when NADW production increased (e.g. Wright et al. 1992), we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts. This might be related to enhanced productivity or to better carbonate preservation. At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input occurs. This could be a signal for the initiation of the Amazon River as a transcontinental river with the development of the Amazon fan (11.8 - 11.3 Ma; Figueiredo et al. 2009) in relation to Andean tectonism. References: Duque-Caro, H. (1990): Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and palebiology in Northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/417968-modernizing-sports-facilities','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/417968-modernizing-sports-facilities"><span><span class="hlt">Modernizing</span> sports facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dustin, R.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Modernization</span> and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team tomore » meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Th%26Ae..19..663N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Th%26Ae..19..663N"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> problems of thermodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Novikov, I. I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to <span class="hlt">modern</span> electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015325','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015325"><span>15N/14N variations in Cretaceous <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sedimentary sequences: implication for past changes in marine nitrogen biogeochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rau, G.H.; Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>At two locations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (DSDP Sites 367 and 530) <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Cretaceous organic-carbon-rich beds ("black shales") were found to have significantly lower ??15N values (lower 15N/14N ratios) than adjacent organic-carbon-poor beds (white limestones or green claystones). While these lithologies are of marine origin, the black strata in particular have ??15N values that are significantly lower than those previously found in the marine sediment record and most contemporary marine nitrogen pools. In contrast, black, organic-carbon-rich beds at a third site (DSDP Site 603) contain predominantly terrestrial organic matter and have C- and N-isotopic compositions similar to organic matter of <span class="hlt">modern</span> terrestrial origin. The recurring 15N depletion in the marine-derived Cretaceous sequences prove that the nitrogen they contain is the end result of an episodic and atypical biogeochemistry. Existing isotopic and other data indicate that the low 15N relative abundance is the consequence of pelagic rather than post-depositional processes. Reduced ocean circulation, increased denitrification, and, hence, reduced euphotic zone nitrate availability may have led to Cretaceous phytoplankton assemblages that were periodically dominated by N2-fixing blue-green algae, a possible source of this sediment 15N-depletion. Lack of parallel isotopic shifts in Cretaceous terrestrially-derived nitrogen (Site 603) argues that the above change in nitrogen cycling during this period did not extend beyond the marine environment. ?? 1987.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/897995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/897995"><span>Climate Change in Lowland Central America During the Late Deglacial and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hillesheim, M B; Hodell, D A; Leyden, B W</p> <p>2005-02-08</p> <p>The transition from arid glacial to moist <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene conditions represented a profound change in northern lowland Neotropical climate. Here we report a detailed record of changes in moisture availability during the latter part of this transition ({approx}11,250 to 7,500 cal yr BP) inferred from sediment cores retrieved in Lake Peten Itza, northern Guatemala. Pollen assemblages demonstrate that a mesic forest had been largely established by {approx}11,250 cal yr BP, but sediment properties indicate that lake level was more than 35 m below <span class="hlt">modern</span> stage. From 11,250 to 10,350 cal yr BP, during the Preboreal period, lithologic changes in sedimentsmore » from deep-water cores (>50 m below <span class="hlt">modern</span> water level) indicate several wet-dry cycles that suggest distinct changes in effective moisture. Four dry events (designated PBE1-4) occurred at 11,200, 10,900, 10,700, and 10,400 cal yr BP and correlate with similar variability observed in the Cariaco Basin titanium record and glacial meltwater pulses into the Gulf of Mexico. After 10,350 cal yr BP, multiple sediment proxies suggest a shift to a more persistently moist <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene climate. Comparison of results from Lake Peten Itza with other records from the circum-Caribbean demonstrates a coherent climate response during the entire span of our record. Furthermore, lowland Neotropical climate during the late deglacial and <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene period appears to be tightly linked to climate change in the high-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. We speculate that the observed changes in lowland Neotropical precipitation were related to the intensity of the annual cycle and associated displacements in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and Azores-Bermuda high-pressure system. This mechanism operated on millennial-to-submillennial timescales and may have responded to changes in solar radiation, glacial meltwater, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea ice, and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (MOC).« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29864147','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29864147"><span>Phytoliths as an indicator of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans plant gathering strategies, fire fuel and site occupation intensity during the Middle Stone Age at Pinnacle Point 5-6 (south coast, South Africa).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Esteban, Irene; Marean, Curtis W; Fisher, Erich C; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Cabanes, Dan; Albert, Rosa M</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The study of plant remains in archaeological sites, along with a better understanding of the use of plants by prehistoric populations, can help us shed light on changes in survival strategies of hunter-gatherers and consequent impacts on <span class="hlt">modern</span> human cognition, social organization, and technology. The archaeological locality of Pinnacle Point (Mossel Bay, South Africa) includes a series of coastal caves, rock-shelters, and open-air sites with human occupations spanning the Acheulian through Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA). These sites have provided some of the earliest evidence for complex human behaviour and technology during the MSA. We used phytoliths-amorphous silica particles that are deposited in cells of plants-as a proxy for the reconstruction of past human plant foraging strategies on the south coast of South Africa during the Middle and Late Pleistocene, emphasizing the use and control of fire as well as other possible plant uses. We analysed sediment samples from the different occupation periods at the rock shelter Pinnacle Point 5-6 North (PP5-6N). We also present an overview of the taphonomic processes affecting phytolith preservation in this site that will be critical to conduct a more reliable interpretation of the original plant use in the rock shelter. Our study reports the first evidence of the intentional gathering and introduction into living areas of plants from the Restionaceae family by MSA hunter-gatherers inhabiting the south coast of South Africa. We suggest that humans inhabiting Pinnacle Point during short-term occupation events during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 built fast fires using mainly grasses with some wood from trees and/or shrubs for specific purposes, perhaps for shellfish cooking. With the onset of MIS 4 we observed a change in the plant gathering strategies towards the intentional and intensive exploitation of dry wood to improve, we hypothesise, combustion for heating silcrete. This human behaviour is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5986156','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5986156"><span>Phytoliths as an indicator of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans plant gathering strategies, fire fuel and site occupation intensity during the Middle Stone Age at Pinnacle Point 5-6 (south coast, South Africa)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marean, Curtis W.; Fisher, Erich C.; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Albert, Rosa M.