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Sample records for early morning sector

  1. The Morning Message in Early Childhood Classrooms: Guidelines for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2011-01-01

    The Morning Message is a commonly implemented activity in early childhood settings, appearing as a part of the daily schedule in many classrooms. However, there is limited research on what are the most effective ways to use the Morning Message to promote print awareness. The goal of this paper is to present suggested guidelines for implementing…

  2. Relations between morning sector Pi 1 pulsation activity and particle and field characteristics observed by the DE 2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Winningham, J. D.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Sugiura, M.

    1986-01-01

    Ground-based magnetometer, photometer, and riometer data are combined with low-altitude particle and electric and magnetic field data from the DE-2 spacecraft to provide a more complete characterization of the magnetospheric and tropospheric environment in which morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are observed. The results of the study are in agreement with recent conclusions that morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are physically related to pulsating aurorae. Precipitation of energetic electrons (E greater than 35 keV) coincides in every instance with the occurrence of these pulsations.

  3. View of the early morning launch of STS 41-G Challenger

    1984-10-05

    View of the early morning launch of STS 41-G Challenger. The dark launch complex is illuminated by spotlights as the orbiter begins its ascent from the pad. The light is reflected off the clouds of smoke from the orbiter's engines.

  4. The treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia with 2 evenings of bright light.

    PubMed

    Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kemp, Kristyn; Gibbon, Samantha

    2005-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of brief bright-light therapy for the treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia. Twenty-four healthy adults with early-morning awakening insomnia were assigned to either the bright-light condition (2,500-lux white light) or the control (dim red light) condition. The circadian phase of rectal temperature and urinary melatonin rhythms were assessed with 26-hour constant routines before and after 2 evenings of light therapy. Sleep and daytime functioning were monitored using sleep diaries, activity monitors, and mood scales before light therapy and for 4 weeks during the follow-up period. While there were no significant circadian phase changes in the dim-light control group, the bright-light group had significant 2-hour phase delays of circadian temperature and melatonin rhythm. Compared to pretreatment measures, over the 4-week follow-up period, the bright-light group had a greater reduction of time awake after sleep onset, showed a trend toward waking later, and had a greater increase of total sleep time. Participants in the bright-light condition also tended to report greater reductions of negative daytime symptoms, including significantly fewer days of feeling depressed at the 4-week follow-up, as compared with the control group. Two evenings of bright-light exposure phase delayed the circadian rhythms of early-morning awakening insomniacs. It also improved diary and actigraphy sleep measures and improved some indexes of daytime functioning for up to 1 month after light exposure. The study suggests that a brief course of evening bright-light therapy can be an effective treatment for early-morning awakening insomniacs who have relatively phase advanced circadian rhythms.

  5. Pre-dawn stomatal opening does not substantially enhance early-morning photosynthesis in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Lisa; Easlon, Hsien M; Levine, Diedre; Donovan, Lisa; Richards, James H

    2014-06-01

    Most C3 plant species have partially open stomata during the night especially in the 3-5 h before dawn. This pre-dawn stomatal opening has been hypothesized to enhance early-morning photosynthesis (A) by reducing diffusion limitations to CO2 at dawn. We tested this hypothesis in cultivated Helianthus annuus using whole-shoot gas exchange, leaf level gas exchange and modelling approaches. One hour pre-dawn low-humidity treatments were used to reduce pre-dawn stomatal conductance (g). At the whole-shoot level, a difference of pre-dawn g (0.40 versus 0.17 mol m(-2) s(-1)) did not significantly affect A during the first hour after dawn. Shorter term effects were investigated with leaf level gas exchange measurements and a difference of pre-dawn g (0.10 versus 0.04 mol m(-2) s(-1)) affected g and A for only 5 min after dawn. The potential effects of a wider range of stomatal apertures were explored with an empirical model of the relationship between A and intercellular CO2 concentration during the half-hour after dawn. Modelling results demonstrated that even extremely low pre-dawn stomatal conductance values have only a minimal effect on early-morning A for a few minutes after dawn. Thus, we found no evidence that pre-dawn stomatal opening enhances A.

  6. Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Abdul Hadi; Raghavendra Rao, Nidagurthi Guggilla; Avanapu, Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of present research was to develop matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam filled in capsule for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Materials and Methods: Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam were prepared by direct compression method using microsomal enzyme dependent and pH-sensitive polymers which were further filled into an empty HPMC capsule. To assess the compatibility, FT-IR and DSC studies for pure drug, polymers and their physical mixture were performed. The formulated batches were subjected to physicochemical studies, estimation of drug content, in vitro drug release, drug release kinetics, and stability studies. Results: When FTIR and DSC studies were performed it was found that there was no interaction between lornoxicam and polymers which used. All the physicochemical properties of prepared matrix-mini-tablets were found to be in normal limits. The percentage of drug content was found to be 99.60±0.07%. Our optimized matrix mini-tablets-filled-capsule formulation F30 released lornoxicam after a lag time of 5.02±0.92 hr, 95.48±0.65 % at the end of 8 hr and 99.90±0.83 % at the end of 12 hr. Stability was also found for this formulation as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Conclusion: A novel colon targeted delivery system of lornoxicam was successfully developed by filling matrix-mini-tablets into an empty HPMC capsule shell for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24967065

  7. Sudden early-morning awakening impairs immediate tactical planning in a changing 'emergency' scenario.

    PubMed

    Horne, Jim; Moseley, Robert

    2011-06-01

    This was a realistic military-type exercise assessing unexpected, abrupt early-morning awakening effects on immediate 'executive function' and the ability to comprehend and deal with a sudden emergency under a changing situation. Twenty (average age 21years) healthy, highly motivated junior officer reservists were assigned randomly to two equal, independent groups, unforewarned as to what would happen. The experimental group was woken abruptly at 03:00h (<3h sleep) and confronted immediately with a 'paper exercise' of an enemy attack, requiring a feasible plan of engagement with minimal loss of resources, to be completed within 15min. A control group slept until 07:30h; they were then presented with the identical emergency 1h later. Participants worked individually, under time pressure, receiving written information, map and other details, all containing relevant, irrelevant and misleading information. Halfway through, they were given (unexpectedly) a critical update necessitating a change of tactics. Performance was scored blind by instructors, under five categories. Eight of the experimental group versus three controls failed overall, with significant group differences on three specific categories relying on flexible decision-making: 'identification of available cover', 'use of available assets' and 'extraction of relevant from irrelevant information'. Other, logical and highly trained skills were unimpaired. Ours was a 'worst case scenario', combining short sleep, circadian 'trough' and sleep inertia, all of which differentiated the two groups, unlike typical laboratory studies. Nevertheless, it was relevant to real-life situations involving highly motivated, trained individuals making critical innovative decisions in the early morning versus the normal waking day. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Effects of early morning nap sleep on associative memory for neutral and emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sopp, Marie Roxanne; Michael, Tanja; Mecklinger, Axel

    2018-06-18

    Emotional events are preferentially retained in episodic memory. This effect is commonly attributed to enhanced consolidation and has been linked specifically to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep physiology. While several studies have demonstrated an enhancing effect of REM sleep on emotional item memory, it has not been thoroughly explored whether this effect extends to the retention of associative memory. Moreover, it is unclear how non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep contributes to these effects. The present study thus examined associative recognition of emotional and non-emotional material across an early morning nap (N= 23) and sustained wakefulness (N= 23). Nap group subjects demonstrated enhanced post-sleep associative memory performance, which was evident across both valence categories. Subsequent analyses revealed significant correlations between NREM spindle density and pre-sleep memory performance. Moreover, NREM spindle density was positively correlated with post-sleep neutral associative memory performance but not with post-sleep emotional associative memory. Accordingly, only neutral associative memory, but not emotional associative memory, was significantly correlated with spindle density after an additional night of sleep (+24 h). These results illustrate a temporally persistent relationship between spindle density and memory for neutral associations, whereas post-sleep emotional associative memory appears to be disengaged from NREM-sleep-dependent processes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. An eleven year old boy with pain abdomen and early morning neuroparalytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Milap; Kalia, Shaurya; Sharma, Seema

    2016-08-01

    An 11 year old boy presented with pain abdomen and tenderness all over body when he got up from sleep early in the morning and subsequently had one vomiting after 30 min. He had no other significant past medical history. The child was shifted to nearby health facility where he was managed as a case of acute abdomen on the basis of suggestive history and clinical findings. Within 2 h after the onset of clinical features suggestive of acute abdomen the patient went on to develop marked ptosis and flaccid quadriplegia. The young boy underwent a sequence of clinical tests which were noncontributory. Based on the clinical picture, a differential diagnosis of hypokalemic paralysis, botulism, Miller Fischer syndrome and EMNS were considered. Through exclusion, the most probable diagnosis for the symptoms was elapid envenomation hence he was started on anti-snake venom (ASV) with working diagnosis of EMNS. Within 2 h, he began to show improvement. This recovery with ASV suggests the possibility of elapid envenomation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Orbitofrontal Gray Matter Relates to Early Morning Awakening: A Neural Correlate of Insomnia Complaints?

    PubMed Central

    Stoffers, Diederick; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen; van Tol, Marie-José; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep complaints increase profoundly with age; prevalence estimates of insomnia in the elderly reach up to 37%. The three major types of nocturnal complaints are difficulties initiating (DIS) and maintaining (DMS) sleep and early morning awakening (EMA), of which the latter appears most characteristic for aging. The neural correlates associated with these complaints have hardly been investigated, hampering the development of rational treatment and prevention. A recent study on structural brain correlates of insomnia showed that overall severity, but not duration, of insomnia complaints is associated with lower gray matter (GM) density in part of the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Following up on this, we investigated, in an independent sample of people not diagnosed with insomnia, whether individual differences in GM density are associated with differences in DIS, DMS, and EMA. Sixty five healthy participants (mean age = 41 years, range 18–56) filled out questionnaires and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Three compound Z-scores were computed for questionnaire items relating to DIS, DMS, and EMA. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate their association with GM density. Results show that participants with lower GM density in a region where the left inferior OFC borders the insula report more EMA, but not DIS or DMS. This is the first study to investigate structural brain correlates of specific sleep characteristics that can translate into complaints in insomniacs. The selective association of EMA with orbitofrontal GM density makes our findings particularly relevant to elderly people, where EMA represents the most characteristic complaint. It is hypothesized that low GM density in aforementioned orbitofrontal area affects its role in sensing comfort. An intact ability to evaluate comfort may be crucial to maintain sleep, especially at the end of the night when sleep is vulnerable because homeostatic sleep propensity has

  11. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  12. Spot sputum samples are at least as good as early morning samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael E; Phillips, Patrick P J; Mendel, Carl M; Bongard, Emily; Bateson, Anna L C; Hunt, Robert; Murthy, Saraswathi; Singh, Kasha P; Brown, Michael; Crook, Angela M; Nunn, Andrew J; Meredith, Sarah K; Lipman, Marc; McHugh, Timothy D; Gillespie, Stephen H

    2017-10-27

    The use of early morning sputum samples (EMS) to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) can result in treatment delay given the need for the patient to return to the clinic with the EMS, increasing the chance of patients being lost during their diagnostic workup. However, there is little evidence to support the superiority of EMS over spot sputum samples. In this new analysis of the REMoxTB study, we compare the diagnostic accuracy of EMS with spot samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis pre- and post-treatment. Patients who were smear positive at screening were enrolled into the study. Paired sputum samples (one EMS and one spot) were collected at each trial visit pre- and post-treatment. Microscopy and culture on solid LJ and liquid MGIT media were performed on all samples; those missing corresponding paired results were excluded from the analyses. Data from 1115 pre- and 2995 post-treatment paired samples from 1931 patients enrolled in the REMoxTB study were analysed. Patients were recruited from South Africa (47%), East Africa (21%), India (20%), Asia (11%), and North America (1%); 70% were male, median age 31 years (IQR 24-41), 139 (7%) co-infected with HIV with a median CD4 cell count of 399 cells/μL (IQR 318-535). Pre-treatment spot samples had a higher yield of positive Ziehl-Neelsen smears (98% vs. 97%, P = 0.02) and LJ cultures (87% vs. 82%, P = 0.006) than EMS, but there was no difference for positivity by MGIT (93% vs. 95%, P = 0.18). Contaminated and false-positive MGIT were found more often with EMS rather than spot samples. Surprisingly, pre-treatment EMS had a higher smear grading and shorter time-to-positivity, by 1 day, than spot samples in MGIT culture (4.5 vs. 5.5 days, P < 0.001). There were no differences in time to positivity in pre-treatment LJ culture, or in post-treatment MGIT or LJ cultures. Comparing EMS and spot samples in those with unfavourable outcomes, there were no differences in smear or culture results, and

  13. Early morning oedema in patients with primary varicose veins without trophic changes.

    PubMed

    Rastel, Didier; Allaert, François-André

    2016-11-01

    Chronic lower limb oedema is one of the complications of superficial or deep chronic venous disorders. It is ranked as "C3"on the CEAP classification. In epidemiological studies, the recognition of oedema is mainly based on clinical signs, and oedema is more easily detected in the second part of the day when it becomes evident. We addressed the question whether oedema is already present in the morning in patients suffering of primary varicose veins without trophic changes. In total, 101 patients with primary varicose veins (C2 and/or C3 stage of the CEAP classification) and 122 controls were enrolled as they appeared in our centre. The consultation time was no later than 6 hours after the patient had woken up. Oedema was detected by pitting test and ultrasound. The mean consultation time lapse was 3.7 ± 1.2 hours after waking-up. Oedema was more frequent in the group of primary varicose veins without trophic changes (36 % compared to 14 % in the control group; p < 0.01). Oedema was mainly detected by ultrasound and far less so by the pitting test. Patients with varicose veins have morning oedema more frequently than patients without varicosis and at a higher rate than in epidemiological studies.

  14. Early-Morning Flow Transition in a Valley in Low-Mountain Terrain Under Clear-Sky Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brötz, Björn; Eigenmann, Rafael; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Foken, Thomas; Wirth, Volkmar

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the evolution of the early-morning boundary layer in a low-mountain valley in south-western Germany during COPS (convective and orographically induced precipitation study) in summer 2007. The term low-mountain refers to a mountainous region with a relief of gentle slopes and with an absolute altitude that remains under a specified height (usually 1,500 m a.s.l.). A subset of 23 fair weather days from the campaign was selected to study the transition of the boundary-layer flow in the early morning. The typical valley atmosphere in the morning hours was characterized by a stable temperature stratification and a pronounced valley wind system. During the reversal period—called the low wind period—of the valley wind system (duration of 1-2 h), the horizontal flow was very weak and the conditions for free convection were fulfilled close to the ground. Ground-based sodar observations of the vertical wind show enhanced values of upward motion, and the corresponding statistical properties differ from those observed under windless convective conditions over flat terrain. Large-eddy simulations of the boundary-layer transition in the valley were conducted, and statistical properties of the simulated flow agree with the observed quantities. Spatially coherent turbulence structures are present in the temporal as well as in the ensemble mean analysis. Thus, the complex orography induces coherent convective structures at predictable, specific locations during the early-morning low wind situations. These coherent updrafts, found in both the sodar observations and the simulation, lead to a flux counter to the gradient of the stably stratified valley atmosphere and reach up to the heights of the surrounding ridges. Furthermore, the energy balance in the surface layer during the low wind periods is closed. However, it becomes unclosed after the onset of the valley wind. The partition into the sensible and the latent heat fluxes indicates that missing flux

  15. Observations of the Early Morning Boundary-Layer Transition with Small Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Rau, Gerrit Anke; Bange, Jens

    2015-12-01

    A remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA), equipped with a high resolution thermodynamic sensor package, was used to investigate physical processes during the morning transition of the atmospheric boundary layer over land. Experiments were conducted at a test site in heterogeneous terrain in south-west Germany on 5 days from June to September 2013 in an evolving shallow convective boundary layer, which then developed into a well-mixed layer later in the day. A combination of vertical profiling and constant-altitude profiling (CAP) at 100 m height above ground level was chosen as the measuring strategy throughout the experiment. The combination of flight strategies allows the application of mixed-layer scaling using the boundary-layer height z_i, convective velocity scale w_* and convective temperature scale θ _*. The hypothesis that mixed-layer theory is valid during the whole transition was not confirmed for all parameters. A good agreement is found for temperature variances, especially in the upper half of the boundary layer, and the normalized heat-flux profile. The results were compared to a previous study with the helicopter-borne turbulence probe Helipod, and it was found that similar data quality can be achieved with the RPA. On all days, the CAP flight level was within the entrainment zone for a short time, and the horizontal variability of temperature and water vapour along the flight path is presented as an example of the inhomogeneity of layer interfaces in the boundary layer. The study serves as a case study of the possibilities and limitations with state-of-the-art RPA technology in micrometeorology.

  16. Morning sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluids. Eat foods high in protein and complex carbohydrates, such as peanut butter on apple slices or celery; nuts; cheese; crackers; milk; cottage cheese; and yogurt; avoid foods high in fat and salt, but low in nutrition. Ginger products (proven effective against morning sickness) such ...

  17. Use of day 1 early morning cortisol to predict the need for glucocorticoid replacement after pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Bondugulapati, L N Rao; Campbell, Christopher; Chowdhury, Sharmistha Roy; Goetz, Pablo; Davies, J Stephen; Rees, D Aled; Hayhurst, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adrenal reserve in patients who have undergone pituitary surgery is crucial. However, there is no clear consensus with regards to the type and timing of the test that should be used in the immediate post-operative period. Recently, there has been increased interest in measuring post-operative cortisol levels. We present our data utilising day 1 post-operative early morning cortisol as a tool to assess adrenal reserve in steroid-naive patients. A retrospective analysis of endoscopic pituitary surgery undertaken over a 2-year period. 82 patients underwent 84 surgeries in total. Patients who were already on glucocorticoids pre-operatively and patients with Cushing's disease, pituitary apoplexy and those without follow-up data were excluded, leaving a study group of 44 patients with 45 operations. A 9am day 1 post-operative cortisol value of > 400 nmol/L was taken as an indicator of adequate adrenal reserve. All the patients were reassessed at 6 weeks with a standard short synacthen test (SST) using 250 micrograms of intravenous synacthen. 22 out of 45 patients had a cortisol value of > 400 nmol/L on day 1 post-operatively and were discharged without glucocorticoid supplementation. Of these, only 2 patients subsequently failed the SST when reassessed at 6-8 weeks. The remaining 23 patients had a cortisol value of < 400 nmol/L on day 1 post-operatively and were discharged on hydrocortisone 10 mg twice daily. At 6-8 weeks, nine continued to show suboptimal stimulated cortisol levels whereas the remaining fourteen patients showed adequate adrenal reserve. The 9 am cortisol value had high specificity (81.8%) and positive predictive value (90.9%) for integrity of the HPA axis. Sensitivity was 58.8% and negative predictive value was 39.1%. A day 1 post-operative early morning cortisol is a useful tool to predict adrenal reserve post-pituitary surgery, enabling clinicians to avoid unnecessary blanket glucocorticoid replacement.

  18. The impact of an early-morning radiologist work shift on the timeliness of communicating urgent imaging findings on portable chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Kaewlai, Rathachai; Greene, Reginald E; Asrani, Ashwin V; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of staggered radiologist work shifts on the timeliness of communicating urgent imaging findings that are detected on portable overnight chest radiography of hospitalized patients. The authors conducted a retrospective study that compared the interval between the acquisition and communication of urgent findings on portable overnight critical care chest radiography detected by an early-morning shift for radiologists (3 am to 11 am) with historical experience with a standard daytime shift (8 am to 5 pm) in the detection and communication of urgent findings in a similar patient population a year earlier. During a 4-month period, 6,448 portable chest radiographic studies were interpreted on the early-morning radiologist shift. Urgent findings requiring immediate communication were detected in 308 (4.8%) studies. The early-morning shift of radiologists, on average, communicated these findings 2 hours earlier compared with the historical control group (P < .001). Staggered radiologist work shifts that include an early-morning shift can improve the timeliness of reporting urgent findings on overnight portable chest radiography of hospitalized patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Early morning awakening and nonrestorative sleep are associated with increased minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Chen, Ching-Min; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Tsai, Jen-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between a composite measure of insomnia and occupational or fatal accidents has been investigated previously; however, little is known regarding the effect of various insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. We investigated the predicting role of insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. Data from the 2005 Taiwan Social Development Trend Survey of 36,473 Taiwanese aged ≥18 years were analyzed in 2013. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and nonrestorative sleep (NRS) were investigated. A minor non-fatal accident was defined as any mishap such as forgetting to turn off the gas or faucets, accidental falls, and abrasions or cuts occurring during work and leisure time in the past month that do not require immediate medical attention. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) of minor non-fatal accidents (as a binary variable) for each insomnia symptom compared with those of people presenting no symptoms, while controlling for possible confounders. EMA and NRS increased the odds of minor non-fatal accidents occurring during work and leisure time (adjusted OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.08-1.32 and adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.17-1.37, respectively). EMA and NRS are two symptoms that are significantly associated with an increased likelihood of minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time after adjusting for of a range of covariates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Being a Manager in the English Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on interviews with 29 managers and deputy managers within 15 nurseries in the private sector in England. The author argues that, whilst there is a growing literature on management and professionalism within the Early Years (EY) sector, there is less known about the actual experiences of being a manager in this context. Many of…

  1. Early Morning Functional Impairments in Stimulant-Treated Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Versus Controls: Impact on the Family

    PubMed Central

    Schachar, Russell J.; Barkley, Russell A.; Nullmeier, Rick; Sallee, F. Randy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently manifest early morning functional (EMF) impairments before school. We conducted a quantitative research survey to assess the impact of these EMF impairments on the family unit (caregiver, spouse/partner, and siblings). Study Design: We developed an online survey questionnaire to collect data from 300 primary caregivers of children with ADHD and 50 primary caregivers of children who did not have ADHD. Results: Although the ADHD children we surveyed were currently treated with stable doses of stimulants as their primary ADHD medication for at least 3 months, their parents reported high levels of EMF impairments in the child, which had a substantial negative effect on the emotional well-being of parents, on parents' functioning during the early morning routine, and on the level of conflict with siblings. The impact of EMF impairments on family functioning was mediated by the severity of the index child's impairments. Conclusions: EMF impairments exert a pervasive and significantly negative emotional and functional burden on not only the primary caregiver but also on the spouse/partner and siblings. This work suggests that adequate ADHD symptom control during the early morning period may be an unmet need for school-age children with ADHD being treated with stimulants. More work is needed to confirm this finding and determine the degree to which symptom control at other times of day is also an unmet need. PMID:28394175

  2. Early Morning Functional Impairments in Stimulant-Treated Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Versus Controls: Impact on the Family.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Schachar, Russell J; Barkley, Russell A; Nullmeier, Rick; Sallee, F Randy

    2017-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently manifest early morning functional (EMF) impairments before school. We conducted a quantitative research survey to assess the impact of these EMF impairments on the family unit (caregiver, spouse/partner, and siblings). We developed an online survey questionnaire to collect data from 300 primary caregivers of children with ADHD and 50 primary caregivers of children who did not have ADHD. Although the ADHD children we surveyed were currently treated with stable doses of stimulants as their primary ADHD medication for at least 3 months, their parents reported high levels of EMF impairments in the child, which had a substantial negative effect on the emotional well-being of parents, on parents' functioning during the early morning routine, and on the level of conflict with siblings. The impact of EMF impairments on family functioning was mediated by the severity of the index child's impairments. EMF impairments exert a pervasive and significantly negative emotional and functional burden on not only the primary caregiver but also on the spouse/partner and siblings. This work suggests that adequate ADHD symptom control during the early morning period may be an unmet need for school-age children with ADHD being treated with stimulants. More work is needed to confirm this finding and determine the degree to which symptom control at other times of day is also an unmet need.

  3. Predictors of patient reluctance to wake early in the morning for bowel preparation for colonoscopy: a precolonoscopy survey in city-wide practice.

    PubMed

    Shafer, L A; Walker, J R; Waldman, C; Michaud, V; Yang, C; Bernstein, C N; Hathout, L; Park, J; Sisler, J; Wittmeier, K; Restall, G; Singh, H

    2018-06-01

     Many endoscopists do not use split-dose bowel preparation (SDBP) for morning colonoscopies. Despite SDBP being recommended practice, they believe patients will not agree to take early morning bowel preparation (BP). We assessed patients' opinions about waking early for BP.  A self-administered survey was distributed between 08/2015 and 06/2016 to patients in Winnipeg, Canada when they attended an outpatient colonoscopy. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of reluctance to use early morning BP.  Of the 1336 respondents (52 % female, median age 57 years), 33 % had used SDBP for their current colonoscopy. Of the 1336, 49 % were willing, 24 % neutral, and 27 % reluctant to do early morning BP. Predictors of reluctant versus willing were number of prior colonoscopies (OR 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.07 - 1.35), female gender (OR 1.65; 95 %CI: 1.19 - 2.29), unclear BP information (OR 1.86; 95 %CI: 1.21 - 2.85), high BP anxiety (OR 2.02; 95 %CI: 1.35 - 3.02), purpose of current colonoscopy being bowel symptoms (OR 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.00 - 1.97), use of 4 L of polyethylene glycol laxative (OR 1.45; 95 %CI: 1.02 - 2.06), not having SDBP (OR 1.96; 95 %CI: 1.31 - 2.93), and not having finished the laxative for the current colonoscopy (OR 1.66; 95 %CI: 1.01 - 2.73). Most of the same predictors were identified when reluctance was compared to willing or neutral, and in ordinal logistic regression.  Almost three-quarters of patients do not express reluctance to get up early for BP. Among those who are reluctant, improving BP information, allaying BP-related anxiety, and use of low volume BP may increase acceptance of SDBP.

  4. Predictors of patient reluctance to wake early in the morning for bowel preparation for colonoscopy: a precolonoscopy survey in city-wide practice

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, L. A.; Walker, J. R.; Waldman, C.; Michaud, V.; Yang, C.; Bernstein, C. N.; Hathout, L.; Park, J.; Sisler, J.; Wittmeier, K.; Restall, G.; Singh, H.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction  Many endoscopists do not use split-dose bowel preparation (SDBP) for morning colonoscopies. Despite SDBP being recommended practice, they believe patients will not agree to take early morning bowel preparation (BP). We assessed patients’ opinions about waking early for BP. Methods  A self-administered survey was distributed between 08/2015 and 06/2016 to patients in Winnipeg, Canada when they attended an outpatient colonoscopy. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of reluctance to use early morning BP. Results  Of the 1336 respondents (52 % female, median age 57 years), 33 % had used SDBP for their current colonoscopy. Of the 1336, 49 % were willing, 24 % neutral, and 27 % reluctant to do early morning BP. Predictors of reluctant versus willing were number of prior colonoscopies (OR 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.07 – 1.35), female gender (OR 1.65; 95 %CI: 1.19 – 2.29), unclear BP information (OR 1.86; 95 %CI: 1.21 – 2.85), high BP anxiety (OR 2.02; 95 %CI: 1.35 – 3.02), purpose of current colonoscopy being bowel symptoms (OR 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.00 – 1.97), use of 4 L of polyethylene glycol laxative (OR 1.45; 95 %CI: 1.02 – 2.06), not having SDBP (OR 1.96; 95 %CI: 1.31 – 2.93), and not having finished the laxative for the current colonoscopy (OR 1.66; 95 %CI: 1.01 – 2.73). Most of the same predictors were identified when reluctance was compared to willing or neutral, and in ordinal logistic regression. Conclusions  Almost three-quarters of patients do not express reluctance to get up early for BP. Among those who are reluctant, improving BP information, allaying BP-related anxiety, and use of low volume BP may increase acceptance of SDBP. PMID:29854940

  5. Rotigotine Effects on Early Morning Motor Function and Sleep in Parkinson's Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized, pLacebo-Controlled Study (RECOVER)

    PubMed Central

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Kies, Bryan; Rudzinska, Monika; Fine, Jennifer; Nikl, Janos; Honczarenko, Krystyna; Dioszeghy, Peter; Hill, Dennis; Anderson, Tim; Myllyla, Vilho; Kassubek, Jan; Steiger, Malcolm; Zucconi, Marco; Tolosa, Eduardo; Poewe, Werner; Surmann, Erwin; Whitesides, John; Boroojerdi, Babak; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray

    2011-01-01

    In a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT00474058), 287 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and unsatisfactory early-morning motor symptom control were randomized 2:1 to receive rotigotine (2–16 mg/24 hr [n = 190]) or placebo (n = 97). Treatment was titrated to optimal dose over 1–8 weeks with subsequent dose maintenance for 4 weeks. Early-morning motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbance were assessed as coprimary efficacy endpoints using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III (Motor Examination) measured in the early morning prior to any medication intake and the modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2) (mean change from baseline to end of maintenance [EOM], last observation carried forward). At EOM, mean UPDRS Part III score had decreased by −7.0 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 29.6 [standard deviation (SD) 12.3] and by −3.9 points with placebo (baseline 32.0 [13.3]). Mean PDSS-2 total score had decreased by −5.9 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 19.3 [SD 9.3]) and by −1.9 points with placebo (baseline 20.5 [10.4]). This represented a significantly greater improvement with rotigotine compared with placebo on both the UPDRS Part III (treatment difference: −3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) −5.37, −1.73]; P = 0.0002) and PDSS-2 (treatment difference: −4.26 [95% CI −6.08, −2.45]; P < 0.0001). The most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (placebo, 9%; rotigotine, 21%), application site reactions (placebo, 4%; rotigotine, 15%), and dizziness (placebo, 6%; rotigotine 10%). Twenty-four-hour transdermal delivery of rotigotine to PD patients with early-morning motor dysfunction resulted in significant benefits in control of both motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbances. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society PMID:21322021

  6. Morning-After Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... morning-after pill is a type of emergency birth control (contraception). Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy for women who've had unprotected sex or whose birth control method has failed. The morning-after pill is ...

  7. A Morning Collage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the theme of morning from the perspective of children. Provides several passages and describes stories from children's books that deal with the subject. Discusses the benefits of morning activities and routines, as well as morning journeys and exploration. Presents a creative activities sampler and print and film resources. (AEF)

  8. Working in partnership with the voluntary sector: early explorer clinics.

    PubMed

    Coe, Chris; Barlow, Jane

    2010-11-01

    The first three years of life have been identified as key to promoting children's later wellbeing, and partnership working across the statutory and voluntary sectors has been proposed as one of the best ways to meet the needs of families. Child health clinics are attended by parents seeking reassurance or help and advice from a health professional regarding child health and development. They have been used in Oxford to develop Early Explorer clinics, in which the statutory health visiting service and voluntary sector Peers Early Education Programme work together with the aim of improving outcomes for children and families. These Early Explorer clinics provide the opportunity to engage parents in supporting their child's development through interaction and non-directed exploratory play. They also offer opportunities to identify vulnerable families, who are provided with additional support. This paper examines a model of partnership working between statutory and voluntary sectors aimed at maximising opportunities to promote the health and wellbeing of infants and their families.

  9. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Making Morning Circle Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan; Fasy, Cara; Gulick, Jessica; Jones, Jill; Pike, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Morning Circle, also known as Morning Meeting, is often a daily lesson in both general education and special education classrooms. The primary purpose of the Circle is to support each child to establish membership in the class while developing a classroom community and culture. The Responsive Classroom Approach recommends four Circle components:…

  11. Early morning urine collection to improve urinary lateral flow LAM assay sensitivity in hospitalised patients with HIV-TB co-infection.

    PubMed

    Gina, Phindile; Randall, Philippa J; Muchinga, Tapuwa E; Pooran, Anil; Meldau, Richard; Peter, Jonny G; Dheda, Keertan

    2017-05-12

    Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included. Thus paired sample were collected from the same patient, LF-LAM was graded using the pre-January 2014, with grade 1 and 2 manufacturer-designated cut-points (the latter designated grade 1 after January 2014). Single sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and/or TB culture positivity served as the reference standard (definite TB). Those treated for TB but not meeting this standard were designated probable TB. 123 HIV-infected patients commenced anti-TB treatment and provided matched random and EMU samples. 33% (41/123) and 67% (82/123) had definite and probable TB, respectively. Amongst those with definite TB LF-LAM sensitivity (95%CI), using the grade 2 cut-point, increased from 12% (5-24; 5/43) to 39% (26-54; 16/41) with random versus EMU, respectively (p = 0.005). Similarly, amongst probable TB, LF-LAM sensitivity increased from 10% (5-17; 8/83) to 24% (16-34; 20/82) (p = 0.001). LF-LAM specificity was not determined. This proof of concept study indicates that EMU could improve the sensitivity of LF-LAM in hospitalised TB-HIV co-infected patients. These data have implications for clinical practice.

  12. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  13. [Retinal detachment associated with morning glory syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cañete Campos, C; Gili Manzanaro, P; Yangüela Rodilla, J; Martín Rodrigo, J C

    2011-09-01

    A twenty three year old woman was diagnosed of a morning glory papillary anomaly, then with normal visual acuity (VA). Nine years later, the VA decreased to 0.4, secondary to a serous macular detachment, confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). After treatment with C2F6 gas injection, positioning, and peripapillary laser, the VA improved to 0.7 and the foveolar area reattached. The morning glory Syndrome usually has an early diagnosis due to poor visual acuity. Thirty eight percent of the cases have retinal detachment. We show an unusual case of morning glory syndrome with a serous detachment, successfully treated with gas and laser. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Morning twilight measured at Bandung and Jombang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumaningtyas, Eka Puspita; Raharto, Moedji; Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2012-06-01

    Twilight divided into three categories namely, astronomical twilight, nautical twilight, and civil twilight. The three types of twilight can occur either in the evening or early morning. According to the U.S. Naval Observatory the three types distinguished by the depression (altitude of the sun below the horizon) for the evening or the morning twilight, -180, -120, and -60. Sky brightness measurements usually intended to determine the quality of the sky at some observation site or to determine the quality of the atmosphere by light pollution. Sky brightness data could be use for practical purposes such as to determine prayer times (Morning Prayer). This study describes the measurement of sky brightness using a light meter Sky Quality Meter. The measurements indicate the presence of different values and patterns in the twilight sky brightness. This variability highly determined by the weather conditions. Sky brightness shows a constant value shortly after the evening astronomical twilight and before morning astronomical twilight. Before the evening astronomical twilight and after morning astronomical twilight sky brightness showing continue changing.

  15. An hour of bright white light in the early morning improves performance and advances sleep and circadian phase during the Antarctic winter.

    PubMed

    Corbett, R W; Middleton, B; Arendt, J

    2012-09-13

    Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to an hour of bright light in the morning and the evening during the Polar winter has beneficial effects on circadian phase. This study investigated the effect of a single hour of bright white morning light on circadian phase, sleep, alertness and cognitive performance. Nine individuals (eight male, one female, median age 30 years), wintering at Halley Research Station (75°S), Antarctica from 7th May until 6th August 2007, were exposed to bright white light for a fortnight from 08:30 to 09:30 h, with two fortnight control periods on either side. This sequence was performed twice, before and following Midwinter. Light exposure, sleep and alertness were assessed daily by actigraphy, sleep diaries and subjective visual analogue scales. Circadian phase (assessed by urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm) and cognitive performance were evaluated at the end of each fortnight. During light exposure circadian phase was advanced from 4.97 ± 0.96 decimal hours (dh) (mean ± SD) to 4.08 ± 0.68 dh (p = 0.003). Wake-up time was shifted by a similar margin from 8.45 ± 1.83 dh to 7.59 ± 0.78 dh (p < 0.001). Sleep start time was also advanced (p = 0.047) but by a lesser amount, consequently, actual sleep time was slightly reduced. There was no change in objective or subjective measures of sleep quality or subjective measures of alertness. An improvement in cognitive performance was found with both the Single Letter Cancellation Test (p < 0.001) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (p = 0.026) with preserved circadian variation. These beneficial effects of a single short duration light treatment may have implications not only for the Antarctic but other remote environments where access to natural light and delayed circadian phase, is problematic. These results require validation in larger studies at varying locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Global Pursuits: Sunday Morning, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Winslow Homer's oil on canvas painting, "Sunday Morning, Virginia." "Sunday Morning, Virginia" depicts a group of African-Americans learning to read in a slave cabin after the Civil War. A young teacher, wearing a crisp dress and apron, sits surrounded by three children as she teaches them to read…

  17. Barriers and facilitators to partnership working between Early Intervention Services and the voluntary and community sector.

    PubMed

    Lester, Helen; Birchwood, Max; Tait, Lynda; Shah, Sonal; England, Elizabeth; Smith, Jo

    2008-09-01

    Partnership working between health and the voluntary and community sector has become an increasing political priority. This paper describes and explores the extent and patterns of partnership working between health and the voluntary and community sector in the context of Early Intervention Services for young people with a first episode of psychosis. Data were collected from 12 Early Intervention Services and through semistructured interviews with 47 voluntary and community sector leads and 42 commissioners across the West Midlands of England. Most partnerships were described as ad hoc and informal in nature although four formal partnerships between Early Intervention Services and voluntary and community sector organizations had been established. Shared agendas, the ability to refer clients onto an organization that could provide a service they could not and shared training facilitated partnership working in this context. Barriers to closer working included differences in culture such as managing risk, the time required to make and maintain relationships and recognition of the advantages of remaining a small and autonomous organization. The four more formal partnerships were also built on the organizations' experience of working together informally, in one case through a specific pilot project. The voluntary and community organizations involved were also branches of larger national organizations for whom finding sustainable funding was less of an issue. In theoretical terms, eight Early Intervention Service: voluntary and community sector partnerships were at a stage of 'pre-partnership collaboration', three at 'partnership creation and consolidation' and one at 'partnership programme delivery'. The empirical data viewed through the lens of the partnership life-cycle model could help early intervention services, and voluntary and community sector professionals better understand where they are, why they are there and the conditions needed to realise the full

  18. The Concept of Strategy in the Early Childhood Education and Care Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannebo, Berit Irene; Gotvassli, Kjell-Åge

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the understanding and implementation of the concept of strategy in the early childhood education and care (ECEC) sector. Recent research has indicated that management functions in ECECs have changed and that we are now, in addition to an emphasis on the administrative function, seeing a stronger…

  19. A Morning in Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Dena M.; Talmi, Ayelet

    2012-01-01

    Families with young children attend well-child visits in pediatric primary care settings frequently during the first 3 years of life and receive information and answers to questions about their young child's health and development. Integrating an infant-early childhood mental health and child development specialist into a pediatric primary care…

  20. The Evening/Morning Star.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Explains how Venus changes visibility regularly from morning to evening because of its quick orbit time during part of the year. Includes a brief history of observations of this phenomenon and provides a detailed account from the Australian Aborigines. (DDR)

  1. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  2. Morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity before midday depression.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kohei; Takemoto, Shuhei

    2014-03-17

    Midday depression of photosynthesis has important consequences for ecosystem carbon exchange. Recent studies of forest trees have demonstrated that latent reduction of photosynthetic capacity can begin in the early morning, preceding the midday depression. We investigated whether such early morning reduction also occurs in an herbaceous species, Oenothera biennis. Diurnal changes of the photosynthetic light response curve (measured using a light-emitting diode) and incident sunlight intensity were measured under field conditions. The following results were obtained: (1) the light-saturated photosynthetic rate decreased beginning at sunrise; (2) the incident sunlight intensity on the leaves increased from sunrise; and (3) combining (1) and (2), the net photosynthetic rate under natural sunlight intensity increased from sunrise, reached a maximum at mid-morning, and then showed midday depression. Our results demonstrate that the latent morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity begins at sunrise, preceding the apparent midday depression, in agreement with previous studies of forest trees.

  3. Christmas Morning, Breakfast, Horace Pippin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunlin-Jones, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life and the art of Horace Pippin. It focuses on one work called "Christmas Morning, Breakfast" that is part of a series of works based on Pippin's childhood memories. The painting depicts a very modest room, including exposed wallboards where chunks of plaster have fallen off. The room is very tidy, but…

  4. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  5. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B.; Miras, Monaliza A.; Mendioro, Merlyn S.; Simon, Eliza V.; Lumanglas, Patrick D.; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5–2.0h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource. PMID:25534925

  6. Comparison of toxicity associated with early morning versus late afternoon radiotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer: a prospective randomized trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (HN3).

    PubMed

    Bjarnason, Georg A; Mackenzie, Robert G; Nabid, Abdenour; Hodson, Ian D; El-Sayed, Samy; Grimard, Laval; Brundage, Michael; Wright, James; Hay, John; Ganguly, Pradip; Leong, Carson; Wilson, Jane; Jordan, Richard C K; Walker, Melanie; Tu, Dongsheng; Parulekar, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Based on our demonstration of a circadian rhythm in the human oral mucosa cell cycle, with most cells in the G(1) phase in the morning and M phase at night, we hypothesized that morning radiotherapy (RT) would lead to less oral mucositis than afternoon RT. A total of 216 patients were randomized to morning (8-10 AM) vs. afternoon (4-6 PM) RT and stratified by radiation dose, smoking status, and center. Patients receiving primary or postoperative RT alone were eligible. Oral mucositis was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria and a validated scoring system. Of 205 evaluable patients, 52.9% vs. 62.4% developed RTOG Grade 3 or greater mucositis after morning vs. afternoon RT, respectively (p = 0.17). Morning RT was also associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months (p = 0.024). In a subgroup of 111 patients treated to a dose of 66-70 Gy in 33-35 fractions, exploratory analyses revealed a significant reduction in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (44.6% vs. 67.3%, p = 0.022) and a longer interval to the development of Grade 3 or greater mucositis (median, >7.9 vs. 5.6 weeks, p = 0.033). In 53 patients, who smoked during therapy, a significant reduction was found in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (42.9% vs. 76%, p = 0.025). In this proof of principle study, morning RT was associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months and an apparent reduction in oral mucositis in a subset of patients receiving >/=66 Gy and in patients who smoked during therapy.

  7. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B; Miras, Monaliza A; Mendioro, Merlyn S; Simon, Eliza V; Lumanglas, Patrick D; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-03-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5-2.0 h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    extremely data-rich. The Galaxy Zoo project also suggests the promising prospect of synergizing the help from citizen scientists and machine learning in analyzing extremely large datasets.Extrasolar Planets: Atmospheres (by Leonardo dos Santos)Antonija Oklopi (Caltech) explains that Raman scattering of light, which works similarly to Rayleigh scattering (the process that makes Earths sky blue), can be used in the future to study the atmospheres of exoplanets. Her work is to create model spectra containing these features, from which we can learn about the presence and altitude of atmospheric clouds. Dr. Carl Melis (University of California, San Diego) studies the inner composition of exoplanets by looking at their remnants after they are destroyed by a dying star. His most recent work suggests that there is a differentiated pollution (from the core and the crust of a planet) in the disk orbiting of a white dwarf star. Samuel Grunblatt (University of Hawaii) introduces us to the main subject of his thesis: a hot-Jupiter observed by Keplers K2 mission transiting an evolved, red giant star. They used some pretty tricky data analysis in order to filter out the noise intrinsic to this type of star.Grunblatt shows the K2 transit before and after removal of granulation effects.Avi Shporer (JPL) asks the question: why are hot Jupiters so large? His research aims to study the correlation between stellar irradiation and planetary radius, and in order to have a more complete picture, they need to detect more gas giants on lower stellar irradiation regions. This idea gave rise to LCOGT K2 Warm Jupiter project, which recently discovered a brown dwarf in a long-period orbit around a Sun-like star. Paul Mason (New Mexico State University) proposes that the Milky Way is evolving to a more habitable galaxy, due to the expansion of the universe, the processing of heavier material inside stars, and the general decrease of ionizing radiation.Evolution of Galaxies (by Ben Cook)Tuesday mornings

  9. Impact of morning stiffness on working behaviour and performance in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Kalle; Buttgereit, Frank; Tuominen, Risto

    2014-12-01

    Work disability remains a considerable problem for many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Morning stiffness is a symptom of RA associated with early retirement from work and with impaired functional ability. We aimed to explore the patient's perception of the impact of morning stiffness on the working life of patients with RA. A survey was conducted in 11 European countries. Patients of working age, with RA for ≥6 months and morning stiffness ≥3 mornings a week, were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire. Responses were assessed in the total sample and in subgroups defined by severity and duration of morning stiffness and by country. A total of 1,061 respondents completed the survey, 534 were working, 224 were retired and the rest were, i.e. homemakers and unemployed. Among the 534 working respondents, RA-related morning stiffness affected work performance (47 %), resulted in late arrival at work (33 %) and required sick leave in the past month (15 %). Of the 224 retired respondents, 159 (71 %) stopped working earlier than their expected retirement age, with 64 % giving RA-related morning stiffness as a reason. There was a differential impact of increasing severity and increasing duration of morning stiffness on the various parameters studied. There were notable inter-country differences in the impact of RA-related morning stiffness on ability to work and on retirement. This large survey showed that from the patient's perspective, morning stiffness reduces the ability to work in patients with RA and contributes to early retirement.

  10. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  11. Widespread morning drizzle on Titan.

    PubMed

    Adámkovics, Máté; Wong, Michael H; Laver, Conor; de Pater, Imke

    2007-11-09

    Precipitation is expected in Titan's atmosphere, yet it has not been directly observed, and the geographical regions where rain occurs are unknown. Here we present near-infrared spectra from the Very Large Telescope and W. M. Keck Observatories that reveal an enhancement of opacity in Titan's troposphere on the morning side of the leading hemisphere. Retrieved extinction profiles are consistent with condensed methane in clouds at an altitude near 30 kilometers and concomitant methane drizzle below. The moisture encompasses the equatorial region over Titan's brightest continent, Xanadu. Diurnal temperature gradients that cause variations in methane relative humidity, winds, and topography may each be a contributing factor to the condensation mechanism. The clouds and precipitation are optically thin at 2.0 micrometers, and models of "subvisible" clouds suggest that the droplets are 0.1 millimeter or larger.

  12. The Morning NO x maximum in the forest atmosphere boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghmand, M.; Shepson, P. B.; Starn, T. K.; Jobson, B. T.; Wallace, H. W.; Carroll, M. A.; Bertman, S. B.; Lamb, B.; Edburg, S. L.; Zhou, X.; Apel, E.; Riemer, D.; Stevens, P.; Keutsch, F.

    2011-10-01

    During the 1998, 2000, 2001, 2008, and 2009 summer intensives of the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions and Transport (PROPHET), ambient measurement of nitrogen oxides (NO + NO2 = NOx) were conducted. NO and NOx mole fractions displayed a diurnal pattern with NOx frequently highest in early morning. This pattern has often been observed in other rural areas. In this paper, we discuss the potential sources and contributing factors of the frequently observed morning pulse of NOx. Of the possible potential contributing factors to the observed morning pulse of NO and NOx, we find that surface-layer transport and slow upward mixing from soil emissions, related to the thermodynamic stability in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) before its morning breakup are the largest contributors. The morning NOx peak can significantly impact boundary layer chemistry, e.g. through production of HONO on surfaces, and by increasing the importance of NO3 chemistry in the morning boundary layer.

  13. Differential response of pitted morning glory and ivy leaf morning glory to acifluorfen, fomesafen, and lactofen

    SciT

    Higgins, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations were conducted to examine the response of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.number/sup 1/ IPOLA), and ivy leaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. number IPOHE) to acifluorfen, fomesafen, and lactofen. In field studies, greatest soybean injury was observed with acifluorfen and lactofen. All treatments provided 80% or greater control of pitted morning glory 15 days after treatment. Only acifluorfen and fomesafen at 0.6 kg ai ha/sup -1/ provided 80% or greater ivy leaf morning glory. The differential response of pitted morning glory and ivy leaf morning glory to these diphenylmore » ether herbicides was reflected in soybean seed yields. In laboratory studies, 71 to 84% of applied /sup 14/C-acifluorfen was not absorbed into the leaf surface of ivy leaf morning glory. Thirty-two to 46% of applied acifluorfen was recovered from the leaf surface of pitted morning glory. Sixty-four percent of applied /sup 14/C-lactofen was recovered from leaf surfaces of both morning glory species 96 h after treatment. Treated leaves of pitted morning glory contained 35 to 37% more /sup 14/C-acifluorfen than ivy leaf morning glory. Less than 28% of applied /sup 14/C-lactofen was absorbed into treated leaves of both morning glory species at 24, 48, and 96 h harvests.« less

  14. Preventing recurrence of severe morning sickness

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon; Maltepe, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    QUESTION A recent Motherisk article showed that initiating antinauseants even before symptoms start could prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness. In the study described, however, different physicians used different drugs. How can one be sure which drugs work? ANSWER The study of 26 women who had had severe morning sickness during previous pregnancies showed that using antiemetics before symptoms of morning sickness started appeared to prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness in subsequent pregnancies. Physicians in the United States used various antinauseant drugs. Physicians in Canada administered only one drug, the combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin®), to 12 women. Subanalysis of these 12 women revealed that pre-emptive use of doxylamine-pyridoxine significantly decreased the likelihood that severe morning sickness would recur. PMID:17279232

  15. Preventing recurrence of severe morning sickness.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon; Maltepe, Caroline

    2006-12-01

    A recent Motherisk article showed that initiating antinauseants even before symptoms start could prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness. In the study described, however, different physicians used different drugs. How can one be sure which drugs work? The study of 26 women who had had severe morning sickness during previous pregnancies showed that using antiemetics before symptoms of morning sickness started appeared to prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness in subsequent pregnancies. Physicians in the United States used various antinauseant drugs. Physicians in Canada administered only one drug, the combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin), to 12 women. Subanalysis of these 12 women revealed that pre-emptive use of doxylamine-pyridoxine significantly decreased the likelihood that severe morning sickness would recur.

  16. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    massive disks, which in turn produce more gas giants, populating our surveys with such planets.Dr. Knutson shows that ~50% of hot Jupiters have long distance companions.Morning Press Conference Latest News from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (by Michael Zevin)On December 26th 2015, LIGO detected its second full-fledged gravitational wave event, dubbed GW151226 (the numbers signify the date it was detected). This detection along with the full results ofLIGOs first observing run wereannounced byGabriela Gonzlez, David Reitze, and Fulvio Ricci in the morning press conference. The masses of the two black holes are smaller than those of the first confirmed event (GW150914) about 8 14 solar masses for GW151226 compared to 29 36 solar masses for GW150914. Though less visible by eye in the data, sophisticated search algorithms that match theoretically-produced templates of the gravitational waveform were able to extract it from the data and build up enough statistical confidence to declare it as a detection. The system was estimated to have merged at a distance of 1.4 billion light-years, and, due to its lower mass, stayed in LIGOs detection band for a full second (5 times longer than the more massive GW150914).Time-frequency plot of the second confirmed gravitational waveevent GW151226. Light colors represent higher energy.This discovery further solidifies this nascent field into astronomy, and has given astronomers a new sense to explore the Universe. The next observing run of LIGO will commence later in 2016 and will be more sensitive due to system upgrade, increasing the rate at which LIGO should detect these types of astrophysical events. In addition, more detectors will be joining the network of gravitational wave observatories over the next few years, which will further constrain the location at which these events occur in the cosmos and increase the likelihood of detecting an electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave event. More great discoveries to come

  17. Bedtime administration of cilnidipine controls morning hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, Naoto; Seto, Shinji; Shibata, Yoshisada; Yano, Katsusuke

    2007-09-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) level plays an important role in the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recently, Kario, et al proposed the usefulness of ME difference (morning minus evening systolic BP) and ME average (average of morning and evening systolic BP) for the evaluation of antihypertensive treatment. Cilnidipine is a novel calcium channel blocker (CCB) that exerts inhibitory actions not only on L-type but also on N-type calcium channels. We investigated the effect of bedtime administration of cilnidipine (10 mg) in addition to the antihypertensive treatment for uncontrolled morning hypertension. Twenty-three hypertensive outpatients (13 males and 10 females; mean age, 66.9 years) with stable antihypertensive medication and uncontrolled morning BP were studied using self-measured BP monitoring in the morning and evening. Morning SBP (P < 0.001) and DBP (P < 0.001) decreased significantly from 150.2 +/- 8.7 and 87.8 +/- 9.3 to 132.7 +/- 7.4 and 77.5 +/- 8.5 mmHg, respectively, after the addition of cilnidipine. Morning heart rate did not change (63.3 +/- 7.0 to 64.1 +/- 9.4). The evening SBP, but not DBP, decreased significantly after treatment. Both the ME average (P < 0.001) and ME difference (P < 0.01) significantly decreased from 143.0 +/- 9.2 and 14.3 +/- 12.4 to 131.3 +/- 7.2 and 2.8 +/- 9.2 mmHg after treatment, respectively. The microalbuminuria decreased from 39.6 +/- 13.2 to 27.3 +/- 8.4 mg/g Cr. In conclusion, L-/N-type CCB cilnidipine may be useful for patients with uncontrollable morning hypertension by reducing both ME average and ME difference.

  18. Morning versus evening induction of labour for improving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Jannet J H; van der Goes, Birgit Y; Pel, Maria; Mol, Ben Willem J; van der Post, Joris A M

    2013-02-28

    Induction of labour is a common intervention in obstetric practice. Traditionally, in most hospitals induction of labour with medication starts early in the morning, with the start of the working day for the day shift. In human and animal studies spontaneous onset of labour is proven to have a circadian rhythm with a preference for start of labour in the evening. Moreover, when spontaneous labour starts in the evening, the total duration of labour and delivery shortens and fewer obstetric interventions are needed. Based on these observations one might assume that starting induction of labour in the evening, in harmony with the circadian rhythm of natural birth, is more beneficial for both mother and child. To assess whether induction of labour starting in the evening, coinciding with the endogenous circadian rhythm, improves the outcome of labour compared with induction of labour starting in the early morning, organised to coincide with office hours. We contacted the Trials Search Co-ordinator to search the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). In addition, we searched MEDLINE (1966 to 16 February 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to 16 February 2012). We included all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials. We excluded trials that employed quasi-random methods of treatment allocation. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. The search resulted in 2693 articles that we screened on title and abstract for eligibility.Thirteen studies were selected for full text assessment. We included three randomised trials involving 1150 women. Two trials compared the administration of prostaglandins in the morning versus the evening in women with an unfavourable cervix, and one trial compared induction of labour in the morning versus the evening

  19. The role of retiree health insurance in the early retirement of public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Shoven, John B; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2014-12-01

    Most government employees have access to retiree health coverage, which provides them with group health coverage even if they retire before Medicare eligibility. We study the impact of retiree health coverage on the labor supply of public sector workers between the ages of 55 and 64. We find that retiree health coverage raises the probability of stopping full time work by 4.3 percentage points (around 38 percent) over two years among public sector workers aged 55-59, and by 6.7 percentage points (around 26 percent) over two years among public sector workers aged 60-64. In the younger age group, retiree health insurance mostly seems to facilitate transitions to part-time work rather than full retirement. However, in the older age group, it increases the probability of stopping work entirely by 4.3 percentage points (around 22 percent). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generating Visionary Policy for Early Childhood Education and Care: Politicians' and Early Childhood Sector Advocate/Activists' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the global conversation about generating a "vision" in early childhood education and care policy by reporting on an investigation of influences on politicians' policy decisions in early childhood education and care in Australia. This article is inspired by the provocations of social and political theorists who…

  1. Evaluation of Teachers' Continuing Training in the Early Childhood Education Sector in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineda, Pilar; Ucar, Xavier; Moreno, Victoria; Belvis, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Good preschool education requires professionals whose training is both solid and updated. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the continuing training received by teachers in the preschool educational sector in Spain, and discusses the level of implementation. The authors examine factors such as culture and motivation, and look…

  2. Saturday Morning Music: A Preservice Elementary Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mary

    1986-01-01

    An exploratory music program, scheduled for a month of Saturday mornings for children in kindergarten, is described. The program is intended to provide preservice teaching experiences for college music education students. Classes are action-oriented and include varied experiences in singing, playing instruments, moving to music, listening, and…

  3. Trent Griffin honored on Good Morning America

    2015-09-17

    TRENT GRIFFIN, RIGHT, IS CONGRATULATED FOR HIS WORK IN THE COMMUNITY AND HIS OUTREACH EFFORTS TO ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO ENTER THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATH FIELDS BY MARSHALL CENTER DIRECTOR PATRICK SCHEUERMANN. GRIFFIN WAS FEATURED AS A HOMETOWN HERO ON ABC’S "GOOD MORNING AMERICA" AT THE U.S. SPACE & ROCKET CENTER.

