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Sample records for early morning concentrations

  1. The Morning Message in Early Childhood Classrooms: Guidelines for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2011-01-01

    The Morning Message is a commonly implemented activity in early childhood settings, appearing as a part of the daily schedule in many classrooms. However, there is limited research on what are the most effective ways to use the Morning Message to promote print awareness. The goal of this paper is to present suggested guidelines for implementing…

  2. Pre-dawn stomatal opening does not substantially enhance early-morning photosynthesis in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Lisa; Easlon, Hsien M; Levine, Diedre; Donovan, Lisa; Richards, James H

    2014-06-01

    Most C3 plant species have partially open stomata during the night especially in the 3-5 h before dawn. This pre-dawn stomatal opening has been hypothesized to enhance early-morning photosynthesis (A) by reducing diffusion limitations to CO2 at dawn. We tested this hypothesis in cultivated Helianthus annuus using whole-shoot gas exchange, leaf level gas exchange and modelling approaches. One hour pre-dawn low-humidity treatments were used to reduce pre-dawn stomatal conductance (g). At the whole-shoot level, a difference of pre-dawn g (0.40 versus 0.17 mol m(-2) s(-1)) did not significantly affect A during the first hour after dawn. Shorter term effects were investigated with leaf level gas exchange measurements and a difference of pre-dawn g (0.10 versus 0.04 mol m(-2) s(-1)) affected g and A for only 5 min after dawn. The potential effects of a wider range of stomatal apertures were explored with an empirical model of the relationship between A and intercellular CO2 concentration during the half-hour after dawn. Modelling results demonstrated that even extremely low pre-dawn stomatal conductance values have only a minimal effect on early-morning A for a few minutes after dawn. Thus, we found no evidence that pre-dawn stomatal opening enhances A.

  3. View of the early morning launch of STS 41-G Challenger

    1984-10-05

    View of the early morning launch of STS 41-G Challenger. The dark launch complex is illuminated by spotlights as the orbiter begins its ascent from the pad. The light is reflected off the clouds of smoke from the orbiter's engines.

  4. The treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia with 2 evenings of bright light.

    PubMed

    Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kemp, Kristyn; Gibbon, Samantha

    2005-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of brief bright-light therapy for the treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia. Twenty-four healthy adults with early-morning awakening insomnia were assigned to either the bright-light condition (2,500-lux white light) or the control (dim red light) condition. The circadian phase of rectal temperature and urinary melatonin rhythms were assessed with 26-hour constant routines before and after 2 evenings of light therapy. Sleep and daytime functioning were monitored using sleep diaries, activity monitors, and mood scales before light therapy and for 4 weeks during the follow-up period. While there were no significant circadian phase changes in the dim-light control group, the bright-light group had significant 2-hour phase delays of circadian temperature and melatonin rhythm. Compared to pretreatment measures, over the 4-week follow-up period, the bright-light group had a greater reduction of time awake after sleep onset, showed a trend toward waking later, and had a greater increase of total sleep time. Participants in the bright-light condition also tended to report greater reductions of negative daytime symptoms, including significantly fewer days of feeling depressed at the 4-week follow-up, as compared with the control group. Two evenings of bright-light exposure phase delayed the circadian rhythms of early-morning awakening insomniacs. It also improved diary and actigraphy sleep measures and improved some indexes of daytime functioning for up to 1 month after light exposure. The study suggests that a brief course of evening bright-light therapy can be an effective treatment for early-morning awakening insomniacs who have relatively phase advanced circadian rhythms.

  5. 1-Hydroxypyrene concentrations in first morning voids and 24-h composite urine: intra- and inter-individual comparisons.

    PubMed

    Han, In-Kyu; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Hongbiao; Rhoads, George G; Wei, Fusheng; Zhang, Junfeng

    2008-09-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has been suggested as an exposure biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it remains unknown whether a first morning urine sample can be used to reflect average exposure. In this paper, we examine intra-individual differences and inter-individual associations between first morning voids and 24-h composite urine samples. The analysis was performed using data collected from 100 adults who had a wide range of PAH exposure due to differences in their occupation, e.g., coke oven workers vs. non-coke oven workers. For each subject, all the urine voids within each of two 24-h measurement periods were collected. Results showed a significant (40% to 62%) intra-individual difference between first morning voids and 24-h urinary 1-OHP concentrations (in ng/ml urine). Creatinine adjustments of 1-OHP concentrations (in micromol/mol urinary creatinine) reduced the intra-individual difference by approximately 10%. Across all the subjects, a high overall correlation (r=0.76) was observed between first morning and 24-h average 1-OHP concentrations. Work environment and sampling season were found to significantly affect the relationship between first morning and 24-h 1-OHP concentrations. An increase of 1 ng/ml of first morning urinary 1-OHP predicted an increase of 0.5 and 0.25 ng/ml of 24-h urinary 1-OHP for coke oven workers and non-coke oven workers, respectively. Data collected in a winter season showed a higher correlation between first morning and 24-h concentrations than data collected in a fall season. Creatinine adjustments did not significantly improve overall correlations between first morning void and 24-h measurements, but increased total variances for 24-h urines explained by first morning urines in coke workers.

  6. Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Abdul Hadi; Raghavendra Rao, Nidagurthi Guggilla; Avanapu, Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of present research was to develop matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam filled in capsule for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Materials and Methods: Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam were prepared by direct compression method using microsomal enzyme dependent and pH-sensitive polymers which were further filled into an empty HPMC capsule. To assess the compatibility, FT-IR and DSC studies for pure drug, polymers and their physical mixture were performed. The formulated batches were subjected to physicochemical studies, estimation of drug content, in vitro drug release, drug release kinetics, and stability studies. Results: When FTIR and DSC studies were performed it was found that there was no interaction between lornoxicam and polymers which used. All the physicochemical properties of prepared matrix-mini-tablets were found to be in normal limits. The percentage of drug content was found to be 99.60±0.07%. Our optimized matrix mini-tablets-filled-capsule formulation F30 released lornoxicam after a lag time of 5.02±0.92 hr, 95.48±0.65 % at the end of 8 hr and 99.90±0.83 % at the end of 12 hr. Stability was also found for this formulation as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Conclusion: A novel colon targeted delivery system of lornoxicam was successfully developed by filling matrix-mini-tablets into an empty HPMC capsule shell for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24967065

  7. Sudden early-morning awakening impairs immediate tactical planning in a changing 'emergency' scenario.

    PubMed

    Horne, Jim; Moseley, Robert

    2011-06-01

    This was a realistic military-type exercise assessing unexpected, abrupt early-morning awakening effects on immediate 'executive function' and the ability to comprehend and deal with a sudden emergency under a changing situation. Twenty (average age 21years) healthy, highly motivated junior officer reservists were assigned randomly to two equal, independent groups, unforewarned as to what would happen. The experimental group was woken abruptly at 03:00h (<3h sleep) and confronted immediately with a 'paper exercise' of an enemy attack, requiring a feasible plan of engagement with minimal loss of resources, to be completed within 15min. A control group slept until 07:30h; they were then presented with the identical emergency 1h later. Participants worked individually, under time pressure, receiving written information, map and other details, all containing relevant, irrelevant and misleading information. Halfway through, they were given (unexpectedly) a critical update necessitating a change of tactics. Performance was scored blind by instructors, under five categories. Eight of the experimental group versus three controls failed overall, with significant group differences on three specific categories relying on flexible decision-making: 'identification of available cover', 'use of available assets' and 'extraction of relevant from irrelevant information'. Other, logical and highly trained skills were unimpaired. Ours was a 'worst case scenario', combining short sleep, circadian 'trough' and sleep inertia, all of which differentiated the two groups, unlike typical laboratory studies. Nevertheless, it was relevant to real-life situations involving highly motivated, trained individuals making critical innovative decisions in the early morning versus the normal waking day. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Blood harmane concentrations in 497 individuals relative to coffee, cigarettes, and food consumption on the morning of testing.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gerbin, Marina; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Harmane, a potent neurotoxin linked with several neurological disorders, is present in many foods, coffee, and cigarettes. We assessed whether morning food/coffee consumption and smoking were reflected in blood harmane concentrations (BHCs) we obtained in an epidemiologic sample (n = 497). Participants who smoked on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not smoked (P = .57); there was no correlation between logBHCs and number of cigarettes (P = .59). Among the coffee drinkers, there was no correlation between number of cups and logBHCs (P = .98). Participants who had eaten on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not (P = .49); logBHCs did not correlate with the time latency between last food consumption and phlebotomy (P = .74). BHCs in this sample of ~500 individuals did not covary with recent smoking, coffee, or food consumption, suggesting that our inability to withhold these exposures on the morning of phlebotomy was not reflected in the BHCs we measured.

  9. Blood Harmane Concentrations in 497 Individuals Relative to Coffee, Cigarettes, and Food Consumption on the Morning of Testing

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gerbin, Marina; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Harmane, a potent neurotoxin linked with several neurological disorders, is present in many foods, coffee, and cigarettes. We assessed whether morning food/coffee consumption and smoking were reflected in blood harmane concentrations (BHCs) we obtained in an epidemiologic sample (n = 497). Participants who smoked on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not smoked (P = .57); there was no correlation between logBHCs and number of cigarettes (P = .59). Among the coffee drinkers, there was no correlation between number of cups and logBHCs (P = .98). Participants who had eaten on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not (P = .49); logBHCs did not correlate with the time latency between last food consumption and phlebotomy (P = .74). BHCs in this sample of ~500 individuals did not covary with recent smoking, coffee, or food consumption, suggesting that our inability to withhold these exposures on the morning of phlebotomy was not reflected in the BHCs we measured. PMID:21776263

  10. Effects of early morning nap sleep on associative memory for neutral and emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sopp, Marie Roxanne; Michael, Tanja; Mecklinger, Axel

    2018-06-18

    Emotional events are preferentially retained in episodic memory. This effect is commonly attributed to enhanced consolidation and has been linked specifically to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep physiology. While several studies have demonstrated an enhancing effect of REM sleep on emotional item memory, it has not been thoroughly explored whether this effect extends to the retention of associative memory. Moreover, it is unclear how non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep contributes to these effects. The present study thus examined associative recognition of emotional and non-emotional material across an early morning nap (N= 23) and sustained wakefulness (N= 23). Nap group subjects demonstrated enhanced post-sleep associative memory performance, which was evident across both valence categories. Subsequent analyses revealed significant correlations between NREM spindle density and pre-sleep memory performance. Moreover, NREM spindle density was positively correlated with post-sleep neutral associative memory performance but not with post-sleep emotional associative memory. Accordingly, only neutral associative memory, but not emotional associative memory, was significantly correlated with spindle density after an additional night of sleep (+24 h). These results illustrate a temporally persistent relationship between spindle density and memory for neutral associations, whereas post-sleep emotional associative memory appears to be disengaged from NREM-sleep-dependent processes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. An eleven year old boy with pain abdomen and early morning neuroparalytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Milap; Kalia, Shaurya; Sharma, Seema

    2016-08-01

    An 11 year old boy presented with pain abdomen and tenderness all over body when he got up from sleep early in the morning and subsequently had one vomiting after 30 min. He had no other significant past medical history. The child was shifted to nearby health facility where he was managed as a case of acute abdomen on the basis of suggestive history and clinical findings. Within 2 h after the onset of clinical features suggestive of acute abdomen the patient went on to develop marked ptosis and flaccid quadriplegia. The young boy underwent a sequence of clinical tests which were noncontributory. Based on the clinical picture, a differential diagnosis of hypokalemic paralysis, botulism, Miller Fischer syndrome and EMNS were considered. Through exclusion, the most probable diagnosis for the symptoms was elapid envenomation hence he was started on anti-snake venom (ASV) with working diagnosis of EMNS. Within 2 h, he began to show improvement. This recovery with ASV suggests the possibility of elapid envenomation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Orbitofrontal Gray Matter Relates to Early Morning Awakening: A Neural Correlate of Insomnia Complaints?

    PubMed Central

    Stoffers, Diederick; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen; van Tol, Marie-José; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep complaints increase profoundly with age; prevalence estimates of insomnia in the elderly reach up to 37%. The three major types of nocturnal complaints are difficulties initiating (DIS) and maintaining (DMS) sleep and early morning awakening (EMA), of which the latter appears most characteristic for aging. The neural correlates associated with these complaints have hardly been investigated, hampering the development of rational treatment and prevention. A recent study on structural brain correlates of insomnia showed that overall severity, but not duration, of insomnia complaints is associated with lower gray matter (GM) density in part of the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Following up on this, we investigated, in an independent sample of people not diagnosed with insomnia, whether individual differences in GM density are associated with differences in DIS, DMS, and EMA. Sixty five healthy participants (mean age = 41 years, range 18–56) filled out questionnaires and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Three compound Z-scores were computed for questionnaire items relating to DIS, DMS, and EMA. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate their association with GM density. Results show that participants with lower GM density in a region where the left inferior OFC borders the insula report more EMA, but not DIS or DMS. This is the first study to investigate structural brain correlates of specific sleep characteristics that can translate into complaints in insomniacs. The selective association of EMA with orbitofrontal GM density makes our findings particularly relevant to elderly people, where EMA represents the most characteristic complaint. It is hypothesized that low GM density in aforementioned orbitofrontal area affects its role in sensing comfort. An intact ability to evaluate comfort may be crucial to maintain sleep, especially at the end of the night when sleep is vulnerable because homeostatic sleep propensity has

  13. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  14. Spot sputum samples are at least as good as early morning samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael E; Phillips, Patrick P J; Mendel, Carl M; Bongard, Emily; Bateson, Anna L C; Hunt, Robert; Murthy, Saraswathi; Singh, Kasha P; Brown, Michael; Crook, Angela M; Nunn, Andrew J; Meredith, Sarah K; Lipman, Marc; McHugh, Timothy D; Gillespie, Stephen H

    2017-10-27

    The use of early morning sputum samples (EMS) to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) can result in treatment delay given the need for the patient to return to the clinic with the EMS, increasing the chance of patients being lost during their diagnostic workup. However, there is little evidence to support the superiority of EMS over spot sputum samples. In this new analysis of the REMoxTB study, we compare the diagnostic accuracy of EMS with spot samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis pre- and post-treatment. Patients who were smear positive at screening were enrolled into the study. Paired sputum samples (one EMS and one spot) were collected at each trial visit pre- and post-treatment. Microscopy and culture on solid LJ and liquid MGIT media were performed on all samples; those missing corresponding paired results were excluded from the analyses. Data from 1115 pre- and 2995 post-treatment paired samples from 1931 patients enrolled in the REMoxTB study were analysed. Patients were recruited from South Africa (47%), East Africa (21%), India (20%), Asia (11%), and North America (1%); 70% were male, median age 31 years (IQR 24-41), 139 (7%) co-infected with HIV with a median CD4 cell count of 399 cells/μL (IQR 318-535). Pre-treatment spot samples had a higher yield of positive Ziehl-Neelsen smears (98% vs. 97%, P = 0.02) and LJ cultures (87% vs. 82%, P = 0.006) than EMS, but there was no difference for positivity by MGIT (93% vs. 95%, P = 0.18). Contaminated and false-positive MGIT were found more often with EMS rather than spot samples. Surprisingly, pre-treatment EMS had a higher smear grading and shorter time-to-positivity, by 1 day, than spot samples in MGIT culture (4.5 vs. 5.5 days, P < 0.001). There were no differences in time to positivity in pre-treatment LJ culture, or in post-treatment MGIT or LJ cultures. Comparing EMS and spot samples in those with unfavourable outcomes, there were no differences in smear or culture results, and

  15. Sleep restriction is associated with increased morning plasma leptin concentrations, especially in women.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Norah S; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep restriction on leptin levels in a large, diverse sample of healthy participants, while allowing free access to food. Prospective experimental design. After 2 nights of baseline sleep, 136 participants (49% women, 56% African Americans) received 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (TIB). Additionally, one subset of participants received 2 additional nights of either further sleep restriction (n = 27) or increased sleep opportunity (n = 37). Control participants (n = 9) received 10 hr TIB on all study nights. Plasma leptin was measured between 10:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon following baseline sleep, after the initial sleep-restriction period, and after 2 nights of further sleep restriction or recovery sleep. Leptin levels increased significantly among sleep-restricted participants after 5 nights of 4 hr TIB (Z = -8.43, p < .001). Increases were significantly greater among women compared to men (Z = -4.77, p < .001) and among participants with higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those with lower (Z = -2.09, p = .036), though participants in all categories (sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, and age) demonstrated significant increases. There was also a significant effect of allowed TIB on leptin levels following the 2 additional nights of sleep restriction (p < .001). Participants in the control condition showed no significant changes in leptin levels. These findings suggest that sleep restriction with ad libitum access to food significantly increases morning plasma leptin levels, particularly among women.

  16. Early morning oedema in patients with primary varicose veins without trophic changes.

    PubMed

    Rastel, Didier; Allaert, François-André

    2016-11-01

    Chronic lower limb oedema is one of the complications of superficial or deep chronic venous disorders. It is ranked as "C3"on the CEAP classification. In epidemiological studies, the recognition of oedema is mainly based on clinical signs, and oedema is more easily detected in the second part of the day when it becomes evident. We addressed the question whether oedema is already present in the morning in patients suffering of primary varicose veins without trophic changes. In total, 101 patients with primary varicose veins (C2 and/or C3 stage of the CEAP classification) and 122 controls were enrolled as they appeared in our centre. The consultation time was no later than 6 hours after the patient had woken up. Oedema was detected by pitting test and ultrasound. The mean consultation time lapse was 3.7 ± 1.2 hours after waking-up. Oedema was more frequent in the group of primary varicose veins without trophic changes (36 % compared to 14 % in the control group; p < 0.01). Oedema was mainly detected by ultrasound and far less so by the pitting test. Patients with varicose veins have morning oedema more frequently than patients without varicosis and at a higher rate than in epidemiological studies.

  17. Early-Morning Flow Transition in a Valley in Low-Mountain Terrain Under Clear-Sky Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brötz, Björn; Eigenmann, Rafael; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Foken, Thomas; Wirth, Volkmar

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the evolution of the early-morning boundary layer in a low-mountain valley in south-western Germany during COPS (convective and orographically induced precipitation study) in summer 2007. The term low-mountain refers to a mountainous region with a relief of gentle slopes and with an absolute altitude that remains under a specified height (usually 1,500 m a.s.l.). A subset of 23 fair weather days from the campaign was selected to study the transition of the boundary-layer flow in the early morning. The typical valley atmosphere in the morning hours was characterized by a stable temperature stratification and a pronounced valley wind system. During the reversal period—called the low wind period—of the valley wind system (duration of 1-2 h), the horizontal flow was very weak and the conditions for free convection were fulfilled close to the ground. Ground-based sodar observations of the vertical wind show enhanced values of upward motion, and the corresponding statistical properties differ from those observed under windless convective conditions over flat terrain. Large-eddy simulations of the boundary-layer transition in the valley were conducted, and statistical properties of the simulated flow agree with the observed quantities. Spatially coherent turbulence structures are present in the temporal as well as in the ensemble mean analysis. Thus, the complex orography induces coherent convective structures at predictable, specific locations during the early-morning low wind situations. These coherent updrafts, found in both the sodar observations and the simulation, lead to a flux counter to the gradient of the stably stratified valley atmosphere and reach up to the heights of the surrounding ridges. Furthermore, the energy balance in the surface layer during the low wind periods is closed. However, it becomes unclosed after the onset of the valley wind. The partition into the sensible and the latent heat fluxes indicates that missing flux

  18. Observations of the Early Morning Boundary-Layer Transition with Small Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Rau, Gerrit Anke; Bange, Jens

    2015-12-01

    A remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA), equipped with a high resolution thermodynamic sensor package, was used to investigate physical processes during the morning transition of the atmospheric boundary layer over land. Experiments were conducted at a test site in heterogeneous terrain in south-west Germany on 5 days from June to September 2013 in an evolving shallow convective boundary layer, which then developed into a well-mixed layer later in the day. A combination of vertical profiling and constant-altitude profiling (CAP) at 100 m height above ground level was chosen as the measuring strategy throughout the experiment. The combination of flight strategies allows the application of mixed-layer scaling using the boundary-layer height z_i, convective velocity scale w_* and convective temperature scale θ _*. The hypothesis that mixed-layer theory is valid during the whole transition was not confirmed for all parameters. A good agreement is found for temperature variances, especially in the upper half of the boundary layer, and the normalized heat-flux profile. The results were compared to a previous study with the helicopter-borne turbulence probe Helipod, and it was found that similar data quality can be achieved with the RPA. On all days, the CAP flight level was within the entrainment zone for a short time, and the horizontal variability of temperature and water vapour along the flight path is presented as an example of the inhomogeneity of layer interfaces in the boundary layer. The study serves as a case study of the possibilities and limitations with state-of-the-art RPA technology in micrometeorology.

  19. Morning sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluids. Eat foods high in protein and complex carbohydrates, such as peanut butter on apple slices or celery; nuts; cheese; crackers; milk; cottage cheese; and yogurt; avoid foods high in fat and salt, but low in nutrition. Ginger products (proven effective against morning sickness) such ...

  20. How private vehicle use increases ambient air pollution concentrations at schools during the morning drop-off of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Requia, Weeberb J.

    2017-09-01

    A child's exposure to environmental pollutants can have life-long health effects. Thus it is critical to understand the potential exposure pathways. In this paper, we examine the increase in ambient PM2.5 concentrations at schools from private vehicle use for dropping children off at school. In North America, students are commonly driven to school in a private vehicle. Additionally, students walk or cycle, or take a school bus. Our vehicle surveys recorded between 23 and 116 personal vehicles at 25 schools, where enrolment ranged from 160 to 765 students. We fit a linear regression model to predict the number of vehicles at schools we did not observe within our study area, which explained 57% of the variation in our surveys. A microsimulation traffic model was created for each of the 86 schools we studied. Outputs from the traffic model were used to determine the emissions generated at each school. PM2.5 emissions varied from 0.14 to 6.38 g. Lastly, we dispersed the emissions produced by private vehicles dropping off students, which are emissions generated by unnecessary trips because students further than walking distance are provided transportation by the school board. At the drop-off location in front of the school, we found ambient concentration increases of at least 5 μg/m3, 10 μg/m3, 25 μg/m3 and 50 μg/m3 during 16.8%, 7.6%, 2.0% and 0.5% of the mornings, respectively. This research was conducted in a medium-sized North American city and should allow transferability to similar cities. We conclude that the use of private vehicles can significantly increase local concentrations, regardless of background conditions.

  1. Use of day 1 early morning cortisol to predict the need for glucocorticoid replacement after pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Bondugulapati, L N Rao; Campbell, Christopher; Chowdhury, Sharmistha Roy; Goetz, Pablo; Davies, J Stephen; Rees, D Aled; Hayhurst, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adrenal reserve in patients who have undergone pituitary surgery is crucial. However, there is no clear consensus with regards to the type and timing of the test that should be used in the immediate post-operative period. Recently, there has been increased interest in measuring post-operative cortisol levels. We present our data utilising day 1 post-operative early morning cortisol as a tool to assess adrenal reserve in steroid-naive patients. A retrospective analysis of endoscopic pituitary surgery undertaken over a 2-year period. 82 patients underwent 84 surgeries in total. Patients who were already on glucocorticoids pre-operatively and patients with Cushing's disease, pituitary apoplexy and those without follow-up data were excluded, leaving a study group of 44 patients with 45 operations. A 9am day 1 post-operative cortisol value of > 400 nmol/L was taken as an indicator of adequate adrenal reserve. All the patients were reassessed at 6 weeks with a standard short synacthen test (SST) using 250 micrograms of intravenous synacthen. 22 out of 45 patients had a cortisol value of > 400 nmol/L on day 1 post-operatively and were discharged without glucocorticoid supplementation. Of these, only 2 patients subsequently failed the SST when reassessed at 6-8 weeks. The remaining 23 patients had a cortisol value of < 400 nmol/L on day 1 post-operatively and were discharged on hydrocortisone 10 mg twice daily. At 6-8 weeks, nine continued to show suboptimal stimulated cortisol levels whereas the remaining fourteen patients showed adequate adrenal reserve. The 9 am cortisol value had high specificity (81.8%) and positive predictive value (90.9%) for integrity of the HPA axis. Sensitivity was 58.8% and negative predictive value was 39.1%. A day 1 post-operative early morning cortisol is a useful tool to predict adrenal reserve post-pituitary surgery, enabling clinicians to avoid unnecessary blanket glucocorticoid replacement.

  2. The impact of an early-morning radiologist work shift on the timeliness of communicating urgent imaging findings on portable chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Kaewlai, Rathachai; Greene, Reginald E; Asrani, Ashwin V; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of staggered radiologist work shifts on the timeliness of communicating urgent imaging findings that are detected on portable overnight chest radiography of hospitalized patients. The authors conducted a retrospective study that compared the interval between the acquisition and communication of urgent findings on portable overnight critical care chest radiography detected by an early-morning shift for radiologists (3 am to 11 am) with historical experience with a standard daytime shift (8 am to 5 pm) in the detection and communication of urgent findings in a similar patient population a year earlier. During a 4-month period, 6,448 portable chest radiographic studies were interpreted on the early-morning radiologist shift. Urgent findings requiring immediate communication were detected in 308 (4.8%) studies. The early-morning shift of radiologists, on average, communicated these findings 2 hours earlier compared with the historical control group (P < .001). Staggered radiologist work shifts that include an early-morning shift can improve the timeliness of reporting urgent findings on overnight portable chest radiography of hospitalized patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Early morning awakening and nonrestorative sleep are associated with increased minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Chen, Ching-Min; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Tsai, Jen-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between a composite measure of insomnia and occupational or fatal accidents has been investigated previously; however, little is known regarding the effect of various insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. We investigated the predicting role of insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. Data from the 2005 Taiwan Social Development Trend Survey of 36,473 Taiwanese aged ≥18 years were analyzed in 2013. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and nonrestorative sleep (NRS) were investigated. A minor non-fatal accident was defined as any mishap such as forgetting to turn off the gas or faucets, accidental falls, and abrasions or cuts occurring during work and leisure time in the past month that do not require immediate medical attention. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) of minor non-fatal accidents (as a binary variable) for each insomnia symptom compared with those of people presenting no symptoms, while controlling for possible confounders. EMA and NRS increased the odds of minor non-fatal accidents occurring during work and leisure time (adjusted OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.08-1.32 and adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.17-1.37, respectively). EMA and NRS are two symptoms that are significantly associated with an increased likelihood of minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time after adjusting for of a range of covariates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Morning Functional Impairments in Stimulant-Treated Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Versus Controls: Impact on the Family

    PubMed Central

    Schachar, Russell J.; Barkley, Russell A.; Nullmeier, Rick; Sallee, F. Randy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently manifest early morning functional (EMF) impairments before school. We conducted a quantitative research survey to assess the impact of these EMF impairments on the family unit (caregiver, spouse/partner, and siblings). Study Design: We developed an online survey questionnaire to collect data from 300 primary caregivers of children with ADHD and 50 primary caregivers of children who did not have ADHD. Results: Although the ADHD children we surveyed were currently treated with stable doses of stimulants as their primary ADHD medication for at least 3 months, their parents reported high levels of EMF impairments in the child, which had a substantial negative effect on the emotional well-being of parents, on parents' functioning during the early morning routine, and on the level of conflict with siblings. The impact of EMF impairments on family functioning was mediated by the severity of the index child's impairments. Conclusions: EMF impairments exert a pervasive and significantly negative emotional and functional burden on not only the primary caregiver but also on the spouse/partner and siblings. This work suggests that adequate ADHD symptom control during the early morning period may be an unmet need for school-age children with ADHD being treated with stimulants. More work is needed to confirm this finding and determine the degree to which symptom control at other times of day is also an unmet need. PMID:28394175

  5. Early Morning Functional Impairments in Stimulant-Treated Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Versus Controls: Impact on the Family.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Schachar, Russell J; Barkley, Russell A; Nullmeier, Rick; Sallee, F Randy

    2017-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently manifest early morning functional (EMF) impairments before school. We conducted a quantitative research survey to assess the impact of these EMF impairments on the family unit (caregiver, spouse/partner, and siblings). We developed an online survey questionnaire to collect data from 300 primary caregivers of children with ADHD and 50 primary caregivers of children who did not have ADHD. Although the ADHD children we surveyed were currently treated with stable doses of stimulants as their primary ADHD medication for at least 3 months, their parents reported high levels of EMF impairments in the child, which had a substantial negative effect on the emotional well-being of parents, on parents' functioning during the early morning routine, and on the level of conflict with siblings. The impact of EMF impairments on family functioning was mediated by the severity of the index child's impairments. EMF impairments exert a pervasive and significantly negative emotional and functional burden on not only the primary caregiver but also on the spouse/partner and siblings. This work suggests that adequate ADHD symptom control during the early morning period may be an unmet need for school-age children with ADHD being treated with stimulants. More work is needed to confirm this finding and determine the degree to which symptom control at other times of day is also an unmet need.

  6. Predictors of patient reluctance to wake early in the morning for bowel preparation for colonoscopy: a precolonoscopy survey in city-wide practice.

    PubMed

    Shafer, L A; Walker, J R; Waldman, C; Michaud, V; Yang, C; Bernstein, C N; Hathout, L; Park, J; Sisler, J; Wittmeier, K; Restall, G; Singh, H

    2018-06-01

     Many endoscopists do not use split-dose bowel preparation (SDBP) for morning colonoscopies. Despite SDBP being recommended practice, they believe patients will not agree to take early morning bowel preparation (BP). We assessed patients' opinions about waking early for BP.  A self-administered survey was distributed between 08/2015 and 06/2016 to patients in Winnipeg, Canada when they attended an outpatient colonoscopy. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of reluctance to use early morning BP.  Of the 1336 respondents (52 % female, median age 57 years), 33 % had used SDBP for their current colonoscopy. Of the 1336, 49 % were willing, 24 % neutral, and 27 % reluctant to do early morning BP. Predictors of reluctant versus willing were number of prior colonoscopies (OR 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.07 - 1.35), female gender (OR 1.65; 95 %CI: 1.19 - 2.29), unclear BP information (OR 1.86; 95 %CI: 1.21 - 2.85), high BP anxiety (OR 2.02; 95 %CI: 1.35 - 3.02), purpose of current colonoscopy being bowel symptoms (OR 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.00 - 1.97), use of 4 L of polyethylene glycol laxative (OR 1.45; 95 %CI: 1.02 - 2.06), not having SDBP (OR 1.96; 95 %CI: 1.31 - 2.93), and not having finished the laxative for the current colonoscopy (OR 1.66; 95 %CI: 1.01 - 2.73). Most of the same predictors were identified when reluctance was compared to willing or neutral, and in ordinal logistic regression.  Almost three-quarters of patients do not express reluctance to get up early for BP. Among those who are reluctant, improving BP information, allaying BP-related anxiety, and use of low volume BP may increase acceptance of SDBP.

  7. Predictors of patient reluctance to wake early in the morning for bowel preparation for colonoscopy: a precolonoscopy survey in city-wide practice

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, L. A.; Walker, J. R.; Waldman, C.; Michaud, V.; Yang, C.; Bernstein, C. N.; Hathout, L.; Park, J.; Sisler, J.; Wittmeier, K.; Restall, G.; Singh, H.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction  Many endoscopists do not use split-dose bowel preparation (SDBP) for morning colonoscopies. Despite SDBP being recommended practice, they believe patients will not agree to take early morning bowel preparation (BP). We assessed patients’ opinions about waking early for BP. Methods  A self-administered survey was distributed between 08/2015 and 06/2016 to patients in Winnipeg, Canada when they attended an outpatient colonoscopy. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of reluctance to use early morning BP. Results  Of the 1336 respondents (52 % female, median age 57 years), 33 % had used SDBP for their current colonoscopy. Of the 1336, 49 % were willing, 24 % neutral, and 27 % reluctant to do early morning BP. Predictors of reluctant versus willing were number of prior colonoscopies (OR 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.07 – 1.35), female gender (OR 1.65; 95 %CI: 1.19 – 2.29), unclear BP information (OR 1.86; 95 %CI: 1.21 – 2.85), high BP anxiety (OR 2.02; 95 %CI: 1.35 – 3.02), purpose of current colonoscopy being bowel symptoms (OR 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.00 – 1.97), use of 4 L of polyethylene glycol laxative (OR 1.45; 95 %CI: 1.02 – 2.06), not having SDBP (OR 1.96; 95 %CI: 1.31 – 2.93), and not having finished the laxative for the current colonoscopy (OR 1.66; 95 %CI: 1.01 – 2.73). Most of the same predictors were identified when reluctance was compared to willing or neutral, and in ordinal logistic regression. Conclusions  Almost three-quarters of patients do not express reluctance to get up early for BP. Among those who are reluctant, improving BP information, allaying BP-related anxiety, and use of low volume BP may increase acceptance of SDBP. PMID:29854940

  8. Rotigotine Effects on Early Morning Motor Function and Sleep in Parkinson's Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized, pLacebo-Controlled Study (RECOVER)

    PubMed Central

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Kies, Bryan; Rudzinska, Monika; Fine, Jennifer; Nikl, Janos; Honczarenko, Krystyna; Dioszeghy, Peter; Hill, Dennis; Anderson, Tim; Myllyla, Vilho; Kassubek, Jan; Steiger, Malcolm; Zucconi, Marco; Tolosa, Eduardo; Poewe, Werner; Surmann, Erwin; Whitesides, John; Boroojerdi, Babak; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray

    2011-01-01

    In a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT00474058), 287 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and unsatisfactory early-morning motor symptom control were randomized 2:1 to receive rotigotine (2–16 mg/24 hr [n = 190]) or placebo (n = 97). Treatment was titrated to optimal dose over 1–8 weeks with subsequent dose maintenance for 4 weeks. Early-morning motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbance were assessed as coprimary efficacy endpoints using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III (Motor Examination) measured in the early morning prior to any medication intake and the modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2) (mean change from baseline to end of maintenance [EOM], last observation carried forward). At EOM, mean UPDRS Part III score had decreased by −7.0 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 29.6 [standard deviation (SD) 12.3] and by −3.9 points with placebo (baseline 32.0 [13.3]). Mean PDSS-2 total score had decreased by −5.9 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 19.3 [SD 9.3]) and by −1.9 points with placebo (baseline 20.5 [10.4]). This represented a significantly greater improvement with rotigotine compared with placebo on both the UPDRS Part III (treatment difference: −3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) −5.37, −1.73]; P = 0.0002) and PDSS-2 (treatment difference: −4.26 [95% CI −6.08, −2.45]; P < 0.0001). The most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (placebo, 9%; rotigotine, 21%), application site reactions (placebo, 4%; rotigotine, 15%), and dizziness (placebo, 6%; rotigotine 10%). Twenty-four-hour transdermal delivery of rotigotine to PD patients with early-morning motor dysfunction resulted in significant benefits in control of both motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbances. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society PMID:21322021

  9. Morning-After Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... morning-after pill is a type of emergency birth control (contraception). Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy for women who've had unprotected sex or whose birth control method has failed. The morning-after pill is ...

  10. A Morning Collage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the theme of morning from the perspective of children. Provides several passages and describes stories from children's books that deal with the subject. Discusses the benefits of morning activities and routines, as well as morning journeys and exploration. Presents a creative activities sampler and print and film resources. (AEF)

  11. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Making Morning Circle Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan; Fasy, Cara; Gulick, Jessica; Jones, Jill; Pike, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Morning Circle, also known as Morning Meeting, is often a daily lesson in both general education and special education classrooms. The primary purpose of the Circle is to support each child to establish membership in the class while developing a classroom community and culture. The Responsive Classroom Approach recommends four Circle components:…

  13. Early morning urine collection to improve urinary lateral flow LAM assay sensitivity in hospitalised patients with HIV-TB co-infection.

    PubMed

    Gina, Phindile; Randall, Philippa J; Muchinga, Tapuwa E; Pooran, Anil; Meldau, Richard; Peter, Jonny G; Dheda, Keertan

    2017-05-12

    Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included. Thus paired sample were collected from the same patient, LF-LAM was graded using the pre-January 2014, with grade 1 and 2 manufacturer-designated cut-points (the latter designated grade 1 after January 2014). Single sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and/or TB culture positivity served as the reference standard (definite TB). Those treated for TB but not meeting this standard were designated probable TB. 123 HIV-infected patients commenced anti-TB treatment and provided matched random and EMU samples. 33% (41/123) and 67% (82/123) had definite and probable TB, respectively. Amongst those with definite TB LF-LAM sensitivity (95%CI), using the grade 2 cut-point, increased from 12% (5-24; 5/43) to 39% (26-54; 16/41) with random versus EMU, respectively (p = 0.005). Similarly, amongst probable TB, LF-LAM sensitivity increased from 10% (5-17; 8/83) to 24% (16-34; 20/82) (p = 0.001). LF-LAM specificity was not determined. This proof of concept study indicates that EMU could improve the sensitivity of LF-LAM in hospitalised TB-HIV co-infected patients. These data have implications for clinical practice.

  14. Normal Morning Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Levels and No Association with Rapid Eye Movement or Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J.; Gammeltoft, Steen; Holm, Anja; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Knudsen, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MCH levels, in contrast to previously reported normal evening/afternoon levels. Methods: Lumbar CSF and plasma were collected from 07:00 to 10:00 from 57 patients with narcolepsy (subtypes: 47 NT1; 10 NT2) diagnosed according to International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3) and 20 healthy controls. HCRT-1 and MCH levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and correlated with clinical symptoms, polysomnography (PSG), and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) parameters. Results: CSF and plasma MCH levels were not significantly different between narcolepsy patients regardless of ICSD-3 subtype, HCRT-1 levels, or compared to controls. CSF MCH and HCRT-1 levels were not significantly correlated. Multivariate regression models of CSF MCH levels, age, sex, and body mass index predicting clinical, PSG, and MSLT parameters did not reveal any significant associations to CSF MCH levels. Conclusions: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH measurement is not an informative diagnostic marker for narcolepsy. Citation: Schrölkamp M, Jennum PJ, Gammeltoft S, Holm A, Kornum BR, Knudsen S. Normal morning melanin-concentrating

  15. Normal Morning Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Levels and No Association with Rapid Eye Movement or Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2.

    PubMed

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen; Holm, Anja; Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Stine

    2017-02-15

    Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MCH levels, in contrast to previously reported normal evening/afternoon levels. Lumbar CSF and plasma were collected from 07:00 to 10:00 from 57 patients with narcolepsy (subtypes: 47 NT1; 10 NT2) diagnosed according to International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3) and 20 healthy controls. HCRT-1 and MCH levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and correlated with clinical symptoms, polysomnography (PSG), and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) parameters. CSF and plasma MCH levels were not significantly different between narcolepsy patients regardless of ICSD-3 subtype, HCRT-1 levels, or compared to controls. CSF MCH and HCRT-1 levels were not significantly correlated. Multivariate regression models of CSF MCH levels, age, sex, and body mass index predicting clinical, PSG, and MSLT parameters did not reveal any significant associations to CSF MCH levels. Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH measurement is not an informative diagnostic marker for narcolepsy. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  16. [Retinal detachment associated with morning glory syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cañete Campos, C; Gili Manzanaro, P; Yangüela Rodilla, J; Martín Rodrigo, J C

    2011-09-01

    A twenty three year old woman was diagnosed of a morning glory papillary anomaly, then with normal visual acuity (VA). Nine years later, the VA decreased to 0.4, secondary to a serous macular detachment, confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). After treatment with C2F6 gas injection, positioning, and peripapillary laser, the VA improved to 0.7 and the foveolar area reattached. The morning glory Syndrome usually has an early diagnosis due to poor visual acuity. Thirty eight percent of the cases have retinal detachment. We show an unusual case of morning glory syndrome with a serous detachment, successfully treated with gas and laser. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Morning twilight measured at Bandung and Jombang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumaningtyas, Eka Puspita; Raharto, Moedji; Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2012-06-01

    Twilight divided into three categories namely, astronomical twilight, nautical twilight, and civil twilight. The three types of twilight can occur either in the evening or early morning. According to the U.S. Naval Observatory the three types distinguished by the depression (altitude of the sun below the horizon) for the evening or the morning twilight, -180, -120, and -60. Sky brightness measurements usually intended to determine the quality of the sky at some observation site or to determine the quality of the atmosphere by light pollution. Sky brightness data could be use for practical purposes such as to determine prayer times (Morning Prayer). This study describes the measurement of sky brightness using a light meter Sky Quality Meter. The measurements indicate the presence of different values and patterns in the twilight sky brightness. This variability highly determined by the weather conditions. Sky brightness shows a constant value shortly after the evening astronomical twilight and before morning astronomical twilight. Before the evening astronomical twilight and after morning astronomical twilight sky brightness showing continue changing.

  18. An hour of bright white light in the early morning improves performance and advances sleep and circadian phase during the Antarctic winter.

    PubMed

    Corbett, R W; Middleton, B; Arendt, J

    2012-09-13

    Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to an hour of bright light in the morning and the evening during the Polar winter has beneficial effects on circadian phase. This study investigated the effect of a single hour of bright white morning light on circadian phase, sleep, alertness and cognitive performance. Nine individuals (eight male, one female, median age 30 years), wintering at Halley Research Station (75°S), Antarctica from 7th May until 6th August 2007, were exposed to bright white light for a fortnight from 08:30 to 09:30 h, with two fortnight control periods on either side. This sequence was performed twice, before and following Midwinter. Light exposure, sleep and alertness were assessed daily by actigraphy, sleep diaries and subjective visual analogue scales. Circadian phase (assessed by urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm) and cognitive performance were evaluated at the end of each fortnight. During light exposure circadian phase was advanced from 4.97 ± 0.96 decimal hours (dh) (mean ± SD) to 4.08 ± 0.68 dh (p = 0.003). Wake-up time was shifted by a similar margin from 8.45 ± 1.83 dh to 7.59 ± 0.78 dh (p < 0.001). Sleep start time was also advanced (p = 0.047) but by a lesser amount, consequently, actual sleep time was slightly reduced. There was no change in objective or subjective measures of sleep quality or subjective measures of alertness. An improvement in cognitive performance was found with both the Single Letter Cancellation Test (p < 0.001) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (p = 0.026) with preserved circadian variation. These beneficial effects of a single short duration light treatment may have implications not only for the Antarctic but other remote environments where access to natural light and delayed circadian phase, is problematic. These results require validation in larger studies at varying locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global Pursuits: Sunday Morning, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Winslow Homer's oil on canvas painting, "Sunday Morning, Virginia." "Sunday Morning, Virginia" depicts a group of African-Americans learning to read in a slave cabin after the Civil War. A young teacher, wearing a crisp dress and apron, sits surrounded by three children as she teaches them to read…

  20. A Morning in Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Dena M.; Talmi, Ayelet

    2012-01-01

    Families with young children attend well-child visits in pediatric primary care settings frequently during the first 3 years of life and receive information and answers to questions about their young child's health and development. Integrating an infant-early childhood mental health and child development specialist into a pediatric primary care…

  1. The Evening/Morning Star.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Explains how Venus changes visibility regularly from morning to evening because of its quick orbit time during part of the year. Includes a brief history of observations of this phenomenon and provides a detailed account from the Australian Aborigines. (DDR)

  2. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  3. Morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity before midday depression.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kohei; Takemoto, Shuhei

    2014-03-17

    Midday depression of photosynthesis has important consequences for ecosystem carbon exchange. Recent studies of forest trees have demonstrated that latent reduction of photosynthetic capacity can begin in the early morning, preceding the midday depression. We investigated whether such early morning reduction also occurs in an herbaceous species, Oenothera biennis. Diurnal changes of the photosynthetic light response curve (measured using a light-emitting diode) and incident sunlight intensity were measured under field conditions. The following results were obtained: (1) the light-saturated photosynthetic rate decreased beginning at sunrise; (2) the incident sunlight intensity on the leaves increased from sunrise; and (3) combining (1) and (2), the net photosynthetic rate under natural sunlight intensity increased from sunrise, reached a maximum at mid-morning, and then showed midday depression. Our results demonstrate that the latent morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity begins at sunrise, preceding the apparent midday depression, in agreement with previous studies of forest trees.

  4. Christmas Morning, Breakfast, Horace Pippin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunlin-Jones, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life and the art of Horace Pippin. It focuses on one work called "Christmas Morning, Breakfast" that is part of a series of works based on Pippin's childhood memories. The painting depicts a very modest room, including exposed wallboards where chunks of plaster have fallen off. The room is very tidy, but…

  5. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  6. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B.; Miras, Monaliza A.; Mendioro, Merlyn S.; Simon, Eliza V.; Lumanglas, Patrick D.; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5–2.0h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource. PMID:25534925

  7. Comparison of toxicity associated with early morning versus late afternoon radiotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer: a prospective randomized trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (HN3).

    PubMed

    Bjarnason, Georg A; Mackenzie, Robert G; Nabid, Abdenour; Hodson, Ian D; El-Sayed, Samy; Grimard, Laval; Brundage, Michael; Wright, James; Hay, John; Ganguly, Pradip; Leong, Carson; Wilson, Jane; Jordan, Richard C K; Walker, Melanie; Tu, Dongsheng; Parulekar, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Based on our demonstration of a circadian rhythm in the human oral mucosa cell cycle, with most cells in the G(1) phase in the morning and M phase at night, we hypothesized that morning radiotherapy (RT) would lead to less oral mucositis than afternoon RT. A total of 216 patients were randomized to morning (8-10 AM) vs. afternoon (4-6 PM) RT and stratified by radiation dose, smoking status, and center. Patients receiving primary or postoperative RT alone were eligible. Oral mucositis was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria and a validated scoring system. Of 205 evaluable patients, 52.9% vs. 62.4% developed RTOG Grade 3 or greater mucositis after morning vs. afternoon RT, respectively (p = 0.17). Morning RT was also associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months (p = 0.024). In a subgroup of 111 patients treated to a dose of 66-70 Gy in 33-35 fractions, exploratory analyses revealed a significant reduction in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (44.6% vs. 67.3%, p = 0.022) and a longer interval to the development of Grade 3 or greater mucositis (median, >7.9 vs. 5.6 weeks, p = 0.033). In 53 patients, who smoked during therapy, a significant reduction was found in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (42.9% vs. 76%, p = 0.025). In this proof of principle study, morning RT was associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months and an apparent reduction in oral mucositis in a subset of patients receiving >/=66 Gy and in patients who smoked during therapy.

  8. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B; Miras, Monaliza A; Mendioro, Merlyn S; Simon, Eliza V; Lumanglas, Patrick D; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-03-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5-2.0 h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    extremely data-rich. The Galaxy Zoo project also suggests the promising prospect of synergizing the help from citizen scientists and machine learning in analyzing extremely large datasets.Extrasolar Planets: Atmospheres (by Leonardo dos Santos)Antonija Oklopi (Caltech) explains that Raman scattering of light, which works similarly to Rayleigh scattering (the process that makes Earths sky blue), can be used in the future to study the atmospheres of exoplanets. Her work is to create model spectra containing these features, from which we can learn about the presence and altitude of atmospheric clouds. Dr. Carl Melis (University of California, San Diego) studies the inner composition of exoplanets by looking at their remnants after they are destroyed by a dying star. His most recent work suggests that there is a differentiated pollution (from the core and the crust of a planet) in the disk orbiting of a white dwarf star. Samuel Grunblatt (University of Hawaii) introduces us to the main subject of his thesis: a hot-Jupiter observed by Keplers K2 mission transiting an evolved, red giant star. They used some pretty tricky data analysis in order to filter out the noise intrinsic to this type of star.Grunblatt shows the K2 transit before and after removal of granulation effects.Avi Shporer (JPL) asks the question: why are hot Jupiters so large? His research aims to study the correlation between stellar irradiation and planetary radius, and in order to have a more complete picture, they need to detect more gas giants on lower stellar irradiation regions. This idea gave rise to LCOGT K2 Warm Jupiter project, which recently discovered a brown dwarf in a long-period orbit around a Sun-like star. Paul Mason (New Mexico State University) proposes that the Milky Way is evolving to a more habitable galaxy, due to the expansion of the universe, the processing of heavier material inside stars, and the general decrease of ionizing radiation.Evolution of Galaxies (by Ben Cook)Tuesday mornings

  10. Impact of morning stiffness on working behaviour and performance in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Kalle; Buttgereit, Frank; Tuominen, Risto

    2014-12-01

    Work disability remains a considerable problem for many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Morning stiffness is a symptom of RA associated with early retirement from work and with impaired functional ability. We aimed to explore the patient's perception of the impact of morning stiffness on the working life of patients with RA. A survey was conducted in 11 European countries. Patients of working age, with RA for ≥6 months and morning stiffness ≥3 mornings a week, were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire. Responses were assessed in the total sample and in subgroups defined by severity and duration of morning stiffness and by country. A total of 1,061 respondents completed the survey, 534 were working, 224 were retired and the rest were, i.e. homemakers and unemployed. Among the 534 working respondents, RA-related morning stiffness affected work performance (47 %), resulted in late arrival at work (33 %) and required sick leave in the past month (15 %). Of the 224 retired respondents, 159 (71 %) stopped working earlier than their expected retirement age, with 64 % giving RA-related morning stiffness as a reason. There was a differential impact of increasing severity and increasing duration of morning stiffness on the various parameters studied. There were notable inter-country differences in the impact of RA-related morning stiffness on ability to work and on retirement. This large survey showed that from the patient's perspective, morning stiffness reduces the ability to work in patients with RA and contributes to early retirement.

  11. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  12. Widespread morning drizzle on Titan.

    PubMed

    Adámkovics, Máté; Wong, Michael H; Laver, Conor; de Pater, Imke

    2007-11-09

    Precipitation is expected in Titan's atmosphere, yet it has not been directly observed, and the geographical regions where rain occurs are unknown. Here we present near-infrared spectra from the Very Large Telescope and W. M. Keck Observatories that reveal an enhancement of opacity in Titan's troposphere on the morning side of the leading hemisphere. Retrieved extinction profiles are consistent with condensed methane in clouds at an altitude near 30 kilometers and concomitant methane drizzle below. The moisture encompasses the equatorial region over Titan's brightest continent, Xanadu. Diurnal temperature gradients that cause variations in methane relative humidity, winds, and topography may each be a contributing factor to the condensation mechanism. The clouds and precipitation are optically thin at 2.0 micrometers, and models of "subvisible" clouds suggest that the droplets are 0.1 millimeter or larger.

  13. The Morning NO x maximum in the forest atmosphere boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghmand, M.; Shepson, P. B.; Starn, T. K.; Jobson, B. T.; Wallace, H. W.; Carroll, M. A.; Bertman, S. B.; Lamb, B.; Edburg, S. L.; Zhou, X.; Apel, E.; Riemer, D.; Stevens, P.; Keutsch, F.

    2011-10-01

    During the 1998, 2000, 2001, 2008, and 2009 summer intensives of the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions and Transport (PROPHET), ambient measurement of nitrogen oxides (NO + NO2 = NOx) were conducted. NO and NOx mole fractions displayed a diurnal pattern with NOx frequently highest in early morning. This pattern has often been observed in other rural areas. In this paper, we discuss the potential sources and contributing factors of the frequently observed morning pulse of NOx. Of the possible potential contributing factors to the observed morning pulse of NO and NOx, we find that surface-layer transport and slow upward mixing from soil emissions, related to the thermodynamic stability in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) before its morning breakup are the largest contributors. The morning NOx peak can significantly impact boundary layer chemistry, e.g. through production of HONO on surfaces, and by increasing the importance of NO3 chemistry in the morning boundary layer.

  14. Explaining a Consistent Morning NOx Maximum in the Clean Air Forest Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepson, P. B.; Alaghmand, M.; Bertman, S. B.; Carroll, M.; Edburg, S. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Keutsch, F. N.; Lamb, B. K.; Starn, T.; Stevens, P. S.; Wallace, W.; Zhou, X.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at continental surface sites have frequently revealed the presence of an early morning maximum in the NOx concentration. While this observation has most often been interpreted as the result of downward mixing associated with breakup of the nocturnal inversion, the morning NOx peak often occurs earlier than the NBL breakup. Given the importance of NOx to boundary layer photochemistry near forested environments, it is essential that this phenomenon be well understood. Here we examine a variety of measurements, including NOx measurements at various heights, during the 1998, 2001, 2008, and 2009 (CABINEX) summer intensives of the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions and Transport (PROPHET), at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Northern Michigan. We will discuss the results, in terms of the extent to which the observations support/refute each of the potential drivers of the morning NOx peak: 1) downward mixing, 2) photochemistry on the various surfaces present, 3) soil emissions, and 4) local and long range transport of anthropogenic NOx, and we will report on our conclusions as to the predominant/likely explanation(s) for this phenomenon.

  15. Differential response of pitted morning glory and ivy leaf morning glory to acifluorfen, fomesafen, and lactofen

    SciT

    Higgins, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations were conducted to examine the response of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.number/sup 1/ IPOLA), and ivy leaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. number IPOHE) to acifluorfen, fomesafen, and lactofen. In field studies, greatest soybean injury was observed with acifluorfen and lactofen. All treatments provided 80% or greater control of pitted morning glory 15 days after treatment. Only acifluorfen and fomesafen at 0.6 kg ai ha/sup -1/ provided 80% or greater ivy leaf morning glory. The differential response of pitted morning glory and ivy leaf morning glory to these diphenylmore » ether herbicides was reflected in soybean seed yields. In laboratory studies, 71 to 84% of applied /sup 14/C-acifluorfen was not absorbed into the leaf surface of ivy leaf morning glory. Thirty-two to 46% of applied acifluorfen was recovered from the leaf surface of pitted morning glory. Sixty-four percent of applied /sup 14/C-lactofen was recovered from leaf surfaces of both morning glory species 96 h after treatment. Treated leaves of pitted morning glory contained 35 to 37% more /sup 14/C-acifluorfen than ivy leaf morning glory. Less than 28% of applied /sup 14/C-lactofen was absorbed into treated leaves of both morning glory species at 24, 48, and 96 h harvests.« less

  16. Preventing recurrence of severe morning sickness

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon; Maltepe, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    QUESTION A recent Motherisk article showed that initiating antinauseants even before symptoms start could prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness. In the study described, however, different physicians used different drugs. How can one be sure which drugs work? ANSWER The study of 26 women who had had severe morning sickness during previous pregnancies showed that using antiemetics before symptoms of morning sickness started appeared to prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness in subsequent pregnancies. Physicians in the United States used various antinauseant drugs. Physicians in Canada administered only one drug, the combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin®), to 12 women. Subanalysis of these 12 women revealed that pre-emptive use of doxylamine-pyridoxine significantly decreased the likelihood that severe morning sickness would recur. PMID:17279232

  17. Preventing recurrence of severe morning sickness.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon; Maltepe, Caroline

    2006-12-01

    A recent Motherisk article showed that initiating antinauseants even before symptoms start could prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness. In the study described, however, different physicians used different drugs. How can one be sure which drugs work? The study of 26 women who had had severe morning sickness during previous pregnancies showed that using antiemetics before symptoms of morning sickness started appeared to prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness in subsequent pregnancies. Physicians in the United States used various antinauseant drugs. Physicians in Canada administered only one drug, the combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin), to 12 women. Subanalysis of these 12 women revealed that pre-emptive use of doxylamine-pyridoxine significantly decreased the likelihood that severe morning sickness would recur.

  18. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    massive disks, which in turn produce more gas giants, populating our surveys with such planets.Dr. Knutson shows that ~50% of hot Jupiters have long distance companions.Morning Press Conference Latest News from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (by Michael Zevin)On December 26th 2015, LIGO detected its second full-fledged gravitational wave event, dubbed GW151226 (the numbers signify the date it was detected). This detection along with the full results ofLIGOs first observing run wereannounced byGabriela Gonzlez, David Reitze, and Fulvio Ricci in the morning press conference. The masses of the two black holes are smaller than those of the first confirmed event (GW150914) about 8 14 solar masses for GW151226 compared to 29 36 solar masses for GW150914. Though less visible by eye in the data, sophisticated search algorithms that match theoretically-produced templates of the gravitational waveform were able to extract it from the data and build up enough statistical confidence to declare it as a detection. The system was estimated to have merged at a distance of 1.4 billion light-years, and, due to its lower mass, stayed in LIGOs detection band for a full second (5 times longer than the more massive GW150914).Time-frequency plot of the second confirmed gravitational waveevent GW151226. Light colors represent higher energy.This discovery further solidifies this nascent field into astronomy, and has given astronomers a new sense to explore the Universe. The next observing run of LIGO will commence later in 2016 and will be more sensitive due to system upgrade, increasing the rate at which LIGO should detect these types of astrophysical events. In addition, more detectors will be joining the network of gravitational wave observatories over the next few years, which will further constrain the location at which these events occur in the cosmos and increase the likelihood of detecting an electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave event. More great discoveries to come

  19. Bedtime administration of cilnidipine controls morning hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, Naoto; Seto, Shinji; Shibata, Yoshisada; Yano, Katsusuke

    2007-09-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) level plays an important role in the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recently, Kario, et al proposed the usefulness of ME difference (morning minus evening systolic BP) and ME average (average of morning and evening systolic BP) for the evaluation of antihypertensive treatment. Cilnidipine is a novel calcium channel blocker (CCB) that exerts inhibitory actions not only on L-type but also on N-type calcium channels. We investigated the effect of bedtime administration of cilnidipine (10 mg) in addition to the antihypertensive treatment for uncontrolled morning hypertension. Twenty-three hypertensive outpatients (13 males and 10 females; mean age, 66.9 years) with stable antihypertensive medication and uncontrolled morning BP were studied using self-measured BP monitoring in the morning and evening. Morning SBP (P < 0.001) and DBP (P < 0.001) decreased significantly from 150.2 +/- 8.7 and 87.8 +/- 9.3 to 132.7 +/- 7.4 and 77.5 +/- 8.5 mmHg, respectively, after the addition of cilnidipine. Morning heart rate did not change (63.3 +/- 7.0 to 64.1 +/- 9.4). The evening SBP, but not DBP, decreased significantly after treatment. Both the ME average (P < 0.001) and ME difference (P < 0.01) significantly decreased from 143.0 +/- 9.2 and 14.3 +/- 12.4 to 131.3 +/- 7.2 and 2.8 +/- 9.2 mmHg after treatment, respectively. The microalbuminuria decreased from 39.6 +/- 13.2 to 27.3 +/- 8.4 mg/g Cr. In conclusion, L-/N-type CCB cilnidipine may be useful for patients with uncontrollable morning hypertension by reducing both ME average and ME difference.