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The study of plant remains in archaeological sites, along with a better understanding of the use of plants by prehistoric populations, can help us shed light on changes in survival strategies of hunter-gatherers and consequent impacts on <span class="hlt">modern</span> human cognition, social organization, and technology. The archaeological locality of Pinnacle Point (Mossel Bay, South Africa) includes a series of coastal caves, rock-shelters, and open-air sites with human occupations spanning the Acheulian through Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA). These sites have provided some of the earliest evidence for complex human behaviour and technology during the MSA. We used phytoliths—amorphous silica particles that are deposited in cells of plants—as a proxy for the reconstruction of past human plant foraging strategies on the south coast of South Africa during the Middle and Late Pleistocene, emphasizing the use and control of fire as well as other possible plant uses. We analysed sediment samples from the different occupation periods at the rock shelter Pinnacle Point 5–6 North (PP5-6N). We also present an overview of the taphonomic processes affecting phytolith preservation in this site that will be critical to conduct a more reliable interpretation of the original plant use in the rock shelter. Our study reports the first evidence of the intentional gathering and introduction into living areas of plants from the Restionaceae family by MSA hunter-gatherers inhabiting the south coast of South Africa. We suggest that humans inhabiting Pinnacle Point during short-term occupation events during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 built fast fires using mainly grasses with some wood from trees and/or shrubs for specific purposes, perhaps for shellfish cooking. With the onset of MIS 4 we observed a change in the plant gathering strategies towards the intentional and intensive exploitation of dry wood to improve, we hypothesise, combustion for heating silcrete. This human behaviour</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089381&hterms=Biosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBiosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089381&hterms=Biosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBiosphere"><span>Earth's <span class="hlt">early</span> biosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Des Marais, D. J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Understanding our own <span class="hlt">early</span> biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very <span class="hlt">early</span> and rocky planets shared similar <span class="hlt">early</span> histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very <span class="hlt">early</span>. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the <span class="hlt">modern</span> global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our <span class="hlt">modern</span> biosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ECSS...78..369V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ECSS...78..369V"><span>Organic waste impact of capture-based <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna aquaculture at an exposed site in the Mediterranean Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vezzulli, Luigi; Moreno, Mariapaola; Marin, Valentina; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Bartoli, Marco; Fabiano, Mauro</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>A variety of pelagic and benthic parameters were measured at an aquaculture farm used for the fattening of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) which is located at an exposed site (700 m from the coast, average bottom depth of 45 m and average current speed of 6 cm s -1) in the Mediterranean Sea. The objective was to test whether <span class="hlt">modern</span> off-shore tuna fattening industries can exert a sustainable organic waste impact on the receiving environment as has been reported for the offshore culture of more traditional Mediterranean species such as sparids. In the water column, the concentration of phytopigments, organic matter, heterotrophic bacteria and the taxonomic abundance of mesozooplankton (at the species level) were assessed. In the sediment, we assessed the concentration of reduced sulphur pools, phytopigments, organic matter, heterotrophic bacteria and the taxonomic abundance of meiofauna (at the taxa level) and nematodes (at the genus level). For most parameters, we found no substantial differences between farm and control sites. Deviations of farm values from control values, when they occurred, were small and did not indicate any significant impact on either the pelagic and benthic environment. Deviations were more apparent in the benthic compartment where lower redox potential values, higher bacterial production rates and a change in nematode genus composition pointed out to <span class="hlt">early</span> changes in the sediment's metabolism. In addition, indigenous potential pathogenic bacteria showed higher concentration at the fish farm stations and were a warning of an undesirable event that may become established following aquaculture practice in oligotrophic environments. The overall data from this study provide extensive experimental evidence to support the sustainability of <span class="hlt">modern</span> offshore farming technology in minimizing the hypertrophic-dystrophic risks associated with the rapidly-expanding tuna-fattening industry in the Mediterranean Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246635&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=oceanography&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246635&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=oceanography&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Ecosystem Effects of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Multidecadal variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydra&id=EJ939024','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydra&id=EJ939024"><span>The Red <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weaver, Jace</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The development of David Armitage's "white <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006296','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006296"><span>GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The specific objective of the meeting was to plan an experiment in the Northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to study the marine ecosystem and its role, together with that of climate and physical dynamics, in determining fisheries recruitment. The underlying focus of the GLOBEC initiative is to understand the marine ecosystem as it related to marine living resources and to understand how fluctuation in these resources are driven by climate change and exploitation. In this sense the goal is a solid scientific program to provide basic information concerning major fisheries stocks and the environment that sustains them. The plan is to attempt to reach this understanding through a multidisciplinary program that brings to bear new techniques as disparate as numerical fluid dynamic models of ocean circulation, molecular biology and <span class="hlt">modern</span> acoustic imaging. The effort will also make use of the massive historical data sets on fisheries and the state of the climate in a coordinated manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/181947-origin-northern-atlantic-heinrich-events','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/181947-origin-northern-atlantic-heinrich-events"><span>Origin of the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic`s</span> Heinrich events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Broecker, W.; Bond, G.; Klas, M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>As first noted by Heinrich, 1988, glacial age sediments in the eastern part of the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> contain layers with unusually high ratios of ice-rafted lithic fragments of foraminifera shells. He estimated that these layers are spaced at intervals of roughly 10000 years. In this paper we present detailed information documenting the existence of the upper five of these layers in ODP core 609 from 50{degrees}N and 24{degrees}W. Their ages are respectively 15000 radiocarbon years, 20000 radiocarbon years, 27000 radiocarbon years, about 40000 years, and about 50000 years. We also note that the high lithic fragment to foram ratio ismore » the result of a near absence of shells in these layers. Although we are not of one mind regarding the origin of these layers, we lean toward an explanation that the Heinrich layers are debris released during the melting of massive influxes of icebergs into the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These sudden inputs may be the result of surges along the eastern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..153..192H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..153..192H"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene deglaciation of Drangajökull, Vestfirðir, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harning, David J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Zalzal, Kate</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The status of Icelandic ice