  4. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on morning blood pressure surges in Japanese patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular events and end-organ damage independent of the 24-h BP level. Controlling morning BP surge is therefore important to help prevent onset of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of azilsartan and candesartan in controlling morning systolic BP (SBP) surges by analyzing relevant ambulatory BP monitoring data in patients with/without baseline BP surges. As part of a 16-week randomized, double-blind study of azilsartan (20–40 mg once daily) and candesartan (8–12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was carried out using ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and week 14. The effects of study drugs on morning BP surges, including sleep trough surge (early morning SBP minus the lowest night-time SBP) and prewaking surge (early morning SBP minus SBP before awakening), were evaluated. Patients with sleep trough surge of at least 35 mmHg were defined by the presence of a morning BP surge (the ‘surge group’). Sleep trough surge and prewaking surge data were available at both baseline and week 14 in 548 patients, 147 of whom (azilsartan 76; candesartan 71) had a baseline morning BP surge. In surge group patients, azilsartan significantly reduced both the sleep trough surge and the prewaking surge at week 14 compared with candesartan (least squares means of the between-group differences −5.8 mmHg, P=0.0395; and −5.7 mmHg, P=0.0228, respectively). Once-daily azilsartan improved sleep trough surge and prewaking surge to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I–II essential hypertension. PMID:24710336

  5. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on morning blood pressure surges in Japanese patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2014-06-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular events and end-organ damage independent of the 24-h BP level. Controlling morning BP surge is therefore important to help prevent onset of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of azilsartan and candesartan in controlling morning systolic BP (SBP) surges by analyzing relevant ambulatory BP monitoring data in patients with/without baseline BP surges. As part of a 16-week randomized, double-blind study of azilsartan (20-40 mg once daily) and candesartan (8-12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was carried out using ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and week 14. The effects of study drugs on morning BP surges, including sleep trough surge (early morning SBP minus the lowest night-time SBP) and prewaking surge (early morning SBP minus SBP before awakening), were evaluated. Patients with sleep trough surge of at least 35 mmHg were defined by the presence of a morning BP surge (the 'surge group'). Sleep trough surge and prewaking surge data were available at both baseline and week 14 in 548 patients, 147 of whom (azilsartan 76; candesartan 71) had a baseline morning BP surge. In surge group patients, azilsartan significantly reduced both the sleep trough surge and the prewaking surge at week 14 compared with candesartan (least squares means of the between-group differences -5.8 mmHg, P=0.0395; and -5.7 mmHg, P=0.0228, respectively). Once-daily azilsartan improved sleep trough surge and prewaking surge to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I-II essential hypertension.

  6. The Private Sector as a Partner in Early Care and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galinsky, Ellen

    Although some businesses have provided employer-supported child care for decades, these efforts have been exceptional rather than part of a mainstream effort. Obstacles to employer-supported child care in the early 1980s included: (1) the view that work and family were separate; (2) negative perceptions of women's increased involvement in the…

  7. Building a Stable Workforce: Recruitment and Retention in the Child Care and Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents findings from research aimed at identifying effective approaches to the recruitment and retention of child care workers, conducted to assist the UK Government's Childcare Strategy. The paper explores the practices and views of child care employers, Early Years Development and Childcare Partnerships (EYDCPs) and child care…

  8. Apollo 40th Anniversary Morning Television

    2009-07-19

    Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, the second man to walk on the Moon, seated left, responds to a question during a live television interview on Monday, July 20, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington as Apollo 12 astronaut Alan Bean and Apollo 16 astronaut Charles Duke, right look on. The three sat in for interviews with morning talks shows covering the 40th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. Early incidence of occupational asthma is not accelerated by atopy in the bakery/pastry and hairdressing sectors.

    PubMed

    Rémen, T; Acouetey, D-S; Paris, C; Hannhart, B; Poussel, M; Chenuel, B; Barbaud, A; Zmirou-Navier, D

    2013-07-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is most likely to develop in the very early years of exposure. To describe the early incidence of OA among bakers/pastry-makers (BP) and hairdressers and to explore the role of atopy. Following a retrospective follow-up design, subjects were invited to undergo telephone interviews. Those who declared work-related respiratory or rhinitis symptoms and a sample group of others were offered a medical visit for OA investigations. Data from interviews and from medical visits were used to estimate the incidence of OA according to increasing durations of exposure. A total of 866 subjects were interviewed (mean age 25.3 years, 43.8% females), of whom 282 underwent a medical visit. Total estimated incidence rates of 'confirmed or probable' OA during the first 12 years of exposure were high in BP (2.63 per 100 person-years [py]) and in hairdressers (0.58/100 py), particularly in the first 4 years. Atopy is a strong risk factor for incidence among BP but, irrespective of the occupational sector, it does not influence the timing of OA symptoms. OA symptoms occur soon after the start of exposure. Our results suggest that atopy does not precipitate the occurrence of symptoms in two different allergen exposure settings.

  10. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: The Cosmology of Non-Minimal Scalar Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Jeffrey D.

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically--such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions--the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this thesis, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system--often by many orders of magnitude--but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "re-overdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings. In the second part of this thesis, we proceed to study the early-universe cosmology of a Kaluza-Klein (KK

  11. Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

    Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

  12. Endeavour and its modified 747 carrier aircraft are illuminated by the morning sun after mating was completed in the Mate-DeMate gantry at NASA DFRC

    2008-12-09

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour and its modified Boeing 747 carrier aircraft are illuminated by the morning sun Tuesday after mating of the pair was completed overnight in the Mate-DeMate gantry at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The pair are scheduled to depart Edwards Air Force Base on their ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center early Wednesday morning, Dec. 10.

  13. Time of administration important? Morning versus evening dosing of valsartan.

    PubMed

    Zappe, Dion H; Crikelair, Nora; Kandra, Albert; Palatini, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest that bedtime dosing of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker shows a more sustained and consistent 24-h antihypertensive profile, including greater night-time blood pressure (BP) reduction. We compared the antihypertensive effects of morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) dosing of valsartan on 24-h BP. This 26-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of valsartan 320 mg, dosed a.m. or p.m., versus lisinopril 40 mg (a.m.), a long-acting ACE-inhibitor, in patients with grade 1-2 hypertension and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Patients (n = 1093; BP = 156 ± 11/91 ± 8 mmHg; 62 years, 56% male, 99% white) received (1 : 1 : 1) valsartan 160 mg a.m. or p.m. or lisinopril 20 mg a.m. for 4 weeks, then force-titrated to double the initial dose for 8 weeks. At Week 12, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg was added for 14 weeks if office BP was more than 140/90 mmHg and/or ambulatory BP more than 130/80 mmHg. Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP change from baseline to Weeks 12 and 26 was comparable between valsartan a.m. (-10.6 and -13.3 mmHg) and p.m. (-9.8 and -12.3 mmHg) and lisinopril (-10.7 and -13.7 mmHg). There was no benefit of valsartan p.m. versus a.m. on night-time BP, early morning BP and morning BP surge. Evening dosing also did not improve BP lowering in patients requiring add-on HCTZ or in nondippers at baseline. All treatments were well tolerated. Once-daily dosing of valsartan 320 mg results in equally effective 24-h BP efficacy, regardless of dosing time. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241124.

  14. Time of administration important? Morning versus evening dosing of valsartan

    PubMed Central

    Zappe, Dion H.; Crikelair, Nora; Kandra, Albert; Palatini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Studies suggest that bedtime dosing of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker shows a more sustained and consistent 24-h antihypertensive profile, including greater night-time blood pressure (BP) reduction. We compared the antihypertensive effects of morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) dosing of valsartan on 24-h BP. Methods: This 26-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of valsartan 320 mg, dosed a.m. or p.m., versus lisinopril 40 mg (a.m.), a long-acting ACE-inhibitor, in patients with grade 1–2 hypertension and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Patients (n = 1093; BP = 156 ± 11/91 ± 8 mmHg; 62 years, 56% male, 99% white) received (1 : 1 : 1) valsartan 160 mg a.m. or p.m. or lisinopril 20 mg a.m. for 4 weeks, then force-titrated to double the initial dose for 8 weeks. At Week 12, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg was added for 14 weeks if office BP was more than 140/90 mmHg and/or ambulatory BP more than 130/80 mmHg. Results: Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP change from baseline to Weeks 12 and 26 was comparable between valsartan a.m. (–10.6 and –13.3 mmHg) and p.m. (–9.8 and –12.3 mmHg) and lisinopril (–10.7 and –13.7 mmHg). There was no benefit of valsartan p.m. versus a.m. on night-time BP, early morning BP and morning BP surge. Evening dosing also did not improve BP lowering in patients requiring add-on HCTZ or in nondippers at baseline. All treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion: Once-daily dosing of valsartan 320 mg results in equally effective 24-h BP efficacy, regardless of dosing time. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241124. PMID:25259546

  15. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright-light duration?

    PubMed

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2015-02-01

    Efficient treatments to phase-advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early-morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright-light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9 ± 5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 h/day for three treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg of melatonin 5 h before the baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright-light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-min exposures separated by 30 min of room light (2-h group), four 15-min exposures separated by 45 min of room light (1-h group), and one 30-min exposure (0.5-h group). Dim-light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. Compared to the 2-h group (phase shift = 2.4 ± 0.8 h), smaller phase-advance shifts were seen in the 1-h (1.7 ± 0.7 h) and 0.5-h (1.8 ± 0.8 h) groups. The 2-h pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-min bright-light exposure was as effective as 1 h of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and it produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 h of bright light. A 30-min morning bright-light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase-advance human circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright light duration?

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Stephanie J.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Efficient treatments to phase advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. METHODS Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9±5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 hour/day for 3 treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg melatonin 5 hours before baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-minute exposures separated by 30 minutes of room light (2 h group); four 15-minute exposures separated by 45 minutes of room light (1 h group), and one 30-minute exposure (0.5 h group). Dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. RESULTS Compared to the 2 h group (phase shift=2.4±0.8 h), smaller phase advance shifts were seen in the 1 h (1.7±0.7 h) and 0.5 h (1.8±0.8 h) groups. The 2-hour pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-minute bright light exposure was as effective as 1 hour of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 hours of bright light. CONCLUSIONS A 30-minute morning bright light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase advance human circadian rhythms. PMID:25620199

  17. From a Parent's Perspective: Hints for Morning Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Roslyn

    1996-01-01

    Recommends the development of a routine to transform the morning getting-ready battleground into a congenial team effort. Offers hints for a successful routine, including expecting everyone to be dressed before breakfast; considering having no TV; eliminating most morning decision-making; involving everyone; and not using rewards with routines.…

  18. Saturday Morning Cartoons and Children's Perceptions of Social Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Karen

    This paper examines the effects of Saturday morning cartoons on children's perceptions of social reality. The study consisted of an analysis of programs appearing between 8 and 11 o'clock in the morning on September 15, 1990, and June 9, 1992, focusing on the ethnicity, gender, and age of characters, the positive or negative portrayal of…

  19. Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick walls along the boundary of the cemetery; interior view taken from midway down the paved west road with the camera facing west to capture the morning light on the west wall. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  20. Parallel evolution of storage roots in Morning Glories (Convolvulaceae)

    Storage roots are an ecologically and agriculturally important plant trait. In morning glories, storage roots are well characterized in the crop species sweetpotato. Storage roots have evolved numerous times across the morning glory family. This study aims to understand whether this was through para...

  1. Comparing Performance During Morning vs. Afternoon Training Sessions in Intercollegiate Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Heishman, Aaron D; Curtis, Michael A; Saliba, Ethan N; Hornett, Robert J; Malin, Steven K; Weltman, Arthur L

    2017-06-01

    Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian and/or ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can affect training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs. afternoon strength training on an acute performance index of fatigue (countermovement jump height, CMJ), player readiness (Omegawave), and self-reported sleep quantity. We hypothesized that afternoon training sessions would be associated with increased levels of performance, readiness, and self-reported sleep. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the preseason on 10 elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 male basketball players. All basketball-related activities were performed in the afternoon with strength and conditioning activities performed either in the morning or in the afternoon. The average values for CMJ, power output (Power), self-reported sleep quantity (sleep), and player readiness were examined. When player load and duration were matched, CMJ (58.8 ± 1.3 vs. 61.9 ± 1.6 cm, p = 0.009), Power (6,378.0 ± 131.2 vs. 6,622.1 ± 172.0 W, p = 0.009), and self-reported sleep duration (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 7.4 ± 0.25 p = 0.016) were significantly higher with afternoon strength and conditioning training, with no differences observed in player readiness values. We conclude that performance is suppressed with morning training and is associated with a decrease in self-reported quantity of sleep.

  2. Influence of rheumatoid arthritis-related morning stiffness on productivity at work: results from a survey in 11 European countries.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Kalle; Buttgereit, Frank; Tuominen, Risto

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of morning stiffness on productivity at work and to estimate the work-related economic consequences of morning stiffness among patients with RA-related morning stiffness in 11 European countries. The original sample comprised 1061 RA patients from 11 European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden and UK). They had been diagnosed with RA and experience morning stiffness three or more times per week. Data were collected by interviews. Women comprised 77.9 % of the sample, the average age was 50.4 years, and 84.3 % had RA diagnosed for more than 2 years. Overall costs of RA-related morning stiffness was calculated to be 27,712€ per patient per year, varying from 4965€ in Spain to 66,706€ in Norway. On average, 96 % of the overall production losses were attributed to early retirement, with a markedly lower level (77 %) in Italy than in other countries (p < 0.0001). The proportion of patients who reported retirement due to morning stiffness and productivity losses due to late work arrivals and working while sick showed considerable variation across the countries represented in the study. Overall, the average annual cost of late arrivals (0.8 % of the total costs) was approximately half of the costs attributed to sick leave (1.7 %) and working while sick (1.5 %). Morning stiffness due to RA causes significant production losses and is a significant cost burden throughout Europe. There seem to be notable differences in the impact of morning stiffness on productivity between European countries.

  3. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.

  4. Morning-evening difference of team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances in female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Mhenni, Thouraya; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the two different time-of-day effect on team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances. At two different time-of-day, fifteen young female team handball players performed different physical tests: HandGrip (HG) test, Ball-Throwing Velocity (BTV) test, Modified Agility T-test (MAT) and Repeated Shuttle-Sprint and Jump Ability (RSSJA) test. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was determined following the termination of the last test. Measurements were performed at two separate testing sessions (i.e., in the morning (7:00-8:30 h) and in the early evening (17:00-18:30 h)) in a randomised and counter-balanced setting on non-consecutive days. The results showed that HG (P = 0.0013), BTV (P = 0.0027) and MAT (P < 0.001) performances were better in the evening compared with the morning. During RSSJA, both best and mean sprint times were shorter in the evening compared to the morning (P < 0.001). Moreover, during the latter test, mean jump performance was higher in the evening compared to the morning (P = 0.026). However, there was no morning-evening difference in the best jump performance during RSSJA. Likewise, jump performance decrement was not affected by the time-of-day of testing. On the other hand, RPE fluctuated, with morning nadirs and afternoon/early evening highest values. The findings suggest that in female team handball players, team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances were better in the afternoon than in the morning.

  5. National Literacy Trust Survey in Partnership with Nursery World: Investigating Communication, Language and Literacy Development in the Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halden, Amanda; Clark, Christina; Lewis, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In May 2011 "Nursery World" and the National Literacy Trust launched its language development survey to celebrate Hello; the national year of communication. The National Literacy Trust teamed up with "Nursery World" to carry out research into the sector's support for children's language and literacy development. Two hundred…

  6. Morning view, contextual view showing unpaved corridor down the westernmost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing unpaved corridor down the westernmost lane where the wall section (E) will be removed; camera facing north-northwest. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  7. Morning view, contextual view showing the road and gate to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing the road and gate to be widened; view taken from the statue area with the camera facing north. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  8. Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wallconstruction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wall-construction detail. North wall, with the camera facing northwest. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  9. Morning view of the exterior of the gate and white ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view of the exterior of the gate and white posts to be reworked/widened; camera facing south looking into the cemetery toward the statue. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  10. Morning view of the exterior of the westernmost wall section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view of the exterior of the westernmost wall section to be removed; camera facing south. Unpaved road in foreground; tree canopy in background. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  11. Photoperiodic Treatments in Morning Glory: A Laboratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Hounshell, Paul B.

    1978-01-01

    The Japanese morning glory, a short-day plant, is an excellent specimen for studying photoperiodism. This article gives ideas for investigations including the effects of hormones, light quality, and temperature. Preparation of the seed is also discussed. (BB)

  12. Comparing Performance During Morning vs. Afternoon Training Sessions in Intercollegiate Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Heishman, Aaron D.; Curtis, Michael A.; Saliba, Ethan N.; Hornett, Robert J.; Malin, Steven K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Heishman, AD, Curtis, MA, Saliba, EN, Hornett, RJ, Malin, SK, and Weltman, AL. Comparing performance during morning vs. afternoon training sessions in intercollegiate basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1557–1562, 2017—Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian and/or ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can affect training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs. afternoon strength training on an acute performance index of fatigue (countermovement jump height, CMJ), player readiness (Omegawave), and self-reported sleep quantity. We hypothesized that afternoon training sessions would be associated with increased levels of performance, readiness, and self-reported sleep. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the preseason on 10 elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 male basketball players. All basketball-related activities were performed in the afternoon with strength and conditioning activities performed either in the morning or in the afternoon. The average values for CMJ, power output (Power), self-reported sleep quantity (sleep), and player readiness were examined. When player load and duration were matched, CMJ (58.8 ± 1.3 vs. 61.9 ± 1.6 cm, p = 0.009), Power (6,378.0 ± 131.2 vs. 6,622.1 ± 172.0 W, p = 0.009), and self-reported sleep duration (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 7.4 ± 0.25 p = 0.016) were significantly higher with afternoon strength and conditioning training, with no differences observed in player readiness values. We conclude that performance is

  13. Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance.

    PubMed

    Leichtfried, Veronika; Mair-Raggautz, Maria; Schaeffer, Viktoria; Hammerer-Lercher, Angelika; Mair, Gerald; Bartenbach, Christian; Canazei, Markus; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance and alertness are two determinants for work efficiency, varying throughout the day and depending on bright light. We conducted a prospective crossover study evaluating the impacts of exposure to an intense, early morning illumination on sustained attention, alertness, mood, and serum melatonin levels in 33 healthy individuals. Compared with a dim illumination, the intense illumination negatively impacted performance requiring sustained attention; however, it positively impacted subjective alertness and mood and had no impact on serum melatonin levels. These results suggest that brief exposure to bright light in the morning hours can improve subjective measures of mood and alertness, but can also have detrimental effects on mental performance as a result of visual distraction. Therefore, it is important that adequate lighting should correspond to both non-visual and visual demands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep-Wake Cycle, Daytime Sleepiness, and Attention Components in Children Attending Preschool in the Morning and Afternoon Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belísio, Aline S.; Kolodiuk, Fernanda F.; Louzada, Fernando M.; Valdez, Pablo; Azevedo, Carolina V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Children tend to sleep and wake up early and to exhibit daytime sleep episodes. To evaluate the impact of school start times on sleepiness and attention in preschool children, this study compared the temporal patterns of sleep, daytime sleepiness, and the components of attention between children aged 4-6 years that study in the morning (n = 66)…

  15. A Global Perspective on Early Childhood Care and Education: A Proposed Model. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillemyr, Ole Fredrik; Fagerli, Oddvar; Sobstad, Frode

    This monograph describes an alternative model for early childhood care and education involving a complex and integrated system that allows for more collaboration among early childhood care and education activities. The model, with its emphasis on values in all educational practices, is intended to promote a more global and total approach to…

  16. Online self-expression and experimentation as 'reflectivism': Using text analytics to examine the participatory forum Hello Sunday Morning.

    PubMed

    Carah, Nicholas; Meurk, Carla; Angus, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Hello Sunday Morning is an online health promotion organisation that began in 2009. Hello Sunday Morning asks participants to stop consuming alcohol for a period of time, set a goal and document their progress on a personal blog. Hello Sunday Morning is a unique health intervention for three interrelated reasons: (1) it was generated outside a clinical setting, (2) it uses new media technologies to create structured forms of participation in an iterative and open-ended way and (3) participants generate a written record of their progress along with demographic, behavioural and engagement data. This article presents a text analysis of the blog posts of Hello Sunday Morning participants using the software program Leximancer. Analysis of blogs illustrates how participants' expressions change over time. In the first month, participants tended to set goals, describe their current drinking practices in individual and cultural terms, express hopes and anxieties and report on early efforts to change. After month 1, participants continued to report on efforts to change and associated challenges and reflect on their place as individuals in a drinking culture. In addition to this, participants evaluated their efforts to change and presented their 'findings' and 'theorised' them to provide advice for others. We contextualise this text analysis with respect to Hello Sunday Morning's development of more structured forms of online participation. We offer a critical appraisal of the value of text analytics in the development of online health interventions.

  17. Explaining a Consistent Morning NOx Maximum in the Clean Air Forest Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepson, P. B.; Alaghmand, M.; Bertman, S. B.; Carroll, M.; Edburg, S. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Keutsch, F. N.; Lamb, B. K.; Starn, T.; Stevens, P. S.; Wallace, W.; Zhou, X.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at continental surface sites have frequently revealed the presence of an early morning maximum in the NOx concentration. While this observation has most often been interpreted as the result of downward mixing associated with breakup of the nocturnal inversion, the morning NOx peak often occurs earlier than the NBL breakup. Given the importance of NOx to boundary layer photochemistry near forested environments, it is essential that this phenomenon be well understood. Here we examine a variety of measurements, including NOx measurements at various heights, during the 1998, 2001, 2008, and 2009 (CABINEX) summer intensives of the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions and Transport (PROPHET), at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Northern Michigan. We will discuss the results, in terms of the extent to which the observations support/refute each of the potential drivers of the morning NOx peak: 1) downward mixing, 2) photochemistry on the various surfaces present, 3) soil emissions, and 4) local and long range transport of anthropogenic NOx, and we will report on our conclusions as to the predominant/likely explanation(s) for this phenomenon.

  18. Phytotoxic components produced by pathogenic Fusarium against morning glory.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Saito, Fukuko; Miyagawa, Hisahi; Watanabe, Ken; Ueno, Tamio; Sakata, Kanzo; Ogawa, Kei

    2005-01-01

    A pathogenic isolate of Fusarium, F. oxysporum f. sp. batatas O-17 (PF), causes wilt disease in leaf etiolation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and morning glory (Ipomoea tricolor). Extracts from PF cultures were screened for phytotoxic components using a growth inhibition assay with morning glory seedlings. The extracts were fractionated using differential solvent extraction and two active compounds, ergosterol and fusalanipyrone, were isolated from the less-polar fraction. Growth inhibition of morning glory seedlings showed a sigmoidal dose-response relationship, with fusalanipyrone exhibiting a two order of magnitude higher EC50 value than ergosterol (18 nM and 1.6 microM, respectively). Both compounds showed lower growth inhibition activity towards lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa). This study provides information on the phytotoxic components of PF and discusses the mechanism behind PFf-induced phytotoxicity.

  19. Evaluation of hemifield sector analysis protocol in multifocal visual evoked potential objective perimetry for the diagnosis and early detection of glaucomatous field defects.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Mohammad F; Cubbidge, Robert P; Al-Mansouri, Fatima; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-02-01

    Multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) is a newly introduced method used for objective visual field assessment. Several analysis protocols have been tested to identify early visual field losses in glaucoma patients using the mfVEP technique, some were successful in detection of field defects, which were comparable to the standard automated perimetry (SAP) visual field assessment, and others were not very informative and needed more adjustment and research work. In this study we implemented a novel analysis approach and evaluated its validity and whether it could be used effectively for early detection of visual field defects in glaucoma. Three groups were tested in this study; normal controls (38 eyes), glaucoma patients (36 eyes) and glaucoma suspect patients (38 eyes). All subjects had a two standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) test 24-2 and a single mfVEP test undertaken in one session. Analysis of the mfVEP results was done using the new analysis protocol; the hemifield sector analysis (HSA) protocol. Analysis of the HFA was done using the standard grading system. Analysis of mfVEP results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the three groups in the mean signal to noise ratio (ANOVA test, p < 0.001 with a 95% confidence interval). The difference between superior and inferior hemispheres in all subjects were statistically significant in the glaucoma patient group in all 11 sectors (t-test, p < 0.001), partially significant in 5 / 11 (t-test, p < 0.01), and no statistical difference in most sectors of the normal group (1 / 11 sectors was significant, t-test, p < 0.9). Sensitivity and specificity of the HSA protocol in detecting glaucoma was 97% and 86%, respectively, and for glaucoma suspect patients the values were 89% and 79%, respectively. The new HSA protocol used in the mfVEP testing can be applied to detect glaucomatous visual field defects in both glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients. Using this protocol can provide

  20. Evaluation of Hemifield Sector Analysis Protocol in Multifocal Visual Evoked Potential Objective Perimetry for the Diagnosis and Early Detection of Glaucomatous Field Defects

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Mohammad F.; Cubbidge, Robert P.; Al-Mansouri, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) is a newly introduced method used for objective visual field assessment. Several analysis protocols have been tested to identify early visual field losses in glaucoma patients using the mfVEP technique, some were successful in detection of field defects, which were comparable to the standard automated perimetry (SAP) visual field assessment, and others were not very informative and needed more adjustment and research work. In this study we implemented a novel analysis approach and evaluated its validity and whether it could be used effectively for early detection of visual field defects in glaucoma. Methods Three groups were tested in this study; normal controls (38 eyes), glaucoma patients (36 eyes) and glaucoma suspect patients (38 eyes). All subjects had a two standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) test 24-2 and a single mfVEP test undertaken in one session. Analysis of the mfVEP results was done using the new analysis protocol; the hemifield sector analysis (HSA) protocol. Analysis of the HFA was done using the standard grading system. Results Analysis of mfVEP results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the three groups in the mean signal to noise ratio (ANOVA test, p < 0.001 with a 95% confidence interval). The difference between superior and inferior hemispheres in all subjects were statistically significant in the glaucoma patient group in all 11 sectors (t-test, p < 0.001), partially significant in 5 / 11 (t-test, p < 0.01), and no statistical difference in most sectors of the normal group (1 / 11 sectors was significant, t-test, p < 0.9). Sensitivity and specificity of the HSA protocol in detecting glaucoma was 97% and 86%, respectively, and for glaucoma suspect patients the values were 89% and 79%, respectively. Conclusions The new HSA protocol used in the mfVEP testing can be applied to detect glaucomatous visual field defects in both glaucoma and glaucoma suspect

  1. Photographic copy of September 16, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of September 16, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune newspaper article. Located in a photo album at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. SEPTEMBER 16, 1931 NEW ORLEANS MORNING TRIBUNE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE AND PICTURE OF BRIDGE BID OPENING FEATURING LOUISIANA GOVERNOR HUEY LONG, NEW ORLEANS MAYOR WALMSLEY, STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION CHAIRMAN O.K. ALLEN AND PUBLIC BELT RAILROAD CHIEF ENGINEER ROBERT BARCLAY. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  2. Photographic copy of October 4, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of October 4, 1931 New Orleans Morning Tribune newspaper article. Located in a photo album at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. OCTOBER 4, 1931 NEW ORLEANS MORNING TRIBUNE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ANNOUNCING THAT THE WORK ON THE NEW BRIDGE IS EXPECTED TO START IN 90 DAYS. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  3. Suppressing the morning rise in cortisol impairs free recall.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-04-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning awakening, following administration of the cortisol synthesis inhibitor metyrapone or placebo. Unexpectedly, the metyrapone-induced cortisol suppression significantly impaired free recall of both materials. Recognition remained unaffected. Thus, not only high, but also very low glucocorticoid levels impair retrieval, with the latter effect possibly reflecting insufficient occupation of hippocampal/amygdalar mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs).

  4. Immunologic and clinical responses to "Monday morning miseries" antigens.

    PubMed

    Cernelc, S; Stropnik, Z

    1987-01-01

    Authors analysed 96 workers exposed to air conditioning system (Group A), and 71 workers (Group B) breathing normal ambient air. 38 workers in group A had a positive clinical history of "Monday morning miseries". Eight cases with the diagnosis hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute and chronic form was based on environmental history, clinical investigations, physical examination, Chest-X-ray examination, immunological test "in vivo" and "in vitro" with common allergens and antigen "Monday morning miseries", ELISA, spirometry and PEFR (Peak Expiratory Flow-Rate) measurements. Exposure to contaminated air may be responsible for morbidity and reduced performance of workers.

  5. Vital Voices for Vital Years in Singapore: One Country's Advocacy for Change in the Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) has become a national priority in many countries. Governments across Europe and the Asia-Pacific region have placed considerable emphasis on the development of policy documents and national initiatives to improve the quality of services for young children and families. This paper presents findings from a…

  6. Team Teaching in the Saturday Morning Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Pearl G.; And Others

    The Marie Curie Mathematics and Science Center at St. Thomas Aquinas College (New York), in a comprehensive effort to improve mathematics and science education, offers the Saturday Morning Search for Solutions enrichment program for area students in grades 7-12. The program is interdisciplinary, connecting technology and the study of societal…

  7. Morning view, contextual view of the exterior west side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view of the exterior west side of the north wall along the unpaved road; camera facing west, positioned in road approximately 8 posts west of the gate. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  8. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  9. "Brown Morning": Classed Interpretations of Anti-Racist Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Dana; Shoshana, Avihu

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the interpretations of high school students from different socioeconomic locations (in terms of socioeconomic class and ethnicity) with regard to the text "Brown Morning," used as a didactic tool for antiracism education within the framework of Civics courses. The research findings uncover differences in the…

  10. Morning Star Cycle Two: Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, L. V.

    Semi-structured telephone interviews were used to gather follow-up data on students who completed the 1977-1979 Morning Star cycle two program, a community-based Native teacher education program at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta. Of the 24 students who completed…

  11. Morning Star Cycle Two (1977-1979): Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, L. V.

    Evaluation of cycle two of the (1977-1979) Morning Star program (a 2-year Native teacher education program at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta) used a systems model to collect data on 24 variables for the 33 participating students, the academic program, and first and…

  12. Impact of early initiation versus national standard of care of antiretroviral therapy in Swaziland's public sector health system: study protocol for a stepped-wedge randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona J; Bärnighausen, Till; Delva, Wim; Fleming, Yvette; Khumalo, Gavin; Lejeune, Charlotte L; Mazibuko, Sikhathele; Mlambo, Charmaine Khudzie; Reis, Ria; Spiegelman, Donna; Zwane, Mandisa; Okello, Velephi

    2017-08-18

    There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or "universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics. The MaxART Early Access to ART for All (EAAA) implementation study was designed to determine the feasibility, acceptability, clinical outcomes, affordability, and scalability of offering early antiretroviral treatment to all HIV-positive individuals in Swaziland's public sector health system. This is a three-year stepped-wedge randomized design with open enrollment for all adults aged 18 years and older across 14 government-managed health facilities in Swaziland's Hhohho Region. Primary endpoints are retention and viral suppression. Secondary endpoints include ART initiation, adherence, drug resistance, tuberculosis, HIV disease progression, patient satisfaction, and cost per patient per year. Sites are grouped to transition two at a time from the control (standard of care) to intervention (EAAA) stage at each four-month step. This design will result in approximately one half of the total observation time to accrue in the intervention arm and the other half in the control arm. Our estimated enrolment number, which is supported by conservative power calculations, is 4501 patients over the course of the 36-month study period. A multidisciplinary, mixed-methods approach will be adopted to supplement the randomized controlled trial and meet the study aims. Additional study components include implementation science, social science, economic evaluation, and predictive HIV incidence modeling. A

  13. Tretinoin gel microsphere pump 0.04% plus 5% benzoyl peroxide wash for treatment of acne vulgaris: morning/morning regimen is as effective and safe as morning/evening regimen.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David; Bucko, Alicia; Fried, Richard; Jarratt, Michael T; Kempers, Steven; Kircik, Leon; Lucky, Anne W; Rafal, Elyse; Rendon, Marta; Weiss, Jonathan; Wilson, David C; Rossi, Ana Beatris; Ramaswamy, Ratna; Nighland, Marge

    2010-07-01

    Topical tretinoin and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) are often prescribed in combination for the treatment of acne vulgaris; however, these products have not traditionally been administered simultaneously because of the potential for tretinoin degradation by BPO as well as the instability of tretinoin in daylight. The primary objective of this randomized, investigator-blinded, 12-week, phase 4 trial was to determine non-inferiority of a once-daily morning combination regimen of 5% BPO wash + tretinoin gel microsphere (TGM) 0.04% pump versus a sequential regimen (BPO in the morning/TGM in the evening) in patients > or = 12 years old with moderate facial acne vulgaris. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in total acne lesions; the primary safety endpoint was the change in cutaneous irritation scores. The 247 participants (mean age: 18.5 years) were randomized to either the morning/morning regimen (n = 123) or the morning/evening regimen (n = 124). The morning/morning regimen was determined to be non-inferior to the morning/evening regimen in reduction of total acne lesions. The tolerability of both regimens was comparable. The morning/morning regimen is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with moderate acne vulgaris.

  14. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  15. Chronotype, Light Exposure, Sleep, and Daytime Functioning in High School Students Attending Morning or Afternoon School Shifts: An Actigraphic Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Gaudreault, Michael M; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent maturation is associated with delays of the endogenous circadian phase. Consequently, early school schedules may lead to a mismatch between internal and external time, which can be detrimental to adolescent sleep and health. In parallel, chronotype is known to play a role in adolescent health; evening chronotype adolescents are at higher risk for sleep problems and lower academic achievement. In the summer of 2008, Kénogami High School (Saguenay, Canada) was destroyed by fire. Kénogami students were subsequently relocated to Arvida High School (situated 5.3 km away) for the 2008-2009 academic year. A dual school schedule was implemented, with Arvida students attending a morning schedule (0740-1305 h) and Kénogami students an afternoon schedule (1325-1845 h). This study aimed to investigate the effects of such school schedules and chronotype on sleep, light exposure, and daytime functioning. Twenty-four morning and 33 afternoon schedule students wore an actigraph during 7 days to measure sleep and light exposure. Academic achievement was obtained from school. Subjects completed validated questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, alcohol, and chronotype. Overall, afternoon schedule students had longer sleep duration, lower sleepiness, and lower light exposure than morning schedule students. Evening chronotypes (E-types) reported higher levels of sleepiness than morning chronotypes (M-types) in both morning and afternoon schedules. Furthermore, M-types attending the morning schedule reported higher sleepiness than M-types attending the afternoon schedule. No difference was found between morning and afternoon schedule students with regard to academic achievement, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. However, in both schedules, M-type had more regular social rhythms and lower alcohol consumption. In summary, this study emphasizes that an early school

  16. Using internet GIS technology for early warning, response and controlling the quality of the public health sector.

    PubMed

    Ptochos, Dimitrios; Panopoulos, Dimitrios; Metaxiotis, Kostas; Askounis, Dimitrios

    2004-01-01

    Recent EU and Greek Government legislation highlights the need for the modernisation of the public health management system and the improvement of the overall health of EU citizens. In addition, the effusion of epidemics even in developed countries makes the need for the enhancement of public health services imperative. In order to best confront the above-described challenges, the National Technical University of Athens, in cooperation with the Greek Ministry of Health and Welfare and the European Commission (EC), designed and developed an integrated public health information network, named GEPIMI (Integrated Geographical System for EPIdemiological and other Medical Information), in the framework of a three-year pilot project. This pilot project, funded by Greek Ministry of Health and Welfare and the EC supported the Programme INTERREG II to establish an advanced and integrated web-based information system that can process and move information in real time, allowing public health authorities to monitor events at hundreds or thousands of public health facilities at once. The system is established among hospitals, primary healthcare authorities and health agents in Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, Fyrom, and Turkey. The project aims at demonstrating the best practices, prospects, applications and high potential of Telematics Healthcare Networks in Europe, with a view to promoting cooperation and interconnection between European communities in the field of Telematics Healthcare Applications. The GEPIMI System, implemented via an innovative web based system, constitutes a replication of a highly effective mechanism. It incorporates state-of-the-art technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (G.I.S.), web based databases, GPS, and Smart Card Technology and supports a variety of health-related web applications including early warning and response of epidemics, remote management of medical records, seamless healthcare coverage, comprehensive statistical analysis of

  17. Morning Exercise: Enhancement of Afternoon Sprint-Swimming Performance.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Courtney J; Pyne, David B; Thompson, Kevin G; Raglin, John S; Rattray, Ben

    2017-05-01

    An exercise bout completed several hours prior to an event may improve competitive performance later that same day. To examine the influence of morning exercise on afternoon sprint-swimming performance. Thirteen competitive swimmers (7 male, mean age 19 ± 3 y; 6 female, mean age 17 ± 3 y) completed a morning session of 1200 m of variedintensity swimming (SwimOnly), a combination of varied-intensity swimming and a resistance-exercise routine (SwimDry), or no morning exercise (NoEx). After a 6-h break, swimmers completed a 100-m time trial. Time-trial performance was faster in SwimOnly (1.6% ± 0.6, mean ± 90% confidence limit, P < .01) and SwimDry (1.7% ± 0.7%, P < .01) than in NoEx. Split times for the 25- to 50-m distance were faster in both SwimOnly (1.7% ± 1.2%, P = .02) and SwimDry (1.5% ± 0.8%, P = .01) than in NoEx. The first 50-m stroke rate was higher in SwimOnly (0.70 ± 0.21 Hz, mean ± SD, P = .03) and SwimDry (0.69 ± 0.18 Hz, P = .05) than in NoEx (0.64 ± 0.16 Hz). Before the afternoon session, core (0.2°C ± 0.1°C [mean ± 90% confidence limit], P = .04), body (0.2°C ± 0.1°C, P = .02), and skin temperatures (0.3°C ± 0.3°C, P = .02) were higher in SwimDry than in NoEx. Completion of a morning swimming session alone or together with resistance exercise can substantially enhance sprint-swimming performance completed later the same day.

  18. Parallel evolution of storage roots in morning glories (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2018-05-29

    Storage roots are an ecologically and agriculturally important plant trait that have evolved numerous times in angiosperms. Storage roots primarily function to store carbohydrates underground as reserves for perennial species. In morning glories, storage roots are well characterized in the crop species sweetpotato, where starch accumulates in storage roots. This starch-storage tissue proliferates, and roots thicken to accommodate the additional tissue. In morning glories, storage roots have evolved numerous times. The primary goal of this study is to understand whether this was through parallel evolution, where species use a common genetic mechanism to achieve storage root formation, or through convergent evolution, where storage roots in distantly related species are formed using a different set of genes. Pairs of species where one forms storage roots and the other does not were sampled from two tribes in the morning glory family, the Ipomoeeae and Merremieae. Root anatomy in storage roots and fine roots was examined. Furthermore, we sequenced total mRNA from storage roots and fine roots in these species and analyzed differential gene expression. Anatomical results reveal that storage roots of species in the Ipomoeeae tribe, such as sweetpotato, accumulate starch similar to species in the Merremieae tribe but differ in vascular tissue organization. In both storage root forming species, more genes were found to be upregulated in storage roots compared to fine roots. Further, we find that fifty-seven orthologous genes were differentially expressed between storage roots and fine roots in both storage root forming species. These genes are primarily involved in starch biosynthesis, regulation of starch biosynthesis, and transcription factor activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that storage roots of species from both morning glory tribes are anatomically different but utilize a common core set of genes in storage root formation. This is consistent with a

  19. Pharbinilic acid, an allogibberic acid from morning glory (Pharbitis nil).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Un; Son, Mi Won; Choi, Sang Zin; Clardy, Jon; Lee, Kang Ro

    2013-07-26

    Pharbinilic acid (1), the first naturally occurring allogibberic acid, was isolated from ethanol extracts of morning glory (Pharbitis nil) seeds. Its absolute configuration was determined by NOESY NMR and ECD experiments. Compound 1 showed weak cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cells and weakly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV-2 microglia cells.

  20. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in approximately true color.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Morning blood pressure surge: pathophysiology, clinical relevance and therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bilo, Grzegorz; Grillo, Andrea; Guida, Valentina; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-01-01

    Morning hours are the period of the day characterized by the highest incidence of major cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, sudden death or stroke. They are also characterized by important neurohormonal changes, in particular, the activation of sympathetic nervous system which usually leads to a rapid increase in blood pressure (BP), known as morning blood pressure surge (MBPS). It was hypothesized that excessive MBPS may be causally involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events occurring in the morning by inducing hemodynamic stress. A number of studies support an independent relationship of MBPS with organ damage, cerebrovascular complications and mortality, although some heterogeneity exists in the available evidence. This may be due to ethnic differences, methodological issues and the confounding relationship of MBPS with other features of 24-hour BP profile, such as nocturnal dipping or BP variability. Several studies are also available dealing with treatment effects on MBPS and indicating the importance of long-acting antihypertensive drugs in this regard. This paper provides an overview of pathophysiologic, methodological, prognostic and therapeutic aspects related to MBPS. PMID:29872338

  2. Brief Morning Light Exposure, Visuomotor Performance, and Biochemistry in Sport Shooters.

    PubMed

    Leichtfried, Veronika; Hanser, Friedrich; Griesmacher, Andrea; Canazei, Markus; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Demands on concentrative and cognitive performance are high in sport shooting and vary in a circadian pattern, aroused by internal and external stimuli. The most prominent external stimulus is light. Bright light (BL) has been shown to have a certain impact on cognitive and physical performance. To evaluate the impact of a single half hour of BL exposure in the morning hours on physical and cognitive performance in 15 sport shooters. In addition, courses of sulfateoxymelatonin (aMT6s), tryptophan (TRP), and kynurenine (KYN) were monitored. In a crossover design, 15 sport shooters were exposed to 30 min of BL and dim light (DL) in the early-morning hours. Shooting performance, balance, visuomotor performance, and courses of aMT6s, TRP, and KYN were evaluated. Shooting performance was 365.4 (349.7-381.0) and 368.5 (353.9-383.1), identical in both light setups. Numbers of right reactions (sustained attention) and deviations from the horizontal plane (balance-related measure) were higher after BL. TRP concentrations decreased from 77.5 (73.5-81.4) to 66.9 (60.7-67.0) in the DL setup only. The 2 light conditions generated heterogeneous visuomotor and physiological effects in sport shooters. The authors therefore suggest that a single half hour of BL exposure is effective in improving cognitive aspects of performance, but not physical performance. Further research is needed to evaluate BL's impact on biochemical parameters.

  3. View looking west at Test Stand 'A' complex in morning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking west at Test Stand 'A' complex in morning sun. View shows Monitor Building 4203/E-4 at left, barrier (Building 4216/E-17) to right of 4203/E-4, and Test Stand 'A' tower. Attached structure to lower left of tower is Test Stand 'A' machine room which contained refrigeration equipment. Building in right background with Test Stand 'A' tower shadow on it is Assembly Building 4288/E-89, built in 1984. Row of ground-mounted brackets in foreground was used to carry electrical cable and/or fuel lines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Tropical Forest Backscatter Anomaly Evident in SeaWinds Scatterometer Morning Overpass Data During 2005 Drought in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolking, S. E.; Milliman, T.; Palace, M. W.; Wisser, D.; Lammers, R. B.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    A severe drought occurred in many portions of Amazonia in the dry season (June-September) of 2005. We analyzed ten years (7/99-10/09) of SeaWinds active microwave Ku-band backscatter data collected over the Amazon Basin, developing a monthly climatology and monthly anomalies from that climatology in an effort to detect landscape responses to this drought. We compared these to seasonal accumulating water deficit anomalies generated using Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data (1999-2009) and 100 mm/mo evapotranspirative demand as a water deficit threshold. There was significant interannual variability in monthly mean backscatter only for ascending (early morning) overpass data, and little interannual variability in monthly mean backscatter for descending (late afternoon) overpass data. Strong negative anomalies in both ascending-overpass backscatter and accumulating water deficit developed during July-October 2005, centered on the southwestern Amazon Basin (Acre and western Amazonas states in Brazil; Madre de Dios state in Peru; Pando state in Bolivia). During the 2005 drought, there was a strong spatial correlation between morning overpass backscatter anomalies and water deficit anomalies. We hypothesize that as the drought persisted over several months, the forest canopy was increasingly unable to recover full leaf moisture content over night, and the early morning overpass backscatter data became anomalously low. This is the first reporting of tropical wet forest seasonal drought detection by active microwave scatterometry.

  5. Benefit of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide-fixed dose combination treatment for isolated morning hypertension: The MAPPY study.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hisashi; Ueda, Tamenobu; Uchiwa, Hiroki; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Aoki, Yuji; Anegawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Kenji; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Morning hypertension is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events. In the Morning Hypertension and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy (MAPPY) study, a 50-mg losartan/12.5-mg hydrochlorothiazide combination (Los/HCTZ) lowered morning blood pressure (BP) more effectively than 100-mg losartan (High-Los) in treated hypertensive patients with morning hypertension. The aim of this MAPPY study sub-analysis was to determine whether Los/HCTZ was effective for controlling isolated morning hypertension (morning BP ≥ 135/85 mmHg and evening BP < 135/85 mmHg), sustained hypertension (morning and evening BP ≥ 135/85 mmHg), or both. Of the 110 patients studied, 25 (22.7%) had isolated morning hypertension, and 85 (77.3%) had sustained hypertension at baseline. After 3-month treatment, isolated morning hypertension developed into controlled hypertension (morning and evening BP < 135/85 mmHg) in 9 of 11 Los/HCTZ patients (81.8%) and 3 of 14 High-Los patients (21.4%) (p = 0.003, chi-square test). Sustained hypertension developed into controlled hypertension in 21 of 44 Los/HCTZ patients (47.7%) and 13 of 41 High-Los patients (31.7%)(NS). The rates of achievement of SBP < 135 mmHg both in the morning and evening were: 81.8% and 21.4% in Los/HCTZ- and High-Los-treated isolated morning hypertension (p = 0.003), respectively; and 61.4% and 36.6% in Los/HCTX- and High-Los-treated sustained hypertension (p = 0.022), respectively. In conclusion, Los/HCTZ was effective for controlling both types of morning hypertension, especially isolated morning hypertension. Los/HCTZ was superior to High-Los in treating both types of morning hypertension.

  6. Mediating effects of nocturnal blood pressure and morning surge on the contributions of arterial stiffness and sodium intake to morning blood pressure: A path analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Tak; Park, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung Yong; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Mori, Mari; Yamori, Yukio; Lim, Young Hyo; Shin, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mediating effects of nocturnal blood pressure (BP) and morning surge on the contribution of arterial stiffness and sodium intake to morning BP in a middle-aged general population. The study included 124 subjects aged 30-59 years, from rural Yeoju County, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Ambulatory BP monitoring, 24 h urinary sodium excretion (24 h UNa) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurements were performed in all subjects. The mean ± SD age was 48.1 ± 8.2 years and the proportion of male subjects was 41.1%. After adjusting for covariates, morning systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly correlated with morning surge [coefficient = 0.761, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.651-0.872, p < 0.001], nocturnal SBP (coefficient = 0.576, 95% CI 0.454-0.698, p < 0.001) and baPWV (coefficient = 3.550, 95% CI 1.447-5.653, p = 0.001). Path analysis modeling revealed that baPWV had significant direct (0.035, p = 0.013) and indirect effects (0.042, p = 0.012) on morning SBP. The indirect effect mediated by nocturnal SBP was statistically significant (0.054, p = 0.005), but the indirect effect mediated by the morning surge was not significant. The 24 h UNa had no significant direct or indirect effects on morning SBP. baPWV had significant direct and indirect effects on morning SBP. The indirect effect was mediated by nocturnal SBP, but not by morning surge. The 24 h UNa had neither significant direct nor indirect effects on morning SBP.

  7. Smart Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is taking a sector based approach to environmental protection to improve environmental performance through better-informed rulemakings, reduced burden, and more efficient, effective, and consensus-based solutions to environmental problems.

  8. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  9. Rocket observations of the ultraviolet airglow during morning twilight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebula, R. P.; Feldman, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Rocket-borne (Astrobee) UV measurements were made of the terrestrial airglow at morning twilight from 82 and 90 deg zenith angles at altitudes of 90 and 246 km in September 1979. Data were acquired on the NO gamma and delta bands, the 2470 A O II, 1356 A and the 1304 A O I lines, the Lyman-Berge-Hopfield N2 and the Herzberg 02 lines. The zodiacal contribution was substracted to obtain pure airglow data. Spectral analyses supported a larger nighttime decrease of N(4S) than for NO, the latter being in diffusive equilibrium above 190 km altitude. The NO gamma band was directly related to the thermospheric N(4S) contribution, the latter having a density of 2-8 million/cu cm at 200 km. Finally, self-consistent photoionization and photoelectron impact ionization models were derived for the atomic and ionic oxygen emissions.

  10. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning.

    PubMed

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten; Nielsen, Martin Lindhardt; Hansen, Åse Marie; Netterstrøm, Bo

    2012-02-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR. In 2006 and 2008, 480 individuals collected saliva samples at awakening and 30 min post-awakening. Mixed effects models with subject as a random effect and appropriate covariates were used to evaluate associations between the Effort Reward Model, and salivary cortisol at awakening (S0), and ACR. ERI was negatively and significantly associated with S0 for women and positively associated with ACR. S0 and ACR increased significantly from 2006 to 2008. ERI was significantly associated with cortisol levels at awakening (inverse association) for women, and positively associated with ACR. The population experienced a significant increase in morning cortisol levels and ACR from 2006 to 2008, which may originate in a re-organization of the included work places. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Morning Glory Syndrome with Carotid and Middle Cerebral Artery Vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Nezzar, Hachemi; Mbekeani, Joyce N; Dalens, Helen

    2015-12-01

    To report a case of incidental asymptomatic atypical morning glory syndrome (MGS) with concomitant ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral dysgenesis. A 6-year-old child was discovered to have incidental findings of MGS, with atypia. All visual functions were normal including vision and stereopsis. Neuroimaging revealed ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral vascular narrowing without associated collateral vessels or cerebral ischemia commonly seen in Moyamoya disease. Subsequent annual examinations have been stable, without signs of progression. This case demonstrates disparity between structural aberrations and final visual and neurological function and reinforces the association between MGS and intracranial vascular disruption. Full ancillary ophthalmic and neuroimaging studies should be performed in all patients with MGS with interval reassessments, even when the patient is asymptomatic and functionally intact.

  12. Predictors of switch to and early outcomes on third-line antiretroviral therapy at a large public-sector clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Evans, Denise; Hirasen, Kamban; Berhanu, Rebecca; Malete, Given; Ive, Prudence; Spencer, David; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Sanne, Ian M; Fox, Matthew P

    2018-04-10

    While efficacy data exist, there are limited data on the outcomes of patients on third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa in actual practice. Being able to identify predictors of switch to third-line ART will be essential for planning for future need. We identify predictors of switch to third-line ART among patients with significant viraemia on a protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line ART regimen. Additionally, we describe characteristics of all patients on third-line at a large public sector HIV clinic and present their early outcomes. Retrospective analysis of adults (≥ 18 years) on a PI-based second-line ART regimen at Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa as of 01 August 2012, when third-line treatment became available in South Africa, with significant viraemia on second-line ART (defined as at least one viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL on second-line ART after 01 August 2012) to identify predictors of switch to third-line (determined by genotype resistance testing). Third-line ART was defined as a regimen containing etravirine, raltegravir or ritonavir boosted darunavir, between August 2012 and January 2016. To assess predictors of switch to third-line ART we used Cox proportional hazards regression among those with significant viraemia on second-line ART after 01 August 2012. Then among all patients on third-line ART we describe viral load suppression, defined as a viral load < 400 copies/mL, after starting third-line ART. Among 719 patients in care and on second-line ART as of August 2012 (with at least one viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL after 01 August 2012), 36 (5.0% over a median time of 54 months) switched to third-line. Time on second-line therapy (≥ 96 vs. < 96 weeks) (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 2.53 95% CI 1.03-6.22) and never reaching virologic suppression while on second-line ART (aHR: 3.37 95% CI 1.47-7.73) were identified as predictors of switch. In a separate cohort of patients on third

  13. How does decentralisation affect health sector planning and financial management? a case study of early effects of devolution in Kilifi County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy; Gilson, Lucy; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-09-15

    A common challenge for health sector planning and budgeting has been the misalignment between policies, technical planning and budgetary allocation; and inadequate community involvement in priority setting. Health system decentralisation has often been promoted to address health sector planning and budgeting challenges through promoting community participation, accountability, and technical efficiency in resource management. In 2010, Kenya passed a new constitution that introduced 47 semi-autonomous devolved county governments, and a substantial transfer of responsibility for healthcare from the central government to these counties. This study analysed the effects of this major political decentralization on health sector planning, budgeting and overall financial management at county level. We used a qualitative, case study design focusing on Kilifi County, and were guided by a conceptual framework which drew on decentralisation and policy analysis theories. Qualitative data were collected through document reviews, key informant interviews, and participant and non-participant observations conducted over an eighteen months' period. We found that the implementation of devolution created an opportunity for local level prioritisation and community involvement in health sector planning and budgeting hence increasing opportunities for equity in local level resource allocation. However, this opportunity was not harnessed due to accelerated transfer of functions to counties before county level capacity had been established to undertake the decentralised functions. We also observed some indication of re-centralisation of financial management from health facility to county level. We conclude by arguing that, to enhance the benefits of decentralised health systems, resource allocation, priority setting and financial management functions between central and decentralised units are guided by considerations around decision space, organisational structure and capacity, and

  14. An extremely high altitude plume seen at Mars morning terminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Pellier, Christophe; Delcroix, Marc; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Jaeschke, Wayne; Parker, Donald C.; Phillips, James H.; Peach, Damian

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright very high altitude plumes at the Martian terminator at 250 km or more above the surface, thus well into the ionosphere and bordering on the exosphere. They were located at about 195 deg West longitude and -45 deg latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and lasted for about 10 days. The features showed day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behavior. Photometric measurements are used to explore two possible scenarios to explain their nature. If the phenomenon is due to suspended particles (dust, CO2 or H2O ice clouds) reflecting solar radiation, the mean size is about 0.1 microns with a nadir optical depth > 0.06. Alternatively, the plume could be auroral emission above a region with a strong magnetic anomaly and where aurora has previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of the Mars upper atmosphere.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, CONSOLIDER program ASTROMOL CSD2009-00038 and AYA2011-30613-CO2-1. Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55.

  15. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  16. Hello Sunday Morning: Alcohol, (non)consumption and selfhood.

    PubMed

    Pennay, Amy; MacLean, Sarah; Rankin, Georgia

    2016-02-01

    Hello Sunday Morning (HSM) is an online program that encourages people to commit to a period of non-drinking and blog about their experiences. The purpose of this paper is to explore how HSM members negotiated their periods of abstention, with a focus on how not drinking influenced their narratives of selfhood. Thematic analysis was undertaken of 2844 blog posts from 154 Victorians who signed up to HSM in 2013 or 2014. Analysis revealed three key narratives of selfhood offered by participants: (1) abstinence resulting in a disrupted sense of self, (2) non-consumption facilitating the development of a new healthy self, and (3) anti-consumption facilitating the development of a resistant self. Individuals construct and maintain their sense of self through consumption (or non-consumption) activities, and this occurs within the broader context of the relationship between selfhood, consumption and culture. HSM members developed narratives of self by drawing on a range of wider discursive structures concerning pleasure, healthism and resistance. The typologies of non-drinking selves identified in this paper could be disseminated through platforms such as HSM to support people who are new to non-drinking in choosing how they might construct and enact alternative selfhoods in contexts where alcohol consumption is deeply embedded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Extinction of Conditioned Fear is Better Learned and Recalled in the Morning than in the Evening

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis; Verga, Patrick W.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N=109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCR) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS−), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS+E) but not the other (CS+U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 hr (within AM or PM), 12 hr (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 hr (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p=.002). Collapsing across CS+ type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p=.003) and fear renewal (p=.005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS+E to CS+U with the response to the CS+U significantly larger than to the CS+E only in the evening (p=.028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicting better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. PMID:23992769

  18. Extinction of conditioned fear is better learned and recalled in the morning than in the evening.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis A K; Verga, Patrick W; Orr, Scott P; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2013-11-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N = 109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS-), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS + E) but not the other (CS + U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 h (within AM or PM), 12 h (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 h (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p = .002). Collapsing across CS + type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p = .003) and fear renewal (p = .005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS + E to CS + U with the response to the CS + U significantly larger than to the CS + E only in the evening (p = .028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicted better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early-release Estimates From the 2010 MECS Show That Energy Consumption In the Manufacturing Sector Decreased Between 2006 and 2010

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in the U.S. manufacturing sector fell from 21,098 trillion Btu (tBtu) in 2006 to 19,062 tBtu in 2010, a decline of almost 10% , based on preliminary estimates released from the 2010 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This decline continues the downward trend in manufacturing energy use since the 1998 MECS report.