  20. Morning versus evening induction of labour for improving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Jannet J H; van der Goes, Birgit Y; Pel, Maria; Mol, Ben Willem J; van der Post, Joris A M

    2013-02-28

    Induction of labour is a common intervention in obstetric practice. Traditionally, in most hospitals induction of labour with medication starts early in the morning, with the start of the working day for the day shift. In human and animal studies spontaneous onset of labour is proven to have a circadian rhythm with a preference for start of labour in the evening. Moreover, when spontaneous labour starts in the evening, the total duration of labour and delivery shortens and fewer obstetric interventions are needed. Based on these observations one might assume that starting induction of labour in the evening, in harmony with the circadian rhythm of natural birth, is more beneficial for both mother and child. To assess whether induction of labour starting in the evening, coinciding with the endogenous circadian rhythm, improves the outcome of labour compared with induction of labour starting in the early morning, organised to coincide with office hours. We contacted the Trials Search Co-ordinator to search the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). In addition, we searched MEDLINE (1966 to 16 February 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to 16 February 2012). We included all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials. We excluded trials that employed quasi-random methods of treatment allocation. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. The search resulted in 2693 articles that we screened on title and abstract for eligibility.Thirteen studies were selected for full text assessment. We included three randomised trials involving 1150 women. Two trials compared the administration of prostaglandins in the morning versus the evening in women with an unfavourable cervix, and one trial compared induction of labour in the morning versus the evening

  1. Brief Morning Light Exposure, Visuomotor Performance, and Biochemistry in Sport Shooters.

    PubMed

    Leichtfried, Veronika; Hanser, Friedrich; Griesmacher, Andrea; Canazei, Markus; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Demands on concentrative and cognitive performance are high in sport shooting and vary in a circadian pattern, aroused by internal and external stimuli. The most prominent external stimulus is light. Bright light (BL) has been shown to have a certain impact on cognitive and physical performance. To evaluate the impact of a single half hour of BL exposure in the morning hours on physical and cognitive performance in 15 sport shooters. In addition, courses of sulfateoxymelatonin (aMT6s), tryptophan (TRP), and kynurenine (KYN) were monitored. In a crossover design, 15 sport shooters were exposed to 30 min of BL and dim light (DL) in the early-morning hours. Shooting performance, balance, visuomotor performance, and courses of aMT6s, TRP, and KYN were evaluated. Shooting performance was 365.4 (349.7-381.0) and 368.5 (353.9-383.1), identical in both light setups. Numbers of right reactions (sustained attention) and deviations from the horizontal plane (balance-related measure) were higher after BL. TRP concentrations decreased from 77.5 (73.5-81.4) to 66.9 (60.7-67.0) in the DL setup only. The 2 light conditions generated heterogeneous visuomotor and physiological effects in sport shooters. The authors therefore suggest that a single half hour of BL exposure is effective in improving cognitive aspects of performance, but not physical performance. Further research is needed to evaluate BL's impact on biochemical parameters.

  2. Saturday Morning Music: A Preservice Elementary Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mary

    1986-01-01

    An exploratory music program, scheduled for a month of Saturday mornings for children in kindergarten, is described. The program is intended to provide preservice teaching experiences for college music education students. Classes are action-oriented and include varied experiences in singing, playing instruments, moving to music, listening, and…

  3. Trent Griffin honored on Good Morning America

    2015-09-17

    TRENT GRIFFIN, RIGHT, IS CONGRATULATED FOR HIS WORK IN THE COMMUNITY AND HIS OUTREACH EFFORTS TO ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO ENTER THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATH FIELDS BY MARSHALL CENTER DIRECTOR PATRICK SCHEUERMANN. GRIFFIN WAS FEATURED AS A HOMETOWN HERO ON ABC’S "GOOD MORNING AMERICA" AT THE U.S. SPACE & ROCKET CENTER.

  4. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on morning blood pressure surges in Japanese patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular events and end-organ damage independent of the 24-h BP level. Controlling morning BP surge is therefore important to help prevent onset of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of azilsartan and candesartan in controlling morning systolic BP (SBP) surges by analyzing relevant ambulatory BP monitoring data in patients with/without baseline BP surges. As part of a 16-week randomized, double-blind study of azilsartan (20–40 mg once daily) and candesartan (8–12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was carried out using ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and week 14. The effects of study drugs on morning BP surges, including sleep trough surge (early morning SBP minus the lowest night-time SBP) and prewaking surge (early morning SBP minus SBP before awakening), were evaluated. Patients with sleep trough surge of at least 35 mmHg were defined by the presence of a morning BP surge (the ‘surge group’). Sleep trough surge and prewaking surge data were available at both baseline and week 14 in 548 patients, 147 of whom (azilsartan 76; candesartan 71) had a baseline morning BP surge. In surge group patients, azilsartan significantly reduced both the sleep trough surge and the prewaking surge at week 14 compared with candesartan (least squares means of the between-group differences −5.8 mmHg, P=0.0395; and −5.7 mmHg, P=0.0228, respectively). Once-daily azilsartan improved sleep trough surge and prewaking surge to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I–II essential hypertension. PMID:24710336

  5. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on morning blood pressure surges in Japanese patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2014-06-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular events and end-organ damage independent of the 24-h BP level. Controlling morning BP surge is therefore important to help prevent onset of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of azilsartan and candesartan in controlling morning systolic BP (SBP) surges by analyzing relevant ambulatory BP monitoring data in patients with/without baseline BP surges. As part of a 16-week randomized, double-blind study of azilsartan (20-40 mg once daily) and candesartan (8-12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was carried out using ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and week 14. The effects of study drugs on morning BP surges, including sleep trough surge (early morning SBP minus the lowest night-time SBP) and prewaking surge (early morning SBP minus SBP before awakening), were evaluated. Patients with sleep trough surge of at least 35 mmHg were defined by the presence of a morning BP surge (the 'surge group'). Sleep trough surge and prewaking surge data were available at both baseline and week 14 in 548 patients, 147 of whom (azilsartan 76; candesartan 71) had a baseline morning BP surge. In surge group patients, azilsartan significantly reduced both the sleep trough surge and the prewaking surge at week 14 compared with candesartan (least squares means of the between-group differences -5.8 mmHg, P=0.0395; and -5.7 mmHg, P=0.0228, respectively). Once-daily azilsartan improved sleep trough surge and prewaking surge to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I-II essential hypertension.

  6. Early life socioeconomic status, chronic physiological stress and hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate concentrations.

    PubMed

    McLean, John; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Batty, G David; Burns, Harry; Deans, Kevin A; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; McLean, Jennifer S; Millar, Keith; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Tannahill, Carol; Velupillai, Yoga N; Packard, Chris J; Condon, Barrie R; Hadley, Donald M; Cavanagh, Jonathan

    2012-12-01

    Early life socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with cognitive and behavioural changes that persist through towards adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether early life socioeconomic status is associated with changes in the hippocampus N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), using the non-invasive technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the hippocampus at 3T in 30 adult males, selected from the PSOBID cohort. We conducted multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between early socioeconomic status (SES) and concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate in the hippocampus. We also examined whether the relationship between these variables was mediated by markers of chronic physiological stress. Greater socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower hippocampal NAA concentrations bilaterally. The relationship between early life SES and hippocampal NAA concentrations was mediated by allostatic load index - a marker of chronic physiological stress. Greater early life socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower concentrations of NAA reflecting lesser neuronal integrity. This relationship was mediated by greater physiological stress. Further work, to better understand the biological processes underlying the effects of poverty, physiological stress on hippocampal metabolites is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Apollo 40th Anniversary Morning Television

    2009-07-19

    Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, the second man to walk on the Moon, seated left, responds to a question during a live television interview on Monday, July 20, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington as Apollo 12 astronaut Alan Bean and Apollo 16 astronaut Charles Duke, right look on. The three sat in for interviews with morning talks shows covering the 40th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. Sociodemographic and Perinatal Predictors of Early Pregnancy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Webster, Thomas F.; Mora, Ana Maria; Harris, Maria H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), used in food packaging and stain-resistant coatings, are suspected developmental toxicants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. We measured plasma PFAS concentrations during early pregnancy (median = 9.7 weeks gestation) among 1645 women in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999–2002. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of sociodemographic and perinatal predictors, including measures of pregnancy physiology (albumin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), with log-transformed plasma PFAS concentrations. Geometric mean concentrations for the four main PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were 25.4, 5.7, 2.5, and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively, comparable with general U.S. population concentrations during those years. Higher early pregnancy PFAS concentrations were associated with younger age (except PFNA), less educational attainment, nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding and higher prepregnancy body mass index in adjusted models. In addition, lower GFR was associated with 3–4% higher PFAS concentrations and higher albumin was associated with 4–6% higher PFAS concentrations. Our results show associations consistent (parity and breastfeeding) and less consistent (age and education) with previous studies. We also report associations with GFR and albumin, which were strongly related to PFAS concentrations and thus could confound estimates of PFAS–outcome associations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:26333069

  9. Sociodemographic and Perinatal Predictors of Early Pregnancy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Sharon K; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Webster, Thomas F; Mora, Ana Maria; Harris, Maria H; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2015-10-06

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), used in food packaging and stain-resistant coatings, are suspected developmental toxicants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. We measured plasma PFAS concentrations during early pregnancy (median = 9.7 weeks gestation) among 1645 women in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999-2002. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of sociodemographic and perinatal predictors, including measures of pregnancy physiology (albumin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), with log-transformed plasma PFAS concentrations. Geometric mean concentrations for the four main PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were 25.4, 5.7, 2.5, and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively, comparable with general U.S. population concentrations during those years. Higher early pregnancy PFAS concentrations were associated with younger age (except PFNA), less educational attainment, nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding and higher prepregnancy body mass index in adjusted models. In addition, lower GFR was associated with 3-4% higher PFAS concentrations and higher albumin was associated with 4-6% higher PFAS concentrations. Our results show associations consistent (parity and breastfeeding) and less consistent (age and education) with previous studies. We also report associations with GFR and albumin, which were strongly related to PFAS concentrations and thus could confound estimates of PFAS-outcome associations in epidemiologic studies.

  10. Hormone Concentrations and Variability: Associations with Self-Reported Moods and Energy in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Christy Miller

    Examined were relations between concentrations and variability of hormones (testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and leutenizing hormone) and mood intensity, mood variability (within and across days), energy, and restlessness in early adolescent girls. The study also considered the issue of whether hormones have effects on mood…

  11. Variability and predictors of serum perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations during pregnancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Eliot, Melissa N; Kelsey, Karl T; Calafat, Antonia M; Ehrlich, Shelley; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin; Braun, Joseph M

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants, could be associated with adverse health outcomes, but there are limited longitudinal data assessing patterns and predictors of exposure during childhood. We quantified concentrations of eight different PFAS in sera collected from women during pregnancy and children at delivery and ages 3 and 8 years in 367 mother-child pairs enrolled in a prospective cohort from 2003 to 2006. In general, median childhood PFAS concentrations increased from birth to age 3 and then decreased by age 8. Maternal serum PFAS concentrations during pregnancy were strongly correlated with cord serum concentrations (0.76 < r < 0.94), but were weakly correlated with childhood concentrations (0.12 < r < 0.30). Several sociodemographic factors were associated with maternal PFAS concentrations, including income, race, and parity. In children, serum PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal age at delivery, race, parity, and child age. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with childhood PFAS concentrations at ages 3 and 8 years. In addition, stain repellant use was associated with higher perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid concentrations at age 8 years. Serum PFAS concentrations are higher during early childhood, a potentially sensitive period of development, and were highest among breastfed children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

    Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

  13. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    PubMed

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P < 0.01), maintained a fairly high correlation with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  14. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    PubMed

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11 kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5 kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1 kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  15. Early Serum Gut Hormone Concentrations Associated with Time to Full Enteral Feedings in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Kristen H; Yu, Xinting; Miller, Laura G; Freedman, Steven D; Martin, Camilia R

    2018-04-03

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate early postnatal serum gut hormone concentrations in preterm infants as predictors of time to full enteral feedings. The secondary objective was to identify infant characteristics and nutritional factors that modulate serum gut hormone concentrations and time to full enteral feedings. Sixty-four preterm infants less than 30 weeks of gestation were included in this retrospective cohort study. Serum gut hormone concentrations at postnatal days 0 and 7 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Linear regression and mediation analyses were performed. Median (IQR) serum concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) on postnatal day 7 were 31.3 pg/mL (18.2, 52.3) and 1181.7 pg/mL (859.0, 1650.2), respectively. GIP and PYY concentrations on day 7 were associated with days to full enteral feedings after adjustment for confounders (β = -1.1, p = 0.03; and β = -0.002, p = 0.02, respectively). Nutritional intake was correlated with serum concentrations of GIP and PYY on postnatal day 7 and time to full enteral feedings. Mediation analysis revealed that the effect of serum gut hormone concentrations on time to full enteral feedings was not fully explained by nutritional intake. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), mechanical ventilation on postnatal day 7, and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) treated with indomethacin were associated with longer time to full enteral feedings. Serum concentrations of GIP and PYY on postnatal 7 are independently associated with time to full enteral feedings. The link between serum gut hormone concentrations and time to full enteral feedings is not fully mediated by nutritional factors, suggesting an independent mechanism underlying the influence of gut hormones on feeding tolerance and time to full enteral feedings.

  16. Endeavour and its modified 747 carrier aircraft are illuminated by the morning sun after mating was completed in the Mate-DeMate gantry at NASA DFRC

    2008-12-09

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour and its modified Boeing 747 carrier aircraft are illuminated by the morning sun Tuesday after mating of the pair was completed overnight in the Mate-DeMate gantry at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The pair are scheduled to depart Edwards Air Force Base on their ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center early Wednesday morning, Dec. 10.

  17. Copeptin concentration in cord blood in infants with early-onset sepsis, chorioamnionitis and perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Schlapbach, Luregn J; Frey, Stefanie; Bigler, Susanna; Manh-Nhi, Chiem; Aebi, Christoph; Nelle, Mathias; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc

    2011-05-19

    Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish copeptin concentrations in neonates of different stress states such as sepsis, chorioamnionitis and asphyxia. Copeptin cord blood concentration was determined using the BRAHMS kryptor assay. Neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS, n = 30), chorioamnionitis (n = 33) and asphyxia (n = 25) were compared to a control group of preterm and term (n = 155) neonates. Median copeptin concentration in cord blood was 36 pmol/l ranging from undetectable to 5498 pmol/l (IQR 7 - 419). Copeptin cord blood concentrations were non-normally distributed and increased with gestational age (p < 0.0001). Neonates born after vaginal compared to cesarean delivery had elevated copeptin levels (p < 0.0001). Copeptin correlated strongly with umbilical artery pH (Spearman's Rho -0.50, p < 0.0001), umbilical artery base excess (Rho -0.67, p < 0.0001) and with lactate at NICU admission (Rho 0.54, p < 0.0001). No difference was found when comparing copeptin cord blood concentrations between neonates with EOS and controls (multivariate p = 0.30). The highest copeptin concentrations were found in neonates with asphyxia (median 993 pmol/l). Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that copeptin cord blood concentrations were strongly associated with asphyxia: the area under the curve resulted at 0.91 (95%-CI 0.87-0.96, p < 0.0001). A cut-off of 400 pmol/l had a sensitivity of 92% and a specifity of 82% for asphyxia as defined in this study. Copeptin concentrations were strongly related to factors associated with perinatal stress such as birth acidosis, asphyxia and vaginal delivery. In contrast, copeptin appears to be unsuitable for the diagnosis of EOS.

  18. Copeptin concentration in cord blood in infants with early-onset sepsis, chorioamnionitis and perinatal asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish copeptin concentrations in neonates of different stress states such as sepsis, chorioamnionitis and asphyxia. Methods Copeptin cord blood concentration was determined using the BRAHMS kryptor assay. Neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS, n = 30), chorioamnionitis (n = 33) and asphyxia (n = 25) were compared to a control group of preterm and term (n = 155) neonates. Results Median copeptin concentration in cord blood was 36 pmol/l ranging from undetectable to 5498 pmol/l (IQR 7 - 419). Copeptin cord blood concentrations were non-normally distributed and increased with gestational age (p < 0.0001). Neonates born after vaginal compared to cesarean delivery had elevated copeptin levels (p < 0.0001). Copeptin correlated strongly with umbilical artery pH (Spearman's Rho -0.50, p < 0.0001), umbilical artery base excess (Rho -0.67, p < 0.0001) and with lactate at NICU admission (Rho 0.54, p < 0.0001). No difference was found when comparing copeptin cord blood concentrations between neonates with EOS and controls (multivariate p = 0.30). The highest copeptin concentrations were found in neonates with asphyxia (median 993 pmol/l). Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that copeptin cord blood concentrations were strongly associated with asphyxia: the area under the curve resulted at 0.91 (95%-CI 0.87-0.96, p < 0.0001). A cut-off of 400 pmol/l had a sensitivity of 92% and a specifity of 82% for asphyxia as defined in this study. Conclusions Copeptin concentrations were strongly related to factors associated with perinatal stress such as birth acidosis, asphyxia and vaginal delivery. In contrast, copeptin appears to be unsuitable for the diagnosis of EOS. PMID:21595972

  19. Time of administration important? Morning versus evening dosing of valsartan.

    PubMed

    Zappe, Dion H; Crikelair, Nora; Kandra, Albert; Palatini, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest that bedtime dosing of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker shows a more sustained and consistent 24-h antihypertensive profile, including greater night-time blood pressure (BP) reduction. We compared the antihypertensive effects of morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) dosing of valsartan on 24-h BP. This 26-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of valsartan 320 mg, dosed a.m. or p.m., versus lisinopril 40 mg (a.m.), a long-acting ACE-inhibitor, in patients with grade 1-2 hypertension and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Patients (n = 1093; BP = 156 ± 11/91 ± 8 mmHg; 62 years, 56% male, 99% white) received (1 : 1 : 1) valsartan 160 mg a.m. or p.m. or lisinopril 20 mg a.m. for 4 weeks, then force-titrated to double the initial dose for 8 weeks. At Week 12, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg was added for 14 weeks if office BP was more than 140/90 mmHg and/or ambulatory BP more than 130/80 mmHg. Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP change from baseline to Weeks 12 and 26 was comparable between valsartan a.m. (-10.6 and -13.3 mmHg) and p.m. (-9.8 and -12.3 mmHg) and lisinopril (-10.7 and -13.7 mmHg). There was no benefit of valsartan p.m. versus a.m. on night-time BP, early morning BP and morning BP surge. Evening dosing also did not improve BP lowering in patients requiring add-on HCTZ or in nondippers at baseline. All treatments were well tolerated. Once-daily dosing of valsartan 320 mg results in equally effective 24-h BP efficacy, regardless of dosing time. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241124.

  20. Time of administration important? Morning versus evening dosing of valsartan

    PubMed Central

    Zappe, Dion H.; Crikelair, Nora; Kandra, Albert; Palatini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Studies suggest that bedtime dosing of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker shows a more sustained and consistent 24-h antihypertensive profile, including greater night-time blood pressure (BP) reduction. We compared the antihypertensive effects of morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) dosing of valsartan on 24-h BP. Methods: This 26-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of valsartan 320 mg, dosed a.m. or p.m., versus lisinopril 40 mg (a.m.), a long-acting ACE-inhibitor, in patients with grade 1–2 hypertension and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Patients (n = 1093; BP = 156 ± 11/91 ± 8 mmHg; 62 years, 56% male, 99% white) received (1 : 1 : 1) valsartan 160 mg a.m. or p.m. or lisinopril 20 mg a.m. for 4 weeks, then force-titrated to double the initial dose for 8 weeks. At Week 12, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg was added for 14 weeks if office BP was more than 140/90 mmHg and/or ambulatory BP more than 130/80 mmHg. Results: Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP change from baseline to Weeks 12 and 26 was comparable between valsartan a.m. (–10.6 and –13.3 mmHg) and p.m. (–9.8 and –12.3 mmHg) and lisinopril (–10.7 and –13.7 mmHg). There was no benefit of valsartan p.m. versus a.m. on night-time BP, early morning BP and morning BP surge. Evening dosing also did not improve BP lowering in patients requiring add-on HCTZ or in nondippers at baseline. All treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion: Once-daily dosing of valsartan 320 mg results in equally effective 24-h BP efficacy, regardless of dosing time. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241124. PMID:25259546

  1. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P < 0.01) and consumed more herbage (P < 0.01) compared with cows grazed in the morning. Higher (P < 0.05) daily mean concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate and n-butyrate in rumen fluid were observed for cows grazed in the evening compared with cows grazed in the morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P < 0.01) in the urine of cows grazed in the evening than in cows grazed in the morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Early prenatal vitamin D concentrations and social-emotional development in infants.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Devika; Fuemmeler, Bernard; Benjamin-Neelon, Sara E; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan; Daniels, Julie L

    2017-12-04

    Many pregnant women in the United States have suboptimal vitamin D, but the impact on infant development is unclear. Moreover, no pregnancy-specific vitamin D recommendations have been widely accepted. Given the ubiquitous expression of vitamin D receptors in the brain, we investigated the association between early prenatal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and children's social and emotional development in the Newborn Epigenetic Study, a prospective study of pregnancies from 2009 to 2011 in Durham, North Carolina. We measured 25(OH)D concentrations in first or second trimester plasma samples and categorized 25(OH)D concentrations into quartiles. Covariates were derived from maternal questionnaires. Mothers completed the Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Development Assessment when children were 12-24 months of age. We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations between 25(OH)D and specific behavior scores, adjusted for season of blood draw, maternal age, education, parity, smoking, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, and infant gender. We investigated effect-measure modification by race/ethnicity. Of the 218 mother-infant pairs with complete data, Black mothers had much lower 25(OH)D concentrations as compared to White and Hispanic mothers. After adjustment, lower prenatal 25(OH)D was associated with slightly higher (less favorable) Internalizing scores among White children, but lower (more favorable) Internalizing scores among Black and Hispanic children. Lower prenatal 25(OH)D also appears to be associated with higher (less favorable) dysregulation scores, though only among White and Hispanic children. Though imprecise, preliminary results warrant further investigation regarding a role for prenatal vitamin D on children's early social and emotional development.

  3. Reduced serum vitamin D concentrations in healthy early-lactation dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, S J; Wisnieski, L; Gandy, J; Norby, B; Sordillo, L M

    2018-02-01

    Cattle obtain vitamin D by ingestion or cutaneous exposure to UV light. Dairy cattle diets are frequently supplemented with vitamin D to compensate for limited sun exposure or during times of increased metabolic demands, such as the periparturient period, to maintain calcium homeostasis. Whether housing and supplemental vitamin D practices supply adequate amounts of vitamin D to optimally support the transition from gestation to lactation in dairy cattle is unknown. Our objective was to determine how serum vitamin D concentrations of dairy cows change with season, age, parity, and stage of lactation. Clinically healthy cows (n = 183) from 5 commercial dairies were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected at dry off, within 7 d of entering the close-up group, and within 7 d after calving (calving+7). Vitamin D status was determined by measuring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] by radioimmunoassay. We performed repeated-measures mixed-effects linear regression to determine the effects of season, age, parity, and lactation stage (dry off, close-up, and calving+7) on 25(OH)D concentrations in serum. Bivariable analysis indicated that parity, age, and season were not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Sample period affected 25(OH)D concentrations, with the highest 25(OH)D levels at dry off (99.7 ± 1.9 ng/mL) followed by close up (93.8 ± 2.1 ng/mL), with the lowest levels at calving+7 (82.6 ± 1.7 ng/mL). These data showed a large depletion of 25(OH)D in dairy cattle postpartum compared with late prepartum, although the biological significance of this change in these healthy cattle is unclear. Consumption of serum 25(OH)D by immune system functions and calcium homeostasis in early lactation likely caused the reduction in serum 25(OH)D concentrations after calving. These results suggest that determining whether serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with the incidence of transition period disease is an appropriate next step. Assessing the

  4. Prenatal concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl substances and early communication development in British girls.

    PubMed

    Jeddy, Zuha; Hartman, Terryl J; Taylor, Ethel V; Poteete, Cayla; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), found in many household products and classed as endocrine disrupting chemicals, can be transferred through the placenta and are associated with multiple developmental deficits in offspring. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the association between intrauterine exposure to PFAS and early communication development in 432 mother-daughter dyads at 15 and 38months of age. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were measured in maternal serum collected during pregnancy. Early communication development was measured with the ALSPAC-adapted MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories for Infants and Toddlers. The infant questionnaire measured verbal comprehension, vocabulary comprehension and production, nonverbal communication, and social development. The toddler questionnaire measured language, intelligibility, and communicative sub-scores. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between each PFAS exposure and each communication sub-scale score. The association between maternal PFAS concentrations and early communication development at 15 and 38months of age varied by maternal age at delivery. In daughters of younger mothers (<25years of age), every 1ng/mL of PFOS was associated with a 3.82 point (95% confidence interval (CI): -6.18, -1.47) lower vocabulary score at 15months and a 0.80 point (95% CI: -1.74, 0.14) lower language score at 38months. Prenatal exposure to select PFAS was positively and negatively associated with communication development among girls, with inconsistent pattern of association across all measured PFAS and endpoints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl substances and early communication development in British girls

    PubMed Central

    Jeddy, Zuha; Hartman, Terryl J.; Taylor, Ethel V.; Poteete, Cayla; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), found in many household products and classed as endocrine disrupting chemicals, can be transferred through the placenta and are associated with multiple developmental deficits in offspring. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the association between intrauterine exposure to PFAS and early communication development in 432 mother-daughter dyads at 15 and 38 months of age. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were measured in maternal serum collected during pregnancy. Early communication development was measured with the ALSPAC-adapted MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories for Infants and Toddlers. The infant questionnaire measured verbal comprehension, vocabulary comprehension and production, nonverbal communication, and social development. The toddler questionnaire measured language, intelligibility, and communicative subscores. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between each PFAS exposure and each communication sub-scale score. The association between maternal PFAS concentrations and early communication development at 15 and 38 months of age varied by maternal age at delivery. In daughters of younger mothers (< 25 years of age), every 1 ng/mL of PFOS was associated with a 3.82 point (95% confidence interval (CI): −6.18, −1.47) lower vocabulary score at 15 months and a 0.80 point (95% CI: −1.74, 0.14) lower language score at 38 months. Prenatal exposure to select PFAS was positively and negatively associated with communication development among girls, with inconsistent pattern of association across all measured PFAS and endpoints. PMID:28411449

  6. Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Eleni; John, Eleanor H.; Edgar, Kirsty M.; Foster, Gavin L.; Ridgwell, Andy; Inglis, Gordon N.; Pancost, Richard D.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pearson, Paul N.

    2016-05-01

    The Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, which occurred about 51 to 53 million years ago), was the warmest interval of the past 65 million years, with mean annual surface air temperature over ten degrees Celsius warmer than during the pre-industrial period. Subsequent global cooling in the middle and late Eocene epoch, especially at high latitudes, eventually led to continental ice sheet development in Antarctica in the early Oligocene epoch (about 33.6 million years ago). However, existing estimates place atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during the Eocene at 500-3,000 parts per million, and in the absence of tighter constraints carbon-climate interactions over this interval remain uncertain. Here we use recent analytical and methodological developments to generate a new high-fidelity record of CO2 concentrations using the boron isotope (δ11B) composition of well preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Tanzania Drilling Project, revising previous estimates. Although species-level uncertainties make absolute values difficult to constrain, CO2 concentrations during the EECO were around 1,400 parts per million. The relative decline in CO2 concentration through the Eocene is more robustly constrained at about fifty per cent, with a further decline into the Oligocene. Provided the latitudinal dependency of sea surface temperature change for a given climate forcing in the Eocene was similar to that of the late Quaternary period, this CO2 decline was sufficient to drive the well documented high- and low-latitude cooling that occurred through the Eocene. Once the change in global temperature between the pre-industrial period and the Eocene caused by the action of all known slow feedbacks (apart from those associated with the carbon cycle) is removed, both the EECO and the late Eocene exhibit an equilibrium climate sensitivity relative to the pre-industrial period of 2.1 to 4.6 degrees Celsius per CO2 doubling (66 per cent confidence), which is similar to the

  7. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright-light duration?

    PubMed

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2015-02-01

    Efficient treatments to phase-advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early-morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright-light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9 ± 5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 h/day for three treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg of melatonin 5 h before the baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright-light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-min exposures separated by 30 min of room light (2-h group), four 15-min exposures separated by 45 min of room light (1-h group), and one 30-min exposure (0.5-h group). Dim-light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. Compared to the 2-h group (phase shift = 2.4 ± 0.8 h), smaller phase-advance shifts were seen in the 1-h (1.7 ± 0.7 h) and 0.5-h (1.8 ± 0.8 h) groups. The 2-h pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-min bright-light exposure was as effective as 1 h of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and it produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 h of bright light. A 30-min morning bright-light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase-advance human circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright light duration?

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Stephanie J.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Efficient treatments to phase advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. METHODS Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9±5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 hour/day for 3 treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg melatonin 5 hours before baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-minute exposures separated by 30 minutes of room light (2 h group); four 15-minute exposures separated by 45 minutes of room light (1 h group), and one 30-minute exposure (0.5 h group). Dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. RESULTS Compared to the 2 h group (phase shift=2.4±0.8 h), smaller phase advance shifts were seen in the 1 h (1.7±0.7 h) and 0.5 h (1.8±0.8 h) groups. The 2-hour pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-minute bright light exposure was as effective as 1 hour of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 hours of bright light. CONCLUSIONS A 30-minute morning bright light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase advance human circadian rhythms. PMID:25620199

  9. From a Parent's Perspective: Hints for Morning Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Roslyn

    1996-01-01

    Recommends the development of a routine to transform the morning getting-ready battleground into a congenial team effort. Offers hints for a successful routine, including expecting everyone to be dressed before breakfast; considering having no TV; eliminating most morning decision-making; involving everyone; and not using rewards with routines.…

  10. Saturday Morning Cartoons and Children's Perceptions of Social Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Karen

    This paper examines the effects of Saturday morning cartoons on children's perceptions of social reality. The study consisted of an analysis of programs appearing between 8 and 11 o'clock in the morning on September 15, 1990, and June 9, 1992, focusing on the ethnicity, gender, and age of characters, the positive or negative portrayal of…

  11. Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick walls along the boundary of the cemetery; interior view taken from midway down the paved west road with the camera facing west to capture the morning light on the west wall. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  12. Parallel evolution of storage roots in Morning Glories (Convolvulaceae)

    Storage roots are an ecologically and agriculturally important plant trait. In morning glories, storage roots are well characterized in the crop species sweetpotato. Storage roots have evolved numerous times across the morning glory family. This study aims to understand whether this was through para...

  13. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.
METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.
CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has

  14. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  15. Developing the remote sensing-based early warning system for monitoring TSS concentrations in Lake Mead.

    PubMed

    Imen, Sanaz; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Adjustment of the water treatment process to changes in water quality is a focus area for engineers and managers of water treatment plants. The desired and preferred capability depends on timely and quantitative knowledge of water quality monitoring in terms of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. This paper presents the development of a suite of nowcasting and forecasting methods by using high-resolution remote-sensing-based monitoring techniques on a daily basis. First, the integrated data fusion and mining (IDFM) technique was applied to develop a near real-time monitoring system for daily nowcasting of the TSS concentrations. Then a nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input (NARXNET) model was selected and applied for forecasting analysis of the changes in TSS concentrations over time on a rolling basis onward using the IDFM technique. The implementation of such an integrated forecasting and nowcasting approach was assessed by a case study at Lake Mead hosting the water intake for Las Vegas, Nevada, in the water-stressed western U.S. Long-term monthly averaged results showed no simultaneous impact from forest fire events on accelerating the rise of TSS concentration. However, the results showed a probable impact of a decade of drought on increasing TSS concentration in the Colorado River Arm and Overton Arm. Results of the forecasting model highlight the reservoir water level as a significant parameter in predicting TSS in Lake Mead. In addition, the R-squared value of 0.98 and the root mean square error of 0.5 between the observed and predicted TSS values demonstrates the reliability and application potential of this remote sensing-based early warning system in terms of TSS projections at a drinking water intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved prediction of tacrolimus concentrations early after kidney transplantation using theory-based pharmacokinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Størset, Elisabet; Holford, Nick; Hennig, Stefanie; Bergmann, Troels K; Bergan, Stein; Bremer, Sara; Åsberg, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Staatz, Christine E

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to develop a theory-based population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus in adult kidney transplant recipients and to externally evaluate this model and two previous empirical models. Data were obtained from 242 patients with 3100 tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. External evaluation was performed by examining model predictive performance using Bayesian forecasting. Pharmacokinetic disposition parameters were estimated based on tacrolimus plasma concentrations, predicted from whole blood concentrations, haematocrit and literature values for tacrolimus binding to red blood cells. Disposition parameters were allometrically scaled to fat free mass. Tacrolimus whole blood clearance/bioavailability standardized to haematocrit of 45% and fat free mass of 60 kg was estimated to be 16.1 l h−1 [95% CI 12.6, 18.0 l h−1]. Tacrolimus clearance was 30% higher (95% CI 13, 46%) and bioavailability 18% lower (95% CI 2, 29%) in CYP3A5 expressers compared with non-expressers. An Emax model described decreasing tacrolimus bioavailability with increasing prednisolone dose. The theory-based model was superior to the empirical models during external evaluation displaying a median prediction error of −1.2% (95% CI −3.0, 0.1%). Based on simulation, Bayesian forecasting led to 65% (95% CI 62, 68%) of patients achieving a tacrolimus average steady-state concentration within a suggested acceptable range. A theory-based population pharmacokinetic model was superior to two empirical models for prediction of tacrolimus concentrations and seemed suitable for Bayesian prediction of tacrolimus doses early after kidney transplantation.

  17. Comparing Performance During Morning vs. Afternoon Training Sessions in Intercollegiate Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Heishman, Aaron D; Curtis, Michael A; Saliba, Ethan N; Hornett, Robert J; Malin, Steven K; Weltman, Arthur L

    2017-06-01

    Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian and/or ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can affect training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs. afternoon strength training on an acute performance index of fatigue (countermovement jump height, CMJ), player readiness (Omegawave), and self-reported sleep quantity. We hypothesized that afternoon training sessions would be associated with increased levels of performance, readiness, and self-reported sleep. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the preseason on 10 elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 male basketball players. All basketball-related activities were performed in the afternoon with strength and conditioning activities performed either in the morning or in the afternoon. The average values for CMJ, power output (Power), self-reported sleep quantity (sleep), and player readiness were examined. When player load and duration were matched, CMJ (58.8 ± 1.3 vs. 61.9 ± 1.6 cm, p = 0.009), Power (6,378.0 ± 131.2 vs. 6,622.1 ± 172.0 W, p = 0.009), and self-reported sleep duration (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 7.4 ± 0.25 p = 0.016) were significantly higher with afternoon strength and conditioning training, with no differences observed in player readiness values. We conclude that performance is suppressed with morning training and is associated with a decrease in self-reported quantity of sleep.

  18. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and early reproductive health outcomes among women undergoing IVF.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L; Missmer, Stacey A; Flaws, Jodi A; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Petrozza, John C; Wright, Diane; Hauser, Russ

    2012-12-01

    In women undergoing IVF, are urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations associated with ovarian response and early reproductive outcomes, including oocyte maturation and fertilization, Day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst formation? Higher urinary BPA concentrations were found to be associated with decreased ovarian response, number of fertilized oocytes and decreased blastocyst formation. Experimental animal and in vitro studies have reported associations between BPA exposure and adverse reproductive outcomes. We previously reported an association between urinary BPA and decreased ovarian response [peak serum estradiol (E(2)) and oocyte count at the time of retrieval] in women undergoing IVF; however, there are limited human data on reproductive health outcomes, such as fertilization and embryo development. Prospective preconception cohort study. One hundred and seventy-four women aged 18-45 years and undergoing 237 IVF cycles were recruited at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center, Boston, MA, USA, between November 2004 and August 2010. These women were followed until they either had a live birth or discontinued treatment. Cryothaw and donor egg cycles were not included in the analysis. Urinary BPA concentrations were measured by online solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed effect models, poisson regression and multivariate logistic regression models were used wherever appropriate to evaluate the association between cycle-specific urinary BPA concentrations and measures of ovarian response, oocyte maturation (metaphase II), fertilization, embryo quality and cleavage rate. We accounted for correlation among multiple IVF cycles in the same woman using generalized estimating equations. The geometric mean (SD) for urinary BPA concentrations was 1.50 (2.22) µg/l. After adjustment for age and other potential confounders (Day 3 serum FSH, smoking, BMI), there was a significant linear

  19. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  20. Sulfidic Anion Concentrations on Early Earth for Surficial Origins-of-Life Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Todd, Zoe R; Sutherland, John D; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2018-04-08

    A key challenge in origin-of-life studies is understanding the environmental conditions on early Earth under which abiogenesis occurred. While some constraints do exist (e.g., zircon evidence for surface liquid water), relatively few constraints exist on the abundances of trace chemical species, which are relevant to assessing the plausibility and guiding the development of postulated prebiotic chemical pathways which depend on these species. In this work, we combine literature photochemistry models with simple equilibrium chemistry calculations to place constraints on the plausible range of concentrations of sulfidic anions (HS - , HSO 3 - , SO 3 2- ) available in surficial aquatic reservoirs on early Earth due to outgassing of SO 2 and H 2 S and their dissolution into small shallow surface water reservoirs like lakes. We find that this mechanism could have supplied prebiotically relevant levels of SO 2 -derived anions, but not H 2 S-derived anions. Radiative transfer modeling suggests UV light would have remained abundant on the planet surface for all but the largest volcanic explosions. We apply our results to the case study of the proposed prebiotic reaction network of Patel et al. ( 2015 ) and discuss the implications for improving its prebiotic plausibility. In general, epochs of moderately high volcanism could have been especially conducive to cyanosulfidic prebiotic chemistry. Our work can be similarly applied to assess and improve the prebiotic plausibility of other postulated surficial prebiotic chemistries that are sensitive to sulfidic anions, and our methods adapted to study other atmospherically derived trace species. Key Words: Early Earth-Origin of life-Prebiotic chemistry-Volcanism-UV radiation-Planetary environments. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  1. Influence of rheumatoid arthritis-related morning stiffness on productivity at work: results from a survey in 11 European countries.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Kalle; Buttgereit, Frank; Tuominen, Risto

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of morning stiffness on productivity at work and to estimate the work-related economic consequences of morning stiffness among patients with RA-related morning stiffness in 11 European countries. The original sample comprised 1061 RA patients from 11 European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden and UK). They had been diagnosed with RA and experience morning stiffness three or more times per week. Data were collected by interviews. Women comprised 77.9 % of the sample, the average age was 50.4 years, and 84.3 % had RA diagnosed for more than 2 years. Overall costs of RA-related morning stiffness was calculated to be 27,712€ per patient per year, varying from 4965€ in Spain to 66,706€ in Norway. On average, 96 % of the overall production losses were attributed to early retirement, with a markedly lower level (77 %) in Italy than in other countries (p < 0.0001). The proportion of patients who reported retirement due to morning stiffness and productivity losses due to late work arrivals and working while sick showed considerable variation across the countries represented in the study. Overall, the average annual cost of late arrivals (0.8 % of the total costs) was approximately half of the costs attributed to sick leave (1.7 %) and working while sick (1.5 %). Morning stiffness due to RA causes significant production losses and is a significant cost burden throughout Europe. There seem to be notable differences in the impact of morning stiffness on productivity between European countries.

  2. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.

  3. Morning-evening difference of team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances in female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Mhenni, Thouraya; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the two different time-of-day effect on team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances. At two different time-of-day, fifteen young female team handball players performed different physical tests: HandGrip (HG) test, Ball-Throwing Velocity (BTV) test, Modified Agility T-test (MAT) and Repeated Shuttle-Sprint and Jump Ability (RSSJA) test. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was determined following the termination of the last test. Measurements were performed at two separate testing sessions (i.e., in the morning (7:00-8:30 h) and in the early evening (17:00-18:30 h)) in a randomised and counter-balanced setting on non-consecutive days. The results showed that HG (P = 0.0013), BTV (P = 0.0027) and MAT (P < 0.001) performances were better in the evening compared with the morning. During RSSJA, both best and mean sprint times were shorter in the evening compared to the morning (P < 0.001). Moreover, during the latter test, mean jump performance was higher in the evening compared to the morning (P = 0.026). However, there was no morning-evening difference in the best jump performance during RSSJA. Likewise, jump performance decrement was not affected by the time-of-day of testing. On the other hand, RPE fluctuated, with morning nadirs and afternoon/early evening highest values. The findings suggest that in female team handball players, team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances were better in the afternoon than in the morning.

  4. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise Performed in the Morning and Evening on Inflammatory Cytokine and Metabolic Hormone Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Tabata, Hiroki; Endo, Naoya; Numao, Shigeharu; Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Hak; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of endurance exercise performed in the morning and evening on inflammatory cytokine responses in young men. Methods Fourteen healthy male participants aged 24.3 ± 0.8 years (mean ± standard error) performed endurance exercise in the morning (0900–1000 h) on one day and then in the evening (1700–1800 h) on another day with an interval of at least 1 week between each trial. In both the morning and evening trials, the participants walked for 60 minutes at approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max) on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected to determine hormones and inflammatory cytokines at pre-exercise, immediately post exercise, and 2 h post exercise. Results Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher immediately after exercise in the evening trial than in the morning trial (P < 0.01, both). Serum free fatty acids concentrations were significantly higher in the evening trial than in the morning trial at 2 h after exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the levels of IL-6 immediately post-exercise and free fatty acids 2 h post-exercise in the evening (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that the effect of acute endurance exercise in the evening enhances the plasma IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations compared to that in the morning. In addition, IL-6 was involved in increasing free fatty acids, suggesting that the evening is more effective for exercise-induced lipolysis compared with the morning. PMID:26352938

  5. Morning view, contextual view showing unpaved corridor down the westernmost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing unpaved corridor down the westernmost lane where the wall section (E) will be removed; camera facing north-northwest. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  6. Morning view, contextual view showing the road and gate to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing the road and gate to be widened; view taken from the statue area with the camera facing north. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  7. Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wallconstruction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wall-construction detail. North wall, with the camera facing northwest. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  8. Morning view of the exterior of the gate and white ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view of the exterior of the gate and white posts to be reworked/widened; camera facing south looking into the cemetery toward the statue. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  9. Morning view of the exterior of the westernmost wall section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view of the exterior of the westernmost wall section to be removed; camera facing south. Unpaved road in foreground; tree canopy in background. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  10. Photoperiodic Treatments in Morning Glory: A Laboratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Hounshell, Paul B.

    1978-01-01

    The Japanese morning glory, a short-day plant, is an excellent specimen for studying photoperiodism. This article gives ideas for investigations including the effects of hormones, light quality, and temperature. Preparation of the seed is also discussed. (BB)

  11. Comparing Performance During Morning vs. Afternoon Training Sessions in Intercollegiate Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Heishman, Aaron D.; Curtis, Michael A.; Saliba, Ethan N.; Hornett, Robert J.; Malin, Steven K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Heishman, AD, Curtis, MA, Saliba, EN, Hornett, RJ, Malin, SK, and Weltman, AL. Comparing performance during morning vs. afternoon training sessions in intercollegiate basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1557–1562, 2017—Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian and/or ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can affect training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs. afternoon strength training on an acute performance index of fatigue (countermovement jump height, CMJ), player readiness (Omegawave), and self-reported sleep quantity. We hypothesized that afternoon training sessions would be associated with increased levels of performance, readiness, and self-reported sleep. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the preseason on 10 elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 male basketball players. All basketball-related activities were performed in the afternoon with strength and conditioning activities performed either in the morning or in the afternoon. The average values for CMJ, power output (Power), self-reported sleep quantity (sleep), and player readiness were examined. When player load and duration were matched, CMJ (58.8 ± 1.3 vs. 61.9 ± 1.6 cm, p = 0.009), Power (6,378.0 ± 131.2 vs. 6,622.1 ± 172.0 W, p = 0.009), and self-reported sleep duration (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 7.4 ± 0.25 p = 0.016) were significantly higher with afternoon strength and conditioning training, with no differences observed in player readiness values. We conclude that performance is

  12. Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance.

    PubMed

    Leichtfried, Veronika; Mair-Raggautz, Maria; Schaeffer, Viktoria; Hammerer-Lercher, Angelika; Mair, Gerald; Bartenbach, Christian; Canazei, Markus; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance and alertness are two determinants for work efficiency, varying throughout the day and depending on bright light. We conducted a prospective crossover study evaluating the impacts of exposure to an intense, early morning illumination on sustained attention, alertness, mood, and serum melatonin levels in 33 healthy individuals. Compared with a dim illumination, the intense illumination negatively impacted performance requiring sustained attention; however, it positively impacted subjective alertness and mood and had no impact on serum melatonin levels. These results suggest that brief exposure to bright light in the morning hours can improve subjective measures of mood and alertness, but can also have detrimental effects on mental performance as a result of visual distraction. Therefore, it is important that adequate lighting should correspond to both non-visual and visual demands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep-Wake Cycle, Daytime Sleepiness, and Attention Components in Children Attending Preschool in the Morning and Afternoon Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belísio, Aline S.; Kolodiuk, Fernanda F.; Louzada, Fernando M.; Valdez, Pablo; Azevedo, Carolina V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Children tend to sleep and wake up early and to exhibit daytime sleep episodes. To evaluate the impact of school start times on sleepiness and attention in preschool children, this study compared the temporal patterns of sleep, daytime sleepiness, and the components of attention between children aged 4-6 years that study in the morning (n = 66)…

  14. The Price-Concentration Relationship in Early Residential Solar Third-Party Markets

    SciT

    Pless, Jacquelyn; Langheim, Ria; Machak, Christina

    find that firms charged higher prices in more competitive markets in our sample. The finding is robust across multiple definitions of firm concentration. There are at least two potential explanations for our findings. First, firms could be conducting entry deterrence strategies. It is possible that firms are acting in a non-competitive way and setting prices lower than they would be otherwise. Setting low prices that are below potential competitors' marginal costs could deter entrants and ensure a larger market share. Second, there could be a group of dominant firms (with a competitive fringe), and the dominant firms may occasionally engage in price wars. If this is true, prices should be lower in more concentrated markets during the price wars (Salinger, 1990). As the rooftop PV market continues to grow, market structure will remain a relevant policy issue in consideration of the potential for rooftop solar to contribute to de-carbonization efforts or other policy objectives. This paper adds to a growing emphasis on understanding supply-side factors in scaling up solar markets in the residential sector. Generally, solar markets have become more competitive over the same time period that solar technology costs decreased. While solar system hard costs have come down, our research suggests that total costs are more nuanced in early solar system TPO markets. Policymakers should consider these findings when designing markets, and have the data needed to make informed decisions.« less

  15. Online self-expression and experimentation as 'reflectivism': Using text analytics to examine the participatory forum Hello Sunday Morning.

    PubMed

    Carah, Nicholas; Meurk, Carla; Angus, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Hello Sunday Morning is an online health promotion organisation that began in 2009. Hello Sunday Morning asks participants to stop consuming alcohol for a period of time, set a goal and document their progress on a personal blog. Hello Sunday Morning is a unique health intervention for three interrelated reasons: (1) it was generated outside a clinical setting, (2) it uses new media technologies to create structured forms of participation in an iterative and open-ended way and (3) participants generate a written record of their progress along with demographic, behavioural and engagement data. This article presents a text analysis of the blog posts of Hello Sunday Morning participants using the software program Leximancer. Analysis of blogs illustrates how participants' expressions change over time. In the first month, participants tended to set goals, describe their current drinking practices in individual and cultural terms, express hopes and anxieties and report on early efforts to change. After month 1, participants continued to report on efforts to change and associated challenges and reflect on their place as individuals in a drinking culture. In addition to this, participants evaluated their efforts to change and presented their 'findings' and 'theorised' them to provide advice for others. We contextualise this text analysis with respect to Hello Sunday Morning's development of more structured forms of online participation. We offer a critical appraisal of the value of text analytics in the development of online health interventions.

  16. Phytotoxic components produced by pathogenic Fusarium against morning glory.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Saito, Fukuko; Miyagawa, Hisahi; Watanabe, Ken; Ueno, Tamio; Sakata, Kanzo; Ogawa, Kei

    2005-01-01

    A pathogenic isolate of Fusarium, F. oxysporum f. sp. batatas O-17 (PF), causes wilt disease in leaf etiolation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and morning glory (Ipomoea tricolor). Extracts from PF cultures were screened for phytotoxic components using a growth inhibition assay with morning glory seedlings. The extracts were fractionated using differential solvent extraction and two active compounds, ergosterol and fusalanipyrone, were isolated from the less-polar fraction. Growth inhibition of morning glory seedlings showed a sigmoidal dose-response relationship, with fusalanipyrone exhibiting a two order of magnitude higher EC50 value than ergosterol (18 nM and 1.6 microM, respectively). Both compounds showed lower growth inhibition activity towards lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa). This study provides information on the phytotoxic components of PF and discusses the mechanism behind PFf-induced phytotoxicity.

  17. The morning and late-night salivary cortisol ranges for healthy women may be used in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ambroziak, Urszula; Kondracka, Agnieszka; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Krasnodębska-Kiljańska, Małgorzata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of adrenal dysfunction in pregnancy and in women taking oral contraceptives remains a diagnostic challenge. Salivary cortisol seems to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency. However, the changes in salivary cortisol concentration in healthy pregnancy are not clearly defined. The aim of our study was to compare diurnal changes in salivary cortisol in healthy pregnant women, healthy controls and women on oral contraceptives. The study groups consisted of (i) 41 healthy pregnant women, (ii) 42 healthy women and (iii) 12 healthy women on oral contraceptives. Serum and salivary cortisol in the morning and salivary late-night cortisol were measured with Roche ECLIA cortisol test (Elecsys 2010) in each trimester and postpartum. Despite the elevation of morning serum cortisol in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, the morning salivary values as well as late-night salivary cortisol throughout all trimesters were not significantly different from control values (P > 0·5). In the postpartum period, the morning and late-night salivary cortisol values were significantly lower than in late pregnancy. The morning and late-night salivary cortisol values in women on contraceptives were also not different from those in the healthy women group. The results of our study suggest that reference values for salivary cortisol established for a healthy adult population can be used for pregnant women and women on oral contraceptives in the initial diagnostic testing for Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Photographic copy of September 16, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of September 16, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune newspaper article. Located in a photo album at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. SEPTEMBER 16, 1931 NEW ORLEANS MORNING TRIBUNE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE AND PICTURE OF BRIDGE BID OPENING FEATURING LOUISIANA GOVERNOR HUEY LONG, NEW ORLEANS MAYOR WALMSLEY, STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION CHAIRMAN O.K. ALLEN AND PUBLIC BELT RAILROAD CHIEF ENGINEER ROBERT BARCLAY. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  19. Photographic copy of October 4, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of October 4, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune newspaper article. Located in a photo album at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. OCTOBER 4, 1931 NEW ORLEANS MORNING TRIBUNE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ANNOUNCING THAT THE WORK ON THE NEW BRIDGE IS EXPECTED TO START IN 90 DAYS. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  20. Suppressing the morning rise in cortisol impairs free recall.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-04-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning awakening, following administration of the cortisol synthesis inhibitor metyrapone or placebo. Unexpectedly, the metyrapone-induced cortisol suppression significantly impaired free recall of both materials. Recognition remained unaffected. Thus, not only high, but also very low glucocorticoid levels impair retrieval, with the latter effect possibly reflecting insufficient occupation of hippocampal/amygdalar mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs).

  1. Immunologic and clinical responses to "Monday morning miseries" antigens.

    PubMed

    Cernelc, S; Stropnik, Z

    1987-01-01

    Authors analysed 96 workers exposed to air conditioning system (Group A), and 71 workers (Group B) breathing normal ambient air. 38 workers in group A had a positive clinical history of "Monday morning miseries". Eight cases with the diagnosis hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute and chronic form was based on environmental history, clinical investigations, physical examination, Chest-X-ray examination, immunological test "in vivo" and "in vitro" with common allergens and antigen "Monday morning miseries", ELISA, spirometry and PEFR (Peak Expiratory Flow-Rate) measurements. Exposure to contaminated air may be responsible for morbidity and reduced performance of workers.

  2. Comparison of accuracy of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in blood and milk for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Z; Petrajtis-Gołobów, M; Melo de Sousa, N; Beckers, J F; Pawliński, B; Wehrend, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of early pregnancy diagnosis by determining pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in blood and PAG concentration in milk. Blood and milk samples were obtained on days 0 (AI day), 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 105 of gestation from 60 lactating Holstein Frisian cows from one herd, carrying live fetuses. To determine PAG concentration a specific RIA system (RIA-706) was used. PAG concentration in blood and milk increased after 28 days of pregnancy, with blood concentrations being significantly higher than in milk. However, the accuracy of both tests at this time point was similar (sensitivity: 92 % in blood, 93 % in milk; specificity 53 % and 60 % respectively). None of the tests were able to detect open cows properly at this stage. On day 35 of gestation sensitivity (100 % for blood, 97 % for milk) and specificity (100 % for blood, 100 % for milk) were high enough to be used for reliable pregnancy diagnosis. The accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) for PAG concentrations in blood and milk for the rest of the study was 100 %. Our investigation shows that PAG determination in milk is a stress-free and non-invasive method for early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle.

  3. The effects of energy concentration in roughage and allowance of concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency of pluriparous dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Rolf; Schnabel, Karina; von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Spiekers, Hubert; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different energy supplies from roughage and concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency during early lactation. For this purpose an experiment was conducted containing 64 pluriparous German Holstein cows from 3 weeks prepartum until 16 weeks postpartum. During dry period all cows received an equal dry cow ration. After calving, cows were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of four groups, receiving either a moderate (MR, 6.0 MJ NE L ) or a high (HR, 6.4 MJ NE L ) energy concentration in roughage and furthermore moderate (MC, 150 g/kg energy-corrected milk (ECM)) or high amounts of concentrates (HC, 250 g/kg ECM) on dry matter (DM) basis, which were allocated from an automatic feeding system. Higher allocation of concentrates resulted in an increase of DM intake at expense of roughage intake. HC cows had a higher milk yield than MC cows, whereas ECM was higher in HR cows due to a decrease of milk fat yield in MR groups. Energy balance and body condition score were elevated in HC cows, but no differences occurred in development of subclinical ketosis. Furthermore, energy efficiency variables were lower in HC groups because the greater energy intake was not associated with a considerable elevation of milk yield. Consistency of faeces did not indicate digestive disorders in any of the treatment groups although the faecal manure score was significantly lower in HR groups. Our results underline the importance of a high energy uptake from roughage, which can contribute to an adequate performance and beneficial efficiency, especially at lower amounts of concentrates in ration. Feeding concentrates on an average amount of 9.4 kg/d compared to 6.4 kg/d on DM basis improved the energy balance in our trial, but without consequences for metabolic blood variables and general health of the cows.

  4. Team Teaching in the Saturday Morning Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Pearl G.; And Others

    The Marie Curie Mathematics and Science Center at St. Thomas Aquinas College (New York), in a comprehensive effort to improve mathematics and science education, offers the Saturday Morning Search for Solutions enrichment program for area students in grades 7-12. The program is interdisciplinary, connecting technology and the study of societal…

  5. Morning view, contextual view of the exterior west side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view of the exterior west side of the north wall along the unpaved road; camera facing west, positioned in road approximately 8 posts west of the gate. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  6. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  7. "Brown Morning": Classed Interpretations of Anti-Racist Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Dana; Shoshana, Avihu

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the interpretations of high school students from different socioeconomic locations (in terms of socioeconomic class and ethnicity) with regard to the text "Brown Morning," used as a didactic tool for antiracism education within the framework of Civics courses. The research findings uncover differences in the…

  8. Morning Star Cycle Two: Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, L. V.

    Semi-structured telephone interviews were used to gather follow-up data on students who completed the 1977-1979 Morning Star cycle two program, a community-based Native teacher education program at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta. Of the 24 students who completed…

  9. Morning Star Cycle Two (1977-1979): Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, L. V.

    Evaluation of cycle two of the (1977-1979) Morning Star program (a 2-year Native teacher education program at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta) used a systems model to collect data on 24 variables for the 33 participating students, the academic program, and first and…

  10. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  11. Concentrations of retinoids in early pregnancy and in newborns and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Berggren Söderlund, Maria; Fex, Göran A; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Retinoids are vital for embryonic development; both excesses and deficiencies of vitamin A are known to give similar patterns of birth defects. Concentrations of retinol in newborns and in pregnant women have been investigated, but concentrations of the biologically active metabolite all-trans retinoic acid and its isomer 13-cis retinoic acid have not. We measured serum concentrations of these retinoid derivatives in newborns and their mothers and in women in the first trimester of pregnancy, when embryonic differentiation (organogenesis) takes place. In this descriptive study, 10 newborns from normal deliveries and their mothers and 16 healthy women in their first trimester of pregnancy were studied. Seventeen healthy women served as control subjects. all-trans and 13-cis Retinoic acid and retinol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The newborns had significantly lower retinol concentrations (1.0 micromol/L) than did their mothers (1.7 micromol/L; P = 0.013). Serum all-trans retinoic acid was also significantly lower in the newborns (3.4 nmol/L) than in their mothers (5.8 nmol/L; P = 0.008). In addition, serum concentrations of 13-cis retinoic acid were significantly lower in the newborns (2.0 nmol/L) than in their mothers (2.6 nmol/L; P = 0.005). The serum concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid and retinol did not correlate in any group. Retinol concentrations do not accurately reflect the concentrations of the biologically active derivative all-trans retinoic acid.

  12. Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia is related to parathyroid dysfunction even in patients with normal parathyroid hormone concentrations early after surgery.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marco; De Crea, Carmela; D'Amato, Gerardo; Moscato, Umberto; Bellantone, Chiara; Carrozza, Cinzia; Lombardi, Celestino Pio

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia may develop even in the presence of normal postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. We aimed to identify risk factors of hypocalcemia in patients with normal PTH concentration early after total thyroidectomy (TT). We included 1,504 consecutive patients who underwent TT between January 2012 and December 2013. Significant hypocalcemia was defined as serum calcium concentrations of <8.0 mg/dL. Overall, 333 patients had subnormal PTH 4 hours after surgery (4-hour PTH; <10 pg/mL) and received oral calcium (OC) and calcitriol supplementation. Among the 1,171 patients with normal 4-hour PTH (≥ 10 pg/mL; euparathyroid), 211 experienced hypocalcemia and required OC administration. Among the euparathyroid patients, no difference was found between normocalcemic and hypocalcemic patients in terms of age, hormonal status, preoperative PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OH-VD), magnesium, and phosphate concentrations. On univariate analysis, euparathyroid hypocalcemic patients were more frequently females, had significantly lower preoperative serum calcium and 4-hour PTH concentrations, and greater decreases in PTH. Independent risk factors for hypocalcemia with normal 4-hour PTH were preoperative serum calcium concentration and PTH decline of ≥ 50%. Female sex, toxic goiter, and 25OH-VD deficiency are not risk factors for post-TT hypocalcemia. Relative parathyroid insufficiency seems to be the principal mechanism of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia, even in patients with normal postoperative PTH concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of early serotonin programming on behavior and central monoamine concentrations in an avian model

    Serotonin (5-HT) acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain; however serotonin altering drugs such as SSRIs are often prescribed to pregnant and lactating mothers. Early agonism of 5-HT receptors could alter the development of serotonergic circuitry, altering neurotransmission and behavio...