caps during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene provides important constraints on North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate and the mechanisms behind natural climate variability. A recent study postulates that Drangajökull on Vestfirðir, Iceland, persisted through the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM, 7.9-5.5 ka) and may be a relic from the last glacial period. We test this hypothesis with a suite of sediment cores from threshold lakes both proximal and distal to the ice cap's <span class="hlt">modern</span> margin. Distal lakes document rapid <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene deglaciation from the coast and across the highlands south of the glacier. Sediment from Skorarvatn, a lake to the north of Drangajökull, shows that the northern margin of the ice cap reached a size comparable to its contemporary limit by ∼10.3 ka. Two southeastern lakes with catchments extending well beneath <span class="hlt">modern</span> Drangajökull confirm that by ∼9.2 ka, the ice cap was reduced to ∼20% of its current area. A continuous 10.3ka record of biological productivity from Skorarvatn's sediment indicates local peak warmth occurred between 9 and 6.9 ka. The combination of warm and dry summers on Vestfirðir suggests that Drangajökull very likely melted completely shortly after 9.2 ka, similar to most other Icelandic ice caps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP11A2001W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP11A2001W"><span>A Critical Test of Nd isotopes as a Paleocirculation Proxy in the Southwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Y.; Goldstein, S. L.; Pena, L.; Hartman, A. E.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; de Baar, H. J. W.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The application of Nd isotopes as a paleo-ocean circulation tracer assumes that Nd isotope ratios (ɛNd) effectively fingerprint different water masses and approximate expected values from water mass mixing. The Southwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, with the major water masses involved in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Ocean Circulation (southward flowing North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water, northward flowing Antarctic Intermediate Water and Antarctic Bottom Water), is one of the best places on Earth to evaluate how well Nd isotope ratios act like a conservative water mass tracer in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> ocean. Seawater profiles and core-top sediments from 17 stations were sampled in the Southwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional GEOTRACES cruise (GA02 Leg 3; RRS James Cook 057) between Tierra del Fuego and the Equator. Along the cruise track, along with the possibility of "boundary exchange", there are several additional potential sources that could add external Nd to seawater and disturb the "quasi-conservative" behavior of ɛNd. For example, it transects the continental shelf in the far south, the Rio Grande Rise, volcanic seamounts, and the major geological age boundaries of South America. It also crosses the major Southern Hemisphere wind zones, allowing us to test the impacts of eolian dust input, as well as inputs from major rivers. Our results on seawater ɛNd show strikingly that the Southwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> transect confirms "quasi-conservative" behavior of ɛNd in intermediate and deep water. Shallow depths show local impacts but these are not transferred to intermediate and deep water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=peter&pg=5&id=EJ976318','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=peter&pg=5&id=EJ976318"><span>Dialogue on <span class="hlt">Modernity</span> and <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Education in Dispute</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of <span class="hlt">modernity</span> and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on <span class="hlt">modernity</span> held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186595','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186595"><span>The <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> salmon: Genetics, conservation and management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Verspoor, Eric; Stradmeyer, Lee; Nielsen, Jennifer L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Salmon is a cultural icon throughout its North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> range; it is the focus of probably the World’s highest profile recreational fishery and is the basis for one of the World’s largest aquaculture industries. Despite this, many wild stocks of salmon are in decline and underpinning this is a dearth of information on the nature and extent of population structuring and adaptive population differentiation, and its implications for species conservation.This important new book will go a long way to rectify this situation by providing a thorough review of the genetics of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon. Sponsored by the European Union and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Salmon Trust, this book comprises the work of an international team of scientists, carefully integrated and edited to provide a landmark book of vital interest to all those working with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28324598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28324598"><span>Introduction to <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Methods in Light Microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, Joel; Gerhold, Abby R; Boudreau, Vincent; Smith, Lydia; Maddox, Paul S</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>For centuries, light microscopy has been a key method in biological research, from the <span class="hlt">early</span> work of Robert Hooke describing biological organisms as cells, to the latest in live-cell and single-molecule systems. Here, we introduce some of the key concepts related to the development and implementation of <span class="hlt">modern</span> microscopy techniques. We briefly discuss the basics of optics in the microscope, super-resolution imaging, quantitative image analysis, live-cell imaging, and provide an outlook on active research areas pertaining to light microscopy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29643484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29643484"><span>Anomalously weak Labrador Sea convection and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning during the past 150 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thornalley, David J R; Oppo, Delia W; Ortega, Pablo; Robson, Jon I; Brierley, Chris M; Davis, Renee; Hall, Ian R; Moffa-Sanchez, Paola; Rose, Neil L; Spooner, Peter T; Yashayaev, Igor; Keigwin, Lloyd D</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a system of ocean currents that has an essential role in Earth's climate, redistributing heat and influencing the carbon cycle 1, 2 . The AMOC has been shown to be weakening in recent years 1 ; this decline may reflect decadal-scale variability in convection in the Labrador Sea, but short observational datasets preclude a longer-term perspective on the <span class="hlt">modern</span> state and variability of Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC 1, 3-5 . Here we provide several lines of palaeo-oceanographic evidence that Labrador Sea deep convection and the AMOC have been anomalously weak over the past 150 years or so (since the end of the Little Ice Age, LIA, approximately AD 1850) compared with the preceding 1,500 years. Our palaeoclimate reconstructions indicate that the transition occurred either as a predominantly abrupt shift towards the end of the LIA, or as a more gradual, continued decline over the past 150 years; this ambiguity probably arises from non-AMOC influences on the various proxies or from the different sensitivities of these proxies to individual components of the AMOC. We suggest that enhanced freshwater fluxes from the Arctic and Nordic seas towards the end of the LIA-sourced from melting glaciers and thickened sea ice that developed earlier in the LIA-weakened Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC. The lack of a subsequent recovery may have resulted from hysteresis or from twentieth-century melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet 6 . Our results suggest that recent decadal variability in Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC has occurred during an atypical, weak background state. Future work should aim to constrain the roles of internal climate variability and <span class="hlt">early</span> anthropogenic forcing in the AMOC weakening described here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5276452-fracture-zones-equatorial-atlantic-breakup-western-pangea','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5276452-fracture-zones-equatorial-atlantic-breakup-western-pangea"><span>Fracture zones in the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the breakup of western Pangea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jones, E.J.W.