  20. "¡Fantástico!": Valuing Student Knowledge through the Morning Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNicolo, Christina P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a qualitative case study that examined the language practices and learning in a first grade bilingual classroom, the author discusses one teacher's daily process for the literacy event of the morning message. Primary findings indicate that the ways the teacher listened and responded to students during the morning message provided…

  1. Morning-Evening Newspaper Circulation: What Effect Do Appearance and Content Have?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, John C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In a study of jointly-owned morning/evening newspapers in 96 United States cities, it was found that those morning/evening newspapers that were similar in content and appearance reached higher proportions of dual subscribers than those that were dissimilar. (GW)

  2. Persistence of the primary vitreous in association with the morning glory disc anomaly.

    PubMed

    Brown, G C; Gonder, J; Levin, A

    1984-01-01

    Two patients with the morning glory disc anomaly are reported. In one, fibrovascular stalk passed forward into the vitreous cavity, while in the second a persistent hyaloid artery extended anteriorly from a tuft of fibrous tissue to the posterior lens capsule. These cases suggest that in some eyes the morning glory disc anomaly occurs as a variant of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV).

  3. Use of Songs to Promote Independence in Morning Greeting Routines for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Petra; Wolery, Mark; Aldridge, David

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of individually composed songs on the independent behaviors of two young children with autism during the morning greeting/entry routine into their inclusive classrooms. A music therapist composed a song for each child related to the steps of the morning greeting routine and taught the children's teachers to sing…

  4. Fears of violence during morning travel to school.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Guo, Wensheng; Allison, Paul D; Anderson, Elijah; Richmond, Therese S; Branas, Charles C

    2013-07-01

    Children's safety as they travel to school is a concern nationwide. We investigated how safe children felt from the risk of being assaulted during morning travel to school. Children between 10 and 18 years old were recruited in Philadelphia and interviewed with the aid of geographic information system (GIS) mapping software about a recent trip to school, situational characteristics, and how safe they felt as they travelled based on a 10-point item (1 = very unsafe, 10 = very safe). Ordinal regression was used to estimate the probability of perceiving different levels of safety based on transportation mode, companion type, and neighborhood characteristics. Among 65 randomly selected subjects, routes to school ranged from 7 to 177 minutes (median = 36) and .1-15.1 street miles (median = 1.9), and included between 1-5 transportation modes (median = 2). Among students interviewed, 58.5% felt less than very safe (i.e., <10) at some point while traveling to school and one-third (32.5%) of the total person time was spent feeling less than very safe. Nearly a quarter of students, or 24.6%, felt a reduction in safety immediately upon exiting their home. The probability of reporting a safety of >8, for example, was .99 while in a car and .94 while on foot but was .86 and .87 when on a public bus or trolley. Probability was .98 while with an adult but was .72 while with another child and .71 when alone. Also, perceived safety was lower in areas of high crime and high density of off-premise alcohol outlets. Efforts that target situational risk factors are warranted to help children feel safe over their entire travel routes to school. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association Between ICU Admission During Morning Rounds and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gajic, Ognjen; Morales, Ian J.; Keegan, Mark T.; Peters, Steve G.; Hubmayr, Rolf D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: No previous study has evaluated the association between admission to ICUs during round time and patient outcome. The objective of this study was to determine the association between round-time ICU admission and patient outcome. Methods: This retrospective study included 49,844 patients admitted from October 1994 to December 2007 to four ICUs (two surgical, one medical, and one multispecialty) of an academic medical center. Of these patients, 3,580 were admitted to the ICU during round time (8:00 am to 10:59 am) and 46,264 were admitted during nonround time (from 1:00 pm to 6:00 am). The medical ICU had 24-h/7-day per week intensivist coverage during the last 2 years of the study. We compared the baseline characteristics and outcome of patients admitted to the ICU between the two groups. Data were abstracted from the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III database. Results: The round-time and non-round-groups were similar in gender, ethnicity, and age. The predicted hospital mortality rate of the round time group was higher (17.4% vs 12.3% predicted, respectively; p < 0.001). The hospital length of stay was similar between the two groups. The round-time group had a higher hospital mortality rate (16.2% vs 8.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Most of the round-time ICU admissions and deaths occurred in the medical ICU. Round-time admission was an independent risk factor for hospital death (odds ratio, 1.321; 95% CI, 1.178 to 1.481). This independent association was present for the whole study period except for the last 2 years. Conclusions: Patients admitted to the ICU during morning rounds have higher severity of illness and mortality rates. PMID:19505985

  6. Patterns of Morning and Evening Fatigue Among Adults with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Lerdal, Anners; Gay, Caryl L.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims and objectives Describe patterns of morning and evening fatigue in adults with HIV and examine their relationship to demographic and clinical factors and other symptoms. Background Most studies of HIV-related fatigue assess average levels of fatigue and do not address its diurnal fluctuations. Patterns of fatigue over the course of the day may have important implications for assessment and treatment. Design A cross-sectional, correlational design was used with six repeated measures over 72 hours. Method A convenience sample of 318 HIV-infected adults was recruited in San Francisco. Socio-demographic, clinical and symptom data were collected with questionnaires. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were obtained from medical records. Participants completed a four-item version of the Lee Fatigue Scale each morning and evening for three consecutive days. Participants were grouped based on their diurnal pattern of fatigue (high evening only, high morning only, high morning and evening and low morning and evening). Group comparisons and logistic regression were used to determine the unique predictors of each fatigue pattern. Results The high evening fatigue pattern was associated with anxiety and the high morning pattern was associated with anxiety and depression. The morning fatigue pattern showed very little fluctuation between morning and evening, the evening pattern showed the largest fluctuation. The high morning and evening pattern was associated with anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance and this group reported the most fatigue-related distress and interference in functioning. Conclusions These results provide initial evidence for the importance of assessing the patient’s daily pattern of fatigue fluctuation, as different patterns were associated with different symptom experiences and perhaps different etiologies. Relevance to clinical practice Different fatigue patterns may benefit from tailored intervention strategies. Management of depressive symptoms

  7. Patterns of morning and evening fatigue among adults with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lerdal, Anners; Gay, Caryl L; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Portillo, Carmen J; Lee, Kathryn A

    2011-08-01

    Describe patterns of morning and evening fatigue in adults with HIV and examine their relationship to demographic and clinical factors and other symptoms. Most studies of HIV-related fatigue assess average levels of fatigue and do not address its diurnal fluctuations. Patterns of fatigue over the course of the day may have important implications for assessment and treatment. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used with six repeated measures over 72 hours. A convenience sample of 318 HIV-infected adults was recruited in San Francisco. Socio-demographic, clinical and symptom data were collected with questionnaires. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were obtained from medical records. Participants completed a four-item version of the Lee Fatigue Scale each morning and evening for three consecutive days. Participants were grouped based on their diurnal pattern of fatigue (high evening only, high morning only, high morning and evening and low morning and evening). Group comparisons and logistic regression were used to determine the unique predictors of each fatigue pattern. The high evening fatigue pattern was associated with anxiety and the high morning pattern was associated with anxiety and depression. The morning fatigue pattern showed very little fluctuation between morning and evening, the evening pattern showed the largest fluctuation. The high morning and evening pattern was associated with anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance and this group reported the most fatigue-related distress and interference in functioning. These results provide initial evidence for the importance of assessing the patient's daily pattern of fatigue fluctuation, as different patterns were associated with different symptom experiences and perhaps different aetiologies. Different fatigue patterns may benefit from tailored intervention strategies. Management of depressive symptoms could be tested in patients who experience high levels of morning fatigue. © 2011 Blackwell

  8. Participation of the Private Sector in the Provision of Early Childhood Care, Development, and Education: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward in Nigeria's Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Ige Akindele

    2015-01-01

    While all children have a right to quality care and education in their early years, how to secure that right, especially in resource-limited contexts, is the subject of much debate. For some nations, private schools can seem like a good option, requiring few federal resources. However, the privatization of early education presents significant…

  9. Nourish and Nurture: World Food Programme Assistance for Early Childhood Education in India's Integrated Child Development Services. Education Sector Monograph No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    Part of UNESCO's Action Research in Family and Early Childhood series, this monograph is based upon a technical report on the Early Childhood Education (ECE) component of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India. This document overviews the ICDS and how better use could be made of World Food Programme (WFP) food aid along…

  10. MISR Multi-angle Views of Sunday Morning Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Hot, dry Santa Ana winds began blowing through the Los Angeles and San Diego areas on Sunday October 21, 2007. Wind speeds ranging from 30 to 50 mph were measured in the area, with extremely low relative humidities. These winds, coupled with exceptionally dry conditions due to lack of rainfall resulted in a number of fires in the Los Angeles and San Diego areas, causing the evacuation of more than 250,000 people.

    These two images show the Southern California coast from Los Angeles to San Diego from two of the nine cameras on the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the NASA EOS Terra satellite. These images were obtained around 11:35 a.m. PDT on Sunday morning, October 21, 2007 and show a number of plumes extending out over the Pacific ocean. In addition, locations identified as potential hot spots from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on the same satellite are outlined in red.

    The left image is from MISR's nadir looking camera and the plumes appear very faint. The image on the right is from MISR's 60o forward looking camera, which accentuates the amount of light scattered by aerosols in the atmosphere, including smoke and dust. Both these images are false color and contain information from MISR's red, green, blue and near-infrared wavelengths, which makes vegetated land appear greener than it would naturally. Notice in the right hand image that the color of the plumes associated with the MODIS hot spots is bluish, while plumes not associated with hot spots appear more yellow. This is because the latter plumes are composed of dust kicked up by the strong Santa Ana winds. In some locations along Interstate 5 on this date, visibility was severely reduced due to blowing dust. MISR's multiangle and multispectral capability give it the ability to distinguish smoke from dust in this situation.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days

  11. One night of sleep restriction following heavy exercise impairs 3-km cycling time-trial performance in the morning.

    PubMed

    Chase, John D; Roberson, Paul A; Saunders, Michael J; Hargens, Trent A; Womack, Christopher J; Luden, Nicholas D

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the influence of a single night of sleep restriction following heavy exercise on cycling time-trial (TT) performance and skeletal muscle function in the morning. Seven recreational cyclists (age, 24 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 62 ± 4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed 2 phases, each comprising evening (EX1) and next-morning (EX2) exercise sessions. EX1 and EX2 were separated by an assigned sleep condition: a full night of rest (CON; 7.1 ± 0.3 h of sleep) or sleep restriction through early waking (SR; 2.4 ± 0.2 h). EX1 comprised baseline testing (muscle soreness, isokinetic torque, and 3-km TT performance) followed by heavy exercise that included 60 min of high-intensity cycling intervals and resistance exercise. EX2 was performed to assess recovery from EX1 and included all baseline measures. Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all variables. SR had a negative effect (very likely) on the change in 3-km TT performance compared with CON. Specifically, 3-km TT performance was 'very likely' slower during EX2 compared with EX1 following SR (-4.0% ± 3.0%), whereas 3-km TT performance was 'possibly' slower during EX2 (vs. EX1) following CON (-0.5% ± 3.0%). Sleep condition did not influence changes in peak torque or muscle soreness from EX1 to EX2. A single night of sleep restriction following heavy exercise had marked consequences on 3-km TT performance the next morning. Because occasional sleep loss is likely, strategies to ameliorate the consequences of sleep loss on performance should be investigated.

  12. Subgroups of Chemotherapy Patients With Distinct Morning and Evening Fatigue Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Kord M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Paul, Steven M.; Dunn, Laura B.; Levine, Jon D.; Wright, Fay; Hammer, Marilyn J.; Mastick, Judy; Venook, Alan; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Purposes of this study were to: identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories for morning and evening fatigue; evaluate for differences in demographic and clinical characteristics among these subgroups; and compare and contrast the predictors of subgroup membership for morning and evening fatigue. Methods Outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer (n=582) completed questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Morning and evening fatigue severity were evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to identify distinct subgroups. Results Three latent classes were identified for morning fatigue (i.e., Low (31.8%), High (51.4%), and Very High (16.8%)) and for evening evening fatigue (i.e., Moderate (20.0%), High (21.8%), and Very High (58.2%)). Most of the disease and treatment characteristics did not distinguish among the morning and evening fatigue classes. Compared to the Low class, patients in the High and Very High morning fatigue class were younger, had a lower functional status and higher level of comorbidity. Compared to the Moderate class, patients in the Very High evening fatigue class were younger, more likely to be female, had child care responsibilities, had a lower functional status, and a higher level of comorbidity. Conclusion LPA allows for the identification of risk factors for more severe fatigue. Since an overlap was not observed across the morning and evening fatigue classes and unique predictors for morning and evening fatigue were identified, these findings suggest that morning and evening fatigue may have distinct underlying mechanisms. PMID:26361758

  13. Magnitude of Morning Surge in Blood Pressure Is Associated with Sympathetic but Not Cardiac Baroreflex Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Aaron W.; Hissen, Sarah L.; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Brown, Rachael; Taylor, Chloe E.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the arterial baroreflex to regulate blood pressure may influence the magnitude of the morning surge in blood pressure (MSBP). The aim was to investigate the relationships between sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the morning surge. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure was recorded in 14 young individuals. The morning surge was defined via the pre-awakening method, which is calculated as the difference between mean blood pressure values 2 h before and 2 h after rising from sleep. The mean systolic morning surge, diastolic morning surge, and morning surge in mean arterial pressures were 15 ± 2, 13 ± 1, and 11 ± 1 mmHg, respectively. During the laboratory protocol, continuous measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were made over a 10-min period of rest. Sympathetic BRS was quantified by plotting MSNA burst incidence against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRSinc), and by plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRStotal). Cardiac BRS was quantified using the sequence method. The mean values for sympathetic BRSinc, sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS were −1.26 ± 0.26 bursts/100 hb/mmHg, −1.60 ± 0.37 AU/beat/mmHg, and 13.1 ± 1.5 ms/mmHg respectively. Significant relationships were identified between sympathetic BRSinc and the diastolic morning surge (r = 0.62, p = 0.02) and the morning surge in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.57, p = 0.03). Low sympathetic BRS was associated with a larger morning surge in mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure. Trends for relationships were identified between sympathetic BRStotal and the diastolic morning surge (r = 0.52, p = 0.066) and the morning surge in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.48, p = 0.095) but these did not reach significance. There were no significant relationships between cardiac BRS and the morning surge. These findings indicate that the ability of the baroreflex to buffer increases in blood

  14. Perfluorocarbon liquid migration into the subarachnoid space in a patient with morning glory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naseripour, Masood; Ghasempour, Adel; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Sanjari, Mostafa Sultan; Yousefi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) migration into the subarachnoid space at the time of vitreoretinal surgery in a patient with morning glory syndrome associated retinal detachment. A 9-year-old girl underwent pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for retinal detachment associated with morning glory syndrome. PFCL was used for retinal stabilization before endolaser photocoagulation. The retina detached, and repeated vitrectomy and silicone oil injection was performed. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed PFCL in the subarachnoid space. The migration of perfluorocarbon into the subarachnoid space is a rare complication of vitrectomy in patients with morning glory syndrome.

  15. Heat Acclimation by Post-Exercise Hot Water Immersion in the Morning Reduces Thermal Strain During Morning and Afternoon Exercise-Heat-Stress.

    PubMed

    Zurawlew, Michael J; Mee, Jessica A; Walsh, Neil P

    2018-05-10

    Recommendations state that to acquire the greatest benefit from heat acclimation the clock-time of heat acclimation sessions should match the clock-time of expected exercise-heat stress. It remains unknown if adaptations by post-exercise hot water immersion (HWI) demonstrate time of day dependent adaptations. Thus, we examined whether adaptations following post-exercise HWI completed in the morning were present during morning and afternoon exercise-heat stress. Ten males completed an exercise-heat stress test commencing in the morning (0945-h: AM) and afternoon (1445-h: PM; 40 min; 65% V̇O 2max treadmill run) before (PRE) and after (POST) heat acclimation. The 6-day heat acclimation intervention involved a daily, 40 min treadmill-run (65% V̇O 2max ) in temperate conditions followed by ≤ 40 min HWI (40°C; 0630-1100-h). Adaptations by 6-day post-exercise HWI in the morning were similar in the morning and afternoon. Reductions in resting rectal temperature (T re ; AM; -0.34 ± 0.24°C, PM; -0.27 ± 0.23°C; P = 0.002), T re at sweating onset (AM; -0.34 ± 0.24°C, PM; -0.31 ± 0.25°C; P = 0.001), and end-exercise T re (AM; -0.47 ± 0.33°C, PM; -0.43 ± 0.29°C; P = 0.001), heart rate (AM; -14 ± 7 beats∙min -1 , PM; -13 ± 6 beats∙min -1 ; P < 0.01), rating of perceived exertion (P = 0.01), and thermal sensation (P = 0.005) were not different in the morning compared to the afternoon. Morning heat acclimation by post-exercise hot water immersion induced adaptions at rest and during exercise-heat stress in the morning and mid-afternoon.

  16. How Different are SMOS Morning and Evening Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Hornbuckle, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    Midwest, specifically where agriculture is a dominant land use. It is important that relative humidity data utilized from a source outside of an agricultural field is representative of the conditions occurring within the crop canopy, which is generally higher. SMOS pixels were chosen for regions where > 75% of the land area was comprised of agriculture. Days were chosen where there was a satellite pass both at 6am and 6pm, on days when no rainfall occurred. As such, changes in soil moisture would be minimal. The brightness temperatures obtained were normalized using the polarization index, which uses both v-pol and h-pol outputs to remove the influence of changes in surface temperature on the brightness temperature. As such, changes in the brightness temperature can be attributed to changes in the water content of the crop canopy or the presence of dew. Identifying changes in the signal between morning and evening passes will aid in determining if the presence of dew on crop canopy is an important source of error in soil moisture measurements at L-band, and more importantly, if 6pm measurements appear to be viable for soil moisture retrieval.

  17. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

    2002-01-01

    components (ICARE), provided by CNES will permit improvement of risk estimation models for radiation effect on last generation integrated circuit technology. . On June 14th, 2000 CONAE and NASA signed an amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding for the SAC-C mission in order that the SAC-C satellite, were included in a constellation - named "Morning Constellation". It is integrated by USA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1, Terra, and Argentine SAC-C that feature on-board instruments from the United States, Argentina, Denmark, Italy, France, and Japan. The four satellite tracks on the Earth's surface are the same, their orbital height being 705 km and their inclination, 98.21 degrees. They cross the Equator at 10:00, 10:01, 10:15, and 10:30 hours, respectively (local time). Satellites comply with the World Wide Reference System. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken and will be presented in this paper. Several jointly sponsored technical workshops have been held, and also collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments have been made. One of the objectives of the AM Constellation is the collaboration in the case of emergencies, NASA and CONAE agreed to give preference in those situation in the planification of their satellite acquisitions. From all the possible hazardous events, the most important for the country are fire and floods. In relation to fires, CONAE is presently adapting and developing the algorithms for using MODIS data to generate a fire map product. Additionally research on fire detection is carried out using the data from the HSTC camera. In relation to flooding, CONAE works in cooperation to national institutions providing the data and, in some cases, producing flood extent maps. In particular MMRS data is demonstrating to be very effective due to its spectral and radiometric resolutions, and its large swath which is well suited for extended countries like Argentina.

  18. Morning-evening preference: sleep pattern spectrum and lifestyle habits among Japanese junior high school pupils.

    PubMed

    Gaina, Alexandru; Sekine, Michikazu; Kanayama, Hitomi; Takashi, Yamagami; Hu, Lizhen; Sengoku, Kayo; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed the sleep-wake patterns and lifestyle habits in a sample of Japanese first to third year junior high school children (n=638, age 12 to 15 yrs), of whom 29.3% were evening type, 64.1% intermediate type, and 6.6% morning type in preference. The morningness-eveningness (M-E) score was lower (more evening typed), 16.1 vs. 15.4 in first compared to third year students. There were significant gender differences, with girls showing a greater evening preference. Evening preference was associated with longer sleep latency, shortened sleep duration during schooldays and weekends, bad morning feeling, and episodes of daytime sleepiness. In contrast, morning preference was associated with higher sleep drive and better sleep-wake parameters and lifestyle habits. Our results suggest the morning preference should be promoted among junior high school children to increase the likelihood of more regular sleep-wake patterns and lifestyle habits.

  19. [Sleep quality and hormone levels in the morning and evening hours under chemical pollution].

    PubMed

    Budkevich, R O; Budkevich, E V

    To evaluate self-assessment of sleep and the level of hormones in the morning and evening in chemical pollution conditions. Three hundred adolescent and adult men living in the regions with low and high levels of chemical pollution were examined using questionnaires for self-assessment of quality of sleep, sleep hygiene, daytime sleepiness. Levels of cortisol and testosterone in the saliva were determined in the morning and evening hours by ELISA. In areas with low pollution level, there were normal changes in hormone levels with an increase in the morning and decrease in the evening. In high pollution conditions, the average levels of hormones increased, the morning-evening gradient disappeared. These conditions were also associated with an increase in daytime sleepiness and disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle and the endocrine regulation system that indicate the possibility of the development of internal desynchronosis.

  20. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, early morning liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39B

    1989-11-22

    STS033-S-003 (22 Nov 1989) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery heads for Earth-orbit on the first post-Challenger nocturnal launch. Liftoff occurred at 7:23:29:989 p.m. (EST), November 22, 1989. This picture shows almost a full front view of the Space Shuttle Discovery, its two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) and the External Tank (ET). Onboard for the Department of the Defense (DOD) devoted mission were astronauts Frederick D. Gregory, John E. Blaha, F. Story Musgrave, Kathryn C. Thornton and Manley L. Carter.

  1. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, early morning liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39B

    1989-11-22

    STS033-S-002 (22 Nov 1989) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery heads for Earth orbit on the first post-Challenger nocturnal launch. Liftoff occurred at 7:23:29:989 p.m. (EST), November 22, 1989. This picture shows a side view of Discovery, one of its two solid rocket boosters (SRB) and the external tank. It represents a good example of the "diamond shock" effect, in the plume from the main engine, associated with Shuttle launches. Onboard for the DOD-devoted mission were Astronauts Frederick D. Gregory, John E. Blaha, F. Story Musgrave, Kathryn C. Thornton and Manley L. Carter.

  2. Investigation of Wind Conditions During Early Morning Hours at Los Angeles International Airport

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-10-01

    Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) uses a unique runway utilization pattern to minimize noise pollution between midnight and 0600. During these hours, all approaches are conducted to the east, and all takeoffs are conducted to the west. The low-...

  3. Can Personal Exposures to Higher Nighttime and Early Morning Temperatures Increase Blood Pressure?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental temperatures are inversely related to BP; however, the effects of short-term temperature changes within a 24-hour period and measured with high accuracy at the personal level have not been described. Fifty-one nonsmoking patients living in the Detroit area had up to...

  4. Early Morning Challenge: The Potential Effects of Chronobiology on Taking the Scholastic Aptitude Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Roger John

    1995-01-01

    Cites research to support the notion that the time of day in which the SAT is administered has a significant adverse impact on many students taking the test. Suggests that changes in testing procedures (making tests available via computer at any time of the day or year) will serve students. (RS)

  5. Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination is safe and effective for morning hypertension in Very-Elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Uchiwa, Hiroki; Kai, Hisashi; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Anegawa, Takahiro; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Fukuda, Kenji; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Morning hypertension is an independent risk for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. Although the prevalence of morning hypertension increases with age, treatment of morning hypertension has not been established, particularly in Very-Elderly patients. We compared the safety and efficacy of a losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination in controlling morning hypertension between Very-Elderly (≥75 years) and Young/Elderly patients (<75 years). This study was a subanalysis of the Morning Hypertension and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy study, in which patients with morning hypertension (≥135/85 mmHg) received a 50-mg losartan/12.5-mg HCTZ combination tablet (combination therapy) or 100-mg losartan (high-dose therapy) for 3 months. High adherence rates and few adverse effects were observed in Very-Elderly patients receiving combination (n = 32) and high-dose (n = 34) therapies and in Young/Elderly patients receiving combination (n = 69) and high-dose (n = 66) therapies. Baseline morning systolic BP (SBP) was similar in both age groups receiving either therapy. Morning SBP was reduced by 20.2 and 18.1 mmHg with combination therapy and by 7.1 and 9.1 mmHg with high-dose therapy in the Very-Elderly and Young/Elderly patients, respectively. Morning BP target (<135/85 mmHg) was achieved in 40.6% and 55.1% by combination therapy and in 14.7% and 24.2% by high-dose therapy in the Very-Elderly and Young/Elderly patients, respectively. Neither therapy changed renal function and serum potassium in Very-Elderly patients. In conclusion, the losartan/HCTZ combination was safe and effective in controlling morning hypertension in Very-Elderly as well as Young/Elderly patients. In addition, combination therapy was also superior to high-dose therapy for lowering morning SBP in Very-Elderly patients.

  6. Predictors and Trajectories of Morning Fatigue Are Distinct from Evening Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is the most common symptom in oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Little is known about the predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of morning fatigue severity in these patients. Objectives An evaluation was done to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of morning fatigue and to compare findings with our companion paper on evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the morning fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI), who did not exercise regularly, with a lower functional status, and who had higher levels of state anxiety, sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms, reported higher levels of morning fatigue at enrollment. Variations in the trajectories of morning fatigue were predicted by the patients’ ethnicity and younger age. Conclusion The modifiable risk factors that were associated with only morning fatigue were BMI, exercise, and state anxiety. Modifiable risk factors that were associated with both morning and evening fatigue included functional status, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbance. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe morning fatigue and evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828559

  7. Elevation of Morning Blood Pressure in Sodium Resistant Subjects by High Sodium Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi-Yeon; Shin, Sung-Joon; Oh, Sang-Woo; Park, Yong-Soon; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Hye-Kyoung; Kim, Cho-il; Park, Cheol-Young; Kim, Sun-Woong

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the response of blood pressure (BP) by dietary sodium in sodium resistant (SR) subjects. One hundred one subjects (mean age, 46.0 yr; 31 hypertensives) were admitted and given low sodium-dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet (LSD, 100 mM NaCl/day) for 7 days and high sodium-DASH diet (HSD, 300 mM NaCl/day) for the following 7 days. On the last day of each diet, 24 hr ambulatory BP was measured. Morning systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were elevated after HSD in all subjects (P < 0.01), but daytime SBP and DBP were not changed (P > 0.05). In hypertensive subjects, morning DBP elevation was greater than daytime DBP elevation (P = 0.036), although both DBPs were significantly elevated after HSD. The augmented elevation of morning DBP in hypertensive subjects was contributed by the absolute elevation of morning DBP (P = 0.032) and relative elevation to daytime DBP (P = 0.005) in sodium resistant (SR) subjects, but not by sodium sensitive subjects. Although there was no absolute elevation, SR subjects with normotension showed a relative elevation of morning SBP compared to daytime SBP change after HSD (P = 0.009). The present study demonstrates an absolute and relative elevation of morning BP in SR subjects by HSD. PMID:23580363

  8. Morning blood pressure surge and arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, Ali; Özbiçer, Süleyman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Gür, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and arterial stiffness in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Three hundred and twenty four (mean age 51.7 ± 11.4 years) patients who had newly diagnosed hypertension with 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Parameters of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Aix) were measured by applanation tonometry and aortic distensibility was calculated by echocardiography. Compared with the other groups, pulse wave velocity, day-night systolic BP (SBP) difference (p < 0.001, for all) and hs-CRP (p = 0.005) were higher in morning BP surge high group. Aortic distensibility values were significantly lower in morning BP surge high group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05, for all). Morning BP surge was found to be independently associated with pulse wave velocity (β = 0.286, p < 0.001), aortic distensibility (β= -0.384, p < 0.001) and day-night SBP difference (β = 0.229, p < 0.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. We found independent relationship between morning BP surge and arterial stiffness which is a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular diseases. The inverse relationship between morning BP surge and aortic distensibility and direct relation found in our study is new to the literature.

  9. Second measurement of morning systolic blood pressure is more closely associated with albuminuria.

    PubMed

    Sakabe, Kazumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Ushigome, Emi; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Tanaka, Toru; Atsuta, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Masayoshi; Oda, Yohei; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2012-08-01

    It is important to control blood pressure as well as to control blood glucose for the prevention of diabetic nephropathy. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports investigating which blood pressure, including morning, evening and clinic, is more closely associated with albuminuria and whether one measurement is sufficient or not in patients with Type 2 diabetes. We measured morning, evening and clinic blood pressure and compared the area under the curve (AUC) of blood pressure for urinary albumin excretion equal to or more than 30 mg/g creatinine using receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses and odds ratio for albuminuria defined as urinary albumin excretion equal to or more than 30 mg/g creatinine in 858 patients with Type 2 diabetes. Odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) of morning, evening and clinic systolic blood pressure for albuminuria was 1.034 (1.024 - 1.044), 1.033 (1.023 - 1.043) and 1.013 (1.055 - 1.021), respectively (p < 0.001 in all), and AUC of morning, evening and clinic systolic blood pressure was 0.644 (0.628 - 0.700) (p < 0.001 vs. clinic), 0.660 (0.623 - 0.696) (p < 0.001 vs. clinic) and 0.597 (0.559 - 0.636), respectively. AUC of the second morning systolic blood pressure was greater than the first (p = 0.033). The second measurement of morning systolic blood pressure is more closely associated with albuminuria than the first measurement of the morning in addition to clinic systolic blood pressure.

  10. Changes in morning salivary melatonin correlate with prefrontal responses during working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Kent, Haley C; Knight, Sara A; Alkozei, Anna

    2018-04-11

    Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function. We measured the change in salivary melatonin from mid-morning to late-morning in 26 healthy young adults who were also exposed to a 30-min period of blue or amber light followed by functional MRI during a working memory task (N-back). Brain activation was regressed on the change in melatonin scores from the mid-morning to late-morning saliva samples and the role of light exposure was also assessed. Although overall melatonin levels did not change significantly over the morning at the group level, individual declines in salivary melatonin were associated with significant increases in activation within the left dorsomedial and right inferior lateral prefrontal cortex during the 2-back condition (P<0.05, cluster corrected). Medial prefrontal activation also correlated modestly with better vigilance performance during the 0-back (P<0.05), but not the 1-back or 2-back conditions. The light condition did not affect the outcomes. These findings suggest declining melatonin levels in the morning are associated with increased prefrontal cortex functioning and may play a role in the increased frontal activation that occurs following awakening.

  11. Coming back to work in the morning: Psychological detachment and reattachment as predictors of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kühnel, Jana

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that recovery processes in general and psychological detachment in particular are important for work engagement. We argue that work engagement additionally benefits from reattachment to work in the morning (i.e., mentally reconnecting to work before actually starting to work) and that the gains derived from psychological detachment and reattachment are stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. We tested our hypotheses in a daily diary study with a sample of 167 employees who completed 2 surveys per day over the period of 2 workweeks. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that work engagement was higher in the morning than in the afternoon. Evening psychological detachment and morning reattachment positively predicted work engagement throughout the day. The association between reattachment and work engagement was stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. This study demonstrates that not only psychological detachment from work during leisure time, but also reattachment to work when coming back to work are crucial for daily engagement at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual trends in tropospheric CO in Southwest London during 2000-2015: Wind sector analysis and comparisons with urban and remote sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Paniagua, Iván Y.; Lowry, David; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Palmer, Paul I.; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Mendoza, Alberto; O'Doherty, Simon; Forster, Grant; Lanoisellé, M.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2018-03-01

    Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) and meteorological parameters measured at the Egham (EGH) semi-rural site in SW London during 2000-2015 have permitted wind sector analysis of diurnal and seasonal cycles, and interpretation of long-term trends. CO daily amplitudes are used as a proxy for anthropogenic emissions. At EGH, morning and evening peaks in CO arise from the dominant contribution of road transport sources. Smaller amplitudes are observed during weekends than weekdays due to lower combustion emissions, and for mornings compared to evenings due to the timing of the development and break-up of the nocturnal inversion layer or planetary boundary layer (PBL). A wavelet transform revealed that the dominant mode of CO variability is the annual cycle, with apparent winter maxima likely due to increased CO emissions from domestic heating with summer minima ascribed to enhanced dispersion and dilution during the annual maximum of PBL mixing heights. Over the last two decades, both mitigation measures to reduce CO emissions and also a major switch to diesel cars, have accompanied a change at EGH from the dominance of local diurnal sources to a site measuring close to Atlantic background levels in summer months. CO observed in the S and SW wind sectors has declined by 4.7 and 5.9 ppb yr-1 respectively. The EGH CO record shows the highest levels in the early 2000s, with levels in E and calm winds comparable to those recorded at background stations in Greater London. However, since 2012, levels in S-SW sector have become more comparable with Mace Head background except during rush-hour periods. Marked declines in CO are observed during 2000-2008 for the NE, E, SE (London) and calm wind sectors, with the smallest declines observed for the S, SW and W (background) sectors. For the majority of wind sectors, the decline in CO is less noticeable since 2008, with an apparent stabilisation for NE, E and SE after 2009. The EGH CO data record exhibits a similar but slower exponential

  13. A Toxoplasma MORN1 Null Mutant Undergoes Repeated Divisions but Is Defective in Basal Assembly, Apicoplast Division and Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Lorestani, Alexander; Sheiner, Lilach; Yang, Kevin; Robertson, Seth D.; Sahoo, Nivedita; Brooks, Carrie F.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Striepen, Boris; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2010-01-01

    The membrane occupation and recognition nexus protein 1 (MORN1) is highly conserved among apicomplexan parasites and is associated with several structures that have a role in cell division. Here we dissected the role of MORN1 using the relatively simple budding process of Toxoplasma gondii as a model. Ablation of MORN1 in a conditional null mutant resulted in pronounced defects suggesting a central role for MORN1 in apicoplast segregation and in daughter cell budding. Lack of MORN1 resulted in double-headed parasites. These Janus-headed parasites form two complete apical complexes but fail to assemble a basal complex. Moreover, these parasites were capable of undergoing several more budding rounds resulting in the formation of up to 16-headed parasites conjoined at the basal end. Despite this segregation defect, the mother's cytoskeleton was completely disassembled in every budding round. Overall this argues that successful completion of the budding is not required for cell cycle progression. None of the known basal complex components, including a set of recently identified inner membrane complex (IMC) proteins, localized correctly in these multi-headed parasites. These data suggest that MORN1 is essential for assembly of the basal complex, and that lack of the basal complex abolishes the contractile capacity assigned to the basal complex late in daughter formation. Consistent with this hypothesis we observe that MORN1 mutants fail to efficiently constrict and divide the apicoplast. We used the null background provided by the mutant to dissect the function of subdomains of the MORN1 protein. This demonstrated that deletion of a single MORN domain already prevented the function of MORN1 whereas a critical role for the short linker between MORN domains 6 and 7 was identified. In conclusion, MORN1 is required for basal complex assembly and loss of MORN1 results in defects in apicoplast division and daughter segregation. PMID:20808817

  14. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  15. Learn about Smart Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    about the Smart Sectors program including: Meaningful Collaboration with Regulated Sectors; Sensible Policies to Improve Environmental Outcomes; Better EPA Practices and Streamlined Operations; Historical Context

  16. Effects of an Advanced Sleep Schedule and Morning Short Wavelength Light Exposure on Circadian Phase in Young Adults with Late Sleep Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Katherine M.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Figueiro, Mariana G.; Zhu, Yong; Rea, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the effects of an advanced sleep/wake schedule and morning short wavelength (blue) light in 25 adults (mean age±SD = 21.8±3 years; 13 women) with late sleep schedules and subclinical features of delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPD). Methods After a baseline week, participants kept individualized, fixed, advanced 7.5-hour sleep schedules for 6 days. Participants were randomly assigned to groups to receive “blue” (470 nm, ~225 lux, n=12) or “dim” (< 1 lux, n=13) light for one hour after waking each day. Head-worn “Daysimeters” measured light exposure; actigraphs and sleep diaries confirmed schedule compliance. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), self-reported sleep, and mood were examined with 2×2 ANOVA. Results After 6 days, both groups showed significant circadian phase advances, but morning blue-light was not associated with larger phase shifts than dim-light exposure. The average DLMO advances (mean±SD) were 1.5±1.1 hours in the dim light group and 1.4±0.7 hours in the blue light group. Conclusions Adherence to a fixed advanced sleep/wake schedule resulted in significant circadian phase shifts in young adults with subclinical DSPD with or without morning blue light exposure. Light/dark exposures associated with fixed early sleep schedules are sufficient to advance circadian phase in young adults. PMID:21704557

  17. Effects of an advanced sleep schedule and morning short wavelength light exposure on circadian phase in young adults with late sleep schedules.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Carskadon, Mary A; Figueiro, Mariana G; Zhu, Yong; Rea, Mark S

    2011-08-01

    We examined the effects of an advanced sleep/wake schedule and morning short wavelength (blue) light in 25 adults (mean age±SD=21.8±3 years; 13 women) with late sleep schedules and subclinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). After a baseline week, participants kept individualized, fixed, advanced 7.5-h sleep schedules for 6days. Participants were randomly assigned to groups to receive "blue" (470nm, ∼225lux, n=12) or "dim" (<1lux, n=13) light for 1h after waking each day. Head-worn "Daysimeters" measured light exposure; actigraphs and sleep diaries confirmed schedule compliance. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), self-reported sleep, and mood were examined with 2×2 ANOVA. After 6days, both groups showed significant circadian phase advances, but morning blue light was not associated with larger phase shifts than dim-light exposure. The average DLMO advances (mean±SD) were 1.5±1.1h in the dim light group and 1.4±0.7h in the blue light group. Adherence to a fixed advanced sleep/wake schedule resulted in significant circadian phase shifts in young adults with subclinical DSPD with or without morning blue light exposure. Light/dark exposures associated with fixed early sleep schedules are sufficient to advance circadian phase in young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The morning morality effect: the influence of time of day on unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Smith, Isaac H

    2014-01-01

    Are people more moral in the morning than in the afternoon? We propose that the normal, unremarkable experiences associated with everyday living can deplete one's capacity to resist moral temptations. In a series of four experiments, both undergraduate students and a sample of U.S. adults engaged in less unethical behavior (e.g., less lying and cheating) on tasks performed in the morning than on the same tasks performed in the afternoon. This morning morality effect was mediated by decreases in moral awareness and self-control in the afternoon. Furthermore, the effect of time of day on unethical behavior was found to be stronger for people with a lower propensity to morally disengage. These findings highlight a simple yet pervasive factor (i.e., the time of day) that has important implications for moral behavior.

  19. Resident-Directed Long-Term Care: Staff Provision of Choice during Morning Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Rahman, Annie; Beuscher, Linda; Jani, Victoria; Durkin, Daniel W.; Schnelle, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an observational protocol to assess the quality of staff-resident communication relevant to choice and describe staff-resident interactions as preliminary evidence of the usefulness of the tool to assess current nursing home practices related to offering choice during morning care provision. Design and Methods: This study…

  20. Morning-to-evening differences in oxygen uptake kinetics in short-duration cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Bieuzen, François; Giacomoni, Magali; Tricot, Véronique; Falgairette, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed diurnal variations in oxygen (O(2)) uptake kinetics and efficiency during a moderate cycle ergometer exercise. Fourteen physically active diurnally active male subjects (age 23+/-5 yrs) not specifically trained at cycling first completed a test to determine their ventilatory threshold (T(vent)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)); one week later, they completed four bouts of testing in the morning and evening in a random order, each separated by at least 24 h. For each period of the day (07:00-08:30 h and 19:00-20:30 h), subjects performed two bouts. Each bout was composed of a 5 min cycling exercise at 45 W, followed after 5 min rest by a 10 min cycling exercise at 80% of the power output associated with T(vent). Gas exchanges were analyzed breath-by-breath and fitted using a mono-exponential function. During moderate exercise, the time constant and amplitude of VO(2) kinetics were significantly higher in the morning compared to the evening. The net efficiency increased from the morning to evening (17.3+/-4 vs. 20.5+/-2%; p<0.05), and the variability of cycling cadence was greater during the morning than evening (+34%; p<0.05). These findings suggest that VO(2) responses are affected by the time of day and could be related to variability in muscle activity pattern.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of the abilities-focused approach to morning care of people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Sidani, Souraya; Streiner, David; Leclerc, Chantale

    2012-03-01

    The abilities-focused approach demonstrated efficacy in promoting engagement of residents with dementia in care. The extent to which these resident outcomes can be replicated when the abilities-focused approach is implemented by nursing staff under the conditions of day-to-day practice was investigated in this study. The aim was to examine changes in resident outcomes before and after nursing staff' implementation of the abilities-focused approach and the contribution of this approach to resident outcomes. A one-group pretest-post-test design was used. Observational data were obtained from 65 residents with dementia. The data pertained to the implementation of abilities-focused strategies during episodes of morning care and residents' level of agitation, participation in morning care and physical and psychosocial functioning. The number of abilities-focused strategies used during morning care increased at post-test. No clinically important changes in resident outcomes were observed over time. However, the implementation of some strategies was associated with residents' participation in care and functioning at post-test. The results provided preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of the abilities-focused approach in maintaining functioning in people with dementia. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanism underlying the effects of this person-centred approach to care on resident outcomes. Implementation of the abilities-focused approach assists people with dementia to participate in morning care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effects of different light intensities in the morning on dim light melatonin onset.

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Toda, Naohiro; Noguchi, Hiroki; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to light intensity in the morning on dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). The tested light intensities were 750 lux, 150 lux, 3000 lux, 6000 lux and 12,000 lux (horizontal illuminance at cornea), using commercial 5000 K fluorescent lamps. Eleven healthy males aged 21-31 participated in 2-day experiments for each light condition. On the first experimental day (day 1), subjects were exposed to dim light (<30 lux) for 3 h in the morning (09:00-12:00). On the same day, saliva samples were taken in dim light (<30 lux) every 30 min from 21:00 to 01:00 to determine the DLMO phase. The subjects were allowed to sleep from 01:00 to 08:00. On the second experimental day (day 2), the subjects were exposed to experimental light conditions for 3 h in the morning. The experimental schedule after light exposure was the same as on day 1. On comparing day 2 with day 1, significant phase advances of DLMO were obtained at 3000 lux, 6000 lux and 12,000 lux. These findings indicate that exposure to a necessary intensity from an ordinary light source, such as a fluorescent lamp, in the morning within one day affects melatonin secretion.

  3. The impact of park development on the lives of local inhabitants within Gros Morne National Park

    Margot Herd; Paul Heintzman

    2012-01-01

    The creation of a national park changes the local community's relationship to the land. In 1973, Parks Canada created Gros Morne National Park around existing communities and only relocated a small number of inhabitants to nearby communities. While park creation placed some restrictions on traditional activities, compromises were made to allow the continuation of...

  4. Phylogenetics and diversification of morning glories (tribe ipomoeeae, convolvulaceae) based on whole plastome sequences

    Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated the largest morning glory genus, Ipomoea, is not monophyletic, and nine other segregate genera are derived from within Ipomoea. Therefore, systematic research is focused on the monophyletic tribe Ipomoeeae (c. 650-900 species). We used whole plastid genomes to ...

  5. ERP correlates of mental arithmetic in preadolescents: influence of ability and effects of morning nutrition

    The effects of morning nutritional status on ERP correlates of mental arithmetic were studied in preadolescents differing in experience (age) and mathematical skills. Children [right-handed; IQ > 80), randomly assigned to treatment [eat (B) or skip (SB) breakfast (each, n = 41)], were sub-grouped by...

  6. Strengthening German Programs through Community Engagement and Partnerships with Saturday Morning Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellebrandt, Josef

    2014-01-01

    German university programs can increase enrollments and diversify their curricula through academic community partnerships with surrounding schools. This article informs about two community-supported initiatives between the German Studies Program at Santa Clara University and the South Bay Deutscher Schulverein, a Saturday Morning School in…

  7. Resident Characteristics Related to the Lack of Morning Care Provision in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Rahman, Anna N.; Choi, Leena; Beuscher, Linda; Schnelle, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine usual long-term care (LTC) practices related to 3 aspects of morning care and determine if there were resident characteristics related to the lack of care. Design and Methods: Participants were 169 long-stay residents in 4 community LTC facilities who required staff assistance with either transfer…

  8. Poland syndrome associated with 'morning glory' syndrome (coloboma of the optic disc).

    PubMed Central

    Pisteljić, D T; Vranjesević, D; Apostolski, S; Pisteljić, D D

    1986-01-01

    A 12 year old girl with the Poland syndrome and the 'morning glory' syndrome is described. The patient presented with absence of the left pectoralis major muscle, hypoplasia of the left arm, symbrachydactyly, and ipsilateral coloboma of the optic disc. This is the first report of the association of these two congenital anomalies. Images PMID:3018249

  9. Legal drug content in music video programs shown on Australian television on saturday mornings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.

  10. Morning Star Students: Looking Back to Find Direction for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Leroy V.

    1981-01-01

    Follow-up of Morning Star Native teacher education program graduates indicates increased post-secondary educational opportunities, greater numbers of qualified Native teachers, and community acceptance of program graduates. Available from: Canadian Journal of Native Education, Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North,…

  11. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  12. The return to the USA of doxylamine-pyridoxine delayed release combination (Diclegis®) for morning sickness--a new morning for American women.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    The US FDA approval in April 2013 of Diclegis®, the doxylamine-pyridoxine combination for morning sickness, is a major milestone, particularly since it is indicated for use in pregnancy and the FDA has labeled it a pregnancy category A drug the strongest evidence of fetal safety. After thirty years of being orphaned from an FDA-labeled drug for the most common medical condition in pregnancy, American women and their health care providers have a therapeutic solution that is likely to positively impact millions of women each year. This review highlights the milestones of this antiemetic agent over the last 40 years.

  13. Separate aftereffects of morning and evening exercise on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertensive men.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leandro C; Rezende, Rafael A; Mendes, Caroline; Silva-Junior, Natan D; Tinucci, Taís; Cipolla-Neto, José; de Moraes Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2018-01-01

    Clinic postexercise hypotension (PEH) is different after aerobic exercise performed in the morning and in the evening. Thus, ambulatory PEH should also differ after exercises conducted at different times of day. However, because of the circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP), ambulatory PEH should be assessed considering a control condition. Thus, this study was designed to verify the effects of morning and evening exercises on postexercise ambulatory BP averages and circadian parameters by comparing responses obtained at each time of day after an exercise and a control session. Thirteen prehypertensive men underwent four sessions (randomized order): two in the morning (9 am) and two in the evening (6:30 pm). At each time of day, a control (C) and an exercise (E: cycle ergometer 45 min, 50% VO2peak) sessions were performed. After the sessions, an ambulatory BP and heart rate (HR) monitoring was started for 24 h. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were used to compare the E and the C sessions at each time of day. In the morning, 24 h, daytime and nighttime HR were higher after the E than the C session. In the evening, nighttime systolic BP (116±11 vs. 120±10 mmHg, P=0.04) and rate pressure product (7981±1294 vs. 8583±1523 mmHg.bpm, P=0.04), as well as MESOR (128±11 vs. 130±10 mmHg, P=0.03) were lower in the E than the C session. In prehypertensive men, morning exercise increased ambulatory HR, while evening exercise decreased nighttime BP and cardiac work, reducing the MESOR of systolic BP.

  14. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ivy N; Zee, Phyllis C; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  15. Apomorphine Subcutaneous Injection for the Management of Morning Akinesia in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Stuart; Lew, Mark; Ondo, William; Hubble, Jean; Clinch, Thomas; Pagan, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In patients with motor fluctuations complicating Parkinson's disease (PD), delays in time-to-ON with levodopa are common. This open-label study aimed to assess the effect of apomorphine on time-to-ON in PD patients with morning akinesia. The safety population included 127 enrolled patients, and the full analysis set (FAS) included 88 patients. Patients completed a 7-day levodopa baseline period recording their time-to-ON following each morning dose of levodopa. Patients were titrated to an optimal dose of apomorphine (2-6 mg) while taking trimethobenzamide antiemetic therapy. Apomorphine was injected each morning for a 7-day treatment period and time-to-ON was self-recorded in 5-minute blocks. The primary efficacy variable was time-to-ON in the apomorphine treatment period versus the baseline levodopa period. Secondary assessments included and global impression scales. Safety and tolerability were assessed through adverse events (AEs). Patients receiving apomorphine achieved mean ± standard deviation (SD) time-to-ON 23.72 ± 14.55 minutes, reduced from 60.86 ± 18.11 minutes with levodopa ( P < 0.0001). Dose failures (defined as time-to-ON >60 minutes) were more commonly reported with levodopa versus apomorphine (46% vs. 7% of diary entries, respectively). Secondary endpoints supported the primary efficacy findings, with significant improvements from levodopa baseline to apomorphine treatment period (all P < 0.0001). The most common AEs were nausea and dizziness. Most patients who discontinued because of AEs did so in the titration phase. Apomorphine injections significantly reduced time-to-ON in PD patients experiencing delayed onset of their morning levodopa dose, and was well tolerated in most patients. After apomorphine treatment, fluctuating patients with morning akinesia experienced rapid and reliable improvement of time-to-ON.

  16. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ivy N.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G.; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:27191727

  17. Morning Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Research & Professionals Our research Research ... Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity ...

  18. Morning sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bland foods, such as gelatin, frozen desserts, broth, ginger ale, and saltine crackers, also soothe the stomach. ... your stomach does not get too full. Seltzer, ginger ale, or other sparkling waters may help control ...

  19. Does Interest in Watching the Night-Sky Correlate with Morning-Evening Orientation? A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports two studies investigating the relationship between noctcaelador (psychological attachment to the nightsky), and morning-evening preferences. Study 1 examined the relationship between the Noctcaelador Inventory (Kelly, 2004) and a shortened form of the Horne and Ostberg Morning-Eveningness Questionnaire (Chelminski, Petros,…

  20. The importance of assessment and management of morning stiffness in Asian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Recommendations from an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Mok, Chi Chiu; Cha, Hoon Suk; Hidayat, Rudy; Nguyen, Lan Thi Ngoc; Perez, Emmanuel C; Ramachandran, Raveendran; Tsay, Gregory J; Yoo, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), morning stiffness is linked more to functional disability and pain than disease activity, as assessed by joint counts and markers of inflammation. As part of the Asia Pacific Morning Stiffness in Rheumatoid Arthritis Expert Panel, a group of eight rheumatologists met to formulate consensus points and develop recommendations for the assessment and management of morning stiffness in RA. On the basis of a systematic literature review and expert opinion, a panel of Asian rheumatologists formulated recommendations for the assessment and medical treatment of RA. The panel agreed upon 10 consensus statements on morning stiffness, its assessment and treatment. Specifically, the panel recommended that morning stiffness, pain and impaired morning function should be routinely assessed in clinical practice. Although there are currently no validated tools for these parameters, they should be assessed as part of the patients' reported outcomes in RA. The panel also agreed on the benefits of low-dose glucocorticoids in RA, particularly for the improvement of morning stiffness. These recommendations serve to guide rheumatologists and other stakeholders on the assessment and management of morning stiffness, and help implement the treat-to-target principle in the management of RA. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Dark matter freeze-out in a nonrelativistic sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    A thermally decoupled hidden sector of particles, with a mass gap, generically enters a phase of cannibalism in the early Universe. The Standard Model sector becomes exponentially colder than the hidden sector. We propose the cannibal dark matter framework, where dark matter resides in a cannibalizing sector with a relic density set by 2-to-2 annihilations. Observable signals of cannibal dark matter include a boosted rate for indirect detection, new relativistic degrees of freedom, and warm dark matter.

  2. Effects of evening vs morning levothyroxine intake: a randomized double-blind crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Bolk, Nienke; Visser, Theo J; Nijman, Judy; Jongste, Ineke J; Tijssen, Jan G P; Berghout, Arie

    2010-12-13

    Levothyroxine sodium is widely prescribed to treat primary hypothyroidism. There is consensus that levothyroxine should be taken in the morning on an empty stomach. A pilot study showed that levothyroxine intake at bedtime significantly decreased thyrotropin levels and increased free thyroxine and total triiodothyronine levels. To date, no large randomized trial investigating the best time of levothyroxine intake, including quality-of-life evaluation, has been performed. To ascertain if levothyroxine intake at bedtime instead of in the morning improves thyroid hormone levels, a randomized double-blind crossover trial was performed between April 1, 2007, and November 30, 2008, among 105 consecutive patients with primary hypothyroidism at Maasstad Hospital Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Patients were instructed during 6 months to take 1 capsule in the morning and 1 capsule at bedtime (one containing levothyroxine and the other a placebo), with a switch after 3 months. Primary outcome measures were thyroid hormone levels; secondary outcome measures were creatinine and lipid levels, body mass index, heart rate, and quality of life. Ninety patients completed the trial and were available for analysis. Compared with morning intake, direct treatment effects when levothyroxine was taken at bedtime were a decrease in thyrotropin level of 1.25 mIU/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.89 mIU/L; P < .001), an increase in free thyroxine level of 0.07 ng/dL (0.02-0.13 ng/dL; P = .01), and an increase in total triiodothyronine level of 6.5 ng/dL (0.9-12.1 ng/dL; P = .02) (to convert thyrotropin level to micrograms per liter, multiply by 1.0; free thyroxine level to picomoles per liter, multiply by 12.871; and total triiodothyronine level to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 0.0154). Secondary outcomes, including quality-of-life questionnaires (36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, 20-Item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, and a symptoms

  3. Development of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morning symptom diary (COPD-MSD).

    PubMed

    Globe, Gary; Currie, Brooke; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Jones, Paul; Mannino, David; Martinez, Fernando; Klekotka, Paul; O'Quinn, Sean; Karlsson, Niklas; Wiklund, Ingela

    2016-07-16

    The morning tends to be the most difficult time of day for many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when symptoms can limit one's ability to perform even simple activities. Morning symptoms have been linked to higher levels of work absenteeism, thereby increasing the already substantial economic burden associated with COPD. A validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to capture morning symptoms will allow for a more comprehensive approach to the evaluation of treatment benefit in COPD clinical trials. A qualitative interview study was conducted among a sample of symptomatic adults with COPD. Concept elicitation interviews (n = 35) were conducted to identify COPD morning symptoms, followed by cognitive interviews (n = 21) to ensure patient comprehension of the items, instructions and response options of the draft COPD Morning Symptom Diary (COPD-MSD). All interview transcript data were coded using ATLAS.ti software for content analysis. Mean age of the concept elicitation and cognitive interview sample was 65.0 years (±7.5) and 62.3 years (±8.3), respectively. The study sample represented the full range of COPD severity (Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease [GOLD] classifications I-IV) and included a mix of racial backgrounds, employment status and educational achievement. During the concept elicitation interviews, the three most frequently reported morning symptoms were shortness of breath (n = 35/35; 100 %), phlegm/mucus (n = 31/35; 88.6 %), and cough (n = 30/35; 85.7 %). A group of clinical and instrument development experts convened to review the concept elicitation data and develop the initial 32-item draft COPD-MSD. Cognitive interviews indicated subjects found the draft COPD-MSD to be comprehensive, clear, and easy to understand. The COPD-MSD underwent minor editorial revisions and streamlining based on cognitive interviews and input from the experts to yield the final 19-item daily

  4. Impact of outdoor temperature on prewaking morning surge and nocturnal decline in blood pressure in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shougo; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Kono, Tatsuji; Soyama, Akiko; Umeda, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Naomune; Morita, Hideaki; Yamanaka, Gaku; Kitaura, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations in blood pressure (BP) have often been attributed to meteorological factors, especially changes in outdoor temperature. We evaluated the direct association between meteorological factors and circadian BP variability. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP was monitored continuously for 7 days in 158 subjects. Mean awake, asleep, morning (first 2 h after waking) BP, prewaking morning BP surge (morning systolic BP (SBP)-mean SBP during the 2-h period before waking) and nocturnal BP decline were measured each day. We compared BP values for the lowest and highest days with regard to the daily mean outdoor temperature and mean atmospheric pressure. Morning BP and prewaking morning BP surge on the coldest day were significantly higher than those on the warmest day (morning SBP, 136.6 ± 1.6 vs. 133.1 ± 1.5 mm Hg, P = 0.002; morning diastolic BP, 84.4 ± 0.9 vs. 82.6 ± 0.9 mm Hg, P = 0.02; and prewaking morning BP surge, 20.8 ± 1.3 vs. 15.3 ± 1.3 mm Hg, P = 0.0004). The magnitude of nocturnal BP decline on the coldest day was significantly greater than that on the warmest day (15.8 ± 0.7 vs. 13.9 ± 0.7%, P = 0.01). Outdoor temperature is an important determinant of morning BP, prewaking morning BP surge and the magnitude of nocturnal BP decline. These findings may have important implications in management of hypertension and prevention of cardiovascular events.

  5. Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, including an assessment of evening and morning behavior: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Douglas K; Sumner, Calvin R; Casat, Charles D; Coury, Daniel L; Quintana, Humberto; Saylor, Keith E; Sutton, Virginia K; Gonzales, Jill; Malcolm, Sandra K; Schuh, Kory J; Allen, Albert J

    2004-07-01

    Atomoxetine seems to be as effective for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when the daily dose is administered once in the morning as when the dose is divided and administered in the morning and evening. In the present study, the efficacy of atomoxetine administered once daily among children with ADHD was assessed throughout the day, including the evening and early morning. Another goal was to determine how early in treatment it was possible to discern a specific effect of the drug on ADHD symptoms. This study was a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 12 outpatient sites in the United States. A total of 197 children, 6 to 12 years of age, who had been diagnosed as having ADHD, on the basis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria, were randomized to receive 8 weeks of treatment with atomoxetine or placebo, dosed once daily in the mornings. ADHD symptoms were assessed with parent and investigator rating scales. The primary outcome measure was the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator-Administered and Scored total score. Daily parent assessments of children's home behaviors in the evening and early morning were recorded with an electronic data entry system. This instrument measures 11 specific morning or evening activities, including getting up and out of bed, doing or completing homework, and sitting through dinner. Seventy-one percent of the children enrolled were male, 69% met criteria for the combined subtype (both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms), and the most common psychiatric comorbidity was oppositional defiant disorder (35%). Once-daily atomoxetine (final mean daily dose of 1.3 mg/kg) was significantly more effective than placebo in treating core symptoms of ADHD. Mean reductions in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator-Administered and Scored

  6. Use of songs to promote independence in morning greeting routines for young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Kern, Petra; Wolery, Mark; Aldridge, David

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of individually composed songs on the independent behaviors of two young children with autism during the morning greeting/entry routine into their inclusive classrooms. A music therapist composed a song for each child related to the steps of the morning greeting routine and taught the children's teachers to sing the songs during the routine. The effects were evaluated using a single subject withdrawal design. The results indicate that the songs, with modifications for one child, assisted the children in entering the classroom, greeting the teacher and/or peers and engaging in play. For one child, the number of peers who greeted him was also measured, and increased when the song was used.

  7. Morning and evening personality characteristics in a sample of young Italians.

    PubMed

    Cavallera, G M; Giampietro, M

    2007-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate associations of morning and evening personality types with personality dimensions in a convenient sample of 60 men and 60 women, ages 18 to 29 years. A short form of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and a personality questionnaire Come mi vedo (How I see myself), based on the 5-factor model of personality, were given. Several personality dimensions appear to be significantly correlated with Morningness scores: Conscientiousness (positively) and Openmindedness (negatively). The analysis indicated morning types tend to reach their goals resolutely and to plan their steps, they prefer to be precise, tidy, punctual, trustworthy; they have a sense of duty and responsibility; they are also less original and less open to culture and novelties, less curious, conformist, traditionalist, and less well-informed, hardworking, steady, tenacious, and diligent, on the Come mi vedo.

  8. Resin glycoside constituents of Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning glory).

    PubMed

    Tao, Hongwen; Hao, Xiaojiang; Liu, Jinggen; Ding, Jian; Fang, Yuchun; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Weiming

    2008-12-01

    Eight new resin glycosides, pescapreins X-XVII (1-8), were isolated from a lipophilic fraction of an ethanol extract of the entire plant of beach morning glory, Ipomoea pes-caprae. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and by chemical transformation. These compounds were evaluated biologically in terms of cancer cell line cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and effects on the mu-opioid receptor.

  9. Morning sun on Gulf of Mexico as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    1968-10-20

    AS07-08-1933 (20 Oct. 1968) --- The morning sun reflects on the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft at an altitude of 120 nautical miles above Earth. Most of Florida peninsula appears as a dark silhouette. This photograph was made during the spacecraft's 134th revolution of Earth, some 213 hours and 19 minutes after liftoff.

  10. A Stochastic Burst Follows the Periodic Morning Peak in Individual Drosophila Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Lazopulo, Stanislav; Lopez, Juan A.; Levy, Paul; Syed, Sheyum

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between cyclically varying external light and an endogenous biochemical oscillator known as the circadian clock, modulates a rhythmic pattern with two prominent peaks in the locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. A morning peak appears around the time lights turn on and an evening peak appears just before lights turn off. The close association between the peaks and the external 12:12 hour light/dark photoperiod means that respective morning and evening peaks of individual flies are well-synchronized in time and, consequently, feature prominently in population-averaged data. Here, we report on a brief but strong stochastic burst in fly activity that, in contrast to morning and evening peaks, is detectable only in single fly recordings. This burst was observed across 3 wild-type strains of Drosophila melanogaster. In a single fly recording, the burst is likely to appear once randomly within 0.5–5 hours after lights turn on, last for only 2–3 minutes and yet show 5 times greater activity compared to the maximum of morning peak with data binned in 3 minutes. Owing to its variable timing and short duration, the burst is virtually undetectable in population-averaged data. We use a locally-built illumination system to study the burst and find that its incidence in a population correlates with light intensity, with ~85% of control flies showing the behavior at 8000 lux (1942 μW/cm2). Consistent with that finding, several mutant flies with impaired vision show substantially reduced frequency of the burst. Additionally, we find that genetic ablation of the clock has insignificant effect on burst frequency. Together, these data suggest that the pronounced burst is likely generated by a light-activated circuit that is independent of the circadian clock. PMID:26528813

  11. Characterization of a novel gravitropic mutant of morning glory, weeping2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Daisuke; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Fujii, Nobuharu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2008-09-01

    In higher plants, gravity is a major environmental cue that governs growth orientation, a phenomenon termed gravitropism. It has been suggested that gravity also affects other aspects of morphogenesis, such as circumnutation and winding movements. Previously, we showed that these aspects of plant growth morphology require amyloplast sedimentation inside gravisensing endodermal cells. However, the molecular mechanism of the graviresponse and its relationship to circumnutation and winding remains obscure. Here, we have characterized a novel shoot gravitropic mutant of morning glory, weeping2 ( we2). In the we2 mutant, the gravitropic response of the stem was absent, and hypocotyls exhibited a severely reduced gravitropic response, whereas roots showed normal gravitropism. In agreement with our previous studies, we found that we2 mutant has defects in shoot circumnutation and winding. Histological analysis showed that we2 mutant forms abnormal endodermal cells. We identified a mutation in the morning glory homolog of SHORT-ROOT ( PnSHR1) that was genetically linked to the agravitropic phenotype of we2 mutant, and which may underlie the abnormal differentiation of endodermal cells in this plant. These results suggest that the phenotype of we2 mutant is due to a mutation of PnSHR1, and that PnSHR1 regulates gravimorphogenesis, including circumnutation and winding movements, in morning glory.

  12. Morning self-efficacy predicts physical activity throughout the day in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhaoyang, Ruixue; Martire, Lynn M; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the within-day and cross-day prospective effects of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients' self-efficacy to engage in physical activity despite the pain on their subsequent physical activity assessed objectively in their natural environment. Over 22 days, 135 older adults with knee OA reported their morning self-efficacy for being physically active throughout the day using a handheld computer and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Morning self-efficacy had a significant positive effect on steps and moderate-intensity activity throughout that day, above and beyond the effects of demographic background and other psychosocial factors as well as spouses' support and social control. The lagged effect of morning self-efficacy on the next day's physical activity and the reciprocal lagged effect of physical activity on the next day's self-efficacy were not significant. Positive between-person effects of self-efficacy on physical activity were found. Future research should aim to better understand the mechanisms underlying fluctuations in patients' daily self-efficacy, and target patients' daily self-efficacy as a modifiable psychological mechanism for promoting physical activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Morning Self-Efficacy Predicts Physical Activity Throughout the Day in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhaoyang, Ruixue; Martire, Lynn M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the within-day and cross-day prospective effects of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients’ self-efficacy to engage in physical activity despite the pain on their subsequent physical activity assessed objectively in their natural environment. Methods Over 22 days, 135 older adults with knee OA reported their morning self-efficacy for being physically active throughout the day using a handheld computer and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Morning self-efficacy had a significant positive effect on steps and moderate-intensity activity throughout that day, above and beyond the effects of demographic background and other psychosocial factors as well as spouses’ support and social control. The lagged effect of morning self-efficacy on the next day’s physical activity and the reciprocal lagged effect of physical activity on the next day’s self-efficacy were not significant. Positive between-person effects of self-efficacy on physical activity were found. Conclusions Future research should aim to better understand the mechanisms underlying fluctuations in patients’ daily self-efficacy, and target patients’ daily self-efficacy as a modifiable psychological mechanism for promoting physical activity. PMID:28277696

  14. Metabonomic study of biochemical changes in the urine of Morning Glory Seed treated rat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Bi, Kaishun; Zhang, Ming; Su, Dan; Fan, Xinxin; Ji, Wei; Wang, Chao; Chen, Xiaohui

    2010-11-02

    This paper was designed to study metabonomic characters of the nephrotoxicity induced by Morning Glory Seed (MGS), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine which was used for the treatment of edema, simple obesity and lung fever. Urinary samples from control and MGS treated rats were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in positive ionization mode. Blood biochemistry and histopathology were examined to identify specific changes of renal damage. The results affirmatively suggested that ethanol extract of Morning Glory Seed (EMGS), instead of water extract of Morning Glory Seed (WMGS), should be responsible for the nephrotoxicity caused by this herbal medicine. The UPLC-MS analysis revealed that the levels of 8 endogenous metabolites as biomarkers were significantly changed in urine from EMGS treated rats. The underlying regulations of EMGS-perturbed metabolic pathways were discussed according to the identified metabolites. The present study proves the potential of UPLC-MS based metabonomics in mapping metabolic response for toxicology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Daily morning light therapy is associated with an increase in choroidal thickness in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Read, Scott A; Pieterse, Emily C; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Bormann, Rebekah; Hong, Seentinie; Lo, Chai-Hoon; Richer, Rhiannon; Syed, Atif; Tran, Linda

    2018-05-29

    Ambient light exposure is one environmental factor thought to play a role in the regulation of eye growth and refractive error development, and choroidal thickness changes have also been linked to longer term changes in eye growth. Therefore in this study we aimed to examine the influence of a 1-week period of morning light therapy upon choroidal thickness. Twenty two healthy young adult subjects had a series of macular choroidal thickness measurements collected with spectral domain optical coherence tomography before, and then following a 7-day period of increased daily light exposure. Increased light exposure was delivered through the use of commercially available light therapy glasses, worn for 30 minutes in the morning each day. A significant increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness (mean increase of +5.4 ± 10.3 µm) was found following 7-days of increased daily light exposure (p = 0.02). An increase in choroidal thickness was also observed associated with light therapy across the central 5 mm macular region. This study provides the first evidence in the human eye that daily morning light therapy results in small magnitude but statistically significant increases in choroidal thickness. These changes may have implications for our understanding of the impact of environmental factors upon eye growth.

  17. The relationship between work-related rumination and evening and morning salivary cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Mark; Rydstedt, Leif W; Devereux, Jason J; Middleton, Benita

    2015-04-01

    The perseverative cognition hypothesis suggests that worry/ruminative thinking prolongs stress-related physiological activation. This study explored the association of work-related rumination with salivary cortisol sampled at 10 pm and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) the following morning. On a mid-week evening, 108 school teachers completed a small diary about their work-related thoughts and gave a saliva cortisol sample at 10 pm. The following morning, they gave four additional saliva samples: at awakening and at 15, 30 and 45 min after awakening, along with a rating of their anticipatory thoughts about work. The CAR was calculated as the percentage increase in cortisol secretion from awakening to 30 min, and the sample was divided at their respective medians to classify participants into low and high rumination groups. Cortisol secretion was found to be significantly greater in the high compared with the low ruminators at 10 pm, and this effect was not related to leisure activities or work patterns during the evening. For the morning measures, high ruminators demonstrated a flattened CAR relative to the low ruminators, and this effect appeared to be associated with sleep disturbance during the night. Ruminating about work-related issues is associated with cortisol secretion, and our findings support the perseverative cognition hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The impact of morning light intensity and environmental temperature on body temperatures and alertness.

    PubMed

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc J M; Schellen, Lisje; Frijns, Arjan J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2017-06-01

    Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated. A lower room temperature increased the core body temperature (CBT) and lowered skin temperature and the distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG). Moreover, a lower room temperature reduced the subjective sleepiness and reaction time on an auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), irrespective of the light condition. Interestingly, the morning bright light exposure did affect thermophysiological parameters, i.e. it decreased plasma cortisol, CBT and proximal skin temperature and increased the DPG, irrespective of the room temperature. During the bright light session, subjective sleepiness decreased irrespective of the room temperature. However, the change in sleepiness due to the light exposure was not related to these physiological changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Saturday Morning Television Advertisements Aired on English and Spanish Language Networks along the Texas-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Cristina S.; Rodriguez, Dianeth; Camacho, Perla L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this content analysis study is to characterize the TV advertisements aired to an at-risk child population along the Texas-Mexico border. Methods We characterized the early Saturday morning TV advertisements aired by three broadcast network categories (U.S. English language, U.S. Spanish language, and Mexican Spanish language) in Spring 2010. The number, type (food related vs. non-food related), target audience, and persuasion tactics used were recorded. Advertised foods, based on nutrition content, were categorized as meeting or not meeting current dietary guidelines. Results Most commercials were non-food related (82.7%, 397 of 480). The majority of the prepared foods (e.g., cereals, snacks, and drinks) advertised did not meet the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Additionally, nutrition content information was not available for many of the foods advertised on the Mexican Spanish language broadcast network category. Conclusions For U.S. children at risk for obesity along the Texas-Mexico border exposure to TV food advertisements may result in the continuation of sedentary behavior as well as an increased consumption of foods of poor nutritional quality. An international regulatory effort to monitor and enforce the reduction of child-oriented food advertising is needed. PMID:22209760

  20. 1-Hydroxypyrene concentrations in first morning voids and 24-h composite urine: intra- and inter-individual comparisons.

    PubMed

    Han, In-Kyu; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Hongbiao; Rhoads, George G; Wei, Fusheng; Zhang, Junfeng

    2008-09-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has been suggested as an exposure biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it remains unknown whether a first morning urine sample can be used to reflect average exposure. In this paper, we examine intra-individual differences and inter-individual associations between first morning voids and 24-h composite urine samples. The analysis was performed using data collected from 100 adults who had a wide range of PAH exposure due to differences in their occupation, e.g., coke oven workers vs. non-coke oven workers. For each subject, all the urine voids within each of two 24-h measurement periods were collected. Results showed a significant (40% to 62%) intra-individual difference between first morning voids and 24-h urinary 1-OHP concentrations (in ng/ml urine). Creatinine adjustments of 1-OHP concentrations (in micromol/mol urinary creatinine) reduced the intra-individual difference by approximately 10%. Across all the subjects, a high overall correlation (r=0.76) was observed between first morning and 24-h average 1-OHP concentrations. Work environment and sampling season were found to significantly affect the relationship between first morning and 24-h 1-OHP concentrations. An increase of 1 ng/ml of first morning urinary 1-OHP predicted an increase of 0.5 and 0.25 ng/ml of 24-h urinary 1-OHP for coke oven workers and non-coke oven workers, respectively. Data collected in a winter season showed a higher correlation between first morning and 24-h concentrations than data collected in a fall season. Creatinine adjustments did not significantly improve overall correlations between first morning void and 24-h measurements, but increased total variances for 24-h urines explained by first morning urines in coke workers.

  1. [Acupuncture combined with medication for morning blood pressure of essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Du, Yuzheng

    2018-04-12

    Based on the western medication, to evaluate the advantages in the morning blood pressure treated with acupuncture at Fengchi (GB 20) and Neck-Jiaji (EX-B 2) combined with acupuncture technique for activating blood circulation, eliminating wind and regulating the liver and spleen in the patients with essential hypertension. A total of 90 patients of essential hypertension of the mild and moderate degrees were randomized into a medication group (30 cases, 3 dropping), No.1 acupuncture group (30 cases, 2 dropping) and No.2 acupuncture group (30 cases, 1 dropping). In the medication group, adalat was prescribed for oral administration, 30 mg at 7 am every day, continuously for 6 weeks. In the No.1 acupuncture group, on the basis of the treatment as the medication group, the acupuncture technique for activating blood circulation, eliminating wind and regulating the liver and spleen was applied and the acupoints were Renying (ST 9), Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), Quchi (LI 11) and Zusanli (ST 36). In the No.2 acupuncture group, on the basis of the treatment as the No.1 acupuncture group, Fengchi (GB 20) and Neck-Jiaji (EX-B 2) were added in acupuncture. Acupuncture was given in the time zone from 8 am through 10 am every day, once a day, 5 times a week, totally for 6 weeks. Separately, before treatment and in 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, the morning blood pressure, the control rate and the symptom score were observed in the patients of the three groups. The morning blood pressure was followed up in 3 and 6 months separately. Compared with those before treatment, in 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, the levels of blood pressure reduced in the patients of the three groups ( P <0.05, P <0.01). After 2-week treatment, the differences were not significant in the morning blood pressure and its control rate in the patients of the three groups (all P >0.05). In 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, the levels of the morning blood pressure in the No.2 acupuncture group were lower than those

  2. The effect of desmopressin on nocturnal polyuria, overnight weight loss, and morning postural hypotension in patients with autonomic failure.

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, C J; Fosbraey, P; da Costa, D F; Thornley, A; Bannister, R

    1986-01-01

    Day and night urine volume, morning and evening body weight, and supine and sitting blood pressure were measured in five patients with chronic autonomic failure who were not receiving treatment with drugs. All had nocturnal polyuria, overnight weight loss, and a pronounced postural fall in blood pressure, with lowest levels in the morning. Desmopressin (2-4 micrograms given intramuscularly at 8 pm) reduced nocturnal polyuria, diminished overnight weight loss, raised supine blood pressure, and reduced the postural fall, especially in the morning, when patients were often at their worst. Desmopressin may be a useful alternative to, or may supplement, other forms of treatment in some patients with autonomic failure. PMID:3089519

  3. Morning and Evening Home Blood Pressure and Risks of Incident Stroke and Coronary Artery Disease in the Japanese General Practice Population: The Japan Morning Surge-Home Blood Pressure Study.

    PubMed

    Hoshide, Satoshi; Yano, Yuichiro; Haimoto, Hajime; Yamagiwa, Kayo; Uchiba, Kiyoshi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Matsui, Yoshio; Nakamura, Akira; Fukutomi, Motoki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Joji; Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to determine the optimal time schedule for home blood pressure (BP) monitoring that best predicts stroke and coronary artery disease in general practice. The Japan Morning Surge-Home Blood Pressure (J-HOP) study is a nationwide practice-based study that included 4310 Japanese with a history of or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or both (mean age, 65 years; 79% used antihypertensive medication). Home BP measures were taken twice daily (morning and evening) over 14 days at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 4 years (16 929 person-years), 74 stroke and 77 coronary artery disease events occurred. Morning systolic BP (SBP) improved the discrimination of incident stroke (C statistics, 0.802; 95% confidence interval, 0.692-0.911) beyond traditional risk factors including office SBP (0.756; 0.646-0.866), whereas the changes were smaller with evening SBP (0.764; 0.653-0.874). The addition of evening SBP to the model (including traditional risk factors plus morning SBP) significantly reduced the discrimination of incident stroke (C statistics difference, -0.008; 95% confidence interval: -0.015 to -0.008; P=0.03). The category-free net reclassification improvement (0.3606; 95% confidence interval, 0.1317-0.5896), absolute integrated discrimination improvement (0.015; SE, 0.005), and relative integrated discrimination improvement (58.3%; all P<0.01) with the addition of morning SBP to the model (including traditional risk factors) were greater than those with evening SBP and with combined morning and evening SBP. Neither morning nor evening SBP improved coronary artery disease risk prediction. Morning home SBP itself should be evaluated to ensure best stroke prediction in clinical practice, at least in Japan. This should be confirmed in the different ethnic groups. URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/. Unique identifier: UMIN000000894. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  5. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  6. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  7. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Elaine; French, David P

    2016-07-01

    People driving the day after drinking are at risk of impaired performance and accidents due to continued intoxication or the effects of alcohol hangover. Drivers are poor at estimating their own blood alcohol concentration, and some drive despite believing they are over the legal limit. It is therefore important to identify other factors influencing perceived ability to drive 'the morning after'. This study tested how accurately participants estimated their legal driving status, and the contribution of beliefs and hangover symptoms to the prediction of perceived driving safety. This cross-sectional study involved 193 students completing a questionnaire and alcohol breath test the morning after heavy alcohol consumption. Indicators of subjective intoxication, severity of hangover symptoms, estimated legal status and perceived safety to drive were measured. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted. No participants thought they were under the English legal limit when they were not, and 47% thought they were over the limit when they were in fact legally permissible to drive. However, 20% of those believing they were over the limit nevertheless rated themselves as safe to drive. Hangover symptoms added 17% variance to the prediction of perceived safety to drive, over and above objective and subjective measures of intoxication. Perceived severity of hangover symptoms influence beliefs about driving ability: When judging safety to drive, people experiencing less severe symptoms believe they are less impaired. If this finding is robust, health promotion campaigns should aim to correct this misapprehension. [Cameron E, French D. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:442-446]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Temporal variability of urinary cadmium in spot urine samples and first morning voids.

    PubMed

    Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Zhao, Yuan; Ahn, Hongshik; Harrington, James M; Levine, Keith E; Demple, Bruce; Marsit, Carmen J; Gonzalez, Adam; Luft, Benjamin; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic heavy metal. Urinary levels of cadmium are considered to be an indicator of long-term body burden, as cadmium accumulates in the kidneys and has a half-life of at least 10 years. However, the temporal stability of the biomarker in urine samples from a non-occupationally exposed population has not been rigorously established. We used repeated measurements of urinary cadmium (U-Cd) in spot urine samples and first morning voids from two separate cohorts, to assess the temporal stability of the samples. Urine samples from two cohorts including individuals of both sexes were measured for cadmium and creatinine. The first cohort (Home Observation of Perinatal Exposure (HOPE)) consisted of 21 never-smokers, who provided four first morning urine samples 2-5 days apart, and one additional sample roughly 1 month later. The second cohort (World Trade Center-Health Program (WTC-HP)) consisted of 78 individuals, including 52 never-smokers, 22 former smokers and 4 current smokers, who provided 2 spot urine samples 6 months apart, on average. Intra-class correlation was computed for groups of replicates from each individual to assess temporal variability. The median creatinine-adjusted U-Cd level (0.19 and 0.21 μg/g in the HOPE and WTC-HP, respectively) was similar to levels recorded in the United States by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The intra-class correlation (ICC) was high (0.76 and 0.78 for HOPE and WTC-HP, respectively) and similar between cohorts, irrespective of whether samples were collected days or months apart. Both single spot or first morning urine cadmium samples show good to excellent reproducibility in low-exposure populations.

  9. How to deal with morning bad breath: A randomized, crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Neto, Jeronimo M; Sato, Sandra; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

    2013-11-01

    The absence of a protocol for the treatment of halitosis has led us to compare mouthrinses with mechanical oral hygiene procedures for treating morning breath by employing a hand-held sulfide monitor. To compare the efficacy of five modalities of treatment for controlling morning halitosis in subjects with no dental or periodontal disease. This is a five-period, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to the trial. Testing involved the use of a conventional tongue scraper, a tongue scraper joined to the back of a toothbrush's head, two mouthrinses (0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate) and a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste for practicing oral hygiene. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 for Windows and NCSS 2007 software (P < 0.05). The products and the periods were compared with each other using the Friedman's test. When significant differences (P < 0.05) were determined, the products and periods were compared in pairs by using the Wilcoxon's test and by adjusting the original significance level (0.05) for multiple comparisons by using the Bonferroni's method. The toothbrush's tongue scraper was able to significantly reduce bad breath for up to 2 h. Chlorhexidine reduced bad breath only at the end of the second hour, an effect that lasted for 3 h. Mechanical tongue cleaning was able to immediately reduce bad breath for a short period, whereas chlorhexidine and mechanical oral hygiene reduced bad breath for longer periods, achieving the best results against morning breath.

  10. How to deal with morning bad breath: A randomized, crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Neto, Jeronimo M.; Sato, Sandra; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

    2013-01-01

    Context: The absence of a protocol for the treatment of halitosis has led us to compare mouthrinses with mechanical oral hygiene procedures for treating morning breath by employing a hand-held sulfide monitor. Aims: To compare the efficacy of five modalities of treatment for controlling morning halitosis in subjects with no dental or periodontal disease. Settings and Design: This is a five-period, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to the trial. Testing involved the use of a conventional tongue scraper, a tongue scraper joined to the back of a toothbrush's head, two mouthrinses (0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate) and a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste for practicing oral hygiene. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 for Windows and NCSS 2007 software (P < 0.05). The products and the periods were compared with each other using the Friedman's test. When significant differences (P < 0.05) were determined, the products and periods were compared in pairs by using the Wilcoxon's test and by adjusting the original significance level (0.05) for multiple comparisons by using the Bonferroni's method. Results: The toothbrush's tongue scraper was able to significantly reduce bad breath for up to 2 h. Chlorhexidine reduced bad breath only at the end of the second hour, an effect that lasted for 3 h. Conclusions: Mechanical tongue cleaning was able to immediately reduce bad breath for a short period, whereas chlorhexidine and mechanical oral hygiene reduced bad breath for longer periods, achieving the best results against morning breath. PMID:24554886

  11. Coastal Wind and Turbulence Observations during the Morning and Evening Transitions over Tropical Terrain

    SciT

    Jensen, Derek D.; Price, Timothy A.; Nadeau, Daniel F.

    Data collected during a multiyear, wind-resource assessment over a multi-land-use coastal environment in Belize are used to study the development and decay of wind and turbulence through the morning and evening transitions. Observations were made on three tall masts, forming an inland transect of approximately 5 km. The wind distribution is found to be bimodal and governed by synoptic scales, with onshore and offshore flow regimes. The behavior between the coastal and inland sites is found to be very similar when the flow is directed offshore; for onshore flow, stark differences occur. The mean wind speed at the coastal sitemore » is approximately 20% greater than the most inland site and is nearly constant throughout the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, for both flow regimes, the influence of the land–sea breeze circulation is inconsequential relative to the large-scale synoptic forcing. Composite time series are used to study the evolution of sensible heat flux and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the morning and evening transitions. The TKE budget reveals that at the coastal site mechanical production of TKE is much more important than buoyant production. This allows for the unexpected case in which TKE increases through the ET despite the decrease of buoyant TKE production. Multiresolution flux decomposition is used to further study this phenomenon as well as the evolution of the sensible heat flux at differing time scales. We present an idealized schematic to illustrate the timing and structure of the morning and evening transitions for an inland site and a coastal site that are subjected to similar synoptic forcing.« less

  12. Minimum duration of actigraphy-defined nocturnal awakenings necessary for morning recall.

    PubMed

    Winser, Michael A; McBean, Amanda L; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2013-07-01

    Healthy adults awaken between each sleep cycle approximately 5 times each night but generally do not remember all of these awakenings in the morning. A rule of thumb has arisen in the sleep field that approximately 5 min of continuous wakefulness are required to form a memory for an awakening. However, few studies have examined memory for these sleep-wake transitions and none have done so in the home, while participants follow their normal routine. Self-report and actigraphy were used in the participant's home environment to determine the minimum duration of an awakening necessary for morning recall for each of the 39 healthy adults. Recall thresholds ranged from 30 to 600 s with a mean of 259 s (4 min 19 s) and were negatively associated with sleep efficiency but not significantly associated with total sleep time, age, income, or education. There also was a sex by cohabitation interaction, with single men having lower thresholds than single women and cohabiting participants, which was explained by higher sleep efficiency in noncohabitating men. Large individual differences suggest that many factors may influence recall threshold. Our preliminary study is the first to calculate the duration of wakefulness necessary for morning recall of nocturnal awakenings and the first to use a field-based design, allowing for the study of habitual sleep patterns at the participant's home. Further study is needed to explore if recall thresholds calculated using actigraphy can be validated against polysomnography (PSG) or be used to guide potential treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Renal-protective effects of n-hexane layer from morning glory seeds ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yanli; Park, Bongkyun; Song, Yoon-Jae; Park, Dae Won; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan

    2017-11-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a main problem in cancer patients using cisplatin. Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis are the important mechanisms of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the extracts of morning glory on nephrotoxicity by cisplatin in human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK-293) and mice. Previous studies have reported that morning glory extracts showed potent activity on anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. However, the protective effects of the n-hexane layer of morning glory seed (MGs-Hx) on nephrotoxicity and its mechanisms have not been clearly understood. Oral administration with MGs-Hx showed protective effects in vivo experiments test and the treatment of MGs-Hx in a concentration of 100mg/kg/day had significant effect both of decreasing serum creatinine, BUN, serum uric acid level and reduced iNOS, COX-2 mRNA expressions with low side-effect. Moreover, cell viability was restored by MGs-Hx treatment compared to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic HEK-293 cells. Co-treatment with MGs-Hx and cisplatin showed the significant effect to reduce inflammatory enzyme, iNOS expression and continuous production of NO. In addition, it exhibited a tendency to decreasing expression of apoptosis-related proteins, caspase-3, 8 and 9, and NF-κB translocation to nucleus as well as phosphorylation of p38, JNK, ERK in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic HEK-293 cells. Our study provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of MGs-Hx and suggests that MGs-Hx might be a potential therapeutic agent to modulate inflammation and apoptosis in nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Target organ damage in primary hypertensive patients: role of the morning heart rate surge.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuliang; Kang, Ting; Wei, Yunfeng

    The morning heart rate surge (MHRS) and morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) may be responsible for the high prevalence of cardiovascular events during the morning period. The clinical significance of the MBPS has been well established, but that of the MHRS remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated the association between the MHRS and target organ damage (TOD). A cross-sectional study of 580 hypertensive patients was performed. MHRS and heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed by 24 h electrocardiogram. TOD was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and left ventricular mass index. The prevalence of TOD tended to decrease with sleep-trough MHRS (first to fourth quartiles: 71%, 70.3%, 58.6%, and 52.7%, respectively) or prewaking MHRS quartiles (first to fourth quartiles: 65.3%, 73.6%, 61.4%, and 54.2%, respectively), whereas the opposite trend was observed for standard deviation of all normal NN intervals (SDNN). Moreover, sleep-trough MHRS, prewaking MHRS, SDNN, and SDNN index were significantly lower in patients with TOD than in those without TOD. According to four logistic regression models, the associations of prewaking MHRS, SDNN, and SDNN index with TOD were lost after adjustment for age and BP. Patients in the first (≤11.125 bpm) and second sleep-trough MHRS quartiles (11.125-15.75 bpm) had a 1.95-2.06-fold increased risk of TOD compared with those in the fourth quartile (p < 0.05). A blunted sleep-trough MHRS, which may serve as a surrogate marker for autonomic imbalance, was independently associated with TOD in primary hypertensive patients.

  15. Coastal Wind and Turbulence Observations during the Morning and Evening Transitions over Tropical Terrain

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, Derek D.; Price, Timothy A.; Nadeau, Daniel F.; ...

    2017-12-15

    Data collected during a multiyear, wind-resource assessment over a multi-land-use coastal environment in Belize are used to study the development and decay of wind and turbulence through the morning and evening transitions. Observations were made on three tall masts, forming an inland transect of approximately 5 km. The wind distribution is found to be bimodal and governed by synoptic scales, with onshore and offshore flow regimes. The behavior between the coastal and inland sites is found to be very similar when the flow is directed offshore; for onshore flow, stark differences occur. The mean wind speed at the coastal sitemore » is approximately 20% greater than the most inland site and is nearly constant throughout the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, for both flow regimes, the influence of the land–sea breeze circulation is inconsequential relative to the large-scale synoptic forcing. Composite time series are used to study the evolution of sensible heat flux and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the morning and evening transitions. The TKE budget reveals that at the coastal site mechanical production of TKE is much more important than buoyant production. This allows for the unexpected case in which TKE increases through the ET despite the decrease of buoyant TKE production. Multiresolution flux decomposition is used to further study this phenomenon as well as the evolution of the sensible heat flux at differing time scales. We present an idealized schematic to illustrate the timing and structure of the morning and evening transitions for an inland site and a coastal site that are subjected to similar synoptic forcing.« less

  16. Saturday-morning television: do sponsors promote high-risk behavior for burn injury?

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Tina L; Aoki, Traci; Combs, Elena; Curri, Terese; Garma, Sylvia; Kaulkin, Cammie; Lawless, Mary Beth; Nelson, Kate; Sanders, Johanna; Warden, Nancy; Greenhalgh, David G

    2004-01-01

    Television has become an important tool for learning and socialization in children. Although television violence has been associated with adverse effects, data on depiction of fire and burn injury are lacking. We sought to determine whether Saturday-morning television programming, viewed primarily by children, depicts fire and burn injury as safe or without consequence, thus potentially increasing the incidence of burn injury in children. This was a prospective observational study. Saturday-morning children's television programs were videotaped from 7 AM to 11 AM for eight different television networks during a 6-month period. Tapes were scored for scenes depicting fire or smoke by independent observers. Recorded items included show category, scene type, gender target, context of fire, and outcome after exposure to flame. Fire events were documented during programs and their associated commercials. A total of 108 hours of children's programs, 16 hours per network, were recorded. Scenes depicting fire or smoke were identified 1960 times, with 39% of events occurring during the program itself and 61% in commercials. Fire was depicted as either safe or without consequence in 64% of incidents. Action adventure stories accounted for 56% of flame depictions. Overall, one incident involving flame and fire was portrayed for each 3 minutes of television programming. Saturday-morning television programming frequently depicts fire as safe, empowering, or exciting. The incidence of flame use in programming varies between stations but is most prevalent in action/adventure stories. Television commercials, although brief, provide the majority of the misinformation regarding fire. Medical professional societies should alert the public to this potential hazard and recommend responsible portrayal of fire in children's television programming.

  17. Crewmember activity in the middeck during delivery of morning mail messages

    2016-08-24

    STS091-362-005 (2-12 June 1998) --- Four of the seven STS-91 crew members check the morning mail on the mid deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Discovery toward the end of the scheduled ten-day mission. Left to right are astronauts Charles J. Precourt, commander; Andrew S.W. Thomas, mission specialist; Dominic C. Gorie, pilot; and Janet L. Kavandi, mission specialist. The emergency escape pole, flown on all shuttle missions, runs across the top center of the frame.

  18. The relationship between a blunted morning surge and a reversed nocturnal blood pressure dipping or "riser" pattern.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Tomitani, Naoko; Sato, Keiko; Okura, Ayako; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2017-11-01

    The authors sought to determine the association between the blunted morning blood pressure (BP) surge and nocturnal BP dipping of the "riser" pattern in 501 patients with hypertension enrolled in the ACHIEVE-ONE (Ambulatory Blood Pressure Control and Home Blood Pressure [Morning and Evening] Lowering by the N-Channel Blocker Cilnidipine) trial. The patients' sleep-trough morning BP surge and prewaking surge were calculated and then classified according to their nocturnal systolic BP reduction pattern as extreme dippers, dippers, nondippers, and risers. The prevalence of the riser pattern was significantly higher in both the lowest sleep-trough morning BP surge decile and the prewaking surge decile (blunted surge group) compared with the remaining deciles (56.0% vs 10.4% [P<.0001] and 59.2% vs 10.2% [P<.0001], respectively). The riser pattern was a significant determinant of both blunted sleep-trough morning BP surge (odds ratio, 73.3; P<.0001) and blunted prewaking surge (odds ratio, 14.8; P<.0001). The high prevalence of the riser pattern in patients with blunted morning BP surges may account for the cardiovascular risk previously reported in such patients. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P < 0.01) and consumed more herbage (P < 0.01) compared with cows grazed in the morning. Higher (P < 0.05) daily mean concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate and n-butyrate in rumen fluid were observed for cows grazed in the evening compared with cows grazed in the morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P < 0.01) in the urine of cows grazed in the evening than in cows grazed in the morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning.

  1. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning.

  2. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning. PMID:25676856

  3. Identification of a NAC transcription factor, EPHEMERAL1, that controls petal senescence in Japanese morning glory.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Shimizu, Keiichi; Niki, Tomoko; Ichimura, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    In flowering plants, floral longevity is species-specific and is closely linked to reproductive strategy; petal senescence, a type of programmed cell death (PCD), is a highly regulated developmental process. However, little is known about regulatory pathways for cell death in petal senescence, which is developmentally controlled in an age-dependent manner. Here, we show that a NAC transcription factor, designated EPHEMERAL1 (EPH1), positively regulates PCD during petal senescence in the ephemeral flowers of Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). EPH1 expression is induced independently of ethylene signaling, and suppression of EPH1 resulted in Japanese morning glory flowers that are in bloom until the second day. The suppressed expression of EPH1 delays progression of PCD, possibly through suppression of the expression of PCD-related genes, including genes for plant caspase and autophagy in the petals. Our data further suggest that EPH1 is involved in the regulation of ethylene-accelerated petal senescence. In this study, we identified a key regulator of PCD in petal senescence, which will facilitate further elucidation of the regulatory network of petal senescence. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Morning administration of oral methamphetamine dose-dependently disrupts nighttime sleep in recreational stimulant users.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Bruner, Natalie R; Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    Use of amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., methamphetamine) is associated with acute sleep disruptions. No prior reports have characterized the acute effects of methamphetamine on sleep using polysomnography, the gold standard for objective sleep monitoring. Recreational stimulant users (n=19) completed a baseline assessment, which included questionnaires assessing demographic and substance use characteristics, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which assesses sleep quality over the past month. Participants were administered 0mg (placebo), 20mg, or 40mg oral methamphetamine at 08:15h on study days, using a double-blind, randomized, within-subjects design. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography from 22:20 that evening until 06:15 the following morning. PSQI scores indicated more than half of participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline. Methamphetamine dose-dependently increased sleep latency, and decreased total sleep time, sleep efficiency, time in NREM 2 sleep, number of REM periods, and total time in REM sleep. Sleep under placebo conditions was consistent with what would be expected from healthy adults. Morning oral administration of methamphetamine produces robust disruptions in nighttime sleep. Future research should examine relations between stimulant use and sleep disruption in naturalistic settings, with regard to both stimulant abuse and licit prescription use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Morning Martian Atmospheric Temperature Gradients and Fluctuations Observed by Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalov, John D.; Haberle, R. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Seiff, A.; Wilson, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the most prominent atmospheric temperature fluctuations observed during Martian mornings by Mars Pathfinder and have concluded, based on comparisons with wind directions, that they appear to be a result of atmospheric heating associated with the Lander spacecraft. Also, we have examined the morning surface layer temperature lapse rates, which are found to decrease as autumn approaches at the Pathfinder location, and which have mean (and median) values as large as 7.3 K/m in the earlier portions of the Pathfinder landed mission. It is plausible that brief isolated periods with gradients twice as steep are associated with atmospheric heating adjacent to Lander air bag material. In addition, we have calculated the gradient with height of the structure function obtained with Mars Pathfinder, for Mars' atmospheric temperatures measured within about 1.3 m from the surface, assuming a power law dependence, and have found that these gradients superficially resemble those reported for the upper region of the terrestrial stable boundary layer.

  6. LWD-TCP complex activates the morning gene CCA1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Fen; Tsai, Huang-Lung; Joanito, Ignasius; Wu, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chin-Wen; Li, Yi-Hang; Wang, Ying; Hong, Jong Chan; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2016-10-13

    A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock.

  7. LWD–TCP complex activates the morning gene CCA1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-Fen; Tsai, Huang-Lung; Joanito, Ignasius; Wu, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chin-Wen; Li, Yi-Hang; Wang, Ying; Hong, Jong Chan; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock. PMID:27734958

  8. Recent advances in flower color variation and patterning of Japanese morning glory and petunia

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yasumasa; Hoshino, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    The Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), locally called “Asagao” and “Tsukubane-asagao”, respectively, are popular garden plants. They have been utilized as model plants for studying the genetic basis of floricultural traits, especially anthocyanin pigmentation in flower petals. In their long history of genetic studies, many mutations affecting flower pigmentation have been characterized, and both structural and regulatory genes for the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have been identified. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in the understanding of flower pigmentation in the two species with respect to flower hue and color patterning. Regarding flower hue, we will describe a novel enhancer of flavonoid production that controls the intensity of flower pigmentation, new aspects related to a flavonoid glucosyltransferase that has been known for a long time, and the regulatory mechanisms of vacuolar pH being a key determinant of red and blue coloration. On color patterning, we describe particular flower patterns regulated by epigenetic and RNA-silencing mechanisms. As high-quality whole genome sequences of the Japanese morning glory and petunia wild parents (P. axillaris and P. inflata, respectively) were published in 2016, further study on flower pigmentation will be accelerated. PMID:29681755

  9. Nighttime Chemistry and Morning Isoprene Can Drive Urban Ozone Downwind of a Major Deciduous Forest.

    PubMed

    Millet, Dylan B; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Hu, Lu; Mitroo, Dhruv; Turner, Jay; Williams, Brent J

    2016-04-19

    Isoprene is the predominant non-methane volatile organic compound emitted to the atmosphere and shapes tropospheric composition and biogeochemistry through its effects on ozone, other oxidants, aerosols, and the nitrogen cycle. Isoprene is emitted naturally by vegetation during daytime, when its photo-oxidation is rapid, and in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produces ozone and degrades air quality in polluted regions. Here, we show for a city downwind of an isoprene-emitting forest (St. Louis, MO) that isoprene actually peaks at night; ambient levels then endure, owing to low nighttime OH radical concentrations. Nocturnal chemistry controls the fate of that isoprene and the likelihood of a high-ozone episode the following day. When nitrate (NO3) radicals are suppressed, high isoprene persists through the night, providing photochemical fuel upon daybreak and leading to a dramatic late-morning ozone peak. On nights with significant NO3, isoprene is removed before dawn; days with low morning isoprene then have lower ozone with a more typical afternoon peak. This biogenic-anthropogenic coupling expands the daily high-ozone window and likely has an opposite O3-NOx response to what would otherwise be expected, with implications for exposure and air-quality management in cities that, like St. Louis, are downwind of major isoprene-emitting forests.

  10. Morning ambush attacks by black-footed ferrets on emerging prairie dogs

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Jachowski, D.S.; Livieri, T.M.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Forsberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) often hunt at night, attacking normally diurnal prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in underground burrow systems. While monitoring black-footed ferrets in South Dakota during morning daylight hours, we observed an adult female ferret ambush a black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) emerging from a burrow. On a neighboring colony, we observed a second adult female ferret engaging in similar ambush behaviors on 12 occasions, although prey was not visible. We retrospectively assessed radio-telemetry data on white-tailed prairie dogs (C. leucurus) and a male and a female ferret to evaluate ferret activity in relation to timing of prairie dog emergence. Activity of radio-collared ferrets was high during the hourly period when prairie dogs first emerged and the following 2 hr, relative to later daylight hours. Such behavior is consistent with behaviors observed in South Dakota. Nighttime movements by ferrets might involve hunting but also reconnaissance of prey preparatory to morning ambush attacks.

  11. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise Performed in the Morning and Evening on Inflammatory Cytokine and Metabolic Hormone Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Tabata, Hiroki; Endo, Naoya; Numao, Shigeharu; Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Hak; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of endurance exercise performed in the morning and evening on inflammatory cytokine responses in young men. Methods Fourteen healthy male participants aged 24.3 ± 0.8 years (mean ± standard error) performed endurance exercise in the morning (0900–1000 h) on one day and then in the evening (1700–1800 h) on another day with an interval of at least 1 week between each trial. In both the morning and evening trials, the participants walked for 60 minutes at approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max) on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected to determine hormones and inflammatory cytokines at pre-exercise, immediately post exercise, and 2 h post exercise. Results Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher immediately after exercise in the evening trial than in the morning trial (P < 0.01, both). Serum free fatty acids concentrations were significantly higher in the evening trial than in the morning trial at 2 h after exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the levels of IL-6 immediately post-exercise and free fatty acids 2 h post-exercise in the evening (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that the effect of acute endurance exercise in the evening enhances the plasma IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations compared to that in the morning. In addition, IL-6 was involved in increasing free fatty acids, suggesting that the evening is more effective for exercise-induced lipolysis compared with the morning. PMID:26352938

  12. A Rasch Analysis of Assessments of Morning and Evening Fatigue in Oncology Patients Using the Lee Fatigue Scale.

    PubMed

    Lerdal, Anners; Kottorp, Anders; Gay, Caryl; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Lee, Kathryn A; Miaskowski, Christine

    2016-06-01

    To accurately investigate diurnal variations in fatigue, a measure needs to be psychometrically sound and demonstrate stable item function in relationship to time of day. Rasch analysis is a modern psychometric approach that can be used to evaluate these characteristics. To evaluate, using Rasch analysis, the psychometric properties of the Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) in a sample of oncology patients. The sample comprised 587 patients (mean age 57.3 ± 11.9 years, 80% women) undergoing chemotherapy for breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer. Patients completed the 13-item LFS within 30 minutes of awakening (i.e., morning fatigue) and before going to bed (i.e., evening fatigue). Rasch analysis was used to assess validity and reliability. In initial analyses of differential item function, eight of the 13 items functioned differently depending on whether the LFS was completed in the morning or in the evening. Subsequent analyses were conducted separately for the morning and evening fatigue assessments. Nine of the morning fatigue items and 10 of the evening fatigue items demonstrated acceptable goodness-of-fit to the Rasch model. Principal components analyses indicated that both morning and evening assessments demonstrated unidimensionality. Person-separation indices indicated that both morning and evening fatigue scales were able to distinguish four distinct strata of fatigue severity. Excluding four items from the morning fatigue scale and three items from the evening fatigue scale improved the psychometric properties of the LFS for assessing diurnal variations in fatigue severity in oncology patients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  14. In PCOS, adrenal steroids are regulated differently in the morning vs. in response to nutrient intake

    PubMed Central

    Gurusinghe, Dumindra; Gill, Sharan; Almario, Rogelio U.; Lee, Jennifer; Horn, William F.; Keim, Nancy L; Kim, Kyoungmi; Karakas, Sidika E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate adrenal steroid regulation in PCOS Design 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled-intravenous GTT Setting University research center Patients Thirty patients Intervention None Main outcome measures Anthropometrics, leptin, cortisol, DHEAS, glucose, insulin Results Morning cortisol correlated with sensitivity index (SI, r=0.540, p=0.0109), DHEAS correlated inversely with age (r=−0.6359), body mass index (BMI, r=−0.6199), fat mass (r=−0.630) and leptin (r=−0.5676) (p< 0.002 for all). Between the 2nd and 4th hour of OGTT, cortisol changes (Δ) exhibited 3 patterns: I. Responders (n=9, Δ:10.7±1.0μg/dL), II. Non-responders (n=10, Δ:−3.5±0.6μg/dL), III. Intermediates (n=11, Δ:4.3±1.0μg/dL). Compared to non-responders, responders were more obese (BMI: 37.0±1.6 vs. 31.7±1.8kg/m2, p< 0.05); had higher leptin (28.9±1.7 vs. 24.1±1.1ng/mL, p<0.03) and lower DHEAS (133±12 vs. 236±32ng/mL, p<0.01), higher glucose at 1h of OGTT (195±13 vs. 131±12mg/dL, p< 0.05), higher AUCGlucose (332±20 vs. 265±17mg/dL, p=0.0208), higher AUCInsulin (244±50 vs. 125±30μU/mL, p=0.05) and lower nadir glucose (61±2 vs. 70±2mg/dL, p=0.0002). Conclusion Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with lower morning cortisol and DHEAS but increased cortisol and DHEA responses after glucose ingestion. Morning steroid levels may not reflect the day-long exposure. PMID:19342030

  15. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  16. The evening versus morning polypill utilization study: the TEMPUS rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Lafeber, Melvin; Grobbee, Diederick E; Bots, Michiel L; Thom, Simon; Webster, Ruth; Rodgers, Anthony; Visseren, Frank L J; Spiering, Wilko

    2014-04-01

    In clinical practice, blood pressure (BP)-lowering agents are generally prescribed for use in the morning, whereas (short-acting) statins are recommended for use in the evening. There is evidence that the reduction in LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) achieved with short-acting statins is superior when taken in the evening and reported improvement in BP control when aspirin and BP-lowering agents are taken in the evening. However, it is unclear whether the additional reduction in LDL-c and BP is offset by a reduction in adherence, given that taking medication in the evening may be less typical or convenient. There is therefore uncertainty concerning the best timing of administration of a cardiovascular combination pill such as the polypill. The aim of TEMPUS (NCT01506505), a prospective randomized open blinded endpoint (PROBE) crossover trial, is to evaluate whether there is a difference in LDL-c levels or 24-hour ambulatory BP in individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease when the cardiovascular polypill is taken in the evening compared to the morning. An additional aim is to assess the effect of the polypill on LDL-c and BP compared to the administration of separate pills of identically dosed components of the polypill. In total 75 participants with established cardiovascular disease or an intermediate to high risk for cardiovascular disease are randomly allocated to the sequence of three different treatments of 6-8 weeks: (1) the cardiovascular polypill (aspirin 75 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, lisinopril 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) in the evening; (2) the polypill in the morning; and (3) the use of the identically dosed agents in separate pills taken at different time points during the day. The primary endpoint is the difference in LDL-c and mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP. Secondary outcomes are the difference in relative risk reduction, biochemistry, platelet function and pulse wave analysis, participants' adherence, and acceptability. TEMPUS will

  17. Post-Exercise Hypotension and Its Mechanisms Differ after Morning and Evening Exercise: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Junior, Natan D.; Tinucci, Tais; Casarini, Dulce E.; Cipolla-Neto, José

    2015-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH), calculated by the difference between post and pre-exercise values, it is greater after exercise performed in the evening than the morning. However, the hypotensive effect of morning exercise may be masked by the morning circadian increase in blood pressure. This study investigated PEH and its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms after sessions of aerobic exercise performed in the morning and evening, controlling for responses observed after control sessions performed at the same times of day. Sixteen pre-hypertensive men underwent four sessions (random order): two conducted in the morning (7:30am) and two in the evening (5pm). At each time of day, subjects underwent an exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50%VO2peak) and a control (sitting rest) session. Measurements were taken pre- and post-interventions in all the sessions. The net effects of exercise were calculated for each time of day by [(post-pre exercise)-(post-pre control)] and were compared by paired t-test (P<0.05). Exercise hypotensive net effects (e.g., decreasing systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure) occurred at both times of day, but systolic blood pressure reductions were greater after morning exercise (-7±3 vs. -3±4 mmHg, P<0.05). Exercise decreased cardiac output only in the morning (-460±771 ml/min, P<0.05), while it decreased stroke volume similarly at both times of day and increased heart rate less in the morning than in the evening (+7±5 vs. +10±5 bpm, P<0.05). Only evening exercise increased sympathovagal balance (+1.5±1.6, P<0.05) and calf blood flow responses to reactive hyperemia (+120±179 vs. -70±188 U, P<0.05). In conclusion, PEH occurs after exercise conducted at both times of day, but the systolic hypotensive effect is greater after morning exercise when circadian variations are considered. This greater effect is accompanied by a reduction of cardiac output due to a smaller increase in heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance. PMID:26186444

  18. Morning blood pressure surge and nighttime blood pressure in relation to nocturnal sleep pattern and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Suh, Minhee; Barksdale, Debra J; Logan, Jeongok G

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of morning blood pressure (BP) surge (MBPS) is known to increase the risk for cardiovascular events and stroke. The purposes of this study were to explore associations between MBPS and nighttime BP and to examine arterial stiffness and sleep pattern in association with MBPS. This study included 30 healthy Korean American women aged 25 to 60 years. Ambulatory BP was monitored for 24 hours. To evaluate MBPS, maximum morning BP(power) was calculated. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and sleep pattern was evaluated using an actigraphy. The participants (n = 8) in the upper quartile of MBPS had higher morning systolic BPs (SBPs; P = 0.015) and lower nighttime diastolic BPs (P = 0.031). The MBPS in SBP was significantly increased in the participants who had a more wakeful night (P = 0.038) and who slept longer at night (P = 0.041). Although MBPS was not significantly related to arterial stiffness, higher morning SBP (P = 0.005), morning diastolic BP (P = 0.048), and prewake SBP (P = 0.005) were associated with arterial stiffness. Our findings imply a possible link between disturbed sleep and MBPS. Clinicians should understand the importance of the modification of altered sleep pattern for reducing MBPS in nonhypertensive participants.

  19. Impact of a single, short morning bright light exposure on tryptophan pathways and visuo- and sensorimotor performance: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Blank, Cornelia; Hanser, Friedrich; Griesmacher, Andrea; Canazei, Markus; Leichtfried, Veronika

    2018-04-23

    Bright light (BL) has been shown to be effective in enhancing both cognitive and physical performances. Alterations in nighttime melatonin levels have also been observed. However, evaluations of light-induced changes in the preceding biochemical processes are absent. Therefore, the impact of a single morning BL exposure on sensorimotor and visuomotor performance, as well as tryptophan (trp) and trp metabolites, was evaluated in this study. In a crossover design, 33 healthy volunteers were randomly exposed to 30 min of < 150 lx at eye level (office light, OL) and 5000 lx at eye level (bright light, BL) of 6500 K in the morning hours. Trp, sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), and kynurenine (kyn) courses over the morning hours were analyzed, and changes in sensori- and visuomotor measures were examined. Motoric performance increased in both setups, independent of light intensity. aMT6s and kyn decreased equally under both lighting conditions. Trp levels decreased from a mean (95% confidence interval) of 82.0 (77.2-86.9) to 66.5 (62.5-70.1) in the OL setup only. These data suggest that BL in the morning hours has a limited effect on visuo- and sensorimotor performance. Nevertheless, trp degradation pathways in the morning show diverse courses after OL and BL exposure. This suggests that trp courses can potentially be altered by BL exposure.

  20. The morning and late-night salivary cortisol ranges for healthy women may be used in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ambroziak, Urszula; Kondracka, Agnieszka; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Krasnodębska-Kiljańska, Małgorzata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of adrenal dysfunction in pregnancy and in women taking oral contraceptives remains a diagnostic challenge. Salivary cortisol seems to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency. However, the changes in salivary cortisol concentration in healthy pregnancy are not clearly defined. The aim of our study was to compare diurnal changes in salivary cortisol in healthy pregnant women, healthy controls and women on oral contraceptives. The study groups consisted of (i) 41 healthy pregnant women, (ii) 42 healthy women and (iii) 12 healthy women on oral contraceptives. Serum and salivary cortisol in the morning and salivary late-night cortisol were measured with Roche ECLIA cortisol test (Elecsys 2010) in each trimester and postpartum. Despite the elevation of morning serum cortisol in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, the morning salivary values as well as late-night salivary cortisol throughout all trimesters were not significantly different from control values (P > 0·5). In the postpartum period, the morning and late-night salivary cortisol values were significantly lower than in late pregnancy. The morning and late-night salivary cortisol values in women on contraceptives were also not different from those in the healthy women group. The results of our study suggest that reference values for salivary cortisol established for a healthy adult population can be used for pregnant women and women on oral contraceptives in the initial diagnostic testing for Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Industrial Preparedness Sector Study Guideline

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-03-01

    This guideline relates to special studies under the Army Industrial Preparedness Program where domestic industrial sectors or commodity sectors are evaluated for meeting Defense requirements. Modern sector study activities are described in a framewor...

  2. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  3. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N eff , we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  4. Morning glory syndrome associated with primary open angle glaucoma--case report.

    PubMed

    Bozić, Marija; Hentova-Senćanić, Paraskeva; Marković, Vujica; Marjanović, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Morning glory syndrome (MGS) is a rare congenital optic disc anomaly, first reported in 1970. MGS is a nonprogressive and untreatable condition, which usually occurs as an isolated ocular anomaly, and can be associated with the increased incidence of nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and also with strabismus, afferent pupillary defect, visual field defects, presence of hyaloids artery remnants, ciliary body cyst, congenital cataract, lid hemangioma and preretinal gliosis. We report a clinical case of MGS associated with primary open angle glaucoma. The use of sophisticated diagnostic tools, such as retinal tomography and visual field testing is limited if multiple eye conditions are present, since optic disc does not have "usual" appearance that can be analyzed according to standard statistical databases. In treating and follow up of glaucoma cases associated with other diseases and conditions that affect the appearance and function of the optic nerve head, sometimes the use of modern technological methods is limited due to difficult interpretation of the obtained results.

  5. Characterization of lipophilic pentasaccharides from beach morning glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae).

    PubMed

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Escalante-Sánchez, Edgar; Escobedo-Martínez, Carolina

    2005-02-01

    The hexane-soluble extract from the aerial parts of the herbal drug Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning-glory), through preparative-scale recycling HPLC, yielded six lipophilic glycosides, namely, five new pentasaccharides of jalapinolic acid, pescaproside A (1) and pescapreins I-IV (2-5), as well as the known stoloniferin III (6). Saponification of the crude resin glycoside mixture yielded simonic acid B (7) as the glycosidic acid component, whereas the esterifying residues of the natural oligosaccharides comprised five fatty acids: 2-methylpropanoic, (2S)-methylbutyric, n-hexanoic, n-decanoic, and n-dodecanoic acids. Pescaproside A (1), an acylated glycosidic acid methyl ester, is related structurally to the product obtained from the macrolactone hydrolysis of pescapreins I-IV (2-5). All the isolated compounds (1-6), characterized through high-field NMR spectroscopy, were found to be weakly cytotoxic to a small panel of cancer cell lines.

  6. Serum and kidney metabolic changes of rat nephrotoxicity induced by Morning Glory Seed.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Bi, Kaishun; Su, Dan; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Xinxin; Wang, Chao; Chen, Xiaohui

    2010-10-01

    Previous nephrotoxicology study on Morning Glory Seed (MGS) mainly focused on whole animal level, using creatinine and BUN as biochemical indicators to evaluate renal function. This work was designed to delineate the comprehensive metabolic syndromes of MGS-induced nephrotoxicity. An ultra liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) metabonomic approach was employed to characterize the metabolic profile of plasma and kidney tissue extract from rats treated with MGS at a single nephrotoxic dose of 15 g/kg/day for 14 consecutive days. Acquired data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for differentiating the model and the control groups. The results indicated that certain metabolic pathways, such as lysophosphatidylcholines formation and sphingolipids cycle were accelerated, while the phenylalanine level in serum was decreased. We believe that metabonomic approach is helpful to further understanding and clinical diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intakes conference: understanding the impact of resident autonomy on a morning report conference.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Shaffer, David Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Morning report (MR) is one of the most common conferences in medical residency training. Literature has suggested that an imposed structure is necessary for success. However, studies have suggested that rigid structure may decrease resident motivation. Three goals of a successful MR include large breadth of presented cases, high resident participation, and well-formatted presentations. In this article, we present a qualitative case analysis of an unstructured resident- led MR and analyze breadth of cases, resident participation, and presentation format. We collected data that included case presentation tracking, video recording conferences, and interviewing residents and faculty. Case presentations covered a broad range of topics with little duplication (2.2%). Residents preformed most (94%) of presentations; most residents (92.3%) presented cases. Case presentations were structured in 1 of 3 formats that fulfilled suggested guidelines from MR literature. In this unstructured MR conference, structural aims were met with the relatively autonomous decisions of motivated resident participants.

  8. Single awakening salivary measurements provide reliable estimates of morning cortisol levels in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Vlenterie, Richelle; Roeleveld, Nel; van Gelder, Marleen M H J

    2016-12-01

    Mood disorders during pregnancy have been associated with adverse effects on maternal as well as fetal health. Since mood, anxiety, and stress disorders are related with elevated cortisol levels, salivary cortisol may be a useful biomarker. Although multiple samples are generally recommended, a single measurement of awakening salivary cortisol could be a simpler and more cost-effective method to determine whether women have elevated morning cortisol levels during a specific period of pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this validation study among 177 women in the PRIDE Study was to examine whether one awakening salivary cortisol measurement will suffice to classify pregnant women as having normal or elevated cortisol levels compared to awakening salivary cortisol measurements on three consecutive working days. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Cohen's kappa statistics (κ) overall as well as in sub-analyses within strata based on maternal age, level of education, net household income, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, complications during pregnancy, caffeine consumption, gestational week of sampling, and awakening time. The mean cortisol concentrations were 8.98ng/ml (SD 5.32) for day one, 8.62ng/ml (SD 4.55) for day two, and 8.39ng/ml (SD 4.58) for day three. The overall ICC was 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89) while the κ was 0.75 (95% CI 0.64-0.86). For the ICCs calculated within sub-analyses, a maximum difference of 0.11 was observed between the strata. For the κ statistics, most strata did not differ more than 0.12, except for pre-pregnancy BMI, severe nausea, and extreme fatigue with differences up to 0.22. In conclusion, one awakening salivary cortisol measurement is as reliable for the classification of pregnant women into normal and elevated morning cortisol levels as salivary cortisol measurements on three consecutive working days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep deprivation and activation of morning levels of cellular and genomic markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael R; Wang, Minge; Campomayor, Capella O; Collado-Hidalgo, Alicia; Cole, Steve

    2006-09-18

    Inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and mortality. The effects of sleep loss on the cellular and genomic mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory cytokine activity are not known. In 30 healthy adults, monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed during the day across 3 baseline periods and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 pm to 3 am). We analyzed the impact of sleep loss on transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes and used DNA microarray analyses to characterize candidate transcription-control pathways that might mediate the effects of sleep loss on leukocyte gene expression. In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly greater compared with morning levels following uninterrupted sleep. In addition, sleep loss induced a more than 3-fold increase in transcription of interleukin 6 messenger RNA and a 2-fold increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that the inflammatory response was mediated by the nuclear factor kappaB inflammatory signaling system as well as through classic hormone and growth factor response pathways. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of the monocyte proinflammatory cytokine response. A modest amount of sleep loss also alters molecular processes that drive cellular immune activation and induce inflammatory cytokines; mapping the dynamics of sleep loss on molecular signaling pathways has implications for understanding the role of sleep in altering immune cell physiologic characteristics. Interventions that target sleep might constitute new strategies to constrain inflammation with effects on inflammatory disease risk.

  10. Obstructive sleep apnoea increases the incidence of morning peak of onset in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Henmi, Tomoko; Minami, Kazutoshi; Uchida, Yuzou; Shiraishi, Yoshinori; Nunohiro, Tatsuya; Maemura, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Aims: There exists a discrepancy regarding the relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and circadian variation during the onset of acute myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that OSA patients show a characteristic circadian variation and that the severity of OSA significantly affects this variation. Methods and results: The present study included 288 patients with first acute MI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 h of symptom onset. The diagnosis of OSA required an apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) of ≥5 events/h. A total of 216 patients fulfilled the OSA criteria. The incidence of MI onset between 06:00 and 11:59 hours was significantly higher in OSA patients than in control patients (38 vs. 25%, p=0.039). Circadian variation in the morning peak of MI onset was attenuated in mild OSA (as defined by AHI, 5.0–14.9 events/h; 33 vs. 25%, p=0.240). Moderate-to-severe OSA (as defined by AHI ≥15.0 events/h) clearly increased the incidence of MI onset between 06:00 and 11:59 hours (43 vs. 25%, p=0.014). Multiple logistic regression adjusting for AHI (≥15.0 events/h), age, body mass index, hypertension, and current smoking showed that moderate-to-severe OSA significantly contributed to MI onset between 06:00 and 11:59 hours (odds ratio 2.00, p=0.010). Conclusions: OSA showed a morning peak with regard to MI onset, and moderate-to-severe OSA significantly enhanced this circadian variation. PMID:24222825

  11. Toxicological evaluation of morning glory seed: subchronic 90-day feeding study.

    PubMed

    Dugan, G M; Gumbmann, M R

    1990-08-01

    Diets containing 0.8, 2.53 and 8.0% field variety morning glory seed were fed to male and female rats (20 per group) in a 90-day subchronic feeding study. Gross clinical observations, body weight, and feed and water intake were recorded weekly. At 90 days, all surviving rats were autopsied, organs were weighed, and blood chemistry analyses, haematology, and bone-marrow evaluation for evidence of clastogenic effects were performed. Tissues from control (0% seed) and high-dose (8.0% seed) rats were examined histologically. Effects of morning glory seed were noted mainly in the high-dose group of both sexes. These included increases in mortality, feed consumption (on a body-weight basis), water consumption, serum alkaline phosphatase and potassium, white blood cell count, and brain and liver weights (as a percentage of body weight); body-weight gain and serum glucose were decreased. Significant changes seen in high-dose females alone were: increased haemoglobin, serum constituents (urea nitrogen, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, and ornithine carbamyl transferase), and organ weights (heart, kidney, spleen and pancreas as a percentage of body weight), and decreases in serum albumin, total protein, albumin:globulin ratio, and calcium. Significant changes occurring in high-dose males alone were: increased testicular weight (as a percentage of body weight), increased serum phosphorus, and decreased serum cholesterol. Liver degeneration in the high-dose females was greater than that in the controls. Mortality at 8.0% seed in the diet was 40% in males and 10% in females. At 0.8% seed, the only parameter that differed significantly from that of the controls was a final body-weight reduction in females without a corresponding reduction in feed consumption.

  12. Biodynamic constituents in the Mexican morning glories: purgative remedies transcending boundaries.

    PubMed

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Bah, Moustapha

    2003-01-01

    Jalap, a pre-Hispanic herbal remedy still considered a useful laxative, is an ingredient in some over-the-counter products sold by herbalists in contemporary Mexico. The purgative crude drugs are prepared from the roots of several morning glories species which all have been identified as members of the Ipomoea genus (Convolvulaceae). Their incorporation as therapeutical agents into Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies. Phytochemical investigations on the resin glycosides, main constituents of these drugs, were initiated during the second half of the XIX century; however, the structures of their active ingredients had remained poorly known, and still are for some members of these purgative root species. Modern analytical techniques with higher resolution capabilities (HPLC) for the isolation of the active principles of these crude drugs used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods (high field NMR) have facilitated the investigation of these relevant, to the herbal product market, convolvulaceous species during the last decade. The advantages and limitations of theses techniques will be discussed. This review will also describe the ethnobotanical information associated with the Mexican morning glory species and how the traditional usages of these plants have played an important role in the selection of these materials for chemical studies. Little is as yet known about either the mechanism of purge action caused by the resin glycosides or the ecological significance of these same compounds for the producing plants. Over the five centuries of Mexican herbal medicine, one hundred years of phytochemistry has only partially elucidated the active ingredients of the jalap roots but has exemplified how to further contemporary drug discoveries through the investigation of those plants traditionally held to be economically and medicinally important in developing

  13. Damage suffered by swamp morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) exposed to vanadium (V).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Li, Ting-Qiang; Yang, Jin-Yan

    2016-03-01

    To elucidate the physiological and morphological responses generated by vanadium (V) in plants, hydroponic culture experiments were performed with swamp morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) exposed to 0 mg L(-1) to 2.50 mg L(-1) pentavalent V [V(V)] in Hoagland nutrient solutions. The concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene peaked at a V(V) concentration of 0.05 mg L(-1) and gradually decreased at higher V(V) concentrations. Similarly, the plant biomass was stimulated at low levels of V(V) and was inhibited when V(V) concentrations exceeded 0.1 mg L(-1). Pentavalent V had negative effects on the uptake of phosphorus (P) by roots, shoots, and leaves. The biological absorption coefficients of V of the roots were higher than those of the aerial parts. Under low concentrations of V(V) exposure, the predominant species of V in the aerial parts was tetravalent V [V(IV)], whereas V(V) became more prevalent when concentrations of V(V) in the solution was higher than 0.50 mg L(-1). In the roots, however, the concentrations of V(V) were always higher than those of the V(IV), except in the control group. Organelles in the V(V)-treated leaves were distorted, and the periplasmic space became wider. These results indicate V(V) has concentration-dependent effects on the physiological properties of swamp morning glory, whereas the plant has the ability to develop self-protective function to adapt to the toxicity of V(V). © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Ambulatory Morning Report: A Case-Based Method of Teaching EBM Through Experiential Learning.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Gina L; Visintainer, Paul F; Kleppel, Reva; Rothberg, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills are important to daily practice, but residents generally feel unskilled incorporating EBM into practice. The Kolb experiential learning theory, as applied to curricular planning, offers a unique methodology to help learners build an EBM skill set based on clinical experiences. We sought to blend the learner-centered, case-based merits of the morning report with an experientially based EBM curriculum. We describe and evaluate a patient-centered ambulatory morning report combining the User's Guides to the Medical Literature approach to EBM and experiential learning theory in the internal medicine department at Baystate Medical Center. The Kolb experiential learning theory postulates that experience transforms knowledge; within that premise we designed a curriculum to build EBM skills incorporating residents' patient encounters. By developing structured clinical questions based on recent clinical problems, residents activate prior knowledge. Residents acquire new knowledge through selection and evaluation of an article that addresses the structured clinical questions. Residents then apply and use new knowledge in future patient encounters. To assess the curriculum, we designed an 18-question EBM test, which addressed applied knowledge and EBM skills based on the User's Guides approach. Of the 66 residents who could participate in the curriculum, 61 (92%) completed the test. There was a modest improvement in EBM knowledge, primarily during the first year of training. Our experiential curriculum teaches EBM skills essential to clinical practice. The curriculum differs from traditional EBM curricula in that ours blends experiential learning with an EBM skill set; learners use new knowledge in real time.

  15. The Effect of atmospheric humidity level to the determination of Islamic Fajr/morning prayer time and twilight appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmah, Nihayatur

    2016-11-01

    Islamic prayer times are based on the astronomical position of the Sun in the sky. One of them is the Fajr prayer. It is marked by some indicators in the morning twilight which is white light spread in the Eastern horizon. However, determining the true time of twilight can be difficult. One of the reasons is the effect of atmospheric humidity to the appearance of morning twilight. The higher the humidity, the redder twilight sky appearance. This paper discusses this effect. It is shown that despite of the same Sun's position, sky color can vary considerably. Observations of various solar dip angle have been made to study this effect. Visibility for different angle can change accordingly. We obtained that the average solar dip for Fajr prayer by morning twilight images was -18°39'29.4".

  16. [Satisfaction with work in the home care sector].

    PubMed

    Haumann, Anja; Bellin, Judith; Gräske, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Due to the demographic change and the growing number of care-dependent people, the number of professional caregivers is increasing. To slow down the cost explosion in the health care sector, the German government brings forward the home care principle. However, the recruitment of new nursing staff is challenging already, and will become harder in the future. A higher satisfaction with work indicates staying in the job and in the nursing sector. Valid data, concerning the satisfaction of work of nursing staff in the home care sector is lacking, yet. The present study aims to reduce this research gap. A written, standardized cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. In this study socio-demographic characteristics as well as characteristics of the working circumstances were collected. In addition, the satisfaction with work (SAZ) and the satisfaction with life (SWLS) were evaluated. In total, 102 staff members of community health care providers were included in the study (37.5 years; 85 percent female). Registered nurses (n = 62) are significant older than nursing assistants (n = 40). No differences between satisfaction with work and satisfaction with life, professions, gender, marital status, and working condition could be found. Satisfaction with work interacts not significantly with age. However, it depends significantly on working in three shifts (morning, afternoon, night). Staff members working in all three shifts show a significant higher satisfaction with work. The present study adds knowledge in terms of satisfaction with work in the German home care sector.

  17. Circadian variation in the circulatory responses to exercise: relevance to the morning peaks in strokes and cardiac events

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Sudden cardiac and cerebral events are most common in the morning. A fundamental question is whether these events are triggered by the increase in physical activity after waking, and/or a result of circadian variation in the responses of circulatory function to exercise. Although signaling pathways from the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei to sites of circulatory control are not yet understood, it is known that cerebral blood flow, autoregulation and cerebrovascular reactivity to changes in CO2 are impaired in the morning and, therefore, could explain the increased risk of cerebrovascular events. Blood pressure (BP) and the rate pressure product (RPP) show marked ‘morning surges’ when people are studied in free-living conditions, making the rupture of a fragile atherosclerotic plaque and sudden cardiac event more likely. Since cerebral autoregulation is reduced in the morning, this surge in BP may also exacerbate the risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes in the presence of other acute and chronic risk factors. Increased sympathetic activity, decreased endothelial function, and increased platelet aggregability could also be important in explaining the morning peak in cardiac and cerebral events but how these factors respond to exercise at different times of day is unclear. Evidence is emerging that the exercise-related responses of BP and RPP are increased in the morning when prior sleep is controlled. We recommend that such ‘semi-constant routine’ protocols are employed to examine the relative influence of the body clock and exogenous factors on the 24-h variation in other circulatory factors. PMID:19826832

  18. Cyclic alternating pattern and interictal epileptiform discharges during morning sleep after sleep deprivation in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Maestri, Michelangelo; Guida, Melania; Carnicelli, Luca; Caciagli, Lorenzo; Ferri, Raffaele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Bonanni, Enrica

    2017-08-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) increases the occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) compared to basal EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In adults, EEG after SD is usually performed in the morning after SD. We aimed to evaluate whether morning sleep after SD bears additional IED-inducing effects compared with nocturnal physiological sleep, and whether changes in sleep stability (described by the cyclic alternating pattern-CAP) play a significant role. Adult patients with TLE underwent in-lab night polysomnography (n-PSG) and, within 7days from n-PSG, they underwent also a morning EEG after night SD (SD-EEG). We included only TLE patients in which both recordings showed IED. SD-EEG consisted of waking up patients at 2:00 AM and performing video EEG at 8:00 AM. For both recordings, we obtained the following markers for the first sleep cycle: IED/h (Spike Index, SI), sleep macrostructure, microstructure (NREM CAP rate; A1, A2 and A3 Indices), and SI association with CAP variables. The macrostructure of the first sleep cycle was similar in n-PSG and morning SD-EEG, whereas CAP rate and SI were significantly higher in SD-EEG. SI increase was selectively associated with CAP phases. SD increases the instability of morning recovery sleep compared with n-PSG, and particularly enhances CAP A1 phases, which are associated with the majority of IED. Thus, higher instability of morning recovery sleep may account at least in part for the increased IED yield in SD-EEG in TLE patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Misclassification of iodine intake level from morning spot urine samples with high iodine excretion among Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-05-14

    Iodine nutrition is commonly assessed from iodine excretion in urine. A 24 h urine sample is ideal, but it is cumbersome and inconvenient. Hence, spot urine samples with creatinine to adjust for differences in void volume are widely used. Still, the importance of ethnicity and the timing of spot urine samples need to be settled. We, thus, collected 104 early morning spot urine samples and 24 h urine samples from Inuit and non-Inuit living in Greenland. Diet was assessed by a FFQ. Demographic data were collected from the national registry and by questionnaires. Iodine was measured using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, creatinine using the Jaffe method and para-amino benzoic acid by the HPLC method for the estimation of completeness of urine sampling and compensation of incomplete urine samples to 24 h excretion. A population-based recruitment was done from the capital city, a major town and a settlement (n 36/48/20). Participants were seventy-eight Inuit and twenty-six non-Inuit. The median 24 h iodine excretion was 138 (25th-75th percentile 89-225) μg/97 (25th-75th percentile 72-124) μg in Inuit/non-Inuit (P= 0.030), and 153 (25th-75th percentile 97-251) μg/102 (25th-75th percentile 73-138) μg (P= 0.026) when including compensated iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples increased with a rising intake of traditional Inuit foods (P= 0.005). Iodine excretion was lower in morning spot urine samples than in 24 h urine samples (P< 0.001). This difference was associated with iodine intake levels (P< 0.001), and was statistically significant when the iodine excretion level was above 150 μg/24 h. In conclusion, the iodine intake level was underestimated from morning spot urine samples if iodine excretion was above the recommended level.

  20. Influences of twilight on diurnal variation of core temperature, its nadir, and urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate during nocturnal sleep and morning drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masayuki; Tokura, Hiromi; Wakamura, Tomoko; Hyun, Ki-Ja; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Morita, Takeshi; Oishi, Tadashi

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the physiological significance of dusk and dawn in the circadian rhythm of core temperature (T(core)) and urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in humans during sleep and the waking sensation just after rising. Seven female and four male students served as participants. Participants retired at 2300 h and rose at 0700 h. They were requested to sit on a chair and spend time as quietly as possible during wakefulness, reading a book or listening to recorded light music. Two lighting conditions were provided for each participant: 1) Light-Dark (LD)-rectangular light change with abrupt decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx at 1800 h, abrupt increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx at 0700 h. 2) LD-twilight light change with gradual decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx starting at 1700 h (twilight period about 2 h), with gradual increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx starting at 0500 h (twilight period about 2 h). The periods of 0 lx at night were from 2300 h to 0700 h on the first day and from 2300 to 0500 h on the second day. Nadir time advanced significantly under the influence of the LD-twilight condition. The amount of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in urine collected at 0200 h was significantly higher under LD-twilight in comparison with LD-rectangular light. Morning drowsiness tended to be lower under LD-twilight. Our results suggest that in architectural design of indoor illumination it is important to provide LD-twilight in the evening and early morning for sleep promotion in healthy normal people and/or light treatment in elderly patients with advanced dementia.

  1. The efficacy of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride in the suppression of morning breath odour.

    PubMed

    Quirynen, Marc; Avontroodt, Pieter; Soers, Catherine; Zhao, Hong; Pauwels, Martine; Coucke, Wim; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2002-10-01

    Breath odour is a complaint encountered worldwide, often linked to microbial overload in the oral cavity. This double blind, crossover, randomised study assessed the efficacy of several antiseptic mouthrinses or slurry vs. a control solution in the prevention of morning bad breath during an experimental period of 7 days without mechanical plaque control. Sixteen dental students with a healthy periodontium abolished, after a thorough professional cleaning, all means of mechanical plaque control during five experimental periods of 7 days, interleaved by washout periods of at least 3 weeks. During each experimental period, as the only oral hygiene measure, the students rinsed twice a day with one of the following formulations (in a randomised order): a 0.2% chlorhexidine-alcohol mouthrinse (CHX-Alc), a 0.05% CHX + 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride + 0.14% zinc lactate mouthrinse (CHX-CPC-Zn), an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (125 ppm F-/125 ppm F-) containing mouthrinse (AmF/SnF2Mr), a slurry of a tooth paste (AmF/SnF2Sl) containing amine fluoride (350 ppm F-) and stannous fluoride (1050 ppm F-) and a placebo solution (placebo). At days 0, 3 and 7, morning breath was scored via VSC level measurements of the mouth air, and organoleptic ratings of the mouth air and tongue coating. At the same visits both the degree of gingival inflammation and the de novo plaque formation were rated. At the end of each period a questionnaire for subjective ratings was completed and microbiological samples were taken from the tongue dorsum, the saliva and the supragingival plaque for anaerobic and aerobic culturing. Although oral hygiene during the experimental periods was limited to rinsing, bad breath parameters systematically improved (P < 0.001) with the three mouthrinses (CHX-Alc, CHX-CPC-Zn, AmF/SnF2Mr), with a superiority of the CHX-CPC-Zn solution when only VSC values were considered (P < 0.003). The AmF/SnF2 slurry and the placebo solution showed only minor changes with time

  2. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    PubMed

    Burley, Simon D; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P<0.001) and post (AM: 98.0±9.0, PM: 52.7±6.0 ng/ml, P<0.001) exercise. Interestingly, individual cortisol differences pre vs post exercise indicate a time-of-day effect (AM difference: -2±2.6%, PM difference: 14.0±6.7%, P = 0.03). A time-of-day related elevation in serum IGFBP-3 (AM: 3274.9 ± 345.2, PM: 3605.1 ± 367.5, p = 0.032) was also evident. Pre exercise myogenic index (AM: 8.0±0.6%, PM: 16.8±1.1%) and myotube width (AM: 48.0±3.0, PM: 71.6±1.9 μm) were significantly elevated (P<0.001) in the evening

  3. Long term evolution of temperature in the venus upper atmosphere at the evening and morning terminators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, P.; Sornig, M.; Wischnewski, C.; Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Herrmann, M.; Sonnabend, G.; Stangier, T.; Wiegand, M.; Pätzold, M.; Mahieux, A.; Vandaele, A. C.; Piccialli, A.; Montmessin, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive dataset of long-term observations between 2009 and 2015 at the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere providing temperature values at different locations of the morning and evening side of the terminator of Venus. Temperature information is obtained by line-resolved spectroscopy of Doppler broadened CO2 transitions features. Results are restricted to a pressure level of 1 μbar, ∼110 km altitude due the nature of the addressed non-LTE CO2 emission line at 10 μm. The required high spectral resolution of the instrumentation is provided by the ground-based spectrometers THIS (University of Cologne) and HIPWAC (NASA GSFC). For the first time upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere temperatures at the Venusian terminator derived from IR-het spectroscopy between 2009 and 2015 are investigated in order to clarify the local-time dependences, latitudinal dependences and the long-term trend. Measured temperatures were distributed in the range between 140 K and 240 K, with mean values equal to 199 K ± 17 K for the morning side of the terminator and 195 K ± 19 K for the evening side of the terminator. Within the uncertainty no difference between the averaged morning and evening terminator side temperature is found. In addition, no strong latitudinal dependency is observed at these near terminator local times. In contrast IR-het data from 2009 show a strong latitudinal dependency at noon, with a temperature difference of around 60 K between the equatorial and polar region (Sonnabend et al., 2012). Accord with the instruments of the Venus Express mission a northern-southern hemispherical symmetry is observed (Mahieux et al., 2012; Piccialli et al., 2015). The data shows no consistent long-term temperature trend throughout the six years of observation, but a variability in the order of tens of Kelvin for the different observing runs representing a time step of few month to two years. This is about the same order of magnitude as the variability

  4. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  5. Morning meal more efficient for fat loss in a 3-month lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Mauro; Bellia, Alfonso; Padua, Elvira; Annino, Giuseppe; Guglielmi, Valeria; D'Adamo, Monica; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of 2 low-calorie diets but with different distributions of calories throughout the day on weight loss and other major obesity-related metabolic parameters. We randomly assigned 42 nonsmoking homemakers (age = 46.3 ± 2.3 years, body mass index [BMI] = 35.7 ± 0.8 kg/m(2), mean ± SD) in 2 groups of 21 subjects (G1 and G2). The participants underwent a 3 month individualized Mediterranean-style diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, 15% protein and fiber > 30 g), calorie (600 kcal daily deficit compared to the total energy expenditure measured by a metabolic Holter). Diets consisted of the same food and complied with cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines but differed in the distribution of calories throughout the day (G1: 70% breakfast, morning snack, lunch and 30% afternoon snack and dinner; G2: 55 breakfast, morning snack, lunch and 45% afternoon snack and dinner). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for pre- and postintervention body composition assessment. Thirty-six subjects completed the study (G1 = 18, G2 = 18). Both groups had significant improvements in body composition and metabolic parameters but G1 had enhanced results for weight loss (G1: -8.2 ± 3.0 kg; G2: -6.5 ± 3.4 kg; p = 0.028), waist circumference reduction (G1: -7 ± 0.6 cm; G2: -5 ± 0.3 cm; p = 0.033), and fat mass loss (G1: -6.8 ± 2.1 kg, G2: -4.5 ± 2.9 kg, p = 0.031; mean ± SD). Improvements were detected in both groups for blood pressure and blood and lipid parameters. G1 subjects showed a greater improvement in insulin sensitivity measured by homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (G1: -1.37 ± 0.27, G2: -0.74 ± 0.12, p = 0.017). These data suggest that a low-calorie Mediterranean diet with a higher amount of calories in the first part of the day could establish a greater reduction in fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity than a typical daily diet.

  6. Hygromorphic Scales for Use in Water from Morning Dew and Elementary Model of Hydrogel Expansion Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Nate

    Secure access to water is a growing problem in the world today. Millions of people do not have contact with fresh or clean water for drinking. Consuming dirty water leads to many illnesses and deaths every year. When water is scarce people are less likely to follow basic hygiene which also adds to the problem of sickness from water. Currently most of the population gets their water from run-off such as rivers, lakes and other fresh water bodies. Aquafers can also provide water, however, once they do not replenish themselves so once they are empty they will no longer provide a fresh water source. This is a serious problem because the population has grown to 7 billion people and only 2% of the world's water is fresh water. Of this, most the fresh water is locked in the polar ice caps. This leaves only .77% of the available fresh water accessible for human use. While wealthy countries may not feel this burden due to their infrastructure. Impoverish countries will feel the full burden of a lack of water. This has led to a growing number of water conflicts over the years some of which have resulted in human deaths. There are several ways that people can collect water from the atmosphere such as collecting rain water or using a solar still to evaporate water out of an undrinkable source. In parts of the world where fog is prevalent, meshes have been used to collect the moisture from the air. However, these systems only work where the environment allows for it. In some places in the world, the only amount of water may come from morning dew. Certain places receive more water from morning dew than they do from annual precipitation. By studying nature, a novel water collection device was developed, tested and modeled. The model is compared to the test data to see the ways in which the device can be optimized. This could be used to help alleviate the growing problems of water shortages in specific parts of the world. The model and device design shows promising data but still

  7. The Social Benefits of the Morning Meeting: Creating a Space for Social and Character Education in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Hughes, Lily

    2013-01-01

    The intense focus of academics currently in practice in elementary schools limits the opportunities for developing social skills and abilities that are necessary 21st century skills. Through a specifically structured Morning Meeting a teacher can create a space in the classroom that encourages the growth of important social skills that will…

  8. Morning NO2 Exposure Sensitizes Hypertensive Rats to the Cardiovascular Effects of O3 Exposure in the Afternoon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although ambient air sheds vary in composition, specific pollutants typically peak at predictable times throughout the course of a day. For example, in urban environments, peak nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels coincide with rush hour traffic in the morning and...

  9. Food Selectivity and Diet Switch Can Explain the Slow Feeding of Herbivorous Coral-Reef Fishes during the Morning

    PubMed Central

    Khait, Ruth; Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-01-01

    Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean. PMID:24358178

  10. Depictions of Alcohol Use in a UK Government Partnered Online Social Marketing Campaign: "Hollyoaks" "The Morning after the Night before"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Amanda Marie; Sumnall, Harry; Measham, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study analysed the depiction of alcohol in an online government partnered social marketing campaign: Hollyoaks "The Morning After the Night Before". This was a new initiative, providing Internet-delivered episodes of a popular terrestrial drama targeted at young people. Methods: All the 12 episodes were coded for "visual…

  11. Blood harmane concentrations in 497 individuals relative to coffee, cigarettes, and food consumption on the morning of testing.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gerbin, Marina; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Harmane, a potent neurotoxin linked with several neurological disorders, is present in many foods, coffee, and cigarettes. We assessed whether morning food/coffee consumption and smoking were reflected in blood harmane concentrations (BHCs) we obtained in an epidemiologic sample (n = 497). Participants who smoked on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not smoked (P = .57); there was no correlation between logBHCs and number of cigarettes (P = .59). Among the coffee drinkers, there was no correlation between number of cups and logBHCs (P = .98). Participants who had eaten on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not (P = .49); logBHCs did not correlate with the time latency between last food consumption and phlebotomy (P = .74). BHCs in this sample of ~500 individuals did not covary with recent smoking, coffee, or food consumption, suggesting that our inability to withhold these exposures on the morning of phlebotomy was not reflected in the BHCs we measured.

  12. Blood Harmane Concentrations in 497 Individuals Relative to Coffee, Cigarettes, and Food Consumption on the Morning of Testing

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gerbin, Marina; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Harmane, a potent neurotoxin linked with several neurological disorders, is present in many foods, coffee, and cigarettes. We assessed whether morning food/coffee consumption and smoking were reflected in blood harmane concentrations (BHCs) we obtained in an epidemiologic sample (n = 497). Participants who smoked on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not smoked (P = .57); there was no correlation between logBHCs and number of cigarettes (P = .59). Among the coffee drinkers, there was no correlation between number of cups and logBHCs (P = .98). Participants who had eaten on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not (P = .49); logBHCs did not correlate with the time latency between last food consumption and phlebotomy (P = .74). BHCs in this sample of ~500 individuals did not covary with recent smoking, coffee, or food consumption, suggesting that our inability to withhold these exposures on the morning of phlebotomy was not reflected in the BHCs we measured. PMID:21776263

  13. Different chronotherapeutic effects of valsartan and olmesartan in non-dipper hypertensive patients during valsartan treatment at morning.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kentaro; Nakashima, Hajime; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Ioka, Takashi; Ando, Hitoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the differences in chronotherapeutic effects of angiotensin-II receptor blockers, valsartan and olmesartan in hypertensive patients with non-dipper blood pressure (BP) pattern during valsartan at morning. Ninety four patients were enrolled, and 40 patients were judged to be non-dippers. In these patients, same dose of valsartan was changed to evening (Val-E, n = 12), or olmesartan (equivalent dose of valsartan) was given at morning (Olm-M, n = 13) or evening (Olm-E, n = 15) for 4 months. BP decreased during sleep and increased during waking hours in Val-E group. In Olm-M and Olm-E groups, BP decreased during sleep and waking hours. Percent reduction in BP at night-time compared to BP at waking hours significantly increased after changing the dose regimen in each group. Serum creatinine decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) elevated in Olm-M and Olm-E, but not Val-E groups. Positive correlation between systolic BP (SBP) during sleep and serum creatinine, and negative correlation between SBP during sleep and eGFR were detected. These data suggest that dipper BP pattern could be obtained by chronotherapeutic approach using valsartan and olmesartan in non-dipper patients with valsartan at morning. Morning and evening olmesartan, but not evening valsartan improved renal function in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic decision-making in morning/evening-type people as a function of time of day.

    PubMed

    Correa, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, Noelia; Ruz, Maria; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Martoni, Monica; Fabbri, Marco; Natale, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making is affected by psychological factors like emotional state or cognitive control, which may also vary with circadian rhythmicity. Here, we tested the influence of chronotype (32 morning-type versus 32 evening-type) and time of day (9 a.m. versus 5 p.m.) on interpersonal decision-making as measured by the Ultimatum Game. Participants had to accept or reject different economic offers proposed by a virtual participant. Acceptance involved distribution of gains as proposed, whereas rejection resulted in no gain for either player. The results of the game showed a deviation from rational performance, as participants usually rejected the unfair offers. This behaviour was similar for both chronotype groups, and in both times of day. This result may reflect the robustness of decision-making strategies across standard circadian phases under ecological conditions. Furthermore, morning-types invested more time than evening-types to respond to high-uncertainty offers. This more cautious decision-making style of morning-types fits with our finding of higher proactive control as compared to evening-types when performing the AX-Continuous Performance Task. In line with the literature on personality traits, our results suggest that morning-types behave with more conscientiousness and less risk-taking than evening-type individuals.

  15. Frequency and Types of Foods Advertised on Saturday Morning and Weekday Afternoon English- and Spanish-Language American Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Design: Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering…

  16. Disturbances in morning cortisol secretion in association with maternal postnatal depression predict subsequent depressive symptomatology in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Halligan, Sarah L; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian; Murray, Lynne

    2007-07-01

    We have previously reported higher and more variable salivary morning cortisol in 13-year-old adolescents whose mothers were depressed in the postnatal period, compared with control group adolescents whose mothers did not develop postnatal depression (PND). This observation suggested a biological mechanism by which intrafamilial risk for depressive disorder may be transmitted. In the current article, we examined whether the cortisol disturbances observed at 13 years could predict depressive symptomatology in adolescents at 16 years of age. We measured self-reported depressive symptoms in 16-year-old adolescents who had (n = 48) or had not (n = 39) been exposed to postnatal maternal depression and examined their prediction by morning and evening cortisol indices obtained via 10 days of salivary collections at 13 years. Elevated morning cortisol secretion at 13 years, and particularly the maximum level recorded over 10 days of collection, predicted elevated depressive symptoms at 16 years over and above 13-year depressive symptom levels and other possible confounding factors. Morning cortisol secretion mediated an association between maternal PND and symptomatology in 16-year-old offspring. Alterations in steroid secretion observed in association with maternal PND may provide a mechanism by which risk for depression is transmitted from mother to offspring.

  17. Food selectivity and diet switch can explain the slow feeding of herbivorous coral-reef fishes during the morning.

    PubMed

    Khait, Ruth; Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-01-01

    Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean.

  18. Resident's Morning Report: An Opportunity to Reinforce Principles of Biomedical Science in a Clinical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brass, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a…

  19. A mid-morning snack of almonds generates satiety and appropriate adjustment of subsequent food intake in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Hull, Sarah; Re, Roberta; Chambers, Lucy; Echaniz, Ana; Wickham, Martin S J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effect of consuming a mid-morning almond snack (28 and 42 g) tested against a negative control of no almonds on acute satiety responses. On three test days, 32 healthy females consumed a standard breakfast followed by 0, 28 or 42 g of almonds as a mid-morning snack and then ad libitum meals at lunch and dinner. The effect of the almond snacks on satiety was assessed by measuring energy intake (kcal) at the two ad libitum meals and subjective appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) throughout the test days. Intake at lunch and dinner significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to the almond snacks. Overall, a similar amount of energy was consumed on all three test days indicating that participants compensated for the 173 and 259 kcals consumed as almonds on the 28 and 42 g test days, respectively. Subjective appetite ratings in the interval between the mid-morning snack and lunch were consistent with dose-dependent enhanced satiety following the almond snacks. However, in the interval between lunch and dinner, appetite ratings were not dependent on the mid-morning snack. Almonds might be a healthy snack option since their acute satiating effects are likely to result in no net increase in energy consumed over a day.

  20. Morning NO2 Exposure Sensitizes Hypertensive Rats to the Cardiovascular Effects of Same Day O3 Exposure in the Afternoon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within urban air sheds specific ambient air pollutants typically peak at predictable times throughout the day. For example, in environments dominated by mobile sources, peak nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels coincide with morning and afternoon rush hours , whil...

  1. Research and Development of Information and Communication Technology-based Home Blood Pressure Monitoring from Morning to Nocturnal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Matsumoto, Yuri; Hamasaki, Haruna; Okawara, Yukie; Kondo, Maiko; Nozue, Ryoko; Yamagata, Hiromi; Okura, Ayako; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension (HTN) and its relationship with cardiovascular disease. The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) in Asians is more extended, and the association slope between higher BP and the risk for cardiovascular events is steeper in this population than in whites. Thus, 24-hour BP control including at night and in the morning is especially important for Asian patients with HTN. There are 3 components of "perfect 24-hour BP control": the 24-hour BP level, adequate dipping of nocturnal BP (dipper type), and adequate BP variability such as the morning BP surge. The morning BP-guided approach using home BP monitoring (HBPM) is the first step toward perfect 24-hour BP control. After controlling morning HTN, nocturnal HTN is the second target. We have been developing HBPM that can measure nocturnal BP. First, we developed a semiautomatic HBPM device with the function of automatic fixed-interval BP measurement during sleep. In the J-HOP (Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure) study, the largest nationwide home BP cohort, we successfully measured nocturnal home BP using this device with data memory, 3 times during sleep (2, 3, and 4 am), and found that nocturnal home BP is significantly correlated with organ damage independently of office and morning BP values. The second advance was the development of trigger nocturnal BP (TNP) monitoring with an added trigger function that initiates BP measurements when oxygen desaturation falls below a variable threshold continuously monitored by pulse oximetry. TNP can detect the specific nocturnal BP surges triggered by hypoxic episodes in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. We also added the lowest heart rate-trigger function to TNP to detect the "basal nocturnal BP," which is determined by the circulating volume and structural cardiovascular system without any increase in sympathetic tonus. This double TNP is a novel concept for evaluating the pathogenic pressor mechanism of nocturnal BP

  2. [The productive sector].

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Encarna; Fernández, Alberto; Daponte, Antonio; Aguilera, I

    2004-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work conditions are highly related to gender and social class. Because women are forced to compensate for the scarcity of social services for caring for young children and for dependent elderly, they become informal and socially unrecognised caregivers, preventing them from getting or holding a job, and significantly limiting their opportunities for professional development. These social conditions are closely related with the fact that work conditions for women involve higher temporality rates and shorter contracts than those of men, given the sectors and jobs in which they tend to work (due to segregation). Similarly, workers of the less privileged social classes have poorer work conditions. Thus, women of the lower income class are mainly suffering the worst job contracts and the poorest work conditions. More social services are needed to make it possible to attend to family needs and still be able to access and maintain a job contract. Policies tending to conciliate labour and family life are indispensable and should incorporate measures to equally distribute the house keeping activities between women and men.

  3. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography assisted analysis of pars Plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment in morning glory syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lytvynchuk, Lyubomyr M; Glittenberg, Carl G; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Binder, Susanne

    2017-08-01

    The pathogenesis of non-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (non-RRD) associated with morning glory syndrome (MGS) is not established, as well as best surgical approach to treat RD. Our purpose was to analyse intraoperative optical coherence tomography data (iOCT) in all steps of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for non-RRD in MGS, in order to follow pathophysiological aspects of the disease and to understand the tissues behaviour during surgical workflow. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherent tomography (iSD-OCT) assisted PPV using Rescan 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditech, Jena, Germany) with epiretinal membrane (ERM) and internal retinal membrane (ILM) peeling, and air endotamponade was performed on the only eye of a 21 years old female with non-RRD associated with MGS. BCVA, pre-, intra- and postoperative OCT were performed along with standard ocular examination. iOCT video and snapshots were analysed intra- and postoperatively using post-processing approach using graphic software. The progression of non-RRD resulted in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decrease from 0.8 to 0.2. Triamcinolone enhanced iOCT imaging revealed strong vitreous traction and adhesion above the macula and optic disc. Internal limiting membrane was peeled under iOCT control to prevent the peeling of inner layers of the retinal schisis. No retinal break was detected, and only air endotamponade was performed. The retina reattached during first 4 weeks of follow-up with gradual resolution of intraretinal- and subretinal fluid, and remained stable in 12 months. BCVA improved to 0.8. Based on iSD-OCT findings we assume that non-RRD in this case of MGS is caused primarily by the vitreous traction with further possible formation of the retinal breaks. Retinal reattachment reached only with air endotamponade strongly advocates the tractional component of non-RRD and retinal schisis assotiated with MGS. Early PPV for central non-RRD and retinal schisis with the use of iOCT can be performed in more

  4. Bright light exposure at night and light attenuation in the morning improve adaptation of night shift workers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Young; Jeong, Do-Un; Kwon, Ki-Bum; Kang, Sang-Bum; Song, Byoung-Gun

    2002-05-01

    With practical applicability in mind, we wanted to observe whether nocturnal alertness, performance, and daytime sleep could be improved by light exposure of tolerable intensity and duration in a real work place. We also evaluated whether attenuating morning light was important in adaptation of real night shift workers. Twelve night shift nurses participated in this study. The study consisted of three different treatment procedures: Room Light (RL), Bright Light (BL), and Bright Light with Sunglasses (BL/S). In RL, room light exposure was given during the night shift and followed by 1 hr exposure to sunlight or 10,000 lux light the next morning (from 08:30 to 09:30). In BL, a 4-hour nocturnal light exposure of 4,000-6,000 lux (from 01:00 to 05:00) was applied and followed by the same morning light exposure as in RL. In BL/S, the same nocturnal light exposure as in BL was done with light attenuation in the morning. Each treatment procedure was continued for 4 days in a repeated measures, cross-over design. Nocturnal alertness was measured by a visual analog scale. Computerized performance tests were done. Daytime sleep was recorded with actigraphy. The most significant overall improvement of sleep was noted in BL/S. BL showed less improvement than BL/S but more than RL. Comparison of nocturnal alertness among the 3 treatments produced similar results: during BL/S, the subjects were most alert, followed by BL and then by RL. Real night shift workers can improve nocturnal alertness and daytime sleep by bright light exposure in their work place. These improvements can be maximized by attenuating morning light on the way home.

  5. Studying the antiemetic effect of vitamin B6 for morning sickness: pyridoxine and pyridoxal are prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Matok, Ilan; Clark, Shannon; Caritis, Steve; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason G; Hankins, Gary; Mattison, Donald R; Koren, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin B6 has been known to possess antiemetic effects since 1942. This water soluble compound has several forms in the circulation including pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal phosphate. The active antiemetic form of vitamin B6 is unknown. This was a pre-specified substudy of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing the antiemetic effect of the doxylamine-vitamin B6 combination (Diclectin®) (n = 131) to placebo (n = 126) in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Serum concentrations of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PLP) and doxylamine were measured on Days 4, 8, and 15. With Diclectin® exhibiting a significant antiemetic effect in pregnancy, serum concentrations of pyridoxine were unmeasurable in almost all patients and those of pyridoxal were undetectable in half of patients. In contrast, PLP was measurable at sustained, stable steady-state levels in all patients. Our data suggest that there is a correlation between PLP levels and PUQE score of morning sickness symptoms when pyridoxine and pyridoxal levels are undetectable, and hence they might be prodrugs of PLP, which may be the active antiemetic form of vitamin B6. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Correlated colour temperature of morning light influences alertness and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc; Schellen, Lisje; Souman, Jan L; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Though several studies have reported human alertness to be affected by the intensity and spectral composition of ambient light, the mechanism behind this effect is still largely unclear, especially for daytime exposure. Alerting effects of nocturnal light exposure are correlated with melatonin suppression, but melatonin levels are generally low during the day. The aim of this study was to explore the alerting effect of light in the morning for different correlated colour temperature (CCT) values, as well as its interaction with ambient temperature. Body temperature and perceived comfort were included in the study as possible mediating factors. In a randomized crossover design, 16 healthy females participated in two sessions, once under 2700K and once under 6500K light (both 55lx). Each session consisted of a baseline, a cool, a neutral and a warm thermal environment. Alertness as measured in a reaction time task was lower for the 6500K exposure, while subjective sleepiness was not affected by CCT. Also, core body temperature was higher under 6500K. Skin temperature parameters and perceived comfort were positively correlated with subjective sleepiness. Reaction time correlated with heat loss, but this association did not explain why the reaction time was improved for 2700K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. View of 'Cape Verde' from 'Cape St. Mary' in Late Morning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape Verde' from the vantage point of 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape Verde combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into an approximately true-color mosaic. The exposures were taken during late-morning lighting conditions.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 1,006th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Nov. 22, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  8. View of 'Cape Verde' from 'Cape St. Mary' in Late Morning (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape Verde' from the vantage point of 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape Verde combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into a false-color mosaic. The exposures were taken during late-morning lighting conditions.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 1,006th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Nov. 22, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The false color enhances subtle color differences among materials in the rocks and soils of the scene.

  9. Combining bimodal presentation schemes and buzz groups improves clinical reasoning and learning at morning report.

    PubMed

    Balslev, Thomas; Rasmussen, Astrid Bruun; Skajaa, Torjus; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Muijtjens, Arno; De Grave, Willem; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2014-12-11

    Abstract Morning reports offer opportunities for intensive work-based learning. In this controlled study, we measured learning processes and outcomes with the report of paediatric emergency room patients. Twelve specialists and 12 residents were randomised into four groups and discussed the same two paediatric cases. The groups differed in their presentation modality (verbal only vs. verbal + text) and the use of buzz groups (with vs. without). The verbal interactions were analysed for clinical reasoning processes. Perceptions of learning and judgment of learning were reported in a questionnaire. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by a 20-item multiple-choice test. Combined bimodal presentation and buzz groups increased the odds ratio of clinical reasoning to occur in the discussion of cases by a factor of 1.90 (p = 0.013), indicating superior reasoning for buzz groups working with bimodal materials. For specialists, a positive effect of bimodal presentation was found on perceptions of learning (p < 0.05), and for residents, a positive effect of buzz groups was found on judgment of learning (p < 0.005). A positive effect of bimodal presentation on diagnostic accuracy was noted in the specialists (p < 0.05). Combined bimodal presentation and buzz group discussion of emergency cases improves clinicians' clinical reasoning and learning.

  10. Reversal of multidrug resistance by morning glory resin glycosides in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-González, Gabriela; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2012-01-27

    Reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) by thirty resin glycosides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) was evaluated in vinblastine-resistant human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7/Vin). The effects of these amphipathic compounds on the cytotoxicity and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR were estimated with the sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay. Active noncytotoxic compounds exerted a potentiation effect of vinblastine susceptibility by 1- to over 1906-fold at tested concentrations of 5 and 25 μg/mL. Murucoidin V (1) enhanced vinblastine activity 255-fold when incorporated at 25 μg/mL and also, based on flow cytometry, significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 with the use of reserpine as a positive control for a MDR reversal agent. Incubation of MCF-7/Vin cells with 1 caused an increase in uptake and notably lowered the efflux rate of rhodamine 123. Decreased expression of P-glycoprotein by compound 1 was detected by immunofluorescence flow cytometry after incubation with an anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that resin glycosides represent potential efflux pump inhibitors for overcoming MDR in cancer therapy.

  11. Decreased hospital length of stay associated with presentation of cases at morning report with librarian support

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Daniel E.; Shi, Runhua; Timm, Donna F.; Christopher, Kerri Ann; Duggar, David Charles; Comegys, Marianne; McLarty, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The research sought to determine whether case discussion at residents' morning report (MR), accompanied by a computerized literature search and librarian support, affects hospital charges, length of stay (LOS), and thirty-day readmission rate. Methods: This case-control study, conducted from August 2004 to March 2005, compared outcomes for 105 cases presented at MR within 24 hours of admission to 19,210 potential matches, including cases presented at MR and cases not presented at MR. With matching criteria of patient age (± 5 years), identical primary diagnosis, and secondary diagnoses (within 3 additional diagnoses) using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) codes, 55 cases were matched to 136 controls. Statistical analyses included Student's t tests, chi-squared tests, and nonparametric methods. Results: LOS differed significantly between matched MR cases and controls (3 days vs. 5 days, P < 0.024). Median total hospital charges were $7,045 for the MR group and $10,663 for the control group. There was no difference in 30-day readmission rate between the 2 groups. Discussion/Conclusion: Presentation of a case at MR, followed by the timely dissemination of the results of an online literature review, resulted in a shortened LOS and lower hospital charges compared with controls. MR, in association with a computerized literature search guided by the librarians, was an effective means for introducing evidence-based medicine into patient care practices. PMID:17971885

  12. Morning transition case between the land and the sea breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Guijarro, Jose A.; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-05-01

    An experimental field campaign took place in September 2013 near the coastline in the southeastern Campos basin in the island of Mallorca to characterize experimentally the transition between the sea and the land breezes and to further study the successful cases with the corresponding high-resolution numerical simulations. Favorable weather conditions were only found for one episode that comprised a well-formed nocturnal land breeze, followed by the morning transition to sea breeze until noon the next day, when incoming clouds switched off the breeze regime. To analyse this transition between land and sea breezes, the official network of stations is used, supplemented by a portable station close to the shore and soundings of temperature (taken by a captive balloon and remotely controlled multicopter). These data are used to check the goodness of the corresponding simulation at a horizontal resolution of 1 km. Model and observations see similarly both regimes and the transition, showing some differences in the timing and the details in the surface layer. This transient event is analyzed in terms of phases, going consecutively through land breeze, phase previous to the sea breeze, when land heating starts, but it is still colder than the sea, the preparatory phase when the land becomes warmer than the sea, and the development phase when the breeze front progresses inland.

  13. A morning transition case between the land and the sea breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Guijarro, Jose A.; Cuxart, Joan

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the diurnal cycle of the Sea-Breeze (SB) in the island of Mallorca, during September 2013 the Mallorca Sea Breeze experimental field campaign (MSB13) took place in the Campos basin (located in the south side of the island). Measurements in the lower boundary layer (captive balloon and multicopter) and close to the surface were taken in a site close to the coast (500m inland). In this work an observed morning transition of the SB is further analysed through the observations and a high-resolution mesoscale simulation of this selected case. With the combined inspection of model results and observations, it is found that during the night-time the air flows out of the island: a land-breeze is found near the coast and downslope winds at the mountain slopes. After sunrise and during the previous phase (0600-0800 UTC) the temperature difference between land and sea is reduced meanwhile the wind has the land-breeze direction. During the preparatory phase (0800-1000 UTC) the land surface temperature is warmer than the sea and the wind weakens and veers towards the SB direction. Finally, during the development phase (1000-1200 UTC) the SB front propagates through the center of the Campos basin to the end of the basin, enhanced by the mountain upslope winds. Therefore, the radiative warming stops. The temperature, momentum and TKE budgets are used to understand the most relevant physical processes involved in each of the phases.

  14. Sleep restriction is associated with increased morning plasma leptin concentrations, especially in women.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Norah S; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep restriction on leptin levels in a large, diverse sample of healthy participants, while allowing free access to food. Prospective experimental design. After 2 nights of baseline sleep, 136 participants (49% women, 56% African Americans) received 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (TIB). Additionally, one subset of participants received 2 additional nights of either further sleep restriction (n = 27) or increased sleep opportunity (n = 37). Control participants (n = 9) received 10 hr TIB on all study nights. Plasma leptin was measured between 10:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon following baseline sleep, after the initial sleep-restriction period, and after 2 nights of further sleep restriction or recovery sleep. Leptin levels increased significantly among sleep-restricted participants after 5 nights of 4 hr TIB (Z = -8.43, p < .001). Increases were significantly greater among women compared to men (Z = -4.77, p < .001) and among participants with higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those with lower (Z = -2.09, p = .036), though participants in all categories (sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, and age) demonstrated significant increases. There was also a significant effect of allowed TIB on leptin levels following the 2 additional nights of sleep restriction (p < .001). Participants in the control condition showed no significant changes in leptin levels. These findings suggest that sleep restriction with ad libitum access to food significantly increases morning plasma leptin levels, particularly among women.

  15. Precursory enhancement of EIA in the morning sector: Contribution from mid-latitude large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Bankov, Ludmil; Chen, Chia-Hung; Devi, Minakshi; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the link between seismic activity and EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) enhancement is valid for mid-latitude seismic activity, DEMETER observations around seven large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region were fully analyzed (M ⩾ 6.8). In addition, statistical analysis was performed for 35 large earthquakes (M ⩾ 6.0) that occurred during the DEMETER observation period. The results suggest that mid-latitude earthquakes do contribute to EIA enhancement, represented as normalized equatorial Ne , and that ionospheric change precedes seismic events, as has been reported in previous studies. According to statistical studies, the normalized equatorial density enhancement is sensitive and proportional to both the magnitude and the hypocenter depth of an earthquake. The mechanisms that can explain the contribution of mid-latitude seismic activity to EIA variation are briefly discussed based on current explanations of the geochemical and ionospheric processes involved in lithosphere-ionosphere interaction.

  16. Morning and Evening Daily Newspaper Readers. An NRC Mining Company Report. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohn, Elsa

    Data collected from 36 different markets and 82 research reports were used to compare the readers of morning and evening newspapers. Patterns across markets revealed morning newspaper readers are more likely than evening newspaper readers to have white-collar occupations, to be better educated, and to have no children under 18 years of age present…

  17. Improving health sector travel.

    PubMed

    Hurdle, David; Davis, Adrian

    2004-10-01

    Preventing ill health and obesity and building more physical activity into our daily lives have never been so high on the agenda, and the way we travel can help. Many workplaces and schools are drawing up travel plans, with the aims usually to minimise car use and encourage healthier and more environmentally friendly travel. The Transport White Paper of 1998 advocated travel plans and singled out hospitals for action. Travel plans continue to be a focus within the latest Transport White Paper, launched in July 2004. This article covers various prompts to the health sector to implement travel plans. It addresses issues and concerns facing NHS Trusts, the practical things Trusts can do, and the increasing amount of good practice available. Finally, it demonstrates that travel plans can work, and are working, in the health sector.

  18. Sector retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Van Woerkom, Craig; Ferrucci, Steven

    2005-05-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common hereditary retinal dystrophies and causes of visual impairment affecting all age groups. The reported incidence varies, but is considered to be between 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 7,000. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by regionalized areas of bone spicule pigmentation, usually in the inferior quadrants of the retina. A 57-year-old Hispanic man with a history of previously diagnosed retinitis pigmentosa came to the clinic with a longstanding symptom of decreased vision at night. Bone spicule pigmentation was found in the nasal and inferior quadrants in each eye. He demonstrated superior and temporal visual-field loss corresponding to the areas of the affected retina. Clinical measurements of visual-field loss, best-corrected visual acuity, and ophthalmoscopic appearance have remained stable during the five years the patient has been followed. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by bilateral pigmentary retinopathy, usually isolated to the inferior quadrants. The remainder of the retina appears clinically normal, although studies have found functional abnormalities in these areas as well. Sector RP is generally considered a stationary to slowly progressive disease, with subnormal electro-retinogram findings and visual-field defects corresponding to the involved retinal sectors. Management of RP is very difficult because there are no proven methods of treatment. Studies have shown 15,000 IU of vitamin A palmitate per day may slow the progression, though this result is controversial. Low vision rehabilitation, long wavelength pass filters, and pedigree counseling remain the mainstay of management.

  19. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval −54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=−1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval −1645 kJ, −2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine–tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of

  20. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-02-01

    Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval -54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone-acylated ghrelin during the afternoon

  1. Morning Sleep Inertia in Alertness and Performance: Effect of Cognitive Domain and White Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Santhi, Nayantara; Groeger, John A.; Archer, Simon N.; Gimenez, Marina; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (p<0.01). However, alertness and sustained attention were more affected than cognitive throughput and working memory. Moreover, speed was more affected than accuracy of responses. The light conditions had no differential effect on performance except in the 3-back task (p<0.01), where response times (RT) at the end of four hours in the two Blue-Enhanced white light conditions were faster (200 ms) than at wake time. We conclude that the effect of sleep inertia varies with cognitive domain and that it’s spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations. PMID:24260280

  2. An extremely high-altitude plume seen at Mars' morning terminator.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Lavega, A; Muñoz, A García; García-Melendo, E; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Gómez-Forrellad, J M; Pellier, C; Delcroix, M; López-Valverde, M A; González-Galindo, F; Jaeschke, W; Parker, D; Phillips, J; Peach, D

    2015-02-26

    The Martian limb (that is, the observed 'edge' of the planet) represents a unique window into the complex atmospheric phenomena occurring there. Clouds of ice crystals (CO2 ice or H2O ice) have been observed numerous times by spacecraft and ground-based telescopes, showing that clouds are typically layered and always confined below an altitude of 100 kilometres; suspended dust has also been detected at altitudes up to 60 kilometres during major dust storms. Highly concentrated and localized patches of auroral emission controlled by magnetic field anomalies in the crust have been observed at an altitude of 130 kilometres. Here we report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright, extremely high-altitude plumes at the Martian terminator (the day-night boundary) at 200 to 250 kilometres or more above the surface, and thus well into the ionosphere and the exosphere. They were spotted at a longitude of about 195° west, a latitude of about -45° (at Terra Cimmeria), extended about 500 to 1,000 kilometres in both the north-south and east-west directions, and lasted for about 10 days. The features exhibited day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behaviour. We used photometric measurements to explore two possible scenarios and investigate their nature. For particles reflecting solar radiation, clouds of CO2-ice or H2O-ice particles with an effective radius of 0.1 micrometres are favoured over dust. Alternatively, the plume could arise from auroral emission, of a brightness more than 1,000 times that of the Earth's aurora, over a region with a strong magnetic anomaly where aurorae have previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of Mars' upper atmosphere.

  3. Priming Effect of a Morning Meal on Hepatic Glucose Disposition Later in the Day

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Ben; Kraft, Guillaume; Shiota, Masakazu; Williams, Phillip E.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    We used hepatic balance and tracer ([3H]glucose) techniques to examine the impact of “breakfast” on hepatic glucose metabolism later in the same day. From 0–240 min, 2 groups of conscious dogs (n = 9 dogs/group) received a duodenal infusion of glucose (GLC) or saline (SAL), then were fasted from 240–360 min. Three dogs from each group were euthanized and tissue collected at 360 min. From 360–600 min, the remaining dogs underwent a hyperinsulinemic (4× basal) hyperglycemic clamp (arterial blood glucose 146 ± 2 mg/dL) with portal GLC infusion. The total GLC infusion rate was 14% greater in dogs infused with GLC than in those receiving SAL (AUC360–600min 2,979 ± 296 vs. 2,597 ± 277 mg/kg, respectively). The rates of hepatic glucose uptake (5.8 ± 0.8 vs. 3.2 ± 0.3 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) and glycogen storage (4.7 ± 0.6 vs. 2.9 ± 0.3 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) during the clamp were markedly greater in dogs receiving GLC compared with those receiving SAL. Hepatic glycogen content was ∼50% greater, glycogen synthase activity was ∼50% greater, glycogen phosphorylase activity was ∼50% lower, and the amount of phosphorylated glycogen synthase was 34% lower, indicating activation of the enzyme, in dogs receiving GLC compared with those receiving SAL. Thus, morning GLC primed the liver to extract and store more glucose in the presence of hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia later in the same day, indicating that breakfast enhances the liver’s role in glucose disposal in subsequent same-day meals. PMID:28174290

  4. Reevaluation of the role of duration of morning stiffness in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis activity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasim A; Yazici, Yusuf; Calvo-Alen, Jaime; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Gossec, Laure; Hansen, Troels M; Huisman, Margriet; Kallikorm, Riina; Muller, Raili; Liveborn, Margareth; Oding, Rolf; Luchikhina, Elena; Naranjo, Antonio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Taylor, Peter; Tlustochowich, Witold; Tsirogianni, Afrodite; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the utility of the duration of morning stiffness (MS), as a patient-reported outcome (PRO), in assessing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity. We acquired information on 5439 patients in QUEST-RA, an international database of patients with RA evaluated by a standard protocol. MS duration was assessed from time of waking to time of maximal improvement. Ability of MS duration to differentiate RA activity states, based on Disease Activity Score (DAS)28, was assessed by analysis of variance; and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for discriminating clinically active (DAS28 > 3.2) from less active (DAS28 3.2). MS duration has a moderate correlation with RA disease activity. Assessment of MS duration may be clinically helpful in patients with low RAPID3 scores.

  5. Saturday Morning Science programs: a model to increase diversity in the biosciences.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James L; Harris, Toi Blakley; Ihedigbo, Kara M Green; Hawkins, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    To examine a pathway program for middle and high school students from underrepresented backgrounds designed to foster career interest in the biomedical sciences. In 2002, the Institute of Medicine released a report entitled Unequal Treatment, which examined the racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care within the United States and encouraged the development of a diverse health care workforce as a means to reduce health care disparities. Saturday Morning Science (SMS) is a program model presented as a pipeline strategy that addresses this specific recommendation. SMS is a 10-week program that emphasized the importance of science and math. Post-SMS evaluations were conducted to assess biomedical career knowledge, attitudes regarding future career plans, and the effectiveness of the program. A total of 87.5% of middle and high school students who were enrolled in SMS completed the program (113 of 130). Seventy percent of SMS participants were underrepresented minorities. Snapshot program evaluation data exposed new ideas about science (strongly agree/agree, 98%; 64 of 65), exposed new ideas about medicine (strongly agree/agree, 97%; 63 of 65, and increased desire to enter science related field (strongly agree/agree 82% (53 of 65). SMS was designed to motivate students of underrepresented ethnic backgrounds from middle through high school to attend college and prepare for careers in the health sciences. SMS students had the opportunity to interact with scientists, physicians, medical and graduate students, and other academicians. They provided direction and guidance to ensure that students had meaningful experiences specifically designed to expose them to opportunities in the biosciences.

  6. My personal experiences at the BEST Medical Center: A day in the clinic-the morning.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Ida Lystic is a gastroenterologist who trained at the OTHER (Owen T. Henry and Eugene Rutherford) Medical Center, after having completed her MD degree at the prestigious Harvey Medical School (recently renamed the Harvey Provider School). She accepted a faculty position at the BEST (Byron Edwards and Samuel Thompson) Medical Center. Dr. Lystic shares her experiences on a typical morning in gastroenterology clinic. Although her clinic start date was delayed by 2 months after becoming sick following a mandatory flu shot and having to complete more than 70 hours of compliance training modules, she is now familiar with the BEST system. Clinic scheduling priorities include ensuring that the staff can eat lunch together and depart at 5:00 pm. It is a continual challenge to find time to complete the electronic medical record after BEST changed from the SIMPLE (Succinct Input Making Patients Lives Electronic) system to LEGEND (referred to as Lengthy and Excessively Graded Evaluation and Nomenclature for Diagnosis by her colleagues). To maintain clinic punctuality, a compliance spreadsheet is e-mailed monthly to the Wait Time Committee. Their most recent corrective action plan for tardy physicians included placing egg timers on the doors and having nurses interrupt visits that exceed the allotted time. Administrative decisions have resulted in downsizing personnel. Patients are required to schedule their own tests and procedures and follow-up appointments-causing low patient satisfaction scores; however, the money saved lead to a large year-end bonus for the vice president of BEST Efficiency, who holds "providers" accountable for the poor patient experience. Although Dr. Ida Lystic and the gastroenterology clinic at "the BEST Medical Center" are creations of the authors' imagination, the majority of the anecdotes are based on actual events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Morning pressor surge, blood pressure variability, and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Giacomo; Battista, Francesca; Anastasio, Fabio; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    An excess morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) may portend an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms thereof have been little investigated. The link between MBPS, short-term blood pressure (BP) variability, and arterial stiffness has not been entirely defined. In 602 consecutive untreated hypertensive patients (48 ± 12 years, 61% men, office BP 149/93 ± 17/10 mmHg), we measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, SphygmoCor) and 24-h ambulatory BP. Using self-reported sleep and wake times, MBPS was defined as sleep-trough (ST-MBPS), prewaking, rising. Short-term BP variability was calculated as weighted 24-h SBP SD and average real variability of 24-h SBP (ARV), that is, average of absolute differences between consecutive SBP readings. ST-MBPS (r = 0.16, P < 0.001) and rising MBPS (r = 0.12, P = 0.003) showed a direct correlation with cf-PWV, whereas prewaking MBPS had no such relation (r = 0.06, P = 0.14). Only ST-MBPS was independently associated with cf-PWV (t = 1.96, P = 0.04) after adjustment for age, sex, height, office mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal function. This association was lost after further adjustment for weighted 24-h SBP SD (P = 0.13) or ARV (P = 0.24). ARV was a significant mediator of the relationship between ST-MBPS and cf-PWV (P = 0.003). In untreated hypertension, ST-MBPS has a direct relation with aortic stiffness, which is mediated by an increased ARV. The adverse effects of MBPS may be partly explained by its link with arterial stiffness, mediated by short-term SBP variability.

  8. Memory and mood during the night and in the morning after repeated evening doses of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Wingen, M; Ramaekers, J G

    2008-11-01

    Previously it has been shown that MDMA causes memory impairment during daytime testing. However, MDMA is usually taken in the evening or during the night. In addition, it is known that sleep deprivation also causes memory impairment. The present study aimed to assess whether evening doses of MDMA added to, or interacted with the memory impairment due to sleep deprivation. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way cross-over study. Treatments consisted of MDMA 75 and 50 mg divided over the evening or double placebo. Memory tests and subjective measures of mood were conducted at baseline and three times post dosing that is at 6.30 pm, 9.30 pm, 1.30 am and 7 am, respectively -1.5, 1.5, 5.5 and 11 h relative to drug intake (first dose). Memory performance detoriated progessively over time as a function of sleep loss, independent of treatment. MDMA added to this impairment as indicated by a significant main effect of MDMA on verbal and spatial memory performance. Mood ratings and response speed revealed an MDMA by Time interaction. After administration of MDMA response speed improved and feelings of vigor, friendliness, elation, anxiety, confusion, arousal and positive mood increased in magnitude during the night, while all these parameters returned to placebo-like levels on the final morning session. It is concluded that evening doses of MDMA selectively impair memory performance, and that this impairment is additional to the effect of sleep deprivation on memory performance.

  9. Morning REM Sleep Naps Facilitate Broad Access to Emotional Semantic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The goals of the study were to assess semantic priming to emotion and nonemotion cue words using a novel measure of associational breadth for participants who either took rapid eye movement (REM) or nonrapid eye movement (NREM) naps or who remained awake, and to assess the relation of priming to REM sleep consolidation and REM sleep inertia effects. Design: The associational breadth task was applied in both a priming condition, where cue words were signaled to be memorized prior to sleep (primed), and a nonpriming condition, where cue words were not memorized (nonprimed). Cue words were either emotional (positive, negative) or nonemotional. Participants were randomly assigned to either an awake (WAKE) or a sleep condition, which was subsequently split into NREM or REM groups depending on stage at awakening. Setting: Hospital-based sleep laboratory. Participants: Fifty-eight healthy participants (22 male) ages 18 to 35 y (mean age = 23.3 ± 4.08 y). Measurements and Results: The REM group scored higher than the NREM or WAKE groups on primed, but not nonprimed emotional cue words; the effect was stronger for positive than for negative cue words. However, REM time and percent correlated negatively with degree of emotional priming. Priming occurred for REM awakenings but not for NREM awakenings, even when the latter sleep episodes contained some REM sleep. Conclusions: Associational breadth may be selectively consolidated during REM sleep for stimuli that have been tagged as important for future memory retrieval. That priming decreased with REM time and was higher only for REM sleep awakenings is consistent with two explanatory REM sleep processes: REM sleep consolidation serving emotional downregulation and REM sleep inertia. Citation: Carr M, Nielsen T. Morning REM sleep naps facilitate broad access to emotional semantic networks. SLEEP 2015;38(3):433–443. PMID:25409100

  10. El juego entre el nacimiento y los 7 anos: Un manual para ludotecarias. Investigacion-accion sobre la Familia y la Primera Infancia. UNESCO Sector de Educacion Monografia (Play between Birth and 7 Years: A Manual for Preschool Teachers. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellet, Carolina

    The purpose of this Spanish-language manual is to help preschool teachers better understand theoretical concepts related to children's play. Following a preface that discusses UNESCO's activities related to early childhood education, the two main sections of the manual discuss children's play between 0-2 years and 2-7 years. Each section includes…

  11. Day Care in the Community. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph = Accueil des jeunes enfants dans la communaute. Recherche-action sur la famille et la petite enfance. UNESCO Secteur de l'education monographie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John

    Noting demographic pressures and increased poverty most countries experience, this report shows how parents and family members can work in their communities in developing countries to provide low-cost and efficient child care facilities for very young children and explains how such community-based early childhood programs benefit whole families.…

  12. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima-media thickness and cardiac dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome-X.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; Goda, Mohammad; Galal, Islam; Ghareb, Mohamed S

    2018-05-23

    Background & hypothesis: We hypothesized that exaggerated morning blood pressure surge, may contribute in cardiac dysfunction and arterial stiffness in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Thus we investigated the impact of morning blood pressure surge on cardiac function and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with cardiac syndrome X. We studied patients with cardiac syndrome X using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and investigated the association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima thickness, left atrial volume index and left ventricular filling (E/e'). Seventy patients with cardiac syndrome X were enrolled for the study and compared with 70 age and sex matched controls. Patients with cardiac syndrome X were stratified based on the systolic morning blood pressure surge value of control subjects to patients with exaggerated blood pressure surge (n = 42) and those with normal morning blood pressure surge (n = 28). Basal heart rate (p < .05), high sensitive C-reactive protein (p < .01), left atrial volume index (p < .01), E/e' (p < .01); carotid intima-media thickness (p < .001) and percentage of detected plaque (p < .005) were significantly higher in patients with exaggerated morning blood pressure surge group than those with morning blood pressure surge group. Morning blood pressure surge was significantly correlated with carotid intima-media thickness, high sensitive C-reactive protein, left atrial volume index and E/e' ratio in patients with cardiac syndrome X. In multivariate analysis, exaggerated morning blood pressure surge was the only independent predictor of increased carotid intima-media thickness (OR = 2.379; p < .001), and diastolic dysfunction (OR = 2.464; p < .001) in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Our data suggest that excessive morning blood pressure surge is an independent predictor for arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome X.

  14. Emotional experience in the mornings and the evenings: consideration of age differences in specific emotions by time of day.

    PubMed

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence points to age-related improvements in emotional well-being with age. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of these apparent shifts in experience, we examined age differences in a range of emotional states in the mornings and evenings in a sample of 135 community-residing participants across 10 consecutive days. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 93 years. Each participant completed a diary in the morning and again in the evening every day for the study period. During each of the assessments, participants reported the degree to which they experienced emotions sampled from all four quadrants of the affective circumplex. Overall, participants felt less positive and more negative in the evenings than in the mornings. As expected, older adults reported a relatively more positive emotional experience than younger adults at both times of day. Importantly, however, age effects varied based on emotion type and time of day. Older adults reported experiencing more positive emotion than relatively younger adults across a range of different positive states (although age differences emerged most consistently for low arousal positive states). Age-related reductions in negative experience were observed only for reports of low arousal negative emotions. There were no age differences in anger, anxiety, or sadness. For some emotions, age differences were stronger in the mornings (e.g., relaxed) whereas for other emotions age differences were more pronounced in the evenings (e.g., enthusiastic). Findings are discussed in the context of adulthood changes in motivation and emotional experience.

  15. Improved cognitive morning performance in healthy older adults following blue-enriched light exposure on the previous evening.

    PubMed

    Scheuermaier, Karine; Münch, Mirjam; Ronda, Joseph M; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2018-04-21

    Exposure to light can have acute alerting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study investigated the effects of evening exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic white (BEL) vs. polychromatic white light (WL) on sleep inertia dissipation the following morning in older adults. Ten healthy older adults (average age = 63.3 yrs; 6F) participated in a 13-day study comprising three baseline days, an initial circadian phase assessment, four days with 2-h evening light exposures, a post light exposure circadian phase assessment and three recovery days. Participants were randomized to either BEL or WL of the same irradiance for the four evening light exposures. On the next mornings at 2, 12, 22 and 32 min after each wake time, the participants completed a 90-s digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) to assess working memory, and objective alertness was assessed using a wake EEG recording. DSST and power density from the wake EEG recordings were compared between the two groups. DSST performance improved with time awake (p < 0.0001) and across study days in both light exposure groups (p < 0.0001). There was no main effect of group, although we observed a significant day x group interaction (p = 0.0004), whereby participants exposed to BEL performed significantly better on the first two mornings after light exposures than participants in WL (post-hoc, p < 0.05). On those days, the BEL group showed higher EEG activity in some of the frequency bins in the sigma and beta range (p < 0.05) on the wake EEG. Exposure to blue-enriched white light in the evening significantly improved DSST performance the following morning when compared to polychromatic white light. This was associated with a higher level of objective alertness on the wake EEG, but not with changes in sleep or circadian timing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of chronic food restriction on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity depend on morning versus evening availability of food.

    PubMed

    Belda, Xavier; Ons, Sheila; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Partial food restriction (FR) protocols have been used not only to study behavioral and physiological consequences of decrease food intake, but as a necessary treatment of the animals in some operant learning tasks. It is well-established in rodents that restricting food availability to a few hours in the morning causes an alteration of the daily rhythm of corticosterone, thus making it difficult to evaluate whether or not such treatments are stressful. In the present experiment adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to two different FR schedules: food availability after 1100 h (LFR) or after 1900 h (DFR). After 14 days, animals from both groups, together with corresponding controls, were killed under resting conditions, either in the morning or in the evening, just before daily access to food in FR rats. Both FR schedules reduced body weight gain to the same extent, but their impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was different: DFR increased relative, but not absolute, adrenal weight and morning and evening levels of corticosterone, whereas LFR increased both absolute and relative adrenal weights and increased morning corticosterone levels to a greater extent than DFR rats. Neither serum ACTH nor corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus were altered by DFR or LFR protocols, suggesting that factors other than CRF and ACTH are involved in the control of adrenocortical secretion under FR. It appears that LFR caused more alterations in the HPA axis than DFR and, therefore, the latter FR schedule should be used in those protocols necessarily involving partial FR.

  17. Observations of the Morning Development of the Urban Boundary Layer Over London, UK, Taken During the ACTUAL Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halios, Christos H.; Barlow, Janet F.

    2018-03-01

    The study of the boundary layer can be most difficult when it is in transition and forced by a complex surface, such as an urban area. Here, a novel combination of ground-based remote sensing and in situ instrumentation in central London, UK, is deployed, aiming to capture the full evolution of the urban boundary layer (UBL) from night-time until the fully-developed convective phase. In contrast with the night-time stable boundary layer observed over rural areas, the night-time UBL is weakly convective. Therefore, a new approach for the detection of the morning-transition and rapid-growth phases is introduced, based on the sharp, quasi-linear increase of the mixing height. The urban morning-transition phase varied in duration between 0.5 and 4 h and the growth rate of the mixing layer during the rapid-growth phase had a strong positive relationship with the convective velocity scale, and a weaker, negative relationship with wind speed. Wind shear was found to be higher during the night-time and morning-transition phases than the rapid-growth phase and the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy near the mixing-layer top was around six times larger than surface shear production in summer, and around 1.5 times larger in winter. In summer under low winds, low-level jets dominated the UBL, and shear production was greater than buoyant production during the night-time and the morning-transition phase near the mixing-layer top. Within the rapid-growth phase, buoyant production dominated at the surface, but shear production dominated in the upper half of the UBL. These results imply that regional flows such as low-level jets play an important role alongside surface forcing in determining UBL structure and growth.

  18. Emotional experience in the mornings and the evenings: consideration of age differences in specific emotions by time of day

    PubMed Central

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence points to age-related improvements in emotional well-being with age. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of these apparent shifts in experience, we examined age differences in a range of emotional states in the mornings and evenings in a sample of 135 community-residing participants across 10 consecutive days. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 93 years. Each participant completed a diary in the morning and again in the evening every day for the study period. During each of the assessments, participants reported the degree to which they experienced emotions sampled from all four quadrants of the affective circumplex. Overall, participants felt less positive and more negative in the evenings than in the mornings. As expected, older adults reported a relatively more positive emotional experience than younger adults at both times of day. Importantly, however, age effects varied based on emotion type and time of day. Older adults reported experiencing more positive emotion than relatively younger adults across a range of different positive states (although age differences emerged most consistently for low arousal positive states). Age-related reductions in negative experience were observed only for reports of low arousal negative emotions. There were no age differences in anger, anxiety, or sadness. For some emotions, age differences were stronger in the mornings (e.g., relaxed) whereas for other emotions age differences were more pronounced in the evenings (e.g., enthusiastic). Findings are discussed in the context of adulthood changes in motivation and emotional experience. PMID:24639663

  19. Morning-evening type and burnout level as factors influencing sleep quality of shift nurses: a questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Demir Zencirci, Ayten; Arslan, Sümeyye

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess the relationship between sleep quality and demographic variables, morning-evening type, and burnout in nurses who work shifts. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional self-administered study with forced choice and open-ended structured questionnaires – Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The study was carried out at Gazi University Medicine Faculty Hospital of Ankara on 524 invited nurses from July to September 2008, with a response rate of 89.94% (n = 483). Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to determine the risk factors of poor sleep quality. Results Most socio-demographic variables did not affect sleep quality. Participants with poor sleep quality had quite high burnout levels. Most nurses who belonged to a type that is neither morning nor evening had poor sleep quality. Nurses who experienced an incident worsening their sleep patterns (P < 0.001) and needlestick or sharp object injuries (P = 0.010) in the last month had poor sleep quality. The subjective sleep quality and sleep latency points of evening types within created models for the effect of burnout dimensions were high. Conclusions Nurses working consistently either in the morning or at night had better sleep quality than those working rotating shifts. Further studies are still needed to develop interventions that improve sleep quality and decrease burnout in nurses working shifts. PMID:21853548

  20. Daily morning running for 3 weeks improved sleep and psychological functioning in healthy adolescents compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Yordanova, Juliana; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2012-12-01

    To compare sleep electroencephalographic patterns and psychological functioning of healthy adolescents running regularly in the mornings with those of control subjects. Although several studies have shown that regular moderate-to-vigorous exercise is related to favorable sleep and psychological functioning in adolescents, research on the effectiveness of short interventions is more limited. Fifty-one adolescents (mean age = 18.30 years; 27 female [53%]) took part in the study; they were randomly assigned either to a running or to a control group. The running group went running every morning for 30 minutes at moderate intensity during weekdays for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep electroencephalographic patterns and psychological functioning were assessed in both groups before and after the 3-week period. All participants also kept a sleep log for 3 weeks. Objective sleep improved (slow-wave sleep increased; sleep onset latency decreased) in the running group compared with the control group. Subjective sleep quality, mood, and concentration during the day improved, whereas sleepiness during the day decreased. Thirty minutes of running in the morning during weekdays for 3 consecutive weeks impacted positively on sleep and psychological functioning in healthy adolescents compared with control subjects. Running is inexpensive and easy to implement during school schedules, and as both objective and subjective improvements were observed within 3 weeks, regular physical exercise should be promoted. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Boundary|Time|Surface: Art and Geology Meet in Gros Morne National Park, NL, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Sydney; Waldron, John

    2015-04-01

    Environmental Art works range in scope from major permanent interventions in the landscape to less intrusive, more ephemeral site-specific installations constructed of materials from the local environment. Despite this range of intervention, however, these works all share in a tradition of art making that situates the artwork in direct response to the surrounding landscape. Andy Goldsworthy and Richard Long, for example, both favour methods that combine elements of both sculpture and performance in the creation of non-permanent interventions in the landscape, and both rely upon photographic, text-based, or video documentation as the only lasting indication of the works' existence. Similarly, Earth Scientists are responsible for interventions in the landscape, both physical and conceptual. For example, in Earth science, the periods of the geologic timescale - Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, etc. - were established by 19th century pioneers of geology at a time when they were believed to represent natural chapters in Earth history. Since the mid-20th century, stratigraphers have attempted to resolve ambiguities in the original definitions by defining stratotypes: sections of continuously deposited strata where a single horizon is chosen as a boundary. One such international stratotype, marking the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, is defined at Green Point in Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Boundary|Time|Surface was an ephemeral sculptural installation work constructed in June 2014. The main installation work was a fence of 52 vertical driftwood poles, 2-3 m tall, positioned precisely along the boundary stratotype horizon at Green Point in Newfoundland. The fence extended across a 150 m wave-cut platform from sea cliffs to the low-water mark, separating Ordovician from Cambrian strata. The installation was constructed by hand (with volunteer assistance) on June 22, as the wave-cut platform was exposed by the falling tide. During the remainder of the tidal cycle

  2. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P < 0.05) and milk yield (P < 0.05) compared with those supplemented with corn. The results indicate that large grain allotments immediately before evening grazing during early grazing seasons increased ruminal microbial protein synthesis and milk production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Chiral Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U (1 )D , which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing. This model, despite its simple structure, has rich and distinctive phenomenology. In the case where the dark pion becomes massive due to U (1 )D quantum corrections, direct and indirect detection experiments can probe thermal relic dark matter which is generically a mixture of the dark pion and the dark baryon, and the Large Hadron Collider can discover the U (1 )D gauge boson. Alternatively, if the dark pion stays light due to a specific U (1 )D charge assignment of the dark quarks, then the dark pion constitutes dark radiation. The signal of this radiation is highly correlated with that of dark baryons in dark matter direct detection.

  4. Chiral Dark Sector.

    PubMed

    Co, Raymond T; Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2017-03-10

    We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U(1)_{D}, which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing. This model, despite its simple structure, has rich and distinctive phenomenology. In the case where the dark pion becomes massive due to U(1)_{D} quantum corrections, direct and indirect detection experiments can probe thermal relic dark matter which is generically a mixture of the dark pion and the dark baryon, and the Large Hadron Collider can discover the U(1)_{D} gauge boson. Alternatively, if the dark pion stays light due to a specific U(1)_{D} charge assignment of the dark quarks, then the dark pion constitutes dark radiation. The signal of this radiation is highly correlated with that of dark baryons in dark matter direct detection.

  5. Morning and night symptoms in primary care COPD patients: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. An UNLOCK study from the IPCRG

    PubMed Central

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Metting, Esther; van der Molen, Thys; Chavannes, Niels; Kocks, Janwillem

    2016-01-01

    COPD symptoms show a diurnal variability. However, morning and night variability has generally not been taken into consideration in disease management plans. The aims of this study were to cross-sectionally assess morning and night symptom prevalence and correlation with health status and disease severity in COPD, and to determine to what extent they could predict longitudinal outcomes, exacerbations and health status. A further aim is to explore whether the CCQ is able to depict this morning/night symptomatology. We included 2,269 primary care COPD patients (58% male, 49% current smokers, with a mean age of 65±11 years) from a Dutch Asthma/COPD service. Spirometry, patient history, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire(CCQ) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire(ACQ) were assessed; we used the latter to evaluate morning (question 2) and night symptoms (question 1). A total of 1159 (51.9%) patients reported morning symptoms (ACQ question 2>0) and 879 (39.4%) had night complaints (ACQ question 1>0). Patients with morning/night symptoms were mostly smokers and had on average poorer lung function, higher CCQ scores and used more rescue inhalers (P<0.0001). Patients using long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) had less night symptoms, showing a possible favourable effect. Only a small proportion of stable or slightly unstable patients (CCQ total scores <2) had severe morning symptoms (ACQ 2⩾4: n=19, 1.1%) or severe night symptoms (ACQ 1⩾4: n=11, 0.7%). Night symptoms seemed to predict future exacerbations; however, baseline exacerbations were the strongest predictors (n=346, OR:4.13, CI: 2.45−6.95, P<0.000). Morning symptoms increased the odds of poor health status at follow-up (n=346, OR:12.22, CI:4.76−31.39, P<0.000). Morning and night symptoms in COPD patients are common, and they are associated with poor health status and predicted future exacerbations. Our study showed that patients with morning/night symptoms have higher scores in CCQ, and therefore we do

  6. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth during 1959-1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south running demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg of latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 x 10 to the 21st power Maxwells.

  7. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study.

    PubMed

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-09

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10,269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. UKCRN17071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  8. Adolescent adrenocortical activity and adiposity: differences by sex and exposure to early maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-09-01

    Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Observations of the Nocturnal Boundary Layer and Morning Transitional Periods in Houston, Texas during the TexAQS II Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, B. M.; Clements, C. B.; Rappenglueck, B.

    2007-12-01

    High-temporal resolution tethersonde profiles taken during the TexAQS II field campaign in Houston were used to study the overnight development and progression of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) and the evolution of the convective boundary layer after sunrise. The measurements were made at the University of Houston campus, located approximately 4 km southeast of the downtown Houston central business district, and consisted of vertical profiles of potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, wind speed, wind direction, and ozone concentration. Profile heights averaged 250 m AGL with a few reaching 400 m AGL. Profiles were taken at approximately 30 min intervals throughout 4 nights during Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs), including both the evening and morning transitional periods. Tethersonde experiments also were performed during several additional morning break-up periods during the campaign. Preliminary results from the overnight experiments of Sept 7-8 and Sept 14-15, 2006 showed different NBL evolutions. Sept 7-8 exhibited a stronger and deeper inversion compared with Sept 14-15 when the inversion was weak with a fairly constant height throughout the night. The Sept 7-8 profiles showed elevated bluff-like structures in the virtual potential temperature profiles between 0300-0400 CDT, indicating neutral stability within the 40-90 m AGL level. And, just before sunrise a neutral layer with constant potential temperature developed between the surface and 75 m AGL reflecting horizontal cold air advection. Further analyses will be presented for other vertical profiles taken during the campaign, including the additional overnight profiles as well as the profiles taken during the morning transition to the convective boundary layer.

  10. Effect of morning bright light on body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility measured during 24 hour of constant conditions.

    PubMed

    Foret, J; Aguirre, A; Touitou, Y; Clodoré, M; Benoit, O

    1993-06-11

    Using 24 h constant conditions, time course of body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility was measured in response to a 3 day morning 2 h bright light pulse. This protocol demonstrated that a 2000 lux illumination was sufficient to elicit a shift of about 2 h of temperature minimum and cortisol peak. In reference session, actimetric recordings showed a circadian time course, closely in relation with core temperature. Bright light pulse resulted in a decrease of amplitude and a disappearance of circadian pattern of actimetry.

  11. "Social jetlag" in morning-type college students living on campus: implications for physical and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Ng, Eddie Chi Wai; Hui, Chi-chiu Harry; Cheung, Shu Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2013-08-01

    Although on-campus residence allows easier access to campus facilities, existing studies showed mixed results regarding the relationship between college residence and students' well-being indicators, such as sleep behaviors and mood. There was also a lack of studies investigating the role of chronotype in the relationship between on-campus residence and well-being. In particular, the temporal relationships among these factors were unclear. Hence, this longitudinal study aims to fill in these gaps by first reporting the well-being (measured in terms of mood, sleep, and quality of life) among students living on and off campus across two academic semesters. We explored factors predicting students' dropout in university residences. Although students living on campus differ in their chronotypes, activities in campus residence (if any) are mostly scheduled in the nighttime. We therefore tested if individual differences in chronotype interact with campus residence in affecting well-being. Our final sample consisted of 215 campus residents and 924 off-campus-living students from 10 different universities or colleges in Hong Kong or Macau. Their mean age was 20.2 years (SD=2.3); 6.5% of the participants are female. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires online on their sleep duration, sleep quality, chronotype, mood, and physical and psychological quality of life. Across two academic semesters, we assessed if students living on and off campus differed in our well-being measures after we partialed out the effects of demographic information (including age, sex, family income, and parents' education) and the well-being measures at baseline (T1). The results showed that, campus residents exhibited longer sleep duration, greater sleep efficiency, better sleep quality, and less feeling of stress than off-campus-living students. From one semester to the next, around 10% of campus residents did not continue to live on campus. Logistic regression showed that a morning

  12. Effects of morning vs evening statin administration on lipid profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Awad, Kamal; Serban, Maria-Corina; Penson, Peter; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Toth, Peter P; Jones, Steven R; Rizzo, Manfredi; Howard, George; Lip, Gregory Y H; Banach, Maciej

    Evidence about the optimal time of day at which to administer statins is lacking. The objective of this study is to synthesize evidence about effects of morning vs evening statin administration on lipid profile. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Embase databases (from inception up to July 24, 2016) to identify the relevant studies. Mean differences (MDs) between the change scores in lipid parameters were pooled using a fixed-effect model. Eleven articles with 1034 participants were eligible for the analysis. The pooled analysis comparing effects of morning vs evening administration of statins on plasma total cholesterol (TC; P = .10), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .90), and triglycerides (P = .45) was not statistically significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering was statistically greater in the evening-dose group (MD: 3.24 mg/dL, 95% CI: 1.23-5.25, P = .002). Subgroup analysis according to statin half-lives showed that evening dose of statins was significantly superior to morning dose for lowering LDL-C in case of both short and long half-life statins (MD: 9.68 mg/dL, 95% CI: 3.32-16.03, P = .003 and MD: 2.53 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.41-4.64, P = .02, respectively) and also for TC reduction in case of short half-life statins only (P = .0005). LDL-C and TC lowering was significantly greater in the evening dose than in the morning dose in case of short-acting statins. Besides slight but significant effect on LDL-C, the efficacy of long-acting statins was equivalent for both regimens. Therefore, long-acting statins should be given at a time that will best aid compliance. Short-acting statins should be given in the evening. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On the LHC sensitivity for non-thermalised hidden sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix

    2018-04-01

    We show under rather general assumptions that hidden sectors that never reach thermal equilibrium in the early Universe are also inaccessible for the LHC. In other words, any particle that can be produced at the LHC must either have been in thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model at some point or must be produced via the decays of another hidden sector particle that has been in thermal equilibrium. To reach this conclusion, we parametrise the cross section connecting the Standard Model to the hidden sector in a very general way and use methods from linear programming to calculate the largest possible number of LHC events compatible with the requirement of non-thermalisation. We find that even the HL-LHC cannot possibly produce more than a few events with energy above 10 GeV involving states from a non-thermalised hidden sector.

  14. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New…

  15. [Harassment in the public sector].

    PubMed

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.

  16. Use of Private Sector Temporaries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    causing the reduction in personnel. My solution to this problem is to authorize and find the use of private sector temporaries to perform the workload...discuss cost factors, and describe the benefits Defense Finance and Accounting Service will receive by using private sector temporaries (AN)

  17. Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Min-Seok

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

  18. Effects of Morning Caffeine’ Ingestion on Mood States, Simple Reaction Time, and Short-Term Maximal Performance on Elite Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Souissi, Makram; Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Atheymen, Rim; Hakim, Ahmed; Sahnoun, Zouhair

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ergogenic effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test recorded in the morning on elite Judoists. Methods Twelve elite judoists (age: 21.08 ± 1.16 years, body mass: 83.75 ± 20.2 kg, height: 1.76 ±6.57 m) participated in this study. Mood states, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test were measured during two test sessions at 07:00 h and after placebo or caffeine ingestion (i.e. 5 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of caffeine were measured before (T0) and 1-h after caffeine’ ingestion (T1) and after the Wingate test (T3). Results Our results revealed an increase of the anxiety and the vigor (P<0.01), a reduction of the simple reaction time (P<0.001) and an improvement of the peak and mean powers during the Wingate test. However, the fatigue index during this test was unaffected by the caffeine ingestion. In addition, plasma concentration of caffeine was significantly higher at T1 in comparison with T0. Conclusions In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that morning caffeine ingestion has ergogenic properties with the potential to benefit performance, increase anxiety and vigor, and decrease the simple reaction time. PMID:23012635

  19. Stress contagion in the classroom? The link between classroom teacher burnout and morning cortisol in elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the link between classroom teachers' burnout levels and students' physiological stress response. Drawing from a stress-contagion framework, we expected higher levels of teacher burnout to be related to elevated cortisol levels in elementary school students (N = 406, 50% female, Mean age = 11.26, SD = .89). Classroom teacher burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory modified for teachers. Salivary cortisol was collected as an indicator of students' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning. We collected salivary cortisol in children at 9 a.m., 11:30 a.m., and 2 p.m. in the classroom setting. Using Multilevel Modeling, we found that children's morning cortisol levels significantly varied between classrooms (10% variability). Higher levels of classroom teacher burnout significantly predicted the variability in morning cortisol. Teacher burnout reduced the unexplained variability in cortisol at the classroom level to 4.6%. This is the first study to show that teachers' occupational stress is linked to students' physiological stress regulation. We discuss the present findings in the context of potential stress contagion in the classroom, considering empirical and practical relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Morning salivary cortisol and cognitive function in mid-life: evidence from a population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, M C; Hertzman, C; Li, L; Power, C

    2012-08-01

    The hormone 'cortisol' has been associated with cognitive deficits in older ages, and also with childhood cognition. The extent to which the associations of cortisol with cognitive deficits in later life reflect associations with childhood cognition ability is unclear. This study aimed to assess associations between adult cortisol levels and subsequent cognitive functions, while considering childhood cognition and other lifetime covariates. Data are from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Two morning salivary cortisol samples were obtained at 45 years: 45 min after waking (t1) and 3 h later (t2). Standardized tests assessing immediate and delayed verbal memory, verbal fluency and speed of processing were administered at 50 years. Information on cortisol, cognitive outcomes and covariates [e.g., birthweight, lifetime socio-economic position (SEP), education, smoking and drinking habits, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, and depression/anxiety] was obtained for 4655 participants. Worse immediate and delayed verbal memory and verbal fluency at 50 years were predicted by elevated t2 cortisol at 45 years. For instance, for 1 standard deviation (s.d.) increase in t2 cortisol, individuals scored -0.05 s.d. lower on verbal memory and fluency tests. Childhood cognition explained about 30% of these associations, but associations with adult cognition remained. This study suggests that higher cortisol levels in late morning at 45 years are associated with poorer verbal memory and fluency at 50 years, with a contribution from childhood cognition to these associations.

  1. Flavoring agents present in a dentifrice can modify volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) formation in morning bad breath.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Salvador, Sérgio Luis; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; Nogueira-Filho, Getúlio da Rocha

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a flavor-containing dentifrice on the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in morning bad breath. A two-step, blinded, crossover, randomized study was carried out in 50 dental students with a healthy periodontium divided into two experimental groups: flavor-containing dentifrice (test) and non-flavor-containing dentifrice (control). The volunteers received the designated dentifrice and a new toothbrush for a 3 X/day brushing regimen for 2 periods of 30 days. A seven-day washout interval was used between the periods. The assessed parameters were: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), organoleptic breath scores (ORG), VSC levels (as measured by a portable sulphide monitor) before (H1) and after (H2) cleaning of the tongue, tongue coating (TC) wet weight and BANA test from TC samples. The intra-group analysis showed a decrease in ORG, from 3 to 2, after 30 days for the test group (p < 0.05). The inter-group analysis showed lower values in ORG, H1 and H2 for the test group (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the amount of TC between groups and the presence of flavor also did not interfere in the BANA results between groups (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that a flavor-containing dentifrice seems to prevent VSCs formation in morning bad breath regardless of the amount of TC in periodontally healthy subjects.

  2. Likelihood analysis of the chalcone synthase genes suggests the role of positive selection in morning glories (Ipomoea).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji; Gu, Hongya; Yang, Ziheng

    2004-01-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoides, which are important for the pigmentation of flowers and act as attractants to pollinators. Genes encoding CHS constitute a multigene family in which the copy number varies among plant species and functional divergence appears to have occurred repeatedly. In morning glories (Ipomoea), five functional CHS genes (A-E) have been described. Phylogenetic analysis of the Ipomoea CHS gene family revealed that CHS A, B, and C experienced accelerated rates of amino acid substitution relative to CHS D and E. To examine whether the CHS genes of the morning glories underwent adaptive evolution, maximum-likelihood models of codon substitution were used to analyze the functional sequences in the Ipomoea CHS gene family. These models used the nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratio (omega = d(N)/ d(S)) as an indicator of selective pressure and allowed the ratio to vary among lineages or sites. Likelihood ratio test suggested significant variation in selection pressure among amino acid sites, with a small proportion of them detected to be under positive selection along the branches ancestral to CHS A, B, and C. Positive Darwinian selection appears to have promoted the divergence of subfamily ABC and subfamily DE and is at least partially responsible for a rate increase following gene duplication.

  3. Circumnutation and its dependence on the gravity response in rice, morning glory and pea plants: verification by spaceflight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Akie; Fujii, Nobuharu; Yano, Sachiko; Shimazu, Toru; Kim, Hyejeong; Tomita, Yuuta; Miyazawa, Yutaka

    Plant organs display helical growth movement known as circumnutation. This movement helps plant organs find suitable environmental cues. The amplitude, period and shape of the circumnutation differ depending on plant species or organs. Although the mechanism for circumnutation is unclear, it has long been argued whether circumnutation is involved with gravitropic response. Previously, we showed that shoots of weeping morning glory (we1 and we2) are impaired in not only the differentiation of endodermis (gravisensing cells) and gravitropic response, but also winding and circumnutation (Kitazawa et al., PNAS 102: 18742-18747, 2005). Here, we report a reduced circumnutation in the shoots of rice and the roots of pea mutants defective in gravitropic response. Coleoptiles of clinorotated rice seedlings and decapped roots of pea seedlings also showed a reduction of their circumnutational movement. These results suggest that circumnutation is tightly related with gravitropic response. In the proposed spaceflight experiments, “Plant Rotation”, we will verify the hypothesis that circumnutation requires gravity response, by using microgravity environment in KIBO module of the International Space Station. We will grow rice and morning glory plants under both muG and 1G conditions on orbit and monitor their growth by a camera. The downlinked images will be analyzed for the measurements of plant growth and nutational movements. This experiment will enable us to answer the question whether circumnutation depends on gravity response or not.

  4. Estimating Morning Change in Land Surface Temperature from MODIS Day/Night Observations: Applications for Surface Energy Balance Modeling.

    PubMed

    Hain, Christopher R; Anderson, Martha C

    2017-10-16

    Observations of land surface temperature (LST) are crucial for the monitoring of surface energy fluxes from satellite. Methods that require high temporal resolution LST observations (e.g., from geostationary orbit) can be difficult to apply globally because several geostationary sensors are required to attain near-global coverage (60°N to 60°S). While these LST observations are available from polar-orbiting sensors, providing global coverage at higher spatial resolutions, the temporal sampling (twice daily observations) can pose significant limitations. For example, the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance model, used for monitoring evapotranspiration and drought, requires an observation of the morning change in LST - a quantity not directly observable from polar-orbiting sensors. Therefore, we have developed and evaluated a data-mining approach to estimate the mid-morning rise in LST from a single sensor (2 observations per day) of LST from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Aqua platform. In general, the data-mining approach produced estimates with low relative error (5 to 10%) and statistically significant correlations when compared against geostationary observations. This approach will facilitate global, near real-time applications of ALEXI at higher spatial and temporal coverage from a single sensor than currently achievable with current geostationary datasets.

  5. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  6. Light chiral dark sector

    DOE PAGES

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2016-08-11

    An interesting possibility for dark matter is a scalar particle of mass of order 10 MeV-1 GeV, interacting with a U(1) gauge boson (dark photon) which mixes with the photon. We present a simple and natural model realizing this possibility. The dark matter arises as a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (dark pion) in a non-Abelian gauge sector, which also gives a mass to the dark photon. For a fixed non-Abelian gauge group, SU(N), and a U(1) charge of the constituent dark quarks, the model has only three free parameters: the dynamical scale of the non-Abelian gauge theory, the gauge coupling ofmore » the dark photon, and the mixing parameter between the dark and standard model photons. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model does not allow any mass term for the dark quarks, and the stability of the dark pion is understood as a result of an accidental global symmetry. The model has a significant parameter space in which thermal relic dark pions comprise all of the dark matter, consistently with all experimental and cosmological constraints. In a corner of the parameter space, the discrepancy of the muon g-2 between experiments and the standard model prediction can also be ameliorated due to a loop contribution of the dark photon. Smoking-gun signatures of the model include a monophoton signal from the e +e - collision into a photon and a "dark rho meson." Observation of two processes in e +e - collision - the mode into the dark photon and that into the dark rho meson - would provide strong evidence for the model.« less

  7. Light chiral dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2016-08-01

    An interesting possibility for dark matter is a scalar particle of mass of order 10 MeV-1 GeV, interacting with a U (1 ) gauge boson (dark photon) which mixes with the photon. We present a simple and natural model realizing this possibility. The dark matter arises as a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (dark pion) in a non-Abelian gauge sector, which also gives a mass to the dark photon. For a fixed non-Abelian gauge group, S U (N ) , and a U (1 ) charge of the constituent dark quarks, the model has only three free parameters: the dynamical scale of the non-Abelian gauge theory, the gauge coupling of the dark photon, and the mixing parameter between the dark and standard model photons. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model does not allow any mass term for the dark quarks, and the stability of the dark pion is understood as a result of an accidental global symmetry. The model has a significant parameter space in which thermal relic dark pions comprise all of the dark matter, consistently with all experimental and cosmological constraints. In a corner of the parameter space, the discrepancy of the muon g -2 between experiments and the standard model prediction can also be ameliorated due to a loop contribution of the dark photon. Smoking-gun signatures of the model include a monophoton signal from the e+e- collision into a photon and a "dark rho meson." Observation of two processes in e+e- collision—the mode into the dark photon and that into the dark rho meson—would provide strong evidence for the model.

  8. Light chiral dark sector

    SciT

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    An interesting possibility for dark matter is a scalar particle of mass of order 10 MeV-1 GeV, interacting with a U(1) gauge boson (dark photon) which mixes with the photon. We present a simple and natural model realizing this possibility. The dark matter arises as a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (dark pion) in a non-Abelian gauge sector, which also gives a mass to the dark photon. For a fixed non-Abelian gauge group, SU(N), and a U(1) charge of the constituent dark quarks, the model has only three free parameters: the dynamical scale of the non-Abelian gauge theory, the gauge coupling ofmore » the dark photon, and the mixing parameter between the dark and standard model photons. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model does not allow any mass term for the dark quarks, and the stability of the dark pion is understood as a result of an accidental global symmetry. The model has a significant parameter space in which thermal relic dark pions comprise all of the dark matter, consistently with all experimental and cosmological constraints. In a corner of the parameter space, the discrepancy of the muon g-2 between experiments and the standard model prediction can also be ameliorated due to a loop contribution of the dark photon. Smoking-gun signatures of the model include a monophoton signal from the e +e - collision into a photon and a "dark rho meson." Observation of two processes in e +e - collision - the mode into the dark photon and that into the dark rho meson - would provide strong evidence for the model.« less

  9. Morning Versus Evening Bright Light Treatment at Home to Improve Function and Pain Sensitivity for Women with Fibromyalgia: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Helen J; Park, Margaret; Ong, Jason C; Shakoor, Najia; Williams, David A; Burns, John

    2017-01-01

    To test the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a home-based morning versus evening bright light treatment on function and pain sensitivity in women with fibromyalgia. A single blind randomized study with two treatment arms: 6 days of a 1 hour morning light treatment or 6 days of a 1 hour evening light treatment. Function, pain sensitivity, and circadian timing were assessed before and after treatment. Participants slept at home, except for two nights in Sleep Center. Ten women meeting the American College of Rheumatology's diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia, including normal blood test results. Self-reported function was assessed with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Pain sensitivity was assessed using a heat stimulus that gave measures of threshold and tolerance. Circadian timing was assessed with the dim light melatonin onset. Both morning and evening light treatments led to improvements in function and pain sensitivity. However, only the morning light treatment led to a clinically meaningful improvement in function (>14% reduction from baseline FIQ) and morning light significantly increased pain threshold more than evening light ( P  < 0.05). Phase advances in circadian timing were associated with an increase in pain tolerance (r = 0.67, P  < 0.05). Bright light treatment appears to be a feasible and acceptable adjunctive treatment to women with fibromyalgia. Those who undergo morning light treatment may show improvements in function and pain sensitivity. Advances in circadian timing may be one mechanism by which morning light improves pain sensitivity. Findings can inform the design of a randomized controlled trial. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Correlation between breakfast tryptophan content and morning-evening in Japanese infants and students aged 0-15 yrs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hirotani, Masaaki; Maeda, Mari; Nomura, Hiromi; Takeuchi, Hitomi

    2007-03-01

    Tryptophan can be metabolized via 5-hydroxytryptamine=serotonin to melatonin by a series of 4 enzymes in pineal body. Lack of serotonin in body fluid in the brain during daytime can lead to several psychiatric disorders, while shortage of plasma-melatonin at night can be related to sleep disorders. The Morning-Evening (M-E) questionnaire and the original questionnaire including questions on sleep habits, mental symptoms, and contents of meals were administered to 1055 infants aged 0-6 yrs, 751 students attending an elementary school, and 473 students attending junior high school in Kochi City (33 degrees N). The index of tryptophan taken at breakfast (Trp-Index) was calculated as tryptophan amount per one meal based on the tryptophan included in each 100 g of the foods and a standard amount of food per one meal. A significant positive-correlation between M-E scores and Trp-Index was not shown by relatively older students, aged 9-15 yrs (Pearson's test, r=0.044-0.123, p=0.071-0.505), whereas a significant positive correlation was shown by infants and young elementary school students aged 0-8 yrs (r=0.180, 0.258, p<0.001). The more frequently the infants had difficulty falling asleep at bedtime and waking up in the morning, the less the Trp-Indices taken at breakfast were (Kruskall-Wallis-test, p=0.027 for difficulty falling asleep; p=0.008 for difficulty waking up). The more frequently infants became angry even by a little trigger, or depressed, the lower (more evening-typed) the M-E scores were (Kruskal-Wallis test: pmorning-type diurnal rhythm, high quality of sleep, and indirectly good mental health, presumably, through the metabolism of tryptophan to serotonin in daytime and further to melatonin at night.

  11. Fluid consumption, total water intake and first morning urine osmolality in Spanish adolescents from Zaragoza: data from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, I; Santaliestra-Pasías, A M; Bel-Serrat, S; Sadalla-Collese, T; Miguel-Berges, M L; Moreno, L A

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study is to describe the hydration status and to assess the main food- and/or fluid intake-associated factors in healthy adolescents. A total of 194 adolescents from the city of Zaragoza aged 12.5-17.5 years (99 males) participating in the 'Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence' (HELENA) cross-sectional study were included. First morning urine was collected, and osmolality was determined by freezing point depression osmometer. A self-reported computer-based 24-h dietary recall was applied the same day of the urine collection. Analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis procedure or Pearson's χ(2) analyses was used to examine the group associations. Seventy-one percent of adolescents did not meet the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) recommendations for average total water intake (TWI), and 68% had high first morning urine osmolality values. TWI and the proportion of those meeting EFSA reference values significantly (P<0.05) decreased with increased osmolality. Males who met the EFSA recommendations consumed significantly (P<0.05) more plain water (1035.13 vs 582.68 ml) and dairy drinks (368.13 vs 226.68 ml) than those who did not. In females, the consumption of water (1359.41 vs 620.44 ml) and sugar-sweetened beverages (214.61 vs 127.42 ml) was significantly higher in those meeting the EFSA recommendations than in those who did not. First morning urine osmolality was associated with vegetables (unstandardized β: -0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.02 and -0.18) and fruits intake (β: -0.41; 95% CI: -0.63 and -0.19) in males and with dairy drinks (β: -0.39; 95% CI: -0.76 and -0.02) and fruits (β: -0.41; 95% CI: -0.73 and -0.10) in females. There was a high prevalence of inadequate TWI and high urine osmolality among these Spanish adolescents. Lower urine osmolality was associated with higher consumption of vegetables in males, dairy drinks in females and fruits in both males and females.

  12. Relationship of endogenous circadian melatonin and temperature rhythms to self-reported preference for morning or evening activity in young and older people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Hall, E. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morningness-eveningness refers to interindividual differences in preferred timing of behavior (i.e., bed and wake times). Older people have earlier wake times and rate themselves as more morning-like than young adults. It has been reported that the phase of circadian rhythms is earlier in morning-types than in evening types, and that older people have earlier phases than young adults. These changes in phase have been considered to be the chronobiological basis of differences in preferred bed and wake times and age-related changes therein. Whether such differences in phase are associated with changes in the phase relationship between endogenous circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle has not been investigated previously. METHODS: We investigated the association between circadian phase, the phase relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms, and morningness-eveningness, and their interaction with aging. In this circadian rhythm study, 68 young and 40 older subjects participated. RESULTS: Among the young subjects, the phase of the melatonin and core temperature rhythms occurred earlier in morning than in evening types and the interval between circadian phase and usual wake time was longer in morning types. Thus, while evening types woke at a later clock hour than morning types, morning types actually woke at a later circadian phase. Comparing young and older morning types we found that older morning types had an earlier circadian phase and a shorter phase-wake time interval. The shorter phase-waketime interval in older "morning types" is opposite to the change associated with morningness in young people, and is more similar to young evening types. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate an association between circadian phase, the relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian phase, and morningness-eveningness in young adults. Furthermore, they demonstrate that age-related changes in phase angle cannot be attributed fully to

  13. Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination vs. high-dose losartan in patients with morning hypertension--a prospective, randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tamenobu; Kai, Hisashi; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of morning hypertension has not been established. We compared the efficacy and safety of a losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination and high-dose losartan in patients with morning hypertension. A prospective, randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, multicenter trial enrolled 216 treated outpatients with morning hypertension evaluated by home blood pressure (BP) self-measurement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a combination therapy of 50 mg losartan and 12.5 mg HCTZ (n=109) or a high-dose therapy with 100 mg losartan (n=107), each of which were administered once every morning. Primary efficacy end points were morning systolic BP (SBP) level and target BP achievement rate after 3 months of treatment. At baseline, BP levels were similar between the two therapy groups. Morning SBP was reduced from 150.3±10.1 to 131.5±11.5 mm Hg by combination therapy (P<0.001) and from 151.0±9.3 to 142.5±13.6 mm Hg by high-dose therapy (P<0.001). The morning SBP reduction was greater in the combination therapy group than in the high-dose therapy group (P<0.001). Combination therapy decreased evening SBP from 141.6±13.3 to 125.3±13.1 mm Hg (P<0.001), and high-dose therapy decreased evening SBP from 138.9±9.9 to 131.4±13.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). Although both therapies improved target BP achievement rates in the morning and evening (P<0.001 for both), combination therapy increased the achievement rates more than high-dose therapy (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). In clinic measurements, combination therapy was superior to high-dose therapy in reducing SBP and improving the achievement rate (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). Combination therapy decreased urine albumin excretion (P<0.05) whereas high-dose therapy reduced serum uric acid. Both therapies indicated strong adherence and few adverse effects (P<0.001). In conclusion, losartan/HCTZ combination therapy was more effective for controlling morning hypertension and reducing

  14. Applying OD to the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses special considerations affecting organizational development (OD) programs in public-sector organizations, presents guidelines for using OD procedures in the public sector, and offers conclusions about the applicability of OD in the public sector. (Author/JG)

  15. Temperature compensation for miniaturized magnetic sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Temperature compensation for a magnetic sector used in mass spectrometry. A high temperature dependant magnetic sector is used. This magnetic sector is compensated by a magnetic shunt that has opposite temperature characteristics to those of the magnet.

  16. Analysis of the workload imposed on the workers of the imprint and cutting/welding sectors of a flexible packaging manufacturer.

    PubMed

    de M Guimarães, L B; Pessa, S L R; Biguelini, C

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a study on the evaluation of the workload imposed to workers of two sectors of a flexible packaging manufacturer that operates in three shifts. The workers are allocated in one of the shifts (morning, evening and night shifts) without evaluation of their chronotype and/or social needs. The Imprint sector has a more dynamic work, which is done only by man due to the effort demanded by handling loads. The work in the Cutting/Welding sector is static, done mainly by women. The results showed that the overall workload was the same in the Imprint and Cutting/Welding sectors, because physical effort for load handling is higher in the former but the latter involves high static load. The levels of urinary catecholamines and salivary cortisol were consistent with the workers biological clock showing that none of the workers changed his/her biological cycle to accommodate to the time of the shift schedule.

  17. Comparison between the effect of 6 weeks of morning or evening aerobic exercise on appetite and anthropometric indices: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Z; Younespour, S; Rajabian Tabesh, M; Haghravan, S

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have shown that exercise is directly related to creating negative energy balance and changes in appetite. However, few studies have examined the effect of exercise time during the day on these factors. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of 6 weeks of morning and evening aerobic exercise on appetite and anthropometric indices. A total of 48 overweight females were recruited to this clinical trial. By the time of exercise, they were divided into two groups (morning or evening) and performed 6 weeks of exercise with a target heart rate on the ventilatory threshold. Appetite change, calorie intake and anthropometric indices were assessed. Consistent changes in appetite scores were not found during the 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Calorie consumption of the morning group decreased significantly more than that of the evening group (P = 0.02) during the 6 weeks. In addition, significant changes in body weight, body mass index, abdominal skin fold thickness and abdominal circumference were seen in the morning group. It appears that moderate- to high-intensity aerobic exercise in the morning could be considered a more effective programme than evening exercise on appetite control, calorie intake and weight loss in inactive overweight women. However, the limitations of the study, such as short-term duration, should be noticed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  19. Chemical Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 325)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    find EPA regulatory information for the chemical manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs, the SNAP program for ozone depleting substances,effluent guidelines, and new and existing chemicals testing requirements under TSCA.

  20. Dry Cleaning Sector (NAICS 8123)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The dry cleaning sector includes establishments engaged in providing laundry services and industrial launderers. Find environmental regulatory information for perchloroethylene (PERC) cleaners as well as hazardous waste regulations for dry cleaners.

  1. Textile Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 313)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the textile and leather manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs for leather tanning and fabric printing, and small business guidance for RCRA hazardous waste requirements.

  2. The English Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) and the "Split" Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2013-01-01

    In England, the overwhelming majority (78%) of under fives' nursery places, remains in the private, voluntary and independent (PVI) sector where there is no requirement to employ a qualified teacher. Compared to the maintained state sector early years workforce, this dominant PVI sector tends to be staffed by a poorly qualified workforce. From…

  3. Community care: the independent sector.

    PubMed Central

    Barodawala, S.

    1996-01-01

    The independent sector, which consists of the voluntary and private sectors, is a vital element in supporting older people in the community. The voluntary sector, coordinated by the Council for Voluntary Service and the National Council for Voluntary Organisations, provides a variety of services, including practical help, reassurance and companionship, and advice, information, campaigning, and advocacy. The private sector owns all of the nursing homes and most of the residential homes and is gradually becoming more involved with the provision of services to help support older people in their own homes. With this increase in size and importance of the independent sector over recent years, there is now a real need for greater communication between the private, voluntary, and statutory agencies in any one region. In some areas, forums made up of representatives of these various sectors meet to discuss relevant issues and construct local policies, thus allowing a more coordinated approach to the delivery of services. Images p740-a p742-a PMID:8819449

  4. Short Blue Light Pulses (30 Min) in the Morning Support a Sleep-Advancing Protocol in a Home Setting.

    PubMed

    Geerdink, Moniek; Walbeek, Thijs J; Beersma, Domien G M; Hommes, Vanja; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2016-10-01

    Many people in our modern civilized society sleep later on free days compared to work days. This discrepancy in sleep timing will lead to so-called 'social jetlag' on work days with negative consequences for performance and health. Light therapy in the morning is often proposed as the most effective method to advance the circadian rhythm and sleep phase. However, most studies focus on direct effects on the circadian system and not on posttreatment effects on sleep phase and sleep integrity. In this placebo-controlled home study we investigated if blue light, rather than amber light therapy, can phase shift the sleep phase along with the circadian rhythm with preservation of sleep integrity and performance. We selected 42 participants who suffered from 'social jetlag' on workdays. Participants were randomly assigned to either high-intensity blue light exposure or amber light exposure (placebo) with similar photopic illuminance. The protocol consisted of 14 baseline days without sleep restrictions, 9 treatment days with either 30-min blue light pulses or 30-min amber light pulses in the morning along with a sleep advancing scheme and 7 posttreatment days without sleep restrictions. Melatonin samples were taken at days 1, 7, 14 (baseline), day 23 (effect treatment), and day 30 (posttreatment). Light exposure was recorded continuously. Sleep was monitored through actigraphy. Performance was measured with a reaction time task. As expected, the phase advance of the melatonin rhythm from day 14 to day 23 was significantly larger in the blue light exposure group, compared to the amber light group (84 min ± 51 (SD) and 48 min ± 47 (SD) respectively; t36 = 2.23, p < 0.05). Wake-up time during the posttreatment days was slightly earlier compared to baseline in the blue light group compared to slightly later in the amber light group (-21 min ± 33 (SD) and +12 min ± 33 (SD) respectively; F1,35 = 9.20, p < 0.01). The number of sleep bouts was significantly

  5. Morning glory resin glycosides as α-glucosidase inhibitors: In vitro and in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Escandón-Rivera, Sonia; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2018-04-01

    Twenty-seven individual resin glycosides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. Four of these compounds displayed an inhibitory activity comparable to acarbose, which was used as a positive control. Molecular modeling studies performed by docking analysis were accomplished to predict that the active compounds and acarbose bind to the α-1,4-glucosidase enzyme catalytic site of MAL12 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through stable hydrogen bonds primarily with the amino acid residues HIS279 and GLN322. Docking studies with the human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) also identified binding modes for resin glycosides inside the catalytic site in the proximity of TYR1251. These results postulate that resin glycosides may be a source of phytotherapeutic agents with antihyperglycemic properties for the prophylaxis and treatment of non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morning glory resin glycosides as modulators of antibiotic activity in multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Corona-Castañeda, Berenice; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-six microbiologically inactive (MIC > 512 µg/mL) convolvulaceous resin glycosides ( 1- 26) were tested for resistance modulatory activity in vitro against Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami and two nosocomial pathogens, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri. These compounds exerted a potentiation effect of the clinically useful antibiotics tetracycline, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol against the tested gram-negative bacteria by increasing antibiotic susceptibility up to 32-fold at concentrations of 25 µg/mL. Therefore, the oligosaccharides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) represent metabolites that reverse microbial resistance mechanisms, favoring an increase in the strength and effectiveness of current antibiotics that are not effective in the treatment of refractive infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Photographer : JPL Range : 5 million miles (8.025 million kilometers) This is a morning shot of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 5 million miles (8.025 million kilometers) This is a morning shot of Ganymede, largest of Jupiter's 13 satellites. It's slightly larger than Mercury with a density about twice that of water. It's believed to be made of rock and ice with a surface of water and ice. Ganymede is 4 times brighter than our Moon with the bright spot in center of photo 5 times brighter than the Moon, and may contain more ice than surrounding areas. The bright pattern around the spot seems like ray craters on the Moon and Mercury and the area may in fact be an impact crater that has exposed fresh, underlying ice. Photo taken through blue, green and orange filters.

  8. Suspected natural lysosomal storage disease from ingestion of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) in goats in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Elvio E; Cholich, Luciana A; Chileski, Gabriela; García, Enrique N; Lértora, Javier; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Guidi, María G; Mussart, Norma; Teibler, Gladys P

    2015-07-01

    This study describes an occurrence of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) intoxication in goats in northern Argentina. The clinical signs displayed by the affected animals were ataxia, lethargy, emaciation, hypertonia of the neck muscles, spastic paresis in the hind legs, abnormal postural reactions and death. The clinico-pathologic examination revealed that the affected animals were anemic and their serum level of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells and pancreatic acinar cells was observed by histological examination. The neuronal lectin binding pattern showed a strong positive reaction to WGA (Triticum vulgaris), sWGA (succinylated T. vulgaris) and LCA (Lens culinaris). Although I. carnea is common in tropical regions, this is the first report of spontaneous poisoning in goats in Argentina.

  9. Effect of morning bright light treatment for rest-activity disruption in institutionalized patients with severe Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Glenna A; Hubbard, Erin M; Mastick, Judy; Luxenberg, Jay S; Burr, Robert L; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Disturbances in rest-activity rhythm are prominent and disabling symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nighttime sleep is severely fragmented and daytime activity is disrupted by multiple napping episodes. In most institutional environments, light levels are very low and may not be sufficient to enable the circadian clock to entrain to the 24-hour day. The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was to test the effectiveness of morning bright light therapy in reducing rest-activity (circadian) disruption in institutionalized patients with severe AD. Subjects (n = 46, mean age 84 years) meeting the NINCDS-ADRDA (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke--the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association) AD diagnostic criteria were recruited from two large, skilled nursing facilities in San Francisco, California. The experimental group received one hour (09:30-10:30) of bright light exposure (> or = 2500 lux in gaze direction) Monday through Friday for 10 weeks. The control group received usual indoor light (150-200 lux). Nighttime sleep efficiency, sleep time, wake time and number of awakenings and daytime wake time were assessed using actigraphy. Circadian rhythm parameters were also determined from the actigraphic data using cosinor analysis and nonparametric techniques. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the primary study hypotheses. Although significant improvements were found in subjects with aberrant timing of their rest-activity rhythm, morning bright light exposure did not induce an overall improvement in measures of sleep or the rest-activity in all treated as compared to control subjects. The results indicate that only subjects with the most impaired rest-activity rhythm respond significantly and positively to a brief (one hour) light intervention.

  10. A Sorrow Halved? A Daily Diary Study on Talking About Experienced Workplace Incivility and Next-Morning Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Tremmel, Stephanie; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2017-08-31

    Incivility by coworkers and customers can have detrimental consequences for employees' affective well-being at work. However, little is known about whether incivility also impairs employees' affect at home and how long these negative effects may last. In this diary study, we examine whether incivility by coworkers and customers is related to next-morning negative affect via negative affect at the end of the workday and at bedtime, and investigate different modes of social sharing (i.e., conversations about experienced mistreatment) as day-level moderators of this relationship. Daily diary data collected over 10 workdays (N = 113 employees) revealed that coworker incivility was indirectly related to bedtime negative affect via negative affect at the end of the workday, and customer incivility was indirectly related to next-morning negative affect via negative affect at the end of the workday and at bedtime. Although we found no moderating effect for conversations in an affective sharing mode (i.e., conversation partners provide comfort and consolation), the relationship between workplace incivility and employees' negative affect was buffered by conversations in a cognitive sharing mode (i.e., conversation partners suggest alternative explanations or reappraisal of uncivil behavior). In line with social sharing theory, our results suggest that talking about experienced mistreatment can, under specific circumstances, offset the negative relationship of uncivil coworker and customer behavior and employees' negative affect. This study advances current research on workplace incivility by studying negative affect 3 times a day and thus sheds light on the mechanism connecting workplace incivility and employees' affective well-being at home. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Baseline morning cortisol level as a predictor of pituitary-adrenal reserve: a comparison across three assays.

    PubMed

    Sbardella, Emilia; Isidori, Andrea M; Woods, Conor P; Argese, Nicola; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Shine, Brian; Jafar-Mohammadi, Bahram; Grossman, Ashley B

    2017-02-01

    The short ACTH stimulation test (250 μg) is the dynamic test most frequently used to assess adrenal function. It is possible that a single basal cortisol could be used to predict the dynamic response, but research has been hampered by the use of different assays and thresholds. To propose a morning baseline cortisol criterion of three of the most commonly used modern cortisol immunoassays - Advia Centaur (Siemens), Architect (Abbott) and the Roche Modular System (Roche) - that could predict adrenal sufficiency. Observational, retrospective cross-sectional study at two centres. Retrospective analysis of the results of 1019 Short Synacthen tests (SSTs) with the Advia Centaur, 449 SSTs with the Architect and 2050 SSTs with the Roche Modular System assay. Serum cortisol levels were measured prior to injection of 250 μg Synacthen and after 30 min. Overall, we were able to collate data from a total of 3518 SSTs in 3571 patients. Using receiver-operator curve analysis, baseline cortisol levels for predicting passing the SST with 100% specificity were 358 nmol/l for Siemens, 336 nmol/l for Abbott and 506 nmol/l for Roche. Utilizing these criteria, 589, 158 and 578 SSTs, respectively, for Siemens, Abbott and Roche immunoassays could have been avoided. We have defined assay-specific morning cortisol levels that are able to predict the integrity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. We propose that this represents a valid tool for the initial assessment of adrenal function and has the potential to obviate the need for dynamic testing in a significant number of patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of morning bright light treatment for rest–activity disruption in institutionalized patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Glenna A.; Hubbard, Erin M.; Mastick, Judy; Luxenberg, Jay S.; Burr, Robert L.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Disturbances in rest–activity rhythm are prominent and disabling symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nighttime sleep is severely fragmented and daytime activity is disrupted by multiple napping episodes. In most institutional environments, light levels are very low and may not be sufficient to enable the circadian clock to entrain to the 24-hour day. The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was to test the effectiveness of morning bright light therapy in reducing rest–activity (circadian) disruption in institutionalized patients with severe AD. Method Subjects (n = 46, mean age 84 years) meeting the NINCDS-ADRDA (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke –the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association) AD diagnostic criteria were recruited from two large, skilled nursing facilities in San Francisco, California. The experimental group received one hour (09:30–10:30) of bright light exposure (≥ 2500 lux in gaze direction) Monday through Friday for 10 weeks. The control group received usual indoor light (150–200 lux). Nighttime sleep efficiency, sleep time, wake time and number of awakenings and daytime wake time were assessed using actigraphy. Circadian rhythm parameters were also determined from the actigraphic data using cosinor analysis and nonparametric techniques. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the primary study hypotheses. Results and conclusion Although significant improvements were found in subjects with aberrant timing of their rest–activity rhythm, morning bright light exposure did not induce an overall improvement in measures of sleep or the rest–activity in all treated as compared to control subjects. The results indicate that only subjects with the most impaired rest–activity rhythm respond significantly and positively to a brief (one hour) light intervention. PMID:16050432

  13. Poincaré plot width, morning urine norepinephrine levels, and autonomic imbalance in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Chaidas, Konstantinos; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Theodorou, Emmanouel; Lianou, Loukia; Chrousos, George; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2014-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in childhood is accompanied by sympathetic overflow unopposed by the parasympathetic tone. Complex methods like power spectral analysis of heart rate variability have been applied to study this imbalance. In this report, width of Poincaré scattergram of the R-R interval (parasympathetic tone) and morning urine norepinephrine concentration (sympathetic activity) were used to assess autonomic imbalance. Poincaré plot was obtained from the electrocardiographic channel of nocturnal polysomnography and its width was measured, and norepinephrine-to-creatinine concentration ratio was calculated in morning urine specimen. Twenty children with obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia (oxygen saturation of hemoglobin [SpO(2)] nadir <90%), 24 subjects with mild hypoxemia (SpO(2) nadir ≥90%), and 11 control subjects were recruited. Children with obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe hypoxemia had significantly narrower Poincaré plot width (318.7 ± 139.3 ms) and higher ln-transformed urine norepinephrine-to-creatinine ratio (4.5 ± 0.6) than control subjects (484.2 ± 104.4 ms and 3.8 ± 0.4, respectively; P < 0.05). Ln-transformed urine norepinephrine levels were inversely related to Poincaré plot width (P = 0.02). Subjects with obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia have enhanced sympathetic activity and reduced parasympathetic drive. Poincaré plot width and urine norepinephrine levels are simple measures of autonomic imbalance in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of performing morning versus afternoon exercise on glycemic control and hypoglycemia frequency in type 1 diabetes patients on sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ana Maria; Gomez, Claudia; Aschner, Pablo; Veloza, Angelica; Muñoz, Oscar; Rubio, Claudia; Vallejo, Santiago

    2015-05-01

    Although physical exercise (PE) is recommended for individuals with type 1 diabetes (DM1), participation in exercise is challenging because it increases the risk of severe hypoglycemia and the available therapeutic options to prevent it frequently result in hyperglycemia. There is no clear recommendation about the best timing for exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of hypoglycemia after morning or afternoon exercise sessions up to 36 hours postworkout. This randomized crossover study enrolled subjects with DM1, older than 18 years of age, on sensor-augmented insulin pump (SAP) therapy. Participants underwent 2 moderate-intensity exercise sessions; 1 in the morning and 1 in the afternoon, separated by a 7 to 14 day wash-out period. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data were collected 24 hours before, during and 36 hours after each session. Thirty-five subjects (mean age 30.31 ± 12.66 years) participated in the study. The rate of hypoglycemia was significantly lower following morning versus afternoon exercise sessions (5.6 vs 10.7 events per patient, incidence rate ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43-0.63; P < .0001). Most hypoglycemic events occurred 15-24 hours after the session. On days following morning exercise sessions, there were 20% more CGM readings in near-euglycemic range (70-200 mg/dL) than on days prior to morning exercise (P = .003). Morning exercise confers a lower risk of late-onset hypoglycemia than afternoon exercise and improves metabolic control on the subsequent day. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Evaluation of morning glory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb) leaves for antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Reza, A S M Ali; Rahaman, Md Masudur; Nasrin, Mst Samima; Rahat, Mohammed Rasib Uddin; Islam, Md Rabiul; Uddin, Md Josim; Rahman, Md Atiar

    2018-06-27

    The present study was planned to investigate the phytochemical, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities of the Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb leaf methanol extract (MExJT) in the laboratory using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Phytochemical values, namely, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and FeCl3 reducing power effects, were studied by established methods. In vivo antinociceptive activity was performed by acidic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced pain test on Swiss albino mice at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The clot lysis and brine shrimp lethality bioassay in vitro were used to evaluate the thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of the plant extract, respectively. Phytochemical screening illustrates the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, gums and carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids and reducing sugars in the extract. The results showed the total phenolic content (146.33 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total flavonoid content (133.33 g quercetin/100 g). Significant (p<0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (289.5 μg/mL) and FeCl3 reduction (245.2 μg/mL). The antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced pain models in Swiss albino mice with doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.05) inhibition (72.87±2.73%) of writhing response compared to diclofenac sodium was achieved by 500 mg/kg body weight. The extract also significantly inhibited the licking response in both the early phase (51.59±1.57%, p<0.05) and the late phase (64.82±1.87%, p<0.05) in the formalin-induced writhing test. MExJT also showed (38.10±1.79%) clot lytic activity in the thrombolytic test and cytotoxicity with an LC50 value of 31.70 μg/mL in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The plant is a potential source

  16. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  17. Morning glory disk anomaly with ipsilateral capillary hemangioma, agenesis of the internal carotid artery, and Horner syndrome: a variant of PHACES syndrome?

    PubMed

    Puvanachandra, Narman; Heran, Manraj K; Lyons, Christopher J

    2008-10-01

    We describe a 6-week-old girl with a right upper lid capillary hemangioma, ipsilateral morning glory disk anomaly, microphthalmos, Mittendorf dot, and Horner syndrome. The ipsilateral internal carotid artery was also found to be absent. To our knowledge, this is the first patient to be reported with this group of findings. We suggest that this represents an overlap between morning glory disk and intracranial vascular abnormalities, a recognized association, and PHACES syndrome (posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, eye, and sternal abnormalities). We discuss the common embryological basis for these abnormalities, which point to a widespread but highly variable disorder of mesodermal differentiation.

  18. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  19. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector.

    PubMed

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings.

  20. Alcohol Consumption Reduction Among a Web-Based Supportive Community Using the Hello Sunday Morning Blog Platform: Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Jessica Jane Louise; Leo, Briony; Moore, Jamie Christopher

    2018-05-17

    Alcohol misuse is a major social and public health issue in Australia, with an estimated cost to the community of Aus $30 billion per annum. Until recently, a major barrier in addressing this significant public health issue is the fact that the majority of individuals with alcohol use disorders and alcohol misuse are not receiving treatment. This study aimed to assess whether alcohol consumption changes are associated with participation in Hello Sunday Morning's blog platform, an online forum discussing experiences in abstaining from alcohol. The study reports on Hello Sunday Morning participants who signed up for a 3-month period of abstinence from November 2009 to November 2016. The sample comprised 1917 participants (female: 1227/1917, 64.01%; male: 690/1917, 35.99%). Main outcome measures were Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores, mood, program engagement metrics, and slip-ups. Individuals who reported hazardous (preprogram AUDIT mean 11.92, SD 2.25) and harmful consumption levels (preprogram AUDIT mean 17.52, SD 1.08) and who engaged in the Hello Sunday Morning program reported a significant decrease in alcohol consumption, moving to lower risk consumption levels (hazardous, mean 7.59, SD 5.70 and harmful, mean 10.38, SD 7.43), 4 months following program commencement (P<.001). Those who reported high-risk or dependent consumption levels experienced the biggest reduction (preprogram mean 25.38, SD 4.20), moving to risky consumption (mean 15.83, SD 11.11), 4 months following program commencement (P<.001). These reductions in risk were maintained by participants in each group, 7 months following program commencement. Furthermore, those who engaged in the program more (as defined by more sign-ins, blogs posted, check-ins completed, and engagement with the community through likes and following) had lower alcohol consumption. Finally, those who experienced more slip-ups had lower alcohol consumption. Participation in an online forum can support

  1. Postprandial Metabolism and Appetite Do Not Differ between Lean Adults that Eat Breakfast or Morning Fast for 6 Weeks.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2018-01-01

    It remains unknown whether sustained daily feeding-fasting patterns modify the acute response to specific feedings on a given day. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to establish if daily breakfast consumption or fasting until noon modifies the acute metabolic and appetitive responses to a fixed breakfast and ad libitum lunch. With the use of a parallel group design, we randomly assigned 31 healthy, lean men and women (22-56 y) to 6 wk of either consuming ≥700 kcal of self-selected items before 1100 or fasting (0 kcal) until 1200 daily. Following 48 h of diet and physical activity standardization, we examined metabolic and appetite responses to a standardized breakfast and ad libitum lunch before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using 3- and 2-way ANCOVA. Systemic concentrations of energy balance regulatory hormones total and acylated ghrelin, leptin, and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine) responded similarly to breakfast and lunch before and after 6 wk of either morning fasting or regular breakfast, with the exception of a tendency for increased glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the Breakfast Group compared with a decrease over that period in the Fasting Group [P = 0.06, partial eta squared value (ƞ2) = 0.16]. Subjective appetite sensations also did not differ over the course of the day, and ad libitum energy intake at lunch was not systematically affected by either intervention, decreasing by 27 kcal (95% CI: -203, 149 kcal) with fasting and by 77 kcal (95% CI: -210, 56 kcal) with breakfast. Similarly, glycemic, insulinemic, lipemic, and thermogenic responses to breakfast and lunch were very stable at baseline and follow-up and, thus, did not differ between treatment groups. Our results indicate that a sustained period of either extended morning fasting or eating a daily breakfast has minimal effect upon acute metabolic and appetite responses in lean adults. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN

  2. The impacts of morning, daytime, and nighttime symptoms on disease burden in real-world patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Anna; Small, Mark; Wood, Robert; Ribera, Anna; Nuevo, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms are increasingly recognized as an important consideration in COPD management. Understanding the links between the time(s) of day symptoms are experienced and overall symptom burden could support personalized management strategies. This real-world study aimed to establish the association between the time of day of symptoms and the burden on patients using validated patient-reported outcomes, health care resource utilization, and physician-perceived impact of COPD on patients' lives. Analyses used data from four waves (2012, 2013, 2014, and 2016) of the Respiratory Disease Specific Programme: cross-sectional surveys of patients with COPD in Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Patients were classified by their physicians as having symptoms in the morning (M), daytime (D), and/or nighttime (N) in the 4 weeks before entering the Disease Specific Programme. Outcomes included health care resource utilization, work productivity and activity impairment, COPD Assessment Test, EuroQol 5-dimension 3-level questionnaire with visual analog scale, and Jenkins Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. In total, 8,844 patients were included, and 8,185 had evaluable time-of-day symptom data. Physicians reported that in the previous 4 weeks, 25% of patients experienced no symptoms, 16% D only, 17% M/D only, 6% D/N only, 4% M, N, or M/N only, and 32% M/D/N. In general, patients with M/D/N symptoms utilized more health care resources in the previous 12 months, had more prior exacerbations, and reported worse activity impairment, health status, and sleep than other symptom groups, whereas patients with symptoms at any time of the day utilized more resources, experienced more exacerbations, and reported worse health status than patients with no symptoms during the 4 weeks before entering the survey. Patients experiencing morning, daytime, and nighttime symptoms experience a greater disease burden than those in other groups. An individualized approach to COPD treatment based on

  3. Post-Exercise Carbohydrate-Energy Replacement Attenuates Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance the Following Morning in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Harry L.; Wu, Ching-Lin; Chen, Yung-Chih; Wang, Pin-Ging; Betts, James A.

    2018-01-01

    The carbohydrate deficit induced by exercise is thought to play a key role in increased post-exercise insulin action. However, the effects of replacing carbohydrate utilized during exercise on postprandial glycaemia and insulin sensitivity are yet to be determined. This study therefore isolated the extent to which the insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise are dependent on the carbohydrate deficit induced by exercise, relative to other exercise-mediated mechanisms. Fourteen healthy adults performed a 90-min run at 70% V˙O2max starting at 1600–1700 h before ingesting either a non-caloric artificially-sweetened placebo solution (CHO-DEFICIT) or a 15% carbohydrate solution (CHO-REPLACE; 221.4 ± 59.3 g maltodextrin) to precisely replace the measured quantity of carbohydrate oxidized during exercise. The alternate treatment was then applied one week later in a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded crossover design. A standardized low-carbohydrate evening meal was consumed in both trials before overnight recovery ahead of a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the following morning to assess glycemic and insulinemic responses to feeding. Compared to the CHO-DEFICIT condition, CHO-REPLACE increased the incremental area under the plasma glucose curve by a mean difference of 68 mmol·L−1 (95% CI: 4 to 132 mmol·L−1; p = 0.040) and decreased the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index by a mean difference of −2 au (95% CI: −1 to −3 au; p = 0.001). This is the first study to demonstrate that post-exercise feeding to replaceme the carbohydrate expended during exercise can attenuate glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity the following morning. The mechanism through which exercise improves insulin sensitivity is therefore (at least in part) dependent on carbohydrate availability and so the day-to-day metabolic health benefits of exercise might be best attained by maintaining a carbohydrate deficit overnight. PMID:29370143

  4. Alcohol Consumption Reduction Among a Web-Based Supportive Community Using the Hello Sunday Morning Blog Platform: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Briony; Moore, Jamie Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse is a major social and public health issue in Australia, with an estimated cost to the community of Aus $30 billion per annum. Until recently, a major barrier in addressing this significant public health issue is the fact that the majority of individuals with alcohol use disorders and alcohol misuse are not receiving treatment. Objective This study aimed to assess whether alcohol consumption changes are associated with participation in Hello Sunday Morning’s blog platform, an online forum discussing experiences in abstaining from alcohol. Methods The study reports on Hello Sunday Morning participants who signed up for a 3-month period of abstinence from November 2009 to November 2016. The sample comprised 1917 participants (female: 1227/1917, 64.01%; male: 690/1917, 35.99%). Main outcome measures were Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores, mood, program engagement metrics, and slip-ups. Results Individuals who reported hazardous (preprogram AUDIT mean 11.92, SD 2.25) and harmful consumption levels (preprogram AUDIT mean 17.52, SD 1.08) and who engaged in the Hello Sunday Morning program reported a significant decrease in alcohol consumption, moving to lower risk consumption levels (hazardous, mean 7.59, SD 5.70 and harmful, mean 10.38, SD 7.43), 4 months following program commencement (P<.001). Those who reported high-risk or dependent consumption levels experienced the biggest reduction (preprogram mean 25.38, SD 4.20), moving to risky consumption (mean 15.83, SD 11.11), 4 months following program commencement (P<.001). These reductions in risk were maintained by participants in each group, 7 months following program commencement. Furthermore, those who engaged in the program more (as defined by more sign-ins, blogs posted, check-ins completed, and engagement with the community through likes and following) had lower alcohol consumption. Finally, those who experienced more slip-ups had lower alcohol consumption

  5. Hearing the signal of dark sectors with gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Khoze, Valentin V.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by advanced LIGO (aLIGO)'s recent discovery of gravitational waves, we discuss signatures of new physics that could be seen at ground- and space-based interferometers. We show that a first-order phase transition in a dark sector would lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal at future experiments, if the phase transition has occurred at temperatures few orders of magnitude higher than the electroweak scale. The source of gravitational waves in this case is associated with the dynamics of expanding and colliding bubbles in the early universe. At the same time we point out that topological defects, such as dark sector domain walls, may generate a detectable signal already at aLIGO. Both bubble and domain-wall scenarios are sourced by semiclassical configurations of a dark new physics sector. In the first case, the gravitational wave signal originates from bubble wall collisions and subsequent turbulence in hot plasma in the early universe, while the second case corresponds to domain walls passing through the interferometer at present and is not related to gravitational waves. We find that aLIGO at its current sensitivity can detect smoking-gun signatures from domain-wall interactions, while future proposed experiments including the fifth phase of aLIGO at design sensitivity can probe dark sector phase transitions.

  6. Under soggy skies on a Sunday morning, the Space Shuttle Endeavour is encased in the Mate-DeMate gantry during turnaround processing at NASA DFRC

    2008-12-07

    Under soggy skies on a Sunday morning, the Space Shuttle Endeavour is encased in the Mate-DeMate gantry during turnaround processing at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center following its STS-126 landing at Edwards Air Force Base a week earlier.

  7. Morning nutrition and executive function processes in preadolescents: modulation of frontal event-related theta, beta and gamma EEG oscillations during a go/ no-go task

    Executive functions (i.e., goal-directed behavior such as inhibition and flexibility of action) have been linked to frontal brain regions and to covariations in oscillatory brain activity, e.g., theta and gamma activity. We studied the effects of morning nutritional status on executive function rel...

  8. The Growing Trend of Reading Movements in Japan: Animacion a la Lectura, Ten-Minutes Reading in the Morning, and Reading Aloud by Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Sachiko

    This study examines the growing trend of reading movements in Japan and their origins. There are three main movements: Animacion a la Lectura; Ten-Minutes Reading in the Morning; and Reading Aloud by Parents in schools. This paper reports on the three movements from a review of the literature, personal observations, and practice. The paper…

  9. Influence of Parallel Dark Matter Sectors on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challa, Venkata Sai Sreeharsha

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is a phenomenological theory that describes the synthesis of light nuclei after a few seconds of the cosmic time in the primordial universe. The twelve nuclear reactions in the first few seconds of the cosmic history are constrained by factors such as baryon to photon ratio, number of neutrino families, and present day element abundances. The belief that the expansion of the universe must be slowed down by gravity, was defeated by the recent observation of an accelerated expansion of the universe. Friedmann equations, which describe the cosmic dynamics, need to be revised considering also the existence of dark matter, another recent astronomical observation. The effects of multiple parallel universes of dark matter (dark sectors) on the accelerated expansion of the universe are studied. Collectively, these additional effects will lead to a new cosmological model. We had developed a numerical code on BBN to address the effects of such dark sectors on the abundances of all the light elements. We have studied the effect of degrees of freedom of dark-matter in the early universe on primordial abundances of light elements. The predicted abundances of light elements are compared with observed constraints to obtain bounds on the number of dark sectors, NDM. Comparison of the obtained results with the observations during the BBN epoch shows that the number of dark matter sectors are only loosely constrained, and the dark matter sectors are colder than the ordinary matter sectors. Also, we verified that the existence of parallel dark matter sectors with colder temperatures does not affect the constraints set by observations on the number of neutrino families, Nnu .

  10. New Directions in Intercultural Early Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda; Petriwskyj, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Early education in Australia encompasses both early education and care (ECEC) and the early years of school. Educational approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity have varied not only by sector but also by jurisdiction based on distinct curriculum frameworks and policies. In Australian early education, provision for cultural and linguistic…

  11. Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly

    This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…

  12. Interplanetary sector boundaries, 1971 - 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, L.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1979-01-01

    Eighteen interplanetary sector boundary crossings observed at 1 AU by the magnetometer on the IMP-6 spacecraft are discussed. The events were examined on many different time scales ranging from days on either side of the boundary to high resolution measurements of 12.5 vectors per second. Two categories of boundaries were found, one group being relatively thin and the other being thick. In many cases the field vector rotated in a plane from one polarity to the other. Only two of the transitions were null sheets. Using the minimum variance analysis to determine the normals to the plane of rotation, and assuming that this is the same as the normal to the sector boundary surface, it was found that the normals were close to the ecliptic plane. An analysis of tangential discontinuities contained in 4-day periods about the events showed that their orientations were generally not related to the orientations of the sector boundary surface, but rather their characteristics were about the same as those for discontinuities outside the sector boundaries.

  13. China’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Technology Park ...................................................................................... 25 National Program 2006–2020 for the Development of...China’s Technology Sector 3 program of developing coorbital ASAT interceptors using microsatellites...D funding has proceeded according to Premier Wen Jiabao’s 15-year S&T plan, the National Program 2006–2020 for the Development of Science and

  14. Collaborating with the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    private sector, laws, Patriot Act, FISA, FAR, Intellectual Property, Antitrust Law, Title 10, Title 50, FOIA, FACA, data classification, culture...33 Intellectual Property...Patriot Act) Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Intellectual Property Antitrust Law Title 10

  15. Mobilizing the private sector. Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ferraz-tabor, L

    1993-12-01

    The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.

  16. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  17. Relationship between body mass index with dietary fiber intake and skinfolds--differences among bodybuilders who train during morning and nocturne period.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, J C V; Pimentel, G D; Sousa, M V

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight individuals has increased in recent years. Moreover, the importance of a healthy diet is associated with the practice of physical activity and attempt to verify the achievement of physical exercise influences on food choice. However, it relationship between food intake and physical activity have not been studied. To evaluate if the period in which the trainings are conducted, morning and nocturne, interfere qualitatively and quantitatively in food consumption as well as verify possible associations between anthropometric profiles and dietary habits. We collected data from 33 adult volunteers, between men and women, practitioners of bodybuilding. A total of 33 volunteers were interviewed (18 (54.5%) were men and 15 (45.5%) were women). Regarding anthropometric data, it turns out that that the volunteers of the two periods had similar characteristics, differentiating only weight. The consumption of nutritional supplements was observed in 30.77% of the practitioners in the morning period vs. 35% for the nocturne. Considering macronutrient intake, there was a significant difference in the consumption of protein between the periods. The consumption during nocturne period was greater (126 ± 5% of the daily requirement) than the morning period (115.7 ± 2%). As for micro-nutrients, calcium intake was greater among men when compared to women. There was a positive correlation between the BMI, and arm circumference for practitioners of the morning period. This study show that the practitioners who train in the morning have quietly better eating habits than those in the nocturne period, however both are inappropriate.

  18. Relevance to Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Protocol of Blood Pressure Measurements Taken Before First-Morning Micturition and in the Afternoon

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Antonio Eduardo Monteiro; Stein, Ricardo; Gus, Miguel; Nascimento, João Agnaldo; Belli, Karlyse Claudino; Arévalo, Jorge Rene Garcia; Fuchs, Flávio Dani

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of measuring blood pressure before morning micturition and in the afternoon, while working, is yet to be established in relation to the accuracy of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM). Objective: To compare two HBPM protocols, considering 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (wakefulness ABPM) as gold-standard and measurements taken before morning micturition (BM) and in the afternoon (AM), for the best diagnosis of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), and their association with prognostic markers. Methods After undergoing 24-hour wakefulness ABPM, 158 participants (84 women) were randomized for 3- or 5-day HBPM. Two variations of the 3-day protocol were considered: with measurements taken before morning micturition and in the afternoon (BM+AM); and with post-morning-micturition and evening measurements (PM+EM). All patients underwent echocardiography (for left ventricular hypertrophy - LVH) and urinary albumin measurement (for microalbuminuria - MAU). Result Kappa statistic for the diagnosis of SAH between wakefulness-ABPM and standard 3-day HBPM, 3-day HBPM (BM+AM) and (PM+EM), and 5-day HBPM were 0.660, 0.638, 0.348 and 0.387, respectively. The values of sensitivity of (BM+AM) versus (PM+EM) were 82.6% × 71%, respectively, and of specificity, 84.8% × 74%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 69.1% × 40% and 92.2% × 91.2%, respectively. The comparisons of intraclass correlations for the diagnosis of LVH and MAU between (BM+AM) and (PM+EM) were 0.782 × 0.474 and 0.511 × 0.276, respectively. Conclusions The 3 day-HBPM protocol including measurements taken before morning micturition and during work in the afternoon showed the best agreement with SAH diagnosis and the best association with prognostic markers. PMID:25352508

  19. Use of 0.1% chlorine dioxide to inhibit the formation of morning volatile sulphur compounds (VSC).

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Jandiroba, Priscila Fontoura Castelo Branco; Nogueira Filho, Getulio da Rocha

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the VSC-inhibiting effect of a commercially available mouthrinse (0.1% chlorine dioxide) when compared to its placebo. A 2-step double blind, crossover, randomised study was conducted with 14 dental students with healthy periodontium, who refrained from any mechanical plaque and tongue coating control during two 4-day experimental periods. The subjects were instructed to rinse 3 times daily with the assigned product during each period. A 7-day washout interval was established. VSCs levels were measured by a sulphide monitor at the beginning (baseline) and at the end of each experimental period. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon's and Mann-Whitney's non-parametric tests. At baseline, intragroup analysis revealed that VSCs levels did not differ between groups (p > 0.05); at day 5, the use of the chlorine dioxide mouthrinse did not change the baseline VSCs scores in the control group (p > 0.05), while a 2-fold increase was observed with the use of the placebo mouthrinse (p < 0.05). Intergroup analysis showed a significant difference between the VSCs levels of the test and control groups (40.2 +/- 30.72 and 82.3 +/- 75.63 ppb, p < 0.001) at day 5. Within the limits of this study, the findings suggest that a mouthrinse containing chlorine dioxide can maintain VSCs at lower levels in the morning breath.

  20. Frequency and types of foods advertised on Saturday morning and weekday afternoon English- and Spanish-language American television programs.

    PubMed

    Bell, Robert A; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina

    2009-01-01

    To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering to Spanish-language, children, youth, Black youth, and general audiences were analyzed. Each advertisement was coded for the nature of the item promoted, the selling propositions used, and any nutritional claims made. Cross-tabulations using Fisher's exact test (P < .05 criterion). One-fifth of commercials were for food. Food ads were especially prevalent on Saturday programs and children's networks. Seventy percent of food ads were for items high in sugar or fat. More than one fourth of food advertisements were for fast-food restaurants, which were especially common on MTV and Spanish-language networks. Ads for fruits and vegetables were rare (1.7%). One nutrition-related public service announcement was found for every 63 food ads. Food advertisements continue to promote less-healthful items. Until marketing of high calorie, low-nutrient food to children is restricted, education and media literacy remain the best strategies for mitigating advertising effects.

  1. Immunohistochemistry of active gibberellins and gibberellin-inducible alpha-amylase in developing seeds of morning glory.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Akira; Park, Seijin; Zheng-Jun, Xu; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2002-07-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds of morning glory (Pharbitis nil) were quantified and localized by immunostaining. The starch grains began to be digested after the GA contents had increased and reached a plateau. Immunohistochemical staining with the antigibberellin A(1)-methyl ester-antiserum, which has high affinity to biologically active GAs, showed that GA(1) and/or GA(3) were localized around starch grains in the integument of developing young seeds, suggesting the participation of GA-inducible alpha-amylase in this digestion. We isolated an alpha-amylase cDNA (PnAmy1) that was expressed in the immature seeds, and using an antibody raised against recombinant protein, it was shown that PnAmy1 was expressed in the immature seeds. GA responsiveness of PnAmy1 was shown by treating the young fruits 9 d after anthesis with GA(3). RNA-blot and immunoblot analyses showed that PnAmy1 emerged soon after the rapid increase of GA(1/3). An immunohistochemical analysis of PnAmy1 showed that it, like the seed GA(1/3), was also localized around starch grains in the integument of developing young seeds. The localization of GA(1/3) in the integument coincident with the expression of PnAmy1 suggests that both function as part of a process to release sugars for translocation or for the further development of the seeds.

  2. Immunohistochemistry of Active Gibberellins and Gibberellin-Inducible α-Amylase in Developing Seeds of Morning Glory1

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Akira; Park, Seijin; Zheng-Jun, Xu; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2002-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds of morning glory (Pharbitis nil) were quantified and localized by immunostaining. The starch grains began to be digested after the GA contents had increased and reached a plateau. Immunohistochemical staining with the antigibberellin A1-methyl ester-antiserum, which has high affinity to biologically active GAs, showed that GA1 and/or GA3 were localized around starch grains in the integument of developing young seeds, suggesting the participation of GA-inducible α-amylase in this digestion. We isolated an α-amylase cDNA (PnAmy1) that was expressed in the immature seeds, and using an antibody raised against recombinant protein, it was shown that PnAmy1 was expressed in the immature seeds. GA responsiveness of PnAmy1 was shown by treating the young fruits 9 d after anthesis with GA3. RNA-blot and immunoblot analyses showed that PnAmy1 emerged soon after the rapid increase of GA1/3. An immunohistochemical analysis of PnAmy1 showed that it, like the seed GA1/3, was also localized around starch grains in the integument of developing young seeds. The localization of GA1/3 in the integument coincident with the expression of PnAmy1 suggests that both function as part of a process to release sugars for translocation or for the further development of the seeds. PMID:12114559

  3. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency with unique pituitary dysplasia and morning glory syndrome related to a heterozygous PROKR2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Yumi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Sato, Takeshi; Aida, Noriko; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent reports have indicated the role of the prokineticin receptor 2 gene (PROKR2) in the etiology of congenital hypopituitarism, including septo-optic dysplasia and Kallmann syndrome. In the present study, using next-generation targeted sequencing, we identified a novel heterozygous PROKR2 variant (c.742C>T; p.R248W) in a female patient who had combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), morning glory syndrome and a severely malformed pituitary gland. No other mutation was present in 27 genes related to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, pituitary hormone deficiency and optic nerve malformation. The substituted amino acid was located on the third intracellular loop of the PROKR2 protein, which is a G protein-coupled receptor. Computational analyses with two programs (SIFT and PolyPhen-2) showed that the substitution was deleterious to PROKR2 function. The p.R248W mutation was transmitted from the patient’s mother, who had a slightly delayed menarche. Collectively, we provide further genetic evidence linking heterozygous PROKR2 mutations and the development of CPHD. PMID:25678757

  4. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency with unique pituitary dysplasia and morning glory syndrome related to a heterozygous PROKR2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yumi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Sato, Takeshi; Aida, Noriko; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated the role of the prokineticin receptor 2 gene (PROKR2) in the etiology of congenital hypopituitarism, including septo-optic dysplasia and Kallmann syndrome. In the present study, using next-generation targeted sequencing, we identified a novel heterozygous PROKR2 variant (c.742C>T; p.R248W) in a female patient who had combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), morning glory syndrome and a severely malformed pituitary gland. No other mutation was present in 27 genes related to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, pituitary hormone deficiency and optic nerve malformation. The substituted amino acid was located on the third intracellular loop of the PROKR2 protein, which is a G protein-coupled receptor. Computational analyses with two programs (SIFT and PolyPhen-2) showed that the substitution was deleterious to PROKR2 function. The p.R248W mutation was transmitted from the patient's mother, who had a slightly delayed menarche. Collectively, we provide further genetic evidence linking heterozygous PROKR2 mutations and the development of CPHD.

  5. Time to first cigarette in the morning as an index of ability to quit smoking: Implications for nicotine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Smith, Stevens S.; Kim, Su-Young; Colby, Suzanne; Conti, David; Giovino, Gary A.; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hyland, Andrew; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Niaura, Raymond; Perkins, Kenneth A.; Toll, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to maintain abstinence is a key indicator of tobacco dependence. Unfortunately, little evidence exists regarding the ability of the major tobacco dependence measures to predict smoking cessation outcome. This paper used data from four placebo-controlled smoking cessation trials and one international epidemiologic study to determine relations between the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Heatherton et al., 1991), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI; Kozlowski et al., 1994), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS; Shiffman et al., 2004) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM; Piper et al. 2004) with cessation success. Results showed that much of the predictive validity of the FTND could be attributed to its first item, time to first cigarette in the morning, and this item had greater validity than any other single measure. Thus, the time to first cigarette item appears to tap a pattern of heavy, uninterrupted, and automatic smoking and may be a good single-item measure of nicotine dependence. PMID:18067032

  6. Daily Variations in Objective Nighttime Sleep and Subjective Morning Pain in Older Adults with Insomnia: Evidence of Covariation Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Williams, Jacob M.; Roditi, Daniela; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin; McNamara, Joseph; Dautovich, Natalie; Robinson, Michael E.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured nocturnal sleep and subjective report of morning pain in older adults with insomnia. The goal of the paper was to not only examine the sleep-pain association between-persons (mean-level over 14 days), but also to investigate the within-person, day-to-day association. Design Cross-sectional. Setting North-Central Florida. Participants Fifty community-dwelling older adults (Mage = 69.10 years, SDage = 7.02 years, range = 60 – 90 years) with insomnia participated in the study. Measurements This study employed daily home-based assessment utilizing nightly actigraphic measurement of sleep and daily self-report of pain. Measures were completed over fourteen consecutive days. Results Between persons, average sleep over 14 days was not associated with average levels of rated pain. However, following a night in which an older adult with insomnia experienced above-average total sleep time s/he subsequently reported below-average pain ratings. The model explained approximately 24% of the within-person and 8% of the between-person variance in pain ratings. Conclusions Sleep and pain show day-to-day associations (i.e., covary over time) in older adults with insomnia. Such associations may suggest that common physiological systems underlie both the experience of insomnia and pain. Future research should examine the crossover effects of sleep treatment on pain and of pain treatment on sleep. PMID:20406316

  7. The Morning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, Scott

    2004-01-01

    It was fourteen years ago and I remember it well. It seemed that the right hand didn't know what the left was doing. It was crazy. Starsys was only eight people and deadlines were being missed because someone didn't know what someone else needed. How could a handful of people be this disconnected? Maybe a daily meeting would help. Little did I know that we were initiating a process that would last for two decades. The idea was simple: a short, all-hands meeting once a day to maintain the week's actions item list. Not too tough a challenge with eight folks, but quite a challenge as we grew to a 140-person company.

  8. The Morning After.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John H.

    1996-01-01

    After a college or university has received the large gift it has solicited, there are still a variety of follow-through tasks to attend to, including considering an appropriate sign of appreciation, notifying campus officials and encouraging them to send thank-you notes, creating a payment schedule, keeping the donor apprised of progress toward…

  9. Magical Morning Birds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Cynthia Cox

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson where second- and third-grade students draw imaginary birds after examining pictures of real birds to get ideas for various poses. Explains the use of colors where the students learn to blend colors using an art technique called "rainbow order." (CMK)

  10. Reflections on science and the communication sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raes, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Reflections on science and the communication sector. In this contribution I will reflect about successes and failures in communicating climate change and air pollution sciences to the general public. These communication efforts included writing popular articles, giving public presentations, working with people from the social scientists and artists. Giving the fact that communication is a very important (economic) sector on its own, the question is to what extent scientists should enter that sector, whether scientists are at all accepted in that sector, whether they should use the expertise in that sector, or whether they should merely provide the knowledge to be used by that sector.

  11. Community Partnerships: Integrating Early Education with Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhead, Pat; Armistead, Jo

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on research into a Local Authority initiative in York, in North Yorkshire which aimed to establish early education and childcare partnerships between its 51 primary schools and local early-years providers from the community-voluntary and private sectors in close geographical proximity to the schools. The initiative was named…

  12. Sleep and Alertness Management III: Effects of a Nap and Hypnotics on Performance During the Late Evening, Night and Early Morning in Marmosets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    positive reinforcement as a motivating stimulus (small pieces of marshmallow ) has been used to asses the HEC [Philippens et al. 2000]. The marmoset...apparatus using positive reinforcement as a motivating stimulus for the animals (small pieces of marshmallow ) has been used to asses the Hand-eye

  13. Effects of strategic early-morning caffeine gum administration on association between salivary alpha-amylase and neurobehavioural performance during 50 h of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pajcin, Maja; White, Jason M; Banks, Siobhan; Dorrian, Jill; Paech, Gemma M; Grant, Crystal L; Johnson, Kayla; Tooley, Katie; Aidman, Eugene; Fidock, Justin; Kamimori, Gary H; Della Vedova, Chris B

    2018-02-02

    Self-assessment is the most common method for monitoring performance and safety in the workplace. However, discrepancies between subjective and objective measures have increased interest in physiological assessment of performance. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 23 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either a placebo (n = 11; 5 F, 6 M) or caffeine condition (n = 12; 4 F, 8 M) while undergoing 50 h (i.e. two days) of total sleep deprivation. In previous work, higher salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were associated with improved psychomotor vigilance and simulated driving performance in the placebo condition. In this follow-up article, the effects of strategic caffeine administration on the previously reported diurnal profiles of sAA and performance, and the association between sAA and neurobehavioural performance were investigated. Participants were given a 10 h baseline sleep opportunity (monitored via standard polysomnography techniques) prior to undergoing sleep deprivation (total sleep time: placebo = 8.83 ± 0.48 h; caffeine = 9.01 ± 0.48 h). During sleep deprivation, caffeine gum (200 mg) was administered at 01:00 h, 03:00 h, 05:00 h, and 07:00 h to participants in the caffeine condition (n = 12). This strategic administration of caffeine gum (200 mg) has been shown to be effective at maintaining cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Saliva samples were collected, and psychomotor vigilance and simulated driving performance assessed at three-hour intervals throughout wakefulness. Caffeine effects on diurnal variability were compared with previously reported findings in the placebo condition (n = 11). The impact of caffeine on the circadian profile of sAA coincided with changes in neurobehavioural performance. Higher sAA levels were associated with improved performance on the psychomotor vigilance test during the first 24 h of wakefulness in the caffeine condition. However, only the association between sAA and response speed (i.e. reciprocal-transform of mean reaction time) was consistent across both days of sleep deprivation. The association between sAA and driving performance was not consistent across both days of sleep deprivation. Results show that the relationship between sAA and reciprocal-transform of mean reaction time on the psychomotor vigilance test persisted in the presence of caffeine, however the association was relatively weaker as compared with the placebo condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. North America's wood pellet sector

    Henry Spelter; Daniel Toth

    2009-01-01

    The North American wood pellet sector is profiled in this paper. A small pellet industry has existed since the 1930s, but its main growth occurred in the wake of the energy crisis in the 1970s. Its current spurt is even greater, growing from is set to reach 6.2 million in 2009. Most plants are small, relying on sawmill residues for fiber and thus are limited to 100,000...

  15. Private Sector Engagement: An Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, G.

    2016-12-01

    Public health organizations serve as scientific societies as a major part of their core mission. In addition, mobilizing partners to identify health threats and to work collaboratively to improve community health involves engagement of a variety of partners including those in the private sector. Increased concerns about conflicts of interest, transparency and undue influence are emerging as a major concern. This presentation will explore one framework for decision making to minimize risks and enhancing independence in scientific inquiry and public health programming.

  16. Ukrain’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    provided a report entitled “ A Science Profile of Ukraine,” which contained a great deal of background material on the Ukrainian S&T sector unavailable...direction.7 Ukraine is a republic, with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The country consists of 24 provinces (oblasti), one ... the Supreme Council (Verkhovna Rada), is a unicameral body with 450 seats. Supreme Council members, allocated on a proportional basis to those

  17. Inflammatory Pathway Genes Associated with Inter-Individual Variability in the Trajectories of Morning and Evening Fatigue in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Hammer, Marilyn; Paul, Steven M.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Kober, Kord M.; Conley, Yvette P.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Dunn, Laura B.; Levine, Jon D.; Melkus, Gail DEramo; Miaskowski, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue, a highly prevalent and distressing symptom during chemotherapy (CTX), demonstrates diurnal and interindividual variability in severity. Little is known about the associations between variations in genes involved in inflammatory processes and morning and evening fatigue severity during CTX. The purposes of this study, in a sample of oncology patients (N=543) with breast, gastrointestinal (GI), gynecological (GYN), or lung cancer who received two cycles of CTX, were to determine whether variations in genes involved in inflammatory processes were associated with inter-individual variability in initial levels as well as in the trajectories of morning and evening fatigue. Patients completed the Lee Fatigue Scale to determine morning and evening fatigue severity a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Using a whole exome array, 309 single nucleotide polymorphisms among the 64 candidate genes that passed all quality control filters were evaluated using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Based on the results of the HLM analyses, the final SNPs were evaluated for their potential impact on protein function using two bioinformational tools. The following inflammatory pathways were represented: chemokines (3 genes); cytokines (12 genes); inflammasome (11 genes); Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT, 10 genes); mitogen-activated protein kinase/jun amino-terminal kinases (MAPK/JNK, 3 genes); nuclear factor-kappa beta (NFkB, 18 genes); and NFkB and MAP/JNK (7 genes). After controlling for self-reported and genomic estimates of race and ethnicity, polymorphisms in six genes from the cytokine (2 genes); inflammasome (2 genes); and NFkB (2 genes) pathways were associated with both morning and evening fatigue. Polymorphisms in six genes from the inflammasome (1 gene); JAK/STAT (1 gene); and NFkB (4 genes) pathways were associated with only morning fatigue. Polymorphisms in three genes from the inflammasome (2 genes) and the NFkB (1

  18. [On the health sector crisis].

    PubMed

    Lopez Sarmiento, A

    1997-09-01

    The chronic crisis in Ecuador's health sector is an indication of the general deterioration of the country, whose multiple unmet needs signify a condition of underdevelopment. Theorizing on health problems should not be allowed to substitute for action. Developing a health policy giving priority to the most disadvantaged sectors will require a development model with a participatory character that promotes equity and solidarity and does not benefit the macroeconomy exclusively. The political will of all sectors must be committed to development of a national health system. A well-coordinated regional system of services, comprising integrated levels of care with functioning referral systems, is needed. The existing network of services must be made to function effectively, without strikes or suspension of activities. The government has a constitutional, legal, and moral obligation to provide health care. Ecuador directs about 6% of the gross national product to health, with 1.6% financing the Ministry of Public Health, which attends to at least 60% of the population. A country like Ecuador--with a very poor population--should not require copayment for services. Ecuador needs an environmental policy to guarantee a healthy food supply, treat sewage, and control use of pesticides--measures which will reduce health care costs in the long run. Finally, it is necessary to improve attention to the human values of medical practice.

  19. Effects of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), present in dentifrice, on volatile sulphur compound (VSC) formation in morning bad breath.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Salvador, Sérgio Luis; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; da Nogueira-Filho, Getúlio Rocha

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), present in a commercial dentifrice, on the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) and tongue coating in a panel of periodontally healthy subjects. A two-step blinded, crossover, randomized study was carried out in 25 dental students with healthy periodontium; these were divided into two experimental groups: SLS (dentifrice with SLS) and WSLS (dentifrice without SLS). The volunteers received the designated dentifrice and a new toothbrush for a 3x/day brushing regimen for 2 periods of 30 days. A seven-day washout interval was used between the periods. The assessed parameters were: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), organoleptic breath (ORG), VSC levels by portable sulphide monitor before (H1) and after (H2) cleaning of the tongue, tongue coating wet weight (TC) and benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA) test from tongue coating samples. The intra-group analysis showed a decrease in the median of organoleptic scores from 3 to 2 after 30 days for the SLS group (p < 0.05). The inter-group analysis showed lower values in ORG and H1 for the SLS group (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the amount of TC in SLS and WSLS groups. In the BANA test, the presence of SLS did not affect the BANA number of +/- results (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), present in dentifrice, appears to prevent VSC formation in morning bad breath regardless of the amount of tongue coating in periodontally healthy subjects.

  20. Adrenal suppression in patients taking inhaled glucocorticoids is highly prevalent and management can be guided by morning cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Conor P; Argese, Nicola; Chapman, Matthew; Boot, Christopher; Webster, Rachel; Dabhi, Vijay; Grossman, Ashley B; Toogood, Andrew A; Arlt, Wiebke; Stewart, Paul M; Crowley, Rachel K; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2015-01-01

    Context Up to 3% of US and UK populations are prescribed glucocorticoids (GC). Suppression of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis with the potential risk of adrenal crisis is a recognized complication of therapy. The 250 μg short Synacthen stimulation test (SST) is the most commonly used dynamic assessment to diagnose adrenal insufficiency. There are challenges to the use of the SST in routine clinical practice, including both the staff and time constraints and a significant recent increase in Synacthen cost. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis to determine the prevalence of adrenal suppression due to prescribed GCs and the utility of a morning serum cortisol for rapid assessment of adrenal reserve in the routine clinical setting. Results In total, 2773 patients underwent 3603 SSTs in a large secondary/tertiary centre between 2008 and 2013 and 17.9% (n=496) failed the SST. Of 404 patients taking oral, topical, intranasal or inhaled GC therapy for non-endocrine conditions, 33.2% (n=134) had a subnormal SST response. In patients taking inhaled GCs without additional GC therapy, 20.5% (34/166) failed an SST and suppression of adrenal function increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in patients currently taking inhaled GCs, a basal cortisol ≥348 nmol/l provided 100% specificity for passing the SST; a cortisol value <34 nmol/l had 100% sensitivity for SST failure. Using these cut-offs, 50% (n=83) of SSTs performed on patients prescribed inhaled GCs were unnecessary. Conclusion Adrenal suppression due to GC treatment, particularly inhaled GCs, is common. A basal serum cortisol concentration has utility in helping determine which patients should undergo dynamic assessment of adrenal function. PMID:26294794

  1. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength–enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety. PMID:25535358

  2. High morning blood pressure surge is associated with oxidative stress and paraoxonase 1 activity in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Kaypaklı, Onur; Gür, Mustafa; Harbalıoğlu, Hazar; Şeker, Taner; Selek, Şahabettin

    Both oxidative stress and morning surge (MS) of blood pressure (BP) were found to be closely related with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated the association between MS of BP and oxidative stress in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. We prospectively included 237 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in the present study (mean age: 51.6 ± 11.7 years). The patients were classified according to the extent of the sleep-through surge as follows: the top decile of sleep-through surge (>47.2 mmHg, n = 27; EMShigh group), versus all others (n = 210, EMSlow group). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined by using an automated measurement method. The oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated as the ratio of TOS to TAC. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Patients in EMShigh group were found to have higher hs-CRP, TOS, and OSI values and lower TAC and PON-1 values (p < 0.01, for all). MS of BP was associated with hs-CRP, PON-1, TOS, TAC, and OSI levels in bivariate analysis. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that MS of BP was significantly associated with PON-1(β = -0.206, p < 0.001), OSI (β = 0.602, p < 0.001) and hs-CRP (β = 0.210, p < 0.001). Present study shows that OSI is increased and antioxidant PON-1 activity is decreased in patients with enhanced MS of BP. There is a close association between high MS of BP and oxidative stress markers in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

  3. How private vehicle use increases ambient air pollution concentrations at schools during the morning drop-off of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Requia, Weeberb J.

    2017-09-01

    A child's exposure to environmental pollutants can have life-long health effects. Thus it is critical to understand the potential exposure pathways. In this paper, we examine the increase in ambient PM2.5 concentrations at schools from private vehicle use for dropping children off at school. In North America, students are commonly driven to school in a private vehicle. Additionally, students walk or cycle, or take a school bus. Our vehicle surveys recorded between 23 and 116 personal vehicles at 25 schools, where enrolment ranged from 160 to 765 students. We fit a linear regression model to predict the number of vehicles at schools we did not observe within our study area, which explained 57% of the variation in our surveys. A microsimulation traffic model was created for each of the 86 schools we studied. Outputs from the traffic model were used to determine the emissions generated at each school. PM2.5 emissions varied from 0.14 to 6.38 g. Lastly, we dispersed the emissions produced by private vehicles dropping off students, which are emissions generated by unnecessary trips because students further than walking distance are provided transportation by the school board. At the drop-off location in front of the school, we found ambient concentration increases of at least 5 μg/m3, 10 μg/m3, 25 μg/m3 and 50 μg/m3 during 16.8%, 7.6%, 2.0% and 0.5% of the mornings, respectively. This research was conducted in a medium-sized North American city and should allow transferability to similar cities. We conclude that the use of private vehicles can significantly increase local concentrations, regardless of background conditions.

  4. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A

    2015-01-27

    In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength-enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety.

  5. Self- and rater-assessed effectiveness of "thinking-aloud" and "regular" morning report to intensify young physicians' clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chi; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Yang, Ying-Ying; Tsao, Yen-Po; Lee, Wen-Shin; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Huang, Chia-Chang; Huang, Chin-Chou; Ho, Shung-Tai

    2015-09-01

    This study compared the effects of the "thinking aloud" (TA) morning report (MR), which is characterized by sequential and interactive case discussion by all participants, with "regular" MR for clinical skill training of young physicians. Between February 2011 and February 2014, young physicians [including postgraduate year-1 (PGY1) residents, interns, and clerks) from our hospital were sequentially enrolled and followed for 3 months. The self- and rater-assessed educational values of two MR models for building up clinical skills of young physicians were compared. The junior (intern and clerk) attendees had higher self-assessed educational values scores and reported post-training application frequency of skills trained by TA MR compared with the senior (PGY1 resident) attendees. Higher average and percentage of increased overall rater-assessed OSCE scores were noted among the regular MR senior attendees and TA MR junior attendees than in their corresponding control groups (regular MR junior attendees and TA MR senior attendees). Interestingly, regular MRs provided additional beneficial effects for establishing the "professionalism, consulting skills and organization efficiency" aspects of clinical skills of senior/junior attendees. Moreover, senior and junior attendees benefited the most by participating in seven sessions of regular MR and TA MR each month, respectively. TA MR effectively trains junior attendees in basic clinical skills, whereas regular MR enhances senior attendees' "work reports, professionalism, organizational efficiency, skills in dealing with controversial and professional issues." Undoubtedly, all elements of the two MR models should be integrated together to ensure patient safety and good discipline among young physicians. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... biological, economic, and social impacts of sectors and their fishing operations consistent with confidentiality requirements of applicable law. (vii) Interaction with other fisheries—(A) Use of DAS. A sector...

  7. Private sector data for performance management.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and analyzes technical and institutional issues associated with the use of private sector travel time and speed data for public sector performance management. The primary data needs for congestion performance measures are outline...

  8. Chronic Scandal in the American Proprietary School Sector: A Historical Perspective on Why Treatments Have Not Provided a Cure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honick, Craig

    Since the late 19th century, the proprietary school sector in the United States has undergone four major cycles of scandal and reform: the emergence of the commercial college sector in the 1870s, the progressive era of the early 20th century, the fallout of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill), and the period following the 1972…

  9. Privacy Issues and the Private Sector,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    GUIDE represents a large portion of the private sector of this country; at the moment, of course, the recordkeeping processes of non-Federal...the Privacy Protection Study Commission to examine the private sector and non-Federal government. The Commission is to recommend to Congress and the...President first, what aspects of the 1974 Act should be applied to the private sector ; secondly, to recommend to Congress and the President what further legislative safeguards are indicated for the private sector .

  10. Engaging the private sector in malaria surveillance: a review of strategies and recommendations for elimination settings.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Adam; Avanceña, Anton L V; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Cotter, Chris; Roberts, Kathryn; Gosling, Roly

    2017-06-14

    franchising, effective regulation, professional organizations and government outreach. This review highlights the importance of engaging private sector stakeholders early and often in the development of malaria elimination strategies.

  11. Lessons Learned from the Private Sector

    SciT

    Robichaud, Robert J

    This session is focused on lessons learned from private sector energy projects that could be applied to the federal sector. This presentation tees up the subsequent presentations by outlining the differences between private and federal sectors in objectives, metrics for determining success, funding resources/mechanisms, payback and ROI evaluation, risk tolerance/aversion, new technology adoption perspectives, and contracting mechanisms.

  12. The Information Sector: Definition and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Marc U.

    In the last 20 years the U.S. economy had changed as a result of the increase in production, processing, and distribution of information goods and services. Three information sectors--the primary sector producing information goods and services, the private bureaucracy, and the public bureaucracy--are part of a six-sector economy. Today,…

  13. Molecular adaptations of adipose tissue to 6 weeks of morning fasting vs. daily breakfast consumption in lean and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Javier T.; Richardson, Judith D.; Chowdhury, Enhad A.; Koumanov, Francoise; Holman, Geoffrey D.; Cooper, Scott; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Key points In lean individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases the expression of genes involved in lipid turnover (ACADM) and insulin signalling (IRS2) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue.In obese individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases IRS2 expression in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue.The content and activation status of key proteins involved in insulin signalling and glucose transport (GLUT4, Akt1 and Akt2) were unaffected by extended morning fasting. Therefore, any observations of altered adipose tissue insulin sensitivity with extended morning fasting do not necessarily require changes in insulin signalling proximal to Akt.Insulin‐stimulated adipose tissue glucose uptake rates are lower in obese versus lean individuals, but this difference is abolished when values are normalised to whole‐body fat mass. This suggests a novel hypothesis which proposes that the reduced adipose glucose uptake in obesity is a physiological down‐regulation to prevent excessive de novo lipogenesis. Abstract This study assessed molecular responses of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) to 6 weeks of morning fasting. Forty‐nine healthy lean (n = 29) and obese (n = 20) adults provided SCAT biopsies before and after 6 weeks of morning fasting (FAST; 0 kcal until 12.00 h) or daily breakfast consumption (BFAST; ≥700 kcal before 11.00 h). Biopsies were analysed for mRNA levels of selected genes, and GLUT4 and Akt protein content. Basal and insulin‐stimulated Akt activation and tissue glucose uptake rates were also determined. In lean individuals, lipid turnover and insulin signalling genes (ACADM and IRS2) were up‐regulated with FAST versus BFAST (ACADM: 1.14 (95% CI: 0.97–1.30) versus 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64–0.96), P = 0.007; IRS2: 1.75 (95% CI: 1.33–2.16) versus 1.09 (95% CI: 0.67–1.51), P = 0.03, respectively). In obese individuals, no differential (FAST versus BFAST) expression was observed in

  14. Molecular adaptations of adipose tissue to 6 weeks of morning fasting vs. daily breakfast consumption in lean and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Richardson, Judith D; Chowdhury, Enhad A; Koumanov, Francoise; Holman, Geoffrey D; Cooper, Scott; Thompson, Dylan; Tsintzas, Kostas; Betts, James A

    2018-02-15

    In lean individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases the expression of genes involved in lipid turnover (ACADM) and insulin signalling (IRS2) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. In obese individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases IRS2 expression in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. The content and activation status of key proteins involved in insulin signalling and glucose transport (GLUT4, Akt1 and Akt2) were unaffected by extended morning fasting. Therefore, any observations of altered adipose tissue insulin sensitivity with extended morning fasting do not necessarily require changes in insulin signalling proximal to Akt. Insulin-stimulated adipose tissue glucose uptake rates are lower in obese versus lean individuals, but this difference is abolished when values are normalised to whole-body fat mass. This suggests a novel hypothesis which proposes that the reduced adipose glucose uptake in obesity is a physiological down-regulation to prevent excessive de novo lipogenesis. This study assessed molecular responses of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) to 6 weeks of morning fasting. Forty-nine healthy lean (n = 29) and obese (n = 20) adults provided SCAT biopsies before and after 6 weeks of morning fasting (FAST; 0 kcal until 12.00 h) or daily breakfast consumption (BFAST; ≥700 kcal before 11.00 h). Biopsies were analysed for mRNA levels of selected genes, and GLUT4 and Akt protein content. Basal and insulin-stimulated Akt activation and tissue glucose uptake rates were also determined. In lean individuals, lipid turnover and insulin signalling genes (ACADM and IRS2) were up-regulated with FAST versus BFAST (ACADM: 1.14 (95% CI: 0.97-1.30) versus 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64-0.96), P = 0.007; IRS2: 1.75 (95% CI: 1.33-2.16) versus 1.09 (95% CI: 0.67-1.51), P = 0.03, respectively). In obese individuals, no differential (FAST versus BFAST) expression was observed in genes involved in lipid turnover (all

  15. Heart-Rate Variability During Deep Sleep in World-Class Alpine Skiers: A Time-Efficient Alternative to Morning Supine Measurements.

    PubMed

    Herzig, David; Testorelli, Moreno; Olstad, Daniela Schäfer; Erlacher, Daniel; Achermann, Peter; Eser, Prisca; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    It is increasingly popular to use heart-rate variability (HRV) to tailor training for athletes. A time-efficient method is HRV assessment during deep sleep. To validate the selection of deep-sleep segments identified by RR intervals with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and to compare HRV parameters of these segments with those of standard morning supine measurements. In 11 world-class alpine skiers, RR intervals were monitored during 10 nights, and simultaneous EEGs were recorded during 2-4 nights. Deep sleep was determined from the HRV signal and verified by delta power from the EEG recordings. Four further segments were chosen for HRV determination, namely, a 4-h segment from midnight to 4 AM and three 5-min segments: 1 just before awakening, 1 after waking in supine position, and 1 in standing after orthostatic challenge. Training load was recorded every day. A total of 80 night and 68 morning measurements of 9 athletes were analyzed. Good correspondence between the phases selected by RR intervals vs those selected by EEG was found. Concerning root-mean-squared difference of successive RR intervals (RMSSD), a marker for parasympathetic activity, the best relationship with the morning supine measurement was found in deep sleep. HRV is a simple tool for approximating deep-sleep phases, and HRV measurement during deep sleep could provide a time-efficient alternative to HRV in supine position.

  16. Effect of evening exposure to bright or dim light after daytime bright light on absorption of dietary carbohydrates the following morning.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Naoko; Sone, Yoshiaki; Tokura, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    We had previously reported on the effect of exposure to light on the human digestive system: daytime bright light exposure has a positive effect, whereas, evening bright light exposure has a negative effect on the efficiency of dietary carbohydrate absorption from the evening meal. These results prompted us to examine whether the light intensity to which subjects are exposed in the evening affects the efficiency of dietary carbohydrate absorption the following morning. In this study, subjects were exposed to either 50 lux (dim light conditions) or 2,000 lux (bright light conditions) in the evening for 9 h (from 15:00 to 24:00) after staying under bright light in the daytime (under 2,000 lux from 07:00 to 15:00). We measured unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates using the breath-hydrogen test the morning after exposure to either bright light or dim light the previous evening. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two conditions in the amount of breath hydrogen. This indicates that evening exposure to bright or dim light after bright light exposure in the daytime has no varying effect on digestion or absorption of dietary carbohydrates in the following morning's breakfast.

  17. Cognitive performance and morning levels of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase in children reporting high vs. low daily stress perception.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Enrique F; Fernandez, Francisco J; Trianes, M Victoria; Wesnes, Keith; Petrini, Orlando; Zangara, Andrea; Enguix, Alfredo; Ambrosetti, Lara

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of daily stress perception on cognitive performance and morning basal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels in healthy children aged 9-12. Participants were classified by whether they had low daily perceived stress (LPS, n = 27) or a high daily perceived stress (HPS, n = 26) using the Children Daily Stress Inventory (CDSI). Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured at awakening and 30 minutes later. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research assessment system. The HPS group exhibited significantly poorer scores on speed of memory (p < .05) and continuity of attention (p < .05) relative to the LPS group. The HPS group also showed significantly lower morning cortisol levels at awakening and at +30 minutes measures in comparison with the LPS group (p < .05), and mean morning cortisol levels were negatively correlated with speed of memory (p < .05) in the 53 participants. No significant differences were observed between both groups in alpha-amylase levels. These findings suggest that daily perceived stress in children may impoverish cognitive performance via its modulating effects on the HPA axis activity.

  18. Climate change and adaptation of the health sector: The case of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Margonari de Souza, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases form a group of health problems highly susceptible to the influences of climate. Adaptation to protect human population health from the changes in infectious disease epidemiology expected to occur as a consequence of climate change involve actions in the health systems as well as in other non-health sectors. In the health sector strategies such as enhanced and targeted epidemiological and entomological surveillance and the development of epidemic early warning systems informed by climate scenarios are needed. Measures in other sectors such as meteorology, civil defense and environmental sanitation will also contribute to a reduction in the risk of infection under climate change.

  19. Macroscopic theory of dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierovich, Boris

    A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant [1]. Space-like and time-like massive vector fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like massive vector field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves [2]. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the universe [3]. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerate expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution corresponds to the particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions in the absence of vector fields. The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows to analyse the main properties of the dark sector analytically and avoid unnecessary model assumptions. It opens a possibility to trace how the additional attraction of the space-like dark matter, dominating in the galaxy scale, transforms into the elastic repulsion of the time-like dark matter, dominating in the scale of the Universe. 1. B. E. Meierovich. "Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology". Phys. Rev. D 84, 064037 (2011). 2. B. E. Meierovich. "Galaxy rotation curves driven by massive vector fields: Key to the theory of the dark sector". Phys. Rev. D 87, 103510, (2013). 3. B. E. Meierovich. "Towards the theory of the evolution of the Universe". Phys. Rev. D 85, 123544 (2012).

  20. Dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.

  1. Too Early for Physics? Effect of Class Meeting Time on Student Evaluations of Teaching in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports observations that show a significant effect of class meeting time on student evaluations of teaching for an introductory college physics class. Students in a lecture section with an early-morning meeting time gave the class and instructors consistently lower ratings than those in an otherwise nearly identical section that met an…

  2. Inviting In the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    private sector . After all, corruption does not just involve government. Business people and lawyers and citizens pay the bribes, even as they condemn bribery. They should be invited to become part of the solution. But how? The first point to note is that business people and citizens know where corruption exists and how corrupt systems work. Citizens understand how bribery shapes the services they receive or don’t receive. Accountants know the illicit games played with audits and taxes. Lawyers understand corrupt legal practices. Business people know all about corrupt

  3. Dynamically Evolving Sectors for Convective Weather Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    A new strategy for altering existing sector boundaries in response to blocking convective weather is presented. This method seeks to improve the reduced capacity of sectors directly affected by weather by moving boundaries in a direction that offers the greatest capacity improvement. The boundary deformations are shared by neighboring sectors within the region in a manner that preserves their shapes and sizes as much as possible. This reduces the controller workload involved with learning new sector designs. The algorithm that produces the altered sectors is based on a force-deflection mesh model that needs only nominal traffic patterns and the shape of the blocking weather for input. It does not require weather-affected traffic patterns that would have to be predicted by simulation. When compared to an existing optimal sector design method, the sectors produced by the new algorithm are more similar to the original sector shapes, resulting in sectors that may be more suitable for operational use because the change is not as drastic. Also, preliminary results show that this method produces sectors that can equitably distribute the workload of rerouted weather-affected traffic throughout the region where inclement weather is present. This is demonstrated by sector aircraft count distributions of simulated traffic in weather-affected regions.

  4. Morphological and Physiological Responses of Morning Glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) Grown in a Lead- and Chelate-Amended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Murty S.; Begonia, Gregorio B.; Begonia, Maria F. T.; Bufford, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic metals in the environment and may cause drastic morphological and physiological deformities in Ipomoea lacunosa. The goal of this research was to evaluate some morphological and physiological responses of morning glory grown on a Pb- and chelate-amended soil. Soil samples were analyzed, at Mississippi State University Soil Laboratory, for physico-chemical parameters, such as soil texture (73% sand, 23% silt, 4.4% clay), organic matter (6.24 ± 0.60%), and pH (7.95 ± 0.03), to establish soil conditions at the beginning of the experiments. Five EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5mM) and four lead (0, 500, 1000, 2000mg/L) treatments were arranged in factorial in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with five replications. Duncan’s multiple comparison range test showed that the mean difference values of stomatal density were significant between 500 and 1000mg/L Pb and between 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb. Two way ANOVA (at 1% level) indicated that interaction between Pb and EDTA had a significant effect on the stomatal density and photosynthetic rates, and at 5% level Pb had a significant effect on chlorophyll concentrations. Lowest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded at 2000mg/L Pb and 5mM EDTA and exhibited a decreasing trend specifically in the ranges of 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb and 1.0 and 5.0mM EDTA. Duncan’s multiple comparison range test confirmed that mean differences between the control treatment vs. 2000mg/L Pb, and 500mg/L vs. 2000mg/L Pb were significantly different at p>0.05. There was a decrease in leaf net photosynthetic rate with increasing concentrations of Pb from 0 to 2000mg/L. In conclusion, I. lacunosa L. plants were grown to maturity in all treatments with no significant and/or apparent morphological disorders, which indicated that this species might be highly tolerant even at 2000mg/L Pb concentrations in the soil. PMID:16705831

  5. Morphological and physiological responses of morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) grown in a lead- and chelate-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, Murty S; Begonia, Gregorio B; Begonia, Maria F T; Bufford, Yolanda

    2005-08-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic metals in the environment and may cause drastic morphological and physiological deformities in Ipomoea lacunosa. The goal of this research was to evaluate some morphological and physiological responses of morning glory grown on a Pb- and chelate-amended soil. Soil samples were analyzed, at Mississippi State University Soil Laboratory, for physico-chemical parameters, such as soil texture (73% sand, 23% silt, 4.4% clay), organic matter (6.24 +/- 0.60%), and pH (7.95 +/- 0.03), to establish soil conditions at the beginning of the experiments. Five EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5mM) and four lead (0, 500, 1000, 2000mg/L) treatments were arranged in factorial in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with five replications. Duncan's multiple comparison range test showed that the mean difference values of stomatal density were significant between 500 and 1000mg/L Pb and between 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb. Two way ANOVA (at 1% level) indicated that interaction between Pb and EDTA had a significant effect on the stomatal density and photosynthetic rates, and at 5% level Pb had a significant effect on chlorophyll concentrations. Lowest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded at 2000mg/L Pb and 5mM EDTA and exhibited a decreasing trend specifically in the ranges of 1000 and 2000mg/L Pb and 1.0 and 5.0mM EDTA. Duncan's multiple comparison range test confirmed that mean differences between the control treatment vs. 2000mg/L Pb, and 500mg/L vs. 2000mg/L Pb were significantly different atp>0.05. There was a decrease in leaf net photosynthetic rate with increasing concentrations of Pb from 0 to 2000mg/L. In conclusion, I. lacunosa L. plants were grown to maturity in all treatments with no significant and/or apparent morphological disorders, which indicated that this species might be highly tolerant even at 2000mg/L Pb concentrations in the soil.

  6. Comparative effects of valsartan plus either cilnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide on home morning blood pressure surge evaluated by information and communication technology-based nocturnal home blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Tomitani, Naoko; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Kario, Kazuomi

    2018-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a valsartan/cilnidipine combination would suppress the home morning blood pressure (BP) surge (HMBPS) more effectively than a valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination in patients with morning hypertension, defined as systolic BP (SBP) ≥135 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg assessed by a self-measuring information and communication technology-based home BP monitoring device more than three times before either combination's administration. This was an 8-week prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial. The HMBPS, which is a new index, was defined as the mean morning SBP minus the mean nocturnal SBP, both measured on the same day. The authors randomly allocated 129 patients to the valsartan/cilnidipine (63 patients; mean 68.4 years) or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (66 patients; mean 67.3 years) combination groups, and the baseline HMBPS values were 17.4 mm Hg vs 16.9 mm Hg, respectively (P = .820). At the end of the treatment period, the changes in nocturnal SBP and morning SBP from baseline were significant in both the valsartan/cilnidipine and valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide groups (P < .001): -5.0 vs -10.0 mm Hg (P = .035) and -10.7 vs -13.6 mm Hg (P = .142), respectively. HMBPS was significantly decreased from baseline in both groups (P < .001), but there was no significant difference between the two groups: 14.4 mm Hg vs 14.0 mm Hg, respectively (P = .892). Valsartan/cilnidipine could not significantly suppress HMBPS compared with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide. Large-scale randomized controlled studies are needed to assess how reducing HMBPS will affect future cardiovascular outcomes. The information and communication technology-based home BP monitoring device may become an alternative to ambulatory BP monitoring, which has been a gold standard to measure nocturnal BP and the morning BP surge. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A randomised controlled trial of bright light therapy and morning activity for adolescents and young adults with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, C; Cain, N; Bartel, K; Micic, G; Maddock, B; Gradisar, M

    2018-05-01

    A randomised controlled trial evaluated bright light therapy and morning activity for the treatment of Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) in young people. 60 adolescents and young adults (range = 13-24 years, mean = 15.9 ± 2.2 y, 63% f) diagnosed with DSWPD were randomised to receive three weeks of post-awakening Green Bright Light Therapy (∼507 nm) and Sedentary Activity (sitting, watching TV), Green Bright Light Therapy and Morning Activity (standing, playing motion-sensing videogame), Red Light Therapy (∼643 nm) and Sedentary Activity or Red Light Therapy and Morning Activity. Sleep (ie sleep onset time, wake up time, sleep onset latency, total sleep time) and daytime functioning (ie morning alertness, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, functional impairment) were measured pre-treatment, post-treatment and at one and three month follow-up. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in outcomes between treatment groups; and interaction effects between treatment group and time for all outcome variables were not statistically significant. However, adolescents and young adults in morning activity conditions did not meaningfully increase their objective activity (ie movement frequency). Overall, adolescents reported significantly improved sleep timing (d = 0.30-0.46), sleep onset latency (d = 0.32) and daytime functioning (d = 0.45-0.87) post-treatment. Improvements in sleep timing (d = 0.53-0.61), sleep onset latency (d = 0.57), total sleep time (d = 0.51), and daytime functioning (d = 0.52-1.02) were maintained, or improved upon, at the three month follow-up. However, relapse of symptomology was common and 38% of adolescents and young adults requested further treatment in addition to the three weeks of light therapy. Although there is convincing evidence for the short-term efficacy of chronobiological treatments for DSWPD, long-term treatment outcomes can be improved. To address this gap in our current knowledge

  8. The utility of T-wave alternans during the morning in the summer for the risk stratification of patients with Brugada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shogo; Takagi, Masahiko; Kakihara, Jun; Hayashi, Yusuke; Doi, Atsushi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    The prognostic value of the seasonal variations of T-wave alternans (TWA) and heart rate variability (HRV), and the seasonal distribution of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in Brugada syndrome (Br-S) is unknown. We assessed the utility of seasonal variations in TWA and HRV for risk stratification in Br-S using a 24-h multichannel Holter electrocardiogram (24-M-ECG). We enrolled 81 patients with Br-S (grouped according to their history of VF, n = 12; syncope, n = 8; no symptoms, n = 61) who underwent 24-M-ECG in all four seasons. Precordial electrodes were attached to the third (3L-V2) and fourth (4L-V2, 4L-V5) intercostal spaces. We determined the maximum TWA (max-TWA) values and calculated HRV during night and morning time periods for all seasons. During a follow-up period of 5.8 ± 2.8 years, 11 patients experienced new VF episodes and there was a peak in new VF episodes in the summer. The VF group had the greatest 3L-V2 max-TWA value during morning time in the summer among the three groups and showed higher 3L-V2 max-TWA value than in the other seasons. The cutoff value for the 3L-V2 max-TWA during morning time in the summer was determined to be 42 µV using ROC analysis (82 % sensitivity, 74 % specificity; p = 0.0006). Multivariate analysis revealed that a 3L-V2 max-TWA value ≥42 µV during morning time in the summer and previous VF episodes were predictors of future VF episodes. The 3L-V2 max-TWA value during morning time in the summer may be a useful predictor of future VF episodes in Br-S.

  9. Morning pulse pressure is associated more strongly with elevated albuminuria than systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ushigome, Emi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Mineoka, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Naoko; Senmaru, Takafumi; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2013-09-01

    Recently, focus has been directed toward pulse pressure as a potentially independent risk factor for micro- and macrovascular disease. This study was designed to examine the relationship between pulse pressure taken at home and elevated albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study is a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study. Home blood pressure measurements were performed for 14 consecutive days in 858 patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relationship between systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure in the morning or in the evening and urinary albumin excretion using univariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, we measured area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) to compare the ability to identify elevated albuminuria, defined as urinary albumin excretion equal to or more than 30 mg/g creatinine, of systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure. Morning systolic blood pressure (β=0.339, P<0.001) and morning pulse pressure (β=0.378, P<0.001) were significantly associated with logarithm of urinary albumin excretion independent of other potential co-factors. AUC for elevated albuminuria in morning systolic blood pressure and morning pulse pressure were 0.668 (0.632-0.705; P<0.001) and 0.694 (0.659-0.730; P<0.001), respectively. AUC of morning pulse pressure was significantly greater than that of morning systolic blood pressure (P=0.040). Our findings implicate that morning pulse pressure is associated with elevated albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, which suggests that lowering morning pulse pressure could prevent the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Probing the string winding sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín; Nuñez, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2 n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O( n, n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.

  11. Holographic vortices in the presence of dark matter sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatko, Marek; Wysokinski, Karol I.

    2015-12-01

    The dark matter seem to be an inevitable ingredient of the total matter configuration in the Universe and the knowledge how the dark matter affects the properties of superconductors is of vital importance for the experiments aimed at its direct detection. The homogeneous magnetic field acting perpendicularly to the surface of (2+1) dimensional s-wave holographic superconductor in the theory with dark matter sector has been modeled by the additional U(1)-gauge field representing dark matter and coupled to the Maxwell one. As expected the free energy for the vortex configuration turns out to be negative. Importantly its value is lower in the presence of dark matter sector. This feature can explain why in the Early Universe first the web of dark matter appeared and next on these gratings the ordinary matter forming cluster of galaxies has formed.

  12. Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: Slovak Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a topic of increased policy interest in the Slovak Republic where improving quality in the ECEC sector is a subject of growing importance. The OECD has identified five effective policy levers to encourage quality in the sector: 1) quality goals and regulations; 2) curriculum and guidelines; 3)…

  13. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  14. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  15. Infrastructure and Private Sector Investment in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    manner in which the expansion in various types of infrastructural facilities interact with private sector investment, and whether there is a long run...passive role in the country’s development. That is public facilities have largely expanded in response to the needs created by private sector investment...tangible needs created by private sector expansion it has, no doubt, been very effective in alleviating real bottlenecks. (JEL F21, 053).

  16. Research Frontiers in Public Sector Performance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhonghua, Cai; Ye, Wang

    In "New Public Management" era, performance measurement has been widely used in managerial practices of public sectors. From the content and features of performance measurement, this paper aims to explore inspirations on Chinese public sector performance measurement, which based on a review of prior literatures including influencial factors, methods and indicators of public sector performance evaluation. In the end, arguments are presented in this paper pointed out the direction of future researches in this field.

  17. Third sector primary care for vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Crampton, P; Dowell, A; Woodward, A

    2001-12-01

    This paper aims to describe and explain the development of third sector primary care organisations in New Zealand. The third sector is the non-government, non-profit sector. International literature suggests that this sector fulfils an important role in democratic societies with market-based economies, providing services otherwise neglected by the government and private for-profit sectors. Third sector organisations provided a range of social services throughout New Zealand's colonial history. However, it was not until the 1980s that third sector organisations providing comprehensive primary medical and related services started having a significant presence in New Zealand. In 1994 a range of union health centres, tribally based Mäori health providers, and community-based primary care providers established a formal network -- Health Care Aotearoa. While not representing all third sector primary care providers in New Zealand, Health Care Aotearoa was the best-developed example of a grouping of third sector primary care organisations. Member organisations served populations that were largely non-European and lived in deprived areas, and tended to adopt population approaches to funding and provision of services. The development of Health Care Aotearoa has been consistent with international experience of third sector involvement -- there were perceived "failures" in government policies for funding primary care and private sector responses to these policies, resulting in lack of universal funding and provision of primary care and continuing patient co-payments. The principal policy implication concerns the role of the third sector in providing primary care services for vulnerable populations as a partial alternative to universal funding and provision of primary care. Such an alternative may be convenient for proponents of reduced state involvement in funding and provision of health care, but may not be desirable from the point of view of equity and social cohesion

  18. Healthcare and Social Assistance Sector (NAICS 62)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental regulations and information for the Healthcare sector, including doctor's offices, hospitals, and medical laboratories. Includes information about dental amalgam wastewater, sterilizers, and medical waste.

  19. Restructuring the Production of Medicines: An Investigation on the Pharmaceutical Sector in China and the Role of Mergers and Acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Elisa; Huang, Manli; Pi, Shenglei; Tassinari, Mattia

    2017-10-05

    In places like China, an ageing population coupled with changes in living standards and increases in disposable income, imply a shift of the demand for health-related goods and services which is likely to affect the whole organization of the industries that supply such goods and services at the global level. One of the industries most likely to be affected is the pharmaceutical sector. In the early 2000s China was already the second largest global producer of pharmaceutical ingredients. The pharmaceutical sector has become one of the most important industries promoted by the Chinese government and Five-Year Plan of China's Strategic Emerging Sectors, mergers and acquisition (M&A) activity has been the key strategy to restructure the sector and increase its competitiveness. This paper firstly provides an updated picture of the evolution of M&As in the pharmaceutical sector, compared to other sectors, in China in the period 2005-2013. Secondly, we develop a composite indicator to measure the industrial performance of all Chinese industrial sectors over time, which allows us to assess the performance of the pharmaceutical industry compared to that of other sectors of the Chinese economy. Finally, we develop and estimate an empirical model that tests the relationship between the number of M&A in a sector and its performance, with a particular focus on the pharmaceutical case. The results offer some initial evidence of positive effects from the process of restructuring of the pharmaceutical sector in China.

  20. Restructuring the Production of Medicines: An Investigation on the Pharmaceutical Sector in China and the Role of Mergers and Acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elisa; Huang, Manli; Pi, Shenglei; Tassinari, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    In places like China, an ageing population coupled with changes in living standards and increases in disposable income, imply a shift of the demand for health-related goods and services which is likely to affect the whole organization of the industries that supply such goods and services at the global level. One of the industries most likely to be affected is the pharmaceutical sector. In the early 2000s China was already the second largest global producer of pharmaceutical ingredients. The pharmaceutical sector has become one of the most important industries promoted by the Chinese government and Five-Year Plan of China’s Strategic Emerging Sectors, mergers and acquisition (M&A) activity has been the key strategy to restructure the sector and increase its competitiveness. This paper firstly provides an updated picture of the evolution of M&As in the pharmaceutical sector, compared to other sectors, in China in the period 2005–2013. Secondly, we develop a composite indicator to measure the industrial performance of all Chinese industrial sectors over time, which allows us to assess the performance of the pharmaceutical industry compared to that of other sectors of the Chinese economy. Finally, we develop and estimate an empirical model that tests the relationship between the number of M&A in a sector and its performance, with a particular focus on the pharmaceutical case. The results offer some initial evidence of positive effects from the process of restructuring of the pharmaceutical sector in China. PMID:28981463

  1. Effects of one versus two bouts of moderate intensity physical activity on selective attention during a school morning in Dutch primary schoolchildren: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity is positively related to several aspects of cognitive functioning in children, among which is selective attention. To date, no information is available on the optimal frequency of physical activity on cognitive functioning in children. The current study examined the acute effects of one and two bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity on children's selective attention. Randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN97975679). Thirty boys and twenty-six girls, aged 10-13 years, were randomly assigned to three conditions: (A) sitting all morning working on simulated school tasks; (B) one 20-min physical activity bout after 90min; and (C) two 20-min physical activity bouts, i.e. at the start and after 90min. Selective attention was assessed at five time points during the morning (i.e. at baseline and after 20, 110, 130 and 220min), using the 'Sky Search' subtest of the 'Test of Selective Attention in Children'. We used GEE analysis to examine differences in Sky Search scores between the three experimental conditions, adjusting for school, baseline scores, self-reported screen time and time spent in sports. Children who performed two 20-min bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity had significantly better Sky Search scores compared to children who performed one physical activity bout or remained seated the whole morning (B=-0.26; 95% CI=[-0.52; -0.00]). Our findings support the importance of repeated physical activity during the school day for beneficial effects on selective attention in children. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous mutations of the UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase gene confers pale- and dull-colored flowers in the Japanese and common morning glories.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasumasa; Ishiguro, Kanako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Iida, Shigeru; Hoshino, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3- O -glucosyltransferase is essential for maintaining proper production quantity, acylation, and glucosylation of anthocyanin, and defects cause pale and dull flower pigmentation in morning glories. The Japanese (Ipomoea nil) and the common (I. purpurea) morning glory display bright blue and dark purple flowers, respectively. These flowers contain acylated and glucosylated anthocyanin pigments, and a number of flower color mutants have been isolated in I. nil. Of these, the duskish mutants of I. nil produce pale- and dull-colored flowers. We found that the Duskish gene encodes UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (3GT). The duskish-1 mutation is a frameshift mutation caused by a 4-bp insertion, and duskish-2 is an insertion of a DNA transposon, Tpn10, at 1.3 kb upstream of the 3GT start codon. In the duskish-2 mutant, excision of Tpn10 is responsible for restoration of the expression of the 3GT gene. The recombinant 3GT protein displays expected 3GT enzymatic activities to catalyze 3-O-glucosylation of anthocyanidins in vitro. Anthocyanin analysis of a duskish-2 mutant and its germinal revertant showing pale and normal pigmented flowers, respectively, revealed that the mutation caused around 80 % reduction of anthocyanin accumulation. We further characterized two I. purpurea mutants showing pale brownish-red flowers, and found that they carry the same frameshift mutation in the 3GT gene. Most of the flower anthocyanins in the mutants were previously found to be anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosides lacking several caffeic acid and glucose moieties that are attached to the anthocyanins in the wild-type plants. These results indicated that 3GT is essential not only for production, but also for proper acylation and glucosylation, of anthocyanin in the morning glories.

  3. Algorithm that delivers an individualized rapid-acting insulin dose after morning resistance exercise counters post-exercise hyperglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Turner, D; Luzio, S; Gray, B J; Bain, S C; Hanley, S; Richards, A; Rhydderch, D C; Martin, R; Campbell, M D; Kilduff, L P; West, D J; Bracken, R M

    2016-04-01

    To develop an algorithm that delivers an individualized dose of rapid-acting insulin after morning resistance exercise to counter post-exercise hyperglycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Eight people with Type 1 diabetes, aged 34 ± 7 years with HbA1c concentrations 72 ± 12 mmol/mol (8.7 ± 1.1%), attended our laboratory on two separate mornings after fasting, having taken their usual basal insulin the previous evening. These people performed a resistance exercise session comprising six exercises for two sets of 10 repetitions at 60% of the maximum amount of force that was generated in one maximal contraction (60% 1RM). In a randomized and counterbalanced order, the participants were administered an individualized dose of rapid-acting insulin (2 ± 1 units, range 0-4 units) immediately after resistance exercise (insulin session) by means of an algorithm or were not administered this (no-insulin session). Venous blood glucose concentrations were measured for 125 min after resistance exercise. Data (mean ± sem values) were analysed using anova (P ≤ 0.05). Participants had immediate post-resistance exercise hyperglycaemia (insulin session 13.0 ± 1.6 vs. no-insulin session 12.7 ± 1.5 mmol/l; P = 0.834). The decline in blood glucose concentration between peak and 125 min after exercise was greater in the insulin exercise session than in the no-insulin session (3.3 ± 1.0 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/l: P = 0.015). There were no episodes of hypoglycaemia (blood glucose <3.9 mmol/l). Administration of rapid-acting insulin according to an individualized algorithm reduced the hyperglycaemia associated with morning resistance exercise without causing hypoglycaemia in the 2 h post-exercise period in people with Type 1 diabetes. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  4. Late-night exercise affects the autonomic nervous system activity but not the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in the next morning.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Cihat; Özgöçer, Tuba; Yildiz, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Exercise activates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) and generally causes beneficial changes in homeostatic balance. However, the health benefits of late-night exercise programs on the activity of HPA and ANS is not known. The aim of this study was to assess effects of late-night exercise on sleep quality and on the activities of the HPA axis (as cortisol awakening response, CAR) and the ANS (as heart rate variability, HRV) measurements in the following morning. Medical students (N.=20 males, 20-24 years old) filled Karolinska Sleep Diary on the day before exercise program. In the following morning, they provided salivary samples for the assessment of CAR (samples at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min postawakening) and had a 5-min electrocardiogram recording for the determination of HRV. In the next night, an exercise program consisting of a 90-min football match was implemented at 09:30 p.m. and all procedures were repeated. Cortisol concentrations were measured in the salivary samples and time- and frequency-domain parameters of HRV were calculated. Late-night exercise did not affect (P>0.05) sleep parameters (sleep duration, disturbed sleep, awakening problems) and CAR parameters (0, 15, 30, 60 min cortisol concentrations, mean concentration, area under the curve) but influenced HRV parameters (P<0.05). The results suggest that late-night exercise is associated with changed HRV activity rather than changes in CAR and, therefore, it might be suggested that late-night exercise affects ANS activity rather than HPA activity in the next morning.

  5. [Implementation of an early rheumatoid athritis unit for the early recognition and treatment of the disease].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Francisco; Monckeberg, Gustavo; Hassi, Isabel; Queirolo, Alejandra; Chicao, Fernando; Sandoval, Ximena; Jorquera, Evelyn; Badilla, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Early recognition of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) provides clinical benefits in terms of remission induction, reduced disease progression, and eventually treatment free remission. To describe the setting of a Unit devoted exclusively to the recognition and treatment of early RA in patients referred from primary healthcare centers (PHC) in Chile. Patients were referred from nine participating PHC from 2014 through 2016. PHC physicians received a formal training to enhance criteria recognition and program adherence. Mandatory referral criteria were an age above 17 years, and arthralgia of less than 1-year duration, plus at least one of the following: morning stiffness of more than 30 minutes, swelling involving more than 3 joints for more than 1 month, a positive squeeze test or abnormal inflammatory serum markers. One hundred twenty patients aged 45 ± 12 years (90% women) were assessed at the early rheumatoid arthritis unit. Median time to referral from PHC to the Unit was 14.6 days. The median duration of symptoms for the overall sample of patients was 10.8 months. RA was identified in 43 patients (36%), with a delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of 8.3 months. Regarding the performance of referral criteria, the most sensitive was morning stiffness (80%, sensitivity 95% confidence intervals (CI) 64-89%) and synovitis was the most specific (specificity 83%, 95% CI 72-90%). The positive predictive value of the three clinical criteria altogether was 68.1% (95% CI 47-83%). Institution of an early RA unit was feasible within the Chilean healthcare system enabling the identification of early RA in one-third of patients.

  6. Same-day 2-L PEG-citrate-simethicone plus bisacodyl vs split 4-L PEG: Bowel cleansing for late-morning colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    de Leone, Annalisa; Tamayo, Darina; Fiori, Giancarla; Ravizza, Davide; Trovato, Cristina; De Roberto, Giuseppe; Fazzini, Linda; Dal Fante, Marco; Crosta, Cristiano

    2013-09-16

    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, acceptability and feasibility of bisacodyl plus low volume polyethyleneglycol-citrate-simeticone (2-L PEG-CS) taken the same day as compared with conventional split-dose 4-L PEG for late morning colonoscopy. Randomised, observer-blind, parallel group, comparative trial carried out in 2 centres. Out patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 85 years, undergoing colonoscopy for diagnostic investigation, colorectal cancer screening or follow-up were eligible. The PEG-CS group received 3 bisacodyl tablets (4 tablets for patients with constipation) at bedtime and 2-L PEG-CS in the morning starting 5 h before colonoscopy. The control group received a conventional 4-L PEG formulation given as split regimen; the morning dose was taken with the same schedule of the low volume preparation. The Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale (OBPS) score was used as the main outcome measure. A total of 164 subjects were enrolled and 154 completed the study; 78 in the PEG-CS group and 76 in the split 4-L PEG group. The two groups were comparable at baseline. The OBPS score in the PEG-CS group (3.09 ± 2.40) and in the PEG group (2.39 ± 2.55) were equivalent (difference +0.70; 95%CI: -0.09-1.48). This was confirmed by the rate of successful bowel cleansing in the PEG-CS group (89.7%) and in the PEG group (92.1%) (difference -2.4%; 95%CI: -11.40- 6.70). PEG-CS was superior in terms of mucosa visibility compared to PEG (85.7% vs 72.4%, P = 0.042). There were no significant differences in caecum intubation rate, time to reach the caecum and withdrawal time between the two groups. The adenoma detection rate was similar (PEG-CS 43.6% vs PEG 44.7%). No serious adverse events occurred. No difference was found in tolerability of the bowel preparations. Compliance was equal in both groups: more than 90% of subjects drunk the whole solution. Willingness to repeat the same bowel preparations was about 90% for both regimes. Same-day PEG-CS is feasible, effective

  7. Cost-effectiveness of modified-release prednisone in the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis with morning stiffness based on directly elicited public preference values

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, William; Iqbal, Itrat; Khan, Ifty; Ouwens, Mario; Heron, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the cost-effectiveness of treatments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is of growing importance due to the chronic nature of the disease, rising treatment costs, and budget-constrained health care systems. This analysis assesses the cost-effectiveness of modified-release (MR) prednisone compared with immediate-release (IR) prednisone for the treatment of morning stiffness due to RA. Methods A health state transition model was used to categorize RA patients into four health states, defined by duration of morning stiffness. The model applied a 1-year time horizon and adopted a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Health benefits were measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and the final output was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Efficacy data were derived from the CAPRA-1 (Circadian Administration of Prednisone in Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, drug costs from the British National Formulary (BNF), and utility data from a direct elicitation time-trade-off (TTO) study in the general population. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Mean treatment costs per patient were higher for MR-prednisone (£649.70) than for IR-prednisone (£46.54) for the duration of the model. However, the model generated an incremental QALY of 0.044 in favor of MR-prednisone which resulted in an ICER of £13,577. Deterministic sensitivity analyses did not lead to significant changes in the ICER. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis reported that MR-prednisone had an 84% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000 per QALY. The model only considers drug costs and there was a lack of comparative long-term data for IR-prednisone. Furthermore, utility benefits were not captured in the clinical setting. Conclusion This analysis demonstrates that, based on the CAPRA-1 trial and directly elicited public preference values, MR-prednisone is a cost-effective treatment option when compared with IR-prednisone for RA

  8. Cost-effectiveness of modified-release prednisone in the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis with morning stiffness based on directly elicited public preference values.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, William; Iqbal, Itrat; Khan, Ifty; Ouwens, Mario; Heron, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the cost-effectiveness of treatments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is of growing importance due to the chronic nature of the disease, rising treatment costs, and budget-constrained health care systems. This analysis assesses the cost-effectiveness of modified-release (MR) prednisone compared with immediate-release (IR) prednisone for the treatment of morning stiffness due to RA. A health state transition model was used to categorize RA patients into four health states, defined by duration of morning stiffness. The model applied a 1-year time horizon and adopted a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Health benefits were measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and the final output was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Efficacy data were derived from the CAPRA-1 (Circadian Administration of Prednisone in Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, drug costs from the British National Formulary (BNF), and utility data from a direct elicitation time-trade-off (TTO) study in the general population. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Mean treatment costs per patient were higher for MR-prednisone (£649.70) than for IR-prednisone (£46.54) for the duration of the model. However, the model generated an incremental QALY of 0.044 in favor of MR-prednisone which resulted in an ICER of £13,577. Deterministic sensitivity analyses did not lead to significant changes in the ICER. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis reported that MR-prednisone had an 84% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000 per QALY. The model only considers drug costs and there was a lack of comparative long-term data for IR-prednisone. Furthermore, utility benefits were not captured in the clinical setting. This analysis demonstrates that, based on the CAPRA-1 trial and directly elicited public preference values, MR-prednisone is a cost-effective treatment option when compared with IR-prednisone for RA patients with morning stiffness over

  9. Same-day 2-L PEG-citrate-simethicone plus bisacodyl vs split 4-L PEG: Bowel cleansing for late-morning colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    de Leone, Annalisa; Tamayo, Darina; Fiori, Giancarla; Ravizza, Davide; Trovato, Cristina; De Roberto, Giuseppe; Fazzini, Linda; Dal Fante, Marco; Crosta, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, acceptability and feasibility of bisacodyl plus low volume polyethyleneglycol-citrate-simeticone (2-L PEG-CS) taken the same day as compared with conventional split-dose 4-L PEG for late morning colonoscopy. METHODS: Randomised, observer-blind, parallel group, comparative trial carried out in 2 centres. Out patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 85 years, undergoing colonoscopy for diagnostic investigation, colorectal cancer screening or follow-up were eligible. The PEG-CS group received 3 bisacodyl tablets (4 tablets for patients with constipation) at bedtime and 2-L PEG-CS in the morning starting 5 h before colonoscopy. The control group received a conventional 4-L PEG formulation given as split regimen; the morning dose was taken with the same schedule of the low volume preparation. The Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale (OBPS) score was used as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: A total of 164 subjects were enrolled and 154 completed the study; 78 in the PEG-CS group and 76 in the split 4-L PEG group. The two groups were comparable at baseline. The OBPS score in the PEG-CS group (3.09 ± 2.40) and in the PEG group (2.39 ± 2.55) were equivalent (difference +0.70; 95%CI: -0.09-1.48). This was confirmed by the rate of successful bowel cleansing in the PEG-CS group (89.7%) and in the PEG group (92.1%) (difference -2.4%; 95%CI: -11.40- 6.70). PEG-CS was superior in terms of mucosa visibility compared to PEG (85.7% vs 72.4%, P = 0.042). There were no significant differences in caecum intubation rate, time to reach the caecum and withdrawal time between the two groups. The adenoma detection rate was similar (PEG-CS 43.6% vs PEG 44.7%). No serious adverse events occurred. No difference was found in tolerability of the bowel preparations. Compliance was equal in both groups: more than 90% of subjects drunk the whole solution. Willingness to repeat the same bowel preparations was about 90% for both regimes. CONCLUSION: Same

  10. Influence of early rising on performance in tasks requiring attention and memory.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, V Shankar; Raghavendra, Bhat Ramachandra; Manjunath, Nandi Krishnamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Rising early in the morning has been a prescribed discipline of ancient Indian tradition. While there are no scientific studies comparing early rising volitionally versus circumstantially, selected studies on the latter (rising forcefully) have shown negative impact on an individual's peroformance. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the influence of early rising (during Brahma-muhurtha) on tasks requiring attention and the ability to recall. Fifty four normal healthy male volunteers, with ages ranging from 16-22 years from a residential school were selected. They were randomly allocated to two groups (Brahma-muhurtha and control). They were assessed on day 1, day 10 and day 20 of the intervention, using a digit letter substitution task and verbal and spatial memory task. The Brahma-muhurtha group were asked to rise before 4:30 am in the morning based on the traditional Indian astrological calculations, while the control group were allowed to wake up just before 7 am which was their regular timing for waking. Brahma-muhurtha group after 20 days showed a significant improvement in the net scores for digit letter substitution task as well as scores for verbal and spatial memory tasks. The control group also showed an improvement in the memory task but not in the task requiring attentional processes. The present study suggests that rising early in the morning as described in ancient Indian tradition influences the process of attention and can improve the ability to recall.

  11. Israel’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Israel’s military sales to China , inadequate Israeli protection of U.S. intellectual property, and espionage-related cases. 275 Sharon Sadeh...Brazil, Canada, Germany, and Turkey. China has been a major client, although Israel has backed off on some sales activity after protests from the...Israel to cancel the sale to China of the Phalcon, an advanced, airborne early-warning system. In 2005 the U.S. Department of Defense was angered by

  12. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sector's allocation of the overall ACL available to all vessels issued a limited access NE multispecies... the GB cod ACL available to all vessels issued a limited access NE multispecies permit, that sector... this example, if the overall GB cod ACL available to all vessels issued a limited access NE...

  13. Recent Changes in Public-Sector Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khademian, Anne Meredith

    This report looks at recent changes in governance across the public sector to provide context and examples for the National Commission on Governing America's Schools' efforts. The report is presented in six sections. Following a brief introduction in section 1, section 2 provides an overview of the forces that have changed public-sector governance…

  14. Dark Sectors 2016 Workshop: Community Report

    SciT

    Alexander, Jim; et al.

    This report, based on the Dark Sectors workshop at SLAC in April 2016, summarizes the scientific importance of searches for dark sector dark matter and forces at masses beneath the weak-scale, the status of this broad international field, the important milestones motivating future exploration, and promising experimental opportunities to reach these milestones over the next 5-10 years.

  15. Machined electrostatic sector for mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An electrostatic sector device for a mass spectrometer is formed from a single piece of machinable ceramic. The machined ceramic is coated with a nickel coating, and a notch is etched in the nickel coating to form two separated portions. The sector can be covered by a cover formed from a separate piece of machined ceramic.

  16. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  17. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  18. Education and Human Resources Sector Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy; Cieutat, Victor J.

    This manual endorses and adopts the sector-assessment approach for planning and managing the allocation of educational resources. Chapter 1 presents the manual's goals. Chapter 2 describes the manual's content and information sources, explains the term "sector assessment," identifies the groups that benefit from recommendations made by…

  19. Youth Employment in the Hospitality Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Bradley R.

    A study used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to analyze the long-term effects of hospitality industry employment on youth. The subsample extracted for the study included all youth who were aged 16-24 in 1980 and employed in the civilian sector for pay at any time in the year. Statistics indicated the hospitality sector was…

  20. Labor Market Leverage. Sectoral Employment Field Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Mark; King, Elisabeth

    This document explains the concept of sectoral employment strategies and profiles 13 successful work force development programs based on such strategies. The first half of the document examines the increasing need for sectoral employment strategies and their key characteristics, role in achieving systemic change in work organizations, and…