  14. Developing a Framework of System Change between Diametric and Concentric Spaces for Early School Leaving Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A "spatial turn" is observed as taking place across a range of disciplines. This article discusses the relevance of this "spatial turn" to the issue of early school leaving prevention and engagement of marginalised students and their parents within the educational system and other support services. Building on…

  15. Tretinoin gel microsphere pump 0.04% plus 5% benzoyl peroxide wash for treatment of acne vulgaris: morning/morning regimen is as effective and safe as morning/evening regimen.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David; Bucko, Alicia; Fried, Richard; Jarratt, Michael T; Kempers, Steven; Kircik, Leon; Lucky, Anne W; Rafal, Elyse; Rendon, Marta; Weiss, Jonathan; Wilson, David C; Rossi, Ana Beatris; Ramaswamy, Ratna; Nighland, Marge

    2010-07-01

    Topical tretinoin and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) are often prescribed in combination for the treatment of acne vulgaris; however, these products have not traditionally been administered simultaneously because of the potential for tretinoin degradation by BPO as well as the instability of tretinoin in daylight. The primary objective of this randomized, investigator-blinded, 12-week, phase 4 trial was to determine non-inferiority of a once-daily morning combination regimen of 5% BPO wash + tretinoin gel microsphere (TGM) 0.04% pump versus a sequential regimen (BPO in the morning/TGM in the evening) in patients > or = 12 years old with moderate facial acne vulgaris. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in total acne lesions; the primary safety endpoint was the change in cutaneous irritation scores. The 247 participants (mean age: 18.5 years) were randomized to either the morning/morning regimen (n = 123) or the morning/evening regimen (n = 124). The morning/morning regimen was determined to be non-inferior to the morning/evening regimen in reduction of total acne lesions. The tolerability of both regimens was comparable. The morning/morning regimen is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with moderate acne vulgaris.

  16. Short communication: Associations between blood glucose concentration, onset of hyperketonemia, and milk production in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, J; Borchardt, S; Heuwieser, W

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations between hypoglycemia and the onset of hyperketonemia (HYK) within the first 6 wk of lactation, to evaluate the effects of body condition score at calving on glucose concentration, and to study the effects of hypoglycemia on milk production. A total of 621 dairy cows from 6 commercial dairy farms in Germany were enrolled between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM). Cows were tested twice weekly using an electronic handheld meter for glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), respectively, for a period of 42 d. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose concentration ≤2.2 mmol/L. Hyperketonemia was defined as a BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. The onset of HYK was described as early onset (first HYK event within the first 2 wk postpartum) and late onset (first HYK event in wk 3 to 6 postpartum). The effect of ketosis status on blood glucose within 42 DIM was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. No effect was observed of HYK on glucose concentration in primiparous cows. Multiparous cows with early-onset HYK had a lower glucose concentration (-0.21 mmol/L) compared with nonketotic cows. Overall, primiparous cows had a lower prevalence and incidence of hypoglycemia than multiparous cows. Hypoglycemia in multiparous cows was associated with higher first test-day milk production and 100 DIM milk production. In conclusion, hypoglycemia mainly occurred in multiparous cows with early-onset HYK, whereas primiparous cows were at a lower risk for hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Damage suffered by swamp morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) exposed to vanadium (V).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Li, Ting-Qiang; Yang, Jin-Yan

    2016-03-01

    To elucidate the physiological and morphological responses generated by vanadium (V) in plants, hydroponic culture experiments were performed with swamp morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) exposed to 0 mg L(-1) to 2.50 mg L(-1) pentavalent V [V(V)] in Hoagland nutrient solutions. The concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene peaked at a V(V) concentration of 0.05 mg L(-1) and gradually decreased at higher V(V) concentrations. Similarly, the plant biomass was stimulated at low levels of V(V) and was inhibited when V(V) concentrations exceeded 0.1 mg L(-1). Pentavalent V had negative effects on the uptake of phosphorus (P) by roots, shoots, and leaves. The biological absorption coefficients of V of the roots were higher than those of the aerial parts. Under low concentrations of V(V) exposure, the predominant species of V in the aerial parts was tetravalent V [V(IV)], whereas V(V) became more prevalent when concentrations of V(V) in the solution was higher than 0.50 mg L(-1). In the roots, however, the concentrations of V(V) were always higher than those of the V(IV), except in the control group. Organelles in the V(V)-treated leaves were distorted, and the periplasmic space became wider. These results indicate V(V) has concentration-dependent effects on the physiological properties of swamp morning glory, whereas the plant has the ability to develop self-protective function to adapt to the toxicity of V(V). © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Early warning of limit-exceeding concentrations of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in drinking water reservoirs by inferential modelling.

    PubMed

    Recknagel, Friedrich; Orr, Philip T; Bartkow, Michael; Swanepoel, Annelie; Cao, Hongqing

    2017-11-01

    An early warning scheme is proposed that runs ensembles of inferential models for predicting the cyanobacterial population dynamics and cyanotoxin concentrations in drinking water reservoirs on a diel basis driven by in situ sonde water quality data. When the 10- to 30-day-ahead predicted concentrations of cyanobacteria cells or cyanotoxins exceed pre-defined limit values, an early warning automatically activates an action plan considering in-lake control, e.g. intermittent mixing and ad hoc water treatment in water works, respectively. Case studies of the sub-tropical Lake Wivenhoe (Australia) and the Mediterranean Vaal Reservoir (South Africa) demonstrate that ensembles of inferential models developed by the hybrid evolutionary algorithm HEA are capable of up to 30days forecasts of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins using data collected in situ. The resulting models for Dolicospermum circinale displayed validity for up to 10days ahead, whilst concentrations of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and microcystins were successfully predicted up to 30days ahead. Implementing the proposed scheme for drinking water reservoirs enhances current water quality monitoring practices by solely utilising in situ monitoring data, in addition to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin measurements. Access to routinely measured cyanotoxin data allows for development of models that predict explicitly cyanotoxin concentrations that avoid to inadvertently model and predict non-toxic cyanobacterial strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Are Sunflower chlorotic mottle virus infection symptoms modulated by early increases in leaf sugar concentration?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Marianela; Taleisnik, Edith; Lenardon, Sergio; Lascano, Ramiro

    2010-09-15

    Symptom development in a susceptible sunflower line inoculated with Sunflower chlorotic mottle virus (SuCMoV) was followed in the second pair of leaves at different post-inoculation times: before symptom expression (BS), at early (ES) and late (LS) symptom expression. Sugar and starch increases and photoinhibition were observed as early effects BS, and were maintained or enhanced later on, however, chlorophyll loss was detected only at LS. Photoinhibition correlated with a drastic decrease in D1 protein level. The progress of infection was accompanied by decreasing levels of apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). In infected leaves, higher antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR) were observed from BS. The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether the early increases in carbohydrate accumulation may participate in SuCMoV symptom expression. Similar effects on photoinhibition, apoplastic ROS generation and antioxidant activity were generated when healthy leaves were treated with sugars. These results suggest that photoinhibitory processes and lower apoplastic superoxide levels induced by SuCMoV infection may be modulated by sugar increases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Hg concentrations from Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sedimentary rocks: first order similarities and second order depositional and diagenetic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, J. A.; West, A. J.; Bergquist, B. A.; Thibodeau, A. M.; Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Bottjer, D. J.; Rosas, S.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury concentrations in sediments have recently gained prominence as a potential tool for identifying large igneous province (LIP) volcanism in sedimentary records. LIP volcanism coincides with several mass extinctions during the Phanerozoic, but it is often difficult to directly tie LIP activity with the record of extinction in marine successions. Here, we build on mercury concentration data reported by Thibodeau et al. (Nature Communications, 7:11147, 2016) from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of New York Canyon, Nevada, USA. Increases in Hg concentrations in that record were attributed to Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) activity in association with the end-Triassic mass extinction. We expand the measured section from New York Canyon and report new mercury concentrations from Levanto, Peru, where dated ash beds provide a discrete chronology, as well as St. Audrie's Bay, UK, a well-studied succession. We correlate these records using carbon isotopes and ammonites and find similarities in the onset of elevated Hg concentrations and Hg/TOC in association with changes in C isotopes. We also find second order patterns that differ between sections and may have depositional and diagenetic controls. We will discuss these changes within a sedimentological framework to further understand the controls on Hg concentrations in sedimentary records and their implications for past volcanism.

  1. The association between maternal cervicovaginal proinflammatory cytokines concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent early-onset neonatal infection.

    PubMed

    Kalinka, Jarosław; Krajewski, Paweł; Sobala, Wojciech; Wasiela, Małgorzata; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentration of selected proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8) in cervicovaginal fluid, as measured in midgestation, and the risk of early-onset neonatal infection (EONI). Cervicovaginal fluids were obtained from a cohort of 114 pregnant women at 22 to 34 weeks' gestation. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations of selected proinflammatory cytokines using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). Lower genital tract microbiology was diagnosed using Gram stain method according to Spiegel's criteria and by culture. Mean gestational age at the time of sampling was 29.0 weeks. Mean time between sampling and delivery was 9.3 (SD 4.7) weeks. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was diagnosed in 27.2% of subjects and M. hominis and U. urealyticum in 22.8% and 26.3%, respectively. Out of 114 women examined, 20 (17.5%) delivered newborns with EONI. Median cervicovaginal concentrations of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 did not differ between women who delivered newborns with EONI as compared to women who delivered newborns without EONI. Women with pathological lower genital tract microflora and low IL-8 concentration (below 25(th) percentile) during pregnancy presented a significant risk of delivering newborns with EONI (OR=4.9; 95% CI, 1.1-22.8). Subjects with pathological lower genital tract microflora and a low concentration of more than one cytokine had the highest risk of delivering a newborn with EONI, OR=16.2, 95% CI, 1.1-234.0. Cytokine measurement in cervicovaginal fluid in early gestation could be useful for predicting subsequent EONI only among pregnant women with lower genital tract infection. Maternal genital tract immune hyporesponsiveness as represented by low concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines may create a permissive environment for ascending infection and may lead to subsequent EONI.

  2. Tamoxifen metabolism predicts drug concentrations and outcome in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saladores, P; Mürdter, T; Eccles, D; Chowbay, B; Zgheib, N K; Winter, S; Ganchev, B; Eccles, B; Gerty, S; Tfayli, A; Lim, J S L; Yap, Y S; Ng, R C H; Wong, N S; Dent, R; Habbal, M Z; Schaeffeler, E; Eichelbaum, M; Schroth, W; Schwab, M; Brauch, H

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is the standard-of-care treatment for estrogen receptor-positive premenopausal breast cancer. We examined tamoxifen metabolism via blood metabolite concentrations and germline variations of CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in 587 premenopausal patients (Asians, Middle Eastern Arabs, Caucasian-UK; median age 39 years) and clinical outcome in 306 patients. N-desmethyltamoxifen (DM-Tam)/(Z)-endoxifen and CYP2D6 phenotype significantly correlated across ethnicities (R2: 53%, P<10−77). CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 correlated with norendoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen concentrations, respectively (P<0.001). DM-Tam was influenced by body mass index (P<0.001). Improved distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) was associated with decreasing DM-Tam/(Z)-endoxifen (P=0.036) and increasing CYP2D6 activity score (hazard ratio (HR)=0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43–0.91; P=0.013). Low (<14 nM) compared with high (>35 nM) endoxifen concentrations were associated with shorter DRFS (univariate P=0.03; multivariate HR=1.94; 95% CI, 1.04–4.14; P=0.064). Our data indicate that endoxifen formation in premenopausal women depends on CYP2D6 irrespective of ethnicity. Low endoxifen concentration/formation and decreased CYP2D6 activity predict shorter DRFS. PMID:25091503

  3. Chronotype, Light Exposure, Sleep, and Daytime Functioning in High School Students Attending Morning or Afternoon School Shifts: An Actigraphic Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Gaudreault, Michael M; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent maturation is associated with delays of the endogenous circadian phase. Consequently, early school schedules may lead to a mismatch between internal and external time, which can be detrimental to adolescent sleep and health. In parallel, chronotype is known to play a role in adolescent health; evening chronotype adolescents are at higher risk for sleep problems and lower academic achievement. In the summer of 2008, Kénogami High School (Saguenay, Canada) was destroyed by fire. Kénogami students were subsequently relocated to Arvida High School (situated 5.3 km away) for the 2008-2009 academic year. A dual school schedule was implemented, with Arvida students attending a morning schedule (0740-1305 h) and Kénogami students an afternoon schedule (1325-1845 h). This study aimed to investigate the effects of such school schedules and chronotype on sleep, light exposure, and daytime functioning. Twenty-four morning and 33 afternoon schedule students wore an actigraph during 7 days to measure sleep and light exposure. Academic achievement was obtained from school. Subjects completed validated questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, alcohol, and chronotype. Overall, afternoon schedule students had longer sleep duration, lower sleepiness, and lower light exposure than morning schedule students. Evening chronotypes (E-types) reported higher levels of sleepiness than morning chronotypes (M-types) in both morning and afternoon schedules. Furthermore, M-types attending the morning schedule reported higher sleepiness than M-types attending the afternoon schedule. No difference was found between morning and afternoon schedule students with regard to academic achievement, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. However, in both schedules, M-type had more regular social rhythms and lower alcohol consumption. In summary, this study emphasizes that an early school

  4. Variability and Predictors of Urinary Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in preschool-aged children have not been thoroughly examined. Additionally, the impact of temporal changes in the use and restriction of phthalates in children’s products has not been assessed. Our objective was to identify demographic, behavioral, and temporal predictors of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in young children. Between 2004 and 2011, we collected up to five urine samples from each of 296 children participating in a prospective birth cohort during annual study visits at ages 1–5 years. We used linear mixed models to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), a measure of within-individual reproducibility, and identify demographic predictors of urinary phthalate metabolites. We used multivariable linear regression to examine cross-sectional relationships between food packaging or personal care product use and phthalate metabolites measured at age 5 years. Across annual measurements, monoethyl phthalate exhibited the least variation (ICC = 0.38), while di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites exhibited the most variation (ICC = 0.09). Concentrations changed with age, suggesting age-related changes in phthalate exposure and perhaps metabolism. Our findings suggest that fast food consumption may be a source of butylbenzyl phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure, and some personal care products may be sources of diethyl phthalate exposure. Concentrations of ΣDEHP metabolites decreased over the study period; however, concentrations of DiNP metabolites increased. This finding suggests that manufacturer practices and regulations, like the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, may decrease DEHP exposure, but additional work characterizing the nature and toxicity of replacements is critically needed. PMID:24977926

  5. Morning Exercise: Enhancement of Afternoon Sprint-Swimming Performance.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Courtney J; Pyne, David B; Thompson, Kevin G; Raglin, John S; Rattray, Ben

    2017-05-01

    An exercise bout completed several hours prior to an event may improve competitive performance later that same day. To examine the influence of morning exercise on afternoon sprint-swimming performance. Thirteen competitive swimmers (7 male, mean age 19 ± 3 y; 6 female, mean age 17 ± 3 y) completed a morning session of 1200 m of variedintensity swimming (SwimOnly), a combination of varied-intensity swimming and a resistance-exercise routine (SwimDry), or no morning exercise (NoEx). After a 6-h break, swimmers completed a 100-m time trial. Time-trial performance was faster in SwimOnly (1.6% ± 0.6, mean ± 90% confidence limit, P < .01) and SwimDry (1.7% ± 0.7%, P < .01) than in NoEx. Split times for the 25- to 50-m distance were faster in both SwimOnly (1.7% ± 1.2%, P = .02) and SwimDry (1.5% ± 0.8%, P = .01) than in NoEx. The first 50-m stroke rate was higher in SwimOnly (0.70 ± 0.21 Hz, mean ± SD, P = .03) and SwimDry (0.69 ± 0.18 Hz, P = .05) than in NoEx (0.64 ± 0.16 Hz). Before the afternoon session, core (0.2°C ± 0.1°C [mean ± 90% confidence limit], P = .04), body (0.2°C ± 0.1°C, P = .02), and skin temperatures (0.3°C ± 0.3°C, P = .02) were higher in SwimDry than in NoEx. Completion of a morning swimming session alone or together with resistance exercise can substantially enhance sprint-swimming performance completed later the same day.

  6. Parallel evolution of storage roots in morning glories (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2018-05-29

    Storage roots are an ecologically and agriculturally important plant trait that have evolved numerous times in angiosperms. Storage roots primarily function to store carbohydrates underground as reserves for perennial species. In morning glories, storage roots are well characterized in the crop species sweetpotato, where starch accumulates in storage roots. This starch-storage tissue proliferates, and roots thicken to accommodate the additional tissue. In morning glories, storage roots have evolved numerous times. The primary goal of this study is to understand whether this was through parallel evolution, where species use a common genetic mechanism to achieve storage root formation, or through convergent evolution, where storage roots in distantly related species are formed using a different set of genes. Pairs of species where one forms storage roots and the other does not were sampled from two tribes in the morning glory family, the Ipomoeeae and Merremieae. Root anatomy in storage roots and fine roots was examined. Furthermore, we sequenced total mRNA from storage roots and fine roots in these species and analyzed differential gene expression. Anatomical results reveal that storage roots of species in the Ipomoeeae tribe, such as sweetpotato, accumulate starch similar to species in the Merremieae tribe but differ in vascular tissue organization. In both storage root forming species, more genes were found to be upregulated in storage roots compared to fine roots. Further, we find that fifty-seven orthologous genes were differentially expressed between storage roots and fine roots in both storage root forming species. These genes are primarily involved in starch biosynthesis, regulation of starch biosynthesis, and transcription factor activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that storage roots of species from both morning glory tribes are anatomically different but utilize a common core set of genes in storage root formation. This is consistent with a

  7. Pharbinilic acid, an allogibberic acid from morning glory (Pharbitis nil).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Un; Son, Mi Won; Choi, Sang Zin; Clardy, Jon; Lee, Kang Ro

    2013-07-26

    Pharbinilic acid (1), the first naturally occurring allogibberic acid, was isolated from ethanol extracts of morning glory (Pharbitis nil) seeds. Its absolute configuration was determined by NOESY NMR and ECD experiments. Compound 1 showed weak cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cells and weakly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV-2 microglia cells.

  8. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in approximately true color.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Morning blood pressure surge: pathophysiology, clinical relevance and therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bilo, Grzegorz; Grillo, Andrea; Guida, Valentina; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-01-01

    Morning hours are the period of the day characterized by the highest incidence of major cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, sudden death or stroke. They are also characterized by important neurohormonal changes, in particular, the activation of sympathetic nervous system which usually leads to a rapid increase in blood pressure (BP), known as morning blood pressure surge (MBPS). It was hypothesized that excessive MBPS may be causally involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events occurring in the morning by inducing hemodynamic stress. A number of studies support an independent relationship of MBPS with organ damage, cerebrovascular complications and mortality, although some heterogeneity exists in the available evidence. This may be due to ethnic differences, methodological issues and the confounding relationship of MBPS with other features of 24-hour BP profile, such as nocturnal dipping or BP variability. Several studies are also available dealing with treatment effects on MBPS and indicating the importance of long-acting antihypertensive drugs in this regard. This paper provides an overview of pathophysiologic, methodological, prognostic and therapeutic aspects related to MBPS. PMID:29872338

  10. Estimation of abbreviated mycophenolic acid area under the concentration-time curve during early posttransplant period by limited sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, A-H; Nazemian, F; Abtahi, B; Naghibi, M; Gholami, K; Rezaee, S; Nazari, M-R A; Rajabi, O

    2008-12-01

    Area under the concentration curve (AUC) of mycophenolic acid (MPA) could help to optimize therapeutic drug monitoring during the early post-renal transplant period. The aim of this study was to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate an abbreviated MPA AUC within the first month after renal transplantation. In this study we selected 19 patients in the early posttransplant period with normal renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate > 70 mL/min). Plasma MPA concentrations were measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MPA AUC(0-12h) was calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the minimal and convenient time points of MPA levels that could be used to derive model equations best fitted to MPA AUC(0-12h). The regression equation for AUC estimation that gave the best performance was AUC = 14.46 C(10) + 15.547 (r(2) = .882). The validation of the method was performed using the jackknife method. Mean prediction error of this model was not different from zero (P > .05) and had a high root mean square prediction error (8.06). In conclusion, this limited sampling strategy provided an effective approach for therapeutic drug monitoring during the early posttransplant period.

  11. Subspecies differences in early fetal development and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, P M; Waters, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Elzo, M A; Johnson, S E; Rae, D O; Yelich, J V; Ealy, A D

    2013-08-01

    Inclusion of Bos indicus genetics improves production traits of cattle maintained in hot climates. Limited information exists detailing pregnancy-specific events as influenced by variable amounts of Bos indicus genetics. Three experiments were completed to examine the effect of Bos taurus and Bos indicus genotypes on fetal size and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations. In all experiments, cows were bred by AI after synchronization of ovulation. Fetal measurements were completed by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma PAG concentrations were quantified from plasma harvested the day of each fetal measurement. In Exp. 1, fetal size and plasma PAG concentrations were measured at d 53 of pregnancy in cows composed of various fractions of Angus and Brahman (n = 9 to 21 cows/group). Fetus size was greater in cows containing >80% Angus genetics compared with cows containing <80% Angus influence (3.40 ± 0.28 vs. 2.86 ± 0.28 cm crown-rump length; P < 0.01). Plasma PAG concentrations were reduced (P < 0.01) in cows containing >80% Angus genetics when compared with their contemporaries (6.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL vs. 9.4 ± 1.5 ng/mL). In Exp. 2, fetal measurements and plasma PAG concentrations were determined at d 35 and 62 of pregnancy in Angus and Brangus cows. Breed did not affect fetus size at d 35, but Angus cows contained larger fetuses than Brangus cows at d 62 [3.0 ± 0.03 vs. 2.8 ± 0.03 cm crown-nose length (CNL; P > 0.01)]. Plasma PAG concentrations were not different between breed at d 35 and 62 (P > 0.1). In Exp. 3, fetal measurements and plasma samples were collected at d 33/34, 40/41, 47/48, and 54/55 post-AI in Angus and Brangus cows. Fetus size was not different (P > 0.05) between genotypes on d 33/34, 40/41, and 47/48. Angus fetuses were larger than Brangus fetuses at d 54/55 (2.1 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.03 cm CNL; P = 0.001). Plasma PAG concentrations were less in Angus than Brangus cows at each time point (average 4.9 ± 0.9 vs. 8.2 ± 0

  12. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  13. HPV DNA target hybridization concentrations studies using interdigitated electrodes (IDE) for early detection of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriani, C.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are the two types of HPV are the most HPV-associated cancers and responsible as a high-risk HPV. Cervical cancer took about 70 percent of all cases due to HPV infections. Cervical cancer mostly growth on a woman's cervix and its was developed slowly as cancer. TiO2 particles give better performance and low cost of the biosensor. The used of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) will be more efficient for DNA nanochip. APTES used as absorption reaction to immobilize organic biomolecules on the inorganic surface. Furthermore, APTES provide better functionalization of the adsorption mechanism on IDE. The surface functionalized for immobilizing the DNA, which is the combination of the DNA probe and the HPV target produces high sensitivity and speed detection of the IDE. The Current-Voltage (IV) characteristic proved the sensitivity of the DNA nanochip increase as the concentration varied from 0% concentration to 24% of APTES concentration.

  14. Boundary layer concentrations and landscape scale emissions of volatile organic compounds in early spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapanala, S.; Rinne, J.; Hakola, H.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Lihavainen, H.; Janson, R.; O'Dowd, C.; Kulmala, M.

    2007-04-01

    Boundary layer concentrations of several volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured during two campaigns in springs of 2003 and 2006. The measurements were conducted over boreal landscapes near SMEAR II measurement station in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. In 2003 the measuremens were performed using a light aircraft and in 2006 using a hot air balloon. Isoprene concentrations were low, usually below detection limit. This can be explained by low biogenic production due to cold weather, phenological stage of the isoprene emitting plants, and snow cover. Monoterpenes were observed frequently. The average total monoterpene concentration in the boundary layer was 33 pptv. Many anthropogenic compounds such as benzene, xylene and toluene, were observed in high amounts. Ecosystem scale surface emissions were estimated using a simple mixed box budget methodology. Total monoterpene emissions varied up to 80 μg m-2 h-1, α-pinene contributing typically more than two thirds of that. These emissions were somewhat higher that those calculated using emission algorithm. The highest emissions of anthropogenic compounds were those of p/m xylene.

  15. Acute administration of cefepime lowers L-carnitine concentrations in early lactation stage rat milk.

    PubMed

    Ling, Binbing; Alcorn, Jane

    2008-07-01

    Our study investigated the potential for important in vivo drug-nutrient transport interactions at the lactating mammary gland using the L-carnitine transporter substrates, cefepime and L-carnitine, as proof-of-concept. On d 4 (n = 6/treatment) and d 10 (n = 6/treatment) of lactation, rats were administered cefepime (250 mg/h) or saline by continuous i.v. infusion (4 h). Serum and milk L-carnitine and cefepime concentrations were quantified by HPLC-UV. In whole mammary gland, organic cation/carnitine transporter (OCTN)1, OCTN2, OCTN3, amino acid transporter B(0,+) (ATB(0,+)), and L-carnitine transporter 2 expression were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and by western blot and immunohistochemistry when possible. Cefepime caused a 56% decrease in milk L-carnitine concentrations on lactation d 4 (P = 0.0048) but did not affect milk L-carnitine at lactation d 10 or serum L-carnitine concentrations at either time. The mean L-carnitine and cefepime milk:serum ratios (M/S) decreased from 9.1 +/- 0.4 to 4.9 +/- 0.6 (P < 0.0001) and 0.89 +/- 0.3 to 0.12 +/- 0.02 (P = 0.0473), respectively, between d 4 and d 10 of lactation. In both groups, OCTN2 (P < 0.0001), OCTN3 (P = 0.0039), and ATB(0,+) (P = 0.004) mRNA expression and OCTN2 protein (P < 0.0001) were higher in mammary glands at d 4 of lactation compared with d 10. Immunohistochemistry revealed OCTN1 and OCTN2 localization in the mammary alveolar epithelium and OCTN3 expression in the interstitial space and blood vessel endothelium. In conclusion, cefepime significantly decreased milk L-carnitine concentrations only at d 4 of lactation. Relative to d 10, enhanced expression of OCTN2 and ATB(0,+) in mammary glands at d 4 of lactation and higher M/S (L-carnitine and cefepime) suggests cefepime competes with L-carnitine for L-carnitine transporters expressed in the lactating mammary gland to adversely affect L-carnitine milk concentrations and these effects depend upon lactation stage.

  16. Red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and in vivo P50 during early critical illness.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ezz el din S; McLellan, Stuart A; Walsh, Timothy S

    2005-10-01

    To measure red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (RBC 2,3-DPG) concentrations in early critical illness; to investigate factors associated with high or low RBC 2,3-DPG levels; to calculate in vivo P50 in patients with early critical illness; and to explore the relationship between RBC 2,3-DPG and intensive care mortality. Prospective cohort study. General medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a major Scottish teaching hospital. One-hundred eleven critically ill patients during the first 24 hrs in the ICU with no history of chronic hematologic disorders or RBC transfusion within 24 hrs and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy reference subjects. None. We measured RBC 2,3-DPG concentration, plasma biochemistry values, and arterial blood gas parameters. On average, RBC 2,3-DPG was lower among critically ill patients than controls (mean [sd], 14.1 [6.3] vs. 16.7 [3.7] mumol/g hemoglobin; p = .004) and had a wider range of values (patients, 3.2-32.5 mumol/g hemoglobin; reference group, 9.1-24.3). Regression analysis indicated a strong independent association between plasma pH and RBC 2,3-DPG (B, 32.15 [95% confidence interval, 19.07-46.22], p < .001) and a weak association with plasma chloride (B, -0.196 [95% confidence interval, -0.39 to -0.01], p = .044) but not with hemoglobin or other measured biochemical parameters. The mean calculated in vivo P50 level was normal (3.8 kPa) but varied widely among patients (range, 2.0-5.5 kPa). RBC 2,3-DPG concentration was similar for ICU survivors and nonsurvivors. RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations vary widely among critically ill patients. Acidosis is associated with lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations, but anemia is not associated with a compensatory increase in RBC 2,3-DPG early in critical illness. Lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations during the first 24 hrs of intensive care are not associated with higher ICU mortality.

  17. Early physiological and biochemical responses of rice seedlings to low concentration of microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Catarina C; Azevedo, Joana; Osório, Hugo; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Campos, Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-leucine and arginine (microcystin-LR) is a cyanotoxin produced by cyanobacteria like Microcystis aeruginosa, and it's considered a threat to water quality, agriculture, and human health. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a plant of great importance in human food consumption and economy, with extensive use around the world. It is therefore important to assess the possible effects of using water contaminated with microcystin-LR to irrigate rice crops, in order to ensure a safe, high quality product to consumers. In this study, 12 and 20-day-old plants were exposed during 2 or 7 days to a M. aeruginosa extract containing environmentally relevant microcystin-LR concentrations, 0.26-78 μg/L. Fresh and dry weight of roots and leaves, chlorophyll fluorescence, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and protein identification by mass spectrometry through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis from root and leaf tissues, were evaluated in order to gauge the plant's physiological condition and biochemical response after toxin exposure. Results obtained from plant biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence, and enzyme activity assays showed no significant differences between control and treatment groups. However, proteomics data indicates that plants respond to M. aeruginosa extract containing environmentally relevant microcystin-LR concentrations by changing their metabolism, responding differently to different toxin concentrations. Biological processes most affected were related to protein folding and stress response, protein biosynthesis, cell signalling and gene expression regulation, and energy and carbohydrate metabolism which may denote a toxic effect induced by M. aeruginosa extract and microcystin-LR. The implications of the metabolic alterations in plant physiology and growth require further elucidation.

  18. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Affan; Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Meister, Marc; Moehring, Berit; Wildi, Karin; Bassetti, Stefano; Zellweger, Christa; Gimenez, Maria Rubini; Hoeller, Rebeca; Murray, Karsten; Sou, Seoung Mann; Mueller, Mira; Mosimann, Tamina; Reiter, Miriam; Haaf, Philip; Ziller, Ronny; Freidank, Heike; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Absolute changes in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. In a prospective, international multicenter study, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) was measured with 3 novel assays (hs-cTnT, Roche Diagnostics Corp, Indianapolis, Ind; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, Brea, Calif; hs-cTnI, Siemens, Munich, Germany) in a blinded fashion at presentation and after 1 and 2 hours in a blinded fashion in 830 unselected patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was significantly higher for 1- and 2-hour absolute versus relative hs-cTn changes for all 3 assays (P < .001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the combination of 2-hour absolute and relative change (hs-cTnT 0.98 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.97-0.99]; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.96-0.99]; hs-cTnI, Siemens, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.99]) were high and provided some benefit compared with the use of absolute change alone for hs-cTnT, but not for the hs-cTnI assays. Reclassification analysis confirmed the superiority of absolute changes versus relative changes. Absolute changes seem to be the preferred metrics for both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The combination of absolute and relative changes provides a small added value for hs-cTnT, but not for hs-cTnI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A new air quality monitoring and early warning system: Air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongshan; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution in many countries is worsening with industrialization and urbanization, resulting in climate change and affecting people's health, thus, making the work of policymakers more difficult. It is therefore both urgent and necessary to establish amore scientific air quality monitoring and early warning system to evaluate the degree of air pollution objectively, and predict pollutant concentrations accurately. However, the integration of air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction to establish an air quality system is not common. In this paper, we propose a new air quality monitoring and early warning system, including an assessment module and forecasting module. In the air quality assessment module, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to determine the main pollutants and evaluate the degree of air pollution more scientifically. In the air pollutant concentration prediction module, a novel hybridization model combining complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition, a modified cuckoo search and differential evolution algorithm, and an Elman neural network, is proposed to improve the forecasting accuracy of six main air pollutant concentrations. To verify the effectiveness of this system, pollutant data for two cities in China are used. The result of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation shows that the major air pollutants in Xi'an and Jinan are PM 10 and PM 2.5 respectively, and that the air quality of Xi'an is better than that of Jinan. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed hybrid model is remarkably superior to all benchmark models on account of its higher prediction accuracy and stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Boundary layer concentrations and landscape scale emissions of volatile organic compounds in early spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapanala, S.; Rinne, J.; Hakola, H.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Lihavainen, H.; Janson, R.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-10-01

    Boundary layer concenrations of several volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured during two campaigns in springs of 2003 and 2006. Measurements were conducted over boreal forests near SMEAR II measurement station in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. In 2003 the measuremens were performed using light aircraft and in 2006 using hot air ballon. Isoprene concentrarions were low, usually below detection limit. This is explained by low biogenic production due to cold weather. Monoterpenes were observed frequently. Average total monoterpene concentration in the boundary layer was 33 pptv. Many anthropogenic compounds e.g. benzene, xylene and toluene, were observed in high amounts. Ecosystem scale surface emissions were estimated using simple mixed box budget methodology. Total monoterpene fluxes varied up to 80 μg m-2 h-1, α-pinene contributing typically more than two thirds of that. Highest fluxes of anthropogenic compounds were those of p/m xylene.

  2. Early and small changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with mortality in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Nin, Nicolás; Lombardi, Raúl; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente, José A; Ferguson, Niall D; Hurtado, Javier; Apezteguia, Carlos; Brochard, Laurent; Schortgen, Fréderique; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Tomicic, Vinko; Soto, Luis; González, Marco; Nightingale, Peter; Abroug, Fekri; Pelosi, Paolo; Arabi, Yaseen; Moreno, Rui; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that minor changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with increased hospital mortality rates. However, whether serum creatinine concentration (SCr) on admission and its change are associated with an increased mortality rate in mechanically ventilated patients is not known. We have conducted an international, prospective, observational cohort study enrolling adult intensive care unit patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). Recursive partitioning was used to determine the values of SCr at the start of MV (SCr0) and the change in SCr ([DeltaSCr] defined as the maximal difference between the value at start of MV [day 0] and the value on MV day 2 at 8:00 am) that best discriminate mortality. In-hospital mortality, adjusted by a proportional hazards model, was the primary outcome variable. A total of 2,807 patients were included; median age was 59 years and median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 44. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 44%. The variable that best discriminated outcome was a SCr0 greater than 1.40 mg/dL (mortality, 57% vs. 36% for patients with SCr0

  3. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval −54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=−1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval −1645 kJ, −2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine–tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of

  4. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-02-01

    Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval -54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone-acylated ghrelin during the afternoon

  5. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Elaine; French, David P

    2016-07-01

    People driving the day after drinking are at risk of impaired performance and accidents due to continued intoxication or the effects of alcohol hangover. Drivers are poor at estimating their own blood alcohol concentration, and some drive despite believing they are over the legal limit. It is therefore important to identify other factors influencing perceived ability to drive 'the morning after'. This study tested how accurately participants estimated their legal driving status, and the contribution of beliefs and hangover symptoms to the prediction of perceived driving safety. This cross-sectional study involved 193 students completing a questionnaire and alcohol breath test the morning after heavy alcohol consumption. Indicators of subjective intoxication, severity of hangover symptoms, estimated legal status and perceived safety to drive were measured. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted. No participants thought they were under the English legal limit when they were not, and 47% thought they were over the limit when they were in fact legally permissible to drive. However, 20% of those believing they were over the limit nevertheless rated themselves as safe to drive. Hangover symptoms added 17% variance to the prediction of perceived safety to drive, over and above objective and subjective measures of intoxication. Perceived severity of hangover symptoms influence beliefs about driving ability: When judging safety to drive, people experiencing less severe symptoms believe they are less impaired. If this finding is robust, health promotion campaigns should aim to correct this misapprehension. [Cameron E, French D. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:442-446]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Renal-protective effects of n-hexane layer from morning glory seeds ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yanli; Park, Bongkyun; Song, Yoon-Jae; Park, Dae Won; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan

    2017-11-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a main problem in cancer patients using cisplatin. Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis are the important mechanisms of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the extracts of morning glory on nephrotoxicity by cisplatin in human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK-293) and mice. Previous studies have reported that morning glory extracts showed potent activity on anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. However, the protective effects of the n-hexane layer of morning glory seed (MGs-Hx) on nephrotoxicity and its mechanisms have not been clearly understood. Oral administration with MGs-Hx showed protective effects in vivo experiments test and the treatment of MGs-Hx in a concentration of 100mg/kg/day had significant effect both of decreasing serum creatinine, BUN, serum uric acid level and reduced iNOS, COX-2 mRNA expressions with low side-effect. Moreover, cell viability was restored by MGs-Hx treatment compared to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic HEK-293 cells. Co-treatment with MGs-Hx and cisplatin showed the significant effect to reduce inflammatory enzyme, iNOS expression and continuous production of NO. In addition, it exhibited a tendency to decreasing expression of apoptosis-related proteins, caspase-3, 8 and 9, and NF-κB translocation to nucleus as well as phosphorylation of p38, JNK, ERK in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic HEK-293 cells. Our study provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of MGs-Hx and suggests that MGs-Hx might be a potential therapeutic agent to modulate inflammation and apoptosis in nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Crude glycerin decreases nonesterified fatty acid concentration in ewes during late gestation and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Polizel, D M; Susin, I; Gentil, R S; Ferreira, E M; de Souza, R A; Freire, A P A; Pires, A V; Ferraz, M V C; Rodrigues, P H M; Eastridge, M L

    2017-02-01

    Crude glycerin is a gluconeogenic substrate in ruminants and may help to decrease the occurrence of pregnancy toxemia. The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing crude glycerin on DMI, milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolites in periparturient ewes and lamb performance. One hundred eighteen 90 (±1.1)-d pregnant Santa Inês ewes were used. After lambing, 32 ewes (62.8 ± 1.3 kg BW) were allotted in a randomized complete block design defined by prelambing diet, BW, BCS, lambing date, type of birth (single or twin), and sex of offspring. Diets were isonitrogenous (13.0 ± 0.3% CP, DM basis), composed of concentrate and raw sugarcane bagasse (70:30 ratio, DM basis), and fed ad libitum daily. Crude glycerin (83.6% glycerol) levels were 0 or 10% (DM basis), corresponding to the experimental diets G0 and G10, respectively. From 8 until 56 d of lactation, DMI was determined. In the same period, once a week at 1000 h, the ewes were separated from the lambs and mechanically milked after intravenous administration of 10 IU of synthetic oxytocin. Three hours after the first milking, ewes were milked again and milk yield and composition were determined. Glucose, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were determined at -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d relative to lambing and insulin was determined at -14, -7, 0, and 7 d. Crude glycerin did not affect DMI (2.2 kg/d for G0 vs. 2.2 kg/d for G10; = 0.93) or milk production (171 g/3 h for G0 vs. 164 g/3 h for G10; = 0.66). However, there was a decrease ( = 0.01) in milk fat percentage (8.1% for G0 vs. 7.0% for G10) for ewes fed glycerin. Ewes fed the G10 diet had decreased ( < 0.01) NEFA concentration (0.27 mmol/L for G0 vs. 0.18 mmol/L for G10). There was an interaction between diet × time for glucose ( = 0.04), insulin ( = 0.05), and BHBA ( = 0.01); feeding glycerin increased glucose (5.61 mmol/L for G0 vs. 7.42 mmol/L for G10; < 0.01) and insulin concentrations (10.5 μIU for G0

  8. Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jorjong, S; van Knegsel, A T M; Verwaeren, J; Lahoz, M Val; Bruckmaier, R M; De Baets, B; Kemp, B; Fievez, V

    2014-11-01

    Most cows encounter a state of negative energy balance during the periparturient period, which may lead to metabolic disorders and impaired fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of milk fatty acids as diagnostic tools of detrimental levels of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), defined as NEFA concentrations beyond 0.6 mmol/L, in a data set of 92 early lactating cows fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet and subjected to 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period before parturition. Milk was collected in wk 2, 3, 4, and 8 (n = 368) and blood was sampled weekly from wk 2 to 8 after parturition. Milk was analyzed for milk fatty acids and blood plasma for NEFA. Data were classified as "at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA ≥ 0.6 mmol/L) and "not at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA <0.6 mmol/L). Concentrations of 45 milk fatty acids and milk fat C18:1 cis-9-to-C15:0 ratio were subjected to a discriminant analysis. Milk fat C18:1 cis-9 revealed the most discriminating variable to identify detrimental blood plasma NEFA. A false positive rate of 10% allowed us to diagnose 46% of the detrimental blood plasma NEFA cases based on a milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentration of at least 230 g/kg of milk fatty acids. Additionally, it was assessed whether the milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentrations of wk 2 could be used as an early warning for detrimental blood plasma NEFA risk during the first 8 wk in lactation. Cows with at least 240 g/kg of C18:1 cis-9 in milk fat had about 50% chance to encounter blood plasma NEFA values of 0.6 mmol/L or more during the first 8 wk of lactation, with a false positive rate of 11.4%. Profit simulations were based on costs for cows suffering from detrimental blood plasma NEFA, and costs for preventive treatment based on daily dosing of propylene glycol for 3 wk. Given the relatively low incidence rate (8% of all observations), continuous monitoring of milk fatty acids during the first 8 wk of lactation to diagnose

  9. View looking west at Test Stand 'A' complex in morning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking west at Test Stand 'A' complex in morning sun. View shows Monitor Building 4203/E-4 at left, barrier (Building 4216/E-17) to right of 4203/E-4, and Test Stand 'A' tower. Attached structure to lower left of tower is Test Stand 'A' machine room which contained refrigeration equipment. Building in right background with Test Stand 'A' tower shadow on it is Assembly Building 4288/E-89, built in 1984. Row of ground-mounted brackets in foreground was used to carry electrical cable and/or fuel lines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Tropical Forest Backscatter Anomaly Evident in SeaWinds Scatterometer Morning Overpass Data During 2005 Drought in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolking, S. E.; Milliman, T.; Palace, M. W.; Wisser, D.; Lammers, R. B.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    A severe drought occurred in many portions of Amazonia in the dry season (June-September) of 2005. We analyzed ten years (7/99-10/09) of SeaWinds active microwave Ku-band backscatter data collected over the Amazon Basin, developing a monthly climatology and monthly anomalies from that climatology in an effort to detect landscape responses to this drought. We compared these to seasonal accumulating water deficit anomalies generated using Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data (1999-2009) and 100 mm/mo evapotranspirative demand as a water deficit threshold. There was significant interannual variability in monthly mean backscatter only for ascending (early morning) overpass data, and little interannual variability in monthly mean backscatter for descending (late afternoon) overpass data. Strong negative anomalies in both ascending-overpass backscatter and accumulating water deficit developed during July-October 2005, centered on the southwestern Amazon Basin (Acre and western Amazonas states in Brazil; Madre de Dios state in Peru; Pando state in Bolivia). During the 2005 drought, there was a strong spatial correlation between morning overpass backscatter anomalies and water deficit anomalies. We hypothesize that as the drought persisted over several months, the forest canopy was increasingly unable to recover full leaf moisture content over night, and the early morning overpass backscatter data became anomalously low. This is the first reporting of tropical wet forest seasonal drought detection by active microwave scatterometry.

  11. Benefit of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide-fixed dose combination treatment for isolated morning hypertension: The MAPPY study.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hisashi; Ueda, Tamenobu; Uchiwa, Hiroki; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Aoki, Yuji; Anegawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Kenji; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Morning hypertension is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events. In the Morning Hypertension and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy (MAPPY) study, a 50-mg losartan/12.5-mg hydrochlorothiazide combination (Los/HCTZ) lowered morning blood pressure (BP) more effectively than 100-mg losartan (High-Los) in treated hypertensive patients with morning hypertension. The aim of this MAPPY study sub-analysis was to determine whether Los/HCTZ was effective for controlling isolated morning hypertension (morning BP ≥ 135/85 mmHg and evening BP < 135/85 mmHg), sustained hypertension (morning and evening BP ≥ 135/85 mmHg), or both. Of the 110 patients studied, 25 (22.7%) had isolated morning hypertension, and 85 (77.3%) had sustained hypertension at baseline. After 3-month treatment, isolated morning hypertension developed into controlled hypertension (morning and evening BP < 135/85 mmHg) in 9 of 11 Los/HCTZ patients (81.8%) and 3 of 14 High-Los patients (21.4%) (p = 0.003, chi-square test). Sustained hypertension developed into controlled hypertension in 21 of 44 Los/HCTZ patients (47.7%) and 13 of 41 High-Los patients (31.7%)(NS). The rates of achievement of SBP < 135 mmHg both in the morning and evening were: 81.8% and 21.4% in Los/HCTZ- and High-Los-treated isolated morning hypertension (p = 0.003), respectively; and 61.4% and 36.6% in Los/HCTX- and High-Los-treated sustained hypertension (p = 0.022), respectively. In conclusion, Los/HCTZ was effective for controlling both types of morning hypertension, especially isolated morning hypertension. Los/HCTZ was superior to High-Los in treating both types of morning hypertension.

  12. Meconium Atazanavir Concentrations and Early Language Outcomes in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants With Prenatal Atazanavir Exposure.

    PubMed

    Himes, Sarah K; Huo, Yanling; Siberry, George K; Williams, Paige L; Rice, Mabel L; Sirois, Patricia A; Frederick, Toni; Hazra, Rohan; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether prenatal atazanavir (ATV) exposure, assessed by meconium antiretroviral (ARV) quantification, predicts early child language outcomes. Prenatal ATV exposure previously was associated with poorer language development in 1-year olds. Pregnant women with HIV and their uninfected infants enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities study. Meconium ARV concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Language development at 1 year was assessed with MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III). Late language emergence was defined as ≥ 1 of 4 CDI scores ≤ 10th percentile for age. Associations between fetal ATV exposure timing and duration, meconium ATV concentration, and language outcomes were evaluated, adjusting for potential confounders. Through 2013, meconium samples were available from 175 of 432 infants with prenatal ATV exposure. Valid Bayley-III (n = 93) and CDI (n = 106) assessments also were available. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher ATV meconium concentrations were associated with lower late language emergence risk (P = 0.04) and cumulative ATV exposure duration also was associated with higher Bayley-III Language scores (P = 0.03). Maternal ATV duration and initiation week correlated with ATV meconium concentrations (positively and negatively, respectively). Higher meconium ATV concentrations were protective against developmental language delays at 1 year, suggesting the importance of fetal ATV detoxification into meconium. This information supports ATV exposure safety for infant language development. ATV is a preferred ARV for pregnant women with HIV, suggesting the importance of ATV safety investigations. Additionally, further pursuit of the influences on language development in HIV-exposed uninfected infants is required.

  13. Effects of maternal dietary egg intake during early lactation on human milk ovalbumin concentration: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, J R; Marsh, J A; D'Vaz, N; Geddes, D T; Lai, C T; Prescott, S L; Palmer, D J

    2016-12-01

    There is limited understanding of how maternal diet affects breastmilk food allergen concentrations, and whether exposure to allergens through this route influences the development of infant oral tolerance or sensitization. To investigate how maternal dietary egg ingestion during early lactation influences egg protein (ovalbumin) levels detected in human breastmilk. In a randomized controlled trial, women were allocated to a dietary group for the first six weeks of lactation: high-egg diet (> 4 eggs per week), low-egg diet (one-three eggs per week) or an egg-free diet. Breastmilk samples were collected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of lactation for the measurement of ovalbumin. The permeability of the mammary epithelium was assessed by measuring the breastmilk sodium : potassium ratio. Egg-specific IgE and IgG4 were measured in infant plasma at 6 weeks, and prior to the introduction of egg in solids at 16 weeks. Average maternal egg ingestion was associated with breastmilk ovalbumin concentration. Specifically, for each additional egg ingested per week, there was an average 25% increase in ovalbumin concentration (95% CI: 5-48%, P = 0.01). Breastmilk ovalbumin concentrations were significantly higher in the 'high-egg' group (> 4 eggs per week) compared with the 'egg-free' group (P = 0.04). However, one-third of women had no breastmilk ovalbumin detected. No detectable associations were found between mammary epithelium permeability and breastmilk ovalbumin concentrations. Infant plasma egg-specific IgG4 levels were also positively associated with maternal egg ingestion, with an average 22% (95% CI: 3-45%) increase in infant egg-specific IgG4 levels per additional egg consumed per week (P = 0.02). Increased maternal egg ingestion is associated with increased breastmilk ovalbumin, and markers of immune tolerance in infants. These results highlight the potential for maternal diet to benefit infant oral tolerance development during lactation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nighttime Chemistry and Morning Isoprene Can Drive Urban Ozone Downwind of a Major Deciduous Forest.

    PubMed

    Millet, Dylan B; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Hu, Lu; Mitroo, Dhruv; Turner, Jay; Williams, Brent J

    2016-04-19

    Isoprene is the predominant non-methane volatile organic compound emitted to the atmosphere and shapes tropospheric composition and biogeochemistry through its effects on ozone, other oxidants, aerosols, and the nitrogen cycle. Isoprene is emitted naturally by vegetation during daytime, when its photo-oxidation is rapid, and in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produces ozone and degrades air quality in polluted regions. Here, we show for a city downwind of an isoprene-emitting forest (St. Louis, MO) that isoprene actually peaks at night; ambient levels then endure, owing to low nighttime OH radical concentrations. Nocturnal chemistry controls the fate of that isoprene and the likelihood of a high-ozone episode the following day. When nitrate (NO3) radicals are suppressed, high isoprene persists through the night, providing photochemical fuel upon daybreak and leading to a dramatic late-morning ozone peak. On nights with significant NO3, isoprene is removed before dawn; days with low morning isoprene then have lower ozone with a more typical afternoon peak. This biogenic-anthropogenic coupling expands the daily high-ozone window and likely has an opposite O3-NOx response to what would otherwise be expected, with implications for exposure and air-quality management in cities that, like St. Louis, are downwind of major isoprene-emitting forests.

  15. Sleep duration and plasma leptin concentrations in early pregnancy among lean and overweight/obese women: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Sorensen, Tanya K; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-09

    Early-pregnancy short sleep duration is predictive of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia; mechanisms for these associations are unknown. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived peptide involved in regulating food intake and energy expenditure, may play a role in these observed associations. Given inconsistent reports linking short sleep duration with leptin, and absence of studies among pregnant women, we examined the association of maternal sleep duration with plasma leptin in early pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 830 pregnant women. Plasma leptin was measured in samples collected around 13 weeks gestation. Sleep duration was categorized as: ≤5, 6, 7-8 (reference), and ≥9 hours. Differences in leptin concentrations across categories were estimated using linear regression. Analyses were completed for lean and overweight/obese women. Overall, women with long sleep duration had elevated plasma leptin (p-value = 0.04). However, leptin concentrations were not statistically significantly elevated in women with a short sleep duration. There was no association of leptin with sleep duration among lean women. Among overweight/obese women, a U-shaped relation between leptin and sleep duration was observed: Mean leptin was elevated (β = 21.96 ng/ml, P < 0.001) among women reporting ≤5 hour of sleep compared with reference group; and women reporting ≥9 hours of sleep also had elevated leptin (β = 4.29 ng/ml, P = 0.09). Short sleep duration, and to a lesser extent long sleep duration, were associated with elevated leptin among overweight/obese women. These data add some evidence to help understand mechanistic relationships of sleep duration with pregnancy complications.

  16. Mediating effects of nocturnal blood pressure and morning surge on the contributions of arterial stiffness and sodium intake to morning blood pressure: A path analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Tak; Park, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung Yong; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Mori, Mari; Yamori, Yukio; Lim, Young Hyo; Shin, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mediating effects of nocturnal blood pressure (BP) and morning surge on the contribution of arterial stiffness and sodium intake to morning BP in a middle-aged general population. The study included 124 subjects aged 30-59 years, from rural Yeoju County, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Ambulatory BP monitoring, 24 h urinary sodium excretion (24 h UNa) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurements were performed in all subjects. The mean ± SD age was 48.1 ± 8.2 years and the proportion of male subjects was 41.1%. After adjusting for covariates, morning systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly correlated with morning surge [coefficient = 0.761, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.651-0.872, p < 0.001], nocturnal SBP (coefficient = 0.576, 95% CI 0.454-0.698, p < 0.001) and baPWV (coefficient = 3.550, 95% CI 1.447-5.653, p = 0.001). Path analysis modeling revealed that baPWV had significant direct (0.035, p = 0.013) and indirect effects (0.042, p = 0.012) on morning SBP. The indirect effect mediated by nocturnal SBP was statistically significant (0.054, p = 0.005), but the indirect effect mediated by the morning surge was not significant. The 24 h UNa had no significant direct or indirect effects on morning SBP. baPWV had significant direct and indirect effects on morning SBP. The indirect effect was mediated by nocturnal SBP, but not by morning surge. The 24 h UNa had neither significant direct nor indirect effects on morning SBP.

  17. The Diagnostic Usefulness of Serum Total Bile Acid Concentrations in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis of Varied Etiologies.

    PubMed

    Maleszka, Aleksandra; Dumnicka, Paulina; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Sporek, Mateusz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-06

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) are biliary tract diseases with cholestasis and alcohol consumption. In 10%-15% of patients, etiology determination is difficult. Identification of the etiology allows for the implementation of adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the serum concentrations of total bile acids (TBA) to diagnose AP etiology in the early phase of the disease. We included 66 patients with AP, admitted within the first 24 h from the onset of symptoms. TBA were measured in serum at 24, 48, and 72 h from the onset of AP, using an automated fifth generation assay. The bilirubin-to-TBA ratio (B/TBA) was calculated. TBA was highest on the first day of AP and decreased subsequently. In patients with biliary etiology, serum TBA was significantly higher compared to those with alcoholic and other etiologies. B/TBA was significantly higher in patients with alcoholic etiology. At admission, the cut-off values of 4.7 µmol/L for TBA and 4.22 for the B/TBA ratio allowed for a differentiation between biliary and other etiologies of AP with a diagnostic accuracy of 85 and 83%. Both TBA and B/TBA may help in the diagnosis of AP etiology in the early phase of AP.

  18. The Diagnostic Usefulness of Serum Total Bile Acid Concentrations in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis of Varied Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Maleszka, Aleksandra; Dumnicka, Paulina; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Sporek, Mateusz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) are biliary tract diseases with cholestasis and alcohol consumption. In 10%–15% of patients, etiology determination is difficult. Identification of the etiology allows for the implementation of adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the serum concentrations of total bile acids (TBA) to diagnose AP etiology in the early phase of the disease. We included 66 patients with AP, admitted within the first 24 h from the onset of symptoms. TBA were measured in serum at 24, 48, and 72 h from the onset of AP, using an automated fifth generation assay. The bilirubin-to-TBA ratio (B/TBA) was calculated. TBA was highest on the first day of AP and decreased subsequently. In patients with biliary etiology, serum TBA was significantly higher compared to those with alcoholic and other etiologies. B/TBA was significantly higher in patients with alcoholic etiology. At admission, the cut-off values of 4.7 µmol/L for TBA and 4.22 for the B/TBA ratio allowed for a differentiation between biliary and other etiologies of AP with a diagnostic accuracy of 85 and 83%. Both TBA and B/TBA may help in the diagnosis of AP etiology in the early phase of AP. PMID:28067818

  19. Linking egg thiamine and fatty acid concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout with early life stage mortality.

    PubMed

    Czesny, Sergiusz; Dettmers, John M; Rinchard, Jacques; Dabrowski, Konrad

    2009-12-01

    The natural reproduction of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan is thought to be compromised by nutritional deficiency associated with inadequate levels of thiamine (vitamin B1) in their eggs. However, mortality driven by thiamine deficiency (commonly referred to as early mortality syndrome [EMS]) is not the only significant cause of low lake trout survival at early life stages. In this study, we sought to better understand the combined effects of variable levels of thiamine and fatty acids in lake trout eggs on prehatch, posthatch, and swim-up-stage mortality. We sampled the eggs of 29 lake trout females from southwestern Lake Michigan. The concentrations of free thiamine and its vitamers (e.g., thiamine monophosphate [TMP] and thiamine pyrophosphate [TPP]) as well as fatty acid profiles were determined in sampled eggs. Fertilized eggs and embryos were monitored through the advanced swim-up stage (1,000 degree-days). Three distinct periods of mortality were identified: prehatch (0-400 degree-days), immediately posthatch (401-600 degree-days), and swim-up (601-1,000 degree-days). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed (1) that cis-7-hexadecenoic acid in both neutral lipids (NL) and phospholipids (PL) correlated with prehatch mortality, (2) that docosapentaenoic acid in PL and docosahexaenoic acid in NL correlated with posthatch mortality, and (3) that total lipids, TPP, and palmitoleic acid in NL, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid in PL correlated with the frequency of EMS. These results indicate the complexity of early life stage mortality in lake trout and suggest that inadequate levels of key fatty acids in eggs, along with variable thiamine content, contribute to the low survival of lake trout progeny in Lake Michigan.

  20. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  1. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  2. Atmospheric 7Be Concentration Changes as a Possible New Indicator for Early Warning on Indian Monsoon Onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzi, L.; Kalinowski, M.; Schoeppner, M.; kusmierczyk-michulec, J.

    2017-12-01

    With 80 radionuclide detector systems worldwide, the International Monitoring System (IMS) offers an unprecedented opportunity to use 7Be as an aerosol tracer for global atmospheric cell dynamics. Meteorological processes such as ENSO onset, ITCZ shift, location and progression of Hadley-Ferrel cell convergence zone (HFCZ) have been reconstructed using long term timeseries of ground based 7Be observations. Cross correlation of 7Be activity concentrations also demonstrated to serve as an early warning indicator for Indian monsoons showing a possible 30-day warning prior to monsoon onset (Terzi and Kalinowski, 2017). Here we present what role phenomena that we can observe with 7Be, namely ITCZ and HFCZ, play in monsoon formation and how the prediction of monsoon onset relates to ENSO prediction. Performance, lead time and reliability of 7Be as monsoon onset indicator are then compared to current meteorological indicators. Near surface 7Be activity concentrations may help address outstanding challenges in monsoon research by integrating a new perspective across disciplines.

  3. On the time behaviour of the concentration of pyrazinium radical cations in the early stage of the Maillard reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoesser, Reinhard; Klein, Jeannette; Peschke, Simone; Zehl, Andrea; Cämmerer, Bettina; Kroh, Lothar W.

    2007-08-01

    During the early stage of the Maillard reaction pyrazinium radical cations were detected by ESR within the reaction system D-glucose/glycine. The spectra were characterized by completely resolved hyperfine structure. The partial pressure of oxygen and the radical concentrations were measured directly in the reaction mixture by ESR using solutions of the spin probe TEMPOL and of DPPH, respectively. There are quantitative and qualitative relations of the actual concentration of the radical ions to the partial pressure of oxygen, the temperature-time regime and the mechanical mixing of the reaction system. These macroscopic parameters significantly affect both the induction period and the velocity of the time-dependent formation of free radicals. From in situ variations of p(O 2) and p(Ar) including the connected mixing effects caused by the passing the gases through the reaction mixture, steric and chemical effects of the stabilization of the radical ions were established. The determination of suitable and relevant conditions for stabilization and subsequent radical reactions contributes to the elucidation of the macroscopically known antioxidant activity of Maillard products.