</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">early</span> breakup of western Pangea has been investigated by mapping the pattern of fracture zones and distribution of seismic reflectors within the sedimentary cover of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> between the Cape Verde Islands and the equator. Two distinct sets of transverse oceanic lineaments are present, separated by the Guinea Fracture Zone near lat 10/sup 0/N. Lineaments to the north are associated with the formation of the central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in the Late Jurassic and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous; those in the south relate to the Cretaceous opening of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The Guinea Fracture Zone is thus the conjugate of the Jurassic transformmore » boundary under peninsular Florida, which linked the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with the Gulf of Mexico. The distribution of dated seismic reflectors suggests that deposition of deep-water sediments was confined to the region north of the Guinea transform until Aptian time, when the Sierra Leone Basin began to open. The latter started to widen at least 15 m.y. after the initiation of the Cape Basin off southwest Africa, an age difference that can be explained if a short-lived plate boundary developed in either Africa or South America during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous. Neither the trends of the equatorial fracture zones nor the seismic stratigraphy supports the existence of a predrift gap between west Africa and Brazil.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5054P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5054P"><span>Why different gas flux velocity parameterizations result in so similar flux results in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piskozub, Jacek; Wróbel, Iwona</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is a crucial region for both ocean circulation and the carbon cycle. Most of ocean deep waters are produced in the basin making it a large CO2 sink. The region, close to the major oceanographic centres has been well covered with cruises. This is why we have performed a study of net CO2 flux dependence upon the choice of gas transfer velocity k parameterization for this very region: the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> including European Arctic Seas. The study has been a part of a ESA funded OceanFlux GHG Evolution project and, at the same time, a PhD thesis (of I.W) funded by Centre of Polar Studies "POLAR-KNOW" (a project of the Polish Ministry of Science). <span class="hlt">Early</span> results have been presented last year at EGU 2015 as a PICO presentation EGU2015-11206-1. We have used FluxEngine, a tool created within an earlier ESA funded project (OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases) to calculate the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and global fluxes with different gas transfer velocity formulas. During the processing of the data, we have noticed that the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> results for different k formulas are more similar (in the sense of relative error) that global ones. This was true both for parameterizations using the same power of wind speed and when comparing wind squared and wind cubed parameterizations. This result was interesting because North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> winds are stronger than the global average ones. Was the flux result similarity caused by the fact that the parameterizations were tuned to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> area where many of the <span class="hlt">early</span> cruises measuring CO2 fugacities were performed? A closer look at the parameterizations and their history showed that not all of them were based on North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> data. Some of them were tuned to the South Ocean with even stronger winds while some were based on global budgets of 14C. However we have found two reasons, not reported before in the literature, for North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> fluxes being more similar than global ones for different gas transfer velocity parametrizations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AcPPB..36.2887S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AcPPB..36.2887S"><span>Zeno Meets <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silagadze, Z. K.</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>``No one has ever touched Zeno without refuting him''. We will not refute Zeno in this paper. Instead we review some unexpected encounters of Zeno with <span class="hlt">modern</span> science. The paper begins with a brief biography of Zeno of Elea followed by his famous paradoxes of motion. Reflections on continuity of space and time lead us to Banach and Tarski and to their celebrated paradox, which is in fact not a paradox at all but a strict mathematical theorem, although very counterintuitive. Quantum mechanics brings another flavour in Zeno paradoxes. Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects are really paradoxical but now experimental facts. Then we discuss supertasks and bifurcated supertasks. The concept of localisation leads us to Newton and Wigner and to interesting phenomenon of quantum revivals. At last we note that the paradoxical idea of timeless universe, defended by Zeno and Parmenides at ancient times, is still alive in quantum gravity. The list of references that follows is necessarily incomplete but we hope it will assist interested reader to fill in details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020070374&hterms=building+codes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbuilding%2Bcodes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020070374&hterms=building+codes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbuilding%2Bcodes"><span>Legacy Code <span class="hlt">Modernization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code <span class="hlt">Modernization</span>") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP31A2014R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP31A2014R"><span>Carbon and Neodymium Isotopic Fingerprints of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Ocean Circulation During the Warm Pliocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riesselman, C. R.; Scher, H.; Robinson, M. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Bell, D. B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Earth's future climate may resemble the mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, a time when global temperatures were sustained within the range predicted for the coming century. Surface and deep water temperature reconstructions and coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model simulations by the USGS PRISM (Pliocene Research Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) Group identify a dramatic North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warm surface temperature anomaly in the mid-Piacenzian (3.264 - 3.025 Ma), accompanied by increased evaporation. The anomaly is detected in deep waters at 46°S, suggesting enhanced meridional overturning circulation and more southerly penetration of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) during the PRISM interval. However deep water temperature proxies are not diagnostic of water mass and some coupled model simulations predict transient decreases in NADW production in the 21st century, presenting a contrasting picture of future climate. We present a new multi-proxy investigation of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep ocean circulation during the warm mid-Piacenzian, using δ13C of benthic foraminifera as a proxy for water mass age and the neodymium isotopic composition of fossil fish teeth (ɛNd) as a proxy for water mass source and mixing. This reconstruction utilizes both new and previously published data from DSDP and ODP cores along equatorial (Ceara Rise), southern mid-latitude (Walvis Ridge), and south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Meteor Rise/Agulhas Ridge) depth transects. Additional end-member sites in the regions of <span class="hlt">modern</span> north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Southern Ocean deep water formation provide a Pliocene baseline for comparison. δ13C throughout the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin is remarkably homogenous during the PRISM interval. δ13C values of Cibicidoides spp. and C. wuellerstorfi largely range between 0‰ and 1‰ at North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, shallow equatorial, southern mid-latitude, and south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sites with water depths from 2000-4700 m; both depth and latitudinal gradients are generally small (~0.3‰). However, equatorial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JCli...11..551B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JCli...11..551B"><span>The Relationships between Tropical Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and Northeast Brazil Monthly Precipitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Repelli, Carlos A.; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Kushnir, Yochanan</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>The monthly patterns of northeast Brazil (NEB) precipitation are analyzed in relation to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans, using singular value decomposition. It is found that the relationships between precipitation and SST in both basins vary considerably throughout the rainy season (February-May). In January, equatorial Pacific SST is weakly correlated with precipitation in small areas of southern NEB, but <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST shows no significant correlation with regional precipitation. In February, Pacific SST is not well related to precipitation, but south equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST is positively correlated with precipitation over the northern Nordeste, the latter most likely reflecting an anomalously <span class="hlt">early</span> (or late) southward migration of the ITCZ precipitation zone. During March, equatorial Pacific SST is negatively correlated with Nordeste precipitation, but no consistent relationship between precipitation and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST is found. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are the strongest found among all months or either ocean. Precipitation in the Nordeste is positively correlated with SST in the south tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and negatively correlated with SST in the north tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These relationships are strong enough to determine the structure of the seasonal mean SST-precipitation correlations, even though the corresponding patterns for the earlier months of the season are quite different. Pacific SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are similar to those for March. Extreme wet (dry) years for the Nordeste occur when both Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST patterns for April and May occur simultaneously. A separate analysis reinforces previous findings in showing that SST in the tropical Pacific and the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are positively correlated and that tropical Pacific-south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> correlations are negligible.Time-lagged analyses show the potential for forecasting either seasonal mean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.V34B..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.V34B..03M"><span>The Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Magmatic Province (CAMP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marzoli, A.; Callegaro, S.; Davies, J.; Chiaradia, M.; Reisberg, L. C.; Merle, R.; Jourdan, F.; Bertrand, H.; Youbi, N.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Basaltic lava flows, dykes, sills, and layered intrusion of the CAMP (Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> magmatic province) crop out in Europe, Africa, North and South America over > 10 million square km, making this one of Earth's largest igneous provinces. CAMP is characterized by 100-400 m thick preserved lava piles and by huge shallow intrusions (e.g., > 1.5 million cubic km sills). Magmatism occurred mainly between 201.6 and 201.1 Ma (according to U-Pb and Ar/Ar ages) during the end-Triassic extinction event and a few Ma before break-up of Pangea. Pulsed emplacement seems consistent with high-precision geochronology, but needs further confirmation. All over the province, basalts with quite similar composition reflect a common mantle source. These basalts have low Ti contents (TiO2 ca. 1.0-1.3 wt.%), moderately enriched Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions close to the EM-II mantle end-member, and 187Os/188Os close to 0.130. We attribute these characteristics to a dominant shallow asthenospheric mantle source that was enriched by subduction-related components. Assimilation of crustal rocks generally played a minor role and rarely exceed 5-10%. Instead, assimilation of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) was instead recognized in the high-Ti basalts (TiO2> 2.0 wt.%) that were emplaced in a restricted area around the Man and Amazonian cratons (Sierra Leone, Liberia, Brazil, Guyana). The SCLM-like signature of these basalts suggests assimilation of metasomatically enriched parts of the SCLM. Also <span class="hlt">early</span> basalts emplaced north of the West African craton (Morocco, Mali) are contaminated by enriched SCLM components even if to a lesser degree, while later basalts from the same African regions have low 187Os/188Os (ca. 0.120) and probably tapped a more depleted cratonic SCLM. Calculated mantle potential temperatures are low (ca. 1450 °C) and geochemical data do not support a significant contribution from mantle-plume material. The only available He isotopic data are just slightly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4388M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4388M"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane response to geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Devastating <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6462C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6462C"><span>Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p < 0.003) was stronger than links between SSTs and either cyclones or fires alone, suggesting that fires and tropical cyclones were directly coupled to the same underlying atmospheric dynamics governing tropical moisture redistribution. These relationships help explain why seasonal outlook forecasts for hurricanes and Amazon fires both failed in 2013 and may enable the design of improved <span class="hlt">early</span> warning systems for drought and fire in Amazon forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3210604M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3210604M"><span>Thermohaline circulation at three key sections in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over 1985-2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marsh, Robert; de Cuevas, Beverly A.; Coward, Andrew C.; Bryden, Harry L.; Álvarez, Marta</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Efforts are presently underway to monitor the Thermohaline Circulation (THC) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. A measuring strategy has been designed to monitor both the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) in the subtropics and dense outflows at higher latitudes. To provide a historical context for these new observations, we diagnose an eddy-permitting ocean model simulation of the period 1985-2002. We present time series of the THC, MOC and heat transport, at key hydrographic sections in the subtropics, the northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Labrador Sea. The simulated THC compares well with observations. We find considerable variability in the THC on each section, most strikingly in the Labrador Sea during the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1990's, consistent with observed changes. Overturning in the northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> declines by ~20% over the 1990's, coincident with an increase in the subtropics. We speculate that MOC weakening may soon be detected in the subtropics, if the decline continues in mid-latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=6004610','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=6004610"><span>Large-scale Controls on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tropical Cyclone Activity on Seasonal Time Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lim, Young-Kwon; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Reale, Oreste; Molod, Andrea M.; Suarez, Max J.; Auer, Benjamin M.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Interannual variations in seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) activity (e.g., genesis frequency and location, track pattern, and landfall) over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are explored by employing observationally-constrained simulations with the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The climate modes investigated are El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO), and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Mode (AMM). The results show that the NAO and AMM can strongly modify and even oppose the well-known ENSO impacts, like in 2005, when a strong positive AMM (associated with warm SSTs and a negative SLP anomaly over the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>), led to a very active TC season with enhanced TC genesis over the Caribbean Sea and a number of landfalls over North America, under a neutral ENSO condition. On the other end, the weak TC activity during 2013 (characterized by weak negative Niño index) appears caused by a NAO-induced positive SLP anomaly with enhanced vertical wind shear over the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. During 2010, the combined impact of the three modes produced positive SST anomalies across the entire low- latitudinal <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and a weaker subtropical high, leading to more <span