  4. Imbalances in serum angiopoietin concentrations are early predictors of septic shock development in patients with post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Febrile neutropenia carries a high risk of sepsis complications, and the identification of biomarkers capable to identify high risk patients is a great challenge. Angiopoietins (Ang -) are cytokines involved in the control microvascular permeability. It is accepted that Ang-1 expression maintains endothelial barrier integrity, and that Ang-2 acts as an antagonizing cytokine with barrier-disrupting functions in inflammatory situations. Ang-2 levels have been recently correlated with sepsis mortality in intensive care units. Methods We prospectively evaluated concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 at different time-points during febrile neutropenia, and explored the diagnostic accuracy of these mediators as potential predictors of poor outcome in this clinical setting before the development of sepsis complications. Results Patients that evolved with septic shock (n = 10) presented higher levels of Ang-2 measured 48 hours after fever onset, and of the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio at the time of fever onset compared to patients with non-complicated sepsis (n = 31). These levels correlated with sepsis severity scores. Conclusions Our data suggest that imbalances in the concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 are independent and early markers of the risk of developing septic shock and of sepsis mortality in febrile neutropenia, and larger studies are warranted to validate their clinical usefulness. Therapeutic strategies that manipulate this Ang-2/Ang-1 imbalance can potentially offer new and promising treatments for sepsis in febrile neutropenia. PMID:20509945

  5. Rocket observations of the ultraviolet airglow during morning twilight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebula, R. P.; Feldman, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Rocket-borne (Astrobee) UV measurements were made of the terrestrial airglow at morning twilight from 82 and 90 deg zenith angles at altitudes of 90 and 246 km in September 1979. Data were acquired on the NO gamma and delta bands, the 2470 A O II, 1356 A and the 1304 A O I lines, the Lyman-Berge-Hopfield N2 and the Herzberg 02 lines. The zodiacal contribution was substracted to obtain pure airglow data. Spectral analyses supported a larger nighttime decrease of N(4S) than for NO, the latter being in diffusive equilibrium above 190 km altitude. The NO gamma band was directly related to the thermospheric N(4S) contribution, the latter having a density of 2-8 million/cu cm at 200 km. Finally, self-consistent photoionization and photoelectron impact ionization models were derived for the atomic and ionic oxygen emissions.

  6. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning.

    PubMed

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten; Nielsen, Martin Lindhardt; Hansen, Åse Marie; Netterstrøm, Bo

    2012-02-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR. In 2006 and 2008, 480 individuals collected saliva samples at awakening and 30 min post-awakening. Mixed effects models with subject as a random effect and appropriate covariates were used to evaluate associations between the Effort Reward Model, and salivary cortisol at awakening (S0), and ACR. ERI was negatively and significantly associated with S0 for women and positively associated with ACR. S0 and ACR increased significantly from 2006 to 2008. ERI was significantly associated with cortisol levels at awakening (inverse association) for women, and positively associated with ACR. The population experienced a significant increase in morning cortisol levels and ACR from 2006 to 2008, which may originate in a re-organization of the included work places. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Morning Glory Syndrome with Carotid and Middle Cerebral Artery Vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Nezzar, Hachemi; Mbekeani, Joyce N; Dalens, Helen

    2015-12-01

    To report a case of incidental asymptomatic atypical morning glory syndrome (MGS) with concomitant ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral dysgenesis. A 6-year-old child was discovered to have incidental findings of MGS, with atypia. All visual functions were normal including vision and stereopsis. Neuroimaging revealed ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral vascular narrowing without associated collateral vessels or cerebral ischemia commonly seen in Moyamoya disease. Subsequent annual examinations have been stable, without signs of progression. This case demonstrates disparity between structural aberrations and final visual and neurological function and reinforces the association between MGS and intracranial vascular disruption. Full ancillary ophthalmic and neuroimaging studies should be performed in all patients with MGS with interval reassessments, even when the patient is asymptomatic and functionally intact.

  8. Gene expression analysis in zebrafish embryos: a potential approach to predict effect concentrations in the fish early life stage test.

    PubMed

    Weil, Mirco; Scholz, Stefan; Zimmer, Michaela; Sacher, Frank; Duis, Karen

    2009-09-01

    Based on the hypothesis that analysis of gene expression could be used to predict chronic fish toxicity, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test (DarT), developed as a replacement method for the acute fish test, was expanded to a gene expression D. rerio embryo test (Gene-DarT). The effects of 14 substances on lethal and sublethal endpoints of the DarT and on expression of potential marker genes were investigated: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2, cytochrome P450 1A (cypla), heat shock protein 70, fizzy-related protein 1, the transcription factors v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein g (avian) 1 and NF-E2-p45-related factor, and heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1). After exposure of zebrafish embryos for 48 h, differential gene expression was evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis, and densitometric analysis of the gels. All tested compounds significantly affected the expression of at least one potential marker gene, with cyp1a and hmox1 being most sensitive. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOECs) for gene expression were below concentrations resulting in 10% lethal effects in the DarT. For 10 (3,4- and 3,5-dichloroaniline, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 2,4-dinitrophenol, atrazine, parathion-ethyl, chlorotoluron, genistein, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and cadmium) out of the 14 tested substances, LOEC values derived with the Gene-DarT differ by a factor of less than 10 from LOEC values of fish early life stage tests with zebrafish. For pentachloroaniline and pentachlorobenzene, the Gene-DarT showed a 23- and 153-fold higher sensitivity, respectively, while for lindane, it showed a 13-fold lower sensitivity. For ivermectin, the Gene-DarT was by a factor of more than 1,000 less sensitive than the acute fish test. The results of the present study indicate that gene expression analysis in zebrafish embryos could principally be used to predict effect concentrations in the fish early life stage test.

  9. Decreased choline and creatine concentrations in centrum semiovale in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: relationship to IQ and early trauma.

    PubMed

    Coplan, Jeremy D; Mathew, Sanjay J; Mao, Xiangling; Smith, Eric L P; Hof, Patrick R; Coplan, Paul M; Rosenblum, Leonard A; Gorman, Jack M; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2006-06-30

    We have demonstrated, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging ((1)H-MRSI), elevations of N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine (NAA/CR) in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in comparison to healthy volunteers. A recent study indicates that the volume of prefrontal cortical white matter may be disproportionately increased in man in comparison to other primate species, with evolutionary implications. We therefore re-analyzed the identical scans with a specific focus on the centrum semiovale (CSO) as a representative region of interest of cerebral white matter. The central hypothesis was, in accordance with our gray matter findings, that patients with GAD, in comparison to healthy controls, would exhibit either an increase in NAA in CSO, or alternatively demonstrate reductions in concentrations of choline (CHO)-containing compounds and/or creatine+phosphocreatine (CR). MRSI scans that were obtained from an earlier [Mathew, S.J., Mao, X., Coplan, J.D., Smith, E.L., Sackeim, H.A., Gorman, J.M., Shungu, D.C., 2004. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortical pathology in generalized anxiety disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 1119-1121] sample of 15 patients with GAD [6 with early trauma (ET)] and 15 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were analyzed further for CSO metabolite alterations. Self-reported worry was scored using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Serial multislice/multivoxel MRSI scans had been performed on a 1.5-T MRI. Using absolute quantification methods for metabolite concentrations, we examined NAA, CHO and CR. GAD patients without ET exhibited bilaterally decreased concentrations of CHO and CR in CSO in comparison to healthy volunteers, whereas GAD patients with ET were indistinguishable from controls. In patients with GAD, high IQ

  10. M-ficolin concentrations in cord blood are related to circulating phagocytes and to early-onset sepsis.

    PubMed

    Schlapbach, Luregn J; Kjaer, Troels R; Thiel, Steffen; Mattmann, Maika; Nelle, Mathias; Wagner, Bendicht P; Ammann, Roland A; Aebi, Christoph; Jensenius, Jens C

    2012-04-01

    The pattern-recognition molecule M-ficolin is synthesized by monocytes and neutrophils. M-ficolin activates the complement system in a manner similar to mannan-binding lectin (MBL), but little is known about its role in host defense. Neonates are highly vulnerable to bacterial sepsis, in particular, due to their decreased phagocytic function. M-ficolin cord blood concentration was positively correlated with the absolute phagocyte count (ρ 0.51, P < 0.001) and with immature/total neutrophil ratio (ρ 0.34, P < 0.001). When comparing infants with sepsis and controls, a high M-ficolin cord blood concentration (>1,000 ng/ml) was associated with early-onset sepsis (EOS) (multivariate odds ratio 10.92, 95% confidence interval 2.21-54.02, P = 0.003). Experimental exposure of phagocytes isolated from adult donors to Escherichia coli resulted in a significant time- and dose-dependent release of M-ficolin. In conclusion, M-ficolin concentrations were related to circulating phagocytes and EOS. Our results indicate that bacterial sepsis can trigger M-ficolin release by phagocytes. Future studies should investigate whether M-ficolin may be used as a marker of neutrophil activation during invasive infections. We investigated M-ficolin in 47 infants with culture-positive sepsis during the first 30 days of life (13 with EOS and in 94 matched controls. M-ficolin was measured in cord blood using time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TRIFMA). Multivariate logistic regression was performed.

  11. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P < 0.05) and milk yield (P < 0.05) compared with those supplemented with corn. The results indicate that large grain allotments immediately before evening grazing during early grazing seasons increased ruminal microbial protein synthesis and milk production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Relationship of Systemic Cytokine Concentrations to Cognitive Function over Two Years in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Debra E.; Cohen, Ronald; Chen, Huaihou; Kelly, Debra L.; McCain, Nancy L.; Starkweather, Angela; Sturgill, Jamie; Jackson-Cook, Colleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment are frequently associated with cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). While CRCI has been linked to chemotherapy, there is increasing evidence that the condition may start prior to treatment and for some, remain unresolved after active treatment and into survivorship. Although the pathophysiology of the condition is complex, alterations in systemic cytokines, signaling molecules activated in response to infection or injury that trigger inflammation, are a possible mechanism linked to cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer and other conditions. Given the conflicting results in the literature, the lack of focus on domain-specific cognitive testing, and the need for a longer time period given the multiple modalities of standard treatments for early-stage breast cancer, this longitudinal study was conducted to address these gaps. Methods We assessed 75 women with early-stage breast cancer at five points over two years, starting prior to the initial chemotherapy through 24 months after chemotherapy initiation. Measures included a validated computerized evaluation of domain-specific cognitive functioning and a 17-plex panel of plasma cytokines. Linear mixed-effects models were applied to test the relationships of clinical variables and cytokine concentrations to each cognitive domain. Results: Levels and patterns of cytokine concentrations varied over time: six of the 17 cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, G-CSF, MIPS-1β, and MCP-1) had the most variability. Some cytokine levels (e.g., IL-6) increased during chemotherapy but then decreased subsequently, while others (e.g., IL-17) consistently declined from baseline over time. There were multiple relationships among cytokines and cognition, which varied over time. At baseline, elevated concentrations of G-CSF and reduced concentrations of IL-17 were associated with faster psychomotor speed. At the second time-point (prior to the mid-chemotherapy), multiple cytokines had significant associations

  13. Early gray-matter and white-matter concentration in infancy predict later language skills: a whole brain voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Deniz Can, Dilara; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months. Early gray-matter concentration in the right cerebellum, early white-matter concentration in the right cerebellum, and early white-matter concentration in the left posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC)/cerebral peduncle were positively and strongly associated with infants' receptive language ability at 12 months. Early gray-matter concentration in the right hippocampus was positively and strongly correlated with infants' expressive language ability at 12 months. Our results suggest that the cerebellum, PLIC/cerebral peduncle, and the hippocampus may be associated with early language development. Potential links between these structural predictors and infants' linguistic functions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Daily morning running for 3 weeks improved sleep and psychological functioning in healthy adolescents compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Yordanova, Juliana; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2012-12-01

    To compare sleep electroencephalographic patterns and psychological functioning of healthy adolescents running regularly in the mornings with those of control subjects. Although several studies have shown that regular moderate-to-vigorous exercise is related to favorable sleep and psychological functioning in adolescents, research on the effectiveness of short interventions is more limited. Fifty-one adolescents (mean age = 18.30 years; 27 female [53%]) took part in the study; they were randomly assigned either to a running or to a control group. The running group went running every morning for 30 minutes at moderate intensity during weekdays for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep electroencephalographic patterns and psychological functioning were assessed in both groups before and after the 3-week period. All participants also kept a sleep log for 3 weeks. Objective sleep improved (slow-wave sleep increased; sleep onset latency decreased) in the running group compared with the control group. Subjective sleep quality, mood, and concentration during the day improved, whereas sleepiness during the day decreased. Thirty minutes of running in the morning during weekdays for 3 consecutive weeks impacted positively on sleep and psychological functioning in healthy adolescents compared with control subjects. Running is inexpensive and easy to implement during school schedules, and as both objective and subjective improvements were observed within 3 weeks, regular physical exercise should be promoted. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal Interleukin-6 concentration during pregnancy is associated with variation in frontolimbic white matter and cognitive development in early life.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod M; Graham, Alice M; Entringer, Sonja; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Fair, Damien A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2018-04-11

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy can alter the trajectory of fetal brain development and increase risk for offspring psychiatric disorders. However, the majority of relevant research to date has been conducted in animal models. Here, in humans, we focus on the structural connectivity of frontolimbic circuitry as it is both critical for socioemotional and cognitive development, and commonly altered in a range of psychiatric disorders associated with intrauterine inflammation. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that elevated maternal concentration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) during pregnancy will be associated with variation in microstructural properties of this circuitry in the neonatal period and across the first year of life. Pregnant mothers were recruited in early pregnancy and maternal blood samples were obtained for assessment of maternal IL-6 concentrations in early (12.6 ± 2.8 weeks [S.D.]), mid (20.4 ± 1.5 weeks [S.D.]) and late (30.3 ± 1.3 weeks [S.D.]) gestation. Offspring brain MRI scans were acquired shortly after birth (N = 86, scan age = 3.7 ± 1.7 weeks [S.D.]) and again at 12-mo age (N = 32, scan age = 54.0 ± 3.1 weeks [S.D.]). Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to characterize fractional anisotropy (FA) along the left and right uncinate fasciculus (UF), representing the main frontolimbic fiber tract. In N = 30 of the infants with serial MRI data at birth and 12-mo age, cognitive and socioemotional developmental status was characterized using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. All analyses tested for potentially confounding influences of household income, prepregnancy Body-Mass-Index, obstetric risk, smoking during pregnancy, and infant sex, and outcomes at 12-mo age were additionally adjusted for the quality of the postnatal caregiving environment. Maternal IL-6 concentration (averaged across pregnancy) was prospectively and inversely associated with FA

  16. Maternal and Cord Blood Manganese Concentrations and Early Childhood Neurodevelopment among Residents near a Mining-Impacted Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Claus Henn, Birgit; Bellinger, David C; Hopkins, Marianne R; Coull, Brent A; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Jim, Rebecca; Hatley, Earl; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O

    2017-06-28

    Environmental manganese exposure has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes among school-aged children; yet, few studies have evaluated prenatal exposure. Our study examines associations between prenatal manganese concentrations and placental transfer of manganese with neurodevelopment in 224 2-y-old children residing near the Tar Creek Superfund Site. We collected maternal and cord blood at delivery, measured manganese using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and assessed neurodevelopment using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Associations between manganese and mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development indices were estimated in multivariable models. Placental transfer, approximated by cord/maternal manganese ratio, cord/total manganese ratio (total=maternal+cord), and by joint classification according to high or low (above or below median) maternal and cord manganese, was evaluated as a predictor of neurodevelopment. Median levels [interquartile ranges (IQR)] of manganese in maternal and cord blood, respectively, were 24.0 (19.5-29.7) and 43.1 (33.5-52.1) μg/L. Adjusting for lead, arsenic, and other potential confounders, an IQR increase in maternal manganese was associated with -3.0 (95% CI: -5.3, -0.7) points on MDI and -2.3 (95% CI: -4.1, -0.4) points on PDI. Cord manganese concentrations were not associated with neurodevelopment scores. Cord/maternal and cord/total manganese ratios were positively associated with MDI [cord/maternal: β=2.6 (95% Cl: −0.04, 5.3); cord/total: β=22.0 (95% Cl: 3.2, 40.7)] and PDI (cord/maternal: β=1.7 (95% Cl: −0.5, 3.9); cord/total: β=15.6 (95% Cl: 0.3, 20.9)). Compared to mother-child pairs with low maternal and cord manganese, associations with neurodevelopment scores were negative for pairs with either high maternal, high cord, or high maternal and cord manganese. Maternal blood manganese concentrations were negatively associated with early

  17. Single awakening salivary measurements provide reliable estimates of morning cortisol levels in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Vlenterie, Richelle; Roeleveld, Nel; van Gelder, Marleen M H J

    2016-12-01

    Mood disorders during pregnancy have been associated with adverse effects on maternal as well as fetal health. Since mood, anxiety, and stress disorders are related with elevated cortisol levels, salivary cortisol may be a useful biomarker. Although multiple samples are generally recommended, a single measurement of awakening salivary cortisol could be a simpler and more cost-effective method to determine whether women have elevated morning cortisol levels during a specific period of pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this validation study among 177 women in the PRIDE Study was to examine whether one awakening salivary cortisol measurement will suffice to classify pregnant women as having normal or elevated cortisol levels compared to awakening salivary cortisol measurements on three consecutive working days. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Cohen's kappa statistics (κ) overall as well as in sub-analyses within strata based on maternal age, level of education, net household income, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, complications during pregnancy, caffeine consumption, gestational week of sampling, and awakening time. The mean cortisol concentrations were 8.98ng/ml (SD 5.32) for day one, 8.62ng/ml (SD 4.55) for day two, and 8.39ng/ml (SD 4.58) for day three. The overall ICC was 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89) while the κ was 0.75 (95% CI 0.64-0.86). For the ICCs calculated within sub-analyses, a maximum difference of 0.11 was observed between the strata. For the κ statistics, most strata did not differ more than 0.12, except for pre-pregnancy BMI, severe nausea, and extreme fatigue with differences up to 0.22. In conclusion, one awakening salivary cortisol measurement is as reliable for the classification of pregnant women into normal and elevated morning cortisol levels as salivary cortisol measurements on three consecutive working days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An extremely high altitude plume seen at Mars morning terminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Pellier, Christophe; Delcroix, Marc; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Jaeschke, Wayne; Parker, Donald C.; Phillips, James H.; Peach, Damian

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright very high altitude plumes at the Martian terminator at 250 km or more above the surface, thus well into the ionosphere and bordering on the exosphere. They were located at about 195 deg West longitude and -45 deg latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and lasted for about 10 days. The features showed day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behavior. Photometric measurements are used to explore two possible scenarios to explain their nature. If the phenomenon is due to suspended particles (dust, CO2 or H2O ice clouds) reflecting solar radiation, the mean size is about 0.1 microns with a nadir optical depth > 0.06. Alternatively, the plume could be auroral emission above a region with a strong magnetic anomaly and where aurora has previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of the Mars upper atmosphere.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, CONSOLIDER program ASTROMOL CSD2009-00038 and AYA2011-30613-CO2-1. Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55.

  19. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  20. Hello Sunday Morning: Alcohol, (non)consumption and selfhood.

    PubMed

    Pennay, Amy; MacLean, Sarah; Rankin, Georgia

    2016-02-01

    Hello Sunday Morning (HSM) is an online program that encourages people to commit to a period of non-drinking and blog about their experiences. The purpose of this paper is to explore how HSM members negotiated their periods of abstention, with a focus on how not drinking influenced their narratives of selfhood. Thematic analysis was undertaken of 2844 blog posts from 154 Victorians who signed up to HSM in 2013 or 2014. Analysis revealed three key narratives of selfhood offered by participants: (1) abstinence resulting in a disrupted sense of self, (2) non-consumption facilitating the development of a new healthy self, and (3) anti-consumption facilitating the development of a resistant self. Individuals construct and maintain their sense of self through consumption (or non-consumption) activities, and this occurs within the broader context of the relationship between selfhood, consumption and culture. HSM members developed narratives of self by drawing on a range of wider discursive structures concerning pleasure, healthism and resistance. The typologies of non-drinking selves identified in this paper could be disseminated through platforms such as HSM to support people who are new to non-drinking in choosing how they might construct and enact alternative selfhoods in contexts where alcohol consumption is deeply embedded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Extinction of Conditioned Fear is Better Learned and Recalled in the Morning than in the Evening

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis; Verga, Patrick W.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N=109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCR) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS−), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS+E) but not the other (CS+U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 hr (within AM or PM), 12 hr (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 hr (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p=.002). Collapsing across CS+ type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p=.003) and fear renewal (p=.005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS+E to CS+U with the response to the CS+U significantly larger than to the CS+E only in the evening (p=.028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicting better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. PMID:23992769

  2. Extinction of conditioned fear is better learned and recalled in the morning than in the evening.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis A K; Verga, Patrick W; Orr, Scott P; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2013-11-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N = 109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS-), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS + E) but not the other (CS + U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 h (within AM or PM), 12 h (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 h (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p = .002). Collapsing across CS + type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p = .003) and fear renewal (p = .005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS + E to CS + U with the response to the CS + U significantly larger than to the CS + E only in the evening (p = .028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicted better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "¡Fantástico!": Valuing Student Knowledge through the Morning Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNicolo, Christina P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a qualitative case study that examined the language practices and learning in a first grade bilingual classroom, the author discusses one teacher's daily process for the literacy event of the morning message. Primary findings indicate that the ways the teacher listened and responded to students during the morning message provided…

  4. Morning-Evening Newspaper Circulation: What Effect Do Appearance and Content Have?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, John C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In a study of jointly-owned morning/evening newspapers in 96 United States cities, it was found that those morning/evening newspapers that were similar in content and appearance reached higher proportions of dual subscribers than those that were dissimilar. (GW)

  5. Persistence of the primary vitreous in association with the morning glory disc anomaly.

    PubMed

    Brown, G C; Gonder, J; Levin, A

    1984-01-01

    Two patients with the morning glory disc anomaly are reported. In one, fibrovascular stalk passed forward into the vitreous cavity, while in the second a persistent hyaloid artery extended anteriorly from a tuft of fibrous tissue to the posterior lens capsule. These cases suggest that in some eyes the morning glory disc anomaly occurs as a variant of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV).

  6. Use of Songs to Promote Independence in Morning Greeting Routines for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Petra; Wolery, Mark; Aldridge, David

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of individually composed songs on the independent behaviors of two young children with autism during the morning greeting/entry routine into their inclusive classrooms. A music therapist composed a song for each child related to the steps of the morning greeting routine and taught the children's teachers to sing…

  7. Bead-Level Characterization of Early-Stage Amyloid β42 Aggregates: Nuclei and Ionic Concentration Effects.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingkun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Yong; Ai, Hongqi; Kang, Baotao

    2017-11-16

    A growing body of evidence shows that soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates, oligomers, and even protofibrils, may be more neurotoxic than fibrils. Here, we employ a coarse grain model to investigate the aggregation of 75mer Aβ 42 oligomers and the salt effect, the cornerstone of fibril evolution. We find that the oligomer morphologies generated by seventy-five monomers or mixed by both fifty monomers and five preset pentameric nuclei are different (spherical vs. bar-/disk-shaped) and are characterize by a full of coil content (former) and >70 % β-turn content (latter), indicating a novel role of the nuclei played in the early aggregation stage. The aggregation for the former oligomer adopts a master-nucleus mechanism, whereas for the latter combination of monomers and pentamers a multi-nuclei one is found. The random salt ions will distribute around the aggregates to form several ion shells as the aggregation develops. A unique two-fold gap between the shells is observed in the system containing 100 mm NaCl, endowing the physiological salt concentration with special implications. Meanwhile, an accurate ion-solute cutoff distance (0.66 nm) is predicted, and recommended to apply to many other aggregated biomolecular systems. The present distribution scenario of ions can be generalized to other aggregated systems, although it is strictly dependent on the identity of a specific aggregate, such as its charge and composition. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Fears of violence during morning travel to school.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Guo, Wensheng; Allison, Paul D; Anderson, Elijah; Richmond, Therese S; Branas, Charles C

    2013-07-01

    Children's safety as they travel to school is a concern nationwide. We investigated how safe children felt from the risk of being assaulted during morning travel to school. Children between 10 and 18 years old were recruited in Philadelphia and interviewed with the aid of geographic information system (GIS) mapping software about a recent trip to school, situational characteristics, and how safe they felt as they travelled based on a 10-point item (1 = very unsafe, 10 = very safe). Ordinal regression was used to estimate the probability of perceiving different levels of safety based on transportation mode, companion type, and neighborhood characteristics. Among 65 randomly selected subjects, routes to school ranged from 7 to 177 minutes (median = 36) and .1-15.1 street miles (median = 1.9), and included between 1-5 transportation modes (median = 2). Among students interviewed, 58.5% felt less than very safe (i.e., <10) at some point while traveling to school and one-third (32.5%) of the total person time was spent feeling less than very safe. Nearly a quarter of students, or 24.6%, felt a reduction in safety immediately upon exiting their home. The probability of reporting a safety of >8, for example, was .99 while in a car and .94 while on foot but was .86 and .87 when on a public bus or trolley. Probability was .98 while with an adult but was .72 while with another child and .71 when alone. Also, perceived safety was lower in areas of high crime and high density of off-premise alcohol outlets. Efforts that target situational risk factors are warranted to help children feel safe over their entire travel routes to school. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association Between ICU Admission During Morning Rounds and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gajic, Ognjen; Morales, Ian J.; Keegan, Mark T.; Peters, Steve G.; Hubmayr, Rolf D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: No previous study has evaluated the association between admission to ICUs during round time and patient outcome. The objective of this study was to determine the association between round-time ICU admission and patient outcome. Methods: This retrospective study included 49,844 patients admitted from October 1994 to December 2007 to four ICUs (two surgical, one medical, and one multispecialty) of an academic medical center. Of these patients, 3,580 were admitted to the ICU during round time (8:00 am to 10:59 am) and 46,264 were admitted during nonround time (from 1:00 pm to 6:00 am). The medical ICU had 24-h/7-day per week intensivist coverage during the last 2 years of the study. We compared the baseline characteristics and outcome of patients admitted to the ICU between the two groups. Data were abstracted from the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III database. Results: The round-time and non-round-groups were similar in gender, ethnicity, and age. The predicted hospital mortality rate of the round time group was higher (17.4% vs 12.3% predicted, respectively; p < 0.001). The hospital length of stay was similar between the two groups. The round-time group had a higher hospital mortality rate (16.2% vs 8.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Most of the round-time ICU admissions and deaths occurred in the medical ICU. Round-time admission was an independent risk factor for hospital death (odds ratio, 1.321; 95% CI, 1.178 to 1.481). This independent association was present for the whole study period except for the last 2 years. Conclusions: Patients admitted to the ICU during morning rounds have higher severity of illness and mortality rates. PMID:19505985

  10. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  11. Patterns of Morning and Evening Fatigue Among Adults with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Lerdal, Anners; Gay, Caryl L.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims and objectives Describe patterns of morning and evening fatigue in adults with HIV and examine their relationship to demographic and clinical factors and other symptoms. Background Most studies of HIV-related fatigue assess average levels of fatigue and do not address its diurnal fluctuations. Patterns of fatigue over the course of the day may have important implications for assessment and treatment. Design A cross-sectional, correlational design was used with six repeated measures over 72 hours. Method A convenience sample of 318 HIV-infected adults was recruited in San Francisco. Socio-demographic, clinical and symptom data were collected with questionnaires. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were obtained from medical records. Participants completed a four-item version of the Lee Fatigue Scale each morning and evening for three consecutive days. Participants were grouped based on their diurnal pattern of fatigue (high evening only, high morning only, high morning and evening and low morning and evening). Group comparisons and logistic regression were used to determine the unique predictors of each fatigue pattern. Results The high evening fatigue pattern was associated with anxiety and the high morning pattern was associated with anxiety and depression. The morning fatigue pattern showed very little fluctuation between morning and evening, the evening pattern showed the largest fluctuation. The high morning and evening pattern was associated with anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance and this group reported the most fatigue-related distress and interference in functioning. Conclusions These results provide initial evidence for the importance of assessing the patient’s daily pattern of fatigue fluctuation, as different patterns were associated with different symptom experiences and perhaps different etiologies. Relevance to clinical practice Different fatigue patterns may benefit from tailored intervention strategies. Management of depressive symptoms

  12. Patterns of morning and evening fatigue among adults with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lerdal, Anners; Gay, Caryl L; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Portillo, Carmen J; Lee, Kathryn A

    2011-08-01

    Describe patterns of morning and evening fatigue in adults with HIV and examine their relationship to demographic and clinical factors and other symptoms. Most studies of HIV-related fatigue assess average levels of fatigue and do not address its diurnal fluctuations. Patterns of fatigue over the course of the day may have important implications for assessment and treatment. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used with six repeated measures over 72 hours. A convenience sample of 318 HIV-infected adults was recruited in San Francisco. Socio-demographic, clinical and symptom data were collected with questionnaires. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were obtained from medical records. Participants completed a four-item version of the Lee Fatigue Scale each morning and evening for three consecutive days. Participants were grouped based on their diurnal pattern of fatigue (high evening only, high morning only, high morning and evening and low morning and evening). Group comparisons and logistic regression were used to determine the unique predictors of each fatigue pattern. The high evening fatigue pattern was associated with anxiety and the high morning pattern was associated with anxiety and depression. The morning fatigue pattern showed very little fluctuation between morning and evening, the evening pattern showed the largest fluctuation. The high morning and evening pattern was associated with anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance and this group reported the most fatigue-related distress and interference in functioning. These results provide initial evidence for the importance of assessing the patient's daily pattern of fatigue fluctuation, as different patterns were associated with different symptom experiences and perhaps different aetiologies. Different fatigue patterns may benefit from tailored intervention strategies. Management of depressive symptoms could be tested in patients who experience high levels of morning fatigue. © 2011 Blackwell

  13. Studying the antiemetic effect of vitamin B6 for morning sickness: pyridoxine and pyridoxal are prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Matok, Ilan; Clark, Shannon; Caritis, Steve; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason G; Hankins, Gary; Mattison, Donald R; Koren, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin B6 has been known to possess antiemetic effects since 1942. This water soluble compound has several forms in the circulation including pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal phosphate. The active antiemetic form of vitamin B6 is unknown. This was a pre-specified substudy of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing the antiemetic effect of the doxylamine-vitamin B6 combination (Diclectin®) (n = 131) to placebo (n = 126) in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Serum concentrations of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PLP) and doxylamine were measured on Days 4, 8, and 15. With Diclectin® exhibiting a significant antiemetic effect in pregnancy, serum concentrations of pyridoxine were unmeasurable in almost all patients and those of pyridoxal were undetectable in half of patients. In contrast, PLP was measurable at sustained, stable steady-state levels in all patients. Our data suggest that there is a correlation between PLP levels and PUQE score of morning sickness symptoms when pyridoxine and pyridoxal levels are undetectable, and hence they might be prodrugs of PLP, which may be the active antiemetic form of vitamin B6. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  14. MISR Multi-angle Views of Sunday Morning Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Hot, dry Santa Ana winds began blowing through the Los Angeles and San Diego areas on Sunday October 21, 2007. Wind speeds ranging from 30 to 50 mph were measured in the area, with extremely low relative humidities. These winds, coupled with exceptionally dry conditions due to lack of rainfall resulted in a number of fires in the Los Angeles and San Diego areas, causing the evacuation of more than 250,000 people.

    These two images show the Southern California coast from Los Angeles to San Diego from two of the nine cameras on the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the NASA EOS Terra satellite. These images were obtained around 11:35 a.m. PDT on Sunday morning, October 21, 2007 and show a number of plumes extending out over the Pacific ocean. In addition, locations identified as potential hot spots from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on the same satellite are outlined in red.

    The left image is from MISR's nadir looking camera and the plumes appear very faint. The image on the right is from MISR's 60o forward looking camera, which accentuates the amount of light scattered by aerosols in the atmosphere, including smoke and dust. Both these images are false color and contain information from MISR's red, green, blue and near-infrared wavelengths, which makes vegetated land appear greener than it would naturally. Notice in the right hand image that the color of the plumes associated with the MODIS hot spots is bluish, while plumes not associated with hot spots appear more yellow. This is because the latter plumes are composed of dust kicked up by the strong Santa Ana winds. In some locations along Interstate 5 on this date, visibility was severely reduced due to blowing dust. MISR's multiangle and multispectral capability give it the ability to distinguish smoke from dust in this situation.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days

  15. One night of sleep restriction following heavy exercise impairs 3-km cycling time-trial performance in the morning.

    PubMed

    Chase, John D; Roberson, Paul A; Saunders, Michael J; Hargens, Trent A; Womack, Christopher J; Luden, Nicholas D

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the influence of a single night of sleep restriction following heavy exercise on cycling time-trial (TT) performance and skeletal muscle function in the morning. Seven recreational cyclists (age, 24 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 62 ± 4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed 2 phases, each comprising evening (EX1) and next-morning (EX2) exercise sessions. EX1 and EX2 were separated by an assigned sleep condition: a full night of rest (CON; 7.1 ± 0.3 h of sleep) or sleep restriction through early waking (SR; 2.4 ± 0.2 h). EX1 comprised baseline testing (muscle soreness, isokinetic torque, and 3-km TT performance) followed by heavy exercise that included 60 min of high-intensity cycling intervals and resistance exercise. EX2 was performed to assess recovery from EX1 and included all baseline measures. Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all variables. SR had a negative effect (very likely) on the change in 3-km TT performance compared with CON. Specifically, 3-km TT performance was 'very likely' slower during EX2 compared with EX1 following SR (-4.0% ± 3.0%), whereas 3-km TT performance was 'possibly' slower during EX2 (vs. EX1) following CON (-0.5% ± 3.0%). Sleep condition did not influence changes in peak torque or muscle soreness from EX1 to EX2. A single night of sleep restriction following heavy exercise had marked consequences on 3-km TT performance the next morning. Because occasional sleep loss is likely, strategies to ameliorate the consequences of sleep loss on performance should be investigated.

  16. Subgroups of Chemotherapy Patients With Distinct Morning and Evening Fatigue Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Kord M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Paul, Steven M.; Dunn, Laura B.; Levine, Jon D.; Wright, Fay; Hammer, Marilyn J.; Mastick, Judy; Venook, Alan; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Purposes of this study were to: identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories for morning and evening fatigue; evaluate for differences in demographic and clinical characteristics among these subgroups; and compare and contrast the predictors of subgroup membership for morning and evening fatigue. Methods Outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer (n=582) completed questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Morning and evening fatigue severity were evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to identify distinct subgroups. Results Three latent classes were identified for morning fatigue (i.e., Low (31.8%), High (51.4%), and Very High (16.8%)) and for evening evening fatigue (i.e., Moderate (20.0%), High (21.8%), and Very High (58.2%)). Most of the disease and treatment characteristics did not distinguish among the morning and evening fatigue classes. Compared to the Low class, patients in the High and Very High morning fatigue class were younger, had a lower functional status and higher level of comorbidity. Compared to the Moderate class, patients in the Very High evening fatigue class were younger, more likely to be female, had child care responsibilities, had a lower functional status, and a higher level of comorbidity. Conclusion LPA allows for the identification of risk factors for more severe fatigue. Since an overlap was not observed across the morning and evening fatigue classes and unique predictors for morning and evening fatigue were identified, these findings suggest that morning and evening fatigue may have distinct underlying mechanisms. PMID:26361758

  17. Effects of Morning Caffeine’ Ingestion on Mood States, Simple Reaction Time, and Short-Term Maximal Performance on Elite Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Souissi, Makram; Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Atheymen, Rim; Hakim, Ahmed; Sahnoun, Zouhair

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ergogenic effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test recorded in the morning on elite Judoists. Methods Twelve elite judoists (age: 21.08 ± 1.16 years, body mass: 83.75 ± 20.2 kg, height: 1.76 ±6.57 m) participated in this study. Mood states, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test were measured during two test sessions at 07:00 h and after placebo or caffeine ingestion (i.e. 5 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of caffeine were measured before (T0) and 1-h after caffeine’ ingestion (T1) and after the Wingate test (T3). Results Our results revealed an increase of the anxiety and the vigor (P<0.01), a reduction of the simple reaction time (P<0.001) and an improvement of the peak and mean powers during the Wingate test. However, the fatigue index during this test was unaffected by the caffeine ingestion. In addition, plasma concentration of caffeine was significantly higher at T1 in comparison with T0. Conclusions In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that morning caffeine ingestion has ergogenic properties with the potential to benefit performance, increase anxiety and vigor, and decrease the simple reaction time. PMID:23012635

  18. Magnitude of Morning Surge in Blood Pressure Is Associated with Sympathetic but Not Cardiac Baroreflex Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Aaron W.; Hissen, Sarah L.; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Brown, Rachael; Taylor, Chloe E.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the arterial baroreflex to regulate blood pressure may influence the magnitude of the morning surge in blood pressure (MSBP). The aim was to investigate the relationships between sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the morning surge. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure was recorded in 14 young individuals. The morning surge was defined via the pre-awakening method, which is calculated as the difference between mean blood pressure values 2 h before and 2 h after rising from sleep. The mean systolic morning surge, diastolic morning surge, and morning surge in mean arterial pressures were 15 ± 2, 13 ± 1, and 11 ± 1 mmHg, respectively. During the laboratory protocol, continuous measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were made over a 10-min period of rest. Sympathetic BRS was quantified by plotting MSNA burst incidence against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRSinc), and by plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRStotal). Cardiac BRS was quantified using the sequence method. The mean values for sympathetic BRSinc, sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS were −1.26 ± 0.26 bursts/100 hb/mmHg, −1.60 ± 0.37 AU/beat/mmHg, and 13.1 ± 1.5 ms/mmHg respectively. Significant relationships were identified between sympathetic BRSinc and the diastolic morning surge (r = 0.62, p = 0.02) and the morning surge in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.57, p = 0.03). Low sympathetic BRS was associated with a larger morning surge in mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure. Trends for relationships were identified between sympathetic BRStotal and the diastolic morning surge (r = 0.52, p = 0.066) and the morning surge in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.48, p = 0.095) but these did not reach significance. There were no significant relationships between cardiac BRS and the morning surge. These findings indicate that the ability of the baroreflex to buffer increases in blood

  19. Perfluorocarbon liquid migration into the subarachnoid space in a patient with morning glory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naseripour, Masood; Ghasempour, Adel; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Sanjari, Mostafa Sultan; Yousefi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) migration into the subarachnoid space at the time of vitreoretinal surgery in a patient with morning glory syndrome associated retinal detachment. A 9-year-old girl underwent pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for retinal detachment associated with morning glory syndrome. PFCL was used for retinal stabilization before endolaser photocoagulation. The retina detached, and repeated vitrectomy and silicone oil injection was performed. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed PFCL in the subarachnoid space. The migration of perfluorocarbon into the subarachnoid space is a rare complication of vitrectomy in patients with morning glory syndrome.

  20. Heat Acclimation by Post-Exercise Hot Water Immersion in the Morning Reduces Thermal Strain During Morning and Afternoon Exercise-Heat-Stress.

    PubMed

    Zurawlew, Michael J; Mee, Jessica A; Walsh, Neil P

    2018-05-10

    Recommendations state that to acquire the greatest benefit from heat acclimation the clock-time of heat acclimation sessions should match the clock-time of expected exercise-heat stress. It remains unknown if adaptations by post-exercise hot water immersion (HWI) demonstrate time of day dependent adaptations. Thus, we examined whether adaptations following post-exercise HWI completed in the morning were present during morning and afternoon exercise-heat stress. Ten males completed an exercise-heat stress test commencing in the morning (0945-h: AM) and afternoon (1445-h: PM; 40 min; 65% V̇O 2max treadmill run) before (PRE) and after (POST) heat acclimation. The 6-day heat acclimation intervention involved a daily, 40 min treadmill-run (65% V̇O 2max ) in temperate conditions followed by ≤ 40 min HWI (40°C; 0630-1100-h). Adaptations by 6-day post-exercise HWI in the morning were similar in the morning and afternoon. Reductions in resting rectal temperature (T re ; AM; -0.34 ± 0.24°C, PM; -0.27 ± 0.23°C; P = 0.002), T re at sweating onset (AM; -0.34 ± 0.24°C, PM; -0.31 ± 0.25°C; P = 0.001), and end-exercise T re (AM; -0.47 ± 0.33°C, PM; -0.43 ± 0.29°C; P = 0.001), heart rate (AM; -14 ± 7 beats∙min -1 , PM; -13 ± 6 beats∙min -1 ; P < 0.01), rating of perceived exertion (P = 0.01), and thermal sensation (P = 0.005) were not different in the morning compared to the afternoon. Morning heat acclimation by post-exercise hot water immersion induced adaptions at rest and during exercise-heat stress in the morning and mid-afternoon.

  1. Maternal hCG concentrations in early IVF pregnancies: associations with number of cells in the Day 2 embryo and oocytes retrieved.

    PubMed

    Tanbo, T G; Eskild, A

    2015-12-01

    Do number of cells in the transferred cleavage stage embryo and number of oocytes retrieved for IVF influence maternal hCG concentrations in early pregnancies? Compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo, transfer of a 4-cell embryo results in higher hCG concentrations on Day 12 after transfer, and more than 20 oocytes retrieved were associated with low hCG concentrations. Maternal hCG concentration in very early pregnancy varies considerably among women, but is likely to be an indicator of time since implantation of the embryo into the endometrium, in addition to number and function of trophoblast cells. We followed 1047 pregnancies after IVF/ICSI from oocyte retrieval until Day 12 after embryo transfer. Women were recruited in Norway during the years 2005-2013. Successful pregnancies after transfer of one single embryo that had been cultured for 2 days were included. Maternal hCG was quantified on Day 12 after embryo transfer by chemiluminescence immunoassay, which measures intact hCG and the free β-hCG chain. Information on a successful pregnancy, defined as birth after >16 weeks, was obtained by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Transfer of a 4-cell embryo resulted in higher maternal hCG concentrations compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo (134.8 versus 87.8 IU/l, P < 0.05). A high number of oocytes retrieved (>20) was associated with low hCG concentrations (P < 0.05). The factors studied explain a limited part of the total variation of hCG concentrations in early pregnancy. Although embryo transfer was performed at the same time after fertilization, we do not know the exact time of implantation. A further limitation to our study is that the number of pregnancies after transfer of a 2-cell embryo was small (27 cases). Number of cells in the transferred embryo and number of oocytes retrieved may influence the conditions and timing for embryo implantation in different ways and thereby influence maternal hCG concentrations. Such knowledge may be

  2. Maternal left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction and brain natriuretic peptide concentration in early- and late-onset pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Borges, V T M; Zanati, S G; Peraçoli, M T S; Poiati, J R; Romão-Veiga, M; Peraçoli, J C; Thilaganathan, B

    2018-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with maternal cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess and compare maternal left ventricular structure and diastolic function and levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in women with early-onset (< 34 weeks' gestation) vs those with late-onset (≥ 34 weeks' gestation) PE. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 30 women with early-onset PE, 32 with late-onset PE and 23 normotensive controls. Maternal cardiac structure and diastolic function were assessed by echocardiography and plasma levels of BNP were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Early- and late-onset PE were associated with increased left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness compared with normotensive controls. In women with early-onset PE, the prevalence of concentric hypertrophy (40%) and diastolic dysfunction (23%) was also significantly higher (both P < 0.05) compared with women with late-onset PE (16% for both). Maternal serum BNP levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in women with early-onset PE and correlated with relative wall thickness and left ventricular mass index. Early-onset PE is associated with more severe cardiac impairment than is late-onset PE, as evidenced by an increased prevalence of concentric hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and higher levels of BNP. These findings suggest that early-onset PE causes greater myocardial damage, increasing the risk of both peripartum and postpartum cardiovascular morbidity. Although these cardiovascular effects are easily identified by echocardiographic parameters and measuring BNP, further studies are needed to assess their clinical utility. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of raised CO2 concentration on the egg production rate and early development of two marine copepods (Acartia steueri and Acartia erythraea).

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Haruko; Shimode, Shinji; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2004-11-01

    Direct injection of CO(2) into the deep ocean is receiving increasing attention as a way to mitigate increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration. To assess the potential impact of the environmental change associated with CO(2) sequestration in the ocean, we studied the lethal and sub-lethal effects of raised CO(2) concentration in seawater on adult and early stage embryos of marine planktonic copepods. We found that the reproduction rate and larval development of copepods are very sensitive to increased CO(2) concentration. The hatching rate tended to decrease, and nauplius mortality rate to increase, with increased CO(2) concentration. These results suggest that the marine copepod community will be negatively affected by the disposal of CO(2). This could decrease on the carbon export flux to the deep ocean and change the biological pump. Clearly, further studies are needed to determine whether ocean CO(2) injection is an acceptable strategy to reduce anthropogenic CO(2).

  4. How Different are SMOS Morning and Evening Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Hornbuckle, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    Midwest, specifically where agriculture is a dominant land use. It is important that relative humidity data utilized from a source outside of an agricultural field is representative of the conditions occurring within the crop canopy, which is generally higher. SMOS pixels were chosen for regions where > 75% of the land area was comprised of agriculture. Days were chosen where there was a satellite pass both at 6am and 6pm, on days when no rainfall occurred. As such, changes in soil moisture would be minimal. The brightness temperatures obtained were normalized using the polarization index, which uses both v-pol and h-pol outputs to remove the influence of changes in surface temperature on the brightness temperature. As such, changes in the brightness temperature can be attributed to changes in the water content of the crop canopy or the presence of dew. Identifying changes in the signal between morning and evening passes will aid in determining if the presence of dew on crop canopy is an important source of error in soil moisture measurements at L-band, and more importantly, if 6pm measurements appear to be viable for soil moisture retrieval.

  5. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

    2002-01-01

    components (ICARE), provided by CNES will permit improvement of risk estimation models for radiation effect on last generation integrated circuit technology. . On June 14th, 2000 CONAE and NASA signed an amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding for the SAC-C mission in order that the SAC-C satellite, were included in a constellation - named "Morning Constellation". It is integrated by USA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1, Terra, and Argentine SAC-C that feature on-board instruments from the United States, Argentina, Denmark, Italy, France, and Japan. The four satellite tracks on the Earth's surface are the same, their orbital height being 705 km and their inclination, 98.21 degrees. They cross the Equator at 10:00, 10:01, 10:15, and 10:30 hours, respectively (local time). Satellites comply with the World Wide Reference System. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken and will be presented in this paper. Several jointly sponsored technical workshops have been held, and also collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments have been made. One of the objectives of the AM Constellation is the collaboration in the case of emergencies, NASA and CONAE agreed to give preference in those situation in the planification of their satellite acquisitions. From all the possible hazardous events, the most important for the country are fire and floods. In relation to fires, CONAE is presently adapting and developing the algorithms for using MODIS data to generate a fire map product. Additionally research on fire detection is carried out using the data from the HSTC camera. In relation to flooding, CONAE works in cooperation to national institutions providing the data and, in some cases, producing flood extent maps. In particular MMRS data is demonstrating to be very effective due to its spectral and radiometric resolutions, and its large swath which is well suited for extended countries like Argentina.

  6. Observations of the Nocturnal Boundary Layer and Morning Transitional Periods in Houston, Texas during the TexAQS II Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, B. M.; Clements, C. B.; Rappenglueck, B.

    2007-12-01

    High-temporal resolution tethersonde profiles taken during the TexAQS II field campaign in Houston were used to study the overnight development and progression of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) and the evolution of the convective boundary layer after sunrise. The measurements were made at the University of Houston campus, located approximately 4 km southeast of the downtown Houston central business district, and consisted of vertical profiles of potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, wind speed, wind direction, and ozone concentration. Profile heights averaged 250 m AGL with a few reaching 400 m AGL. Profiles were taken at approximately 30 min intervals throughout 4 nights during Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs), including both the evening and morning transitional periods. Tethersonde experiments also were performed during several additional morning break-up periods during the campaign. Preliminary results from the overnight experiments of Sept 7-8 and Sept 14-15, 2006 showed different NBL evolutions. Sept 7-8 exhibited a stronger and deeper inversion compared with Sept 14-15 when the inversion was weak with a fairly constant height throughout the night. The Sept 7-8 profiles showed elevated bluff-like structures in the virtual potential temperature profiles between 0300-0400 CDT, indicating neutral stability within the 40-90 m AGL level. And, just before sunrise a neutral layer with constant potential temperature developed between the surface and 75 m AGL reflecting horizontal cold air advection. Further analyses will be presented for other vertical profiles taken during the campaign, including the additional overnight profiles as well as the profiles taken during the morning transition to the convective boundary layer.

  7. Reversal of multidrug resistance by morning glory resin glycosides in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-González, Gabriela; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2012-01-27

    Reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) by thirty resin glycosides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) was evaluated in vinblastine-resistant human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7/Vin). The effects of these amphipathic compounds on the cytotoxicity and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR were estimated with the sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay. Active noncytotoxic compounds exerted a potentiation effect of vinblastine susceptibility by 1- to over 1906-fold at tested concentrations of 5 and 25 μg/mL. Murucoidin V (1) enhanced vinblastine activity 255-fold when incorporated at 25 μg/mL and also, based on flow cytometry, significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 with the use of reserpine as a positive control for a MDR reversal agent. Incubation of MCF-7/Vin cells with 1 caused an increase in uptake and notably lowered the efflux rate of rhodamine 123. Decreased expression of P-glycoprotein by compound 1 was detected by immunofluorescence flow cytometry after incubation with an anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that resin glycosides represent potential efflux pump inhibitors for overcoming MDR in cancer therapy.

  8. Morning-evening preference: sleep pattern spectrum and lifestyle habits among Japanese junior high school pupils.

    PubMed

    Gaina, Alexandru; Sekine, Michikazu; Kanayama, Hitomi; Takashi, Yamagami; Hu, Lizhen; Sengoku, Kayo; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed the sleep-wake patterns and lifestyle habits in a sample of Japanese first to third year junior high school children (n=638, age 12 to 15 yrs), of whom 29.3% were evening type, 64.1% intermediate type, and 6.6% morning type in preference. The morningness-eveningness (M-E) score was lower (more evening typed), 16.1 vs. 15.4 in first compared to third year students. There were significant gender differences, with girls showing a greater evening preference. Evening preference was associated with longer sleep latency, shortened sleep duration during schooldays and weekends, bad morning feeling, and episodes of daytime sleepiness. In contrast, morning preference was associated with higher sleep drive and better sleep-wake parameters and lifestyle habits. Our results suggest the morning preference should be promoted among junior high school children to increase the likelihood of more regular sleep-wake patterns and lifestyle habits.

  9. [Sleep quality and hormone levels in the morning and evening hours under chemical pollution].

    PubMed

    Budkevich, R O; Budkevich, E V

    To evaluate self-assessment of sleep and the level of hormones in the morning and evening in chemical pollution conditions. Three hundred adolescent and adult men living in the regions with low and high levels of chemical pollution were examined using questionnaires for self-assessment of quality of sleep, sleep hygiene, daytime sleepiness. Levels of cortisol and testosterone in the saliva were determined in the morning and evening hours by ELISA. In areas with low pollution level, there were normal changes in hormone levels with an increase in the morning and decrease in the evening. In high pollution conditions, the average levels of hormones increased, the morning-evening gradient disappeared. These conditions were also associated with an increase in daytime sleepiness and disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle and the endocrine regulation system that indicate the possibility of the development of internal desynchronosis.

  10. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, early morning liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39B

    1989-11-22

    STS033-S-003 (22 Nov 1989) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery heads for Earth-orbit on the first post-Challenger nocturnal launch. Liftoff occurred at 7:23:29:989 p.m. (EST), November 22, 1989. This picture shows almost a full front view of the Space Shuttle Discovery, its two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) and the External Tank (ET). Onboard for the Department of the Defense (DOD) devoted mission were astronauts Frederick D. Gregory, John E. Blaha, F. Story Musgrave, Kathryn C. Thornton and Manley L. Carter.

  11. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, early morning liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39B

    1989-11-22

    STS033-S-002 (22 Nov 1989) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery heads for Earth orbit on the first post-Challenger nocturnal launch. Liftoff occurred at 7:23:29:989 p.m. (EST), November 22, 1989. This picture shows a side view of Discovery, one of its two solid rocket boosters (SRB) and the external tank. It represents a good example of the "diamond shock" effect, in the plume from the main engine, associated with Shuttle launches. Onboard for the DOD-devoted mission were Astronauts Frederick D. Gregory, John E. Blaha, F. Story Musgrave, Kathryn C. Thornton and Manley L. Carter.

  12. Investigation of Wind Conditions During Early Morning Hours at Los Angeles International Airport

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-10-01

    Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) uses a unique runway utilization pattern to minimize noise pollution between midnight and 0600. During these hours, all approaches are conducted to the east, and all takeoffs are conducted to the west. The low-...

  13. Can Personal Exposures to Higher Nighttime and Early Morning Temperatures Increase Blood Pressure?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental temperatures are inversely related to BP; however, the effects of short-term temperature changes within a 24-hour period and measured with high accuracy at the personal level have not been described. Fifty-one nonsmoking patients living in the Detroit area had up to...

  14. Early Morning Challenge: The Potential Effects of Chronobiology on Taking the Scholastic Aptitude Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Roger John

    1995-01-01

    Cites research to support the notion that the time of day in which the SAT is administered has a significant adverse impact on many students taking the test. Suggests that changes in testing procedures (making tests available via computer at any time of the day or year) will serve students. (RS)

  15. Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination is safe and effective for morning hypertension in Very-Elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Uchiwa, Hiroki; Kai, Hisashi; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Anegawa, Takahiro; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Fukuda, Kenji; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Morning hypertension is an independent risk for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. Although the prevalence of morning hypertension increases with age, treatment of morning hypertension has not been established, particularly in Very-Elderly patients. We compared the safety and efficacy of a losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination in controlling morning hypertension between Very-Elderly (≥75 years) and Young/Elderly patients (<75 years). This study was a subanalysis of the Morning Hypertension and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy study, in which patients with morning hypertension (≥135/85 mmHg) received a 50-mg losartan/12.5-mg HCTZ combination tablet (combination therapy) or 100-mg losartan (high-dose therapy) for 3 months. High adherence rates and few adverse effects were observed in Very-Elderly patients receiving combination (n = 32) and high-dose (n = 34) therapies and in Young/Elderly patients receiving combination (n = 69) and high-dose (n = 66) therapies. Baseline morning systolic BP (SBP) was similar in both age groups receiving either therapy. Morning SBP was reduced by 20.2 and 18.1 mmHg with combination therapy and by 7.1 and 9.1 mmHg with high-dose therapy in the Very-Elderly and Young/Elderly patients, respectively. Morning BP target (<135/85 mmHg) was achieved in 40.6% and 55.1% by combination therapy and in 14.7% and 24.2% by high-dose therapy in the Very-Elderly and Young/Elderly patients, respectively. Neither therapy changed renal function and serum potassium in Very-Elderly patients. In conclusion, the losartan/HCTZ combination was safe and effective in controlling morning hypertension in Very-Elderly as well as Young/Elderly patients. In addition, combination therapy was also superior to high-dose therapy for lowering morning SBP in Very-Elderly patients.

  16. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    PubMed

    Burley, Simon D; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P<0.001) and post (AM: 98.0±9.0, PM: 52.7±6.0 ng/ml, P<0.001) exercise. Interestingly, individual cortisol differences pre vs post exercise indicate a time-of-day effect (AM difference: -2±2.6%, PM difference: 14.0±6.7%, P = 0.03). A time-of-day related elevation in serum IGFBP-3 (AM: 3274.9 ± 345.2, PM: 3605.1 ± 367.5, p = 0.032) was also evident. Pre exercise myogenic index (AM: 8.0±0.6%, PM: 16.8±1.1%) and myotube width (AM: 48.0±3.0, PM: 71.6±1.9 μm) were significantly elevated (P<0.001) in the evening

  17. Predictors and Trajectories of Morning Fatigue Are Distinct from Evening Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is the most common symptom in oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Little is known about the predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of morning fatigue severity in these patients. Objectives An evaluation was done to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of morning fatigue and to compare findings with our companion paper on evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the morning fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI), who did not exercise regularly, with a lower functional status, and who had higher levels of state anxiety, sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms, reported higher levels of morning fatigue at enrollment. Variations in the trajectories of morning fatigue were predicted by the patients’ ethnicity and younger age. Conclusion The modifiable risk factors that were associated with only morning fatigue were BMI, exercise, and state anxiety. Modifiable risk factors that were associated with both morning and evening fatigue included functional status, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbance. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe morning fatigue and evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828559

  18. Elevation of Morning Blood Pressure in Sodium Resistant Subjects by High Sodium Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi-Yeon; Shin, Sung-Joon; Oh, Sang-Woo; Park, Yong-Soon; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Hye-Kyoung; Kim, Cho-il; Park, Cheol-Young; Kim, Sun-Woong

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the response of blood pressure (BP) by dietary sodium in sodium resistant (SR) subjects. One hundred one subjects (mean age, 46.0 yr; 31 hypertensives) were admitted and given low sodium-dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet (LSD, 100 mM NaCl/day) for 7 days and high sodium-DASH diet (HSD, 300 mM NaCl/day) for the following 7 days. On the last day of each diet, 24 hr ambulatory BP was measured. Morning systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were elevated after HSD in all subjects (P < 0.01), but daytime SBP and DBP were not changed (P > 0.05). In hypertensive subjects, morning DBP elevation was greater than daytime DBP elevation (P = 0.036), although both DBPs were significantly elevated after HSD. The augmented elevation of morning DBP in hypertensive subjects was contributed by the absolute elevation of morning DBP (P = 0.032) and relative elevation to daytime DBP (P = 0.005) in sodium resistant (SR) subjects, but not by sodium sensitive subjects. Although there was no absolute elevation, SR subjects with normotension showed a relative elevation of morning SBP compared to daytime SBP change after HSD (P = 0.009). The present study demonstrates an absolute and relative elevation of morning BP in SR subjects by HSD. PMID:23580363

  19. Morning blood pressure surge and arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, Ali; Özbiçer, Süleyman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Gür, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and arterial stiffness in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Three hundred and twenty four (mean age 51.7 ± 11.4 years) patients who had newly diagnosed hypertension with 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Parameters of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Aix) were measured by applanation tonometry and aortic distensibility was calculated by echocardiography. Compared with the other groups, pulse wave velocity, day-night systolic BP (SBP) difference (p < 0.001, for all) and hs-CRP (p = 0.005) were higher in morning BP surge high group. Aortic distensibility values were significantly lower in morning BP surge high group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05, for all). Morning BP surge was found to be independently associated with pulse wave velocity (β = 0.286, p < 0.001), aortic distensibility (β= -0.384, p < 0.001) and day-night SBP difference (β = 0.229, p < 0.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. We found independent relationship between morning BP surge and arterial stiffness which is a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular diseases. The inverse relationship between morning BP surge and aortic distensibility and direct relation found in our study is new to the literature.

  20. Effects of embryo size at transfer (whole versus demi) and early pregnancy progesterone supplementation on embryo growth and pregnancy-specific protein bovine concentrations in recipient dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Lopes-da-Costa, L; Chagas e Silva, J; Deloche, M C; Jeanguyot, N; Humblot, P; Horta, A E M

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate embryonic size and survival, plasma progesterone (P4) and pregnancy-specific protein bovine (PSPB) concentrations in early pregnancies (n = 99) following the transfer of one whole (n = 66) or one demi (n = 33) embryo to recipient virgin dairy heifers. The experiment was designed to evaluate the fixed effects of embryo size at transfer (whole or demi embryo) on Day 7 of the estrous cycle (Day 0 = estrus) and P4 supplementation between Days 7 to 19 through an intravaginal device (yes or no) on plasma P4 and PSPB concentrations and on embryo measurements. Plasma P4 concentrations were measured by RIA on Days 0, 7, 14, 19, 21, 25, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 of pregnancy and, PSPB concentrations were measured by ELISA on Days 7, 21, 25, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63. The presence of an embryonic vesicle was detected on Day 25, embryonic/fetal movements and heartbeat were evaluated on Days 42 and 63 and embryo measurements [crown-rump length (CRL) and width at mid body] were obtained on Day 42 through ultrasonography. In non-supplemented pregnancies, Day 42 whole embryos had higher (P < 0.05) CRL and width than demi embryos, but the difference averaged only 1 to 2 mm. In P4 supplemented pregnancies, whole and demi embryos attained a similar size on Day 42 of pregnancy. Embryo size at transfer, early exogenous P4 supplementation and their interactions had no effects (P > 0.05) on plasma P4 concentrations. However, the post-hoc LSD evaluation showed that plasma P4 concentrations on Day 25 were higher (P < 0.001) in whole than in demi embryo derived pregnancies and, that exogenous P4 supplementation increased (P < 0.05) plasma P4 concentrations on Day 19 of pregnancy. The plasma PSPB detection rate on Days 7 to 63 of pregnancy was similar in pregnancies resulting from the transfer of whole and demi embryos. From a total of 93 recipients remaining pregnant until Day 63, plasma PSPB was constantly undetectable on Day 7, was detected in 4% of

  1. Effects of Roof-Edge Roughness on Air Temperature and Pollutant Concentration in Urban Canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Krayenhoff, E. Scott; Nazarian, Negin; Chew, Lup Wai; Armstrong, Peter R.; Afshari, Afshin; Norford, Leslie K.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of roof-edge roughness elements on airflow, heat transfer, and street-level pollutant transport inside and above a two-dimensional urban canyon is analyzed using an urban energy balance model coupled to a large-eddy simulation model. Simulations are performed for cold (early morning) and hot (mid afternoon) periods during the hottest month of the year (August) for the climate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The analysis suggests that early in the morning, and when the tallest roughness elements are implemented, the temperature above the street level increases on average by 0.5 K, while the pollutant concentration decreases by 2% of the street-level concentration. For the same conditions in mid afternoon, the temperature decreases conservatively by 1 K, while the pollutant concentration increases by 7% of the street-level concentration. As a passive or active architectural solution, the roof roughness element shows promise for improving thermal comfort and air quality in the canyon for specific times, but this should be further verified experimentally. The results also warrant a closer look at the effects of mid-range roughness elements in the urban morphology on atmospheric dynamics so as to improve parametrizations in mesoscale modelling.

  2. Serum uric acid concentration is associated with early changes of glomerular filtration rate in patients with diabetes type 1 without increased albumin excretion.

    PubMed

    Spaleniak, Sebastian; Korzeniewska-Dyl, Irmina; Moczulski, Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    The early loss of renal function in patients with type 1 diabetes may begin before proteinuria. Only 30% of patients with diabetes manifest overt proteinuria. According to the previous studies, increased urinary albumin excretion, which is considered a classic marker of progression of diabetic kidney disease, can regress to normal urine albumin excretion. The current studies conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion showed that the uric acid concentration was an independent factor for the development of diabetic kidney disease. The aim of study was to assess the impact of uric acid concentration and to identify risk factors of the early glomerular filtration loss in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion. 147 patients (61 women and 86 men) with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion were analysed. GFR (gromerular filtration rate) was estimated based on the serum cystatin C concentration. Centile charts were used to determine the variation of uric acid concentration depending on GFR and gender. The mean value of the filtration rate for the study group was 117 ml/min/m2. The uric acid level above 90th percentile in relation to GFR was diagnosed in 8.2% of women and 0% of men, between 90th and 50th percentile in 44.3 % of women and 5.8% of men and below 50th percentile in 47.5% of women and 94.2% of men. Contrary to men in women higher serum acid concentration was strongly associated with higher glomerular filtration rate. Hyperfiltraion was diagnosed in 15 of women and 19 of men. The high normal uric acid concentration in women with type 1 diabetes might play a crucial role in development of hyperfiltration.

  3. Second measurement of morning systolic blood pressure is more closely associated with albuminuria.

    PubMed

    Sakabe, Kazumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Ushigome, Emi; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Tanaka, Toru; Atsuta, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Masayoshi; Oda, Yohei; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2012-08-01

    It is important to control blood pressure as well as to control blood glucose for the prevention of diabetic nephropathy. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports investigating which blood pressure, including morning, evening and clinic, is more closely associated with albuminuria and whether one measurement is sufficient or not in patients with Type 2 diabetes. We measured morning, evening and clinic blood pressure and compared the area under the curve (AUC) of blood pressure for urinary albumin excretion equal to or more than 30 mg/g creatinine using receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses and odds ratio for albuminuria defined as urinary albumin excretion equal to or more than 30 mg/g creatinine in 858 patients with Type 2 diabetes. Odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) of morning, evening and clinic systolic blood pressure for albuminuria was 1.034 (1.024 - 1.044), 1.033 (1.023 - 1.043) and 1.013 (1.055 - 1.021), respectively (p < 0.001 in all), and AUC of morning, evening and clinic systolic blood pressure was 0.644 (0.628 - 0.700) (p < 0.001 vs. clinic), 0.660 (0.623 - 0.696) (p < 0.001 vs. clinic) and 0.597 (0.559 - 0.636), respectively. AUC of the second morning systolic blood pressure was greater than the first (p = 0.033). The second measurement of morning systolic blood pressure is more closely associated with albuminuria than the first measurement of the morning in addition to clinic systolic blood pressure.

  4. Changes in morning salivary melatonin correlate with prefrontal responses during working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Kent, Haley C; Knight, Sara A; Alkozei, Anna

    2018-04-11

    Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function. We measured the change in salivary melatonin from mid-morning to late-morning in 26 healthy young adults who were also exposed to a 30-min period of blue or amber light followed by functional MRI during a working memory task (N-back). Brain activation was regressed on the change in melatonin scores from the mid-morning to late-morning saliva samples and the role of light exposure was also assessed. Although overall melatonin levels did not change significantly over the morning at the group level, individual declines in salivary melatonin were associated with significant increases in activation within the left dorsomedial and right inferior lateral prefrontal cortex during the 2-back condition (P<0.05, cluster corrected). Medial prefrontal activation also correlated modestly with better vigilance performance during the 0-back (P<0.05), but not the 1-back or 2-back conditions. The light condition did not affect the outcomes. These findings suggest declining melatonin levels in the morning are associated with increased prefrontal cortex functioning and may play a role in the increased frontal activation that occurs following awakening.

  5. Relationship between plasma concentrations of lamotrigine and its early therapeutic effect of lamotrigine augmentation therapy in treatment-resistant depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Shoko; Mihara, Kazuo; Nakamura, Akifumi; Nemoto, Kenji; Suzuki, Takeshi; Nagai, Goyo; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between plasma concentrations of lamotrigine and its therapeutic effects was prospectively studied on 34 (9 men and 25 women) inpatients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder during an 8-week treatment of lamotrigine augmentation using an open-study design. The subjects were depressed patients who had already shown insufficient response to at least 3 psychotropics, including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and atypical antipsychotics. The diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 12), bipolar I disorder (n = 7), and bipolar II disorder (n = 15). The final doses of lamotrigine were 100 mg/d for 18 subjects who were not taking valproate and 75 mg/d for 16 subjects taking valproate. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) before and after the 8-week treatment. Blood sampling was performed at week 8. Plasma concentrations of lamotrigine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. There was a significant linear relationship between the plasma concentrations of lamotrigine and percentage improvements at week 8 (r = 0.418, P < 0.05). A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that plasma lamotrigine concentrations alone had a significant effect on the percentage improvements at week 8 (standardized partial correlation coefficients = 0.454, P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristics analysis indicated that a plasma lamotrigine concentration of 12.7 μmol/L or greater was significantly (P < 0.001) predictive of response (50% or more reduction in the MADRS score). The proportion of the responders was significantly higher in the groups with a lamotrigine concentration >12.7 μmol/L (11/15 versus 4/19, P < 0.01). The present study suggests that an early therapeutic response to lamotrigine is dependent on its plasma concentration and that a plasma lamotrigine concentration of 12.7 μmol/L may be a threshold for a good therapeutic response in treatment

  6. Non-esterified fatty acids in early luteal bovine oviduct fluid mirror plasma concentrations: An ex vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Jordaens, Lies; Van Hoeck, Veerle; De Bie, Jessie; Berth, Mario; Marei, Waleed F A; Desmet, Karolien L J; Bols, Peter E J; Leroy, Jo L M R

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether and to which extent plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are reflected in oviduct fluid (OF) using an improved ex vivo flushing method. OF and plasma NEFA concentrations were respectively 0.29±0.19 and 0.31±0.14mmol/L, they didn't differ significantly (P=0.13) and tended to be positively correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.56; P=0.07). Results suggest that OF NEFAs mirror the concentrations seen in plasma of healthy cattle. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Morning Transition Tracer Experiments in a Deep Narrow Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, C. David

    1989-07-01

    Three sulfur hexafluoride atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted during the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period in the deep, narrow Brush Creek Valley of Colorado. Experiments were conducted under clear, undisturbed weather conditions.A continuous elevated tracer plume was produced along the axis of the valley before sunrise and the behavior of the plume during the inversion breakup period was detected down-valley from the release point using an array of radio-controlled sequential bag samplers, a vertical SF6 profiling system carried on a tethered balloon, two portable gas chromatographs operated on a sidewall of the valley, and a continuous real-time SF6 monitor operated from a research aircraft. Supporting meteorological data came primarily from tethered balloon profilers. The nocturnal elevated plume was carried and diffused in down-valley flows. After sunrise, convective boundary layers grew upward from the sunlit valley surfaces, fumigating the elevated plume onto the valley floor and sidewalls. Upslope flow developed in the growing convective boundary layers, carrying fumigated SF6 up the sidewalls and causing a compensating subsidence over the valley center. High post-sunrise SF6 concentrations were experienced on the northeast-facing sidewall of the northwest-southeast oriented valley as a result of cross-valley flow, which developed due to differential solar heating of the sidewalls. Reversal of the down-valley wind system brought air with lower SF6 concentrations into the lower valley.

  8. Comparison of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid between Self-Ligating and Preadjusted Edgewise Appliances in the Early Leveling Stage of Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pramustika, Agita; Soedarsono, Nurtami; Krisnawati; Widayati, Retno

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important proinflammatory cytokine that regulates the early phase of inflammation reaction during orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of the present study was to compare TNF-α concentrations in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) between preadjusted edgewise appliance (PEA) and self-ligating (SL) systems during the early leveling stage of orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (aged 15–35 years) who participated in this study were divided into two experimental groups (PEA and SL) and control group (without orthodontic treatment). The GCF was taken at five sites in the maxilla anterior teeth from each participant just before bracket bonding and at 1, 24, and 168 h after the initiation of tooth movement. Cytokine levels were determined through ELISA. Results: The concentration of TNF-α was significantly higher in the experimental groups than in the control group at 24 h after force application. TNF-α levels were significantly decreased at 168 h after force application in the PEA group. Meanwhile, in the SL group, the level of TNF-α at 168 h was still increased, although there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: TNF-α concentration was increased at 1 h and 24 h after orthodontic force application in both the PEA and SL groups. In the PEA group, TNF-α concentration was significantly decreased at 168 h, meanwhile in the SL group, this value remained increased at this time point. The differences in TNF-α concentration between the PEA and SL groups may be caused by their different types of brackets, wires, and ligation methods. PMID:29599592

  9. Coming back to work in the morning: Psychological detachment and reattachment as predictors of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kühnel, Jana

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that recovery processes in general and psychological detachment in particular are important for work engagement. We argue that work engagement additionally benefits from reattachment to work in the morning (i.e., mentally reconnecting to work before actually starting to work) and that the gains derived from psychological detachment and reattachment are stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. We tested our hypotheses in a daily diary study with a sample of 167 employees who completed 2 surveys per day over the period of 2 workweeks. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that work engagement was higher in the morning than in the afternoon. Evening psychological detachment and morning reattachment positively predicted work engagement throughout the day. The association between reattachment and work engagement was stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. This study demonstrates that not only psychological detachment from work during leisure time, but also reattachment to work when coming back to work are crucial for daily engagement at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Morning After: What Happens When Outsourcing Relationships End?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, Hamish T.; Low, Graham C.; Aurum, Aybüke

    Many firms are reevaluating their initial outsourcing decisions for various reasons, including whether the goals set for the outsourcing effort were achieved, changes in the business environment, internal changes, and/or mergers. An increasing number of outsourcing deals are being terminated and backsourced or re-outsourced. According to a recent international industry survey 49% of companies engaged in outsourcing have terminated outsourcing contracts prematurely. Research has not reflected this trend with few studies concentrating on what firms do after they terminate or fail to extend an outsourcing contract. It is argued that there is a need to study this important and increasingly frequent decision. The main contribution of this chapter is to present an outsourcing decision model and demonstrate its applicability with respect to a recent sourcing decision.

  11. Early gestational exposure to moderate concentrations of ethanol alters adult behaviour in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Vega, Michelle C; Chong, Suyinn; Burne, Thomas H J

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy has deleterious effects on the developing foetus ranging from subtle physical deficits to severe behavioural abnormalities and is encompassed under a broad umbrella term, foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). High levels of exposure show distinct effects, whereas the consequences of moderate exposures have been less well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a moderate dose ethanol exposure using an ad libitum drinking procedure during the first eight days of gestation in mice on the behavioural phenotype of adult offspring. Adult female C57Bl/6J mice were mated and exposed to either 10% (v/v) ethanol or water for the first 8 days of gestation (GD 0-8), and then offered water for the rest of gestation. Early developmental milestone achievement was assessed in offspring at postnatal days (P) 7, 14 and 21. Adult offspring underwent a comprehensive battery of behavioural tests to examine a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception, as well as spatial memory in a water maze. Ethanol-exposed mice had similar postnatal developmental trajectories to water-exposed mice. However, the ethanol-exposed mice showed increased hyperlocomotion at P 14, 21 and 70 (p<0.05). Increased exploration and heightened motivation were also observed in adult mice. Furthermore, ethanol-exposed mice showed a significant improvement in memory in the water maze. The main findings were that mice had persistent and long lasting alterations in behaviour, including hyperactivity and enhanced spatial memory. These data suggest that even moderate dose ethanol exposure in early gestation has long term consequences on brain function and behaviour in mice. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Early pregnancy fasting plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in pregnancy and association to offspring size: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Geng, Huizhen; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Langhui; Chen, Weiqing; Wang, Zilian

    2016-03-17

    Hyperlipidemia and high fasting plasma glucose levels at the first prenatal visit (First Visit FPG) are both related to gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal obesity/overweight and fetal overgrowth. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlation between First Visit FPG and lipid concentrations, and their potential association with offspring size at delivery. Pregnant women that received regular prenatal care and delivered in our center in 2013 were recruited for the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were tested at the first prenatal visit (First Visit FPG) and prior to delivery (Before Delivery FPG). HbA1c and lipid profiles were examined at the time of OGTT test. Maternal and neonatal clinical data were collected for analysis. Data was analyzed by independent sample t test, Pearson correlation, and Chi-square test, followed by partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses to confirm association. Statistical significance level was α =0.05. Analyses were based on 1546 mother-baby pairs. First Visit FPG was not correlated with any lipid parameters after adjusting for maternal pregravid BMI, maternal age and gestational age at First Visit FPG. HbA1c was positively correlated with triglyceride and Apolipoprotein B in the whole cohort and in the NGT group after adjusting for maternal age and maternal BMI at OGTT test. Multiple linear regression analyses showed neonatal birth weight, head circumference and shoulder circumference were all associated with First Visit FPG and triglyceride levels. Fasting plasma glucose at first prenatal visit is not associated with lipid concentrations in mid-pregnancy, but may influence fetal growth together with triglyceride concentration.

  13. A Toxoplasma MORN1 Null Mutant Undergoes Repeated Divisions but Is Defective in Basal Assembly, Apicoplast Division and Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Lorestani, Alexander; Sheiner, Lilach; Yang, Kevin; Robertson, Seth D.; Sahoo, Nivedita; Brooks, Carrie F.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Striepen, Boris; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2010-01-01

    The membrane occupation and recognition nexus protein 1 (MORN1) is highly conserved among apicomplexan parasites and is associated with several structures that have a role in cell division. Here we dissected the role of MORN1 using the relatively simple budding process of Toxoplasma gondii as a model. Ablation of MORN1 in a conditional null mutant resulted in pronounced defects suggesting a central role for MORN1 in apicoplast segregation and in daughter cell budding. Lack of MORN1 resulted in double-headed parasites. These Janus-headed parasites form two complete apical complexes but fail to assemble a basal complex. Moreover, these parasites were capable of undergoing several more budding rounds resulting in the formation of up to 16-headed parasites conjoined at the basal end. Despite this segregation defect, the mother's cytoskeleton was completely disassembled in every budding round. Overall this argues that successful completion of the budding is not required for cell cycle progression. None of the known basal complex components, including a set of recently identified inner membrane complex (IMC) proteins, localized correctly in these multi-headed parasites. These data suggest that MORN1 is essential for assembly of the basal complex, and that lack of the basal complex abolishes the contractile capacity assigned to the basal complex late in daughter formation. Consistent with this hypothesis we observe that MORN1 mutants fail to efficiently constrict and divide the apicoplast. We used the null background provided by the mutant to dissect the function of subdomains of the MORN1 protein. This demonstrated that deletion of a single MORN domain already prevented the function of MORN1 whereas a critical role for the short linker between MORN domains 6 and 7 was identified. In conclusion, MORN1 is required for basal complex assembly and loss of MORN1 results in defects in apicoplast division and daughter segregation. PMID:20808817

  14. An extremely high-altitude plume seen at Mars' morning terminator.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Lavega, A; Muñoz, A García; García-Melendo, E; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Gómez-Forrellad, J M; Pellier, C; Delcroix, M; López-Valverde, M A; González-Galindo, F; Jaeschke, W; Parker, D; Phillips, J; Peach, D

    2015-02-26

    The Martian limb (that is, the observed 'edge' of the planet) represents a unique window into the complex atmospheric phenomena occurring there. Clouds of ice crystals (CO2 ice or H2O ice) have been observed numerous times by spacecraft and ground-based telescopes, showing that clouds are typically layered and always confined below an altitude of 100 kilometres; suspended dust has also been detected at altitudes up to 60 kilometres during major dust storms. Highly concentrated and localized patches of auroral emission controlled by magnetic field anomalies in the crust have been observed at an altitude of 130 kilometres. Here we report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright, extremely high-altitude plumes at the Martian terminator (the day-night boundary) at 200 to 250 kilometres or more above the surface, and thus well into the ionosphere and the exosphere. They were spotted at a longitude of about 195° west, a latitude of about -45° (at Terra Cimmeria), extended about 500 to 1,000 kilometres in both the north-south and east-west directions, and lasted for about 10 days. The features exhibited day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behaviour. We used photometric measurements to explore two possible scenarios and investigate their nature. For particles reflecting solar radiation, clouds of CO2-ice or H2O-ice particles with an effective radius of 0.1 micrometres are favoured over dust. Alternatively, the plume could arise from auroral emission, of a brightness more than 1,000 times that of the Earth's aurora, over a region with a strong magnetic anomaly where aurorae have previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of Mars' upper atmosphere.

  15. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) postpubertal scrotal circumference and sperm concentration. Prenatal T exposure did not alter ejaculate volume, sperm motility and morphology or testis morphology. There was, however, a trend for more T-exposed rams than controls to be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders during breeding soundness examinations. Postnatal serum T concentrations were not affected by prenatal T exposure, nor was the expression of key testicular genes essential for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Basal serum LH did not differ between treatment groups, nor did pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. T-exposed rams, like control males, exhibited vigorous libido and were sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Morning glory resin glycosides as modulators of antibiotic activity in multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Corona-Castañeda, Berenice; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-six microbiologically inactive (MIC > 512 µg/mL) convolvulaceous resin glycosides ( 1- 26) were tested for resistance modulatory activity in vitro against Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami and two nosocomial pathogens, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri. These compounds exerted a potentiation effect of the clinically useful antibiotics tetracycline, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol against the tested gram-negative bacteria by increasing antibiotic susceptibility up to 32-fold at concentrations of 25 µg/mL. Therefore, the oligosaccharides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) represent metabolites that reverse microbial resistance mechanisms, favoring an increase in the strength and effectiveness of current antibiotics that are not effective in the treatment of refractive infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of an Advanced Sleep Schedule and Morning Short Wavelength Light Exposure on Circadian Phase in Young Adults with Late Sleep Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Katherine M.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Figueiro, Mariana G.; Zhu, Yong; Rea, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the effects of an advanced sleep/wake schedule and morning short wavelength (blue) light in 25 adults (mean age±SD = 21.8±3 years; 13 women) with late sleep schedules and subclinical features of delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPD). Methods After a baseline week, participants kept individualized, fixed, advanced 7.5-hour sleep schedules for 6 days. Participants were randomly assigned to groups to receive “blue” (470 nm, ~225 lux, n=12) or “dim” (< 1 lux, n=13) light for one hour after waking each day. Head-worn “Daysimeters” measured light exposure; actigraphs and sleep diaries confirmed schedule compliance. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), self-reported sleep, and mood were examined with 2×2 ANOVA. Results After 6 days, both groups showed significant circadian phase advances, but morning blue-light was not associated with larger phase shifts than dim-light exposure. The average DLMO advances (mean±SD) were 1.5±1.1 hours in the dim light group and 1.4±0.7 hours in the blue light group. Conclusions Adherence to a fixed advanced sleep/wake schedule resulted in significant circadian phase shifts in young adults with subclinical DSPD with or without morning blue light exposure. Light/dark exposures associated with fixed early sleep schedules are sufficient to advance circadian phase in young adults. PMID:21704557

  18. Effects of an advanced sleep schedule and morning short wavelength light exposure on circadian phase in young adults with late sleep schedules.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Carskadon, Mary A; Figueiro, Mariana G; Zhu, Yong; Rea, Mark S

    2011-08-01

    We examined the effects of an advanced sleep/wake schedule and morning short wavelength (blue) light in 25 adults (mean age±SD=21.8±3 years; 13 women) with late sleep schedules and subclinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). After a baseline week, participants kept individualized, fixed, advanced 7.5-h sleep schedules for 6days. Participants were randomly assigned to groups to receive "blue" (470nm, ∼225lux, n=12) or "dim" (<1lux, n=13) light for 1h after waking each day. Head-worn "Daysimeters" measured light exposure; actigraphs and sleep diaries confirmed schedule compliance. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), self-reported sleep, and mood were examined with 2×2 ANOVA. After 6days, both groups showed significant circadian phase advances, but morning blue light was not associated with larger phase shifts than dim-light exposure. The average DLMO advances (mean±SD) were 1.5±1.1h in the dim light group and 1.4±0.7h in the blue light group. Adherence to a fixed advanced sleep/wake schedule resulted in significant circadian phase shifts in young adults with subclinical DSPD with or without morning blue light exposure. Light/dark exposures associated with fixed early sleep schedules are sufficient to advance circadian phase in young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental investigation of anaerobic nitrogen fixation rates with varying pressure, temperature and metal concentration with application to the atmospheric evolution of early Earth and Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Prateek

    2012-07-01

    The atmosphere of the early Earth is thought to have been significantly different than the modern composition of 21% O2 and 78% N2, yet the planet has been clearly established as hosting microbial life as far back as 3.8 billion years ago. As such, constraining the atmospheric composition of the early Earth is fundamental to establishing a database of habitable atmospheric compositions. A similar argument can be made for the planet Mars, where nitrates have been hypothesized to exist in the subsurface. During the early period on Mars when liquid water was likely more abundant, life may have developed to take advantage of available nitrates and a biologically-driven Martian nitrogen cycle could have evolved. Early Earth atmospheric composition has been investigated numerically, but only recently has the common assumption of a pN2 different than modern been investigated. Nonetheless, these latest attempts fail to take into account a key atmospheric parameter: life. On modern Earth, nitrogen is cycled vigorously by biology. The nitrogen cycle likely operated on the early Earth, but probably differed in the metabolic processes responsible, dominantly due to the lack of abundant oxygen which stabilizes oxidized forms of N that drive de-nitrification today. Recent advances in evolutionary genomics suggest that microbial pathways that are relatively uncommon today (i.e. vanadium and iron-based nitrogen fixation) probably played important roles in the early N cycle. We quantitatively investigate in the laboratory the effects of variable pressure, temperature and metal concentration on the rates of anoxic nitrogen fixation, as possible inputs for future models investigating atmospheric evolution, and better understand the evolution of the nitrogen cycle on Earth. A common anaerobic methanogenic archaeal species with i) a fully sequenced genome, ii) all three nitrogenases (molybdenum, vanadium and iron-based) and iii) the ability to be genetically manipulated will be used as

  20. The morning morality effect: the influence of time of day on unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Smith, Isaac H

    2014-01-01

    Are people more moral in the morning than in the afternoon? We propose that the normal, unremarkable experiences associated with everyday living can deplete one's capacity to resist moral temptations. In a series of four experiments, both undergraduate students and a sample of U.S. adults engaged in less unethical behavior (e.g., less lying and cheating) on tasks performed in the morning than on the same tasks performed in the afternoon. This morning morality effect was mediated by decreases in moral awareness and self-control in the afternoon. Furthermore, the effect of time of day on unethical behavior was found to be stronger for people with a lower propensity to morally disengage. These findings highlight a simple yet pervasive factor (i.e., the time of day) that has important implications for moral behavior.

  1. Poincaré plot width, morning urine norepinephrine levels, and autonomic imbalance in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Chaidas, Konstantinos; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Theodorou, Emmanouel; Lianou, Loukia; Chrousos, George; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2014-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in childhood is accompanied by sympathetic overflow unopposed by the parasympathetic tone. Complex methods like power spectral analysis of heart rate variability have been applied to study this imbalance. In this report, width of Poincaré scattergram of the R-R interval (parasympathetic tone) and morning urine norepinephrine concentration (sympathetic activity) were used to assess autonomic imbalance. Poincaré plot was obtained from the electrocardiographic channel of nocturnal polysomnography and its width was measured, and norepinephrine-to-creatinine concentration ratio was calculated in morning urine specimen. Twenty children with obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia (oxygen saturation of hemoglobin [SpO(2)] nadir <90%), 24 subjects with mild hypoxemia (SpO(2) nadir ≥90%), and 11 control subjects were recruited. Children with obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe hypoxemia had significantly narrower Poincaré plot width (318.7 ± 139.3 ms) and higher ln-transformed urine norepinephrine-to-creatinine ratio (4.5 ± 0.6) than control subjects (484.2 ± 104.4 ms and 3.8 ± 0.4, respectively; P < 0.05). Ln-transformed urine norepinephrine levels were inversely related to Poincaré plot width (P = 0.02). Subjects with obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia have enhanced sympathetic activity and reduced parasympathetic drive. Poincaré plot width and urine norepinephrine levels are simple measures of autonomic imbalance in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of luteectomy in early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and plasma progesterone concentrations in the viviparous temperate lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that the corpus luteum is the principal source of progesterone during the gravidity period in reptiles; however, its participation in the maintenance of gestation in the viviparous squamata is in dispute. The effects of ovariectomy or luteectomy vary according to the species and the time at which the procedure is performed. In this paper, we describe the effects of luteectomy during early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations in the temperate Mexican viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata. Methods Twenty-four lizards were subjected to three different treatments: luteectomy, sham luteectomy or non-surgical treatment, and blood samples were obtained before and after surgical treatment at different stages of gestation to determine the effects of luteectomy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations. Results Spontaneous abortion was not observed in any of the females. However, luteectomy provoked abnormal parturition and a significant reduction in the number of young born alive. Parturition was normal in untreated females as well as those submitted to sham luteectomy. The surgical treatment also caused a significant reduction in progesterone concentrations in luteectomised females during early and middle gestation. However, no significant differences in hormone concentrations were observed among the three groups during late gestation or immediately post-parturition. Conclusions Our observations indicate that the presence of the corpus luteum is not necesary for the maintenance of gestation, but that it does participate in parturition control. Moreover, the corpus luteum of the viviparous lizard B. i. imbricata produces progesterone, at least during the first half of pregnancy, and that an extra-ovarian source of progesterone must maintain gestation in the absence of luteal tissue. PMID:20184772

  3. How orchids concentrate? The relationship between physiological stress reactivity and cognitive performance during infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Wass, Sam V

    2018-03-30

    The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is involved both in higher-order cognition such as attention and learning, and in responding to unexpected, threatening events. Increased ANS reactivity may confer both superior short-term cognitive performance, and heightened long-term susceptibility to adverse events. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis within the Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST) framework. We hypothesise that individuals with increased reactivity may show heightened biological sensitivity to context, conferring both positive (development-enhancing) effects (superior attention and learning) and negative (risk-promoting) effects (increased sensitivity to unsupportive environments). First, we examine how ANS reactivity relates to early cognitive performance. We hypothesise that increased phasic ANS reactivity, observed at lower tonic (pre-stimulus) ANS activity, is associated with better attention and learning. We conclude that the evidence is largely in support. Second we discuss whether ANS reactivity to 'positive', attention-eliciting and to 'negative', aversive stimuli is a one-dimensional construct; and evaluate evidence for how the real-world environment influences physiological stress over short and long time-frames. We identify three areas where the evidence is currently inconclusive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Perspective on the Toxicity of Low Concentrations of Petroleum-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Early Life Stages of Herring and Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Page, David S.; Chapman, Peter M.; Landrum, Peter F.; Neff, Jerry; Elston, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of two groups of studies that reported adverse effects to salmon and herring eggs and fry from exposure to 1 μg/L or less of aqueous total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH), as weathered oil, and a more toxic aqueous extract of “very weathered oil.” Exposure media were prepared by continuously flowing water up through vertical columns containing gravel oiled at different concentrations of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Uncontrolled variables associated with the use of the oiled gravel columns included time- and treatment-dependent variations in the PAH concentration and composition in the exposure water, unexplored toxicity from other oil constituents/degradation products, potential toxicity from bacterial and fungal activity, oil droplets as a potential contaminant source, inherent differences between control and exposed embryo populations, and water flow rate differences. Based on a review of the evidence from published project reports, peer-reviewed publications, chemistry data in a public database, and unpublished reports and laboratory records, the reviewed studies did not establish consistent dose (concentration) response or causality and thus do not demonstrate that dissolved PAH alone from the weathered oil resulted in the claimed effects on fish embryos at low μg/L TPAH concentrations. Accordingly, these studies should not be relied on for management decision-making, when assessing the risk of very low–level PAH exposures to early life stages of fish. PMID:22754275

  5. Nonproteinogenic D-amino acids at millimolar concentrations are a toxin for anaerobic microorganisms relevant to early Earth and other anoxic planets.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Sophie L; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-03-01

    The delivery of extraterrestrial organics to early Earth provided a potentially important source of carbon and energy for microbial life. Optically active organic compounds of extraterrestrial origin exist in racemic form, yet life on Earth has almost exclusively selected for L- over D-enantiomers of amino acids. Although D-enantiomers of proteinogenic amino acids are known to inhibit aerobic microorganisms, the role of concentrated nonproteinogenic meteoritic D-amino acids on anaerobic metabolisms relevant to early Earth and other anoxic planets such as Mars is unknown. Here, we test the inhibitory effect of D-enantiomers of two nonproteinogenic amino acids common to carbonaceous chondrites, norvaline and α-aminobutyric acid, on microbial iron reduction. Three pure strains (Geobacter bemidjiensis, Geobacter metallireducens, Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus) and an iron-reducing enrichment culture were grown in the presence of 10 mM D-enantiomers of both amino acids. Further tests were conducted to assess the inhibitory effect of these D-amino acids at 1 and 0.1 mM. The presence of 10 mM D-norvaline and D-α-aminobutyric acid inhibited microbial iron reduction by all pure strains and the enrichment. G. bemidjiensis was not inhibited by either amino acid at 0.1 mM, but D-α-aminobutyric acid still inhibited at 1 mM. Calculations using published meteorite accumulation rates to the martian surface indicate D-α-aminobutyric acid may have reached inhibitory concentrations in little over 1000 years during peak infall. These data show that, on a young anoxic planet, the use of one enantiomer over another may render the nonbiological enantiomer an environmental toxin. Processes that generate racemic amino acids in the environment, such as meteoritic infall or impact synthesis, would have been toxic processes and could have been a selection pressure for the evolution of early racemases.

  6. Resident-Directed Long-Term Care: Staff Provision of Choice during Morning Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Rahman, Annie; Beuscher, Linda; Jani, Victoria; Durkin, Daniel W.; Schnelle, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an observational protocol to assess the quality of staff-resident communication relevant to choice and describe staff-resident interactions as preliminary evidence of the usefulness of the tool to assess current nursing home practices related to offering choice during morning care provision. Design and Methods: This study…

  7. Morning-to-evening differences in oxygen uptake kinetics in short-duration cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Bieuzen, François; Giacomoni, Magali; Tricot, Véronique; Falgairette, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed diurnal variations in oxygen (O(2)) uptake kinetics and efficiency during a moderate cycle ergometer exercise. Fourteen physically active diurnally active male subjects (age 23+/-5 yrs) not specifically trained at cycling first completed a test to determine their ventilatory threshold (T(vent)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)); one week later, they completed four bouts of testing in the morning and evening in a random order, each separated by at least 24 h. For each period of the day (07:00-08:30 h and 19:00-20:30 h), subjects performed two bouts. Each bout was composed of a 5 min cycling exercise at 45 W, followed after 5 min rest by a 10 min cycling exercise at 80% of the power output associated with T(vent). Gas exchanges were analyzed breath-by-breath and fitted using a mono-exponential function. During moderate exercise, the time constant and amplitude of VO(2) kinetics were significantly higher in the morning compared to the evening. The net efficiency increased from the morning to evening (17.3+/-4 vs. 20.5+/-2%; p<0.05), and the variability of cycling cadence was greater during the morning than evening (+34%; p<0.05). These findings suggest that VO(2) responses are affected by the time of day and could be related to variability in muscle activity pattern.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of the abilities-focused approach to morning care of people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Sidani, Souraya; Streiner, David; Leclerc, Chantale

    2012-03-01

    The abilities-focused approach demonstrated efficacy in promoting engagement of residents with dementia in care. The extent to which these resident outcomes can be replicated when the abilities-focused approach is implemented by nursing staff under the conditions of day-to-day practice was investigated in this study. The aim was to examine changes in resident outcomes before and after nursing staff' implementation of the abilities-focused approach and the contribution of this approach to resident outcomes. A one-group pretest-post-test design was used. Observational data were obtained from 65 residents with dementia. The data pertained to the implementation of abilities-focused strategies during episodes of morning care and residents' level of agitation, participation in morning care and physical and psychosocial functioning. The number of abilities-focused strategies used during morning care increased at post-test. No clinically important changes in resident outcomes were observed over time. However, the implementation of some strategies was associated with residents' participation in care and functioning at post-test. The results provided preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of the abilities-focused approach in maintaining functioning in people with dementia. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanism underlying the effects of this person-centred approach to care on resident outcomes. Implementation of the abilities-focused approach assists people with dementia to participate in morning care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Effects of different light intensities in the morning on dim light melatonin onset.

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Toda, Naohiro; Noguchi, Hiroki; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to light intensity in the morning on dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). The tested light intensities were 750 lux, 150 lux, 3000 lux, 6000 lux and 12,000 lux (horizontal illuminance at cornea), using commercial 5000 K fluorescent lamps. Eleven healthy males aged 21-31 participated in 2-day experiments for each light condition. On the first experimental day (day 1), subjects were exposed to dim light (<30 lux) for 3 h in the morning (09:00-12:00). On the same day, saliva samples were taken in dim light (<30 lux) every 30 min from 21:00 to 01:00 to determine the DLMO phase. The subjects were allowed to sleep from 01:00 to 08:00. On the second experimental day (day 2), the subjects were exposed to experimental light conditions for 3 h in the morning. The experimental schedule after light exposure was the same as on day 1. On comparing day 2 with day 1, significant phase advances of DLMO were obtained at 3000 lux, 6000 lux and 12,000 lux. These findings indicate that exposure to a necessary intensity from an ordinary light source, such as a fluorescent lamp, in the morning within one day affects melatonin secretion.

  10. The impact of park development on the lives of local inhabitants within Gros Morne National Park

    Margot Herd; Paul Heintzman

    2012-01-01

    The creation of a national park changes the local community's relationship to the land. In 1973, Parks Canada created Gros Morne National Park around existing communities and only relocated a small number of inhabitants to nearby communities. While park creation placed some restrictions on traditional activities, compromises were made to allow the continuation of...

  11. Phylogenetics and diversification of morning glories (tribe ipomoeeae, convolvulaceae) based on whole plastome sequences

    Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated the largest morning glory genus, Ipomoea, is not monophyletic, and nine other segregate genera are derived from within Ipomoea. Therefore, systematic research is focused on the monophyletic tribe Ipomoeeae (c. 650-900 species). We used whole plastid genomes to ...

  12. ERP correlates of mental arithmetic in preadolescents: influence of ability and effects of morning nutrition

    The effects of morning nutritional status on ERP correlates of mental arithmetic were studied in preadolescents differing in experience (age) and mathematical skills. Children [right-handed; IQ > 80), randomly assigned to treatment [eat (B) or skip (SB) breakfast (each, n = 41)], were sub-grouped by...

  13. Strengthening German Programs through Community Engagement and Partnerships with Saturday Morning Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellebrandt, Josef

    2014-01-01

    German university programs can increase enrollments and diversify their curricula through academic community partnerships with surrounding schools. This article informs about two community-supported initiatives between the German Studies Program at Santa Clara University and the South Bay Deutscher Schulverein, a Saturday Morning School in…

  14. Resident Characteristics Related to the Lack of Morning Care Provision in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Rahman, Anna N.; Choi, Leena; Beuscher, Linda; Schnelle, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine usual long-term care (LTC) practices related to 3 aspects of morning care and determine if there were resident characteristics related to the lack of care. Design and Methods: Participants were 169 long-stay residents in 4 community LTC facilities who required staff assistance with either transfer…

  15. Poland syndrome associated with 'morning glory' syndrome (coloboma of the optic disc).

    PubMed Central

    Pisteljić, D T; Vranjesević, D; Apostolski, S; Pisteljić, D D

    1986-01-01

    A 12 year old girl with the Poland syndrome and the 'morning glory' syndrome is described. The patient presented with absence of the left pectoralis major muscle, hypoplasia of the left arm, symbrachydactyly, and ipsilateral coloboma of the optic disc. This is the first report of the association of these two congenital anomalies. Images PMID:3018249

  16. Legal drug content in music video programs shown on Australian television on saturday mornings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.

  17. Morning Star Students: Looking Back to Find Direction for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Leroy V.

    1981-01-01

    Follow-up of Morning Star Native teacher education program graduates indicates increased post-secondary educational opportunities, greater numbers of qualified Native teachers, and community acceptance of program graduates. Available from: Canadian Journal of Native Education, Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North,…

  18. Effect of oral calcium bolus administration on milk production, concentrations of minerals and metabolites in serum, early-lactation health status, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Chashnidel, Y; Teimouri-Yansari, A; Mahjoubi, E; Dirandeh, E

    2018-05-01

    To determine the effects of oral Ca bolus administration in the early postpartum period of cows on milk yield and composition, blood metabolites, early-lactation health status, and reproductive performance. Multiparous Holstein dry cows (n=66) with a mean parity of 3.1 (SD 0.35) were fed a diet with a positive dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) prior to calving. They were randomly assigned to receive no treatment (Control; n=33) or two oral Ca boluses (n=33, 45 g of Ca per bolus); one was administered immediately after calving (Day 0) and the second 24 hours (±30 minutes) later. Blood samples were collected at calving, and on Days 2 and 7 to determine concentrations in serum of Ca, P, Mg, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA). Milk yield was recorded daily and milk composition was determined weekly from calving until 28 day postpartum. Health and outcomes were determined during the first 30 days postpartum and reproductive outcomes to 180 days postpartum. Mean milk yields and composition over the first month of lactation were similar between cows in the two treatment groups (p>0.1). Mean concentrations of Ca in serum were not different between treatment groups on Day 0, but were higher on Day 2 for cows that received oral Ca boluses (1.77 (SE 0.07)) compared with Control cows (1.54 (SE 0.08)) (p=0.04). Concentrations in serum of P, Mg, glucose, NEFA and ΒHBA did not differ between treatment groups on any day of measurement. Fewer cows that received oral Ca were diagnosed with hypocalcaemia (total concentrations of Ca in serum <1.5 mmol/L) by Day 2 (2/33; 6%) compared with Control cows (12/33; 36%) (p=0.01). There was no difference in the prevalence of other health outcomes between treatment groups. The proportion of cows conceiving to first insemination was greater in cows that received an oral Ca bolus (19/29; 65%) than Control cows (12/29; 41%) (p=0.01). Oral Ca bolus administration increased concentrations of Ca

  19. The return to the USA of doxylamine-pyridoxine delayed release combination (Diclegis®) for morning sickness--a new morning for American women.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    The US FDA approval in April 2013 of Diclegis®, the doxylamine-pyridoxine combination for morning sickness, is a major milestone, particularly since it is indicated for use in pregnancy and the FDA has labeled it a pregnancy category A drug the strongest evidence of fetal safety. After thirty years of being orphaned from an FDA-labeled drug for the most common medical condition in pregnancy, American women and their health care providers have a therapeutic solution that is likely to positively impact millions of women each year. This review highlights the milestones of this antiemetic agent over the last 40 years.

  20. Separate aftereffects of morning and evening exercise on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertensive men.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leandro C; Rezende, Rafael A; Mendes, Caroline; Silva-Junior, Natan D; Tinucci, Taís; Cipolla-Neto, José; de Moraes Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2018-01-01

    Clinic postexercise hypotension (PEH) is different after aerobic exercise performed in the morning and in the evening. Thus, ambulatory PEH should also differ after exercises conducted at different times of day. However, because of the circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP), ambulatory PEH should be assessed considering a control condition. Thus, this study was designed to verify the effects of morning and evening exercises on postexercise ambulatory BP averages and circadian parameters by comparing responses obtained at each time of day after an exercise and a control session. Thirteen prehypertensive men underwent four sessions (randomized order): two in the morning (9 am) and two in the evening (6:30 pm). At each time of day, a control (C) and an exercise (E: cycle ergometer 45 min, 50% VO2peak) sessions were performed. After the sessions, an ambulatory BP and heart rate (HR) monitoring was started for 24 h. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were used to compare the E and the C sessions at each time of day. In the morning, 24 h, daytime and nighttime HR were higher after the E than the C session. In the evening, nighttime systolic BP (116±11 vs. 120±10 mmHg, P=0.04) and rate pressure product (7981±1294 vs. 8583±1523 mmHg.bpm, P=0.04), as well as MESOR (128±11 vs. 130±10 mmHg, P=0.03) were lower in the E than the C session. In prehypertensive men, morning exercise increased ambulatory HR, while evening exercise decreased nighttime BP and cardiac work, reducing the MESOR of systolic BP.

  1. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ivy N; Zee, Phyllis C; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  2. Apomorphine Subcutaneous Injection for the Management of Morning Akinesia in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Stuart; Lew, Mark; Ondo, William; Hubble, Jean; Clinch, Thomas; Pagan, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In patients with motor fluctuations complicating Parkinson's disease (PD), delays in time-to-ON with levodopa are common. This open-label study aimed to assess the effect of apomorphine on time-to-ON in PD patients with morning akinesia. The safety population included 127 enrolled patients, and the full analysis set (FAS) included 88 patients. Patients completed a 7-day levodopa baseline period recording their time-to-ON following each morning dose of levodopa. Patients were titrated to an optimal dose of apomorphine (2-6 mg) while taking trimethobenzamide antiemetic therapy. Apomorphine was injected each morning for a 7-day treatment period and time-to-ON was self-recorded in 5-minute blocks. The primary efficacy variable was time-to-ON in the apomorphine treatment period versus the baseline levodopa period. Secondary assessments included and global impression scales. Safety and tolerability were assessed through adverse events (AEs). Patients receiving apomorphine achieved mean ± standard deviation (SD) time-to-ON 23.72 ± 14.55 minutes, reduced from 60.86 ± 18.11 minutes with levodopa ( P < 0.0001). Dose failures (defined as time-to-ON >60 minutes) were more commonly reported with levodopa versus apomorphine (46% vs. 7% of diary entries, respectively). Secondary endpoints supported the primary efficacy findings, with significant improvements from levodopa baseline to apomorphine treatment period (all P < 0.0001). The most common AEs were nausea and dizziness. Most patients who discontinued because of AEs did so in the titration phase. Apomorphine injections significantly reduced time-to-ON in PD patients experiencing delayed onset of their morning levodopa dose, and was well tolerated in most patients. After apomorphine treatment, fluctuating patients with morning akinesia experienced rapid and reliable improvement of time-to-ON.

  3. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ivy N.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G.; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:27191727

  4. Diel mercury-concentration variations in streams affected by mining and geothermal discharge

    Nimick, D.A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Gammons, C.H.; Cleasby, T.E.; Parker, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Diel variations of concentrations of unfiltered and filtered total Hg and filtered methyl Hg were documented during 24-h sampling episodes in water from Silver Creek, which drains a historical gold-mining district near Helena, Montana, and the Madison River, which drains the geothermal system of Yellowstone National Park. The concentrations of filtered methyl Hg had relatively large diel variations (increases of 68 and 93% from morning minima) in both streams. Unfiltered and filtered (0.1-??m filtration) total Hg in Silver Creek had diel concentration increases of 24% and 7%, respectively. In the Madison River, concentrations of unfiltered and filtered total Hg did not change during the sampling period. The concentration variation of unfiltered total Hg in Silver Creek followed the diel variation in suspended-particle concentration. The concentration variation of filtered total and methyl Hg followed the solar photocycle, with highest concentrations during the early afternoon and evening and lowest concentrations during the morning. None of the diel Hg variations correlated with diel variation in streamflow or major ion concentrations. The diel variation in filtered total Hg could have been produced by adsorption-desorption of Hg2+ or by reduction of Hg(II) to Hg0 and subsequent evasion of Hg0. The diel variation in filtered methyl Hg could have been produced by sunlight- and temperature-dependent methylation. This study is the first to examine diel Hg cycling in streams, and its results reinforce previous conclusions that diel trace-element cycling in streams is widespread but often not recognized and that parts of the biogeochemical Hg cycle respond quickly to the daily photocycle. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Morning Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Research & Professionals Our research Research ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity ...

  6. Morning sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bland foods, such as gelatin, frozen desserts, broth, ginger ale, and saltine crackers, also soothe the stomach. ... your stomach does not get too full. Seltzer, ginger ale, or other sparkling waters may help control ...

  7. Algorithm that delivers an individualized rapid-acting insulin dose after morning resistance exercise counters post-exercise hyperglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Turner, D; Luzio, S; Gray, B J; Bain, S C; Hanley, S; Richards, A; Rhydderch, D C; Martin, R; Campbell, M D; Kilduff, L P; West, D J; Bracken, R M

    2016-04-01

    To develop an algorithm that delivers an individualized dose of rapid-acting insulin after morning resistance exercise to counter post-exercise hyperglycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Eight people with Type 1 diabetes, aged 34 ± 7 years with HbA1c concentrations 72 ± 12 mmol/mol (8.7 ± 1.1%), attended our laboratory on two separate mornings after fasting, having taken their usual basal insulin the previous evening. These people performed a resistance exercise session comprising six exercises for two sets of 10 repetitions at 60% of the maximum amount of force that was generated in one maximal contraction (60% 1RM). In a randomized and counterbalanced order, the participants were administered an individualized dose of rapid-acting insulin (2 ± 1 units, range 0-4 units) immediately after resistance exercise (insulin session) by means of an algorithm or were not administered this (no-insulin session). Venous blood glucose concentrations were measured for 125 min after resistance exercise. Data (mean ± sem values) were analysed using anova (P ≤ 0.05). Participants had immediate post-resistance exercise hyperglycaemia (insulin session 13.0 ± 1.6 vs. no-insulin session 12.7 ± 1.5 mmol/l; P = 0.834). The decline in blood glucose concentration between peak and 125 min after exercise was greater in the insulin exercise session than in the no-insulin session (3.3 ± 1.0 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/l: P = 0.015). There were no episodes of hypoglycaemia (blood glucose <3.9 mmol/l). Administration of rapid-acting insulin according to an individualized algorithm reduced the hyperglycaemia associated with morning resistance exercise without causing hypoglycaemia in the 2 h post-exercise period in people with Type 1 diabetes. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  8. Late-night exercise affects the autonomic nervous system activity but not the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in the next morning.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Cihat; Özgöçer, Tuba; Yildiz, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Exercise activates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) and generally causes beneficial changes in homeostatic balance. However, the health benefits of late-night exercise programs on the activity of HPA and ANS is not known. The aim of this study was to assess effects of late-night exercise on sleep quality and on the activities of the HPA axis (as cortisol awakening response, CAR) and the ANS (as heart rate variability, HRV) measurements in the following morning. Medical students (N.=20 males, 20-24 years old) filled Karolinska Sleep Diary on the day before exercise program. In the following morning, they provided salivary samples for the assessment of CAR (samples at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min postawakening) and had a 5-min electrocardiogram recording for the determination of HRV. In the next night, an exercise program consisting of a 90-min football match was implemented at 09:30 p.m. and all procedures were repeated. Cortisol concentrations were measured in the salivary samples and time- and frequency-domain parameters of HRV were calculated. Late-night exercise did not affect (P>0.05) sleep parameters (sleep duration, disturbed sleep, awakening problems) and CAR parameters (0, 15, 30, 60 min cortisol concentrations, mean concentration, area under the curve) but influenced HRV parameters (P<0.05). The results suggest that late-night exercise is associated with changed HRV activity rather than changes in CAR and, therefore, it might be suggested that late-night exercise affects ANS activity rather than HPA activity in the next morning.

  9. Does Interest in Watching the Night-Sky Correlate with Morning-Evening Orientation? A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports two studies investigating the relationship between noctcaelador (psychological attachment to the nightsky), and morning-evening preferences. Study 1 examined the relationship between the Noctcaelador Inventory (Kelly, 2004) and a shortened form of the Horne and Ostberg Morning-Eveningness Questionnaire (Chelminski, Petros,…

  10. The importance of assessment and management of morning stiffness in Asian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Recommendations from an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Mok, Chi Chiu; Cha, Hoon Suk; Hidayat, Rudy; Nguyen, Lan Thi Ngoc; Perez, Emmanuel C; Ramachandran, Raveendran; Tsay, Gregory J; Yoo, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), morning stiffness is linked more to functional disability and pain than disease activity, as assessed by joint counts and markers of inflammation. As part of the Asia Pacific Morning Stiffness in Rheumatoid Arthritis Expert Panel, a group of eight rheumatologists met to formulate consensus points and develop recommendations for the assessment and management of morning stiffness in RA. On the basis of a systematic literature review and expert opinion, a panel of Asian rheumatologists formulated recommendations for the assessment and medical treatment of RA. The panel agreed upon 10 consensus statements on morning stiffness, its assessment and treatment. Specifically, the panel recommended that morning stiffness, pain and impaired morning function should be routinely assessed in clinical practice. Although there are currently no validated tools for these parameters, they should be assessed as part of the patients' reported outcomes in RA. The panel also agreed on the benefits of low-dose glucocorticoids in RA, particularly for the improvement of morning stiffness. These recommendations serve to guide rheumatologists and other stakeholders on the assessment and management of morning stiffness, and help implement the treat-to-target principle in the management of RA. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Hourly pattern of allergenic alder and birch pollen concentrations in the air: Spatial differentiation and the effect of meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borycka, K.; Kasprzyk, I.

    2018-06-01

    In temperate climate widespread alder and birch are an important source of strong aeroallergens. The diurnal pattern of airborne pollen concentrations depends on the rhythm of pollen release from anthers as well as weather conditions, convection air currents, long-distance transport, pollen trap location and local vegetation. The aim of the study was to present a diurnal pattern of Alnus (alder) and Betula (birch) pollen concentrations in the air in a horizontal and vertical gradient and examine the weather parameters that had the greatest impact on the pattern. The study was conducted in Rzeszów City, southeast Poland over three years. Pollen grains were collected using a Hirst volumetric spore trap at three sampling points: two at 12 m the agl, and one at 1.5 m agl. Data were analysed using circular statistics and a nonlinear function. For alder, three models of hourly patterns were elaborated and the most common presented early morning minimum and early afternoon maximum. For birch, the most common model has one peak at night and a marked decrease in concentrations in early morning, although a second model has peak during early afternoon. A model with 3 peaks is much less common. These models are characteristic for warm temperate climate regions, where alders and birches are common. The diurnal patterns did not depend on the localization of traps or proximity of the pollen source, although these factors influenced the hourly concentrations, with higher values observed at roof level. Significant relationships between the hourly pollen counts and meteorological parameters were observed only for alder. Three incidents of increasing birch pollen concentrations were observed during the first two hours of precipitation and linked to a convection effect. Unstable weather conditions caused by air convection might strongly modify the circadian pattern and cause the nightly peaks concentrations. The general results are that people suffering from allergies may be exposed

  12. Effects of evening vs morning levothyroxine intake: a randomized double-blind crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Bolk, Nienke; Visser, Theo J; Nijman, Judy; Jongste, Ineke J; Tijssen, Jan G P; Berghout, Arie

    2010-12-13

    Levothyroxine sodium is widely prescribed to treat primary hypothyroidism. There is consensus that levothyroxine should be taken in the morning on an empty stomach. A pilot study showed that levothyroxine intake at bedtime significantly decreased thyrotropin levels and increased free thyroxine and total triiodothyronine levels. To date, no large randomized trial investigating the best time of levothyroxine intake, including quality-of-life evaluation, has been performed. To ascertain if levothyroxine intake at bedtime instead of in the morning improves thyroid hormone levels, a randomized double-blind crossover trial was performed between April 1, 2007, and November 30, 2008, among 105 consecutive patients with primary hypothyroidism at Maasstad Hospital Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Patients were instructed during 6 months to take 1 capsule in the morning and 1 capsule at bedtime (one containing levothyroxine and the other a placebo), with a switch after 3 months. Primary outcome measures were thyroid hormone levels; secondary outcome measures were creatinine and lipid levels, body mass index, heart rate, and quality of life. Ninety patients completed the trial and were available for analysis. Compared with morning intake, direct treatment effects when levothyroxine was taken at bedtime were a decrease in thyrotropin level of 1.25 mIU/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.89 mIU/L; P < .001), an increase in free thyroxine level of 0.07 ng/dL (0.02-0.13 ng/dL; P = .01), and an increase in total triiodothyronine level of 6.5 ng/dL (0.9-12.1 ng/dL; P = .02) (to convert thyrotropin level to micrograms per liter, multiply by 1.0; free thyroxine level to picomoles per liter, multiply by 12.871; and total triiodothyronine level to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 0.0154). Secondary outcomes, including quality-of-life questionnaires (36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, 20-Item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, and a symptoms

  13. Development of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morning symptom diary (COPD-MSD).

    PubMed

    Globe, Gary; Currie, Brooke; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Jones, Paul; Mannino, David; Martinez, Fernando; Klekotka, Paul; O'Quinn, Sean; Karlsson, Niklas; Wiklund, Ingela

    2016-07-16

    The morning tends to be the most difficult time of day for many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when symptoms can limit one's ability to perform even simple activities. Morning symptoms have been linked to higher levels of work absenteeism, thereby increasing the already substantial economic burden associated with COPD. A validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to capture morning symptoms will allow for a more comprehensive approach to the evaluation of treatment benefit in COPD clinical trials. A qualitative interview study was conducted among a sample of symptomatic adults with COPD. Concept elicitation interviews (n = 35) were conducted to identify COPD morning symptoms, followed by cognitive interviews (n = 21) to ensure patient comprehension of the items, instructions and response options of the draft COPD Morning Symptom Diary (COPD-MSD). All interview transcript data were coded using ATLAS.ti software for content analysis. Mean age of the concept elicitation and cognitive interview sample was 65.0 years (±7.5) and 62.3 years (±8.3), respectively. The study sample represented the full range of COPD severity (Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease [GOLD] classifications I-IV) and included a mix of racial backgrounds, employment status and educational achievement. During the concept elicitation interviews, the three most frequently reported morning symptoms were shortness of breath (n = 35/35; 100 %), phlegm/mucus (n = 31/35; 88.6 %), and cough (n = 30/35; 85.7 %). A group of clinical and instrument development experts convened to review the concept elicitation data and develop the initial 32-item draft COPD-MSD. Cognitive interviews indicated subjects found the draft COPD-MSD to be comprehensive, clear, and easy to understand. The COPD-MSD underwent minor editorial revisions and streamlining based on cognitive interviews and input from the experts to yield the final 19-item daily

  14. Thyroid Hormones Concentrations during the Mid-Dry Period: An Early Indicator of Fatty Liver in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Šamanc, Horea; Stojić, Velibor; Kirovski, Danijela; Jovanović, Milijan; Cernescu, Horia; Vujanac, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Relationship between postpartal fatty liver and thyroid gland activity during the peripartal and mid dry periods was studied. Twenty one dry cows were chosen. Blood samples were obtained on days −30, −2, and +12 related to calving and analized for thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). A T3/T4 ratio was calculated. Liver tissue samples were taken 12 d after calving and tested for the lipid content. Cows were divided into three groups: mild (<20% fat), moderate (20 to 30%), or severe fatty liver (>30%). Cows, that were affected with severe fatty liver, were hypothyroid prior to development of the condition due to lower T4 concentrations, and had significantly lower concentration of T3 and higher T3/T4 ratios than cows with mild and moderate fatty liver. Thus, hypothyroid state during mid-dry period may be an early indicator of postpartal fatty liver and may provoke T3/T4 ratio increase in this group of cows. PMID:21048844

  15. Impact of outdoor temperature on prewaking morning surge and nocturnal decline in blood pressure in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shougo; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Kono, Tatsuji; Soyama, Akiko; Umeda, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Naomune; Morita, Hideaki; Yamanaka, Gaku; Kitaura, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations in blood pressure (BP) have often been attributed to meteorological factors, especially changes in outdoor temperature. We evaluated the direct association between meteorological factors and circadian BP variability. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP was monitored continuously for 7 days in 158 subjects. Mean awake, asleep, morning (first 2 h after waking) BP, prewaking morning BP surge (morning systolic BP (SBP)-mean SBP during the 2-h period before waking) and nocturnal BP decline were measured each day. We compared BP values for the lowest and highest days with regard to the daily mean outdoor temperature and mean atmospheric pressure. Morning BP and prewaking morning BP surge on the coldest day were significantly higher than those on the warmest day (morning SBP, 136.6 ± 1.6 vs. 133.1 ± 1.5 mm Hg, P = 0.002; morning diastolic BP, 84.4 ± 0.9 vs. 82.6 ± 0.9 mm Hg, P = 0.02; and prewaking morning BP surge, 20.8 ± 1.3 vs. 15.3 ± 1.3 mm Hg, P = 0.0004). The magnitude of nocturnal BP decline on the coldest day was significantly greater than that on the warmest day (15.8 ± 0.7 vs. 13.9 ± 0.7%, P = 0.01). Outdoor temperature is an important determinant of morning BP, prewaking morning BP surge and the magnitude of nocturnal BP decline. These findings may have important implications in management of hypertension and prevention of cardiovascular events.

  16. Effect of food on early drug exposure from extended-release stimulants: results from the Concerta, Adderall XR Food Evaluation (CAFE) Study.

    PubMed

    Auiler, J F; Liu, K; Lynch, J M; Gelotte, C K

    2002-01-01

    Stimulant therapy is the mainstay of treatment for children, adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Once-daily, extended-release oral formulations offer long acting control of symptoms by modifying drug delivery and absorption. In particular, consistency in early drug exposure is important for symptom control during school or work hours. Because these once-daily formulations are usually taken in the morning, the timing of the doses with breakfast is important. This study compared the effect of a high-fat breakfast on early drug exposure from a morning dose of two extended-release stimulant formulations: the osmotic-controlled OROS tablet of methylphenidate HCI (CONCERTA) and the capsule containing extended-release beads of mixed amphetamine salts (ADDERALL XR). The study had a single-dose, open-label, randomised, four-treatment, crossover design in which healthy subjects received either 36 mg CONCERTA or 20 mg ADDERALL XR in the morning after an overnight fast or a high-fat breakfast. Serial blood samples were collected over 28h to determine plasma concentrations of methylphenidate and amphetamine. The food effect on early drug exposure and the pharmacokinetic profiles up to 8 h after dosing of the two extended-release stimulants were directly compared using partial area (AUC(p4h), AUC(p6h) and AUC(p8h)) fed/fasted ratios. Amphetamine concentrations were markedly lower when the subjects had eaten breakfast, resulting in lower early drug exposures (p < 0.0001). By contrast, methylphenidate concentrations over the same 8 h were unaffected by breakfast, providing consistent levels of early drug exposure. Therefore, as a child's or adult's eating pattern varies, methylphenidate exposure over the first 8 h would be expected to have less day-to-day variation compared with amphetamine exposure. The osmotic-controlled OROS tablet provides a reliable and consistent delivery of methylphenidate HCI, independent of food, for patients with

  17. Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, including an assessment of evening and morning behavior: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Douglas K; Sumner, Calvin R; Casat, Charles D; Coury, Daniel L; Quintana, Humberto; Saylor, Keith E; Sutton, Virginia K; Gonzales, Jill; Malcolm, Sandra K; Schuh, Kory J; Allen, Albert J

    2004-07-01

    Atomoxetine seems to be as effective for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when the daily dose is administered once in the morning as when the dose is divided and administered in the morning and evening. In the present study, the efficacy of atomoxetine administered once daily among children with ADHD was assessed throughout the day, including the evening and early morning. Another goal was to determine how early in treatment it was possible to discern a specific effect of the drug on ADHD symptoms. This study was a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 12 outpatient sites in the United States. A total of 197 children, 6 to 12 years of age, who had been diagnosed as having ADHD, on the basis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria, were randomized to receive 8 weeks of treatment with atomoxetine or placebo, dosed once daily in the mornings. ADHD symptoms were assessed with parent and investigator rating scales. The primary outcome measure was the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator-Administered and Scored total score. Daily parent assessments of children's home behaviors in the evening and early morning were recorded with an electronic data entry system. This instrument measures 11 specific morning or evening activities, including getting up and out of bed, doing or completing homework, and sitting through dinner. Seventy-one percent of the children enrolled were male, 69% met criteria for the combined subtype (both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms), and the most common psychiatric comorbidity was oppositional defiant disorder (35%). Once-daily atomoxetine (final mean daily dose of 1.3 mg/kg) was significantly more effective than placebo in treating core symptoms of ADHD. Mean reductions in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator-Administered and Scored

  18. Use of songs to promote independence in morning greeting routines for young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Kern, Petra; Wolery, Mark; Aldridge, David

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of individually composed songs on the independent behaviors of two young children with autism during the morning greeting/entry routine into their inclusive classrooms. A music therapist composed a song for each child related to the steps of the morning greeting routine and taught the children's teachers to sing the songs during the routine. The effects were evaluated using a single subject withdrawal design. The results indicate that the songs, with modifications for one child, assisted the children in entering the classroom, greeting the teacher and/or peers and engaging in play. For one child, the number of peers who greeted him was also measured, and increased when the song was used.

  19. Morning and evening personality characteristics in a sample of young Italians.

    PubMed

    Cavallera, G M; Giampietro, M

    2007-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate associations of morning and evening personality types with personality dimensions in a convenient sample of 60 men and 60 women, ages 18 to 29 years. A short form of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and a personality questionnaire Come mi vedo (How I see myself), based on the 5-factor model of personality, were given. Several personality dimensions appear to be significantly correlated with Morningness scores: Conscientiousness (positively) and Openmindedness (negatively). The analysis indicated morning types tend to reach their goals resolutely and to plan their steps, they prefer to be precise, tidy, punctual, trustworthy; they have a sense of duty and responsibility; they are also less original and less open to culture and novelties, less curious, conformist, traditionalist, and less well-informed, hardworking, steady, tenacious, and diligent, on the Come mi vedo.

  20. Resin glycoside constituents of Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning glory).

    PubMed

    Tao, Hongwen; Hao, Xiaojiang; Liu, Jinggen; Ding, Jian; Fang, Yuchun; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Weiming

    2008-12-01

    Eight new resin glycosides, pescapreins X-XVII (1-8), were isolated from a lipophilic fraction of an ethanol extract of the entire plant of beach morning glory, Ipomoea pes-caprae. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and by chemical transformation. These compounds were evaluated biologically in terms of cancer cell line cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and effects on the mu-opioid receptor.

  1. Morning sun on Gulf of Mexico as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    1968-10-20

    AS07-08-1933 (20 Oct. 1968) --- The morning sun reflects on the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft at an altitude of 120 nautical miles above Earth. Most of Florida peninsula appears as a dark silhouette. This photograph was made during the spacecraft's 134th revolution of Earth, some 213 hours and 19 minutes after liftoff.

  2. A Stochastic Burst Follows the Periodic Morning Peak in Individual Drosophila Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Lazopulo, Stanislav; Lopez, Juan A.; Levy, Paul; Syed, Sheyum

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between cyclically varying external light and an endogenous biochemical oscillator known as the circadian clock, modulates a rhythmic pattern with two prominent peaks in the locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. A morning peak appears around the time lights turn on and an evening peak appears just before lights turn off. The close association between the peaks and the external 12:12 hour light/dark photoperiod means that respective morning and evening peaks of individual flies are well-synchronized in time and, consequently, feature prominently in population-averaged data. Here, we report on a brief but strong stochastic burst in fly activity that, in contrast to morning and evening peaks, is detectable only in single fly recordings. This burst was observed across 3 wild-type strains of Drosophila melanogaster. In a single fly recording, the burst is likely to appear once randomly within 0.5–5 hours after lights turn on, last for only 2–3 minutes and yet show 5 times greater activity compared to the maximum of morning peak with data binned in 3 minutes. Owing to its variable timing and short duration, the burst is virtually undetectable in population-averaged data. We use a locally-built illumination system to study the burst and find that its incidence in a population correlates with light intensity, with ~85% of control flies showing the behavior at 8000 lux (1942 μW/cm2). Consistent with that finding, several mutant flies with impaired vision show substantially reduced frequency of the burst. Additionally, we find that genetic ablation of the clock has insignificant effect on burst frequency. Together, these data suggest that the pronounced burst is likely generated by a light-activated circuit that is independent of the circadian clock. PMID:26528813

  3. Characterization of a novel gravitropic mutant of morning glory, weeping2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Daisuke; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Fujii, Nobuharu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2008-09-01

    In higher plants, gravity is a major environmental cue that governs growth orientation, a phenomenon termed gravitropism. It has been suggested that gravity also affects other aspects of morphogenesis, such as circumnutation and winding movements. Previously, we showed that these aspects of plant growth morphology require amyloplast sedimentation inside gravisensing endodermal cells. However, the molecular mechanism of the graviresponse and its relationship to circumnutation and winding remains obscure. Here, we have characterized a novel shoot gravitropic mutant of morning glory, weeping2 ( we2). In the we2 mutant, the gravitropic response of the stem was absent, and hypocotyls exhibited a severely reduced gravitropic response, whereas roots showed normal gravitropism. In agreement with our previous studies, we found that we2 mutant has defects in shoot circumnutation and winding. Histological analysis showed that we2 mutant forms abnormal endodermal cells. We identified a mutation in the morning glory homolog of SHORT-ROOT ( PnSHR1) that was genetically linked to the agravitropic phenotype of we2 mutant, and which may underlie the abnormal differentiation of endodermal cells in this plant. These results suggest that the phenotype of we2 mutant is due to a mutation of PnSHR1, and that PnSHR1 regulates gravimorphogenesis, including circumnutation and winding movements, in morning glory.

  4. Morning self-efficacy predicts physical activity throughout the day in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhaoyang, Ruixue; Martire, Lynn M; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the within-day and cross-day prospective effects of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients' self-efficacy to engage in physical activity despite the pain on their subsequent physical activity assessed objectively in their natural environment. Over 22 days, 135 older adults with knee OA reported their morning self-efficacy for being physically active throughout the day using a handheld computer and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Morning self-efficacy had a significant positive effect on steps and moderate-intensity activity throughout that day, above and beyond the effects of demographic background and other psychosocial factors as well as spouses' support and social control. The lagged effect of morning self-efficacy on the next day's physical activity and the reciprocal lagged effect of physical activity on the next day's self-efficacy were not significant. Positive between-person effects of self-efficacy on physical activity were found. Future research should aim to better understand the mechanisms underlying fluctuations in patients' daily self-efficacy, and target patients' daily self-efficacy as a modifiable psychological mechanism for promoting physical activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Morning Self-Efficacy Predicts Physical Activity Throughout the Day in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhaoyang, Ruixue; Martire, Lynn M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the within-day and cross-day prospective effects of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients’ self-efficacy to engage in physical activity despite the pain on their subsequent physical activity assessed objectively in their natural environment. Methods Over 22 days, 135 older adults with knee OA reported their morning self-efficacy for being physically active throughout the day using a handheld computer and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Morning self-efficacy had a significant positive effect on steps and moderate-intensity activity throughout that day, above and beyond the effects of demographic background and other psychosocial factors as well as spouses’ support and social control. The lagged effect of morning self-efficacy on the next day’s physical activity and the reciprocal lagged effect of physical activity on the next day’s self-efficacy were not significant. Positive between-person effects of self-efficacy on physical activity were found. Conclusions Future research should aim to better understand the mechanisms underlying fluctuations in patients’ daily self-efficacy, and target patients’ daily self-efficacy as a modifiable psychological mechanism for promoting physical activity. PMID:28277696

  6. Metabonomic study of biochemical changes in the urine of Morning Glory Seed treated rat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Bi, Kaishun; Zhang, Ming; Su, Dan; Fan, Xinxin; Ji, Wei; Wang, Chao; Chen, Xiaohui

    2010-11-02

    This paper was designed to study metabonomic characters of the nephrotoxicity induced by Morning Glory Seed (MGS), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine which was used for the treatment of edema, simple obesity and lung fever. Urinary samples from control and MGS treated rats were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in positive ionization mode. Blood biochemistry and histopathology were examined to identify specific changes of renal damage. The results affirmatively suggested that ethanol extract of Morning Glory Seed (EMGS), instead of water extract of Morning Glory Seed (WMGS), should be responsible for the nephrotoxicity caused by this herbal medicine. The UPLC-MS analysis revealed that the levels of 8 endogenous metabolites as biomarkers were significantly changed in urine from EMGS treated rats. The underlying regulations of EMGS-perturbed metabolic pathways were discussed according to the identified metabolites. The present study proves the potential of UPLC-MS based metabonomics in mapping metabolic response for toxicology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Daily morning light therapy is associated with an increase in choroidal thickness in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Read, Scott A; Pieterse, Emily C; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Bormann, Rebekah; Hong, Seentinie; Lo, Chai-Hoon; Richer, Rhiannon; Syed, Atif; Tran, Linda

    2018-05-29

    Ambient light exposure is one environmental factor thought to play a role in the regulation of eye growth and refractive error development, and choroidal thickness changes have also been linked to longer term changes in eye growth. Therefore in this study we aimed to examine the influence of a 1-week period of morning light therapy upon choroidal thickness. Twenty two healthy young adult subjects had a series of macular choroidal thickness measurements collected with spectral domain optical coherence tomography before, and then following a 7-day period of increased daily light exposure. Increased light exposure was delivered through the use of commercially available light therapy glasses, worn for 30 minutes in the morning each day. A significant increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness (mean increase of +5.4 ± 10.3 µm) was found following 7-days of increased daily light exposure (p = 0.02). An increase in choroidal thickness was also observed associated with light therapy across the central 5 mm macular region. This study provides the first evidence in the human eye that daily morning light therapy results in small magnitude but statistically significant increases in choroidal thickness. These changes may have implications for our understanding of the impact of environmental factors upon eye growth.

  9. The relationship between work-related rumination and evening and morning salivary cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Mark; Rydstedt, Leif W; Devereux, Jason J; Middleton, Benita

    2015-04-01

    The perseverative cognition hypothesis suggests that worry/ruminative thinking prolongs stress-related physiological activation. This study explored the association of work-related rumination with salivary cortisol sampled at 10 pm and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) the following morning. On a mid-week evening, 108 school teachers completed a small diary about their work-related thoughts and gave a saliva cortisol sample at 10 pm. The following morning, they gave four additional saliva samples: at awakening and at 15, 30 and 45 min after awakening, along with a rating of their anticipatory thoughts about work. The CAR was calculated as the percentage increase in cortisol secretion from awakening to 30 min, and the sample was divided at their respective medians to classify participants into low and high rumination groups. Cortisol secretion was found to be significantly greater in the high compared with the low ruminators at 10 pm, and this effect was not related to leisure activities or work patterns during the evening. For the morning measures, high ruminators demonstrated a flattened CAR relative to the low ruminators, and this effect appeared to be associated with sleep disturbance during the night. Ruminating about work-related issues is associated with cortisol secretion, and our findings support the perseverative cognition hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The impact of morning light intensity and environmental temperature on body temperatures and alertness.

    PubMed

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc J M; Schellen, Lisje; Frijns, Arjan J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2017-06-01

    Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated. A lower room temperature increased the core body temperature (CBT) and lowered skin temperature and the distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG). Moreover, a lower room temperature reduced the subjective sleepiness and reaction time on an auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), irrespective of the light condition. Interestingly, the morning bright light exposure did affect thermophysiological parameters, i.e. it decreased plasma cortisol, CBT and proximal skin temperature and increased the DPG, irrespective of the room temperature. During the bright light session, subjective sleepiness decreased irrespective of the room temperature. However, the change in sleepiness due to the light exposure was not related to these physiological changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Postprandial Metabolism and Appetite Do Not Differ between Lean Adults that Eat Breakfast or Morning Fast for 6 Weeks.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2018-01-01

    It remains unknown whether sustained daily feeding-fasting patterns modify the acute response to specific feedings on a given day. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to establish if daily breakfast consumption or fasting until noon modifies the acute metabolic and appetitive responses to a fixed breakfast and ad libitum lunch. With the use of a parallel group design, we randomly assigned 31 healthy, lean men and women (22-56 y) to 6 wk of either consuming ≥700 kcal of self-selected items before 1100 or fasting (0 kcal) until 1200 daily. Following 48 h of diet and physical activity standardization, we examined metabolic and appetite responses to a standardized breakfast and ad libitum lunch before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using 3- and 2-way ANCOVA. Systemic concentrations of energy balance regulatory hormones total and acylated ghrelin, leptin, and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine) responded similarly to breakfast and lunch before and after 6 wk of either morning fasting or regular breakfast, with the exception of a tendency for increased glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the Breakfast Group compared with a decrease over that period in the Fasting Group [P = 0.06, partial eta squared value (ƞ2) = 0.16]. Subjective appetite sensations also did not differ over the course of the day, and ad libitum energy intake at lunch was not systematically affected by either intervention, decreasing by 27 kcal (95% CI: -203, 149 kcal) with fasting and by 77 kcal (95% CI: -210, 56 kcal) with breakfast. Similarly, glycemic, insulinemic, lipemic, and thermogenic responses to breakfast and lunch were very stable at baseline and follow-up and, thus, did not differ between treatment groups. Our results indicate that a sustained period of either extended morning fasting or eating a daily breakfast has minimal effect upon acute metabolic and appetite responses in lean adults. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN

  12. Saturday Morning Television Advertisements Aired on English and Spanish Language Networks along the Texas-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Cristina S.; Rodriguez, Dianeth; Camacho, Perla L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this content analysis study is to characterize the TV advertisements aired to an at-risk child population along the Texas-Mexico border. Methods We characterized the early Saturday morning TV advertisements aired by three broadcast network categories (U.S. English language, U.S. Spanish language, and Mexican Spanish language) in Spring 2010. The number, type (food related vs. non-food related), target audience, and persuasion tactics used were recorded. Advertised foods, based on nutrition content, were categorized as meeting or not meeting current dietary guidelines. Results Most commercials were non-food related (82.7%, 397 of 480). The majority of the prepared foods (e.g., cereals, snacks, and drinks) advertised did not meet the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Additionally, nutrition content information was not available for many of the foods advertised on the Mexican Spanish language broadcast network category. Conclusions For U.S. children at risk for obesity along the Texas-Mexico border exposure to TV food advertisements may result in the continuation of sedentary behavior as well as an increased consumption of foods of poor nutritional quality. An international regulatory effort to monitor and enforce the reduction of child-oriented food advertising is needed. PMID:22209760

  13. [Acupuncture combined with medication for morning blood pressure of essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Du, Yuzheng

    2018-04-12

    Based on the western medication, to evaluate the advantages in the morning blood pressure treated with acupuncture at Fengchi (GB 20) and Neck-Jiaji (EX-B 2) combined with acupuncture technique for activating blood circulation, eliminating wind and regulating the liver and spleen in the patients with essential hypertension. A total of 90 patients of essential hypertension of the mild and moderate degrees were randomized into a medication group (30 cases, 3 dropping), No.1 acupuncture group (30 cases, 2 dropping) and No.2 acupuncture group (30 cases, 1 dropping). In the medication group, adalat was prescribed for oral administration, 30 mg at 7 am every day, continuously for 6 weeks. In the No.1 acupuncture group, on the basis of the treatment as the medication group, the acupuncture technique for activating blood circulation, eliminating wind and regulating the liver and spleen was applied and the acupoints were Renying (ST 9), Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), Quchi (LI 11) and Zusanli (ST 36). In the No.2 acupuncture group, on the basis of the treatment as the No.1 acupuncture group, Fengchi (GB 20) and Neck-Jiaji (EX-B 2) were added in acupuncture. Acupuncture was given in the time zone from 8 am through 10 am every day, once a day, 5 times a week, totally for 6 weeks. Separately, before treatment and in 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, the morning blood pressure, the control rate and the symptom score were observed in the patients of the three groups. The morning blood pressure was followed up in 3 and 6 months separately. Compared with those before treatment, in 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, the levels of blood pressure reduced in the patients of the three groups ( P <0.05, P <0.01). After 2-week treatment, the differences were not significant in the morning blood pressure and its control rate in the patients of the three groups (all P >0.05). In 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, the levels of the morning blood pressure in the No.2 acupuncture group were lower than those

  14. The effect of desmopressin on nocturnal polyuria, overnight weight loss, and morning postural hypotension in patients with autonomic failure.

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, C J; Fosbraey, P; da Costa, D F; Thornley, A; Bannister, R

    1986-01-01

    Day and night urine volume, morning and evening body weight, and supine and sitting blood pressure were measured in five patients with chronic autonomic failure who were not receiving treatment with drugs. All had nocturnal polyuria, overnight weight loss, and a pronounced postural fall in blood pressure, with lowest levels in the morning. Desmopressin (2-4 micrograms given intramuscularly at 8 pm) reduced nocturnal polyuria, diminished overnight weight loss, raised supine blood pressure, and reduced the postural fall, especially in the morning, when patients were often at their worst. Desmopressin may be a useful alternative to, or may supplement, other forms of treatment in some patients with autonomic failure. PMID:3089519

  15. Can insoluble polysaccharide concentration in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms predict early childhood caries? A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Parisotto, T M; Stipp, R; Rodrigues, L K A; Mattos-Graner, R O; Costa, L S; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M

    2015-08-01

    Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 year. Plaque was collected for mutans streptococci (MS), total microorganism (TM) and lactobacilli (LB) enumerations in selective media, as well as for IP analysis, which was later assessed by colorimetry. Sugar/sucrose exposure was assessed by a diet chart. Positive correlations were found among the prevalence of caries and MS, TM, LB, solid sucrose and visible dental plaque. Additionally, children with IP concentrations in dental plaque higher than 2.36 μg/mg (odds ratio-OR=6.8), with visible plaque on maxillary incisors (OR=4.3), harbouring LB (OR=13) and exposed to solid sugar more than twice/day (OR=5) showed higher risk of developing caries (p<0.05). Extracellular insoluble polysaccharides, solid sugar/sucrose, visible dental plaque and cariogenic microorganisms could predict caries development, partially explaining the ECC pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Morning and Evening Home Blood Pressure and Risks of Incident Stroke and Coronary Artery Disease in the Japanese General Practice Population: The Japan Morning Surge-Home Blood Pressure Study.

    PubMed

    Hoshide, Satoshi; Yano, Yuichiro; Haimoto, Hajime; Yamagiwa, Kayo; Uchiba, Kiyoshi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Matsui, Yoshio; Nakamura, Akira; Fukutomi, Motoki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Joji; Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to determine the optimal time schedule for home blood pressure (BP) monitoring that best predicts stroke and coronary artery disease in general practice. The Japan Morning Surge-Home Blood Pressure (J-HOP) study is a nationwide practice-based study that included 4310 Japanese with a history of or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or both (mean age, 65 years; 79% used antihypertensive medication). Home BP measures were taken twice daily (morning and evening) over 14 days at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 4 years (16 929 person-years), 74 stroke and 77 coronary artery disease events occurred. Morning systolic BP (SBP) improved the discrimination of incident stroke (C statistics, 0.802; 95% confidence interval, 0.692-0.911) beyond traditional risk factors including office SBP (0.756; 0.646-0.866), whereas the changes were smaller with evening SBP (0.764; 0.653-0.874). The addition of evening SBP to the model (including traditional risk factors plus morning SBP) significantly reduced the discrimination of incident stroke (C statistics difference, -0.008; 95% confidence interval: -0.015 to -0.008; P=0.03). The category-free net reclassification improvement (0.3606; 95% confidence interval, 0.1317-0.5896), absolute integrated discrimination improvement (0.015; SE, 0.005), and relative integrated discrimination improvement (58.3%; all P<0.01) with the addition of morning SBP to the model (including traditional risk factors) were greater than those with evening SBP and with combined morning and evening SBP. Neither morning nor evening SBP improved coronary artery disease risk prediction. Morning home SBP itself should be evaluated to ensure best stroke prediction in clinical practice, at least in Japan. This should be confirmed in the different ethnic groups. URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/. Unique identifier: UMIN000000894. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Early Diagenetic Changes of Sediment Pore Properties Beneath the Seafloor and Their Contributions to Gas Hydrate Concentration in the Eastern Margin of Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Horiuchi, S.; Kato, Y.; Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recently many of the chimney-shape gas hydrate concentrated beneath the seafloor have been confirmed off Shimane and off Akita as well as off Joetsu in the eastern margin of Japan Sea, which are quite different from the occurrences of pore space hydrate filling the intergranular pore system of sands recognized in Nankai Trough, Mallik and other sites. Sediment samples below the seafloor were retrieved in 2010 up to 40 m long at the Umitaka Spur, Joetsu Channel, Toyama Trough, Japan Basin, Nishi Tsugaru and Okushiri Ridge areas. Small amounts of sandy sediment have been retrieved as thin intercalations in Pleistocene and Holocene muddy layers transported approximately around 3 to 30 ka according to the tephra ages, where supplying sediments might have not been abundant due to sea level fluctuation during the Pleistocene ice age. It is important to clarify the relationship between burial depths and absolute porosities of the argillaceous sediments in relation to early diagenesis. Macroscopic observations and descriptions, measurements of porosity and permeability, SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations, and X-ray diffraction analyses have been performed. They consist of silt- to clay-grained particles, and they sometimes contain very fine- to medium-grained thin sandy layers. Average porosities of these fine-grained sediments are 50 % in all study areas, which quickly reduce from 60% to less than 50% within 10 meters and gradually decrease to the depth. However, mean pore sizes in the Nishi Tsugaru are around 1000 nm while 100 nm in the other areas, which tend to decrease with depth. It is suggested that repacking of the muddy particles gradually advances by mechanical compaction, which may crucially influence permeability. They usually contain much opal-A, quartz, feldspar, illite and smectite that do not change definitely with depth. By optical and microscopic observations, diatom tests, foraminifers and framboidal pyrites are commonly observed, and, in

  18. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  19. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  20. Temporal variability of urinary cadmium in spot urine samples and first morning voids.

    PubMed

    Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Zhao, Yuan; Ahn, Hongshik; Harrington, James M; Levine, Keith E; Demple, Bruce; Marsit, Carmen J; Gonzalez, Adam; Luft, Benjamin; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic heavy metal. Urinary levels of cadmium are considered to be an indicator of long-term body burden, as cadmium accumulates in the kidneys and has a half-life of at least 10 years. However, the temporal stability of the biomarker in urine samples from a non-occupationally exposed population has not been rigorously established. We used repeated measurements of urinary cadmium (U-Cd) in spot urine samples and first morning voids from two separate cohorts, to assess the temporal stability of the samples. Urine samples from two cohorts including individuals of both sexes were measured for cadmium and creatinine. The first cohort (Home Observation of Perinatal Exposure (HOPE)) consisted of 21 never-smokers, who provided four first morning urine samples 2-5 days apart, and one additional sample roughly 1 month later. The second cohort (World Trade Center-Health Program (WTC-HP)) consisted of 78 individuals, including 52 never-smokers, 22 former smokers and 4 current smokers, who provided 2 spot urine samples 6 months apart, on average. Intra-class correlation was computed for groups of replicates from each individual to assess temporal variability. The median creatinine-adjusted U-Cd level (0.19 and 0.21 μg/g in the HOPE and WTC-HP, respectively) was similar to levels recorded in the United States by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The intra-class correlation (ICC) was high (0.76 and 0.78 for HOPE and WTC-HP, respectively) and similar between cohorts, irrespective of whether samples were collected days or months apart. Both single spot or first morning urine cadmium samples show good to excellent reproducibility in low-exposure populations.

  1. How to deal with morning bad breath: A randomized, crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Neto, Jeronimo M; Sato, Sandra; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

    2013-11-01

    The absence of a protocol for the treatment of halitosis has led us to compare mouthrinses with mechanical oral hygiene procedures for treating morning breath by employing a hand-held sulfide monitor. To compare the efficacy of five modalities of treatment for controlling morning halitosis in subjects with no dental or periodontal disease. This is a five-period, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to the trial. Testing involved the use of a conventional tongue scraper, a tongue scraper joined to the back of a toothbrush's head, two mouthrinses (0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate) and a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste for practicing oral hygiene. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 for Windows and NCSS 2007 software (P < 0.05). The products and the periods were compared with each other using the Friedman's test. When significant differences (P < 0.05) were determined, the products and periods were compared in pairs by using the Wilcoxon's test and by adjusting the original significance level (0.05) for multiple comparisons by using the Bonferroni's method. The toothbrush's tongue scraper was able to significantly reduce bad breath for up to 2 h. Chlorhexidine reduced bad breath only at the end of the second hour, an effect that lasted for 3 h. Mechanical tongue cleaning was able to immediately reduce bad breath for a short period, whereas chlorhexidine and mechanical oral hygiene reduced bad breath for longer periods, achieving the best results against morning breath.

  2. How to deal with morning bad breath: A randomized, crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Neto, Jeronimo M.; Sato, Sandra; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

    2013-01-01

    Context: The absence of a protocol for the treatment of halitosis has led us to compare mouthrinses with mechanical oral hygiene procedures for treating morning breath by employing a hand-held sulfide monitor. Aims: To compare the efficacy of five modalities of treatment for controlling morning halitosis in subjects with no dental or periodontal disease. Settings and Design: This is a five-period, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to the trial. Testing involved the use of a conventional tongue scraper, a tongue scraper joined to the back of a toothbrush's head, two mouthrinses (0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate) and a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste for practicing oral hygiene. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 for Windows and NCSS 2007 software (P < 0.05). The products and the periods were compared with each other using the Friedman's test. When significant differences (P < 0.05) were determined, the products and periods were compared in pairs by using the Wilcoxon's test and by adjusting the original significance level (0.05) for multiple comparisons by using the Bonferroni's method. Results: The toothbrush's tongue scraper was able to significantly reduce bad breath for up to 2 h. Chlorhexidine reduced bad breath only at the end of the second hour, an effect that lasted for 3 h. Conclusions: Mechanical tongue cleaning was able to immediately reduce bad breath for a short period, whereas chlorhexidine and mechanical oral hygiene reduced bad breath for longer periods, achieving the best results against morning breath. PMID:24554886

  3. Coastal Wind and Turbulence Observations during the Morning and Evening Transitions over Tropical Terrain

    SciT

    Jensen, Derek D.; Price, Timothy A.; Nadeau, Daniel F.

    Data collected during a multiyear, wind-resource assessment over a multi-land-use coastal environment in Belize are used to study the development and decay of wind and turbulence through the morning and evening transitions. Observations were made on three tall masts, forming an inland transect of approximately 5 km. The wind distribution is found to be bimodal and governed by synoptic scales, with onshore and offshore flow regimes. The behavior between the coastal and inland sites is found to be very similar when the flow is directed offshore; for onshore flow, stark differences occur. The mean wind speed at the coastal sitemore » is approximately 20% greater than the most inland site and is nearly constant throughout the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, for both flow regimes, the influence of the land–sea breeze circulation is inconsequential relative to the large-scale synoptic forcing. Composite time series are used to study the evolution of sensible heat flux and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the morning and evening transitions. The TKE budget reveals that at the coastal site mechanical production of TKE is much more important than buoyant production. This allows for the unexpected case in which TKE increases through the ET despite the decrease of buoyant TKE production. Multiresolution flux decomposition is used to further study this phenomenon as well as the evolution of the sensible heat flux at differing time scales. We present an idealized schematic to illustrate the timing and structure of the morning and evening transitions for an inland site and a coastal site that are subjected to similar synoptic forcing.« less

  4. Minimum duration of actigraphy-defined nocturnal awakenings necessary for morning recall.

    PubMed

    Winser, Michael A; McBean, Amanda L; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2013-07-01

    Healthy adults awaken between each sleep cycle approximately 5 times each night but generally do not remember all of these awakenings in the morning. A rule of thumb has arisen in the sleep field that approximately 5 min of continuous wakefulness are required to form a memory for an awakening. However, few studies have examined memory for these sleep-wake transitions and none have done so in the home, while participants follow their normal routine. Self-report and actigraphy were used in the participant's home environment to determine the minimum duration of an awakening necessary for morning recall for each of the 39 healthy adults. Recall thresholds ranged from 30 to 600 s with a mean of 259 s (4 min 19 s) and were negatively associated with sleep efficiency but not significantly associated with total sleep time, age, income, or education. There also was a sex by cohabitation interaction, with single men having lower thresholds than single women and cohabiting participants, which was explained by higher sleep efficiency in noncohabitating men. Large individual differences suggest that many factors may influence recall threshold. Our preliminary study is the first to calculate the duration of wakefulness necessary for morning recall of nocturnal awakenings and the first to use a field-based design, allowing for the study of habitual sleep patterns at the participant's home. Further study is needed to explore if recall thresholds calculated using actigraphy can be validated against polysomnography (PSG) or be used to guide potential treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Target organ damage in primary hypertensive patients: role of the morning heart rate surge.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuliang; Kang, Ting; Wei, Yunfeng

    The morning heart rate surge (MHRS) and morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) may be responsible for the high prevalence of cardiovascular events during the morning period. The clinical significance of the MBPS has been well established, but that of the MHRS remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated the association between the MHRS and target organ damage (TOD). A cross-sectional study of 580 hypertensive patients was performed. MHRS and heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed by 24 h electrocardiogram. TOD was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and left ventricular mass index. The prevalence of TOD tended to decrease with sleep-trough MHRS (first to fourth quartiles: 71%, 70.3%, 58.6%, and 52.7%, respectively) or prewaking MHRS quartiles (first to fourth quartiles: 65.3%, 73.6%, 61.4%, and 54.2%, respectively), whereas the opposite trend was observed for standard deviation of all normal NN intervals (SDNN). Moreover, sleep-trough MHRS, prewaking MHRS, SDNN, and SDNN index were significantly lower in patients with TOD than in those without TOD. According to four logistic regression models, the associations of prewaking MHRS, SDNN, and SDNN index with TOD were lost after adjustment for age and BP. Patients in the first (≤11.125 bpm) and second sleep-trough MHRS quartiles (11.125-15.75 bpm) had a 1.95-2.06-fold increased risk of TOD compared with those in the fourth quartile (p < 0.05). A blunted sleep-trough MHRS, which may serve as a surrogate marker for autonomic imbalance, was independently associated with TOD in primary hypertensive patients.

  6. Coastal Wind and Turbulence Observations during the Morning and Evening Transitions over Tropical Terrain

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, Derek D.; Price, Timothy A.; Nadeau, Daniel F.; ...

    2017-12-15

    Data collected during a multiyear, wind-resource assessment over a multi-land-use coastal environment in Belize are used to study the development and decay of wind and turbulence through the morning and evening transitions. Observations were made on three tall masts, forming an inland transect of approximately 5 km. The wind distribution is found to be bimodal and governed by synoptic scales, with onshore and offshore flow regimes. The behavior between the coastal and inland sites is found to be very similar when the flow is directed offshore; for onshore flow, stark differences occur. The mean wind speed at the coastal sitemore » is approximately 20% greater than the most inland site and is nearly constant throughout the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, for both flow regimes, the influence of the land–sea breeze circulation is inconsequential relative to the large-scale synoptic forcing. Composite time series are used to study the evolution of sensible heat flux and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the morning and evening transitions. The TKE budget reveals that at the coastal site mechanical production of TKE is much more important than buoyant production. This allows for the unexpected case in which TKE increases through the ET despite the decrease of buoyant TKE production. Multiresolution flux decomposition is used to further study this phenomenon as well as the evolution of the sensible heat flux at differing time scales. We present an idealized schematic to illustrate the timing and structure of the morning and evening transitions for an inland site and a coastal site that are subjected to similar synoptic forcing.« less

  7. Saturday-morning television: do sponsors promote high-risk behavior for burn injury?

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Tina L; Aoki, Traci; Combs, Elena; Curri, Terese; Garma, Sylvia; Kaulkin, Cammie; Lawless, Mary Beth; Nelson, Kate; Sanders, Johanna; Warden, Nancy; Greenhalgh, David G

    2004-01-01

    Television has become an important tool for learning and socialization in children. Although television violence has been associated with adverse effects, data on depiction of fire and burn injury are lacking. We sought to determine whether Saturday-morning television programming, viewed primarily by children, depicts fire and burn injury as safe or without consequence, thus potentially increasing the incidence of burn injury in children. This was a prospective observational study. Saturday-morning children's television programs were videotaped from 7 AM to 11 AM for eight different television networks during a 6-month period. Tapes were scored for scenes depicting fire or smoke by independent observers. Recorded items included show category, scene type, gender target, context of fire, and outcome after exposure to flame. Fire events were documented during programs and their associated commercials. A total of 108 hours of children's programs, 16 hours per network, were recorded. Scenes depicting fire or smoke were identified 1960 times, with 39% of events occurring during the program itself and 61% in commercials. Fire was depicted as either safe or without consequence in 64% of incidents. Action adventure stories accounted for 56% of flame depictions. Overall, one incident involving flame and fire was portrayed for each 3 minutes of television programming. Saturday-morning television programming frequently depicts fire as safe, empowering, or exciting. The incidence of flame use in programming varies between stations but is most prevalent in action/adventure stories. Television commercials, although brief, provide the majority of the misinformation regarding fire. Medical professional societies should alert the public to this potential hazard and recommend responsible portrayal of fire in children's television programming.

  8. Crewmember activity in the middeck during delivery of morning mail messages

    2016-08-24

    STS091-362-005 (2-12 June 1998) --- Four of the seven STS-91 crew members check the morning mail on the mid deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Discovery toward the end of the scheduled ten-day mission. Left to right are astronauts Charles J. Precourt, commander; Andrew S.W. Thomas, mission specialist; Dominic C. Gorie, pilot; and Janet L. Kavandi, mission specialist. The emergency escape pole, flown on all shuttle missions, runs across the top center of the frame.

  9. The relationship between a blunted morning surge and a reversed nocturnal blood pressure dipping or "riser" pattern.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Tomitani, Naoko; Sato, Keiko; Okura, Ayako; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2017-11-01

    The authors sought to determine the association between the blunted morning blood pressure (BP) surge and nocturnal BP dipping of the "riser" pattern in 501 patients with hypertension enrolled in the ACHIEVE-ONE (Ambulatory Blood Pressure Control and Home Blood Pressure [Morning and Evening] Lowering by the N-Channel Blocker Cilnidipine) trial. The patients' sleep-trough morning BP surge and prewaking surge were calculated and then classified according to their nocturnal systolic BP reduction pattern as extreme dippers, dippers, nondippers, and risers. The prevalence of the riser pattern was significantly higher in both the lowest sleep-trough morning BP surge decile and the prewaking surge decile (blunted surge group) compared with the remaining deciles (56.0% vs 10.4% [P<.0001] and 59.2% vs 10.2% [P<.0001], respectively). The riser pattern was a significant determinant of both blunted sleep-trough morning BP surge (odds ratio, 73.3; P<.0001) and blunted prewaking surge (odds ratio, 14.8; P<.0001). The high prevalence of the riser pattern in patients with blunted morning BP surges may account for the cardiovascular risk previously reported in such patients. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Maternal polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes are associated with maternal mercury concentrations and early child neurodevelopment in a population with a fish-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Karin; Love, Tanzy M; Pineda, Daniela; Engström, Karin; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Yeates, Alison J; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; Smith, Tristram H; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Myers, G J; Rand, Matthew D; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Broberg, Karin

    2018-06-01

    Glutathione (GSH) pathways play a key role the metabolism and elimination of the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We hypothesized that maternal genetic variation linked to GSH pathways could influence MeHg concentrations in pregnant mothers and children and thereby also affect early life development. The GCLM (rs41303970, C/T), GCLC (rs761142, T/G) and GSTP1 (rs1695, A/G) polymorphisms were genotyped in 1449 mothers in a prospective study of the Seychellois population with a diet rich in fish. Genotypes were analyzed in association with maternal hair and blood Hg, fetal blood Hg (cord blood Hg), as well as children's mental (MDI) and motor development (PDI; MDI and PDI assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 20 months). We also examined whether genotypes modified the association between Hg exposure and developmental outcomes. GCLC rs761142 TT homozygotes showed statistically higher mean maternal hair Hg (4.12 ppm) than G carriers (AG 3.73 and GG 3.52 ppm) (p = 0.037). For the combination of GCLC rs761142 and GCLM rs41303970, double homozygotes TT + CC showed higher hair Hg (4.40 ppm) than G + T carriers (3.44 ppm; p = 0.018). No associations were observed between GSTP1 rs1695 and maternal hair Hg or between any genotypes and maternal blood Hg or cord blood Hg. The maternal GSTP1 rs1695 rare allele (G) was associated with a lower MDI among children (β = -1.48, p = 0.048). We also observed some interactions: increasing Hg in maternal and cord blood was associated with lower PDI among GCLC rs761142 TT carriers; and increasing Hg in hair was associated with lower MDI among GSTP1 rs1695 GG carriers. Maternal genetic variation in genes involved in GSH synthesis is statistically associated with Hg concentrations in maternal hair, but not in maternal or fetal blood. We observed interactions that suggest maternal GSH genetics may modify associations between MeHg exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The

  11. Rotaviruses induce an early membrane permeabilization of MA104 cells and do not require a low intracellular Ca2+ concentration to initiate their replication cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Cuadras, M A; Arias, C F; López, S

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we found that rotavirus infection induces an early membrane permeabilization of MA104 cells and promotes the coentry of toxins, such as alpha-sarcin, into the cell. This cell permeability was shown to depend on infectious virus and was also shown to be virus dose dependent, with 10 infectious particles per cell being sufficient to achieve maximum permeability; transient, lasting no more than 15 min after virus entry and probably occurring concomitantly with virus penetration; and specific, since cells that are poorly permissive for rotavirus were not permeabilized. The rotavirus-mediated coentry of toxins was not blocked by the endocytosis inhibitors dansylcadaverine and cytochalasin D or by the vacuolar proton-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1, suggesting that neither endocytocis nor an intraendosomal acidic pH or a proton gradient is required for permeabilization of the cells. Compounds that raise the intracellular concentration of calcium ([Ca2+]i) by different mechanisms, such as the calcium ionophores A23187 and ionomycin and the endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, did not block the coentry of alpha-sarcin or affect the onset of viral protein synthesis, suggesting that a low [Ca2+]i is not essential for the initial steps of the virus life cycle. Since the entry of alpha-sarcin correlates with virus penetration in all parameters tested, the assay for permeabilization to toxins might be a useful tool for studying and characterizing the route of entry and the mechanism used by rotaviruses to traverse the cell membrane and initiate a productive replication cycle. PMID:9371563

  12. Taphonomic and paleoenvironmental considerations for the concentrations of macroinvertibrate fossils in the Romualdo Member, Santana Formation, Late Aptian - Early Albian, Araripe Basin, Araripina, NE, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Ludmila Alves Cadeira Do; Pereira, Priscilla Albuquerque; Sales, Alexandre Magno Feitosa; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca

    2015-10-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate fossils can be seen towards to the top of the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation, in the Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil, and can provide paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographical information regarding the Cretaceous marine transgression which reached the interior basins in Northeast Brazil. We analyse taphonomic characteristics of macroinvertebrate concentrations of two outcrops (Torrinha and Torre Grande) within the municipality Araripina, Pernambuco, in order to enhance our understanding of the Cretaceous paleoenvironment in the western portion of the Araripe Basin. At the outcrop Torrinha, proximal tempestitic taphofacies were identified. These predominantly consist of ceritid, cassiopid, and later, naticid gastropods as well as undetermined bivalves. Given this lack of variability it can be deduced that there were no significant paleoenvironmental changes during the successive stages tempestitic sedimentation. In the Torre Grande outcrop distal to proximal tempestitic taphofacies were identified from the base to the top respectively pointing to a decrease in paleodepth. Asides from the macroinvertebrates present in Torrinha, there are also echinoids - unequivocal evidence for marine conditions. These occurrences appear to be restricted to Romualdo Member outcrops in the Araripina municipality (the Southeast portion of the Araripe Basin) confirming a previously published hypothesis suggesting that the Cretaceous marine transgression originated from the neighbouring Parnaíba Basin to the west. This study identified marine molluscs of a similar age to those in the Romualdo Member's equivalent rock units in the Parnaíba and Sergipe-Alagoas (SE-AL) basins suggesting a marine connection between these basins and the Araripe Basin during the Early Cretaceous.

  13. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam C; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Mogens; Larsen, Torben

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned to ruminal dosing of 500 g/d tap water (CON, n = 4) or 500 g/d PG (PPG, n = 5). The PG was given with the morning feeding week 1-4 postpartum (treatment period) and cows were further followed during week 5-8 postpartum (follow-up period). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet. Milk samples were obtained at each milking (3 times/d) in the treatment period, and at morning milking during the follow-up period. Weekly blood samples were obtained from -4 to +8 weeks relative to calving and daily blood samples from -7 until +7 d relative to calving. The main effect of PG allocation was an increased glucogenic status, e.g. visualised by a prompt marked increase in blood fructosamine. During the treatment period, milk concentration of free glucose tended to be greater, whereas milk concentrations of isocitrate and BHBA were lower for PPG compared with CON. It is proposed that the ratio between free glucose and isocitrate in milk may be a potential biomarker for glucogenic status in the vulnerable early postpartum period. We will pursue this issue in the future.

  14. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning.

  15. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning.

  16. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning. PMID:25676856

  17. Identification of a NAC transcription factor, EPHEMERAL1, that controls petal senescence in Japanese morning glory.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Shimizu, Keiichi; Niki, Tomoko; Ichimura, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    In flowering plants, floral longevity is species-specific and is closely linked to reproductive strategy; petal senescence, a type of programmed cell death (PCD), is a highly regulated developmental process. However, little is known about regulatory pathways for cell death in petal senescence, which is developmentally controlled in an age-dependent manner. Here, we show that a NAC transcription factor, designated EPHEMERAL1 (EPH1), positively regulates PCD during petal senescence in the ephemeral flowers of Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). EPH1 expression is induced independently of ethylene signaling, and suppression of EPH1 resulted in Japanese morning glory flowers that are in bloom until the second day. The suppressed expression of EPH1 delays progression of PCD, possibly through suppression of the expression of PCD-related genes, including genes for plant caspase and autophagy in the petals. Our data further suggest that EPH1 is involved in the regulation of ethylene-accelerated petal senescence. In this study, we identified a key regulator of PCD in petal senescence, which will facilitate further elucidation of the regulatory network of petal senescence. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Morning administration of oral methamphetamine dose-dependently disrupts nighttime sleep in recreational stimulant users.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Bruner, Natalie R; Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    Use of amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., methamphetamine) is associated with acute sleep disruptions. No prior reports have characterized the acute effects of methamphetamine on sleep using polysomnography, the gold standard for objective sleep monitoring. Recreational stimulant users (n=19) completed a baseline assessment, which included questionnaires assessing demographic and substance use characteristics, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which assesses sleep quality over the past month. Participants were administered 0mg (placebo), 20mg, or 40mg oral methamphetamine at 08:15h on study days, using a double-blind, randomized, within-subjects design. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography from 22:20 that evening until 06:15 the following morning. PSQI scores indicated more than half of participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline. Methamphetamine dose-dependently increased sleep latency, and decreased total sleep time, sleep efficiency, time in NREM 2 sleep, number of REM periods, and total time in REM sleep. Sleep under placebo conditions was consistent with what would be expected from healthy adults. Morning oral administration of methamphetamine produces robust disruptions in nighttime sleep. Future research should examine relations between stimulant use and sleep disruption in naturalistic settings, with regard to both stimulant abuse and licit prescription use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Morning Martian Atmospheric Temperature Gradients and Fluctuations Observed by Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalov, John D.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Seiff, A.; Wilson, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the most prominent atmospheric temperature fluctuations observed during Martian mornings by Mars Pathfinder and have concluded, based on comparisons with wind directions, that they appear to be a result of atmospheric heating associated with the Lander spacecraft. Also, we have examined the morning surface layer temperature lapse rates, which are found to decrease as autumn approaches at the Pathfinder location, and which have mean (and median) values as large as 7.3 K/m in the earlier portions of the Pathfinder landed mission. It is plausible that brief isolated periods with gradients twice as steep are associated with atmospheric heating adjacent to Lander air bag material. In addition, we have calculated the gradient with height of the structure function obtained with Mars Pathfinder, for Mars' atmospheric temperatures measured within about 1.3 m from the surface, assuming a power law dependence, and have found that these gradients superficially resemble those reported for the upper region of the terrestrial stable boundary layer.

  20. LWD-TCP complex activates the morning gene CCA1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Fen; Tsai, Huang-Lung; Joanito, Ignasius; Wu, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chin-Wen; Li, Yi-Hang; Wang, Ying; Hong, Jong Chan; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2016-10-13

    A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock.

  1. LWD–TCP complex activates the morning gene CCA1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-Fen; Tsai, Huang-Lung; Joanito, Ignasius; Wu, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chin-Wen; Li, Yi-Hang; Wang, Ying; Hong, Jong Chan; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock. PMID:27734958

  2. Recent advances in flower color variation and patterning of Japanese morning glory and petunia

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yasumasa; Hoshino, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    The Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), locally called “Asagao” and “Tsukubane-asagao”, respectively, are popular garden plants. They have been utilized as model plants for studying the genetic basis of floricultural traits, especially anthocyanin pigmentation in flower petals. In their long history of genetic studies, many mutations affecting flower pigmentation have been characterized, and both structural and regulatory genes for the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have been identified. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in the understanding of flower pigmentation in the two species with respect to flower hue and color patterning. Regarding flower hue, we will describe a novel enhancer of flavonoid production that controls the intensity of flower pigmentation, new aspects related to a flavonoid glucosyltransferase that has been known for a long time, and the regulatory mechanisms of vacuolar pH being a key determinant of red and blue coloration. On color patterning, we describe particular flower patterns regulated by epigenetic and RNA-silencing mechanisms. As high-quality whole genome sequences of the Japanese morning glory and petunia wild parents (P. axillaris and P. inflata, respectively) were published in 2016, further study on flower pigmentation will be accelerated. PMID:29681755

  3. Morning ambush attacks by black-footed ferrets on emerging prairie dogs

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Jachowski, D.S.; Livieri, T.M.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Forsberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) often hunt at night, attacking normally diurnal prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in underground burrow systems. While monitoring black-footed ferrets in South Dakota during morning daylight hours, we observed an adult female ferret ambush a black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) emerging from a burrow. On a neighboring colony, we observed a second adult female ferret engaging in similar ambush behaviors on 12 occasions, although prey was not visible. We retrospectively assessed radio-telemetry data on white-tailed prairie dogs (C. leucurus) and a male and a female ferret to evaluate ferret activity in relation to timing of prairie dog emergence. Activity of radio-collared ferrets was high during the hourly period when prairie dogs first emerged and the following 2 hr, relative to later daylight hours. Such behavior is consistent with behaviors observed in South Dakota. Nighttime movements by ferrets might involve hunting but also reconnaissance of prey preparatory to morning ambush attacks.

  4. Morphological and Physiological Responses of Morning Glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) Grown in a Lead- and Chelate-Amended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Murty S.; Begonia, Gregorio B.; Begonia, Maria F. T.; Bufford, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic metals in the environment and may cause drastic morphological and physiological deformities in Ipomoea lacunosa. The goal of this research was to evaluate some morphological and physiological responses of morning glory grown on a Pb- and chelate-amended soil. Soil samples were analyzed, at Mississippi State University Soil Laboratory, for physico-chemical parameters, such as soil texture (73% sand, 23% silt, 4.4% clay), organic matter (6.24 ± 0.60%), and pH (7.95 ± 0.03), to establish soil conditions at the beginning of the experiments. Five EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5mM) and four lead (0, 500, 1000, 2000mg/L) treatments were arranged in factorial in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with five replications. Duncan’s multiple comparison range test showed that the mean difference values of stomatal density were significant between 500 and 1000mg/L Pb and between 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb. Two way ANOVA (at 1% level) indicated that interaction between Pb and EDTA had a significant effect on the stomatal density and photosynthetic rates, and at 5% level Pb had a significant effect on chlorophyll concentrations. Lowest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded at 2000mg/L Pb and 5mM EDTA and exhibited a decreasing trend specifically in the ranges of 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb and 1.0 and 5.0mM EDTA. Duncan’s multiple comparison range test confirmed that mean differences between the control treatment vs. 2000mg/L Pb, and 500mg/L vs. 2000mg/L Pb were significantly different at p>0.05. There was a decrease in leaf net photosynthetic rate with increasing concentrations of Pb from 0 to 2000mg/L. In conclusion, I. lacunosa L. plants were grown to maturity in all treatments with no significant and/or apparent morphological disorders, which indicated that this species might be highly tolerant even at 2000mg/L Pb concentrations in the soil. PMID:16705831

  5. Morphological and physiological responses of morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) grown in a lead- and chelate-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, Murty S; Begonia, Gregorio B; Begonia, Maria F T; Bufford, Yolanda

    2005-08-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic metals in the environment and may cause drastic morphological and physiological deformities in Ipomoea lacunosa. The goal of this research was to evaluate some morphological and physiological responses of morning glory grown on a Pb- and chelate-amended soil. Soil samples were analyzed, at Mississippi State University Soil Laboratory, for physico-chemical parameters, such as soil texture (73% sand, 23% silt, 4.4% clay), organic matter (6.24 +/- 0.60%), and pH (7.95 +/- 0.03), to establish soil conditions at the beginning of the experiments. Five EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5mM) and four lead (0, 500, 1000, 2000mg/L) treatments were arranged in factorial in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with five replications. Duncan's multiple comparison range test showed that the mean difference values of stomatal density were significant between 500 and 1000mg/L Pb and between 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb. Two way ANOVA (at 1% level) indicated that interaction between Pb and EDTA had a significant effect on the stomatal density and photosynthetic rates, and at 5% level Pb had a significant effect on chlorophyll concentrations. Lowest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded at 2000mg/L Pb and 5mM EDTA and exhibited a decreasing trend specifically in the ranges of 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb and 1.0 and 5.0mM EDTA. Duncan's multiple comparison range test confirmed that mean differences between the control treatment vs. 2000mg/L Pb, and 500mg/L vs. 2000mg/L Pb were significantly different atp>0.05. There was a decrease in leaf net photosynthetic rate with increasing concentrations of Pb from 0 to 2000mg/L. In conclusion, I. lacunosa L. plants were grown to maturity in all treatments with no significant and/or apparent morphological disorders, which indicated that this species might be highly tolerant even at 2000mg/L Pb concentrations in the soil.

  6. A Rasch Analysis of Assessments of Morning and Evening Fatigue in Oncology Patients Using the Lee Fatigue Scale.

    PubMed

    Lerdal, Anners; Kottorp, Anders; Gay, Caryl; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Lee, Kathryn A; Miaskowski, Christine

    2016-06-01

    To accurately investigate diurnal variations in fatigue, a measure needs to be psychometrically sound and demonstrate stable item function in relationship to time of day. Rasch analysis is a modern psychometric approach that can be used to evaluate these characteristics. To evaluate, using Rasch analysis, the psychometric properties of the Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) in a sample of oncology patients. The sample comprised 587 patients (mean age 57.3 ± 11.9 years, 80% women) undergoing chemotherapy for breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer. Patients completed the 13-item LFS within 30 minutes of awakening (i.e., morning fatigue) and before going to bed (i.e., evening fatigue). Rasch analysis was used to assess validity and reliability. In initial analyses of differential item function, eight of the 13 items functioned differently depending on whether the LFS was completed in the morning or in the evening. Subsequent analyses were conducted separately for the morning and evening fatigue assessments. Nine of the morning fatigue items and 10 of the evening fatigue items demonstrated acceptable goodness-of-fit to the Rasch model. Principal components analyses indicated that both morning and evening assessments demonstrated unidimensionality. Person-separation indices indicated that both morning and evening fatigue scales were able to distinguish four distinct strata of fatigue severity. Excluding four items from the morning fatigue scale and three items from the evening fatigue scale improved the psychometric properties of the LFS for assessing diurnal variations in fatigue severity in oncology patients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone Marrow Concentrate Improves Early Cartilage Phase Maturation of a Scaffold Plug in the Knee: A Comparative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis to Platelet-Rich Plasma and Control.

    PubMed

    Krych, Aaron J; Nawabi, Danyal H; Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Jones, Kristofer J; Maak, Travis G; Potter, Hollis G; Williams, Riley J

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists on the clinical use of a synthetic osteochondral scaffold plug for cartilage restoration in the knee. The purpose of this study was to compare the early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance, including quantitative T2 values, between cartilage defects treated with a scaffold versus a scaffold with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC). The hypothesis was that the addition of PRP or BMAC would result in an improved cartilage appearance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-six patients with full-thickness cartilage defects of the femur were surgically treated with a control scaffold (n = 11), scaffold with PRP (n = 23), or scaffold with BMAC (n = 12) and were followed prospectively. Patients underwent MRI with a qualitative assessment and quantitative T2 mapping at 12 months after surgery. An image assessment was performed retrospectively by a blinded musculoskeletal radiologist. The cartilage phase was measured by cartilage fill and quantitative T2 values on MRI. A comparison between groups after cartilage repair was performed. The control scaffold group consisted of 8 male and 3 female patients (mean age, 38 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 25 kg/m(2)), the PRP group had 15 male and 8 female patients (mean age, 39 years; mean BMI, 26 kg/m(2)), and the BMAC group consisted of 8 male and 4 female patients (mean age, 36 years; mean BMI, 26 kg/m(2)). The PRP-treated (P = .002) and BMAC-treated (P = .03) scaffolds had superior cartilage fill compared with the control group. With quantitative methods, the PRP group demonstrated a mean T2 value (49.1 ms) that was similar to that of the control scaffold group (42.7 ms; P = .07), but the BMAC group demonstrated a mean T2 value (60.5 ms) closer to that of superficial hyaline cartilage (P = .01). The stratification of T2 values between the deep and superficial zones was not observed in any of the groups. In this comparative study, patients treated with

  8. In PCOS, adrenal steroids are regulated differently in the morning vs. in response to nutrient intake

    PubMed Central

    Gurusinghe, Dumindra; Gill, Sharan; Almario, Rogelio U.; Lee, Jennifer; Horn, William F.; Keim, Nancy L; Kim, Kyoungmi; Karakas, Sidika E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate adrenal steroid regulation in PCOS Design 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled-intravenous GTT Setting University research center Patients Thirty patients Intervention None Main outcome measures Anthropometrics, leptin, cortisol, DHEAS, glucose, insulin Results Morning cortisol correlated with sensitivity index (SI, r=0.540, p=0.0109), DHEAS correlated inversely with age (r=−0.6359), body mass index (BMI, r=−0.6199), fat mass (r=−0.630) and leptin (r=−0.5676) (p< 0.002 for all). Between the 2nd and 4th hour of OGTT, cortisol changes (Δ) exhibited 3 patterns: I. Responders (n=9, Δ:10.7±1.0μg/dL), II. Non-responders (n=10, Δ:−3.5±0.6μg/dL), III. Intermediates (n=11, Δ:4.3±1.0μg/dL). Compared to non-responders, responders were more obese (BMI: 37.0±1.6 vs. 31.7±1.8kg/m2, p< 0.05); had higher leptin (28.9±1.7 vs. 24.1±1.1ng/mL, p<0.03) and lower DHEAS (133±12 vs. 236±32ng/mL, p<0.01), higher glucose at 1h of OGTT (195±13 vs. 131±12mg/dL, p< 0.05), higher AUCGlucose (332±20 vs. 265±17mg/dL, p=0.0208), higher AUCInsulin (244±50 vs. 125±30μU/mL, p=0.05) and lower nadir glucose (61±2 vs. 70±2mg/dL, p=0.0002). Conclusion Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with lower morning cortisol and DHEAS but increased cortisol and DHEA responses after glucose ingestion. Morning steroid levels may not reflect the day-long exposure. PMID:19342030

  9. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  10. The evening versus morning polypill utilization study: the TEMPUS rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Lafeber, Melvin; Grobbee, Diederick E; Bots, Michiel L; Thom, Simon; Webster, Ruth; Rodgers, Anthony; Visseren, Frank L J; Spiering, Wilko

    2014-04-01

    In clinical practice, blood pressure (BP)-lowering agents are generally prescribed for use in the morning, whereas (short-acting) statins are recommended for use in the evening. There is evidence that the reduction in LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) achieved with short-acting statins is superior when taken in the evening and reported improvement in BP control when aspirin and BP-lowering agents are taken in the evening. However, it is unclear whether the additional reduction in LDL-c and BP is offset by a reduction in adherence, given that taking medication in the evening may be less typical or convenient. There is therefore uncertainty concerning the best timing of administration of a cardiovascular combination pill such as the polypill. The aim of TEMPUS (NCT01506505), a prospective randomized open blinded endpoint (PROBE) crossover trial, is to evaluate whether there is a difference in LDL-c levels or 24-hour ambulatory BP in individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease when the cardiovascular polypill is taken in the evening compared to the morning. An additional aim is to assess the effect of the polypill on LDL-c and BP compared to the administration of separate pills of identically dosed components of the polypill. In total 75 participants with established cardiovascular disease or an intermediate to high risk for cardiovascular disease are randomly allocated to the sequence of three different treatments of 6-8 weeks: (1) the cardiovascular polypill (aspirin 75 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, lisinopril 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) in the evening; (2) the polypill in the morning; and (3) the use of the identically dosed agents in separate pills taken at different time points during the day. The primary endpoint is the difference in LDL-c and mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP. Secondary outcomes are the difference in relative risk reduction, biochemistry, platelet function and pulse wave analysis, participants' adherence, and acceptability. TEMPUS will

  11. Post-Exercise Hypotension and Its Mechanisms Differ after Morning and Evening Exercise: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Junior, Natan D.; Tinucci, Tais; Casarini, Dulce E.; Cipolla-Neto, José

    2015-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH), calculated by the difference between post and pre-exercise values, it is greater after exercise performed in the evening than the morning. However, the hypotensive effect of morning exercise may be masked by the morning circadian increase in blood pressure. This study investigated PEH and its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms after sessions of aerobic exercise performed in the morning and evening, controlling for responses observed after control sessions performed at the same times of day. Sixteen pre-hypertensive men underwent four sessions (random order): two conducted in the morning (7:30am) and two in the evening (5pm). At each time of day, subjects underwent an exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50%VO2peak) and a control (sitting rest) session. Measurements were taken pre- and post-interventions in all the sessions. The net effects of exercise were calculated for each time of day by [(post-pre exercise)-(post-pre control)] and were compared by paired t-test (P<0.05). Exercise hypotensive net effects (e.g., decreasing systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure) occurred at both times of day, but systolic blood pressure reductions were greater after morning exercise (-7±3 vs. -3±4 mmHg, P<0.05). Exercise decreased cardiac output only in the morning (-460±771 ml/min, P<0.05), while it decreased stroke volume similarly at both times of day and increased heart rate less in the morning than in the evening (+7±5 vs. +10±5 bpm, P<0.05). Only evening exercise increased sympathovagal balance (+1.5±1.6, P<0.05) and calf blood flow responses to reactive hyperemia (+120±179 vs. -70±188 U, P<0.05). In conclusion, PEH occurs after exercise conducted at both times of day, but the systolic hypotensive effect is greater after morning exercise when circadian variations are considered. This greater effect is accompanied by a reduction of cardiac output due to a smaller increase in heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance. PMID:26186444

  12. Morning blood pressure surge and nighttime blood pressure in relation to nocturnal sleep pattern and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Suh, Minhee; Barksdale, Debra J; Logan, Jeongok G

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of morning blood pressure (BP) surge (MBPS) is known to increase the risk for cardiovascular events and stroke. The purposes of this study were to explore associations between MBPS and nighttime BP and to examine arterial stiffness and sleep pattern in association with MBPS. This study included 30 healthy Korean American women aged 25 to 60 years. Ambulatory BP was monitored for 24 hours. To evaluate MBPS, maximum morning BP(power) was calculated. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and sleep pattern was evaluated using an actigraphy. The participants (n = 8) in the upper quartile of MBPS had higher morning systolic BPs (SBPs; P = 0.015) and lower nighttime diastolic BPs (P = 0.031). The MBPS in SBP was significantly increased in the participants who had a more wakeful night (P = 0.038) and who slept longer at night (P = 0.041). Although MBPS was not significantly related to arterial stiffness, higher morning SBP (P = 0.005), morning diastolic BP (P = 0.048), and prewake SBP (P = 0.005) were associated with arterial stiffness. Our findings imply a possible link between disturbed sleep and MBPS. Clinicians should understand the importance of the modification of altered sleep pattern for reducing MBPS in nonhypertensive participants.

  13. Impact of a single, short morning bright light exposure on tryptophan pathways and visuo- and sensorimotor performance: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Blank, Cornelia; Hanser, Friedrich; Griesmacher, Andrea; Canazei, Markus; Leichtfried, Veronika

    2018-04-23

    Bright light (BL) has been shown to be effective in enhancing both cognitive and physical performances. Alterations in nighttime melatonin levels have also been observed. However, evaluations of light-induced changes in the preceding biochemical processes are absent. Therefore, the impact of a single morning BL exposure on sensorimotor and visuomotor performance, as well as tryptophan (trp) and trp metabolites, was evaluated in this study. In a crossover design, 33 healthy volunteers were randomly exposed to 30 min of < 150 lx at eye level (office light, OL) and 5000 lx at eye level (bright light, BL) of 6500 K in the morning hours. Trp, sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), and kynurenine (kyn) courses over the morning hours were analyzed, and changes in sensori- and visuomotor measures were examined. Motoric performance increased in both setups, independent of light intensity. aMT6s and kyn decreased equally under both lighting conditions. Trp levels decreased from a mean (95% confidence interval) of 82.0 (77.2-86.9) to 66.5 (62.5-70.1) in the OL setup only. These data suggest that BL in the morning hours has a limited effect on visuo- and sensorimotor performance. Nevertheless, trp degradation pathways in the morning show diverse courses after OL and BL exposure. This suggests that trp courses can potentially be altered by BL exposure.

  14. A Pilot Study of the Usefulness of a Single Olanzapine Plasma Concentration as an Indicator of Early Drug Effect in a Small Sample of First-Episode Psychosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Arantzazu; Bustillo, Mariana; Querejeta, Imanol; Alonso, Marta; Mentxaka, Oiane; González-Pinto, Ana; Ugarte, Amaia; Meana, J. Javier; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Segarra, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose/Background Studies analyzing concentration-effect relationships in second-generation antipsychotics have reported contradictory results in chronic schizophrenia. No data are available for the early stages of the disease. The present study aims to evaluate the association between a single olanzapine plasma concentration, clinical response, and severity of adverse effects in first-episode psychosis (FEP); to test the utility of various plasma breakpoints as markers of early response to treatment; and to identify variables affecting olanzapine concentrations. Methods Data from 23 compliant FEP patients receiving olanzapine monotherapy (5–30 mg/d) were evaluated 2 months after beginning treatment. Clinical symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Adverse effects were rated using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser scale. Plasma samples were drawn at 11 (SD, 1) hours after dosing and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Findings Consistent with findings on chronic disease, dose, age, sex, weight, and cigarettes/day accounted for some of the variability in olanzapine concentrations. While no relationship was found between olanzapine concentrations and adverse effects or improvement of depressive symptoms, response of psychotic symptoms was associated with concentrations between 22.56 and 77.92 ng/mL. Plasma breakpoints did not show sufficiently high specificity, resulting in a large number of false-positive results. Implications Although olanzapine concentrations do not seem to be reliable indicators of early drug effect in FEP, they may still prove useful for detecting noncompliance, as well as pharmacokinetically relevant comorbidities or genetic particularities in drug metabolism. PMID:28796022

  15. Morning glory syndrome associated with primary open angle glaucoma--case report.

    PubMed

    Bozić, Marija; Hentova-Senćanić, Paraskeva; Marković, Vujica; Marjanović, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Morning glory syndrome (MGS) is a rare congenital optic disc anomaly, first reported in 1970. MGS is a nonprogressive and untreatable condition, which usually occurs as an isolated ocular anomaly, and can be associated with the increased incidence of nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and also with strabismus, afferent pupillary defect, visual field defects, presence of hyaloids artery remnants, ciliary body cyst, congenital cataract, lid hemangioma and preretinal gliosis. We report a clinical case of MGS associated with primary open angle glaucoma. The use of sophisticated diagnostic tools, such as retinal tomography and visual field testing is limited if multiple eye conditions are present, since optic disc does not have "usual" appearance that can be analyzed according to standard statistical databases. In treating and follow up of glaucoma cases associated with other diseases and conditions that affect the appearance and function of the optic nerve head, sometimes the use of modern technological methods is limited due to difficult interpretation of the obtained results.

  16. Characterization of lipophilic pentasaccharides from beach morning glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae).

    PubMed

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Escalante-Sánchez, Edgar; Escobedo-Martínez, Carolina

    2005-02-01

    The hexane-soluble extract from the aerial parts of the herbal drug Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning-glory), through preparative-scale recycling HPLC, yielded six lipophilic glycosides, namely, five new pentasaccharides of jalapinolic acid, pescaproside A (1) and pescapreins I-IV (2-5), as well as the known stoloniferin III (6). Saponification of the crude resin glycoside mixture yielded simonic acid B (7) as the glycosidic acid component, whereas the esterifying residues of the natural oligosaccharides comprised five fatty acids: 2-methylpropanoic, (2S)-methylbutyric, n-hexanoic, n-decanoic, and n-dodecanoic acids. Pescaproside A (1), an acylated glycosidic acid methyl ester, is related structurally to the product obtained from the macrolactone hydrolysis of pescapreins I-IV (2-5). All the isolated compounds (1-6), characterized through high-field NMR spectroscopy, were found to be weakly cytotoxic to a small panel of cancer cell lines.

  17. Serum and kidney metabolic changes of rat nephrotoxicity induced by Morning Glory Seed.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Bi, Kaishun; Su, Dan; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Xinxin; Wang, Chao; Chen, Xiaohui

    2010-10-01

    Previous nephrotoxicology study on Morning Glory Seed (MGS) mainly focused on whole animal level, using creatinine and BUN as biochemical indicators to evaluate renal function. This work was designed to delineate the comprehensive metabolic syndromes of MGS-induced nephrotoxicity. An ultra liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) metabonomic approach was employed to characterize the metabolic profile of plasma and kidney tissue extract from rats treated with MGS at a single nephrotoxic dose of 15 g/kg/day for 14 consecutive days. Acquired data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for differentiating the model and the control groups. The results indicated that certain metabolic pathways, such as lysophosphatidylcholines formation and sphingolipids cycle were accelerated, while the phenylalanine level in serum was decreased. We believe that metabonomic approach is helpful to further understanding and clinical diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intakes conference: understanding the impact of resident autonomy on a morning report conference.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Shaffer, David Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Morning report (MR) is one of the most common conferences in medical residency training. Literature has suggested that an imposed structure is necessary for success. However, studies have suggested that rigid structure may decrease resident motivation. Three goals of a successful MR include large breadth of presented cases, high resident participation, and well-formatted presentations. In this article, we present a qualitative case analysis of an unstructured resident- led MR and analyze breadth of cases, resident participation, and presentation format. We collected data that included case presentation tracking, video recording conferences, and interviewing residents and faculty. Case presentations covered a broad range of topics with little duplication (2.2%). Residents preformed most (94%) of presentations; most residents (92.3%) presented cases. Case presentations were structured in 1 of 3 formats that fulfilled suggested guidelines from MR literature. In this unstructured MR conference, structural aims were met with the relatively autonomous decisions of motivated resident participants.

  19. Adrenal suppression in patients taking inhaled glucocorticoids is highly prevalent and management can be guided by morning cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Conor P; Argese, Nicola; Chapman, Matthew; Boot, Christopher; Webster, Rachel; Dabhi, Vijay; Grossman, Ashley B; Toogood, Andrew A; Arlt, Wiebke; Stewart, Paul M; Crowley, Rachel K; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2015-01-01

    Context Up to 3% of US and UK populations are prescribed glucocorticoids (GC). Suppression of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis with the potential risk of adrenal crisis is a recognized complication of therapy. The 250 μg short Synacthen stimulation test (SST) is the most commonly used dynamic assessment to diagnose adrenal insufficiency. There are challenges to the use of the SST in routine clinical practice, including both the staff and time constraints and a significant recent increase in Synacthen cost. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis to determine the prevalence of adrenal suppression due to prescribed GCs and the utility of a morning serum cortisol for rapid assessment of adrenal reserve in the routine clinical setting. Results In total, 2773 patients underwent 3603 SSTs in a large secondary/tertiary centre between 2008 and 2013 and 17.9% (n=496) failed the SST. Of 404 patients taking oral, topical, intranasal or inhaled GC therapy for non-endocrine conditions, 33.2% (n=134) had a subnormal SST response. In patients taking inhaled GCs without additional GC therapy, 20.5% (34/166) failed an SST and suppression of adrenal function increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in patients currently taking inhaled GCs, a basal cortisol ≥348 nmol/l provided 100% specificity for passing the SST; a cortisol value <34 nmol/l had 100% sensitivity for SST failure. Using these cut-offs, 50% (n=83) of SSTs performed on patients prescribed inhaled GCs were unnecessary. Conclusion Adrenal suppression due to GC treatment, particularly inhaled GCs, is common. A basal serum cortisol concentration has utility in helping determine which patients should undergo dynamic assessment of adrenal function. PMID:26294794

  20. Sleep deprivation and activation of morning levels of cellular and genomic markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael R; Wang, Minge; Campomayor, Capella O; Collado-Hidalgo, Alicia; Cole, Steve

    2006-09-18

    Inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and mortality. The effects of sleep loss on the cellular and genomic mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory cytokine activity are not known. In 30 healthy adults, monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed during the day across 3 baseline periods and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 pm to 3 am). We analyzed the impact of sleep loss on transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes and used DNA microarray analyses to characterize candidate transcription-control pathways that might mediate the effects of sleep loss on leukocyte gene expression. In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly greater compared with morning levels following uninterrupted sleep. In addition, sleep loss induced a more than 3-fold increase in transcription of interleukin 6 messenger RNA and a 2-fold increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that the inflammatory response was mediated by the nuclear factor kappaB inflammatory signaling system as well as through classic hormone and growth factor response pathways. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of the monocyte proinflammatory cytokine response. A modest amount of sleep loss also alters molecular processes that drive cellular immune activation and induce inflammatory cytokines; mapping the dynamics of sleep loss on molecular signaling pathways has implications for understanding the role of sleep in altering immune cell physiologic characteristics. Interventions that target sleep might constitute new strategies to constrain inflammation with effects on inflammatory disease risk.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnoea increases the incidence of morning peak of onset in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Henmi, Tomoko; Minami, Kazutoshi; Uchida, Yuzou; Shiraishi, Yoshinori; Nunohiro, Tatsuya; Maemura, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Aims: There exists a discrepancy regarding the relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and circadian variation during the onset of acute myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that OSA patients show a characteristic circadian variation and that the severity of OSA significantly affects this variation. Methods and results: The present study included 288 patients with first acute MI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 h of symptom onset. The diagnosis of OSA required an apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) of ≥5 events/h. A total of 216 patients fulfilled the OSA criteria. The incidence of MI onset between 06:00 and 11:59 hours was significantly higher in OSA patients than in control patients (38 vs. 25%, p=0.039). Circadian variation in the morning peak of MI onset was attenuated in mild OSA (as defined by AHI, 5.0–14.9 events/h; 33 vs. 25%, p=0.240). Moderate-to-severe OSA (as defined by AHI ≥15.0 events/h) clearly increased the incidence of MI onset between 06:00 and 11:59 hours (43 vs. 25%, p=0.014). Multiple logistic regression adjusting for AHI (≥15.0 events/h), age, body mass index, hypertension, and current smoking showed that moderate-to-severe OSA significantly contributed to MI onset between 06:00 and 11:59 hours (odds ratio 2.00, p=0.010). Conclusions: OSA showed a morning peak with regard to MI onset, and moderate-to-severe OSA significantly enhanced this circadian variation. PMID:24222825

  2. Toxicological evaluation of morning glory seed: subchronic 90-day feeding study.

    PubMed

    Dugan, G M; Gumbmann, M R

    1990-08-01

    Diets containing 0.8, 2.53 and 8.0% field variety morning glory seed were fed to male and female rats (20 per group) in a 90-day subchronic feeding study. Gross clinical observations, body weight, and feed and water intake were recorded weekly. At 90 days, all surviving rats were autopsied, organs were weighed, and blood chemistry analyses, haematology, and bone-marrow evaluation for evidence of clastogenic effects were performed. Tissues from control (0% seed) and high-dose (8.0% seed) rats were examined histologically. Effects of morning glory seed were noted mainly in the high-dose group of both sexes. These included increases in mortality, feed consumption (on a body-weight basis), water consumption, serum alkaline phosphatase and potassium, white blood cell count, and brain and liver weights (as a percentage of body weight); body-weight gain and serum glucose were decreased. Significant changes seen in high-dose females alone were: increased haemoglobin, serum constituents (urea nitrogen, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, and ornithine carbamyl transferase), and organ weights (heart, kidney, spleen and pancreas as a percentage of body weight), and decreases in serum albumin, total protein, albumin:globulin ratio, and calcium. Significant changes occurring in high-dose males alone were: increased testicular weight (as a percentage of body weight), increased serum phosphorus, and decreased serum cholesterol. Liver degeneration in the high-dose females was greater than that in the controls. Mortality at 8.0% seed in the diet was 40% in males and 10% in females. At 0.8% seed, the only parameter that differed significantly from that of the controls was a final body-weight reduction in females without a corresponding reduction in feed consumption.

  3. Biodynamic constituents in the Mexican morning glories: purgative remedies transcending boundaries.

    PubMed

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Bah, Moustapha

    2003-01-01

    Jalap, a pre-Hispanic herbal remedy still considered a useful laxative, is an ingredient in some over-the-counter products sold by herbalists in contemporary Mexico. The purgative crude drugs are prepared from the roots of several morning glories species which all have been identified as members of the Ipomoea genus (Convolvulaceae). Their incorporation as therapeutical agents into Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies. Phytochemical investigations on the resin glycosides, main constituents of these drugs, were initiated during the second half of the XIX century; however, the structures of their active ingredients had remained poorly known, and still are for some members of these purgative root species. Modern analytical techniques with higher resolution capabilities (HPLC) for the isolation of the active principles of these crude drugs used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods (high field NMR) have facilitated the investigation of these relevant, to the herbal product market, convolvulaceous species during the last decade. The advantages and limitations of theses techniques will be discussed. This review will also describe the ethnobotanical information associated with the Mexican morning glory species and how the traditional usages of these plants have played an important role in the selection of these materials for chemical studies. Little is as yet known about either the mechanism of purge action caused by the resin glycosides or the ecological significance of these same compounds for the producing plants. Over the five centuries of Mexican herbal medicine, one hundred years of phytochemistry has only partially elucidated the active ingredients of the jalap roots but has exemplified how to further contemporary drug discoveries through the investigation of those plants traditionally held to be economically and medicinally important in developing

  4. Ambulatory Morning Report: A Case-Based Method of Teaching EBM Through Experiential Learning.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Gina L; Visintainer, Paul F; Kleppel, Reva; Rothberg, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills are important to daily practice, but residents generally feel unskilled incorporating EBM into practice. The Kolb experiential learning theory, as applied to curricular planning, offers a unique methodology to help learners build an EBM skill set based on clinical experiences. We sought to blend the learner-centered, case-based merits of the morning report with an experientially based EBM curriculum. We describe and evaluate a patient-centered ambulatory morning report combining the User's Guides to the Medical Literature approach to EBM and experiential learning theory in the internal medicine department at Baystate Medical Center. The Kolb experiential learning theory postulates that experience transforms knowledge; within that premise we designed a curriculum to build EBM skills incorporating residents' patient encounters. By developing structured clinical questions based on recent clinical problems, residents activate prior knowledge. Residents acquire new knowledge through selection and evaluation of an article that addresses the structured clinical questions. Residents then apply and use new knowledge in future patient encounters. To assess the curriculum, we designed an 18-question EBM test, which addressed applied knowledge and EBM skills based on the User's Guides approach. Of the 66 residents who could participate in the curriculum, 61 (92%) completed the test. There was a modest improvement in EBM knowledge, primarily during the first year of training. Our experiential curriculum teaches EBM skills essential to clinical practice. The curriculum differs from traditional EBM curricula in that ours blends experiential learning with an EBM skill set; learners use new knowledge in real time.

  5. Relationship of 24-hour urinary free cortisol to 4-hour salivary morning and afternoon cortisol and cortisone as measured by a time-integrated oral diffusion sink.

    PubMed

    Kathol, R G; Poland, R E; Stokes, P E; Wade, S

    1995-05-01

    The relationship between salivary corticosteroids integrated over 4-hour periods and urinary free cortisol collected over 24 hours was investigated in normal controls. Twenty-one normal volunteers wore "oral diffusion sink" sampling devices in their mouths for two 4-hour periods (08:00-12:00 hours and 13:00-17:00 hours) and on the same day collected a 24-hour urine specimen. Time-integrated salivary corticosteroid concentrations were determined from the sample devices and urinary free cortisol was measured. Salivary corticosteroids were not consistently higher in the morning than in the afternoon period and did not differ between men and women. Urinary free cortisol levels were higher in women. No salivary corticosteroids measure was significantly correlated with urinary free cortisol. We conclude that time-integrated salivary corticosteroids do not reflect urinary free cortisol levels in normal controls.

  6. The Effect of atmospheric humidity level to the determination of Islamic Fajr/morning prayer time and twilight appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmah, Nihayatur

    2016-11-01

    Islamic prayer times are based on the astronomical position of the Sun in the sky. One of them is the Fajr prayer. It is marked by some indicators in the morning twilight which is white light spread in the Eastern horizon. However, determining the true time of twilight can be difficult. One of the reasons is the effect of atmospheric humidity to the appearance of morning twilight. The higher the humidity, the redder twilight sky appearance. This paper discusses this effect. It is shown that despite of the same Sun's position, sky color can vary considerably. Observations of various solar dip angle have been made to study this effect. Visibility for different angle can change accordingly. We obtained that the average solar dip for Fajr prayer by morning twilight images was -18°39'29.4".

  7. Circadian variation in the circulatory responses to exercise: relevance to the morning peaks in strokes and cardiac events

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Sudden cardiac and cerebral events are most common in the morning. A fundamental question is whether these events are triggered by the increase in physical activity after waking, and/or a result of circadian variation in the responses of circulatory function to exercise. Although signaling pathways from the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei to sites of circulatory control are not yet understood, it is known that cerebral blood flow, autoregulation and cerebrovascular reactivity to changes in CO2 are impaired in the morning and, therefore, could explain the increased risk of cerebrovascular events. Blood pressure (BP) and the rate pressure product (RPP) show marked ‘morning surges’ when people are studied in free-living conditions, making the rupture of a fragile atherosclerotic plaque and sudden cardiac event more likely. Since cerebral autoregulation is reduced in the morning, this surge in BP may also exacerbate the risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes in the presence of other acute and chronic risk factors. Increased sympathetic activity, decreased endothelial function, and increased platelet aggregability could also be important in explaining the morning peak in cardiac and cerebral events but how these factors respond to exercise at different times of day is unclear. Evidence is emerging that the exercise-related responses of BP and RPP are increased in the morning when prior sleep is controlled. We recommend that such ‘semi-constant routine’ protocols are employed to examine the relative influence of the body clock and exogenous factors on the 24-h variation in other circulatory factors. PMID:19826832

  8. Cyclic alternating pattern and interictal epileptiform discharges during morning sleep after sleep deprivation in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Maestri, Michelangelo; Guida, Melania; Carnicelli, Luca; Caciagli, Lorenzo; Ferri, Raffaele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Bonanni, Enrica

    2017-08-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) increases the occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) compared to basal EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In adults, EEG after SD is usually performed in the morning after SD. We aimed to evaluate whether morning sleep after SD bears additional IED-inducing effects compared with nocturnal physiological sleep, and whether changes in sleep stability (described by the cyclic alternating pattern-CAP) play a significant role. Adult patients with TLE underwent in-lab night polysomnography (n-PSG) and, within 7days from n-PSG, they underwent also a morning EEG after night SD (SD-EEG). We included only TLE patients in which both recordings showed IED. SD-EEG consisted of waking up patients at 2:00 AM and performing video EEG at 8:00 AM. For both recordings, we obtained the following markers for the first sleep cycle: IED/h (Spike Index, SI), sleep macrostructure, microstructure (NREM CAP rate; A1, A2 and A3 Indices), and SI association with CAP variables. The macrostructure of the first sleep cycle was similar in n-PSG and morning SD-EEG, whereas CAP rate and SI were significantly higher in SD-EEG. SI increase was selectively associated with CAP phases. SD increases the instability of morning recovery sleep compared with n-PSG, and particularly enhances CAP A1 phases, which are associated with the majority of IED. Thus, higher instability of morning recovery sleep may account at least in part for the increased IED yield in SD-EEG in TLE patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relations between morning sector Pi 1 pulsation activity and particle and field characteristics observed by the DE 2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Winningham, J. D.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Sugiura, M.

    1986-01-01

    Ground-based magnetometer, photometer, and riometer data are combined with low-altitude particle and electric and magnetic field data from the DE-2 spacecraft to provide a more complete characterization of the magnetospheric and tropospheric environment in which morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are observed. The results of the study are in agreement with recent conclusions that morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are physically related to pulsating aurorae. Precipitation of energetic electrons (E greater than 35 keV) coincides in every instance with the occurrence of these pulsations.

  10. Misclassification of iodine intake level from morning spot urine samples with high iodine excretion among Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-05-14

    Iodine nutrition is commonly assessed from iodine excretion in urine. A 24 h urine sample is ideal, but it is cumbersome and inconvenient. Hence, spot urine samples with creatinine to adjust for differences in void volume are widely used. Still, the importance of ethnicity and the timing of spot urine samples need to be settled. We, thus, collected 104 early morning spot urine samples and 24 h urine samples from Inuit and non-Inuit living in Greenland. Diet was assessed by a FFQ. Demographic data were collected from the national registry and by questionnaires. Iodine was measured using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, creatinine using the Jaffe method and para-amino benzoic acid by the HPLC method for the estimation of completeness of urine sampling and compensation of incomplete urine samples to 24 h excretion. A population-based recruitment was done from the capital city, a major town and a settlement (n 36/48/20). Participants were seventy-eight Inuit and twenty-six non-Inuit. The median 24 h iodine excretion was 138 (25th-75th percentile 89-225) μg/97 (25th-75th percentile 72-124) μg in Inuit/non-Inuit (P= 0.030), and 153 (25th-75th percentile 97-251) μg/102 (25th-75th percentile 73-138) μg (P= 0.026) when including compensated iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples increased with a rising intake of traditional Inuit foods (P= 0.005). Iodine excretion was lower in morning spot urine samples than in 24 h urine samples (P< 0.001). This difference was associated with iodine intake levels (P< 0.001), and was statistically significant when the iodine excretion level was above 150 μg/24 h. In conclusion, the iodine intake level was underestimated from morning spot urine samples if iodine excretion was above the recommended level.

  11. Associations of elevated nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with early lactation reproductive performance and milk production in transition dairy cattle in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Nydam, D V; Stokol, T; Overton, T R

    2010-04-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of elevated pre- and postpartum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations during the transition period on reproductive performance and milk production in dairy cattle. In a prospective cohort study of 91 freestall, total mixed ration-fed herds in the northeastern United States, blood samples were collected from approximately 15 prepartum and 15 different postpartum transition animals in each herd. All samples were stratified based on pre- or postpartum status at the time of sample collection, and 2,259 and 2,290 animals were used to evaluate reproductive and milk production performance, respectively. Reproductive performance was assessed by time to conception within 70 d post-voluntary waiting period (VWP) and milk production was assessed using mature-equivalent 305-d (ME305) milk yield estimated at 120 d in milk. While controlling for body condition score (BCS), calving season, median ME305 milk production, and parity, NEFA and BHBA concentrations were evaluated with time to event analysis to investigate reproductive performance. These same predictor variables were used to determine the effects of elevated NEFA and BHBA concentrations on ME305 milk yield with herd as a random effect. Heifers and cows were grouped in the final analyses if the results between groups were similar. In all animals sampled prepartum, the risk of pregnancy within 70 d post-VWP was reduced by 19% when NEFA concentrations were >or=0.27 mEq/L. In all animals sampled postpartum, those with NEFA concentrations >or=0.72 mEq/L had a 16% decrease in risk of pregnancy and those with BHBA concentrations >or=10mg/dL had a 13% decrease in risk. In cows and heifers, ME305 milk yield was decreased by 683 kg when prepartum NEFA concentrations were >or=0.33 mEq/L. In heifers sampled postpartum, ME305 milk yield was increased by 488 kg when NEFA concentrations were >or=0.57 mEq/L and increased by 403 kg when BHBA

  12. Influences of twilight on diurnal variation of core temperature, its nadir, and urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate during nocturnal sleep and morning drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masayuki; Tokura, Hiromi; Wakamura, Tomoko; Hyun, Ki-Ja; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Morita, Takeshi; Oishi, Tadashi

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the physiological significance of dusk and dawn in the circadian rhythm of core temperature (T(core)) and urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in humans during sleep and the waking sensation just after rising. Seven female and four male students served as participants. Participants retired at 2300 h and rose at 0700 h. They were requested to sit on a chair and spend time as quietly as possible during wakefulness, reading a book or listening to recorded light music. Two lighting conditions were provided for each participant: 1) Light-Dark (LD)-rectangular light change with abrupt decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx at 1800 h, abrupt increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx at 0700 h. 2) LD-twilight light change with gradual decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx starting at 1700 h (twilight period about 2 h), with gradual increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx starting at 0500 h (twilight period about 2 h). The periods of 0 lx at night were from 2300 h to 0700 h on the first day and from 2300 to 0500 h on the second day. Nadir time advanced significantly under the influence of the LD-twilight condition. The amount of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in urine collected at 0200 h was significantly higher under LD-twilight in comparison with LD-rectangular light. Morning drowsiness tended to be lower under LD-twilight. Our results suggest that in architectural design of indoor illumination it is important to provide LD-twilight in the evening and early morning for sleep promotion in healthy normal people and/or light treatment in elderly patients with advanced dementia.

  13. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol in Holstein whole milk.

    PubMed

    Pape-Zambito, D A; Magliaro, A L; Kensinger, R S

    2007-07-01

    Some individuals have expressed concern about estrogens in food because of their potential to promote growth of estrogen-sensitive human cancer cells. Researchers have reported concentrations of estrogen in milk but few whole milk samples have been analyzed. Because estrogen associates with the fat phase of milk, the analysis of whole milk is an important consideration. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to quantify 17beta-estradiol (E2) in whole milk from dairy cows and to determine whether E2 concentrations in milk from cows in the second half of pregnancy were greater than that in milk from cows in the first half of pregnancy or in nonpregnant cows. Milk samples and weights were collected during a single morning milking from 206 Holstein cows. Triplicate samples were collected and 2 samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell counts (SCC); 1 sample was homogenized and analyzed for E2. The homogenized whole milk (3 mL) was extracted twice with ethyl acetate and once with methanol. The extract was reconstituted in benzene:methanol (9:1, vol/vol) and run over a Sephadex LH-20 column to separate E2 from cholesterol and estrone before quantification using radioimmunoassay. Cows were classified as not pregnant (NP, n = 138), early pregnant (EP, 1 to 140 d pregnant, n = 47), or midpregnant (MP, 141 to 210 d pregnant, n = 21) at the time of milk sampling based on herd health records. Mean E2 concentration in whole milk was 1.4 +/- 0.2 pg/mL and ranged from nondetectable to 22.9 pg/mL. Milk E2 concentrations averaged 1.3, 0.9, and 3.0 pg/mL for NP, EP, and MP cows, respectively. Milk E2 concentrations for MP cows were greater and differed from those of NP and EP cows. Milk composition was normal for a Holstein herd in that log SCC values and percentages of fat, protein, and lactose averaged 4.9, 3.5, 3.1, and 4.8, respectively. Estradiol concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.20) with percentage fat in milk. Mean milk yield was

  14. The efficacy of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride in the suppression of morning breath odour.

    PubMed

    Quirynen, Marc; Avontroodt, Pieter; Soers, Catherine; Zhao, Hong; Pauwels, Martine; Coucke, Wim; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2002-10-01

    Breath odour is a complaint encountered worldwide, often linked to microbial overload in the oral cavity. This double blind, crossover, randomised study assessed the efficacy of several antiseptic mouthrinses or slurry vs. a control solution in the prevention of morning bad breath during an experimental period of 7 days without mechanical plaque control. Sixteen dental students with a healthy periodontium abolished, after a thorough professional cleaning, all means of mechanical plaque control during five experimental periods of 7 days, interleaved by washout periods of at least 3 weeks. During each experimental period, as the only oral hygiene measure, the students rinsed twice a day with one of the following formulations (in a randomised order): a 0.2% chlorhexidine-alcohol mouthrinse (CHX-Alc), a 0.05% CHX + 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride + 0.14% zinc lactate mouthrinse (CHX-CPC-Zn), an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (125 ppm F-/125 ppm F-) containing mouthrinse (AmF/SnF2Mr), a slurry of a tooth paste (AmF/SnF2Sl) containing amine fluoride (350 ppm F-) and stannous fluoride (1050 ppm F-) and a placebo solution (placebo). At days 0, 3 and 7, morning breath was scored via VSC level measurements of the mouth air, and organoleptic ratings of the mouth air and tongue coating. At the same visits both the degree of gingival inflammation and the de novo plaque formation were rated. At the end of each period a questionnaire for subjective ratings was completed and microbiological samples were taken from the tongue dorsum, the saliva and the supragingival plaque for anaerobic and aerobic culturing. Although oral hygiene during the experimental periods was limited to rinsing, bad breath parameters systematically improved (P < 0.001) with the three mouthrinses (CHX-Alc, CHX-CPC-Zn, AmF/SnF2Mr), with a superiority of the CHX-CPC-Zn solution when only VSC values were considered (P < 0.003). The AmF/SnF2 slurry and the placebo solution showed only minor changes with time

  15. Long term evolution of temperature in the venus upper atmosphere at the evening and morning terminators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, P.; Sornig, M.; Wischnewski, C.; Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Herrmann, M.; Sonnabend, G.; Stangier, T.; Wiegand, M.; Pätzold, M.; Mahieux, A.; Vandaele, A. C.; Piccialli, A.; Montmessin, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive dataset of long-term observations between 2009 and 2015 at the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere providing temperature values at different locations of the morning and evening side of the terminator of Venus. Temperature information is obtained by line-resolved spectroscopy of Doppler broadened CO2 transitions features. Results are restricted to a pressure level of 1 μbar, ∼110 km altitude due the nature of the addressed non-LTE CO2 emission line at 10 μm. The required high spectral resolution of the instrumentation is provided by the ground-based spectrometers THIS (University of Cologne) and HIPWAC (NASA GSFC). For the first time upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere temperatures at the Venusian terminator derived from IR-het spectroscopy between 2009 and 2015 are investigated in order to clarify the local-time dependences, latitudinal dependences and the long-term trend. Measured temperatures were distributed in the range between 140 K and 240 K, with mean values equal to 199 K ± 17 K for the morning side of the terminator and 195 K ± 19 K for the evening side of the terminator. Within the uncertainty no difference between the averaged morning and evening terminator side temperature is found. In addition, no strong latitudinal dependency is observed at these near terminator local times. In contrast IR-het data from 2009 show a strong latitudinal dependency at noon, with a temperature difference of around 60 K between the equatorial and polar region (Sonnabend et al., 2012). Accord with the instruments of the Venus Express mission a northern-southern hemispherical symmetry is observed (Mahieux et al., 2012; Piccialli et al., 2015). The data shows no consistent long-term temperature trend throughout the six years of observation, but a variability in the order of tens of Kelvin for the different observing runs representing a time step of few month to two years. This is about the same order of magnitude as the variability

  16. Morning meal more efficient for fat loss in a 3-month lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Mauro; Bellia, Alfonso; Padua, Elvira; Annino, Giuseppe; Guglielmi, Valeria; D'Adamo, Monica; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of 2 low-calorie diets but with different distributions of calories throughout the day on weight loss and other major obesity-related metabolic parameters. We randomly assigned 42 nonsmoking homemakers (age = 46.3 ± 2.3 years, body mass index [BMI] = 35.7 ± 0.8 kg/m(2), mean ± SD) in 2 groups of 21 subjects (G1 and G2). The participants underwent a 3 month individualized Mediterranean-style diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, 15% protein and fiber > 30 g), calorie (600 kcal daily deficit compared to the total energy expenditure measured by a metabolic Holter). Diets consisted of the same food and complied with cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines but differed in the distribution of calories throughout the day (G1: 70% breakfast, morning snack, lunch and 30% afternoon snack and dinner; G2: 55 breakfast, morning snack, lunch and 45% afternoon snack and dinner). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for pre- and postintervention body composition assessment. Thirty-six subjects completed the study (G1 = 18, G2 = 18). Both groups had significant improvements in body composition and metabolic parameters but G1 had enhanced results for weight loss (G1: -8.2 ± 3.0 kg; G2: -6.5 ± 3.4 kg; p = 0.028), waist circumference reduction (G1: -7 ± 0.6 cm; G2: -5 ± 0.3 cm; p = 0.033), and fat mass loss (G1: -6.8 ± 2.1 kg, G2: -4.5 ± 2.9 kg, p = 0.031; mean ± SD). Improvements were detected in both groups for blood pressure and blood and lipid parameters. G1 subjects showed a greater improvement in insulin sensitivity measured by homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (G1: -1.37 ± 0.27, G2: -0.74 ± 0.12, p = 0.017). These data suggest that a low-calorie Mediterranean diet with a higher amount of calories in the first part of the day could establish a greater reduction in fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity than a typical daily diet.

  17. Hygromorphic Scales for Use in Water from Morning Dew and Elementary Model of Hydrogel Expansion Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Nate

    Secure access to water is a growing problem in the world today. Millions of people do not have contact with fresh or clean water for drinking. Consuming dirty water leads to many illnesses and deaths every year. When water is scarce people are less likely to follow basic hygiene which also adds to the problem of sickness from water. Currently most of the population gets their water from run-off such as rivers, lakes and other fresh water bodies. Aquafers can also provide water, however, once they do not replenish themselves so once they are empty they will no longer provide a fresh water source. This is a serious problem because the population has grown to 7 billion people and only 2% of the world's water is fresh water. Of this, most the fresh water is locked in the polar ice caps. This leaves only .77% of the available fresh water accessible for human use. While wealthy countries may not feel this burden due to their infrastructure. Impoverish countries will feel the full burden of a lack of water. This has led to a growing number of water conflicts over the years some of which have resulted in human deaths. There are several ways that people can collect water from the atmosphere such as collecting rain water or using a solar still to evaporate water out of an undrinkable source. In parts of the world where fog is prevalent, meshes have been used to collect the moisture from the air. However, these systems only work where the environment allows for it. In some places in the world, the only amount of water may come from morning dew. Certain places receive more water from morning dew than they do from annual precipitation. By studying nature, a novel water collection device was developed, tested and modeled. The model is compared to the test data to see the ways in which the device can be optimized. This could be used to help alleviate the growing problems of water shortages in specific parts of the world. The model and device design shows promising data but still

  18. The Social Benefits of the Morning Meeting: Creating a Space for Social and Character Education in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Hughes, Lily

    2013-01-01

    The intense focus of academics currently in practice in elementary schools limits the opportunities for developing social skills and abilities that are necessary 21st century skills. Through a specifically structured Morning Meeting a teacher can create a space in the classroom that encourages the growth of important social skills that will…

  19. Morning NO2 Exposure Sensitizes Hypertensive Rats to the Cardiovascular Effects of O3 Exposure in the Afternoon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although ambient air sheds vary in composition, specific pollutants typically peak at predictable times throughout the course of a day. For example, in urban environments, peak nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels coincide with rush hour traffic in the morning and...

  20. Food Selectivity and Diet Switch Can Explain the Slow Feeding of Herbivorous Coral-Reef Fishes during the Morning

    PubMed Central

    Khait, Ruth; Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-01-01

    Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean. PMID:24358178

  1. Depictions of Alcohol Use in a UK Government Partnered Online Social Marketing Campaign: "Hollyoaks" "The Morning after the Night before"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Amanda Marie; Sumnall, Harry; Measham, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study analysed the depiction of alcohol in an online government partnered social marketing campaign: Hollyoaks "The Morning After the Night Before". This was a new initiative, providing Internet-delivered episodes of a popular terrestrial drama targeted at young people. Methods: All the 12 episodes were coded for "visual…

  2. Different chronotherapeutic effects of valsartan and olmesartan in non-dipper hypertensive patients during valsartan treatment at morning.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kentaro; Nakashima, Hajime; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Ioka, Takashi; Ando, Hitoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the differences in chronotherapeutic effects of angiotensin-II receptor blockers, valsartan and olmesartan in hypertensive patients with non-dipper blood pressure (BP) pattern during valsartan at morning. Ninety four patients were enrolled, and 40 patients were judged to be non-dippers. In these patients, same dose of valsartan was changed to evening (Val-E, n = 12), or olmesartan (equivalent dose of valsartan) was given at morning (Olm-M, n = 13) or evening (Olm-E, n = 15) for 4 months. BP decreased during sleep and increased during waking hours in Val-E group. In Olm-M and Olm-E groups, BP decreased during sleep and waking hours. Percent reduction in BP at night-time compared to BP at waking hours significantly increased after changing the dose regimen in each group. Serum creatinine decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) elevated in Olm-M and Olm-E, but not Val-E groups. Positive correlation between systolic BP (SBP) during sleep and serum creatinine, and negative correlation between SBP during sleep and eGFR were detected. These data suggest that dipper BP pattern could be obtained by chronotherapeutic approach using valsartan and olmesartan in non-dipper patients with valsartan at morning. Morning and evening olmesartan, but not evening valsartan improved renal function in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic decision-making in morning/evening-type people as a function of time of day.

    PubMed

    Correa, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, Noelia; Ruz, Maria; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Martoni, Monica; Fabbri, Marco; Natale, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making is affected by psychological factors like emotional state or cognitive control, which may also vary with circadian rhythmicity. Here, we tested the influence of chronotype (32 morning-type versus 32 evening-type) and time of day (9 a.m. versus 5 p.m.) on interpersonal decision-making as measured by the Ultimatum Game. Participants had to accept or reject different economic offers proposed by a virtual participant. Acceptance involved distribution of gains as proposed, whereas rejection resulted in no gain for either player. The results of the game showed a deviation from rational performance, as participants usually rejected the unfair offers. This behaviour was similar for both chronotype groups, and in both times of day. This result may reflect the robustness of decision-making strategies across standard circadian phases under ecological conditions. Furthermore, morning-types invested more time than evening-types to respond to high-uncertainty offers. This more cautious decision-making style of morning-types fits with our finding of higher proactive control as compared to evening-types when performing the AX-Continuous Performance Task. In line with the literature on personality traits, our results suggest that morning-types behave with more conscientiousness and less risk-taking than evening-type individuals.

  4. Frequency and Types of Foods Advertised on Saturday Morning and Weekday Afternoon English- and Spanish-Language American Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Design: Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering…

  5. Disturbances in morning cortisol secretion in association with maternal postnatal depression predict subsequent depressive symptomatology in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Halligan, Sarah L; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian; Murray, Lynne

    2007-07-01

    We have previously reported higher and more variable salivary morning cortisol in 13-year-old adolescents whose mothers were depressed in the postnatal period, compared with control group adolescents whose mothers did not develop postnatal depression (PND). This observation suggested a biological mechanism by which intrafamilial risk for depressive disorder may be transmitted. In the current article, we examined whether the cortisol disturbances observed at 13 years could predict depressive symptomatology in adolescents at 16 years of age. We measured self-reported depressive symptoms in 16-year-old adolescents who had (n = 48) or had not (n = 39) been exposed to postnatal maternal depression and examined their prediction by morning and evening cortisol indices obtained via 10 days of salivary collections at 13 years. Elevated morning cortisol secretion at 13 years, and particularly the maximum level recorded over 10 days of collection, predicted elevated depressive symptoms at 16 years over and above 13-year depressive symptom levels and other possible confounding factors. Morning cortisol secretion mediated an association between maternal PND and symptomatology in 16-year-old offspring. Alterations in steroid secretion observed in association with maternal PND may provide a mechanism by which risk for depression is transmitted from mother to offspring.

  6. Food selectivity and diet switch can explain the slow feeding of herbivorous coral-reef fishes during the morning.

    PubMed

    Khait, Ruth; Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-01-01

    Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean.

  7. Resident's Morning Report: An Opportunity to Reinforce Principles of Biomedical Science in a Clinical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brass, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a…

  8. A mid-morning snack of almonds generates satiety and appropriate adjustment of subsequent food intake in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Hull, Sarah; Re, Roberta; Chambers, Lucy; Echaniz, Ana; Wickham, Martin S J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effect of consuming a mid-morning almond snack (28 and 42 g) tested against a negative control of no almonds on acute satiety responses. On three test days, 32 healthy females consumed a standard breakfast followed by 0, 28 or 42 g of almonds as a mid-morning snack and then ad libitum meals at lunch and dinner. The effect of the almond snacks on satiety was assessed by measuring energy intake (kcal) at the two ad libitum meals and subjective appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) throughout the test days. Intake at lunch and dinner significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to the almond snacks. Overall, a similar amount of energy was consumed on all three test days indicating that participants compensated for the 173 and 259 kcals consumed as almonds on the 28 and 42 g test days, respectively. Subjective appetite ratings in the interval between the mid-morning snack and lunch were consistent with dose-dependent enhanced satiety following the almond snacks. However, in the interval between lunch and dinner, appetite ratings were not dependent on the mid-morning snack. Almonds might be a healthy snack option since their acute satiating effects are likely to result in no net increase in energy consumed over a day.

  9. Morning NO2 Exposure Sensitizes Hypertensive Rats to the Cardiovascular Effects of Same Day O3 Exposure in the Afternoon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within urban air sheds specific ambient air pollutants typically peak at predictable times throughout the day. For example, in environments dominated by mobile sources, peak nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels coincide with morning and afternoon rush hours , whil...

  10. Research and Development of Information and Communication Technology-based Home Blood Pressure Monitoring from Morning to Nocturnal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Matsumoto, Yuri; Hamasaki, Haruna; Okawara, Yukie; Kondo, Maiko; Nozue, Ryoko; Yamagata, Hiromi; Okura, Ayako; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension (HTN) and its relationship with cardiovascular disease. The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) in Asians is more extended, and the association slope between higher BP and the risk for cardiovascular events is steeper in this population than in whites. Thus, 24-hour BP control including at night and in the morning is especially important for Asian patients with HTN. There are 3 components of "perfect 24-hour BP control": the 24-hour BP level, adequate dipping of nocturnal BP (dipper type), and adequate BP variability such as the morning BP surge. The morning BP-guided approach using home BP monitoring (HBPM) is the first step toward perfect 24-hour BP control. After controlling morning HTN, nocturnal HTN is the second target. We have been developing HBPM that can measure nocturnal BP. First, we developed a semiautomatic HBPM device with the function of automatic fixed-interval BP measurement during sleep. In the J-HOP (Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure) study, the largest nationwide home BP cohort, we successfully measured nocturnal home BP using this device with data memory, 3 times during sleep (2, 3, and 4 am), and found that nocturnal home BP is significantly correlated with organ damage independently of office and morning BP values. The second advance was the development of trigger nocturnal BP (TNP) monitoring with an added trigger function that initiates BP measurements when oxygen desaturation falls below a variable threshold continuously monitored by pulse oximetry. TNP can detect the specific nocturnal BP surges triggered by hypoxic episodes in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. We also added the lowest heart rate-trigger function to TNP to detect the "basal nocturnal BP," which is determined by the circulating volume and structural cardiovascular system without any increase in sympathetic tonus. This double TNP is a novel concept for evaluating the pathogenic pressor mechanism of nocturnal BP

  11. Low interleukin-2 concentration favors generation of early memory T cells over effector phenotypes during chimeric antigen receptor T-cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Tanja; Luostarinen, Annu; Maliniemi, Pilvi; Keto, Joni; Arvas, Mikko; Belt, Heini; Koponen, Jonna; Loskog, Angelica; Mustjoki, Satu; Porkka, Kimmo; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Korhonen, Matti

    2017-06-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy offers new options for cancer treatment. Clinical results suggest that T-cell persistence, depending on T-cell memory, improves efficacy. The use of interleukin (IL)-2 for in vitro T-cell expansion is not straightforward because it drives effector T-cell differentiation but does not promote the formation of T-cell memory. We have developed a cost-effective expansion protocol for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with an early memory phenotype. Lymphocytes were transduced with third-generation lentiviral vectors and expanded using CD3/CD28 microbeads. The effects of altering the IL-2 supplementation (0-300 IU/mL) and length of expansion (10-20 days) on the phenotype of the T-cell products were analyzed. High IL-2 levels led to a decrease in overall generation of early memory T cells by both decreasing central memory T cells and augmenting effectors. T memory stem cells (T SCM , CD95 + CD45RO - CD45RA + CD27 + ) were present variably during T-cell expansion. However, their presence was not IL-2 dependent but was linked to expansion kinetics. CD19-CAR T cells generated in these conditions displayed in vitro antileukemic activity. In summary, production of CAR T cells without any cytokine supplementation yielded the highest proportion of early memory T cells, provided a 10-fold cell expansion and the cells were functionally potent. The number of early memory T cells in a T-cell preparation can be increased by simply reducing the amount of IL-2 and limiting the length of T-cell expansion, providing cells with potentially higher in vivo performance. These findings are significant for robust and cost-effective T-cell manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography assisted analysis of pars Plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment in morning glory syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lytvynchuk, Lyubomyr M; Glittenberg, Carl G; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Binder, Susanne

    2017-08-01

    The pathogenesis of non-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (non-RRD) associated with morning glory syndrome (MGS) is not established, as well as best surgical approach to treat RD. Our purpose was to analyse intraoperative optical coherence tomography data (iOCT) in all steps of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for non-RRD in MGS, in order to follow pathophysiological aspects of the disease and to understand the tissues behaviour during surgical workflow. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherent tomography (iSD-OCT) assisted PPV using Rescan 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditech, Jena, Germany) with epiretinal membrane (ERM) and internal retinal membrane (ILM) peeling, and air endotamponade was performed on the only eye of a 21 years old female with non-RRD associated with MGS. BCVA, pre-, intra- and postoperative OCT were performed along with standard ocular examination. iOCT video and snapshots were analysed intra- and postoperatively using post-processing approach using graphic software. The progression of non-RRD resulted in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decrease from 0.8 to 0.2. Triamcinolone enhanced iOCT imaging revealed strong vitreous traction and adhesion above the macula and optic disc. Internal limiting membrane was peeled under iOCT control to prevent the peeling of inner layers of the retinal schisis. No retinal break was detected, and only air endotamponade was performed. The retina reattached during first 4 weeks of follow-up with gradual resolution of intraretinal- and subretinal fluid, and remained stable in 12 months. BCVA improved to 0.8. Based on iSD-OCT findings we assume that non-RRD in this case of MGS is caused primarily by the vitreous traction with further possible formation of the retinal breaks. Retinal reattachment reached only with air endotamponade strongly advocates the tractional component of non-RRD and retinal schisis assotiated with MGS. Early PPV for central non-RRD and retinal schisis with the use of iOCT can be performed in more

  13. Effect of a single brushing with two Zn-containing toothpastes on VSC in morning breath: a 12 h, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study.

    PubMed

    Young, A; Jonski, G

    2011-12-01

    This randomized, double-blind, 12 h clinical study tested the effect of a single brushing with two Zn-containing toothpastes on volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels in morning breath. The following toothpastes were each tested by all 28 participants: A-Zn toothpaste, B--experimental toothpaste (Zn citrate + PVM/MA copolymer) and C--control toothpaste without Zn. The evening prior to test days participants brushed their teeth for 2 min with 1 g toothpaste. 12 h later and prior to eating or performing oral hygiene, morning breath levels of VSC (H(2)S, CH(3)SH) were analysed by gas chromatography. Subjects then rinsed for 30 s with 5 ml cysteine and breath samples were analysed for H(2)S (H(2)S(cys)). Median VSC (area under the curve) values were compared for A, B and C and the effects of A and B on VSC were compared with C. Toothpaste B was more effective than both toothpastes A and C in reducing H(2)S, CH(3)SH and H(2)S(cys) (p < 0.05). Compared with toothpaste C, toothpastes A and B reduced H(2)S by 35% and 68%, respectively (p = 0.003), and CH(3)SH by 12% and 47%, respectively (p = 0.002). Toothpaste B reduced H(2)S(cys) by 48% compared with toothpaste C (p = 0.001). It is suggested that the superior effect of the experimental toothpaste was most likely due to a higher Zn concentration combined with longer retention of Zn due to the PVM/MA copolymer.

  14. Salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin a responses to a morning session of basketball or volleyball training in boys aged 14-18 years.

    PubMed

    Bruzda-Zwiech, A; Konieczka, M; Hilt, A; Daszkowska, M; Grzegorczyk, J; Szczepańska, J

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether a single session of routine morning basketball or volleyball training affects saliva levels of cortisol, alpha-amylase (sAA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in boys aged 14–18 years. Twenty-nine boys who participate in basketball or volleyball training, recruited from the Marcin Gortat’s Athletic Championship School in Lodz, were enrolled in the study. The 90-minute routine exercise program included 15 minutes of warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected prior to and immediately after the exercise, and were analysed using ELISA. One training session resulted in a significant increase of sAA concentration in all participants, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.00022; p=0.0029; p=0.0011; respectively). Post-exercise cortisol levels were significantly lower than pre-exercise levels (p=0.00002) throughout the group, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.0048; p=0.0019; p=0.0048; respectively). The exercise protocol did not significantly affect sIgA level, either in the whole examined group or the volleyball subgroup, however a weak significant increase of sIgA was observed in the basketball subgroup (p=0.046). The routine morning training session comprising a warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice seems to activate the sympatho-adrenal-medullary system, with a subsequent increase of alpha-amylase, but does not affect oral immunity in 14-18-year-old boys.

  15. Bright light exposure at night and light attenuation in the morning improve adaptation of night shift workers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Young; Jeong, Do-Un; Kwon, Ki-Bum; Kang, Sang-Bum; Song, Byoung-Gun

    2002-05-01

    With practical applicability in mind, we wanted to observe whether nocturnal alertness, performance, and daytime sleep could be improved by light exposure of tolerable intensity and duration in a real work place. We also evaluated whether attenuating morning light was important in adaptation of real night shift workers. Twelve night shift nurses participated in this study. The study consisted of three different treatment procedures: Room Light (RL), Bright Light (BL), and Bright Light with Sunglasses (BL/S). In RL, room light exposure was given during the night shift and followed by 1 hr exposure to sunlight or 10,000 lux light the next morning (from 08:30 to 09:30). In BL, a 4-hour nocturnal light exposure of 4,000-6,000 lux (from 01:00 to 05:00) was applied and followed by the same morning light exposure as in RL. In BL/S, the same nocturnal light exposure as in BL was done with light attenuation in the morning. Each treatment procedure was continued for 4 days in a repeated measures, cross-over design. Nocturnal alertness was measured by a visual analog scale. Computerized performance tests were done. Daytime sleep was recorded with actigraphy. The most significant overall improvement of sleep was noted in BL/S. BL showed less improvement than BL/S but more than RL. Comparison of nocturnal alertness among the 3 treatments produced similar results: during BL/S, the subjects were most alert, followed by BL and then by RL. Real night shift workers can improve nocturnal alertness and daytime sleep by bright light exposure in their work place. These improvements can be maximized by attenuating morning light on the way home.

  16. Correlated colour temperature of morning light influences alertness and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc; Schellen, Lisje; Souman, Jan L; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Though several studies have reported human alertness to be affected by the intensity and spectral composition of ambient light, the mechanism behind this effect is still largely unclear, especially for daytime exposure. Alerting effects of nocturnal light exposure are correlated with melatonin suppression, but melatonin levels are generally low during the day. The aim of this study was to explore the alerting effect of light in the morning for different correlated colour temperature (CCT) values, as well as its interaction with ambient temperature. Body temperature and perceived comfort were included in the study as possible mediating factors. In a randomized crossover design, 16 healthy females participated in two sessions, once under 2700K and once under 6500K light (both 55lx). Each session consisted of a baseline, a cool, a neutral and a warm thermal environment. Alertness as measured in a reaction time task was lower for the 6500K exposure, while subjective sleepiness was not affected by CCT. Also, core body temperature was higher under 6500K. Skin temperature parameters and perceived comfort were positively correlated with subjective sleepiness. Reaction time correlated with heat loss, but this association did not explain why the reaction time was improved for 2700K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. View of 'Cape Verde' from 'Cape St. Mary' in Late Morning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape Verde' from the vantage point of 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape Verde combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into an approximately true-color mosaic. The exposures were taken during late-morning lighting conditions.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 1,006th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Nov. 22, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  18. View of 'Cape Verde' from 'Cape St. Mary' in Late Morning (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape Verde' from the vantage point of 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape Verde combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into a false-color mosaic. The exposures were taken during late-morning lighting conditions.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 1,006th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Nov. 22, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The false color enhances subtle color differences among materials in the rocks and soils of the scene.

  19. Combining bimodal presentation schemes and buzz groups improves clinical reasoning and learning at morning report.

    PubMed

    Balslev, Thomas; Rasmussen, Astrid Bruun; Skajaa, Torjus; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Muijtjens, Arno; De Grave, Willem; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2014-12-11

    Abstract Morning reports offer opportunities for intensive work-based learning. In this controlled study, we measured learning processes and outcomes with the report of paediatric emergency room patients. Twelve specialists and 12 residents were randomised into four groups and discussed the same two paediatric cases. The groups differed in their presentation modality (verbal only vs. verbal + text) and the use of buzz groups (with vs. without). The verbal interactions were analysed for clinical reasoning processes. Perceptions of learning and judgment of learning were reported in a questionnaire. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by a 20-item multiple-choice test. Combined bimodal presentation and buzz groups increased the odds ratio of clinical reasoning to occur in the discussion of cases by a factor of 1.90 (p = 0.013), indicating superior reasoning for buzz groups working with bimodal materials. For specialists, a positive effect of bimodal presentation was found on perceptions of learning (p < 0.05), and for residents, a positive effect of buzz groups was found on judgment of learning (p < 0.005). A positive effect of bimodal presentation on diagnostic accuracy was noted in the specialists (p < 0.05). Combined bimodal presentation and buzz group discussion of emergency cases improves clinicians' clinical reasoning and learning.

  20. Decreased hospital length of stay associated with presentation of cases at morning report with librarian support

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Daniel E.; Shi, Runhua; Timm, Donna F.; Christopher, Kerri Ann; Duggar, David Charles; Comegys, Marianne; McLarty, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The research sought to determine whether case discussion at residents' morning report (MR), accompanied by a computerized literature search and librarian support, affects hospital charges, length of stay (LOS), and thirty-day readmission rate. Methods: This case-control study, conducted from August 2004 to March 2005, compared outcomes for 105 cases presented at MR within 24 hours of admission to 19,210 potential matches, including cases presented at MR and cases not presented at MR. With matching criteria of patient age (± 5 years), identical primary diagnosis, and secondary diagnoses (within 3 additional diagnoses) using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) codes, 55 cases were matched to 136 controls. Statistical analyses included Student's t tests, chi-squared tests, and nonparametric methods. Results: LOS differed significantly between matched MR cases and controls (3 days vs. 5 days, P < 0.024). Median total hospital charges were $7,045 for the MR group and $10,663 for the control group. There was no difference in 30-day readmission rate between the 2 groups. Discussion/Conclusion: Presentation of a case at MR, followed by the timely dissemination of the results of an online literature review, resulted in a shortened LOS and lower hospital charges compared with controls. MR, in association with a computerized literature search guided by the librarians, was an effective means for introducing evidence-based medicine into patient care practices. PMID:17971885

  1. Morning transition case between the land and the sea breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Guijarro, Jose A.; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-05-01

    An experimental field campaign took place in September 2013 near the coastline in the southeastern Campos basin in the island of Mallorca to characterize experimentally the transition between the sea and the land breezes and to further study the successful cases with the corresponding high-resolution numerical simulations. Favorable weather conditions were only found for one episode that comprised a well-formed nocturnal land breeze, followed by the morning transition to sea breeze until noon the next day, when incoming clouds switched off the breeze regime. To analyse this transition between land and sea breezes, the official network of stations is used, supplemented by a portable station close to the shore and soundings of temperature (taken by a captive balloon and remotely controlled multicopter). These data are used to check the goodness of the corresponding simulation at a horizontal resolution of 1 km. Model and observations see similarly both regimes and the transition, showing some differences in the timing and the details in the surface layer. This transient event is analyzed in terms of phases, going consecutively through land breeze, phase previous to the sea breeze, when land heating starts, but it is still colder than the sea, the preparatory phase when the land becomes warmer than the sea, and the development phase when the breeze front progresses inland.

  2. A morning transition case between the land and the sea breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Guijarro, Jose A.; Cuxart, Joan

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the diurnal cycle of the Sea-Breeze (SB) in the island of Mallorca, during September 2013 the Mallorca Sea Breeze experimental field campaign (MSB13) took place in the Campos basin (located in the south side of the island). Measurements in the lower boundary layer (captive balloon and multicopter) and close to the surface were taken in a site close to the coast (500m inland). In this work an observed morning transition of the SB is further analysed through the observations and a high-resolution mesoscale simulation of this selected case. With the combined inspection of model results and observations, it is found that during the night-time the air flows out of the island: a land-breeze is found near the coast and downslope winds at the mountain slopes. After sunrise and during the previous phase (0600-0800 UTC) the temperature difference between land and sea is reduced meanwhile the wind has the land-breeze direction. During the preparatory phase (0800-1000 UTC) the land surface temperature is warmer than the sea and the wind weakens and veers towards the SB direction. Finally, during the development phase (1000-1200 UTC) the SB front propagates through the center of the Campos basin to the end of the basin, enhanced by the mountain upslope winds. Therefore, the radiative warming stops. The temperature, momentum and TKE budgets are used to understand the most relevant physical processes involved in each of the phases.

  3. Concentrations of Ca and Mg in early stages of sapwood decay in red spruce, eastern hemlock, red maple, and paper birch

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jody Jellison; Jon Connolly; Jonathan Schilling

    2007-01-01

    The decay of coarse woody debris is a key component in the formation of forest soil and in the biogeochemical cycles of Ca and Mg. We tracked changes in density and concentration of Ca and Mg in sapwood of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and...

  4. Early Gray-Matter and White-Matter Concentration in Infancy Predict Later Language Skills: A Whole Brain Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months.…

  5. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  6. Morning and Evening Daily Newspaper Readers. An NRC Mining Company Report. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohn, Elsa

    Data collected from 36 different markets and 82 research reports were used to compare the readers of morning and evening newspapers. Patterns across markets revealed morning newspaper readers are more likely than evening newspaper readers to have white-collar occupations, to be better educated, and to have no children under 18 years of age present…

  7. Morning Sleep Inertia in Alertness and Performance: Effect of Cognitive Domain and White Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Santhi, Nayantara; Groeger, John A.; Archer, Simon N.; Gimenez, Marina; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (p<0.01). However, alertness and sustained attention were more affected than cognitive throughput and working memory. Moreover, speed was more affected than accuracy of responses. The light conditions had no differential effect on performance except in the 3-back task (p<0.01), where response times (RT) at the end of four hours in the two Blue-Enhanced white light conditions were faster (200 ms) than at wake time. We conclude that the effect of sleep inertia varies with cognitive domain and that it’s spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations. PMID:24260280

  8. Priming Effect of a Morning Meal on Hepatic Glucose Disposition Later in the Day

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Ben; Kraft, Guillaume; Shiota, Masakazu; Williams, Phillip E.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    We used hepatic balance and tracer ([3H]glucose) techniques to examine the impact of “breakfast” on hepatic glucose metabolism later in the same day. From 0–240 min, 2 groups of conscious dogs (n = 9 dogs/group) received a duodenal infusion of glucose (GLC) or saline (SAL), then were fasted from 240–360 min. Three dogs from each group were euthanized and tissue collected at 360 min. From 360–600 min, the remaining dogs underwent a hyperinsulinemic (4× basal) hyperglycemic clamp (arterial blood glucose 146 ± 2 mg/dL) with portal GLC infusion. The total GLC infusion rate was 14% greater in dogs infused with GLC than in those receiving SAL (AUC360–600min 2,979 ± 296 vs. 2,597 ± 277 mg/kg, respectively). The rates of hepatic glucose uptake (5.8 ± 0.8 vs. 3.2 ± 0.3 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) and glycogen storage (4.7 ± 0.6 vs. 2.9 ± 0.3 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) during the clamp were markedly greater in dogs receiving GLC compared with those receiving SAL. Hepatic glycogen content was ∼50% greater, glycogen synthase activity was ∼50% greater, glycogen phosphorylase activity was ∼50% lower, and the amount of phosphorylated glycogen synthase was 34% lower, indicating activation of the enzyme, in dogs receiving GLC compared with those receiving SAL. Thus, morning GLC primed the liver to extract and store more glucose in the presence of hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia later in the same day, indicating that breakfast enhances the liver’s role in glucose disposal in subsequent same-day meals. PMID:28174290

  9. Reevaluation of the role of duration of morning stiffness in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis activity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasim A; Yazici, Yusuf; Calvo-Alen, Jaime; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Gossec, Laure; Hansen, Troels M; Huisman, Margriet; Kallikorm, Riina; Muller, Raili; Liveborn, Margareth; Oding, Rolf; Luchikhina, Elena; Naranjo, Antonio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Taylor, Peter; Tlustochowich, Witold; Tsirogianni, Afrodite; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the utility of the duration of morning stiffness (MS), as a patient-reported outcome (PRO), in assessing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity. We acquired information on 5439 patients in QUEST-RA, an international database of patients with RA evaluated by a standard protocol. MS duration was assessed from time of waking to time of maximal improvement. Ability of MS duration to differentiate RA activity states, based on Disease Activity Score (DAS)28, was assessed by analysis of variance; and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for discriminating clinically active (DAS28 > 3.2) from less active (DAS28 3.2). MS duration has a moderate correlation with RA disease activity. Assessment of MS duration may be clinically helpful in patients with low RAPID3 scores.

  10. Saturday Morning Science programs: a model to increase diversity in the biosciences.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James L; Harris, Toi Blakley; Ihedigbo, Kara M Green; Hawkins, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    To examine a pathway program for middle and high school students from underrepresented backgrounds designed to foster career interest in the biomedical sciences. In 2002, the Institute of Medicine released a report entitled Unequal Treatment, which examined the racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care within the United States and encouraged the development of a diverse health care workforce as a means to reduce health care disparities. Saturday Morning Science (SMS) is a program model presented as a pipeline strategy that addresses this specific recommendation. SMS is a 10-week program that emphasized the importance of science and math. Post-SMS evaluations were conducted to assess biomedical career knowledge, attitudes regarding future career plans, and the effectiveness of the program. A total of 87.5% of middle and high school students who were enrolled in SMS completed the program (113 of 130). Seventy percent of SMS participants were underrepresented minorities. Snapshot program evaluation data exposed new ideas about science (strongly agree/agree, 98%; 64 of 65), exposed new ideas about medicine (strongly agree/agree, 97%; 63 of 65, and increased desire to enter science related field (strongly agree/agree 82% (53 of 65). SMS was designed to motivate students of underrepresented ethnic backgrounds from middle through high school to attend college and prepare for careers in the health sciences. SMS students had the opportunity to interact with scientists, physicians, medical and graduate students, and other academicians. They provided direction and guidance to ensure that students had meaningful experiences specifically designed to expose them to opportunities in the biosciences.

  11. My personal experiences at the BEST Medical Center: A day in the clinic-the morning.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Ida Lystic is a gastroenterologist who trained at the OTHER (Owen T. Henry and Eugene Rutherford) Medical Center, after having completed her MD degree at the prestigious Harvey Medical School (recently renamed the Harvey Provider School). She accepted a faculty position at the BEST (Byron Edwards and Samuel Thompson) Medical Center. Dr. Lystic shares her experiences on a typical morning in gastroenterology clinic. Although her clinic start date was delayed by 2 months after becoming sick following a mandatory flu shot and having to complete more than 70 hours of compliance training modules, she is now familiar with the BEST system. Clinic scheduling priorities include ensuring that the staff can eat lunch together and depart at 5:00 pm. It is a continual challenge to find time to complete the electronic medical record after BEST changed from the SIMPLE (Succinct Input Making Patients Lives Electronic) system to LEGEND (referred to as Lengthy and Excessively Graded Evaluation and Nomenclature for Diagnosis by her colleagues). To maintain clinic punctuality, a compliance spreadsheet is e-mailed monthly to the Wait Time Committee. Their most recent corrective action plan for tardy physicians included placing egg timers on the doors and having nurses interrupt visits that exceed the allotted time. Administrative decisions have resulted in downsizing personnel. Patients are required to schedule their own tests and procedures and follow-up appointments-causing low patient satisfaction scores; however, the money saved lead to a large year-end bonus for the vice president of BEST Efficiency, who holds "providers" accountable for the poor patient experience. Although Dr. Ida Lystic and the gastroenterology clinic at "the BEST Medical Center" are creations of the authors' imagination, the majority of the anecdotes are based on actual events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Morning pressor surge, blood pressure variability, and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Giacomo; Battista, Francesca; Anastasio, Fabio; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    An excess morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) may portend an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms thereof have been little investigated. The link between MBPS, short-term blood pressure (BP) variability, and arterial stiffness has not been entirely defined. In 602 consecutive untreated hypertensive patients (48 ± 12 years, 61% men, office BP 149/93 ± 17/10 mmHg), we measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, SphygmoCor) and 24-h ambulatory BP. Using self-reported sleep and wake times, MBPS was defined as sleep-trough (ST-MBPS), prewaking, rising. Short-term BP variability was calculated as weighted 24-h SBP SD and average real variability of 24-h SBP (ARV), that is, average of absolute differences between consecutive SBP readings. ST-MBPS (r = 0.16, P < 0.001) and rising MBPS (r = 0.12, P = 0.003) showed a direct correlation with cf-PWV, whereas prewaking MBPS had no such relation (r = 0.06, P = 0.14). Only ST-MBPS was independently associated with cf-PWV (t = 1.96, P = 0.04) after adjustment for age, sex, height, office mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal function. This association was lost after further adjustment for weighted 24-h SBP SD (P = 0.13) or ARV (P = 0.24). ARV was a significant mediator of the relationship between ST-MBPS and cf-PWV (P = 0.003). In untreated hypertension, ST-MBPS has a direct relation with aortic stiffness, which is mediated by an increased ARV. The adverse effects of MBPS may be partly explained by its link with arterial stiffness, mediated by short-term SBP variability.

  13. Memory and mood during the night and in the morning after repeated evening doses of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Wingen, M; Ramaekers, J G

    2008-11-01

    Previously it has been shown that MDMA causes memory impairment during daytime testing. However, MDMA is usually taken in the evening or during the night. In addition, it is known that sleep deprivation also causes memory impairment. The present study aimed to assess whether evening doses of MDMA added to, or interacted with the memory impairment due to sleep deprivation. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way cross-over study. Treatments consisted of MDMA 75 and 50 mg divided over the evening or double placebo. Memory tests and subjective measures of mood were conducted at baseline and three times post dosing that is at 6.30 pm, 9.30 pm, 1.30 am and 7 am, respectively -1.5, 1.5, 5.5 and 11 h relative to drug intake (first dose). Memory performance detoriated progessively over time as a function of sleep loss, independent of treatment. MDMA added to this impairment as indicated by a significant main effect of MDMA on verbal and spatial memory performance. Mood ratings and response speed revealed an MDMA by Time interaction. After administration of MDMA response speed improved and feelings of vigor, friendliness, elation, anxiety, confusion, arousal and positive mood increased in magnitude during the night, while all these parameters returned to placebo-like levels on the final morning session. It is concluded that evening doses of MDMA selectively impair memory performance, and that this impairment is additional to the effect of sleep deprivation on memory performance.

  14. Morning REM Sleep Naps Facilitate Broad Access to Emotional Semantic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The goals of the study were to assess semantic priming to emotion and nonemotion cue words using a novel measure of associational breadth for participants who either took rapid eye movement (REM) or nonrapid eye movement (NREM) naps or who remained awake, and to assess the relation of priming to REM sleep consolidation and REM sleep inertia effects. Design: The associational breadth task was applied in both a priming condition, where cue words were signaled to be memorized prior to sleep (primed), and a nonpriming condition, where cue words were not memorized (nonprimed). Cue words were either emotional (positive, negative) or nonemotional. Participants were randomly assigned to either an awake (WAKE) or a sleep condition, which was subsequently split into NREM or REM groups depending on stage at awakening. Setting: Hospital-based sleep laboratory. Participants: Fifty-eight healthy participants (22 male) ages 18 to 35 y (mean age = 23.3 ± 4.08 y). Measurements and Results: The REM group scored higher than the NREM or WAKE groups on primed, but not nonprimed emotional cue words; the effect was stronger for positive than for negative cue words. However, REM time and percent correlated negatively with degree of emotional priming. Priming occurred for REM awakenings but not for NREM awakenings, even when the latter sleep episodes contained some REM sleep. Conclusions: Associational breadth may be selectively consolidated during REM sleep for stimuli that have been tagged as important for future memory retrieval. That priming decreased with REM time and was higher only for REM sleep awakenings is consistent with two explanatory REM sleep processes: REM sleep consolidation serving emotional downregulation and REM sleep inertia. Citation: Carr M, Nielsen T. Morning REM sleep naps facilitate broad access to emotional semantic networks. SLEEP 2015;38(3):433–443. PMID:25409100

  15. Progesterone concentration, pregnancy and calving rate in Simmental dairy cows after oestrus synchronisation and hCG treatment during the early luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Šuluburić, Adam; Milanović, Svetlana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Jovanović, Ivan B; Barna, Tomislav; Stojić, Milica; Fratrić, Natalija; Szenci, Ottó; Gvozdić, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40-80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn's Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28-35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

  16. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on early developmental stages of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus Gunnerus (Copepoda: Calanoidae).

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Våge, Vegard Thorset; Olsen, Anders Johny; Hammer, Karen Marie; Altin, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification poses an ongoing threat to marine organisms, and early life stages are believed to be particularly sensitive. The boreal calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus seasonally dominates the standing stock of zooplankton in the northern North Sea and North Atlantic, and due to its size and abundance is considered an ecological key species linking energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. To examine whether the early stages of C. finmarchicus are particularly vulnerable to elevated levels of CO2, eggs and nauplii were subjected to different levels of CO2-acidified seawater for 1 wk. The first experiment, with eggs as the starting point, revealed no marked effect on hatching success, but a significant reduction in nauplii survival during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2. In addition, a significant decrease in ontogenetic development rate during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2 was observed in this experiment. In the second experiment, where third-stage nauplii represented the starting point, no significant effects on ontogenetic development and survival following exposure to pCO2 ≥ 7700 ppm were observed. Data suggest that the two first nauplii stages, which are fed endogenously, may be more vulnerable and therefore likely to represent the "bottleneck" for this species in a more acidic ocean. However, the absence of significant effects in the most sensitive stages during exposure to 2800 ppm CO2, a level that is well above worst-case scenario predictions for year 2300 (approximately 2000 ppm CO2), suggests that this species may be generally robust to direct effects of ocean acidification.

  17. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima-media thickness and cardiac dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome-X.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; Goda, Mohammad; Galal, Islam; Ghareb, Mohamed S

    2018-05-23

    Background & hypothesis: We hypothesized that exaggerated morning blood pressure surge, may contribute in cardiac dysfunction and arterial stiffness in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Thus we investigated the impact of morning blood pressure surge on cardiac function and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with cardiac syndrome X. We studied patients with cardiac syndrome X using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and investigated the association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima thickness, left atrial volume index and left ventricular filling (E/e'). Seventy patients with cardiac syndrome X were enrolled for the study and compared with 70 age and sex matched controls. Patients with cardiac syndrome X were stratified based on the systolic morning blood pressure surge value of control subjects to patients with exaggerated blood pressure surge (n = 42) and those with normal morning blood pressure surge (n = 28). Basal heart rate (p < .05), high sensitive C-reactive protein (p < .01), left atrial volume index (p < .01), E/e' (p < .01); carotid intima-media thickness (p < .001) and percentage of detected plaque (p < .005) were significantly higher in patients with exaggerated morning blood pressure surge group than those with morning blood pressure surge group. Morning blood pressure surge was significantly correlated with carotid intima-media thickness, high sensitive C-reactive protein, left atrial volume index and E/e' ratio in patients with cardiac syndrome X. In multivariate analysis, exaggerated morning blood pressure surge was the only independent predictor of increased carotid intima-media thickness (OR = 2.379; p < .001), and diastolic dysfunction (OR = 2.464; p < .001) in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Our data suggest that excessive morning blood pressure surge is an independent predictor for arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome X.

  19. Maternal Antibiotic-Induced Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Colonic Permeability and Inducible Heat Shock Proteins, and Digesta Concentrations of Alkaline Phosphatase and TLR-Stimulants in Swine Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Erridge, Clett; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP) are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB) amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11). Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP) and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic digesta AP. In

  20. Maternal antibiotic-induced early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate colonic permeability and inducible heat shock proteins, and digesta concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and TLR-stimulants in swine offspring.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Erridge, Clett; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP) are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB) amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11). Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP) and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic digesta AP. In

  1. Dissociation between urinary pyrraline and pentosidine concentrations in diabetic patients with advanced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Aso, Yoshimasa; Takanashi, Keishi; Sekine, Kyouichi; Yoshida, Noboru; Takebayashi, Kohzo; Yoshihara, Kazuhiro; Inukai, Toshihiko

    2004-08-01

    It has been reported that the concentrations of both pyrraline and pentosidine, well-characterized advanced glycation end products, are increased in the urine of diabetic patients. To determine factors that influence the urinary excretion of pyrraline or pentosidine, we compared pyrraline or pentosidine concentrations with glycemic-control indexes, urinary albumin excretion, and urinary beta2-microglobulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted in 39 age-matched healthy control subjects and 50 diabetic patients, including 22 patients with normoalbuminuria, 15 with microalbuminuria, and 13 with macroalbuminuria. Both urinary pyrraline and pentosidine were measured in early-morning urine specimens with the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The urinary pentosidine concentration was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P <.01). In contrast, the urinary pyrraline concentration was significantly lower in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P <.001). Urinary pentosidine concentrations were greater in diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria and microalbuminuria than in those with normoalbuminuria. However, urinary pyrraline concentrations were significantly lower in diabetic patients with advanced nephropathy. Both the hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) and the preceding year's mean HbA(1c) were lower in patients with macroalbuminuria than in those with normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Urinary pyrraline, but not pentosidine, showed a significantly positive correlation with the preceding year's mean HbA(1c) (P<0.01). Multivariate analysis disclosed that urinary beta-2-microglobulin was independently correlated with the urinary concentrations of pentosidine and pyrraline (P <.05 for both). We conclude that the urinary concentration of pentosidine is greater in diabetic patients with overt nephropathy, whereas the urinary pyrraline concentration is significantly lower in diabetic patients with overt nephropathy

  2. Effects at early stage of life of elevated milk replacer feeding on growth rate, plasma IGF-I concentration and intestinal nutrient transporter expression in Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Orihashi, Takenori; Mashiko, Takanori; Sera, Kenji; Roh, Sang-Gun; Katoh, Kazuo; Obara, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of an elevated amount of modified milk replacer on body weight, daily gain, starter intake, plasma endocrine parameters and expression of nutrient transporters in small intestinal epithelia, Holstein bull calves (n=24) were fed for 60days either with the usual amount of 24% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat milk (CF) replacer (C group), or with a double amount of a modified milk replacer of 28% CP and 16% CF (E group). Body weight from D20 to D60 and daily gain before D40 was greater or tended to be greater for the E group than the C group. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and insulin were greater for the E group than the C group on D28 but not on D56, without changing plasma growth hormone levels. Gene expression for sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and fatty acid translocase (CD36) was altered in day- and intestine-dependent manners. From these findings, we conclude that an elevated intake of milk replacer given up to 40days old is sufficient to enhance body weight, which may be associated with increased plasma IGF-I concentrations, in Holstein bulls. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Evaluation of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and nitric oxide (NO) during the estrous cycle, early pregnancy and abortion in goats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youwang; Lv, Wenting; Jia, Jingliang; Wang, Jiantao; Yang, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the serum concentrations, ranges, and trends of Th1 type cytokine (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-2), Th2 type cytokine (IL-10), and nitric oxide (NO) during the estrous cycle, early pregnancy and abortion in goats. Boer goats (n=25) having symptoms of normal estrous cycles were selected, 20 were mated and 15 conceived a pregnancy, and the remaining five were not mated and served as estrous controls. On the Day 60 of pregnancy, all 15 pregnant goats were induced to abort the pregnancy by intramuscular injection of prostaglandin (PG). Serum samples were collected on Days 1, 7, 14, and 19 of the estrous cycle, at Days 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 of pregnancy, and at Days 1, 3, 8, 10 over the period when abortion were occurring. Results of the present study indicated that during the estrous cycle the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines slightly shifted toward Th1 cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-2). The NO may have a direct positive role in inducing a Th1 response. During early pregnancy, TNF-α and IL-2 serum concentrations markedly increased from Days 0 to 10, and gradually decreased from Days 10 to 60, while IL-10 and NO serum concentrations remained elevated from Days 0 to 60. The increased concentrations of IL-10 and decreased concentrations of TNF-α and IL-2 are characteristic of a Th2-enhanced response, which may be related to increased concentrations of NO. These changes may be essential to maintain a normal pregnancy. In addition, the serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-2 and NO at Days 1, 3, 8 and 10 of the period of induced abortion were markedly greater than that on Day 60 of pregnancy. Conversely, IL-10 concentrations at these four time points of abortion were markedly less than that on Day 60 of pregnancy. After abortion, the Th2 response shifted to a Th1-enhanced response. Thus, NO concentrations increase and the Th1-enhanced response may function synergistically to be involved in

  4. Emotional experience in the mornings and the evenings: consideration of age differences in specific emotions by time of day.

    PubMed

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence points to age-related improvements in emotional well-being with age. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of these apparent shifts in experience, we examined age differences in a range of emotional states in the mornings and evenings in a sample of 135 community-residing participants across 10 consecutive days. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 93 years. Each participant completed a diary in the morning and again in the evening every day for the study period. During each of the assessments, participants reported the degree to which they experienced emotions sampled from all four quadrants of the affective circumplex. Overall, participants felt less positive and more negative in the evenings than in the mornings. As expected, older adults reported a relatively more positive emotional experience than younger adults at both times of day. Importantly, however, age effects varied based on emotion type and time of day. Older adults reported experiencing more positive emotion than relatively younger adults across a range of different positive states (although age differences emerged most consistently for low arousal positive states). Age-related reductions in negative experience were observed only for reports of low arousal negative emotions. There were no age differences in anger, anxiety, or sadness. For some emotions, age differences were stronger in the mornings (e.g., relaxed) whereas for other emotions age differences were more pronounced in the evenings (e.g., enthusiastic). Findings are discussed in the context of adulthood changes in motivation and emotional experience.

  5. Improved cognitive morning performance in healthy older adults following blue-enriched light exposure on the previous evening.

    PubMed

    Scheuermaier, Karine; Münch, Mirjam; Ronda, Joseph M; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2018-04-21

    Exposure to light can have acute alerting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study investigated the effects of evening exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic white (BEL) vs. polychromatic white light (WL) on sleep inertia dissipation the following morning in older adults. Ten healthy older adults (average age = 63.3 yrs; 6F) participated in a 13-day study comprising three baseline days, an initial circadian phase assessment, four days with 2-h evening light exposures, a post light exposure circadian phase assessment and three recovery days. Participants were randomized to either BEL or WL of the same irradiance for the four evening light exposures. On the next mornings at 2, 12, 22 and 32 min after each wake time, the participants completed a 90-s digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) to assess working memory, and objective alertness was assessed using a wake EEG recording. DSST and power density from the wake EEG recordings were compared between the two groups. DSST performance improved with time awake (p < 0.0001) and across study days in both light exposure groups (p < 0.0001). There was no main effect of group, although we observed a significant day x group interaction (p = 0.0004), whereby participants exposed to BEL performed significantly better on the first two mornings after light exposures than participants in WL (post-hoc, p < 0.05). On those days, the BEL group showed higher EEG activity in some of the frequency bins in the sigma and beta range (p < 0.05) on the wake EEG. Exposure to blue-enriched white light in the evening significantly improved DSST performance the following morning when compared to polychromatic white light. This was associated with a higher level of objective alertness on the wake EEG, but not with changes in sleep or circadian timing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of chronic food restriction on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity depend on morning versus evening availability of food.

    PubMed

    Belda, Xavier; Ons, Sheila; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Partial food restriction (FR) protocols have been used not only to study behavioral and physiological consequences of decrease food intake, but as a necessary treatment of the animals in some operant learning tasks. It is well-established in rodents that restricting food availability to a few hours in the morning causes an alteration of the daily rhythm of corticosterone, thus making it difficult to evaluate whether or not such treatments are stressful. In the present experiment adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to two different FR schedules: food availability after 1100 h (LFR) or after 1900 h (DFR). After 14 days, animals from both groups, together with corresponding controls, were killed under resting conditions, either in the morning or in the evening, just before daily access to food in FR rats. Both FR schedules reduced body weight gain to the same extent, but their impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was different: DFR increased relative, but not absolute, adrenal weight and morning and evening levels of corticosterone, whereas LFR increased both absolute and relative adrenal weights and increased morning corticosterone levels to a greater extent than DFR rats. Neither serum ACTH nor corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus were altered by DFR or LFR protocols, suggesting that factors other than CRF and ACTH are involved in the control of adrenocortical secretion under FR. It appears that LFR caused more alterations in the HPA axis than DFR and, therefore, the latter FR schedule should be used in those protocols necessarily involving partial FR.

  7. Observations of the Morning Development of the Urban Boundary Layer Over London, UK, Taken During the ACTUAL Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halios, Christos H.; Barlow, Janet F.

    2018-03-01

    The study of the boundary layer can be most difficult when it is in transition and forced by a complex surface, such as an urban area. Here, a novel combination of ground-based remote sensing and in situ instrumentation in central London, UK, is deployed, aiming to capture the full evolution of the urban boundary layer (UBL) from night-time until the fully-developed convective phase. In contrast with the night-time stable boundary layer observed over rural areas, the night-time UBL is weakly convective. Therefore, a new approach for the detection of the morning-transition and rapid-growth phases is introduced, based on the sharp, quasi-linear increase of the mixing height. The urban morning-transition phase varied in duration between 0.5 and 4 h and the growth rate of the mixing layer during the rapid-growth phase had a strong positive relationship with the convective velocity scale, and a weaker, negative relationship with wind speed. Wind shear was found to be higher during the night-time and morning-transition phases than the rapid-growth phase and the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy near the mixing-layer top was around six times larger than surface shear production in summer, and around 1.5 times larger in winter. In summer under low winds, low-level jets dominated the UBL, and shear production was greater than buoyant production during the night-time and the morning-transition phase near the mixing-layer top. Within the rapid-growth phase, buoyant production dominated at the surface, but shear production dominated in the upper half of the UBL. These results imply that regional flows such as low-level jets play an important role alongside surface forcing in determining UBL structure and growth.

  8. Emotional experience in the mornings and the evenings: consideration of age differences in specific emotions by time of day

    PubMed Central

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence points to age-related improvements in emotional well-being with age. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of these apparent shifts in experience, we examined age differences in a range of emotional states in the mornings and evenings in a sample of 135 community-residing participants across 10 consecutive days. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 93 years. Each participant completed a diary in the morning and again in the evening every day for the study period. During each of the assessments, participants reported the degree to which they experienced emotions sampled from all four quadrants of the affective circumplex. Overall, participants felt less positive and more negative in the evenings than in the mornings. As expected, older adults reported a relatively more positive emotional experience than younger adults at both times of day. Importantly, however, age effects varied based on emotion type and time of day. Older adults reported experiencing more positive emotion than relatively younger adults across a range of different positive states (although age differences emerged most consistently for low arousal positive states). Age-related reductions in negative experience were observed only for reports of low arousal negative emotions. There were no age differences in anger, anxiety, or sadness. For some emotions, age differences were stronger in the mornings (e.g., relaxed) whereas for other emotions age differences were more pronounced in the evenings (e.g., enthusiastic). Findings are discussed in the context of adulthood changes in motivation and emotional experience. PMID:24639663

  9. Morning-evening type and burnout level as factors influencing sleep quality of shift nurses: a questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Demir Zencirci, Ayten; Arslan, Sümeyye

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess the relationship between sleep quality and demographic variables, morning-evening type, and burnout in nurses who work shifts. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional self-administered study with forced choice and open-ended structured questionnaires – Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The study was carried out at Gazi University Medicine Faculty Hospital of Ankara on 524 invited nurses from July to September 2008, with a response rate of 89.94% (n = 483). Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to determine the risk factors of poor sleep quality. Results Most socio-demographic variables did not affect sleep quality. Participants with poor sleep quality had quite high burnout levels. Most nurses who belonged to a type that is neither morning nor evening had poor sleep quality. Nurses who experienced an incident worsening their sleep patterns (P < 0.001) and needlestick or sharp object injuries (P = 0.010) in the last month had poor sleep quality. The subjective sleep quality and sleep latency points of evening types within created models for the effect of burnout dimensions were high. Conclusions Nurses working consistently either in the morning or at night had better sleep quality than those working rotating shifts. Further studies are still needed to develop interventions that improve sleep quality and decrease burnout in nurses working shifts. PMID:21853548

  10. Boundary|Time|Surface: Art and Geology Meet in Gros Morne National Park, NL, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Sydney; Waldron, John

    2015-04-01

    Environmental Art works range in scope from major permanent interventions in the landscape to less intrusive, more ephemeral site-specific installations constructed of materials from the local environment. Despite this range of intervention, however, these works all share in a tradition of art making that situates the artwork in direct response to the surrounding landscape. Andy Goldsworthy and Richard Long, for example, both favour methods that combine elements of both sculpture and performance in the creation of non-permanent interventions in the landscape, and both rely upon photographic, text-based, or video documentation as the only lasting indication of the works' existence. Similarly, Earth Scientists are responsible for interventions in the landscape, both physical and conceptual. For example, in Earth science, the periods of the geologic timescale - Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, etc. - were established by 19th century pioneers of geology at a time when they were believed to represent natural chapters in Earth history. Since the mid-20th century, stratigraphers have attempted to resolve ambiguities in the original definitions by defining stratotypes: sections of continuously deposited strata where a single horizon is chosen as a boundary. One such international stratotype, marking the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, is defined at Green Point in Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Boundary|Time|Surface was an ephemeral sculptural installation work constructed in June 2014. The main installation work was a fence of 52 vertical driftwood poles, 2-3 m tall, positioned precisely along the boundary stratotype horizon at Green Point in Newfoundland. The fence extended across a 150 m wave-cut platform from sea cliffs to the low-water mark, separating Ordovician from Cambrian strata. The installation was constructed by hand (with volunteer assistance) on June 22, as the wave-cut platform was exposed by the falling tide. During the remainder of the tidal cycle

  11. A Retrospective Propensity Score-Matched Early Thromboembolic Event Analysis of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate vs Fresh Frozen Plasma for Warfarin Reversal Prior to Emergency Neurosurgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Prateek; Abdullah, Kalil G; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Nayak, Nikhil R; Lucas, Timothy H

    2017-06-29

    Reversal of therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures is required in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage. Multifactor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) promises rapid efficacy but may increase the probability of thrombotic complications compared to fresh frozen plasma (FFP). To compare the rate of thrombotic complications in patients treated with PCC or FFP to reverse therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage at a level I trauma center. Sixty-three consecutive patients on warfarin therapy presenting with intracranial hemorrhage who received anticoagulation reversal prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures were retrospectively identified between 2007 and 2016. They were divided into 2 cohorts based on reversal agent, either PCC (n = 28) or FFP (n = 35). The thrombotic complications rates within 72 h of reversal were compared using the χ 2 test. A multivariate propensity score matching analysis was used to limit the threat to interval validity from selection bias arising from differences in demographics, laboratory values, history, and clinical status. Thrombotic complications were uncommon in this neurosurgical population, occurring in 1.59% (1/63) of treated patients. There was no significant difference in the thrombotic complication rate between groups, 3.57% (1/28; PCC group) vs 0% (0/35; FFP group). Propensity score matching analysis validated this finding after controlling for any selection bias. In this limited sample, thrombotic complication rates were similar between use of PCC and FFP for anticoagulation reversal in the management of intracranial hemorrhage prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  12. Morning and night symptoms in primary care COPD patients: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. An UNLOCK study from the IPCRG

    PubMed Central

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Metting, Esther; van der Molen, Thys; Chavannes, Niels; Kocks, Janwillem

    2016-01-01

    COPD symptoms show a diurnal variability. However, morning and night variability has generally not been taken into consideration in disease management plans. The aims of this study were to cross-sectionally assess morning and night symptom prevalence and correlation with health status and disease severity in COPD, and to determine to what extent they could predict longitudinal outcomes, exacerbations and health status. A further aim is to explore whether the CCQ is able to depict this morning/night symptomatology. We included 2,269 primary care COPD patients (58% male, 49% current smokers, with a mean age of 65±11 years) from a Dutch Asthma/COPD service. Spirometry, patient history, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire(CCQ) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire(ACQ) were assessed; we used the latter to evaluate morning (question 2) and night symptoms (question 1). A total of 1159 (51.9%) patients reported morning symptoms (ACQ question 2>0) and 879 (39.4%) had night complaints (ACQ question 1>0). Patients with morning/night symptoms were mostly smokers and had on average poorer lung function, higher CCQ scores and used more rescue inhalers (P<0.0001). Patients using long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) had less night symptoms, showing a possible favourable effect. Only a small proportion of stable or slightly unstable patients (CCQ total scores <2) had severe morning symptoms (ACQ 2⩾4: n=19, 1.1%) or severe night symptoms (ACQ 1⩾4: n=11, 0.7%). Night symptoms seemed to predict future exacerbations; however, baseline exacerbations were the strongest predictors (n=346, OR:4.13, CI: 2.45−6.95, P<0.000). Morning symptoms increased the odds of poor health status at follow-up (n=346, OR:12.22, CI:4.76−31.39, P<0.000). Morning and night symptoms in COPD patients are common, and they are associated with poor health status and predicted future exacerbations. Our study showed that patients with morning/night symptoms have higher scores in CCQ, and therefore we do

  13. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study.

    PubMed

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-09

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10,269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. UKCRN17071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  14. Adolescent adrenocortical activity and adiposity: differences by sex and exposure to early maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-09-01

    Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elliptical concentrators.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  16. The role of dissolved organic carbon concentration and composition on nickel toxicity to early life-stages of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Dow, Elissa M; Wood, Chris M; McGeer, James C; Smith, D Scott

    2018-05-24

    Nickel (Ni) emissions resulting from production and transportation raise concerns about the impact of Ni exposure to marine ecosystems. Ni bioavailability models are established for FW systems, but the influence of chemical parameters (e.g. dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) on Ni toxicity within marine systems is less well understood. To examine the effects of DOC concentration and composition on Ni toxicity, acute toxicity tests were conducted on early life-stages of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) in full strength sea water (32 ppt). Nine different field collected samples of water with varying concentration (up to 4.5 mg C/L) and composition of DOC were collected from the east coast of the United States. Organic matter compositional analysis included molecular fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. The different DOC sources had different protective effects against embryo toxicity. The control (no DOC) Ni 48 h-EC 50 for Mytilus embryos was 133 µg/L (95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 123-144 µg/L), while Strongylocentrotus embryos displayed control 96-h EC 50 values of 207 µg/L (167-247 µg/L). The most significantly protective sample had high humic acid concentrations (as determined from fluorescence spectroscopy), which yielded an EC 50 of 195 µg/L (169-222 µg/L) for Mytilus, and an EC 50 of 394 µg/L (369-419 µg/L) for S. purpuratus. Among all samples, protection was related to both DOC quantity and quality, with fluorescence-resolved humic and fulvic acid concentrations showing the strongest correlations with protection for both species. These data suggest that DOC is protective against Ni toxicity in M. edulis and S. purpuratus, and that accounting for a DOC quality factor will improve predictive toxicity models such as the biotic ligand model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma zinc, vitamin B(12) and α-tocopherol are positively and plasma γ-tocopherol is negatively associated with Hb concentration in early pregnancy in north-west Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Kabir, Alamgir; Merrill, Rebecca D; Ali, Hasmot; Rashid, Mahbubur; Schulze, Kerry; Labrique, Alain; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the current analysis was to explore the association of multiple micronutrients with Hb concentration among pregnant women in a South Asian setting, a topic that has not been adequately explored. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and micronutrient status (plasma ferritin, transferrin receptor, retinol, a- and g-tocopherol, folate, vitamin B12, Zn) and Hb concentration were assessed at early pregnancy. The biochemical sub-study was nested within a double-blind, placebo-controlled, community-based vitamin A and b-carotene supplementation trial in rural north-western Bangladesh (JiVitA). All assessments were conducted before trial supplementation was initiated. A systematic sample of 285 women was selected from those enrolled in the biochemical sub-study. Seventeen per cent of women were mildly anaemic; moderate and severe anaemia was uncommon (2.1 %). a-Tocopherol, vitamin B12 and Zn deficiencies were common (43.5%, 19.7% and 14.7%, respectively); however, vitamin A, folate and Fe deficiencies were comparatively rare (7.4%, 2.8% and ,1%,respectively). Plasma Zn, vitamin B12 and a-tocopherol were positively associated and plasma g-tocopherol was negatively associated with Hb (P < 0.05) after adjustment for gestational age, inflammation status, season and nutritional status measured by mid-upper arm circumference. Among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh with minimal Fe deficiency, plasma Zn, vitamin B12, and a- and g-tocopherol concentrations were associated with Hb concentration. Appreciating the influence on Hb of micronutrients in addition to those with known associations with anaemia, such as Fe, folate, and vitamin A, is important when addressing anaemia in similar settings.

  18. Effect of morning bright light on body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility measured during 24 hour of constant conditions.

    PubMed

    Foret, J; Aguirre, A; Touitou, Y; Clodoré, M; Benoit, O

    1993-06-11

    Using 24 h constant conditions, time course of body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility was measured in response to a 3 day morning 2 h bright light pulse. This protocol demonstrated that a 2000 lux illumination was sufficient to elicit a shift of about 2 h of temperature minimum and cortisol peak. In reference session, actimetric recordings showed a circadian time course, closely in relation with core temperature. Bright light pulse resulted in a decrease of amplitude and a disappearance of circadian pattern of actimetry.

  19. "Social jetlag" in morning-type college students living on campus: implications for physical and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Ng, Eddie Chi Wai; Hui, Chi-chiu Harry; Cheung, Shu Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2013-08-01

    Although on-campus residence allows easier access to campus facilities, existing studies showed mixed results regarding the relationship between college residence and students' well-being indicators, such as sleep behaviors and mood. There was also a lack of studies investigating the role of chronotype in the relationship between on-campus residence and well-being. In particular, the temporal relationships among these factors were unclear. Hence, this longitudinal study aims to fill in these gaps by first reporting the well-being (measured in terms of mood, sleep, and quality of life) among students living on and off campus across two academic semesters. We explored factors predicting students' dropout in university residences. Although students living on campus differ in their chronotypes, activities in campus residence (if any) are mostly scheduled in the nighttime. We therefore tested if individual differences in chronotype interact with campus residence in affecting well-being. Our final sample consisted of 215 campus residents and 924 off-campus-living students from 10 different universities or colleges in Hong Kong or Macau. Their mean age was 20.2 years (SD=2.3); 6.5% of the participants are female. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires online on their sleep duration, sleep quality, chronotype, mood, and physical and psychological quality of life. Across two academic semesters, we assessed if students living on and off campus differed in our well-being measures after we partialed out the effects of demographic information (including age, sex, family income, and parents' education) and the well-being measures at baseline (T1). The results showed that, campus residents exhibited longer sleep duration, greater sleep efficiency, better sleep quality, and less feeling of stress than off-campus-living students. From one semester to the next, around 10% of campus residents did not continue to live on campus. Logistic regression showed that a morning

  20. Effects of morning vs evening statin administration on lipid profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Awad, Kamal; Serban, Maria-Corina; Penson, Peter; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Toth, Peter P; Jones, Steven R; Rizzo, Manfredi; Howard, George; Lip, Gregory Y H; Banach, Maciej

    Evidence about the optimal time of day at which to administer statins is lacking. The objective of this study is to synthesize evidence about effects of morning vs evening statin administration on lipid profile. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Embase databases (from inception up to July 24, 2016) to identify the relevant studies. Mean differences (MDs) between the change scores in lipid parameters were pooled using a fixed-effect model. Eleven articles with 1034 participants were eligible for the analysis. The pooled analysis comparing effects of morning vs evening administration of statins on plasma total cholesterol (TC; P = .10), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .90), and triglycerides (P = .45) was not statistically significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering was statistically greater in the evening-dose group (MD: 3.24 mg/dL, 95% CI: 1.23-5.25, P = .002). Subgroup analysis according to statin half-lives showed that evening dose of statins was significantly superior to morning dose for lowering LDL-C in case of both short and long half-life statins (MD: 9.68 mg/dL, 95% CI: 3.32-16.03, P = .003 and MD: 2.53 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.41-4.64, P = .02, respectively) and also for TC reduction in case of short half-life statins only (P = .0005). LDL-C and TC lowering was significantly greater in the evening dose than in the morning dose in case of short-acting statins. Besides slight but significant effect on LDL-C, the efficacy of long-acting statins was equivalent for both regimens. Therefore, long-acting statins should be given at a time that will best aid compliance. Short-acting statins should be given in the evening. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Case Study On the Relative Influence of Free Tropospheric Subsidence, Long Range Transport and Local Production in Modulating Ozone Concentrations over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis; Fountoukis, Christos; Gladich, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) operates a network of air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) around the Doha metropolitan area and an ozonesonde station with regular weekly launches and occasional higher frequency launch experiments (HFLE). Six ozonesondes were launched at 0700 LT/0400 UTC and 1300 LT/1000 UTC over a three day period between 10-12 September, 2013. We present the analysis of the ozonesonde data coupled with regional chemical transport modeling over the same time period using WRF-Chem validated against both the ozonesonde and surface AQMS measurements. The HFLE and modeling show evidence of both subsidence and transboundary transport of ozone during the study period, coupled with a strong sea breeze circulation on the 11th of September resulting in elevated ozone concentrations throughout the boundary layer. The development of the sea breeze during the course of the day and influence of the early morning residual layer versus daytime production is quantified. The almost complete titration of ozone in the morning hours of 11 September, 2013 is attributed to local vehicular emissions of NOx and stable atmospheric conditions prevailing over the Doha area. The relative contribution of long range transport of ozone along the Arabian Gulf coast and local urban emissions are discussed.

  2. A low calorie morning meal prevents the decline of hepatic glycogen stores: a pilot in vivo (13)C magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Bawden, S J; Stephenson, M C; Ciampi, E; Hunter, K; Marciani, L; Spiller, R C; Aithal, G P; Morris, P G; Macdonald, I A; Gowland, P A

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have reported a meal-induced rise in hepatic glycogen stores from baseline levels following a fast and it is generally assumed that glycogen levels rise steadily following meals throughout the day. However, measurements are normally taken in conditions that are not typical of the Western breakfast, which is relatively carbohydrate rich with a lower calorific content than most experimental test meals. As such, little is known about the normal metabolic response to a realistic, low calorie morning meal. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of a low dose oral glucose intake on hepatic glycogen levels following an overnight fast in healthy subjects. Glycogen levels were monitored in vivo using (13)C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at baseline and hourly for 4 hours following either a 50 g glucose drink (773 kJ) or a control drink (0 kJ) given over two different visits. During the control visit hepatic glycogen levels decreased throughout the experiment with statistically significant decreases from baseline at 190 minutes (P < 0.05) and 250 minutes (P < 0.05). By contrast, the low dose glucose intake maintained glycogen concentrations with no significant decrease from baseline over 4 hours. A comparison between visits revealed that mean glycogen concentrations were significantly greater during the glucose visit (control visit, AUC = 218 ± 39 mol L(-1) min(-1); glucose visit, AUC = 305 ± 49 mol L(-1) min(-1); P < 0.05). Liver volume decreased significantly from baseline at 180 minutes (P < 0.05) post consumption in both groups, with no significant difference found between visits. Gastric content volumes were significantly higher for the glucose visit immediately following consumption (P < 0.001) and at 60 minutes (P = 0.007) indicating slower gastric emptying for the glucose compared with the control. In conclusion, following an overnight fast, a low dose oral glucose challenge prevents a reduction in hepatic glycogen

  3. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Stress contagion in the classroom? The link between classroom teacher burnout and morning cortisol in elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the link between classroom teachers' burnout levels and students' physiological stress response. Drawing from a stress-contagion framework, we expected higher levels of teacher burnout to be related to elevated cortisol levels in elementary school students (N = 406, 50% female, Mean age = 11.26, SD = .89). Classroom teacher burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory modified for teachers. Salivary cortisol was collected as an indicator of students' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning. We collected salivary cortisol in children at 9 a.m., 11:30 a.m., and 2 p.m. in the classroom setting. Using Multilevel Modeling, we found that children's morning cortisol levels significantly varied between classrooms (10% variability). Higher levels of classroom teacher burnout significantly predicted the variability in morning cortisol. Teacher burnout reduced the unexplained variability in cortisol at the classroom level to 4.6%. This is the first study to show that teachers' occupational stress is linked to students' physiological stress regulation. We discuss the present findings in the context of potential stress contagion in the classroom, considering empirical and practical relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Morning salivary cortisol and cognitive function in mid-life: evidence from a population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, M C; Hertzman, C; Li, L; Power, C

    2012-08-01

    The hormone 'cortisol' has been associated with cognitive deficits in older ages, and also with childhood cognition. The extent to which the associations of cortisol with cognitive deficits in later life reflect associations with childhood cognition ability is unclear. This study aimed to assess associations between adult cortisol levels and subsequent cognitive functions, while considering childhood cognition and other lifetime covariates. Data are from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Two morning salivary cortisol samples were obtained at 45 years: 45 min after waking (t1) and 3 h later (t2). Standardized tests assessing immediate and delayed verbal memory, verbal fluency and speed of processing were administered at 50 years. Information on cortisol, cognitive outcomes and covariates [e.g., birthweight, lifetime socio-economic position (SEP), education, smoking and drinking habits, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, and depression/anxiety] was obtained for 4655 participants. Worse immediate and delayed verbal memory and verbal fluency at 50 years were predicted by elevated t2 cortisol at 45 years. For instance, for 1 standard deviation (s.d.) increase in t2 cortisol, individuals scored -0.05 s.d. lower on verbal memory and fluency tests. Childhood cognition explained about 30% of these associations, but associations with adult cognition remained. This study suggests that higher cortisol levels in late morning at 45 years are associated with poorer verbal memory and fluency at 50 years, with a contribution from childhood cognition to these associations.

  6. Flavoring agents present in a dentifrice can modify volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) formation in morning bad breath.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Salvador, Sérgio Luis; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; Nogueira-Filho, Getúlio da Rocha

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a flavor-containing dentifrice on the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in morning bad breath. A two-step, blinded, crossover, randomized study was carried out in 50 dental students with a healthy periodontium divided into two experimental groups: flavor-containing dentifrice (test) and non-flavor-containing dentifrice (control). The volunteers received the designated dentifrice and a new toothbrush for a 3 X/day brushing regimen for 2 periods of 30 days. A seven-day washout interval was used between the periods. The assessed parameters were: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), organoleptic breath scores (ORG), VSC levels (as measured by a portable sulphide monitor) before (H1) and after (H2) cleaning of the tongue, tongue coating (TC) wet weight and BANA test from TC samples. The intra-group analysis showed a decrease in ORG, from 3 to 2, after 30 days for the test group (p < 0.05). The inter-group analysis showed lower values in ORG, H1 and H2 for the test group (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the amount of TC between groups and the presence of flavor also did not interfere in the BANA results between groups (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that a flavor-containing dentifrice seems to prevent VSCs formation in morning bad breath regardless of the amount of TC in periodontally healthy subjects.

  7. Likelihood analysis of the chalcone synthase genes suggests the role of positive selection in morning glories (Ipomoea).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji; Gu, Hongya; Yang, Ziheng

    2004-01-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoides, which are important for the pigmentation of flowers and act as attractants to pollinators. Genes encoding CHS constitute a multigene family in which the copy number varies among plant species and functional divergence appears to have occurred repeatedly. In morning glories (Ipomoea), five functional CHS genes (A-E) have been described. Phylogenetic analysis of the Ipomoea CHS gene family revealed that CHS A, B, and C experienced accelerated rates of amino acid substitution relative to CHS D and E. To examine whether the CHS genes of the morning glories underwent adaptive evolution, maximum-likelihood models of codon substitution were used to analyze the functional sequences in the Ipomoea CHS gene family. These models used the nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratio (omega = d(N)/ d(S)) as an indicator of selective pressure and allowed the ratio to vary among lineages or sites. Likelihood ratio test suggested significant variation in selection pressure among amino acid sites, with a small proportion of them detected to be under positive selection along the branches ancestral to CHS A, B, and C. Positive Darwinian selection appears to have promoted the divergence of subfamily ABC and subfamily DE and is at least partially responsible for a rate increase following gene duplication.

  8. Circumnutation and its dependence on the gravity response in rice, morning glory and pea plants: verification by spaceflight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Akie; Fujii, Nobuharu; Yano, Sachiko; Shimazu, Toru; Kim, Hyejeong; Tomita, Yuuta; Miyazawa, Yutaka

    Plant organs display helical growth movement known as circumnutation. This movement helps plant organs find suitable environmental cues. The amplitude, period and shape of the circumnutation differ depending on plant species or organs. Although the mechanism for circumnutation is unclear, it has long been argued whether circumnutation is involved with gravitropic response. Previously, we showed that shoots of weeping morning glory (we1 and we2) are impaired in not only the differentiation of endodermis (gravisensing cells) and gravitropic response, but also winding and circumnutation (Kitazawa et al., PNAS 102: 18742-18747, 2005). Here, we report a reduced circumnutation in the shoots of rice and the roots of pea mutants defective in gravitropic response. Coleoptiles of clinorotated rice seedlings and decapped roots of pea seedlings also showed a reduction of their circumnutational movement. These results suggest that circumnutation is tightly related with gravitropic response. In the proposed spaceflight experiments, “Plant Rotation”, we will verify the hypothesis that circumnutation requires gravity response, by using microgravity environment in KIBO module of the International Space Station. We will grow rice and morning glory plants under both muG and 1G conditions on orbit and monitor their growth by a camera. The downlinked images will be analyzed for the measurements of plant growth and nutational movements. This experiment will enable us to answer the question whether circumnutation depends on gravity response or not.

  9. Estimating Morning Change in Land Surface Temperature from MODIS Day/Night Observations: Applications for Surface Energy Balance Modeling.

    PubMed

    Hain, Christopher R; Anderson, Martha C

    2017-10-16

    Observations of land surface temperature (LST) are crucial for the monitoring of surface energy fluxes from satellite. Methods that require high temporal resolution LST observations (e.g., from geostationary orbit) can be difficult to apply globally because several geostationary sensors are required to attain near-global coverage (60°N to 60°S). While these LST observations are available from polar-orbiting sensors, providing global coverage at higher spatial resolutions, the temporal sampling (twice daily observations) can pose significant limitations. For example, the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance model, used for monitoring evapotranspiration and drought, requires an observation of the morning change in LST - a quantity not directly observable from polar-orbiting sensors. Therefore, we have developed and evaluated a data-mining approach to estimate the mid-morning rise in LST from a single sensor (2 observations per day) of LST from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Aqua platform. In general, the data-mining approach produced estimates with low relative error (5 to 10%) and statistically significant correlations when compared against geostationary observations. This approach will facilitate global, near real-time applications of ALEXI at higher spatial and temporal coverage from a single sensor than currently achievable with current geostationary datasets.

  10. Changes in concentrations of cortisol and melatonin in plasma, expression of synaptophysin, and ultrastructural properties of pinealocytes in goat kids in situations of stress due to early weaning: the effect of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Redondo, E; Franco, A; Garcia, A; Masot, A J

    2010-06-01

    To analyse the changes in some histo-physiological parameters of the pineal gland of goat kids in situations of stress due to early weaning, and the effect of exogenous treatment with melatonin. Twenty-four 6-day-old Verata goat kids were used; 12 suckled their dams throughout the study (non-weaned groups), and the other 12 were removed from their dams and fed a milk replacer (weaned groups). Six goat kids in each group were treated with melatonin, and the other six with double-distilled pyrogen-free water (Day 0). On Days 28-29, blood samples were collected at 0600, 1000, 1400, 1800, 2200, 0200 and 0600 hours, to determine concentrations of cortisol and melatonin in plasma. On Days 29 and 30, six animals per group (three at 1400 and three at 0200 hours, respectively) were subject to euthanasia and the weight of their pineal glands determined. The structural immunocytochemistry, morphometric analysis, ultrastructural analysis and immunotransmission electron microscopy of the pineal glands were established. Concentrations of cortisol in plasma were significantly higher in weaned than in non-weaned goat kids (p<0.05), and treatment with melatonin reduced the concentrations in weaned kids (p<0.05). Concentrations of melatonin in plasma showed a similar pattern in the four groups, with peak values at 0200 and troughs at 1400 hours. Mean concentrations of melatonin in plasma in weaned goat kids were significantly lower than those in the other groups (p<0.05). In weaned goat kids not treated with melatonin, the weight and volume of the pineal gland, and number of pinealocytes, were significantly lower when compared with those from non-weaned kids (p<0.05). Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of pinealocytes showed the relative volume of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex was significantly lower in weaned than non-weaned goat kids (p<0.05); treatment with melatonin significantly increased these parameters in weaned kids. Taken together, these

  11. Morning Versus Evening Bright Light Treatment at Home to Improve Function and Pain Sensitivity for Women with Fibromyalgia: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Helen J; Park, Margaret; Ong, Jason C; Shakoor, Najia; Williams, David A; Burns, John

    2017-01-01

    To test the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a home-based morning versus evening bright light treatment on function and pain sensitivity in women with fibromyalgia. A single blind randomized study with two treatment arms: 6 days of a 1 hour morning light treatment or 6 days of a 1 hour evening light treatment. Function, pain sensitivity, and circadian timing were assessed before and after treatment. Participants slept at home, except for two nights in Sleep Center. Ten women meeting the American College of Rheumatology's diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia, including normal blood test results. Self-reported function was assessed with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Pain sensitivity was assessed using a heat stimulus that gave measures of threshold and tolerance. Circadian timing was assessed with the dim light melatonin onset. Both morning and evening light treatments led to improvements in function and pain sensitivity. However, only the morning light treatment led to a clinically meaningful improvement in function (>14% reduction from baseline FIQ) and morning light significantly increased pain threshold more than evening light ( P  < 0.05). Phase advances in circadian timing were associated with an increase in pain tolerance (r = 0.67, P  < 0.05). Bright light treatment appears to be a feasible and acceptable adjunctive treatment to women with fibromyalgia. Those who undergo morning light treatment may show improvements in function and pain sensitivity. Advances in circadian timing may be one mechanism by which morning light improves pain sensitivity. Findings can inform the design of a randomized controlled trial. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Toward Shorter Hospitalization After Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery: Day-by-Day Analysis of Early Postoperative Complications and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Shimanskaya, Viktoria E; Wagenmakers, Margreet A E M; Bartels, Ronald H M A; Boogaarts, Hieronymus D; Grotenhuis, J André; Hermus, Ad R M M; van de Ven, Annenienke C; van Lindert, Erik J

    2018-03-01

    It is unclear which patients have the greatest risk of developing complications in the first days after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery (ETS) and how long patients should stay hospitalized after surgery. The objective of this study is to identify which patients are at risk for early postoperative medical and surgical reinterventions to optimize the length of hospitalization. The medical records of 146 patients who underwent ETS for a pituitary adenoma between January 2013 and July 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected on baseline patient-related characteristics, characteristics of the pituitary adenoma, perioperative complications and interventions, and postoperative outcomes. Patients who underwent additional interventions on days 2, 3, and 4 after ETS were identified as cases, and patients who did not have any interventions after day 1 postoperatively were identified as controls. Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 4.279; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.149-15.933; P = 0.03), incomplete adenoma resection (OR, 2.840; 95% CI, 1.228-6.568; P = 0.02) and increased morning sodium concentration on day 2 after surgery (OR, 5.211; 95% CI, 2.158-12.579; P <0.001) were associated with reinterventions. Patients without interventions on day 1 or 2 had only an 18.6% chance of a reintervention (OR, 0.201; 95% CI, 0.095-0.424). Patients with diabetes mellitus, incomplete adenoma resection, and increased morning sodium concentration on day 2 after surgery have an increased chance on reinterventions. In addition, patients without any interventions on day 1 and 2 are at low risk for later reinterventions. These patients could be suitable candidates for early hospital discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery.

    PubMed

    Mokart, D; Merlin, M; Sannini, A; Brun, J P; Delpero, J R; Houvenaeghel, G; Moutardier, V; Blache, J L

    2005-06-01

    Patients who undergo major surgery for cancer are at high risk of postoperative sepsis. Early markers of septic complications would be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic management in patients with postoperative sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early (first postoperative day) changes in interleukin 6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum concentrations and the occurrence of subsequent septic complications after major surgery. Serial blood samples were collected from 50 consecutive patients for determination of IL-6, PCT and CRP serum levels. Blood samples were obtained on the morning of surgery and on the morning of the first postoperative day. Sixteen patients developed septic complications during the first five postoperative days (group 1), and 34 patients developed no septic complications (group 2). On day 1, PCT and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in group 1 (P-values of 0.003 and 0.006, respectively) but CRP levels were similar. An IL-6 cut-off point set at 310 pg ml(-1) yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 58% to differentiate group 1 patients from group 2 patients. When associated with the occurrence of SIRS on day 1 these values reached 100% and 79%, respectively. A PCT cut-off point set at 1.1 ng ml(-1) yielded a sensitivi