class="hlt">early</span> recurvers and thus fewer landfalls despite enhanced TC genesis. The study provides evidence that TC number and track are very sensitive to the relative phases and intensities of these three modes, and not just to ENSO alone. Examination of seasonal predictability reveals that predictive skill of the three modes is limited over tropics to sub-tropics, with the AMM having the highest predictability over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, followed by ENSO and NAO. PMID:29928071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002794','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002794"><span>Large-Scale Controls on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tropical Cyclone Activity on Seasonal Time Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Young-Kwon; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Reale, Oreste; Molod, Andrea M.; Suarez, Max J.; Auer, Benjamin M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Interannual variations in seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) activity (e.g., genesis frequency and location, track pattern, and landfall) over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are explored by employing observationally-constrained simulations with the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The climate modes investigated are El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO), and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Mode (AMM). The results show that the NAO and AMM can strongly modify and even oppose the well- known ENSO impacts, like in 2005, when a strong positive AMM (associated with warm SSTs and a negative SLP anomaly over the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>), led to a very active TC season with enhanced TC genesis over the Caribbean Sea and a number of landfalls over North America, under a neutral ENSO condition. On the other end, the weak TC activity during 2013 (characterized by weak negative Nio index) appears caused by a NAO-induced positive SLP anomaly with enhanced vertical wind shear over the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. During 2010, the combined impact of the three modes produced positive SST anomalies across the entire low-latitudinal <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and a weaker subtropical high, leading to more <span class="hlt">early</span> recurvers and thus fewer landfalls despite enhanced TC genesis. The study provides evidence that TC number and track are very sensitive to the relative phases and intensities of these three modes, and not just to ENSO alone. Examination of seasonal predictability reveals that predictive skill of the three modes is limited over tropics to sub-tropics, with the AMM having the highest predictability over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, followed by ENSO and NAO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nrel.gov/grid/institutional-support.html','SCIGOVWS'); return false;" href="https://www.nrel.gov/grid/institutional-support.html"><span>Institutional Support | Grid <span class="hlt">Modernization</span> | NREL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/aboutsearch.html">Science.gov Websites</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>the challenges posed by <em>grid</em> <span class="hlt">modernization</span>. Photo of two people standing in front of a display showing results from a <em>grid</em> study. The demand for objective technical assistance and information on <em>grid</em> related to <em>grid</em> <span class="hlt">modernization</span> and increasing deployment of distributed energy and renewable resources. As</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=snow+AND+volume&pg=3&id=ED181742','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=snow+AND+volume&pg=3&id=ED181742"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> Written Arabic, Volume II.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Naja, A. Nashat; Snow, James A.</p> <p></p> <p>This second volume of <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Written Arabic builds on the previous volume and is the second step designed to teach members of the Foreign Service to read the <span class="hlt">modern</span> Arabic press. The student will gain recognitional mastery of an extensive set of vocabulary items and will be more intensively exposed to wider and more complex morphological and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=molecular+AND+genetics&pg=2&id=EJ1049814','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=molecular+AND+genetics&pg=2&id=EJ1049814"><span>Mendel in the <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and <span class="hlt">modern</span> biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the <span class="hlt">modern</span> biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...165....1O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...165....1O"><span>Post-1980 shifts in the sensitivity of boreal tree growth to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics and seasonal climate. Tree growth responses to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ols, Clémentine; Trouet, Valerie; Girardin, Martin P.; Hofgaard, Annika; Bergeron, Yves; Drobyshev, Igor</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>The mid-20th century changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics, e.g. slow-down of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning thermohaline circulation (AMOC), have been considered as <span class="hlt">early</span> signs of tipping points in the Earth climate system. We hypothesized that these changes have significantly altered boreal forest growth dynamics in northeastern North America (NA) and northern Europe (NE), two areas geographically adjacent to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. To test our hypothesis, we investigated tree growth responses to seasonal large-scale oceanic and atmospheric indices (the AMOC, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO), and Arctic Oscillation (AO)) and climate (temperature and precipitation) from 1950 onwards, both at the regional and local levels. We developed a network of 6876 black spruce (NA) and 14437 Norway spruce (NE) tree-ring width series, extracted from forest inventory databases. Analyses revealed post-1980 shifts from insignificant to significant tree growth responses to summer oceanic and atmospheric dynamics both in NA (negative responses to NAO and AO indices) and NE (positive response to NAO and AMOC indices). The strength and sign of these responses varied, however, through space with stronger responses in western and central boreal Quebec and in central and northern boreal Sweden, and across scales with stronger responses at the regional level than at the local level. Emerging post-1980 associations with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics synchronized with stronger tree growth responses to local seasonal climate, particularly to winter temperatures. Our results suggest that ongoing and future anomalies in oceanic and atmospheric dynamics may impact forest growth and carbon sequestration to a greater extent than previously thought. Cross-scale differences in responses to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics highlight complex interplays in the effects of local climate and ocean-atmosphere dynamics on tree growth processes and advocate for the use of different spatial scales in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24109114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24109114"><span>A <span class="hlt">modern</span> combat trauma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Popivanov, Georgi; Mutafchiyski, V M; Belokonski, E I; Parashkevov, A B; Koutin, G L</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The world remains plagued by wars and terrorist attacks, and improvised explosive devices (IED) are the main weapons of our current enemies, causing almost two-thirds of all combat injuries. We wished to analyse the pattern of blast trauma on the <span class="hlt">modern</span> battlefield and to compare it with combat gunshot injuries. Analysis of a consecutive series of combat trauma patients presenting to two Bulgarian combat surgical teams in Afghanistan over 11 months. Demographics, injury patterns and Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were compared between blast and gunshot-injured casualties using Fisher's Exact Test. The blast victims had significantly higher median ISS (20.54 vs 9.23) and higher proportion of ISS>16 (60% vs 33.92%, p=0.008) than gunshot cases. They also had more frequent involvement of three or more body regions (47.22% vs 3.58%, p<0.0001). A significantly higher frequency of head (27.27% vs 3.57%), facial (20% vs 0%) and extremities injuries (85.45% vs 42.86%) and burns (12.72% vs 0%) was noted among the victims of explosion (p<0.0001). Based on clinical examination and diagnostic imaging, primary blast injury was identified in 24/55 (43.6%), secondary blast injury in 37 blast cases (67.3%), tertiary in 15 (27.3%) and quaternary blast injury (all burns) in seven (12.72%). Our results corroborate the 'multidimensional' injury pattern of blast trauma. The complexity of the blast trauma demands a good knowledge and a special training of the military surgeons and hospital personnel before deployment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817440B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817440B"><span>Natural and anthropogenic forcing of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone track position since 1550 A.D.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baldini, Lisa; Baldini, James; McElwaine, Jim; Frappier, Amy; Asmerom, Yemane; Liu, Kam-biu; Prufer, Keith; Ridley, Harriet; Polyak, Victor; Kennett, Douglas; Macpherson, Colin; Aquino, Valorie; Awe, Jamie; Breitenbach, Sebastian</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Over the last 30 years, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones (TC) have increased in frequency, intensity, and duration in response to rising North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SST). Here we present a 450-year record of western Caribbean TC activity reconstructed using subannually-resolved carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in a stalagmite from Yok Balum Cave, southern Belize. Western Caribbean TC activity peaked at 1650 A.D. coincident with maximum Little Ice Age cooling and decreased gradually to 1983 A.D. (the end of the record). Comparison with existing basin-wide reconstructions reveals that the dominant TC tracks corridor migrated from the western Caribbean toward the North American east coast through time. A close link with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) exists throughout the record but with a clear polarity shift in the TC-AMO relationship at 1870 A.D., coincident with industrialisation. We suggest that the cause of this reversal is Greenhouse gas and aerosol emission induced changes in the relationship between the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the Bermuda High between the <span class="hlt">modern</span> warm period and the Pre-Industrial Era. The likely impact of continued anthropogenic forcing of TC track on population centres of the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Caribbean will be addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20840427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20840427"><span>The second <span class="hlt">modern</span> condition? Compressed <span class="hlt">modernity</span> as internalized reflexive cosmopolitization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kyung-Sup, Chang</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Compressed <span class="hlt">modernity</span> is a civilizational condition in which economic, political, social and/or cultural changes occur in an extremely condensed manner in respect to both time and space, and in which the dynamic coexistence of mutually disparate historical and social elements leads to the construction and reconstruction of a highly complex and fluid social system. During what Beck considers the second <span class="hlt">modern</span> stage of humanity, every society reflexively internalizes cosmopolitanized risks. Societies (or their civilizational conditions) are thereby being internalized into each other, making compressed <span class="hlt">modernity</span> a universal feature of contemporary societies. This paper theoretically discusses compressed <span class="hlt">modernity</span> as nationally ramified from reflexive cosmopolitization, and, then, comparatively illustrates varying instances of compressed <span class="hlt">modernity</span> in advanced capitalist societies, un(der)developed capitalist societies, and system transition societies. In lieu of a conclusion, I point out the declining status of national societies as the dominant unit of (compressed) <span class="hlt">modernity</span> and the interactive acceleration of compressed <span class="hlt">modernity</span> among different levels of human life ranging from individuals to the global community. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2010.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7081485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7081485"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> Christian healing of mental illness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Favazza, A R</p> <p>1982-06-01</p> <p>Healing of mental illness through religious practices was a key element of <span class="hlt">early</span> Christianity. In the <span class="hlt">early</span> twentieth century such healing was associated with blue-collar and rural Fundamentalists, but religious healing practices have gained widespread acceptance by many middle-class, conservative Christian groups. "Evil demons" are now equated with envy, pride, avarice, hatred, and obsessions with alcohol and gambling. Many psychotherapeutic techniques of <span class="hlt">modern</span> Christian healers appear to be rediscoveries of psychoanalytic insights expressed in religious metaphors. Most responsible healers encourage clients to seek medical and psychiatric help, especially for serious mental disorders. Psychiatrists need not share patients' religious beliefs, but for treatment to be effective these beliefs must be understood and respected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13D..01O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13D..01O"><span>Deglacial Evolution of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Mid-Depth and Intermediate-Depth Water Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oppo, D.; Gebbie, G.; Huang, K. F.; Guo, W.; Schmittner, A.; Liu, Z.; Curry, W. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Deglacial variations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) feature prominently in hypotheses of deglacial climate variability and atmospheric CO2rise. However, there is lingering uncertainty in the glacial deepwater mass configuration (e.g. Gebbie, 2014) and deglacial AMOC variability is even more poorly understood. For example, the deglacial evolution of the contribution of northern and southern source waters to the middle and intermediate depths of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is still vigorously debated. Here, we evaluate the evolution of subsurface <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ventilation, emphasizing middle and intermediate depths, by comparing new and published records of water mass variability to output from transient model simulations designed to provide insight into the climatic and oceanographic effects of a dramatic reduction in the AMOC, such as apparently occurred during Heinrich Stadial 1 (Liu et al., 2009; Schmittner and Lund, 2014). Gebbie, G. (2014), How much did Glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water shoal? Paleoceanography, 29, 190-209, doi: 10.1002/2013PA002557. Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, F. He, E. Brady, R. Thomas, P. U. Clark, A. E. Carlson, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, W. Curry, E. Brook, D. Erickson, R. Jacob, J. Kutzbach, J., and J. Chen (2009), Transient climate simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bølling-Allerød warming, Science, 325, 310-314. Schmittner, A., and Lund, D. C. (submitted), Carbon Isotopes Support <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation Decline as a Trigger for <span class="hlt">Early</span> Deglacial CO2 rise Climate of the Past Discussions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13B1512V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13B1512V"><span>Tropical-Subpolar Linkages in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last Glacial Period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vautravers, M. J.; Hodell, D. A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We studied millennial-scale changes in planktonic foraminifera assemblages from the last glacial period in a high-resolution core (KN166-14-JPC13) recovered from the southern part of the Gardar Drift in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Similar to recent findings reported by Jonkers et al. (2010), we also found that the sub-polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean experienced some seasonal warming during each of the Heinrich Events (HEs). In addition, increasing abundances of tropical species are found just prior to the IRD event marking the end of each Bond cycle, suggesting that summer warming may have been involved in triggering Heinrich events. We suggest that tropical-subtropical water transported via the Gulf Stream and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Drift may have triggered the collapse of large NH ice-shelves. Sharp decreases in polar species are tied to abrupt warming following Heinrich Events as documented in Greenland Ice cores and other marine records in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The record bears a strong resemblance to the tropical record of Cariaco basin (Peterson et al., 2000), suggesting strong tropical-subpolar linkages in the glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Enhanced spring productivity, possibly related to eddy activity along the Subpolar Front, is recorded by increased shell size, high δ13C in G. bulloides and other biological indices <span class="hlt">early</span> during the transition from HE stadials to the following interstadial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18322457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18322457"><span>Genetic evidence and the <span class="hlt">modern</span> human origins debate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Relethford, J H</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>A continued debate in anthropology concerns the evolutionary origin of 'anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans' (Homo sapiens sapiens). Different models have been proposed to examine the related questions of (1) where and when anatomically <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans first appeared and (2) the genetic and evolutionary relationship between <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans and earlier human populations. Genetic data have been increasingly used to address these questions. Genetic data on living human populations have been used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the human species by considering how global patterns of human variation could be produced given different evolutionary scenarios. Of particular interest are gene trees that reconstruct the time and place of the most recent common ancestor of humanity for a given haplotype and the analysis of regional differences in genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also allowed a direct assessment of genetic variation in European Neandertals. Together with the fossil record, genetic data provide insight into the origin of <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans. The evidence points to an African origin of <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans dating back to 200,000 years followed by later expansions of <span class="hlt">moderns</span> out of Africa across the Old World. What is less clear is what happened when these <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans met preexisting 'archaic human' populations outside of Africa. At present, it is difficult to distinguish between a model of total genetic replacement and a model that includes some degree of genetic mixture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398802','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398802"><span><span class="hlt">Modern</span> retinal laser therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kozak, Igor; Luttrull, Jeffrey K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Medicinal lasers are a standard source of light to produce retinal tissue photocoagulation to treat retinovascular disease. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study and the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study were large randomized clinical trials that have shown beneficial effect of retinal laser photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy and have dictated the standard of care for decades. However, current treatment protocols undergo modifications. Types of lasers used in treatment of retinal diseases include argon, diode, dye and multicolor lasers, micropulse lasers and lasers for photodynamic therapy. Delivery systems include contact lens slit-lamp laser delivery, indirect ophthalmocope based laser photocoagulation and camera based navigated retinal photocoagulation with retinal eye-tracking. Selective targeted photocoagulation could be a future alternative to panretinal photocoagulation. PMID:25892934</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhA...3915311T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhA...3915311T"><span>BOOK REVIEW: <span class="hlt">Modern</span> Supersymmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulish, Petr P.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of <span class="hlt">modern</span> supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8985005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8985005"><span>Predictability of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Climate Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Griffies; Bryan</p> <p>1997-01-10</p> <p>Atmospheric weather systems become unpredictable beyond a few weeks, but climate variations can be predictable over much longer periods because of the coupling of the ocean and atmosphere. With the use of a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model, it is shown that the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> may have climatic predictability on the order of a decade or longer. These results suggest that variations of the dominant multidecadal sea surface temperature patterns in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which have been associated with changes in climate over Eurasia, can be predicted if an adequate and sustainable system for monitoring the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean exists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3859S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3859S"><span>Anisotropic tomography of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silveira, G.; Stutzmann, E.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>We present a regional tri-dimensional model of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge is a shallow structure in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300~km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300km depth, they are much broader that the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a North-South direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is positive down to about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA141763','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA141763"><span>Geothermal Potential of Ascension Island, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-11-05</p> <p>7AD-A141 763 GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL OF ASCENSION ISLAND SOUTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> 1/1. (U) UTAH UNIV RESEARCH IN T SALT LAKE CITY EARTH U LfIS SCIENCE LAB D L...STANDARDS 1%A A ~ 7- ESMC-TR-83-02 Geothermal Potential Of Ascension Island, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Dennis L. Nielson Bruce S. Sibbett University Of Utah...Security Classification) Geothermal Potential of Ascension Island, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dennis L. Neilson and Bruce S. Sibbett IIa TYPE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4299206','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4299206"><span>Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L.; Ruff, Christopher B.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and <span class="hlt">early</span> fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in <span class="hlt">early</span> Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a <span class="hlt">modern</span> human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/<span class="hlt">early</span> Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and <span class="hlt">early</span> Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent <span class="hlt">modern</span> human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25535354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25535354"><span>Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G</p> <p>2015-01-13</p> <p>Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and <span class="hlt">early</span> fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in <span class="hlt">early</span> Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a <span class="hlt">modern</span> human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/<span class="hlt">early</span> Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and <span class="hlt">early</span> Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent <span class="hlt">modern</span> humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent <span class="hlt">modern</span> human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6154571-sdi-atlantic-alliance','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6154571-sdi-atlantic-alliance"><span>SDI and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Alliance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lellouche, P.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Alliance was disturbed when the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was conceived and presented primarily as an American unilateral initiative, with no political or strategic consultation with the allies. It was also disturbed by the confused and contradictory objectives of SDI; i.e., its rejection of the logic of deterrence as a dangerous and unethical proposition at the same time that it reinforces the logic of mutual assured destruction (MAD). Some of the basic ambiguity is related to the technology, which remains untested. SDI's purpose is not to defend people or missiles, but to destroy weapons. The author argues thatmore » SDI threatens the survival of Europe's high tech industries and could lead to a massive transfer of NATO-related defense expenditures away from European defense and toward a defensive shield of dubious value for Europeans.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackO