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Sample records for early mother-infant interaction

  1. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching…

  2. The Impact of Postnatal Depression and Associated Adversity on Early Mother-Infant Interactions and Later Infant Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the impact of maternal depression and adversity on mother-infant face-to-face interactions at 2 months, and on subsequent infant cognitive development and attachment. Disturbances in early mother-infant interactions were found to be predictive of poorer infant cognitive outcomes at 18 months. (MDM)

  3. [Early mother-infant interaction and factors negatively affecting parenting].

    PubMed

    Cerezo, María Angeles; Trenado, Rosa María; Pons-Salvador, Gemma

    2006-08-01

    The social information-processing model contributes to identifying the psychological processes underlying the construct "sensitivity" in early mother-child interaction. Negative emotional states associated with inadequate self-regulation in coping with stressors affect the mother's attention skills and the processing of the baby's signals. This leads to less synchronous parental practices, particularly unsatisfactory when the baby is unhappy, or crying because the required self-regulation is not provided. This micro-social research studies the sequential profile of maternal reactions to the baby's positive/neutral vs. difficult behaviours and compares them in two groups of dyads, one with mothers who reported high levels of distress and other negative factors for parenting and another group with low levels. The unfavourable circumstances of the high stress group and their negative effects on interaction were observed in some indiscriminate maternal responses and particularly as they reacted to their baby's difficult behaviour, when the mother's regulatory role is more necessary.

  4. Early dyadic patterns of mother-infant interactions and outcomes of prematurity at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Borghini, Ayala; Moessinger, Adrien; Muller-Nix, Carole

    2006-07-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental and socioemotional outcomes. The quality of the early mother-infant relationship has been noted as 1 of the factors that may exacerbate or soften the potentially adverse impact of preterm birth, particularly concerning the infant's later competencies and development. The first purpose of the study was to identify at 6 months of corrected age whether there were specific dyadic mother-infant patterns of interaction in preterm as compared with term mother-infant dyads. The second purpose was to examine the potential impact of these dyadic patterns on the infant's behavioral and developmental outcomes at 18 months of corrected age. During a 12-month period (January-December 1998), all preterm infants who were <34 weeks of gestational age and hospitalized at the NICU of the Lausanne University Hospital were considered for inclusion in this longitudinal prospective follow-up study. Control healthy term infants were recruited during the same period from the maternity ward of our hospital. Mother-infant dyads with preterm infants (n = 47) and term infants (n = 25) were assessed at 6 months of corrected age during a mother-infant play interaction and coded according to the Care Index. This instrument evaluates the mother's interactional behavior according to 3 scales (sensitivity, control, and unresponsiveness) and the child's interactional behavior according to 4 scales (cooperation, compliance, difficult, and passivity). At 18 months, behavioral outcomes of the children were assessed on the basis of a semistructured interview of the mother, the Symptom Check List. The Symptom Check List explores 4 groups of behavioral symptoms: sleeping problems, eating problems, psychosomatic symptoms, and behavioral and emotional disorders. At the same age, developmental outcomes were evaluated using the Griffiths Developmental Scales. Five areas were evaluated: locomotor, personal

  5. Mother-infant interaction: achieving synchrony.

    PubMed

    Leitch, D B

    1999-01-01

    Interventions that promote positive mother-infant interactions may reduce the risk of poor developmental outcomes for the child. To examine the effect of infant communication education presented prenatally to first-time mothers on the quality of interaction that occurs between the mother-infant dyad in the first 24 hours following birth. Twenty-nine first-time mothers were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group. The intervention group received education on infant behaviors, states, and communication cues. A specific mother-infant interaction was videotaped and scored using the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS). The scores between groups were compared to determine the effect of education on the interaction that occurred between the dyads. Significant intervention effect was found in the overall totals (t(27)= 1.69; p = .05) as well as the contingency scores related to sensitivity to cues (t(27)= 1.93; p = .05) and social-emotional growth-fostering behaviors (t(27)= 1.93; p = .05). A videotaped educational intervention on infant communication implemented prenatally resulted in significant differences between the intervention and control groups on NCATS scores (totals, sensitivity to cues, and social-emotional growth-fostering behaviors). The use of videotaped educational information facilitates very early mother-infant interaction.

  6. Effects of an early intervention on maternal post-traumatic stress symptoms and the quality of mother-infant interaction: the case of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Ayala; Habersaat, Stephanie; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Nessi, Jennifer; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Ansermet, François; Müller-Nix, Carole

    2014-11-01

    Preterm birth may represent a traumatic situation for both parents and a stressful situation for the infant, potentially leading to difficulties in mother-infant relationships. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an early intervention on maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms, and on the quality of mother-infant interactions, in a sample of very preterm infants and their mothers. Half of the very preterm infants involved in the study (n=26) were randomly assigned to a 3-step early intervention program (at 33 and 42 weeks after conception and at 4 months' corrected age). Both groups of preterm infants (with and without intervention) were compared to a group of full-term infants. The impact of the intervention on maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms was assessed 42 weeks after conception and when the infants were 4 and 12 months of age. The impact of the intervention on the quality of mother-infant interactions was assessed when the infants were 4 months old. Results showed a lowering of mothers' posttraumatic stress symptoms between 42 weeks and 12 months in the group of preterm infants who received the intervention. Moreover, an enhancement in maternal sensitivity and infant cooperation during interactions was found at 4 months in the group with intervention. In the case of a preterm birth, an early intervention aimed at enhancing the quality of the mother-infant relationship can help to alleviate maternal post-traumatic stress symptoms and may have a positive impact on the quality of mother-infant interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of an Early Intervention on Enhancing the Quality of Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendland-Carro, Jaqueline; Piccinini, Cesar A.; Millar, W. Stuart

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated an intervention designed to influence mothers' sensitive responsiveness toward their infant by presenting information about the newborn's competence to interact and promoting affectionate handling and interaction. Found that the enhancement group showed greater frequency of co-occurrences involving vocal exchanges, looking to the…

  8. Mother-Infant and Extra-Dyadic Interactions with a New Social Partner: Developmental Trajectories of Early Social Abilities during Play.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Roberta; Lucarelli, Loredana

    2017-01-01

    Mother-infant interactions during feeding and play are pivotal experiences in the development of infants' early social abilities (Stern, 1985, 1995; Biringen, 2000). Stern indicated distinctive characteristics of mother-infant interactions, respectively, during feeding and play, suggesting to evaluate both to better describe the complexity of such early affective and social experiences (Stern, 1996). Moreover, during the first years of life, infants acquire cognitive and social skills that allow them to interact with new social partners in extra-dyadic interactions. However, the relations between mother-child interactions and infants' social skills in extra-dyadic interactions are still unknown. We investigated longitudinally the relations between mother-child interactions during feeding and play and child's pre-verbal communicative abilities in extra-dyadic interactions during play. 20 dyads were evaluated at T 1 (infants aged between 9-22 months) and 6 months later, at T 2 . The interdyadic differences in mother-infant interactions during feeding and play were evaluated, respectively, with the "Feeding Scale" (Chatoor et al., 1997) and with the "Play Scale" (Chatoor, 2006) and the socio-communicative abilities of children with a new social partner during play were evaluated with the "Early Social Communication Scales" (Mundy et al., 2003). We distinguished the dyads into two categories: dyads with functional interactions (high dyadic reciprocity, low dyadic conflict) and dyads with dysfunctional interactions (lower dyadic reciprocity, higher dyadic conflict). At T 1 , infants belonging to dyads with dysfunctional interactions were significantly lower in "Initiating Joint Attention" and in "Responding to Joint Attention" in interaction with a new social partner compared to the infants belonging to dyads with functional interactions. At T 2 , infants belonging to dyads with dysfunctional interactions were significantly lower in "Initiating Social Interactions" with

  9. Mother-Infant Group Psychotherapy as an Intensive Treatment in Early Interaction among Mothers with Substance Abuse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, Ritva; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a novel method of outpatient care: brief, dynamic mother-infant group psychotherapy with mothers who have substance use problems. In this therapy, substance abuse treatment is part of mental health and parenting interventions. The focus is on preventing disturbance in the mother-infant relationship in this high-risk…

  10. Effects of Birth Order and Spacing on Mother-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Kreitzberg, Valerie S.

    1979-01-01

    Examines early differences in mother-infant interaction as a function of infant birth order and birth spacing. Mother and infant behaviors were observed and recorded in the home for a two-hour period. (SS)

  11. Effect of Early Intervention to Promote Mother - Infant Interaction and Maternal Sensitivity in Japan: A Parenting Support Program based on Infant Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.

  12. Does esophageal atresia influence the mother-infant interaction?

    PubMed

    Faugli, Anne; Emblem, Ragnhild; Veenstra, Marijke; Bjørnland, Kristin; Diseth, Trond H

    2008-10-01

    Chronic illness in infancy may influence parent-infant interaction. We assessed quality of mother-infant interaction in children with esophageal atresia (EA) and searched for predictors for impaired interaction. The study group comprised 37 one-year-old infants with EA born in 1999 to 2002 and their mothers. A comparison group comprised 10 infants with urologic problems without feeding difficulties and their mothers. Parent Child Early Relational Assessment was used to assess mother-child interaction in feeding and play situation. General Health Questionnaire and State Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess maternal psychological distress and anxiety. Many aspects of mother-EA infant interaction showed strength. However, mothers of EA children were compared to control-mothers significantly influenced in their ability to interact and the EA-mothers' "positive affective involvement, sensitivity, and responsiveness" during feeding was in range of concern. Small but significant effect of the mother's feeling of incompetence on their interaction was found. Mothers' attitude during feeding was negatively influenced in interaction between mother and infant with EA. The results suggest possibility for improvement in mother infant interaction by enhancing mothers' welfare when caring for infants with EA in medical services.

  13. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity is more strongly associated than perinatal depressive symptoms with postnatal mother-infant interaction quality.

    PubMed

    Raine, Karen; Cockshaw, Wendell; Boyce, Philip; Thorpe, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Maternal mental health has enduring effects on children's life chances and is a substantial cost driver for child health, education and social services. A key linking mechanism is the quality of mother-infant interaction. A body of work associates maternal depressive symptoms across the antenatal and postnatal (perinatal) period with less-than-optimal mother-infant interaction. Our study aims to build on previous research in the field through exploring the association of a maternal personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, with subsequent mother-infant interaction quality. We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine the association between antenatal interpersonal sensitivity and postnatal mother-infant interaction quality in the context of perinatal depressive symptoms. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured during early pregnancy and depressive symptoms in the antenatal year and across the first 21 months of the postnatal period. In a subsample of the ALSPAC, mother-infant interaction was measured at 12 months postnatal through a standard observation. For the subsample that had complete data at all time points (n = 706), hierarchical regression examined the contribution of interpersonal sensitivity to variance in mother-infant interaction quality. Perinatal depressive symptoms predicted little variance in mother-infant interaction. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity explained a greater proportion of variance in mother-infant interaction quality. The personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, is a more robust indicator of subsequent mother-infant-interaction quality than perinatal depressive symptoms, thus affording enhanced opportunity to identify vulnerable mother-infant relationships for targeted early intervention.

  14. Delivery Pain and the Development of Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferber, Sari Goldstein; Feldman, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined delivery pain as a possible risk factor for the development of mother-infant interaction. Eighty-one mothers completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. A retrospective evaluation of labor pain was performed using the Visual Analog Scale at 2 days…

  15. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

  16. Postpartum depression, suicidality, and mother-infant interactions.

    PubMed

    Paris, Ruth; Bolton, Rendelle E; Weinberg, M Katherine

    2009-10-01

    To date, few studies have examined suicidality in women with postpartum depression. Reports of suicidal ideation in postpartum women have varied (Lindahl et al. Arch Womens Ment Health 8:77-87, 2005), and no known studies have examined the relationship between suicidality and mother-infant interactions. This study utilizes baseline data from a multi-method evaluation of a home-based psychotherapy for women with postpartum depression and their infants to examine the phenomenon of suicidality and its relationship to maternal mood, perceptions, and mother-infant interactions. Overall, women in this clinical sample (n = 32) had wide ranging levels of suicidal thinking. When divided into low and high groups, the mothers with high suicidality experienced greater mood disturbances, cognitive distortions, and severity of postpartum symptomotology. They also had lower maternal self-esteem, more negative perceptions of the mother-infant relationship, and greater parenting stress. During observer-rated mother-infant interactions, women with high suicidality were less sensitive and responsive to their infants' cues, and their infants demonstrated less positive affect and involvement with their mothers. Implications for clinical practice and future research directions are discussed.

  17. The Relation between Mother-Infant Interactional Characteristics in Early Infancy and Later Attachment as Assessed in the Strange Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Yuko; Miyake, Kazuo

    Maternal and infant interactional characteristics in early infancy were investigated in order to examine their causal relationship with later attachment as assessed in the Strange Situation. Although the results of rating for maternal variables at four months of age exhibited significant differences between the set (S1) composed of attachment type…

  18. Infant Massage and Quality of Early Mother-Infant Interactions: Are There Associations with Maternal Psychological Wellbeing, Marital Quality, and Social Support?

    PubMed

    Porreca, Alessio; Parolin, Micol; Bozza, Giusy; Freato, Susanna; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    , seem to sustain the usefulness of infant massage and the importance of focusing on early mother-infant interactions.

  19. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    PubMed

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Observing the Mother-Infant Feeding Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Laws, Rachel; Moretto, Nicole; Daniels, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Early parenting is critical to effective attachment and a range of positive developmental outcomes for children. Feeding is a key task of early parenting and increasing evidence indicates that early feeding practices are important for the development of self-regulation of intake and food preferences which in turn are predictors of later obesity…

  1. Chronic Stress in the Mother-Infant Dyad: Maternal Hair Cortisol, Infant Salivary Cortisol and Interactional Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; St. John, Ashley Moore; Meyer, Jerrold S.

    2017-01-01

    Stress physiology is shaped by early experience, with enduring effects on health. The relation of chronic maternal physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol, to infants' stress systems and to mother-infant interaction quality has not been established. We examined maternal hair and salivary cortisol, six-month-old infants' salivary cortisol, and mother-infant interaction in 121 mother-infant dyads. High maternal hair cortisol was related to higher infant average salivary cortisol concentration. Maternal hair cortisol and bedtime salivary cortisol were both uniquely related to infant bedtime salivary cortisol. Mothers with higher hair cortisol were more intrusive and had lower positive engagement synchrony with their infants. Maternal intrusiveness moderated the association of maternal hair cortisol and infant salivary cortisol, such that maternal hair and infant average salivary cortisol were related only when mothers were more intrusive. Maternal chronic physiological stress may upregulate infants' developing stress systems, particularly in the context of lower mother-infant interaction quality. PMID:28391126

  2. Can mother-infant interaction produce vulnerability to schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Brody, E B

    1981-02-01

    Schizophrenia is regarded as a final common behavioral syndrome which may be arrived at though a variety of routes. Even with a probably genotype, environmental influence seems necessary for the phenotype to appear. The problem concerns the likelihood of an early experience-induced sequence of events within the person of infant and later adult vs. a continuing pathogenic environment. Either may or may not interact with a continuing genic factor(s) as a source of vulnerability. Vulnerability is here, then, viewed as epigenetically evolving via individual-environment transactions throughout life (although with major impacts from conception through adolescence). At any point, therapeutic intervention may preclude or minimize the actualization of the pathogenic potential. It may begin during pregnancy, with attention to such factors as diet, drugs, physical stress, and illness, influencing fetal development and obstetrical manipulations and the birth process. All influence earliest mother-infant interaction from the point of view both of the infant's evocation of maternal behavior and maternal responsivity. Therapeutic interventions also include attention to the multigenerational context of earliest interaction, with special reference to a woman's relationships with her own mother. At every point, nonspecific protective or pathogenic factors such as social support or stressful precipitating events may become important. Socioeconomic status appears to have a powerful nonspecific influence as the core of a cluster of factors which exert an enduring influence from infancy to adulthood. A continuing specific factor may reside in distorted communicative reciprocity between parent an child rooted in the preverbal period of infant development. Context-mediated cerebral deficits may influence learning capacity, hedonic capacity, behavioral rigidity, and many other factors leading ultimately to impaired social competence and increased vulnerability.

  3. Relations between maternal attachment representations and the quality of mother-infant interaction in preterm and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Korja, Riikka; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Savonlahti, Elina; Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Piha, Jorma; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between maternal representations and the quality of mother-infant interaction in a group of preterm and full-term infants. The study groups consisted of 38 mothers and their preterm infants (mother-infant interaction was studied using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA) method at 6 and 12 months of the infant's corrected age. The results showed that maternal representations are related to the quality of mother-infant interaction in a parallel manner in preterm and full-term infants and their mothers. Furthermore, distorted representations were more strongly related to a higher number of areas of concern in mother-infant interaction than other representation classifications. Our results underline the importance of combined assessment of the subjective experiences of the mother and the quality of mother-infant interaction in clinical follow-up. This is the first study to describe the relation between maternal attachment representations and the quality of mother-infant interaction involving preterm infants. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening: False Positive Soft Markers May Alter Maternal Representations and Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Dommergues, Marc; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Bodeau, Nicolas; Aidane, Elizabeth; Philippon, Odile; Mazet, Philippe; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Feldman, Ruth; Cohen, David

    2012-01-01

    Background In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a “soft marker” (SM) that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. Methodology and Principal Findings Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. Conclusion False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences. PMID:22292077

  5. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  6. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relations between Automatically Extracted Motion Features and the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions at 4 and 13 Months

    PubMed Central

    Egmose, Ida; Varni, Giovanna; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette S.; Køppe, Simo; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Bodily movements are an essential component of social interactions. However, the role of movement in early mother-infant interaction has received little attention in the research literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between automatically extracted motion features and interaction quality in mother-infant interactions at 4 and 13 months. The sample consisted of 19 mother-infant dyads at 4 months and 33 mother-infant dyads at 13 months. The coding system Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) was used for rating the quality of the interactions. Kinetic energy of upper-body, arms and head motion was calculated and used as segmentation in order to extract coarse- and fine-grained motion features. Spearman correlations were conducted between the composites derived from the CIB and the coarse- and fine-grained motion features. At both 4 and 13 months, longer durations of maternal arm motion and infant upper-body motion were associated with more aversive interactions, i.e., more parent-led interactions and more infant negativity. Further, at 4 months, the amount of motion silence was related to more adaptive interactions, i.e., more sensitive and child-led interactions. Analyses of the fine-grained motion features showed that if the mother coordinates her head movements with her infant's head movements, the interaction is rated as more adaptive in terms of less infant negativity and less dyadic negative states. We found more and stronger correlations between the motion features and the interaction qualities at 4 compared to 13 months. These results highlight that motion features are related to the quality of mother-infant interactions. Factors such as infant age and interaction set-up are likely to modify the meaning and importance of different motion features. PMID:29326626

  8. Relations between Automatically Extracted Motion Features and the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions at 4 and 13 Months.

    PubMed

    Egmose, Ida; Varni, Giovanna; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette S; Køppe, Simo; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Bodily movements are an essential component of social interactions. However, the role of movement in early mother-infant interaction has received little attention in the research literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between automatically extracted motion features and interaction quality in mother-infant interactions at 4 and 13 months. The sample consisted of 19 mother-infant dyads at 4 months and 33 mother-infant dyads at 13 months. The coding system Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) was used for rating the quality of the interactions. Kinetic energy of upper-body, arms and head motion was calculated and used as segmentation in order to extract coarse- and fine-grained motion features. Spearman correlations were conducted between the composites derived from the CIB and the coarse- and fine-grained motion features. At both 4 and 13 months, longer durations of maternal arm motion and infant upper-body motion were associated with more aversive interactions, i.e., more parent-led interactions and more infant negativity. Further, at 4 months, the amount of motion silence was related to more adaptive interactions, i.e., more sensitive and child-led interactions. Analyses of the fine-grained motion features showed that if the mother coordinates her head movements with her infant's head movements, the interaction is rated as more adaptive in terms of less infant negativity and less dyadic negative states. We found more and stronger correlations between the motion features and the interaction qualities at 4 compared to 13 months. These results highlight that motion features are related to the quality of mother-infant interactions. Factors such as infant age and interaction set-up are likely to modify the meaning and importance of different motion features.

  9. Mother-infant interactions and regional brain volumes in infancy: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Sethna, Vaheshta; Pote, Inês; Wang, Siying; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Blasi, Anna; McCusker, Caroline; Daly, Eileen; Perry, Emily; Adams, Kerrie P H; Kuklisova-Murgasova, Maria; Busuulwa, Paula; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Murray, Lynne; Johnson, Mark H; Williams, Steven C R; Murphy, Declan G M; Craig, Michael C; McAlonan, Grainne M

    2017-07-01

    It is generally agreed that the human brain is responsive to environmental influences, and that the male brain may be particularly sensitive to early adversity. However, this is largely based on retrospective studies of older children and adolescents exposed to extreme environments in childhood. Less is understood about how normative variations in parent-child interactions are associated with the development of the infant brain in typical settings. To address this, we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relationship between observational measures of mother-infant interactions and regional brain volumes in a community sample of 3- to 6-month-old infants (N = 39). In addition, we examined whether this relationship differed in male and female infants. We found that lower maternal sensitivity was correlated with smaller subcortical grey matter volumes in the whole sample, and that this was similar in both sexes. However, male infants who showed greater levels of positive communication and engagement during early interactions had smaller cerebellar volumes. These preliminary findings suggest that variations in mother-infant interaction dimensions are associated with differences in infant brain development. Although the study is cross-sectional and causation cannot be inferred, the findings reveal a dynamic interaction between brain and environment that may be important when considering interventions to optimize infant outcomes.

  10. The effects of infant massage on weight, height, and mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Kyung

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of infant massage (auditory (mother's voice), tactile/kinesthetic (massage) and visual (eye to eye contact) stimulation) on weight and height of infant and mother-infant interaction with normal infants over a period of 4 weeks. This study was designed as a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The experimental group infants (aged 2-6 months) participated in one of the infant massage programs at the health district center for 4 weeks. The control group (N=26) was paired with the experimental group (N=26) by matching the infant's age and sex. Infant weight, height, and mother-infant interaction were measured two times and recordings of the mother-infant interaction were done using the video equipment in a room at the health center for 10 minutes. After 4 weeks of massage, there were no significant differences weight gain and height increase between the two groups. Comparison of the total scores for the mother-infant interaction between the two groups showed a significant difference (t=5.21, p=.000). There were also significant differences on maternal response (t=3.78, p=000), infant response (t=5.71, p=000) and dyadic response (t=4.05, p=000) in the mother-infant interaction between the two groups. Overall, the results of this study reassure that infant massage facilitates the mother-infant interaction for infants and mothers who give massage to their baby.

  11. Tonal synchrony in mother-infant interaction based on harmonic and pentatonic series.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Vanfleteren, Pol; Loots, Gerrit; Deschuyffeleer, Sara; Vinck, Bart; Jacquet, Wolfgang; Verhelst, Werner

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the occurrence of 'tonal synchrony' as a new dimension of early mother-infant interaction synchrony. The findings are based on a tonal and temporal analysis of vocal interactions between 15 mothers and their 3-month-old infants during 5 min of free-play in a laboratory setting. In total, 558 vocal exchanges were identified and analysed, of which 84% reflected harmonic or pentatonic series. Another 10% of the exchanges contained absolute and/or relative pitch and/or interval imitations. The total durations of dyads being in tonal synchrony were normally distributed (M=3.71, SD=2.44). Vocalisations based on harmonic series appeared organised around the major triad, containing significantly more simple frequency ratios (octave, fifth and third) than complex ones (non-major triad tones). Tonal synchrony and its characteristics are discussed in relation to infant-directed speech, communicative musicality, pre-reflective communication and its impact on the quality of early mother-infant interaction and child's development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic stress in the mother-infant dyad: Maternal hair cortisol, infant salivary cortisol and interactional synchrony.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; St John, Ashley Moore; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-05-01

    Stress physiology is shaped by early experience, with enduring effects on health. The relation of chronic maternal physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol, to infants' stress systems and to mother-infant interaction quality has not been established. We examined maternal hair and salivary cortisol, six-month-old infants' salivary cortisol, and mother-infant interaction in 121 mother-infant dyads. High maternal hair cortisol was related to higher infant average salivary cortisol concentration. Maternal hair cortisol and bedtime salivary cortisol were both uniquely related to infant bedtime salivary cortisol. Mothers with higher hair cortisol were more intrusive and had lower positive engagement synchrony with their infants. Maternal intrusiveness moderated the association of maternal hair cortisol and infant salivary cortisol, such that maternal hair and infant average salivary cortisol were related only when mothers were more intrusive. Maternal chronic physiological stress may upregulate infants' developing stress systems, particularly in the context of lower mother-infant interaction quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal postnatal psychiatric symptoms and infant temperament affect early mother-infant bonding.

    PubMed

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interdyad differences in early mother-infant face-to-face communication: real-time dynamics and developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-12-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads with analyses performed dyad by dyad showed that most dyads go through 2 qualitatively different developmental phases of early face-to-face communication: After a phase of mutual attentiveness, mutual engagement begins in Weeks 7-8, with infant smiling and cooing bidirectionally linked with maternal mirroring. This gives rise to sequences of positive feedback that, by the 3rd month, dynamically stabilizes into innovative play routines. However, when there is a lack of bidirectional positive feedback between infant and maternal behaviors, and a lack of permeability of the early communicative patterns to incorporate innovations, the development of the mutual engagement phase is compromised. The findings contribute both to theories of relationship change processes and to clinical work with at-risk mother-infant interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Early intervention to protect the mother-infant relationship following postnatal depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Jeannette; Holt, Charlene

    2014-10-03

    postnatal depression group treatment programme. Primary outcome measures are the Parenting Stress Index (self-report measure) and the Parent-child Early Relational Assessment (observational measure coded by a blinded observer). Measurements are taken at baseline, after the postnatal depression programme, post-HUGS/Playtime, and at 6 months post-HUGS/Playtime. This research addresses the need for specific treatment for mother-infant interactional difficulties following postnatal depression. There is a need to investigate interventions in randomised trials to prevent detrimental effects on child development and make available evidence-based treatments. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12612001110875. Date Registered: 17 October 2012.

  16. Differences and similarities between father-infant interaction and mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Yago, Satoshi; Hirose, Taiko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okabayashi, Yukiko; Hiroi, Kayoko; Nakagawa, Nozomi; Omori, Takahide

    2014-03-19

    The aim of this study was to compare father-infant interaction with mother-infant interaction, and explore differences and similarities between parents. Related factors for quality of father-infant interaction were also examined. Sixteen pairs of parents with infants aged 0 to 36 months were observed for play interaction between parents and their children. Results suggested no significant differences between parents, but children's interactions were significantly more contingent with fathers than mothers (p =.045). Significant correlations between parents were found in socialemotional growth fostering encouragement for children during interaction (ρ =.73, p =.001). Paternal depressive symptoms were significantly correlated to paternal sensitivity to child's cues (ρ =-.59, p =.017).

  17. Length of Maternity Leave and Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roseanne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Assessed association between length of maternity leave and quality of mother-infant interaction. Found a direct association between shorter leave and more negative affect and behavior; mothers with more depressive symptoms or who perceived their infant as having a difficult temperament, and with shorter leaves expressed less positive affect,…

  18. Maternal attitudinal inflexibility: longitudinal relations with mother-infant disrupted interaction and childhood hostile-aggressive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Najmi, Sadia; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Chen, Diyu; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-12-01

    : The Personal Attitude Scale (PAS; Hooley, 2000) is a method that is under development for identifying individuals high in Expressed Emotion based on personality traits of inflexibility, intolerance, and norm-forming. In the current study, the goal was to measure the association between this maternal attitudinal inflexibility, early hostile or disrupted mother-infant interactions, and hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child. In a prospective longitudinal study of 76 low-income mothers and their infants, it was predicted that maternal PAS scores, assessed at child age 20, would be related to difficulties in early observed mother-infant interaction and to hostile-aggressive behavioral difficulties in the child. Results indicated that maternal difficulties in interacting with the infant in the laboratory were associated with maternal PAS scores assessed 20 years later. Hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child at age five were also predictive of PAS scores of mothers. However, contrary to prediction, these behavior problems did not mediate the association between mother-infant interaction difficulties and maternal PAS scores, indicating that the child's hostile-aggressive behavior problems did not produce the link between quality of early interaction and later maternal attitudinal inflexibility. The current results validate the PAS against observable mother-child interactions and child hostile-aggressive behavior problems and indicate the importance of future work investigating the maternal attitudes that are associated with, and may potentially precede, parent-infant interactive difficulties. These findings regarding the inflexible attitudes of mothers whose interactions with their infants are also disrupted have important clinical implications. First, once the stability of the PAS has been established, this measure may offer a valuable screening tool for the prenatal identification of parents at risk for difficult interactions with their children

  19. An Ordinal Pattern Analysis of Four Hypotheses Describing the Interactions between Drug-Addicted, Chronically Disadvantaged, and Middle-Class Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinker, Richard P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated interactions among 18 African American mother-infant pairs participating in an early intervention program for infants with developmental delays or at risk for developmental disabilities. The hypothesis that mothers would become less responsive to infants over time as a function of drug addiction, poverty, or serious developmental…

  20. Overcoming barriers to investigating mother-infant interactions in the first two hours of life.

    PubMed

    Powers, Nancy G; Parham, Douglas F; Goldberg, Lynette R

    2011-08-01

    As a result of the unexpected delays experienced in a study designed to investigate mother-infant interactions and infant cry patterns in the first 2 hours following delivery, the study was assessed to identify the barriers that the investigators had encountered in its planning and conduct. These barriers can be categorized as issues with (1) institutional review board approval, (2) participant recruitment and retention, (3) requirements for study personnel, (4) instrumentation, (5) potential observer and participant bias, and (6) budgeting. Each barrier is detailed, along with suggested solutions. It is hoped that that these experiences will be of value to other researchers, particularly those working in non-research-intensive institutions, as they gather data to contribute to the understanding of mother-infant interactions in the immediate postpartum period.

  1. Effects of perinatal testosterone on infant health, mother-infant interactions, and infant development.

    PubMed

    Cho, June; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2014-04-01

    Many researchers and health care providers have noticed male vulnerability in infant health, mother-infant interactions, and some infant cognitive development, especially among very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. However, factors beyond gender that could explain these observed differences have not been clear. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the subject and to introduce a conceptual framework relating these factors. According to gender-difference theories, prenatal exposure to high levels of testosterone may influence infant health and mother-infant interactions by negatively affecting infant cognitive/motor/language development. We constructed a conceptual framework based on the associations among biological (perinatal testosterone), stress-related (perinatal and maternal cortisol), and developmental (infant cognitive/motor/language skills) factors. If research establishes these biological, environmental, and developmental associations in mother-VLBW preterm pairs, the results will highlight the importance of addressing gender differences in nursing research and encourage the development of nursing interventions designed to reduce stress among mothers of VLBW preterm infants, particularly male infants. From a psychobiosocial perspective, combining biophysiological factors such as perinatal testosterone and cortisol with socioenvironmental factors such as the quality of mother-infant interactions and infant temperament may provide a broader view of gender differences in infant health and development.

  2. The effects of preterm birth on mother-infant interaction and attachment during the infant's first two years.

    PubMed

    Korja, Riikka; Latva, Reija; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2012-02-01

    Early mother-infant relationships in preterm populations were evaluated in the context of a systematic review of the literature. A systematic search of three electronic databases (PsychINFO, PubMed and Cochrane Library) was undertaken. Three studies of maternal attachment, 18 studies of mother-preterm infant interaction and eight studies of infant attachment were included. Studies of preterm infant attachment were also evaluated using a meta-analysis. Studies of mother-preterm infant interactions showed that the differences in maternal interaction behavior between mothers of preterm infants and mothers of full-term infants seem to be most evident during the first six months of life. Differences in the preterm infant's interaction behavior seem also to continue for six months after birth. However, five of 18 studies showed an equal or even higher quality of mother-infant interaction in groups of preterm compared to groups of full-term infants. Studies of maternal and infant attachment indicated that preterm infants and their mothers are not at higher risk of insecure attachment than full-term infants and their mothers. The mother-preterm infant relationship is complex, and some relational patterns forecast greater psychological risk than others. It is important to decrease maternal stress and early separation in every possible way during hospitalization as well as after discharge. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Mother-Infant Responsiveness: Timing, Mutual Regulation, and Interactional Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Egeren, Laurie A,; Barratt, Marguerite S.; Roach, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated from a dynamic systems perspective mutual regulation during naturalistic interaction of mothers with their 4-month-olds. Found that mothers and infants communicated primarily through vocal signals and responses. Levels of contingent responsiveness between partners were significantly associated and occurred within distinct behavioral…

  4. Mother - Infant Interaction Patterns as a Function of Rearing Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Craig T.; Mills, Pamela J.

    This study examined the effect of a day care program on mother-child interaction patterns and attachment behaviors, and compared these patterns of behavior with those obtained from a matched sample of more advantaged home-reared infants. Subjects were 60 infants, ranging in age from 3 1/2 to 9 1/2 months, and their mothers. There were three groups…

  5. Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy and mother-infant interaction during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Armony-Sivan, Rinat; Kaplan-Estrin, Melissa; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to compare quality of mother-infant interactions during feeding in infants with or without iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Method Infants and caregivers were screened at their 9- to 10-month-old health maintenance visits at an inner-city clinic in Detroit. Those who were full-term and healthy received a venipuncture blood sample to assess iron status. Of the 77 infants who met final iron status criteria, 68 infants and mothers were videotaped during feeding interaction at the Child Development Research Laboratory. The quality of mother-infant interaction during feeding was scored on the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). Twenty-five infants with IDA (HB < 110 g/L and at least 2 abnormal iron measures) were compared to 43 non-anemic infants (HB ≥ 110 g/L) using ANOVA and GLM models with covariate control. Results Mothers of IDA infants responded with significantly less sensitivity to infant cues and less cognitive and social-emotional growth fostering behavior than mothers of non-anemic infants. The pattern of results was similar for scales of contingent behaviors. The magnitude of the differences in maternal ratings was large (0.8-1.0 SD after covariate adjustment). IDA infants were rated significantly lower on clarity of cues and overall (effect sizes 0.5 SD). Conclusion IDA in infancy was associated with less optimal mother-infant interactions during feeding. Future interventions might target feeding interaction and consider effects on infant iron status and developmental/behavioral outcomes among IDA infants, as well as infant feeding practices per se. PMID:20431398

  6. Mother-infant interaction in mother and baby unit patients: before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maeve; Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M; Seneviratne, Gertrude; Pawlby, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Maternal severe mental illness (SMI) disrupts mother-infant interaction in the immediate postpartum and is associated with less than optimal offspring development. In-patient mother and baby units (MBUs) provide the opportunity of supporting mothers with SMI in developing their relationships with their infants in order to minimise this disruption. One way is through an individualised video feedback intervention, delivered as part of a multidisciplinary inpatient treatment package. The present study prospectively measured changes in mother-infant interaction following video feedback intervention, during admission to an MBU (N = 49). Comparisons were made with mother-infant interactions of (1) a community-based ill group of mothers (N = 67) with a mental health diagnosis of similar severity, living at home and without the intervention and (2) a group of healthy mothers (N = 22). Maternal sensitivity and unresponsiveness, and infant cooperativeness and passiveness, were measured from a 3-min videotaped play session, using the CARE-Index. Following admission and the video feedback intervention, the MBU mothers (irrespective of diagnosis) and their infants showed improvements in their interactions. Moreover, on discharge the MBU dyads were significantly more sensitive, cooperative and responsive than the community ill group, and as attuned as the healthy group. While the design of the study does not allow us to conclude unequivocally that the video feedback intervention has effects on the outcome for the mothers and babies independent from the whole inpatient therapeutic package, the results do show that the dyadic interaction of mothers with SMI and their infants improves following the focussed treatment package in a specialised MBU. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tiny moments of great importance: the Marte Meo method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Utilizing Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' in understanding empirical findings and developing a stringent Marte Meo methodology.

    PubMed

    Vik, Kari; Rohde, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of basic Marte Meo video interaction guidance concepts and describes the therapeutic performance of the method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Weight is put upon the importance of the therapeutic relationship. Further Marte Meo therapy is understood in the light of Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' and accompanied by clinical vignettes from therapy sessions. The empirical basis for the paper is a study of postnatal depression, mother-infant interaction and video guidance, carried out in Southern Norway. The study examined Marte Meo from a phenomenological perspective. Marte Meo was offered to mothers with either postnatal depression or depressive symptoms. In in-depth interviews the participants reported that the Marte Meo method, 'from the outside looking in', increased their reflections about their infants and their own mental states as well as their sensitive interaction with their newborn. Their mothering was improved and they reported feeling less depressed. We argue that Marte Meo methodology can guide new mothers with depressive symptoms, and contribute to the creation of new schemas of being together.

  8. A Norwegian prospective study of preterm mother-infant interactions at 6 and 18 months and the impact of maternal mental health problems, pregnancy and birth complications.

    PubMed

    Misund, Aud R; Bråten, Stein; Nerdrum, Per; Pripp, Are Hugo; Diseth, Trond H

    2016-05-04

    Pregnancy, birth and health complications, maternal mental health problems following preterm birth and their possible impact on early mother-infant interaction at 6 and 18 months corrected age (CA) were explored. Predictors of mother-infant interaction at 18 months CA were identified. This prospective longitudinal and observational study included 33 preterm mother-infant (<33 gestational age (GA)) interactions at 6 and 18 months CA from a socioeconomic low-risk, middle-class sample. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA) scale was used to assess the mother-infant interaction. 'Bleeding in pregnancy' predicted lower quality in preterm mother-infant interaction in 6 PCERA scales, while high 'maternal trait anxiety' predicted higher interactional quality in 2 PCERA scales and 'family size' predicted lower interactional quality in 1 PCERA scale at 18 months CA. Mothers with symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, general psychological distress and anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum (PP) showed significantly better outcome than mothers without symptoms in 6 PCERA subscales at 6 months CA and 2 PCERA subscales at 18 months CA. Our study detected a correspondence between early pregnancy complications and lower quality of preterm mother-infant interaction, and an association between high levels of maternal mental health problems and better quality in preterm mother-infant interaction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Mother-infant interaction at 12 months in prenatally cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Ukeje, I; Bendersky, M; Lewis, M

    2001-05-01

    This study examined mother-infant interactions of 12-month-old African-American prenatally cocaine-exposed infants and their mothers. Videotaped observations were made during a free-play dyadic interaction, a brief separation, and a reunion period. Videotapes were coded for maternal and child behaviors during each phase of the procedure. Although there were few differences in interactive behaviors between prenatally cocaine-exposed and nonexposed children and their mothers, children who were prenatally exposed to cocaine ignored their mother's departure (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, p < .05) during separation significantly more often than nonexposed subjects. In addition, mothers who abused cocaine engaged in significantly more verbal behavior (F(2,104) = 7.00, p < .001) with their children than mothers of nonexposed children. These findings indicate that women who used cocaine during pregnancy may not differ from nonusers in their interactions with their 12-month-old infants.

  10. Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.

    PubMed

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-12-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (β = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (β = 0.75, p

  11. MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION IMPROVES WITH A DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT DYADS

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention Control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training–Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-minute play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (β = 2.03, p = .06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (

  12. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  13. Related visual impairment to mother-infant interaction and development in infants with bilateral retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Nagayoshi, Michie; Hirose, Taiko; Toju, Kyoko; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Okamitsu, Motoko; Teramoto, Taeko; Omori, Takahide; Kawamura, Aki; Takeo, Naoko

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted with infants diagnosed with bilateral retinoblastoma (RB) and their mothers. It explored characteristics of the mother-infant interaction, the infants' developmental characteristics and related risk factors. Cross-sectional statistical analysis was performed with 18 dyads of one-year-old infants with bilateral RB and their mothers. Using the Japanese Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (JNCATS) results showed that infants with RB had significantly lower scores compared to normative Japanese scores on all of the infants' subscales and "Child's contingency" (p < 0.01). Five infants with visual impairment at high risk of developmental problems had a pass rate of 0% on six JNCATS items. There were positive correlations between Developmental quotients (DQ) and JNCATS score of "Responsiveness to caregiver" (ρ = 0.50, p < 0.05) and DQ and "Child's contingency" (ρ = 0.47, p < 0.05). Infants with visual impairment were characterized by high likelihood of developmental delays and problematic behaviors; they tended not to turn their face or eyes toward their mothers, smile in response to their mothers' talking to them or the latter's changing body language or facial expressions, or react in a contingent manner in their interactions. These infant behaviors noted by their mothers shared similarities with developmental characteristics of children with visual impairments. These findings indicated a need to provide support promoting mother-infant interactions consistent with the developmental characteristics of RB infants with visual impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program on Mother-Infant Interaction after Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; Koldewijn, Karen; Houtzager, Bregje A.; Van Wassenaer, Aleid; Tronick, Ed; Kok, Joke; Van Baar, Anneloes

    2010-01-01

    Background: Prematurity and perinatal insults lead to increased developmental vulnerability. The home-based Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) was designed to improve development of preterm infants. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial the effect of IBAIP on mother-infant interaction was studied as a secondary…

  15. Modeling Dyadic Processes Using Hidden Markov Models: A Time Series Approach to Mother-Infant Interactions during Infant Immunization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Rovine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at 2 and 6?months of age, used hidden Markov modelling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a…

  16. Promoting mother-infant interaction and infant mental health in low-income Korean families: attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Breitmayer, Bonnie; Kim, Mi Ja; Yang, Soo

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach (ACBA) to enhance mother-infant interaction and infant mental health. This quasi-experimental study used a pre-posttest control group design. Participants were 40 low-income, mother-infant (infant ages 12-36 months) dyads, 20 dyads per group. The ACBA group received 10 weekly 90-min sessions. Dependent variables were changes in mother-infant interaction and infant mental health. Additionally, we explored changes in mothers' attachment security. The groups differed significantly in changes in mother-infant interaction, infant mental health problems, and mothers' attachment security. ACBA may enhance mother-infant interaction and infants' mental health. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Affect recognition and the quality of mother-infant interaction: understanding parenting difficulties in mothers with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Healy, Sarah J; Lewin, Jona; Butler, Stephen; Vaillancourt, Kyla; Seth-Smith, Fiona

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the quality of mother-infant interaction and maternal ability to recognise adult affect in three study groups consisting of mothers with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, mothers with depression and healthy controls. Sixty-four mothers were recruited from a Mother and Baby Unit and local children's centres. A 5-min mother-infant interaction was coded on a number of caregiving variables. Affect recognition and discrimination abilities were tested via a series of computerised tasks. Group differences were found both in measures of affect recognition and in the mother-infant interaction. Mothers with schizophrenia showed consistent impairments across most of the parenting measures and all measures of affect recognition and discrimination. Mothers with depression fell between the mothers with schizophrenia and healthy controls on most measures. However, depressed women's parenting was not significantly poorer than controls on any of the measures, and only showed trends for differences with mothers with schizophrenia on a few measures. Regression analyses found impairments in affect recognition and a diagnosis of schizophrenia to predict the occurrence of odd or unusual speech in the mother-infant interaction. Results add to the growing body of knowledge on the mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia and mothers with depression compared to healthy controls, suggesting a need for parenting interventions aimed at mothers with these conditions. While affect recognition impairments were not found to fully explain differences in parenting among women with schizophrenia, further research is needed to understand the psychopathology of parenting disturbances within this clinical group.

  18. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing Mother Infant Interactions through Video Feedback Enabled Interventions in Women with Schizophrenia: A Single Subject Research Design Study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pashapu Dharma; Desai, Geehta; Hamza, Ameer; Karthik, Sheshachala; Ananthanpillai, Supraja Thirumalai; Chandra, Prabha S

    2014-10-01

    It has been shown that mother infant interactions are often impaired in mothers with schizophrenia. Contributory factors include psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms and surrogate parenting by others. This study describes the effectiveness of video feedback in enhancing mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia who have impaired interaction with their infant. Two women with schizophrenia who were admitted for persistent psychotic symptoms and poor mothering skills, participated in the intervention. Pre intervention parenting assessment was done using video recording of mother infant interaction. Six sessions of mothering intervention were provided using video feedback and a repeat recording was done. Pre-and post-intervention videos were subsequently rated in a blind fashion by an independent expert in perinatal psychiatry using the pediatric infant parent exam (PIPE) scale. Pre and post intervention comparison of PIPE scores indicating significant improvement in several areas of mothering. Video feedback is a simple and inexpensive tool which can be used for improving mothering skills among mothers with postpartum psychosis or schizophrenia even in low resource settings.

  20. Maternal cognitions and mother-infant interaction in postnatal depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Stein, Alan; Craske, Michelle G; Lehtonen, Annukka; Harvey, Allison; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Davies, Beverley; Goodwin, Julia; Murray, Lynne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Counsell, Nicholas

    2012-11-01

    Postnatal depression and anxiety have been shown to increase the risk of disturbances in mother-child interaction and child development. Research into mechanisms has focused on genetics and maternal behavior; maternal cognitions have received little attention. Our aim was to experimentally determine if worry and rumination in mothers with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), diagnosed in the postnatal 6 months, interfered with maternal responsiveness to their 10-month old infants. Mothers (N = 253: GAD n = 90; MDD n = 57; control n = 106) and their infants were randomized to either a worry/rumination prime (WRP) or a neutral prime (NP); mother-infant interactions were assessed before and after priming. Type of priming was a significant predictor of maternal cognitions, with WRP resulting in more negative thoughts, higher thought recurrence and more self-focus relative to NP across the entire sample. Interaction effects between group and priming were significant for two parenting variables: Compared with controls, WRP had a more negative impact on maternal responsiveness to infant vocalization for GAD, and to a lesser extent for MDD; WRP led to decreased maternal vocalization for GAD. Also, mothers with GAD used stronger control after the NP than WRP, as well as compared with other groups, and overall post-priming, their children exhibited lower emotional tone and more withdrawal. Across the entire sample, WRP was associated with increased child vocalization relative to NP. This study demonstrated that disturbances in maternal cognitions, in the context of postnatal anxiety and to a lesser degree depression, play a significant role in mother-child interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Longitudinal Associations between the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions and Brain Development across Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if normative variations in parenting relate to brain development among typically developing children. A sample of 352 mother-infant dyads came to the laboratory when infants were 5, 10, and 24 months of age (final N = 215). At each visit, child resting electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded.…

  2. Mother's Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth.

    PubMed

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. This study suggests that mothers' psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants' follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected.

  3. Association of Maternal and Infant Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol and Infant Gender With Mother-Infant Interaction in Very-Low-Birthweight Infants.

    PubMed

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2015-10-01

    Male very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants are more prone than females to health and developmental problems and less positive mother-infant interactions. Because gender differences in brain development and social relationships suggest hormonal influences on quality of mother-infant interaction, the authors explored the associations of maternal and infant salivary testosterone and cortisol levels with mother-infant interactions in the sample as a whole and by gender, after controlling for covariates. Data were collected prospectively from 62 mothers and their VLBW infants through infant record review, maternal interview, biochemical measurement of both mothers and infants, and observation of mother-infant interactions at 40 weeks postmenstrual age and at three and six months corrected age. Infants' positive interactions increased and mothers' decreased from three to six months. In generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses, after controlling for covariates, higher maternal testosterone and infant cortisol were associated with more positive and more frequent maternal interactive behaviors. In GEE analyses by infant gender, after controlling for covariates, effects of maternal and infant hormone levels became more significant, especially on infants' interactive behaviors. Based on these preliminary findings, among VLBW infants, males with high testosterone are expected to have less positive mother-infant interactions than males with low testosterone or female infants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Children's Responses to Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction with a Baby Sibling: Jealousy or Joy?

    PubMed Central

    Volling, Brenda L.; Yu, Tianyi; Gonzalez, Richard; Kennedy, Denise E.; Rosenberg, Lauren; Oh, Wonjung

    2014-01-01

    Firstborn children's reactions to mother-infant and father-infant interaction after a sibling's birth were examined in an investigation of 224 families. Triadic observations of parent-infant-sibling interaction were conducted at 1 month after the birth. Parents reported on children's problem behaviors at 1 and 4 months after the birth, and completed the Attachment Q-sort before the birth. Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) identified four latent classes (behavioral profiles) for mother-infant and father-infant interaction: regulated-exploration, disruptive-dysregulated, approach-avoidant, and anxious-clingy. A fifth class, attention-seeking, was found with fathers. The regulated-exploration class was the normative pattern (60%), with few children in the disruptive class (2.7%). Approach-avoidant children had more behavior problems at 4 months than any other class with the exception of the disruptive children who were higher on aggression and attention problems. Before the birth, anxious-clingy children had less secure attachments to their fathers than approach avoidant children, but more secure attachments to their mothers. Results underscore individual differences in firstborns' behavioral responses to parent-infant interaction and the importance of a person-centered approach for understanding children's jealousy. PMID:25150371

  5. Children's responses to mother-infant and father-infant interaction with a baby sibling: jealousy or joy?

    PubMed

    Volling, Brenda L; Yu, Tianyi; Gonzalez, Richard; Kennedy, Denise E; Rosenberg, Lauren; Oh, Wonjung

    2014-10-01

    Firstborn children's reactions to mother-infant and father-infant interaction after a sibling's birth were examined in an investigation of 224 families. Triadic observations of parent-infant-sibling interaction were conducted at 1 month after the birth. Parents reported on children's problem behaviors at 1 and 4 months after the birth and completed the Attachment Q-sort before the birth. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 4 latent classes (behavioral profiles) for mother-infant and father-infant interactions: regulated-exploration, disruptive-dysregulated, approach-avoidant, and anxious-clingy. A fifth class, attention-seeking, was found with fathers. The regulated-exploration class was the normative pattern (60%), with few children in the disruptive class (2.7%). Approach-avoidant children had more behavior problems at 4 months than any other class, with the exception of the disruptive children, who were higher on aggression and attention problems. Before the birth, anxious-clingy children had less secure attachments to their fathers than approach avoidant children but more secure attachments to their mothers. Results underscore individual differences in firstborns' behavioral responses to parent-infant interaction and the importance of a person-centered approach for understanding children's jealousy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Modeling dyadic processes using Hidden Markov Models: A time series approach to mother-infant interactions during infant immunization.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Rovine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at two and six months of age, used hidden Markov modeling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a 4-state model for the dyadic responses to a two-month inoculation whereas a 6-state model best described the dyadic process at six months. Two of the states at two months and three of the states at six months suggested a progression from high intensity crying to no crying with parents using vestibular and auditory soothing methods. The use of feeding and/or pacifying to soothe the infant characterized one two-month state and two six-month states. These data indicate that with maturation and experience, the mother-infant dyad is becoming more organized around the soothing interaction. Using hidden Markov modeling to describe individual differences, as well as normative processes, is also presented and discussed.

  7. Modeling dyadic processes using Hidden Markov Models: A time series approach to mother-infant interactions during infant immunization

    PubMed Central

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Rovine, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at two and six months of age, used hidden Markov modeling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a 4-state model for the dyadic responses to a two-month inoculation whereas a 6-state model best described the dyadic process at six months. Two of the states at two months and three of the states at six months suggested a progression from high intensity crying to no crying with parents using vestibular and auditory soothing methods. The use of feeding and/or pacifying to soothe the infant characterized one two-month state and two six-month states. These data indicate that with maturation and experience, the mother-infant dyad is becoming more organized around the soothing interaction. Using hidden Markov modeling to describe individual differences, as well as normative processes, is also presented and discussed. PMID:27284272

  8. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother

  9. Interdyad Differences in Early Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Real-Time Dynamics and Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads…

  10. Development of mother-infant interaction in tickling play: The relationship between infants' ticklishness and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Konomi; Negayama, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the development of mother-infant tickling interaction and the relationship between infants' ticklishness and social behaviors including infants' looking at mothers' face, mothers' narrative tickling, and mothers' laughter. Twenty-two Japanese infants aged 5 months (n=10, five girls) and 7 months (n=12, four girls) and their mothers were videotaped. Results revealed that the mothers' narrative tickling was more frequent at 7 than at 5 months and the infants' strong ticklishness showed the same tendency. The infants' strong ticklishness was linked with the occurrence of other social behaviors. In conclusion, infants' ticklishness was heavily connected with social behaviors. The mode of the tickling interaction at 7 months was different from that at 5 months especially in the increase of mother's narrative tickling. A possible function of such mother's narrative tickling to facilitate infant active communication at a higher cognitive level including anticipation, was discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Infants' Vagal Regulation in the Still-Face Paradigm Is Related to Dyadic Coordination of Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ginger A.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated relations between mother-infant dyadic coordination and infants' physiological responses. Mothers (N=73) and 3-month-old male and female infants were observed in the still-face paradigm, and mothers' and infants' affective states were coded at 1-s intervals. Synchrony and levels of matching between mother-infant affective…

  12. Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction in Infants with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. Social behaviors, mothers'…

  13. Mother-infant interaction during the first 3 months: the emergence of culture-specific contingency patterns.

    PubMed

    Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Yovsi, Relindis D

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed German and Nso mothers' auditory, proximal, and visual contingent responses to their infants' nondistress vocalizations in postnatal Weeks 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Visual contingency scores increased whereas proximal contingency scores decreased over time for the independent (German urban middle-class, N = 20) but not the interdependent sociocultural context (rural Nso farmers, N = 24). It seems, therefore, that culture-specific differences in the modal patterns of contingent responsiveness emerge during the 2nd and 3rd months of life. This differential development was interpreted as the result of the interplay between maturational processes associated with the 2-month shift that are selectively integrated and reinforced in culture-specific mother-infant interaction.

  14. Culture, Migration, and Parenting: A Comparative Study of Mother-Infant Interaction and Childrearing Patterns in Romanian, Romanian Immigrant, and Italian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscardino, Ughetta; Bertelli, Costanza; Altoè, Gianmarco

    2011-01-01

    This study compared mother-infant interaction and childrearing patterns across Romanian families in Romania, first-generation Romanian immigrant families in Italy, and Italian families. The relations between acculturation and maternal beliefs and behaviors were also examined. Ninety-five mothers and their infants aged between 0 and 12 months…

  15. Quality of attachment, perinatal risk, and mother-infant interaction in a high-risk premature sample.

    PubMed

    Udry-Jørgensen, Laura; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Borghini, Ayala; Habersaat, Stephanie; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Ansermet, François; Muller-Nix, Carole

    2011-05-01

    Thirty-three families, each with a premature infant born less than 33 gestational weeks, were observed in a longitudinal exploratory study. Infants were recruited in a neonatal intensive care unit, and follow-up visits took place at 4 months and 12 months of corrected age. The severity of the perinatal problems was evaluated using the Perinatal Risk Inventory (PERI; A.P. Scheiner & M.E. Sexton, 1991). At 4 months, mother-infant play interaction was observed and coded according to the CARE-index (P.M. Crittenden, 2003); at 12 months, the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP; M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) was administered. Results indicate a strong correlation between the severity of perinatal problems and the quality of attachment at 12 months. Based on the PERI, infants with high medical risks more frequently tended to be insecurely attached. There also was a significant correlation between insecure attachment and dyadic play interaction at 4 months (i.e., maternal controlling behavior and infant compulsive compliance). Moreover, specific dyadic interactive patterns could be identified as protective or as risk factors regarding the quality of attachment. Considering that attachment may have long-term influence on child development, these results underline the need for particular attention to risk factors regarding attachment among premature infants. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Attachment representations among substance-abusing women in transition to motherhood: implications for prenatal emotions and mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Isosävi, Sanna; Flykt, Marjo; Belt, Ritva; Posa, Tiina; Kuittinen, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-08-01

    We studied how attachment representations contribute to central components of transition to motherhood, prenatal emotion processing (EP) and emotional availability (EA) of mother-infant interaction, and whether there are group specific differences. Participants were 51 treatment-enrolled substance-abusing (SA) mothers and their infants and 50 non-using comparison dyads with obstetric risk. Mother's attachment representations (AAI) and EP were assessed prenatally and EA when infants were four months. Results showed that autonomous attachment only had a buffering effect on prenatal EP among comparisons. All SA mothers showed more dysfunctional EP than comparisons and, contrary to comparisons, autonomous SA mothers reported more negative cognitive appraisals and less meta-evaluation of emotions than dismissing SA mothers. Preoccupied SA mothers showed high negative cognitive appraisals, suggesting under-regulation of emotions. Attachment representations were not associated with EA in either group; rather, SA status contributed to global risk in the relationship. Surprisingly, autonomous SA mothers showed a tendency towards intrusiveness. We propose that obstetric risk among comparisons and adverse relational experiences among almost all SA mothers might override the protective role of mother's autonomous representations for dyadic interaction. We conclude that prenatal emotional turbulence and high interaction risk of all SA mothers calls for holistic treatment for the dyad.

  17. Mother-infant interaction in schizophrenia: transmitting risk or resilience? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Kirstine Agnete; Harder, Susanne; MacBeth, Angus; Lundy, Jenna-Marie; Gumley, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The parent-infant relationship is an important context for identifying very early risk and resilience factors and targets for the development of preventative interventions. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies investigating the early caregiver-infant relationship and attachment in offspring of parents with schizophrenia. We searched computerized databases for relevant articles investigating the relationship between early caregiver-infant relationship and outcomes for offspring of a caregiver with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Studies were assessed for risk of bias. We identified 27 studies derived from 10 cohorts, comprising 208 women diagnosed with schizophrenia, 71 with other psychoses, 203 women with depression, 59 women with mania/bipolar disorder, 40 with personality disorder, 8 with unspecified mental disorders and 119 non-psychiatric controls. There was some evidence to support disturbances in maternal behaviour amongst those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and there was more limited evidence of disturbances in infant behaviour and mutuality of interaction. Further research should investigate both sources of resilience and risk in the development of offspring of parents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychosis. Given the lack of specificity observed in this review, these studies should also include maternal affective disorders including depressive and bipolar disorders.

  18. The mindedness of maternal touch: An investigation of maternal mind-mindedness and mother-infant touch interactions.

    PubMed

    Crucianelli, Laura; Wheatley, Lisa; Filippetti, Maria Laura; Jenkinson, Paul M; Kirk, Elizabeth; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini Katerina

    2018-01-31

    Increasing evidence shows that maternal touch may promote emotion regulation in infants, however less is known about how parental higher-order social cognition abilities are translated into tactile, affect-regulatory behaviours towards their infants. During 10 min book-reading, mother-infant sessions when infants were 12 months old (N = 45), we investigated maternal mind-mindedness (MM), the social cognitive ability to understand an infant's mental state, by coding the contingency of maternal verbal statements towards the infants' needs and desires. We also rated spontaneous tactile interactions in terms of their emotional contingency. We found that frequent non-attuned mind-related comments were associated with touch behaviours that were not contingent with the infant's emotions; ultimately discouraging affective tactile responses from the infant. However, comments that were more appropriate to infant's mental states did not necessarily predict more emotionally-contingent tactile behaviours. These findings suggest that when parental high-order social cognitive abilities are compromised, they are also likely to translate into inappropriate, tactile attempts to regulate infant's emotions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interaction: The Communicative Value of Infant-Directed Talking and Singing.

    PubMed

    Arias, Diana; Peña, Marcela

    Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother. Behavioral response was analyzed from offline video coding, and brain response was estimated from the analysis of electrophysiological recordings. We found that during ID talking, infants displayed a significantly higher number of visual contacts, vocalizations, and body movements than during ID singing. Moreover, only during ID talking were the number of visual contacts and vocalizations positively correlated with the number of questions and pauses in the mother's speech. Our results suggest that ID talking provides infants with specific cues that allow them not only to react to mother stimulation, but also to act toward them, displaying a rudimentary version of turn-taking behavior. Brain activity partially supported that interpretation. The relevance of our results for bonding is discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Holding the baby: early mother-infant contact after childbirth and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie; Kruske, Sue

    2014-05-01

    to describe the timing, type and duration of initial infant contact and associated demographic and clinical factors in addition to investigating the impact of early contact on breastfeeding and maternal health and well being after birth. data from a recent population survey of women birthing in Queensland, Australia were used to describe the nature of the first hold and associated demographic characteristics. Initial comparisons, with subsequent adjustment for type of birthing facility and mode of childbirth, were used to assess associations between timing, type and duration of initial contact and outcomes. Further analyses were conducted to investigate a dose-response relationship between duration of first contact and outcomes. women who had an unassisted vaginal birth held their infant sooner, and for longer than women who had an assisted vaginal birth or caesarean and were more satisfied with their early contact. Multivariate models showed a number of demographic and clinical interventions contributing to timing, duration and type of first contact with type of birthing facility (public/private), area of residence, and assisted birth as prominent factors. For women who had a vaginal birth; early, skin-to-skin, and longer duration of initial contact were associated with high rates of breastfeeding initiation and breastfeeding at discharge, but not breastfeeding at 13 weeks. Some aspects of early contact were associated with improved maternal well being. However, these associations were not found for women who had a caesarean birth. With longer durations of first contact, a dose-response effect was found for breastfeeding. results of the study provide a description of current practice in Queensland, Australia and factors impacting on early contact. For vaginal births, findings add to the evidence in support of early skin-to-skin contact for an extended period. It is suggested that all research in this area should consider the effects of early contact separately for

  1. A Pilot Study on Early Mother-Infant Communication during and after NICU Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Maria Paulina; van Dijk, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    Premature children or infants with neonatal pathologies have a higher risk of developing communicative problems. This pilot study aimed to explore communicative behaviour between the mothers and the infants during the hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and follow-up paediatric visit. The verbal interactions in the NICU were…

  2. Effects of Mother-Infant Social Interactions on Infants' Subsequent Contingency Task Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Philip; Dunham, Frances

    1990-01-01

    Infants participated in a nonsocial contingency task immediately after a social interaction with their mothers. The amount of time mothers and infants spent in a state of vocal turn-taking predicted individual differences in infants' subsequent performance on the contingency task. (PCB)

  3. Neurobiology of mother-infant interactions: experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A S; O'Day, D H; Kraemer, G W

    1999-05-01

    The optimal coordination between the new mammalian mother and her young involves a sequence of behaviors on the part of each that ensures that the young will be adequately cared for and show healthy physical, emotional, and social development. This coordination is accomplished by each member of the relationship having the appropriate sensitivities and responses to cues that characterize the other. Among many mammalian species, new mothers are attracted to their infants' odors and some recognize them based on their odors; they also respond to their infants' vocalizations, thermal properties, and touch qualities. Together these cues ensure that the mother will nurse and protect the offspring and provide them with the appropriate physical and stimulus environment in which to develop. The young, in turn, orient to the mother and show a suckling pattern that reflects a sensitivity to the mothers odor, touch, and temperature characteristics. This article explores the sensory, endocrine, and neural mechanisms that underlie this early mother-young relationship, from the perspective of, first, the mother and, then, the young, noting the parallels between them. It emphasizes the importance of learning and plasticity in the formation and maintenance of the mother-young relationship and mediation of these experience effects by the brain and its neurochemistry. Finally, it discusses ways in which the infants' early experiences with their mothers (or the absence of these experiences) may come to influence how they respond to their own infants when they grow up, providing a psychobiological mechanism for the inter-generational transmission of parenting styles and responsiveness.

  4. Mutual touch during mother-infant face-to-face still-face interactions: influences of interaction period and infant birth status.

    PubMed

    Mantis, Irene; Stack, Dale M; Ng, Laura; Serbin, Lisa A; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2014-08-01

    Contact behaviours such as touch, have been shown to be influential channels of nonverbal communication between mothers and infants. While existing research has examined the communicative roles of maternal or infant touch in isolation, mutual touch, whereby touching behaviours occur simultaneously between mothers and their infants, has yet to be examined. The present study was designed to investigate mutual touch during face-to-face interactions between mothers and their 5½-month-old fullterm (n=40), very low birth weight/preterm (VLBW/preterm; n=40) infants, and infants at psychosocial risk (n=41). Objectives were to examine: (1) how the quantitative and qualitative aspects of touch employed by mothers and their infants varied across the normal periods of the still-face (SF) procedure, and (2) how these were associated with risk status. Mutual touch was systematically coded using the mother-infant touch scale. Interactions were found to largely consist of mutual touch and one-sided touch plus movement, highlighting that active touching is pervasive during mother-infant interactions. Consistent with the literature, while the SF period did not negatively affect the amount of mutual touch engaged in for mothers and their fullterm infants and mothers and their infants at psychosocial risk, it did for mothers and their VLBW/preterm infants. Together, results illuminate how both mothers and infants participate in shaping and co-regulating their interactions through the use of touch and underscore the contribution of examining the influence of birth status on mutual touch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mother-infant interaction assessment at discharge and at 6 months in a French cohort of infants born very preterm: The OLIMPE study

    PubMed Central

    Ehlinger, Virginie; Roy, Joël; Guédeney, Antoine; Lebeaux, Cécile; Kaminski, Monique; Alberge, Corine; Denizot, Sophie; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Arnaud, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The principal aim was to investigate the feasibility of assessing mother-infant interactions at discharge and at 6 months infant corrected age in singletons born before 32 weeks of gestation. The secondary aims were to describe these interactions and their disorders, explore the association between maternal emotional state and the interactions, and assess the relationship between disordered interactions and infant social withdrawal behaviour. Methods OLIMPE is an ancillary study of the population-based study EPIPAGE 2, which recruited preterm neonates in France in 2011. 163 dyads participated at discharge and 148 at 6 months. Interactions were observed with the Attachment During Stress (ADS) scale, which includes two behavioural subscales, for the mother (m-ADS) and her infant (i-ADS). Two professionals independently completed the ADS scales for one third of the observations. Maternal emotional state was assessed using self-administered questionnaires of depression, anxiety, and stress. Infant’s social withdrawal behaviour at 6 months was measured by the Alarm Distress Baby scale. Results At discharge, 15.3% of the m-ADS scales and 43.3% of the i-ADS scales had at least one unobserved component. At 6 months, all items on both scales were noticeable in >90% of the dyads. Reliability, estimated by the kappa coefficient, ranged between 0.39 and 0.76 at discharge, and between 0.21 and 0.69 at 6 months. Disordered interactions were indicated on 48.6% of the m-ADS scales and 36.5% of the i-ADS scales at discharge. At 6 months, these rates were 32.6% and 26.0%. Disordered interactions at 6 months were associated with identified disorder at discharge. Insecure infant attachment was not influenced by maternal mental health but was strongly associated with infant social withdrawal behaviour. Conclusions The ADS scale can be used to screen for early interaction disorders after premature birth and may help to target dyads that would most benefit from early

  6. Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact after delivery results in early recognition of own mother's milk odour.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Mizuno, N; Shinohara, T; Noda, M

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effects of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth on infant recognition of their own mother's milk odour and breastfeeding duration until 1 y of age. Sixty healthy, full-term neonates were randomly assigned to group A with skin-to-skin contact and group B without. One and 4 d after birth, infant responses to the following odour stimuli were observed: own mother's milk, another mother's milk, formula, orange juice and distilled water. Infant facial action was videotaped and the frequency of mouthing movements was evaluated for each stimulus. Nutritional assessment, focused particularly on breastfeeding, was performed every 3 mo on participating infants. Statistical analysis comparing the frequency of mouthing movements with the aforementioned five different odour exposures was performed by ANOVA with Fisher's PLSD. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test was used to compare breastfeeding rates between groups. Infants in both groups responded differently to mother's milk odour (either their own or another mother's milk) compared to the other stimuli on days 1 and 4. However, infants in group A demonstrated a larger difference in mouthing movements between their own and another mother's milk odour at 4 d of age (2.6 +/- 1.6) compared to infants in group B (0.9 +/- 2.0, p = 0.01). Infants in group A were breastfed an average of 1.9 mo longer than the others. Our study provides evidence that mother-infant skin-to-skin contact for more than 50 min immediately after birth results in enhanced infant recognition of their own mother's milk odour and longer breastfeeding duration.

  7. Disruption to the development of maternal responsiveness? The impact of prenatal depression on mother-infant interactions.

    PubMed

    Pearson, R M; Melotti, R; Heron, J; Joinson, C; Stein, A; Ramchandani, P G; Evans, J

    2012-12-01

    Both prenatal and postnatal maternal depression are independently associated with an increased risk of adverse infant development. The impact of postnatal depression on infants may be mediated through the effect of depression in reducing maternal responsiveness. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of prenatal depression are unclear. Using longitudinal data from over 900 mother-infant pairs in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC), we found that women with high depressive symptom scores during mid pregnancy, but NOT when their infants were 8 months, had a 30% increased risk of low maternal responsiveness when the infant was 12 months compared to women with consistently low depression. This may provide a mechanism to explain the independent association between prenatal depression and poorer infant development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Birth timing and behavioral responsiveness predict individual differences in the mother-infant relationship and infant behavior during weaning and maternal breeding

    PubMed Central

    Vandeleest, Jessica J.; Capitanio, John P.

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of variability in mother-infant interactions and infant behavior across the first year of life in rhesus monkeys. The current paper has two specific aims: 1) to determine if birth timing predicts variability in the mother-infant relationship and infant behavior during weaning and maternal breeding, and 2) to identify predictors of infant behavior during a period of acute challenge, maternal breeding. Forty-one mother-infant pairs were observed during weaning when infants were 4.5 months old, and 33 were followed through maternal breeding. Subjective ratings of 16 adjectives reflecting qualities of maternal attitude, mother-infant interactions, and infant attitude were factor analyzed to construct factors relating to the mother-infant relationship (Relaxed and Aggressive), and infant behavior (Positive Engagement and Distress). During weaning, late born infants were more Positively Engaged than peak born infants (ANOVA, P < 0.05); however, birth timing did not affect the mother-infant relationship factors Relaxed and Aggressive or the infant attitude factor Distress. During maternal breeding early born infants had less Relaxed relationships with their mothers than peak or late born infants, higher Positive Engagement scores than peak or late born infants, and tended to have higher Distress scores than peak born infants (Repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.05). In addition, Distress scores were higher during maternal breeding than during the pre- and post-breeding phases. Finally, multiple regression (P < 0.05) indicated that while infant behavioral responsiveness predicted infant Positive Engagement during the acute challenge of maternal breeding, qualities of the mother-infant relationship predicted infant Distress. These data suggest that birth timing influences the patterns of mother-infant interactions during weaning and maternal breeding. Additionally, infant behavioral responsiveness and mother-infant relationship quality impact infant social

  9. On the Origins of Disorganized Attachment and Internal Working Models: Paper II. An Empirical Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Lachmann, Frank; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen A.; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley; Jaffe, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication predicted 12-month infant disorganized (vs. secure) attachment outcomes in an urban community sample. We documented a dyadic systems view of the roles of both partners, the roles of both self- and interactive contingency, and the importance of attention, orientation and touch, and as well as facial and vocal affect, in the co-construction of attachment disorganization. The analysis of different communication modalities identified striking intrapersonal and interpersonal intermodal discordance or conflict, in the context of intensely distressed infants, as the central feature of future disorganized dyads at 4 months. Lowered maternal contingent coordination, and failures of maternal affective correspondence, constituted maternal emotional withdrawal from distressed infants. This maternal withdrawal compromises infant interactive agency and emotional coherence. We characterize of the nature of emerging internal working models of future disorganized infants as follows: Future disorganized infants represent states of not being sensed and known by their mothers, particularly in moments of distress; they represent confusion about both their own and their mothers’ basic emotional organization, and about their mothers’ response to their distress. This internal working model sets a trajectory in development which may disturb the fundamental integration of the person. The remarkable specificity of our findings has the potential to lead to more finely-focused clinical interventions. PMID:23066334

  10. Affect of Early Skin-to-Skin Mother-Infant Contact in the Maintenance of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Experience in a Health Department in Spain.

    PubMed

    Vila-Candel, Rafael; Duke, Kiri; Soriano-Vidal, F Javier; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    Breastfeeding has been shown to result in extensive physical and psychological benefits for both the mother and the newborn. However, the rate and duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low worldwide. Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) immediately after birth has demonstrated results that support the argument for breastfeeding continuation. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of EBF 3 months postpartum and the effect of early SSC in maintaining optimal EBF practices for mothers and their healthy newborns. We conducted an observational, retrospective study in Spain from 2013 to 2015. Pregnant women were interviewed immediately postpartum and again at 3 months postpartum regarding variables associated with breastfeeding initiation and continuation. There were 1,071 women recruited. Early SSC was performed in 92% of vaginal births but only 57% of urgent cesarean births. Of women breastfeeding at discharge, 69.5% performed SSC with their newborn. We found that 68.6% of women were exclusively breastfeeding by discharge and 46.7% by 3 months postpartum. Type of feeding at discharge, country of origin, and parity were found to be associated with each other ( p = .003, p = .001, respectively). Early SSC was also significantly associated with type of feeding at discharge, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months postpartum ( p < .001). Hypogalactia (19.8%) was the most frequently reported factor for breastfeeding discontinuation. Breastfeeding promotion interventions are likely to improve breastfeeding rates at 3 months postpartum. Social and economic factors should be taken into account when such programs are planned to be implemented.

  11. The Impact of Physical Maltreatment History on the Adolescent Mother-Infant Relationship: Mediating and Moderating Effects during the Transition to Early Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica; Ethier, Kathleen; Kershaw, Trace; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2004-01-01

    Using attachment theory as a framework, this paper examines how pregnant adolescents' experiences of physical maltreatment during childhood influence the subsequent mother-infant relationship in 203 low-income adolescents followed from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy through the 1st year of parenthood. The relation between physical maltreatment…

  12. Maternal, Neonatal and Mother-Infant Antecedents of Attachment in Urban Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Ellen A.; Egeland, Byron

    Attempts to assess maternal and neonatal behavior and subsequent mother-infant interactions as potential determinants of the quality of attachment between mothers and their infants provide the focus of this paper. Several instruments and procedures that focused on (1) maternal and infant characteristics, (2) mother-infant interaction, and (3) life…

  13. 'Touchpoints' by nurses: impact on maternal representations, child development, quality of mother-infant interaction, and mothers' perception of the quality of relationships with nurses.

    PubMed

    Soares, Hélia

    2016-05-09

    To investigate the effect of implementing the Touchpoints methodology by nurses in the following variables: quality of mother-infant interaction; infant development; maternal representations of child temperament and mothers' perception of the quality of relationship with nurses. Quasi-experimental longitudinal study, including 86 child-mother dyads distributed equally for: Group with Intervention (GI) (n=43), Group without Intervention (GWI) (n=43). These groups belonged to paired samples according to the following criteria: maternal age; socio-economic class; family structure; child health; parents' physical or psychological health; twins; family's nationality; risk during pregnancy; baby APGAR. Paired samples with the same routine visits allowed comparing the impact of Touchpoints intervention on the above mentioned variables. The monitoring of the two groups took place in a period of between 11 and 24 months of children's life (four moments of assessment), being held two Touchpoints sessions in the GI at 12 and 18 months. Two Touchpoints interventions sessions were applied in the GI as follows: the first time, at 12 months; the second time, at 24 months, child age. The instruments used for data collection were: Schedule of Growing Skills II (SGS II); CARE-Index; Temperament Scale; Parent-Caregiver Relationship Scale - parents' version. Infant Locomotor development (p=.036) and maternal representations about the child and motherhood (Z=5.737; p=.019) improved in the GI. No significant results were found for mother-infant interaction in this direct comparison. Nevertheless, findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and infant cooperative behaviour increased from 12 to 24 months in the GI [t(41)=4.513; p<.001], whereas it decreased in the GWI (from 8.62 at 12 months to 8.40 at 24 months). The means of mothers' perceptions of Trust/Caring towards nurses in the GI were higher than in GWI after six months of the Touchpoints intervention [t(84)=2.146; p<.001; M_GI=34

  14. The Relationship between Neonatal Characteristics and Three-Month Mother-Infant Interaction in High-Risk Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jamie G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) To what extent do risk factors of prematurity and illness affect neonatal characteristics? (2) Do these risk factors continue to account for differences in mother and infant social interactive behavior at three months? and (three) To what degree are neonatal characteristics predictive of mother and infant behavior at…

  15. Anxious Mothers and At-Risk Infants: The Influence of Mild Hearing Impairment on Early Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Pat Spencer; Prezioso, Carlene

    To examine the influence of imperfect audition in otherwise intact infants on early mother-infant interaction, three hard of hearing and three normally hearing infants were videotaped in interaction with their mothers. Interaction was coded, a narrative record of the mothers' nonverbal behavior was made, and transcripts of interviews with the…

  16. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  17. Stability and transitions in mother-infant face-to-face communication during the first 6 months: a microhistorical approach.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Fogel, Alan

    2003-11-01

    In this study the authors attempted to unravel the relational, dynamical, and historical nature of mother-infant communication during the first 6 months. Thirteen mothers and their infants were videotaped weekly from 4 to 24 weeks during face-to-face interactions. Three distinct patterns of mother-infant communication were identified: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and unilateral. Guided by a dynamic systems perspective, the authors explored the stability of and transitions between these communication patterns. Findings from event history analysis showed that (a) there are regularly recurring dyadic communication patterns in early infancy, (b) these recurring patterns show differential stabilities and likelihoods of transitions, (c) dynamic stability in dyadic communication is shaped not only by individual characteristics (e.g., infant sex and maternal parity) but also by the dyad's communication history, and (d) depending on their recency, communication histories varying in temporal proximity exert differential effects on the self-organization processes of a dyadic system. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

  18. Early and Later Maternal-Infant Interactions in Adolescent Mothers: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Judith M.; And Others

    This study examined differences between the positive mother-infant interactions of adolescents and those of young adult mothers, both before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and educational level. The study also investigated factors related to adolescents' early and later maternal-infant interaction patterns. Subjects were 100…

  19. A pilot randomized controlled trial of time-intensive cognitive-behaviour therapy for postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects on maternal symptoms, mother-infant interactions and attachment.

    PubMed

    Challacombe, F L; Salkovskis, P M; Woolgar, M; Wilkinson, E L; Read, J; Acheson, R

    2017-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that perinatal anxiety disorders are both common and potentially serious for mother and child. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be triggered or exacerbated in the postpartum period, with mothers reporting significant effects on parenting tasks. However, there is little evidence concerning their effective treatment or the impact of successful treatment on parenting. A total of 34 mothers with OCD and a baby of 6 months old were randomized into either time-intensive cognitive-behaviour therapy (iCBT) or treatment as usual (TAU). iCBT took place after randomization at 6 months postpartum and was completed by 9 months. Maternal symptomatology, sensitivity in mother-infant interactions and parenting were assessed at baseline and reassessed at 12 months postpartum. At 12 months attachment was also assessed using Ainsworth's Strange Situation Procedure. A healthy control group of mothers and infants (n = 37) underwent the same assessments as a benchmark. iCBT was successful in ameliorating maternal symptoms of OCD (controlled effect size = 1.31-1.90). However, mother-infant interactions were unchanged by treatment and remained less sensitive in both OCD groups than a healthy control group. The distribution of attachment categories was similar across both clinical groups and healthy controls with approximately 72% classified as secure in each group. iCBT is an effective intervention for postpartum OCD. Sensitive parenting interactions are affected by the presence of postpartum OCD and this is not improved by successful treatment of OCD symptoms. However, the overall attachment bond appears to be unaffected. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore the impact of postpartum OCD as the child develops.

  20. Stability and Transitions in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication during the First 6 Months: A Microhistorical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Fogel, Alan

    2003-01-01

    In this study the authors attempted to unravel the relational, dynamical, and historical nature of mother-infant communication during the first 6 months. Thirteen mothers and their infants were videotaped weekly from 4 to 24 weeks during face-to-face interactions. Three distinct patterns of mother-infant communication were identified: symmetrical,…

  1. Does a triplet birth pose a special risk for infant development? Assessing cognitive development in relation to intrauterine growth and mother-infant interaction across the first 2 years.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2005-02-01

    To examine whether a triplet birth per se poses a risk to the development of infants' cognitive competencies and to the mother-infant relationship. Twenty-three sets of triplets were matched with 23 sets of twins and 23 singleton infants (n = 138) with respect to gestational age, birth weight, and medical and demographic features. Infants with perinatal asphyxia, intraventricular hemorrhage of grade 3 or 4, periventricular leukomalacia, or central nervous system infection were excluded from the study. At 6, 12, and 24 months of age, mother-infant interaction was observed and infants' cognitive development was tested with the Bayley II test. Mothers of triplets displayed lower levels of sensitivity at 6, 12, and 24 months and infants were less socially involved at 6 and 24 months, compared with singletons and twins. Triplets scored lower than singletons and twins on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index at 6, 12, and 24 months. A weight discordance of >15% was found for 15 triplet sets (65.2%). The discordant triplets showed decreased cognitive skills at 12 and 24 months, compared with their siblings, and received the lowest scores for maternal sensitivity. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis revealed that greater medical risk at birth, multiple-birth status, lower maternal sensitivity, and reduced infant social involvement in the first 2 years were each predictive of lower cognitive outcomes at 2 years (R2 = 0.33). Triplets appear to be at higher risk for cognitive delays in the first 2 years of life, and discordant infants are at especially high risk. This delay is related in part to the difficulty of providing sensitive mothering to 3 infants at the same time. The findings may assist practitioners in guiding prenatal and postpartum parental care and management.

  2. Asymmetries in mother-infant behaviour in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Spiezio, Caterina; Hopkins, William Donald

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetries in the maternal behaviour and anatomy might play an important role in the development of primate manual lateralization. In particular, early life asymmetries in mother’s and infant’s behaviour have been suggested to be associated with the development of the hand preference of the offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of behavioural asymmetries in different behavioural categories of mother-infant dyads of zoo-living Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). The study subjects were 14 Barbary macaques involved in seven mother-infant dyads housed in Parco Natura Viva, Italy. For the mothers, bouts of hand preference for maternal cradling and infant retrieval were collected. For the infants, we focused on nipple preference and hand preference for clinging on mother ventrum. Moreover, we collected bouts of hand preference for food reaching in both groups. No significant group-level bias was found for any of the behavioural categories in either mothers or infants. However, at the individual level, six out of seven mothers showed a significant cradling bias, three toward the right hand and three toward the left hand. Moreover, all infants showed a significant nipple preference, six toward the mother’s right nipple, one toward the left nipple. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the infant nipple preference and their hand preference for food reaching, suggesting that maternal environment rather than behaviour might affect the development of hand preference in Old World monkeys. Our findings seem partially to add to previous literature on perceptual lateralization in different species of non-primate mammals, reporting a lateral bias in mother-infant interactions. Given the incongruences between our study and previous research in great apes and humans, our results seem to suggest possible phylogenetic differences in the lateralization of mothers and infants within the Primates order. PMID:29761052

  3. A systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A; Chen, Henian

    2016-04-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for communication modalities of attention, affect, orientation, touch, and composite facial-visual engagement. Time-series approaches generated self- and interactive contingency estimates in each modality. Evidence supporting the following principles was obtained: (a) Significant moment-to-moment predictability within each partner (self-contingency) and between the partners (interactive contingency) characterizes mother-infant communication. (b) Interactive contingency is organized by a bidirectional, but asymmetrical, process: Maternal contingent coordination with infant is higher than infant contingent coordination with mother. (c) Self-contingency organizes communication to a far greater extent than interactive contingency. (d) Self- and interactive contingency processes are not separate; each affects the other in communication modalities of facial affect, facial-visual engagement, and orientation. Each person's self-organization exists in a dynamic, homoeostatic (negative feedback) balance with the degree to which the person coordinates with the partner. For example, those individuals who are less facially stable are likely to coordinate more strongly with the partner's facial affect and vice versa. Our findings support the concept that the dyad is a fundamental unit of analysis in the investigation of early interaction. Moreover, an individual's self-contingency is influenced by the way the individual coordinates with the partner. Our results imply that it is not appropriate to conceptualize interactive processes without simultaneously accounting for dynamically interrelated self-organizing processes. (c) 2016 APA, all

  4. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. We examined the process of interaction across time in a large, low-risk community sample, at infant age 4 months. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for communication modalities of attention, affect, orientation, touch and composite facial-visual engagement. Time-series approaches generated self- and interactive contingency estimates in each modality. Evidence supporting the following principles was obtained: (1) Significant moment-to-moment predictability within each partner (self-contingency) and between the partners (interactive contingency) characterizes mother-infant communication. (2) Interactive contingency is organized by a bi-directional, but asymmetrical, process: maternal contingent coordination with infant is higher than infant contingent coordination with mother. (3) Self-contingency organizes communication to a far greater extent than interactive contingency. (4) Self-and interactive contingency processes are not separate; each affects the other, in communication modalities of facial affect, facial-visual engagement, and orientation. Each person’s self-organization exists in a dynamic, homoeostatic (negative feedback) balance with the degree to which the person coordinates with the partner. For example, those individuals who are less facially stable are likely to coordinate more strongly with the partner’s facial affect; and vice-versa. Our findings support the concept that the dyad is a fundamental unit of analysis in the investigation of early interaction. Moreover, an individual’s self-contingency is influenced by the way the individual coordinates with the partner. Our results imply that it is not appropriate to conceptualize interactive processes without simultaneously accounting for dynamically inter-related self-organizing processes. PMID

  5. The cues and care randomized controlled trial of a neonatal intensive care unit intervention: effects on maternal psychological distress and mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Feeley, Nancy; Shrier, Ian; Stremler, Robyn; Westreich, Ruta; Dunkley, David; Steele, Russell; Rosberger, Zeev; Lefebvre, Francine; Papageorgiou, Apostolos

    2011-10-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention (Cues program) with mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW <1500 g) infants. The primary hypothesis was that mothers in the Cues program would report lower levels of anxiety compared with mothers in the control group. Secondary hypotheses examined whether Cues mothers would report less stress, depression, and role restriction, and exhibit more sensitive interactive behavior, than control group mothers. A total of 121 mothers of VLBW infants were randomly assigned to either the experimental (Cues) intervention or an attention control (Care) condition. The Cues program combined training to reduce anxiety and enhance sensitivity. The control group received general information about infant care. Both programs were initiated during the neonatal intensive care unit stay. Maternal anxiety, stress, depression, and demographic variables were evaluated at baseline, prior to randomization. Postintervention outcomes were assessed during a home visit when the infant was ∼6 to 8 weeks of corrected age. Although mothers in the Cues group demonstrated greater knowledge of the content of the experimental intervention than mothers in the Care group, the groups did not differ in levels of anxiety, depression, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. They were similar in their reports of parental role restrictions and stress related to the infant's appearance and behavior. Cues and Care group mothers were equally sensitive in interaction with their infants. Nonspecific attention was as effective as an early skill-based intervention in reducing maternal anxiety and enhancing sensitive behavior in mothers of VLBW infants.

  6. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  7. The effect of postnatal depression on mother-infant interaction, infant response to the Still-face perturbation, and performance on an Instrumental Learning task.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Charles; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2004-01-01

    A representative community sample of primiparous depressed women and a nondepressed control group were assessed while in interaction with their infants at 2 months postpartum. At 3 months, infants were assessed on the Still-face perturbation of face to face interaction, and a subsample completed an Instrumental Learning paradigm. Compared to nondepressed women, depressed mothers' interactions were both less contingent and less affectively attuned to infant behavior. Postnatal depression did not adversely affect the infant's performance in either the Still-face perturbation or the Instrumental Learning assessment. Maternal responsiveness in interactions at 2 months predicted the infant's performance in the Instrumental Learning assessment but not in the Still-face perturbation. The implications of these findings for theories of infant cognitive and emotional development are discussed.

  8. Mother-Infant Dyadic State Behaviour: Dynamic Systems in the Context of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Shayna S.; Crnic, Keith A.; Ross, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic systems methods offer invaluable insight into the nuances of the early parent-child relationship. This prospective study aimed to highlight the characteristics of mother-infant dyadic behavior at 12?weeks post-partum using state space grid analysis (total n?=?322). We also examined whether maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and…

  9. The Effect of Cleft Lip and Palate, and the Timing of Lip Repair on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Hentges, Francoise; Hill, Jonathan; Karpf, Janne; Mistry, Beejal; Kreutz, Marianne; Woodall, Peter; Moss, Tony; Goodacre, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with cleft lip and palate are at risk for psychological problems. Difficulties in mother-child interactions may be relevant, and could be affected by the timing of lip repair. Method: We assessed cognitive development, behaviour problems, and attachment in 94 infants with cleft lip (with and without cleft palate) and 96…

  10. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  11. Blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    PubMed

    Porter, Luz S; Porter, Brian O; McCoy, Virginia; Bango-Sanchez, Vivian; Kissel, Bonnie; Williams, Marjorie; Nunnewar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) improved maternal psychosocial health outcomes (parenting stress, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, maternal attachment) and maternal-infant interaction among substance-addicted mothers (SAMs) actively engaged in outpatient rehabilitation. Designed as a randomized, three-group controlled trial testing two levels of psychoeducational intervention (IMPEP vs. PEP) and a control group (standard care parenting resources), the study was conducted in two substance abuse centers in southeast Florida on a convenience sample of 138 recovering SAM-infant pairs. IMPEP or PEP classes were held weekly on Weeks 2-5, with data collected at baseline (Week 1), Week 6, and Week 12 via structured interviews, observation (Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction), and self-administered questionnaires (Abidin Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory), analyzed descriptively and inferentially using Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance and post hoc Wilcoxon rank sum and Mann-Whitney U tests. Both IMPEP and PEP groups had significantly increased Parenting Stress Index scores (decreased parenting stress) and decreased Beck Depression Inventory scores (decreased depressive symptoms) compared to controls at Week 12, whereas there were no clinically meaningful differences among study groups in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory, or Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction scores. Only the IMPEP group showed significant improvements in both psychological and physical (waist-hip ratio) measures of parenting stress over time. The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal

  12. Testing a family intervention hypothesis: the contribution of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) to family interaction, proximity, and touch.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Weller, Aron; Sirota, Lea; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2003-03-01

    The provision of maternal-infant body contact during a period of maternal separation was examined for its effects on parent-infant and triadic interactions. Participants were 146 three-month-old preterm infants and their parents, half of whom received skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo care (KC), in the neonatal nursery. Global relational style and micro-patterns of proximity and touch were coded. Following KC, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive, infants showed less negative affect, and family style was more cohesive. Among KC families, maternal and paternal affectionate touch of infant and spouse was more frequent, spouses remained in closer proximity, and infant proximity position was conducive to mutual gaze and touch during triadic play. The role of touch as a constituent of the co-regulatory parent-infant and triadic systems and the effects of maternal contact on mothering, co-parenting, and family processes are discussed.

  13. Parental Synchrony and Nurturance as Targets in an Attachment Based Intervention: Building Upon Mary Ainsworth’s Insights About Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Kristin; Meade, EB; Dozier, Mary

    2013-01-01

    As an astute observer of parent-infant interaction, Mary Ainsworth described and assessed facets of maternal sensitivity, including responsiveness to conditions of infant distress and non-distress. In this paper, we consider the importance of distinguishing between parental sensitivity to children’s distress cues (which we refer to as nurturance) and parental sensitivity to children’s non-distress cues (which we refer to as synchrony). Observations of parents in our intervention, Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), have led us to believe that distress and non-distress represent distinct contexts in which parents can be differentially sensitive or insensitive in responding. Thus, we have conceptualized nurturance and synchrony as distinct targets of the ABC intervention, and, in deciding how to assess parental sensitivity, we have chosen measures that distinguish between nurturance and synchrony. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches we have taken to assess parental sensitivity, including diary methodology that we developed for assessing parental nurturance and global measures that we have used for assessing parental synchrony. Finally, we describe a frequency-based coding system that we developed for assessing parental nurturance and synchrony from videotaped intervention sessions. PMID:24299132

  14. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  15. Oxytocin and mutual communication in mother-infant bonding

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Miho; Okabe, Shota; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a “non-genomic transmission of maternal environment,” even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships. PMID:22375116

  16. Mother-Infant Socioemotional Contingent Responding in Families by Adoption and Birth

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Contingencies of three maternal and two infant socioemotional behaviors that are universal components of mother-infant interaction were investigated at 5 months in 62 mothers (31 who had adopted domestically and 31 who had given birth) and their first children (16 males in each group). Patterns of contingent responding were largely comparable in dyads by adoption and birth, although the two groups of mothers responded differentially to the two types of infant signals. Mothers in both groups were more responsive than infants in social and vocal interactions, but infants were more responsive in maternal speech-infant attention interactions. Family type x Gender statistical interactions suggested a possible differential role of infant gender in establishing mother-infant contingencies in families by adoption and birth. PMID:22721748

  17. Mother-Infant Attachment and the Intergenerational Transmission of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Carlson, Elizabeth; Blood, Emily; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is documented in the literature, though the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for elucidating the ways in which maternal PTSD may increase offspring PTSD vulnerability. The current study utilized two independent prospective datasets to test the hypotheses that (a) maternal PTSD increases the probability of developing an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship and (b) an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship increases the risk of developing PTSD following trauma exposure in later life. In the first study of urban, primarily low-income ethnic/racial minority mothers and infants (N = 45 dyads), elevated maternal PTSD symptoms at 6 months were associated with increased risk for an insecure, particularly disorganized, mother-infant attachment relationship at 13 months. In the second birth cohort of urban low-income mothers and children (N = 96 dyads), insecure (avoidant or resistant) attachment in infancy was associated in a dose-response manner with increased lifetime risk for a diagnosis of PTSD by adolescence. A history of disorganized attachment in infancy predicted severity of PTSD symptoms, including reexperiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal, and total symptoms, at 17.5 years. In both studies, associations between attachment and PTSD were not attributable to numerous co-occurring risk factors. The findings suggest that promoting positive mother-child relationships in early development, particularly in populations at high risk for trauma exposure, may reduce the incidence of PTSD. PMID:24059819

  18. Mother-infant attachment and the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Egeland, Byron; Carlson, Elizabeth; Blood, Emily; Wright, Rosalind J

    2014-02-01

    Evidence for the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is documented in the literature, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for elucidating the ways in which maternal PTSD may increase offspring PTSD vulnerability. The current study utilized two independent prospective data sets to test the hypotheses that (a) maternal PTSD increases the probability of developing an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship and (b) an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship increases the risk of developing PTSD following trauma exposure in later life. In the first study of urban, primarily low-income ethnic/racial minority mothers and infants (N = 45 dyads), elevated maternal PTSD symptoms at 6 months were associated with increased risk for an insecure, particularly disorganized, mother-infant attachment relationship at 13 months. In the second birth cohort of urban, low-income mothers and children (N = 96 dyads), insecure (avoidant or resistant) attachment in infancy was associated in a dose-response manner with increased lifetime risk for a diagnosis of PTSD by adolescence. A history of disorganized attachment in infancy predicted severity of PTSD symptoms, including reexperiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal, and total symptoms, at 17.5 years. In both studies, associations between attachment and PTSD were not attributable to numerous co-occurring risk factors. The findings suggest that promoting positive mother-child relationships in early development, particularly in populations at high risk for trauma exposure, may reduce the incidence of PTSD.

  19. Prenatal Material Hardships and Infant Regulatory Capacity at 10 Months Old in Low-Income Hispanic Mother-Infant Pairs.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Anne; Messito, Mary Jo; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Oyeku, Suzette O; Gross, Rachel S

    2018-05-02

    Prenatal maternal stresses have been associated with infant temperament patterns linked to later behavioral difficulties. Material hardships, defined as inability to meet basic needs, are important prenatal stressors. Our objective was to determine the associations between prenatal material hardships and infant temperament at 10 months. This was a longitudinal study of mother-infant pairs in a randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based early obesity prevention program (Starting Early). Independent variables representing material hardship were: housing disrepair, food insecurity, difficulty paying bills and neighborhood stress (neighborhood safety). Dependent variables representing infant temperament were assessed using questions from three subscales of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire: orienting/regulatory capacity, negative affect, and surgency/extraversion. We used linear regression to investigate associations between individual and cumulative hardships and each temperament domain, adjusting for confounders, and testing for depression as a moderator. 412 mother-infant pairs completed 10 month assessments. 32% reported food insecurity, 26% difficulty paying bills, 35% housing disrepair and 9% neighborhood stress. In adjusted analyses, food insecurity was associated with lower orienting/regulatory capacity scores (B=-0.25, 95% CI -0.47, -0.04), as were neighborhood stress (B=-0.50, 95% CI -0.83, -0.16) and experiencing 3-4 hardships (compared with none) (B=-0.54, 95% CI -0.83, -0.21). For neighborhood stress, the association was stronger among infants of mothers with prenatal depressive symptoms (interaction term p=0.06). Prenatal material hardships were associated with lower orienting/regulatory capacity. These findings support the need for further research exploring how temperament relates to child behavior, and for policies to reduce prenatal material hardships. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Prediction of 7-year psychopathology from mother-infant joint attention behaviours: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether later diagnosis of psychiatric disorder can be predicted from analysis of mother-infant joint attention (JA) behaviours in social-communicative interaction at 12 months. Method Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined 159 videos of a mother-infant interaction for joint attention behaviour when children were aged one year, sampled from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Fifty-three of the videos involved infants who were later considered to have a psychiatric disorder at seven years and 106 were same aged controls. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, pervasive development disorder, anxiety and depressive disorders. Psychiatric diagnoses were obtained using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment when the children were seven years old. Results None of the three JA behaviours (shared look rate, shared attention rate and shared attention intensity) showed a significant association with the primary outcome of case–control status. Only shared look rate predicted any of the exploratory sub-diagnosis outcomes and was found to be positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders (OR [95% CI]: 1.5 [1.0, 2.3]; p = 0.041). Conclusions JA behaviours did not, in general, predict later psychopathology. However, shared look was positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders. This suggests that some features of JA may be early markers of later psychopathology. Further investigation will be required to determine whether any JA behaviours can be used to screen for families in need of intervention. PMID:24063312

  1. Maternal Sensitivity and the Learning-Promoting Effects of Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers' Infant-Directed Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Peter S.; Burgess, Aaron P.; Sliter, Jessica K.; Moreno, Amanda J.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that aspects of current mother-infant interactions predict an infant's response to maternal infant-directed speech (IDS) was tested. Relative to infants of nondepressed mothers, those of depressed mothers acquired weaker voice-face associations in response to their own mothers' IDS in a conditioned-attention paradigm, although this…

  2. Relationship between mother-infant mutual dyadic responsiveness and premature infant development as measured by the Bayley III at 6 weeks corrected age.

    PubMed

    White-Traut, Rosemary C; Rankin, Kristin M; Yoder, Joe; Zawacki, Laura; Campbell, Suzann; Kavanaugh, Karen; Brandon, Debra; Norr, Kathleen F

    2018-06-01

    The quality of mother-preterm infant interaction has been identified as a key factor in influencing the infant's later development and language acquisition. The relationship between mother-infant responsiveness and later development may be evident early in infancy, a time period which has been understudied. Describe the relationship between mother-infant mutual dyadic responsiveness and premature infant development. This study employed a secondary analysis of data from the 6-week corrected age (CA) follow-up visit of the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures' Environment (H-HOPE) study, a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a mother- and infant- focused intervention for improving outcomes among premature infants. Premature infants born between 29 and 34 weeks gestational age and their mothers who had social-environmental risks. At 6-weeks corrected age, a play session was coded for the quality of mutual responsiveness (Dyadic Mutuality Code). Development was assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition. Of 137 mother-infant dyads, high, medium and low mutual responsiveness was observed for 35.8%, 34.3% and 29.9%, respectively. Overall motor, language and cognitive scores were 115.8 (SD = 8.2), 108.0 (7.7) and 109.3 (7.9). Multivariable linear models showed infants in dyads with high versus low mutual responsiveness had higher scores on the motor (β = 3.07, p = 0.06) and language (β = 4.47, p = 0.006) scales. High mutual responsiveness in mother-premature infant dyads is associated with significantly better language development and marginally better motor development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mother-infant circadian rhythm: development of individual patterns and dyadic synchrony.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan; Lee, Jungeun; Chen, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Mutual circadian rhythm is an early and essential component in the development of maternal-infant physiological synchrony. The aim of this to examine the longitudinal pattern of maternal-infant circadian rhythm and rhythm synchrony as measured by rhythm parameters. In-home dyadic actigraphy monitoring at infant age 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Forty-three healthy mother-infant pairs. Circadian parameters derived from cosinor and non-parametric analysis including mesor, magnitude, acrophase, L5 and M10 midpoints (midpoint of lowest 5 and highest 10h of activity), amplitude, interdaily stability (IS), and intradaily variability (IV). Mothers experienced early disruption of circadian rhythm, with re-establishment of rhythm over time. Significant time effects were noted in increasing maternal magnitude, amplitude, and IS and decreasing IV (p<.001). Infants demonstrated a developmental trajectory of circadian pattern with significant time effects for increasing mesor, magnitude, amplitude, L5, IS, and IV (p<.001). By 12 weeks, infant phase advancement was evidenced by mean acrophase and M10 midpoint occurring 60 and 43 min (respectively) earlier than at 4 weeks. While maternal acrophase remained consistent over time, infants became increasingly phase advanced relative to mother and mean infant acrophase at 12 weeks occurred 60 min before mother. Mother-infant synchrony was evidenced in increasing correspondence of acrophase at 12 weeks (r=0.704), L5 (r=0.453) and M10 (r=0.479) midpoints. Development of mother-infant synchrony reflects shared elements of circadian rhythm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mother-Infant Circadian Rhythm: Development of Individual Patterns and Dyadic Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Karen A.; Burr, Robert L.; Spieker, Susan; Lee, Jungeun; Chen, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutual circadian rhythm is an early and essential component in the development of maternal-infant physiological synchrony. Aims To examine the longitudinal pattern of maternal-infant circadian rhythm and rhythm synchrony as measured by rhythm parameters. Study Design In-home dyadic actigraphy monitoring at infant age 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Subjects Forty-three healthy mother-infant pairs. Outcome Measures Circadian parameters derived from cosinor and non-parametric analysis including mesor, magnitude, acrophase, L5 and M10 midpoints (midpoint of lowest 5 and highest 10 hours of activity), amplitude, interdaily stability (IS), and intradaily variability (IV). Results Mothers experienced early disruption of circadian rhythm, with re-establishment of rhythm over time. Significant time effects were noted in increasing maternal magnitude, amplitude, and IS and decreasing IV (p < .001). Infants demonstrated a developmental trajectory of circadian pattern with significant time effects for increasing mesor, magnitude, amplitude, L5, IS, and IV (p < .001). By 12 weeks, infant phase advancement was evidenced by mean acrophase and M10 midpoint occurring 60 and 43 minutes (respectively) earlier than at 4 weeks. While maternal acrophase remained consistent over time, infants became increasingly phase advanced relative to mother and mean infant acrophase at 12 weeks occurred 60 minutes before mother. Mother-infant synchrony was evidenced in increasing correspondence of acrophase at 12 weeks (r = 0.704), L5 (r = 0.453) and M10 (r = 0.479) midpoints. Conclusions Development of mother-infant synchrony reflects shared elements of circadian rhythm. PMID:25463836

  6. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.

  7. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first six months postpartum: The primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories

    PubMed Central

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the contexts of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. Method In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect (CA) histories (CA+, n=97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n=53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infant at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and postpartum psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6 months postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. Results We found that all women independent of risk status increased in bonding to their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and PTSD) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all times points. Moreover, we found that at the 6 months assessment bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. Conclusion These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Parenting Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors. PMID:23064898

  8. Mother-Infant Emotion Regulation at Three Months: The Role of Maternal Anxiety, Depression and Parenting Stress.

    PubMed

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Ferro, Valentino; Gallucci, Marcello; Parodi, Cinzia; Astengo, Marina

    While the association between anxiety and postpartum depression is well known, few studies have investigated the relationship between these two states and parenting stress. Furthermore, a number of studies have found that postpartum depression affects mother-infant emotion regulation, but there has been only one study on anxiety and emotion regulation and no studies at all on parenting stress and emotion regulation. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to identify, in a community sample of 71 mothers, the relationship between maternal depression, anxiety, and parenting stress. The second aim is to examine the relationship between anxiety, postpartum depression, and parenting stress and mother-infant emotion regulation assessed at 3 months. Mother-infant interaction was coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver and Engagement Phases (ICEP) using a microanalytic approach. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were administered to the mothers to assess depression, anxiety, and parenting stress, respectively. Analysis revealed correlations between anxiety and depression, showing that parenting stress is associated with both states. In a laboratory observation, depression was correlated with both negative maternal states and negative dyadic matches as well as infant positive/mother negative mismatches; anxiety was correlated with both negative maternal states and infant negative states as well as mismatches involving one of the partners having a negative state. Multiple regression analysis showed that anxiety is a greater predictor than depression of less adequate styles of mother-infant emotion regulation. Parenting stress was not shown to predict such regulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Mothers' alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels and their association with the quality of mother-infant relationship: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yürümez, Esra; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Uğur, Çağatay; Uslu, Runa Idil; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mothers and their developmentally normal infants in terms of maternal alexithymia, depression and anxiety, and marital satisfaction. Fifty children between 18 and 48 months of age, and their mothers, were referred consecutively to the Infant Mental Health Unit of Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The sociodemographic features of the families and the depressive symptoms, anxiety, marital satisfaction and alexithymia levels of the mothers were assessed. The relationships between children in normal developmental stages and their mothers were evaluated and rated using a structured clinical procedure. There was a negative correlation between the mothers' alexithymia scores and the quality of the mother-infant relationship (p < 0.05). Mothers with high alexithymia showed higher depression and lower relationship qualities than mothers with low alexithymia, according to the correlation analysis. When depression and anxiety were controlled, high alexithymia levels were predictive of a low, impaired mother-infant relationship. Since alexithymia is a trait-like variable which has a negative correlation with impairment in a mother-infant relationship, it must be investigated in the assessment of mothers' interactions with their babies.

  10. Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol J.

    A total of 20 infants 8 months of age were videotaped in dyads with each parent during 10 minutes of free play in a laboratory setting, to investigate reciprocal behavior among parents and their infants. Questionnaire data on parents' caretaking involvement were also collected. Findings indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ on the…

  11. Early interactive behaviours in preterm infants and their mothers: influences of maternal depressive symptomatology and neonatal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Dellabartola, Sara; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2014-02-01

    The study evaluated the quality of preterm infant-mother interactions, considering severity of birth weight (ELBW and VLBW) and maternal depression, compared to full term babies. 69 preterm infants (29 ELBW and 40 VLBW) and 80 full-term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, the quality of mother-infant interaction was evaluated through Global Rating Scales; moreover, infant level of development and maternal depression were assessed through Griffith Development Mental Scales and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results showed adequate sensitivity in preterm infants' mothers and higher involvement with their infants, compared to full term mothers, but ELBW ones exhibited an intrusive interactive pattern and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms. The study underlined the relevance of paying special attention to both ELBW infants and their mothers, in order to support the parenting role and the co-construction of early interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Language Development in Context: Interactions between Infant Temperament and Parenting Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laake, Lauren M.; Bridgett, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study considered the interplay between infant temperament and maternal caregiving behaviors in relation to early language. A total of 118 mother-infant dyads participated in the study. Mothers rated infant positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), and maternal behaviors were coded during a free-play task when infants…

  13. Mother-infant antidepressant concentrations, maternal depression, and perinatal events.

    PubMed

    Sit, Dorothy; Perel, James M; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Helsel, Joseph C; Luther, James F; Wisner, Katherine L

    2011-07-01

    The authors explored the relationship of cord-maternal antidepressant concentration ratios and maternal depression with perinatal events and preterm birth. The investigators examined 21 mother-infant pairs that had antidepressant exposure during pregnancy. The antidepressants included serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and nortriptyline (a norepinephrine inhibitor and mild SRI). The mothers were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Depression ratings were repeated at 20, 30, and 36 weeks' pregnancy. At delivery, investigators assessed cord and maternal antidepressant concentrations, neonatal outcomes on the Peripartum Events Scale (PES), and gestational weeks at birth. The investigators performed this study at the Women's Behavioral HealthCARE Program, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pennsylvania, from April 2003 until September 2006. Mean ± SD cord-to-maternal concentration ratios were 0.52 ± 0.35 (range, 0.00-1.64) for the parent drug and 0.54 ± 0.17 (range, 0.28-0.79) for the metabolite. Nine of 21 mothers (43%) had a major depressive episode. From examining the maximum depression ratings, the mean ± SD Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Atypical Depression Symptoms Version score was 16.0 ± 7.6. One third (7/21) of infants had at least 1 perinatal event (PES ≥ 1). The frequency of deliveries complicated by any perinatal event was similar in depressed and nondepressed mothers. There was no significant association between perinatal events and cord-to-maternal antidepressant concentration ratios or maternal depression levels. Exposure to short half-life antidepressants compared to fluoxetine resulted in more perinatal events (7/16 = 44% vs 0/5 = 0%; P = .06). Fourteen percent (3/21) of infants were preterm. Preterm birth was not associated with cord-to-maternal metabolite concentration ratios, depression levels, or exposure to fluoxetine

  14. Importance of mother-infant communication for social bond formation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Shota; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-06-01

    Mother-infant bonding is a universal relationship of all mammalian species. Here, we describe the role of reciprocal communication between mother and infant in the formation of bonding for several mammalian species. Mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social cues or stimuli, including communicative signals, such as odor and vocalizations, or tactile stimuli. The mother also develops cross-modal sensory recognition of the infant, during bond formation. Many studies have indicated that the oxytocin neural system plays a pivotal role in bond formation by the mother; however, the underlying neural mechanisms for infants have not yet been clarified. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions of mother and infants may help us understand the biological significance of mother-infant communication in mammalian species. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Depressed mothers' infants are less responsive to faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2009-06-01

    A review of our recent research suggests that infants of depressed mothers appeared to be less responsive to faces and voices as early as the neonatal period. At that time they have shown less orienting to the live face/voice stimulus of the Brazelton scale examiner and to their own and other infants' cry sounds. This lesser responsiveness has been attributed to higher arousal, less attentiveness and less "empathy." Their delayed heart rate decelerations to instrumental and vocal music sounds have also been ascribed to their delayed attention and/or slower processing. Later at 3-6 months they showed less negative responding to their mothers' non-contingent and still-face behavior, suggesting that they were more accustomed to this behavior in their mothers. The less responsive behavior of the depressed mothers was further compounded by their comorbid mood states of anger and anxiety and their difficult interaction styles including withdrawn or intrusive interaction styles and their later authoritarian parenting style. Pregnancy massage was effectively used to reduce prenatal depression and facilitate more optimal neonatal behavior. Interaction coaching was used during the postnatal period to help these dyads with their interactions and ultimately facilitate the infants' development.

  16. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations between Foster Mothers' Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads ("N" = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to…

  17. The role of negative maternal affective states and infant temperament in early interactions between infants with cleft lip and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Montirosso, Rosario; Fedeli, Claudia; Murray, Lynne; Morandi, Francesco; Brusati, Roberto; Perego, Guenda Ghezzi; Borgatti, Renato

    2012-03-01

    The study examined the early interaction between mothers and their infants with cleft lip, assessing the role of maternal affective state and expressiveness and differences in infant temperament. Mother-infant interactions were assessed in 25 2-month-old infants with cleft lip and 25 age-matched healthy infants. Self-report and behavioral observations were used to assess maternal depressive symptoms and expressions. Mothers rated infant temperament. Infants with cleft lip were less engaged and their mothers showed more difficulty in interaction than control group dyads. Mothers of infants with cleft lip displayed more negative affectivity, but did not report more self-rated depressive symptoms than control group mothers. No group differences were found in infant temperament. In order to support the mother's experience and facilitate her ongoing parental role, findings highlight the importance of identifying maternal negative affectivity during early interactions, even when they seem have little awareness of their depressive symptoms.

  18. Early participation in a prenatal food supplementation program ameliorates the negative association of food insecurity with quality of maternal-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-06-01

    Food insecurity is detrimental to child development, yet little is known about the combined influence of food insecurity and nutritional interventions on child development in low-income countries. We proposed that women assigned to an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program could reduce the negative influence of food insecurity on maternal-infant interaction. A cohort of 180 mother-infant dyads were studied (born between May and October 2003) from among 3267 in the randomized controlled trial Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, which was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 wk gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation time to start receiving food supplements (2.5 MJ/d; 6 d/wk) either early (~9 wk gestation; early-invitation group) or at the usual start time (~20 wk gestation; usual-invitation group) for the government program. Maternal-infant interaction was observed in homes with the use of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale, and food-insecurity status was obtained from questionnaires completed when infants were 3.4-4.0 mo old. By using a general linear model for maternal-infant interaction, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.012) between invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program and food insecurity. Those in the usual-invitation group with higher food insecurity scores (i.e., more food insecure) had a lower quality of maternal-infant interaction, but this relationship was ameliorated among those in the early-invitation group. Food insecurity limits the ability of mothers and infants to interact well, but an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program can support mother-infant interaction among those who are food insecure.

  19. The Relationship between Maternal Life Stress and Social Support and Quality of Mother-Infant Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiester, Marian; Sapp, Joan

    This study examined the relationship between maternal stress, changes in stress, specific stressors, and social support and quality of mother-infant attachment. Life stress of 132 mothers was assessed prenatally and when the child was 13 months old. The mothers' social support and the quality of infant-mother attachment were also measured at the…

  20. Application of a Socio-Ecological Model to Mother-Infant Bed-Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm Ward, Trina C.; Doering, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Mother-infant bed-sharing has been associated with an increased risk of sleep-related infant deaths, and thus, health messaging has aimed to discourage this behavior. Despite this messaging, bed-sharing remains a common practice in the United States, especially among minority families. Moreover, rates of accidental suffocation and strangulation in…

  1. The impact of prior medical termination of pregnancy on the mother's early relationship with a subsequent infant.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, M; Votino, C; De Noose, L; Cos Sanchez, T; Gaugue, J; Jani, J

    2016-01-01

    There is insufficient research on the mother's early relationship with a child born subsequent to a previous medical termination of pregnancy (TOP). This study explores mother-infant interactions following prior TOP and the impact on the infant's development. Being an exploratory research comprising 12 mother-infant (6-7 months old) couples, following prior TOP, and five controls, this study uses a descriptive methodology and a qualitative approach. The Greenspan and Lieberman Observation Scale (GLOS) and the Stern's "R"-Interview were employed to investigate the mother-infant relationship. We used the Brunet-Lézine's Revised Scales (BL-R) and the Projective Kit for Early Childhood (PKEC) to assess the infant's development. Grief resolution was taken into account (Perinatal Grief Scale, semi-structured interview). The later the perinatal loss, the less likely children are to express their emotions and respond contingently (GLOS). Their psychomotor (BL-R) and emotional (PKEC) development remains adequate. Unresolved grief is associated with more pronounced disturbances: no dyadic exchange (GLOS), language disruptions (BL-R), and withdrawal from the environment (PKEC). This study suggests that mother-infant interactions following a prior late TOP could undergo disturbances, which do not lead systematically to pathogenic effect on the subsequent child. Nevertheless, unresolved grief could lead to adverse effects.

  2. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Psychometric Properties of an Instrument to Measure Mother-Infant Togetherness After Childbirth.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Carol L; Norris, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new instrument to measure mother-infant togetherness, Mother-Infant Togetherness Survey (MITS). Stage 1 examined content validity. Stage 2 pretested the readability and understandability and further examined content validity. Stage 3 examined women's ability to accurately self-report on the Delivery Events subscale. Stages 4 and 5 examined construct validity. Good content validity was obtained at the scale/subscale level (CVI = .91-1.00). Internal consistency reliability was evaluated at the scale/subscale level (α = .62-.89). Construct validity was supported with known groups testing and factor analysis. Study findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the MITS. Future research should be done to improve the internal consistency reliability of the Postpartum Events subscale.

  4. How Does Microanalysis of Mother-Infant Communication Inform Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment?

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication operates like a “social microscope” and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues (2010) that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity. PMID:24299136

  5. HIV-1 sequence variation between isolates from mother-infant transmission pairs

    SciT

    Wike, C.M.; Daniels, M.R.; Furtado, M.

    1991-12-31

    To examine the sequence diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) between known transmission sets, sequences from the V3 and V4-V5 region of the env gene from 4 mother-infant pairs were analyzed. The mean interpatient sequence variation between isolates from linked mother-infant pairs was comparable to the sequence diversity found between isolates from other close contacts. The mean intrapatient variation was significantly less in the infants` isolates then the isolates from both their mothers and other characterized intrapatient sequence sets. In addition, a distinct and characteristic difference in the glycosylation pattern preceding the V3 loop was found between eachmore » linked transmission pair. These findings indicate that selection of specific genotypic variants, which may play a role in some direct transmission sets, and the duration of infection are important factors in the degree of diversity seen between the sequence sets.« less

  6. Association between maternal childhood maltreatment and mother-infant attachment disorganization: Moderation by maternal oxytocin receptor gene and cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Gonzalez, Andrea; Kennedy, James; Masellis, Mario; Meinz, Paul; Atkinson, Leslie

    2018-04-24

    This study examined maternal oxytocin receptor (OXTR, rs53576) genotype and cortisol secretion as moderators of the relation between maternal childhood maltreatment history and disorganized mother-infant attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). A community sample of 314 mother-infant dyads completed the SSP at infant age 17 months. Self-reported maltreatment history more strongly predicted mother-infant attachment disorganization score and disorganized classification for mothers with more plasticity alleles of OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer plasticity alleles. Maltreatment history also more strongly predicted mother-infant attachment disorganization score and classification for mothers with higher SSP cortisol secretion, relative to mothers with lower SSP cortisol secretion. Findings indicate that maltreatment history is related to disorganization in the next generation, but that this relation depends on maternal genetic characteristics and cortisol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Attachment in a South African Peri-Urban Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mark; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 147 mother-infant dyads was recruited from a peri-urban settlement outside Cape Town and seen at 2- and 18-months postpartum. At 18 months, 61.9% of the infants were rated as securely attached (B); 4.1% as avoidant (A); 8.2% as resistant (C); and 25.8% disorganized (D). Postpartum depression at 2 months, and indices of poor parenting…

  8. Should I stay or should I go? Initiation of joint travel in mother-infant dyads of two chimpanzee communities in the wild.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Marlen; Wittig, Roman M; Pika, Simone

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that great apes communicate via intentionally produced, elaborate and flexible gestural means. Yet relatively little is known about the most fundamental steps into this communicative endeavour-communicative exchanges of mother-infant dyads and gestural acquisition; perhaps because the majority of studies concerned captive groups and single communities in the wild only. Here, we report the first systematic, quantitative comparison of communicative interactions of mother-infant dyads in two communities of wild chimpanzees by focusing on a single communicative function: initiation of carries for joint travel. Over 156 days of observation, we recorded 442 actions, 599 cases of intentional gesture production, 51 multi-modal combinations and 80 vocalisations in the Kanyawara community, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the Taï South community, Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Our results showed that (1) mothers and infants differed concerning the signal frequency and modality employed to initiate joint travel, (2) concordance rates of mothers' gestural production were relatively low within but also between communities, (3) infant communicative development is characterised by a shift from mainly vocal to gestural means, and (4) chimpanzee mothers adjusted their signals to the communicative level of their infants. Since neither genetic channelling nor ontogenetic ritualization explains our results satisfactorily, we propose a revised theory of gestural acquisition, social negotiation, in which gestures are the output of social shaping, shared understanding and mutual construction in real time by both interactants.

  9. Disentangling the Dyadic Dance: Theoretical, Methodological and Outcomes Systematic Review of Mother-Infant Dyadic Processes.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Scotto di Minico, Giunia; Giusti, Lorenzo; Guida, Elena; Müller, Mitho

    2018-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, the research on mother-infant dyad has produced a great amount of data, methods and theories, which largely contributed to set a revolution in the way we look at developmental changes during infancy and childhood. Very different constructs depict the different aspects of the "dyadic dance" occurring between a mother and her infant; nonetheless, a comprehensive and consistent systematization of these concepts in a coherent theoretical landscape is still lacking. Aim: In the present work, we aim at disentangling the different theoretical and methodological definitions of 9 dyadic constructs and we highlight their effects on infants' and children developmental outcomes. Methods: A literature search has been conducted on three databases-PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science. Three different reviews are reported here: (1) a review on the theoretical definitions of dyadic constructs; (2) a review of operational definitions, settings and methods of dyadic processes; (3) a systematic review of dyadic processes' outcomes for infants' and children developmental trajectories. Results: Two constructs emerged as wide meta-theoretical concepts (reciprocity and mutuality) and seven described specific processes (attunement, contingency, coordination, matching, mirroring, reparation, synchrony). A global model resuming the relationships among different processes is reported, which highlights the emergence of two specific cycles of dyadic functioning (i.e., matching-mismatching-reparation-synchrony; contingency, coordination, attunement, mirroring). A comprehensive review of the adopted measures is also provided. Finally, all the processes provided significant contributions to infants' behavioral, cognitive, and socio-emotional development during the first 3 years of age, but limited research has been conducted on specific processes (e.g. reparation and mirroring). Conclusion: The present study provides an original research-grounded framework to

  10. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yarnoff, Benjamin; Allaire, Benjamin; Detzel, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods). We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis. Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusion: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers. PMID:24616887

  11. Neural mechanisms of mother-infant bonding and pair bonding: Similarities, differences, and broader implications.

    PubMed

    Numan, Michael; Young, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Mother-infant bonding is a characteristic of virtually all mammals. The maternal neural system may have provided the scaffold upon which other types of social bonds in mammals have been built. For example, most mammals exhibit a polygamous mating system, but monogamy and pair bonding between mating partners occur in ~5% of mammalian species. In mammals, it is plausible that the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding have been modified by natural selection to establish the capacity to develop a selective bond with a mate during the evolution of monogamous mating strategies. Here we compare the details of the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding in rats and other mammals with those that underpin pair bond formation in the monogamous prairie vole. Although details remain to be resolved, remarkable similarities and a few differences between the mechanisms underlying these two types of bond formation are revealed. For example, amygdala and nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidum (NA-VP) circuits are involved in both types of bond formation, and dopamine and oxytocin actions within NA appear to promote the synaptic plasticity that allows either infant or mating partner stimuli to persistently activate NA-VP attraction circuits, leading to an enduring social attraction and bonding. Further, although the medial preoptic area is essential for maternal behavior, its role in pair bonding remains to be determined. Our review concludes by examining the broader implications of this comparative analysis, and evidence is provided that the maternal care system may have also provided the basic neural foundation for other types of strong social relationships, beyond pair bonding, in mammals, including humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neural mechanisms of mother-infant bonding and pair bonding: Similarities, differences, and broader implications

    PubMed Central

    Numan, Michael; Young, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Mother-infant bonding is a characteristic of virtually all mammals. The maternal neural system may have provided the scaffold upon which other types of social bonds in mammals have been built. For example, most mammals exhibit a polygamous mating system, but monogamy and pair bonding between mating partners occurs in ∼5% of mammalian species. In mammals, it is plausible that the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding have been modified by natural selection to establish the capacity to develop a selective bond with a mate during the evolution of monogamous mating strategies. Here we compare the details of the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding in rats and other mammals with those that underpin pair bond formation in the monogamous prairie vole. Although details remain to be resolved, remarkable similarities and a few differences between the mechanisms underlying these two types of bond formation are revealed. For example, amygdala and nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidum (NA-VP) circuits are involved in both types of bond formation, and dopamine and oxytocin action within NA appears to promote the synaptic plasticity that allows either infant or mating partner stimuli to persistently activate NA-VP attraction circuits, leading to an enduring social attraction and bonding. Further, although the medial preoptic area is essential for maternal behavior, its role in pair bonding remains to be determined. Our review concludes by examining the broader implications of this comparative analysis, and evidence is provided that the maternal care system may have also provided the basic neural foundation for other types of strong social relationships, beyond pair bonding, in mammals, including humans. PMID:26062432

  13. Disentangling the Dyadic Dance: Theoretical, Methodological and Outcomes Systematic Review of Mother-Infant Dyadic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Provenzi, Livio; Scotto di Minico, Giunia; Giusti, Lorenzo; Guida, Elena; Müller, Mitho

    2018-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, the research on mother-infant dyad has produced a great amount of data, methods and theories, which largely contributed to set a revolution in the way we look at developmental changes during infancy and childhood. Very different constructs depict the different aspects of the “dyadic dance” occurring between a mother and her infant; nonetheless, a comprehensive and consistent systematization of these concepts in a coherent theoretical landscape is still lacking. Aim: In the present work, we aim at disentangling the different theoretical and methodological definitions of 9 dyadic constructs and we highlight their effects on infants' and children developmental outcomes. Methods: A literature search has been conducted on three databases—PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science. Three different reviews are reported here: (1) a review on the theoretical definitions of dyadic constructs; (2) a review of operational definitions, settings and methods of dyadic processes; (3) a systematic review of dyadic processes' outcomes for infants' and children developmental trajectories. Results: Two constructs emerged as wide meta-theoretical concepts (reciprocity and mutuality) and seven described specific processes (attunement, contingency, coordination, matching, mirroring, reparation, synchrony). A global model resuming the relationships among different processes is reported, which highlights the emergence of two specific cycles of dyadic functioning (i.e., matching-mismatching-reparation-synchrony; contingency, coordination, attunement, mirroring). A comprehensive review of the adopted measures is also provided. Finally, all the processes provided significant contributions to infants' behavioral, cognitive, and socio-emotional development during the first 3 years of age, but limited research has been conducted on specific processes (e.g. reparation and mirroring). Conclusion: The present study provides an original research-grounded framework to

  14. Study of mother-infant attachment patterns and influence factors in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2012-05-01

    In contrast to the considerable volume of international research on infant attachment development, significantly less research has been conducted in China. The present study was designed to identify the patterns of mother-infant attachment in Shanghai and to explore the influence factors. The subjects included 160 healthy infant-mother dyads. Infant attachment and temperament were assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure and Carey's temperament questionnaire, respectively; the mother's personality, maternal sensitivity and marital satisfaction were assessed with Eysenck's personality questionnaire, Maternal Behavior Q-sort Manual Version 3.1 and Olson's marital questionnaire, respectively. A self-formulated questionnaire of family environment factors was completed by the infant's mother. Of the 160 infants, 68.2% were rated as securely attached (B) and 31.8% as insecurely attached. Of those infants rated as insecurely attached, 7.5% were characterized as avoidant (A), 21.8% as resistant (C) and 2.5% as disorganized (D). Maternal sensitivity and marital satisfaction as well as the approachability dimension of infant temperament, were significantly different between securely attached infants and insecurely attached infants. From a temperament perspective, resistant infants showed higher-level intensity of reaction than avoidant infants. Moreover, multiple caregivers in the family and infant's sleeping with other caregivers at night were more likely to be associated with insecure mother-infant attachment. There exist certain cultural characteristics in mother-infant attachment patterns in Shanghai. The influence factors are related with the high involvement of non-mother caregivers as well as maternal sensitivity, marital satisfaction and infant's temperament characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is the Effect of Postpartum Depression on Mother-Infant Bonding Universal?

    PubMed

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Ayvazian, Nelly; Lameh, Salma; Charafeddine, Lama

    2018-05-01

    Although the negative consequences of maternal depression on infants has been documented in several Western societies, similar studies have not been conducted in Middle-Eastern countries where cultural norms and traditions may differ. The main objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD) and its relationship to mother -infant bonding in a Lebanese population. One hundred and fifty participants were administered the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and the social support scale at 2-3 days postpartum. At 10-12 weeks mother-infant bonding using the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) and depression using the Beck Inventory (BDI-II) were assessed during a telephone interview. The prevalence of depression was 19% with an average score of 10.9 ± 6.02 on the EPDS. At 10-12 weeks 2.7% of the whole sample was depressed with an average score of 18.60 ± 16.87 on the BDI-II. Risk factors of PPD on the EPDS were; history of alcohol use, complications during pregnancy, not a good marital relationship, baby admitted to an intensive care unit, history of depression and low social support. Risk factors for impaired bonding were age, history of depression, BDI-II scores above 20 and low social support. The multiple regression analysis found that impaired bonding was associated with older age, history of depression and low social support, which explained 39% of the variance, F = 7.12, p = 0.02. The prevalence of PPD was higher than previously reported at day 2-3 post-delivery, but lower at 10-12 weeks postpartum. Impaired mother- infant bonding was associated older mothers, history of depression, low social support and BDI-II scores above 20 which should alert practitioner to assessing these factors in post-partum mothers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Mother-infant spatial relations in wild beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) during postnatal development under natural conditions].

    PubMed

    Krasnova, V V; Bel'kovich, V M; Chernetskiĭ, A D

    2006-01-01

    Elements of behavior under natural conditions, their duration, and frequency are described in three age groups of belugas calves: newborn, one-month-old, and two-month-old. The quantitative and qualitative indices of the recognized behavioral elements allowed us to evaluate the mother-infant contacts and to analyze their dynamics during calf growth. The most common calf positions relative to the mother during this period were "at the cow's tail" and "at the cow's side." The importance of behavioral responses of calf for the development of social behavior in adult animals is emphasized.

  17. Maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Hartley, C; Pretorius, K; Mohamed, A; Laughton, B; Madhi, S; Cotton, M F; Steyn, B; Seedat, S

    2010-05-01

    Maternal postpartum depression poses significant risks for mother-child interaction and long-term infant outcomes. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status has also been implicated in the development of postpartum depression, but the association between maternal depression and infant social behavior in the context of HIV infection has not been fully investigated. First, we examined the relationship between maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal at 10-12 months of age in HIV-infected mothers and infants. Second, we ascertained whether infant social withdrawal could be significantly predicted by maternal postpartum depression. The sample consisted of 83 HIV-infected mother-infant dyads. Mothers were assessed for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and infant social withdrawal behavior was rated using the Modified Alarm Distress Baby Scale (m-ADBB). 42.2% of the mothers scored above the cut-off point for depression on the EPDS, and a third of infants (31%) were socially withdrawn. Notably, maternal depression did not predict infant social withdrawal as measured by the m-ADBB. Infant social withdrawal was also not significantly associated with failure to thrive or gender. These preliminary findings need further investigation with respect to the impact on long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes.

  18. The prevalence and characteristics associated with mother-infant bed-sharing in Klang district, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L; Ghani, S N; Moy, F M

    2009-12-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of mother-infant bed-sharing practice in Klang district, Malaysia. Data was collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire for a four month period in 2006. A total of 682 mother-infant pairs attending government health clinics were included in the study. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers, information on the infants, bed-sharing and breastfeeding practices were collected. The mean maternal age was 28.4 +/- 5.1 years while the mean infant gestational age was 38.8 +/- 1.8 weeks. The study showed the prevalence of bed-sharing was 73.5% (95% CI: 70.0, 76.7). In multivariate analysis; area of interview, maternal occupation, family income, breastfeeding and infant birth weight were associated with bed-sharing after adjusted for maternal ethnicity, age, marital status, educational level, parity, infant gender and infant gestational age. In conclusion, bed-sharing is a common practice in Klang district, Malaysia, not specific to ethnicity, but strongly associated with low family income and breastfeeding.

  19. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  20. Early Intervention for Preterm Infants and Their Mothers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Kurtz, Melissa; Lee, Shih-Yu; Liu, Huaping

    2014-11-18

    This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of various early interventions on maternal emotional outcomes, mother-infant interaction, and subsequent infant outcomes during neonatal intensive care unit admission and postdischarge. Key interventions associated with outcomes in both the neonatal intensive care unit and postdischarge (ie, home) settings are summarized. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials involving early interventions for infants and their mother published between 1993 and 2013 in the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Cochrane was undertaken. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale to evaluate internal and external validity of the study. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included in the review, and all used some form of parenting education. The interventions had limited effects on maternal stress and mother-infant interaction and positive effects on maternal anxiety, depressive symptoms, and maternal coping. There were positive effects on infants' short-term outcomes for length of stay and breast-feeding rate. Positive and clinically meaningful effects of early interventions were seen in some physiological/psychological outcomes of mothers and preterm infants. It is important for nurses to foster close mother-infant contact and increase maternal competence during and after the infant's hospitalization period.

  1. Emotional reactions of mothers facing premature births: study of 100 mother-infant dyads 32 gestational weeks.

    PubMed

    Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Lempp, Franziska; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Dodane, Catherine; Bednarek, Nathalie; De Mare, Laurence; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A "depressed" score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth.

  2. Healthy Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This document is a compendium of approximately 170 national health promotion and disease prevention objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth. It offers a vision characterized by reductions of preventable death and disability, enhanced quality of life, and reduced disparities in the health status of the populations in…

  3. How does microanalysis of mother-infant communication inform maternal sensitivity and infant attachment?

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month infant-mother face-to-face communication operates like a "social microscope" and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues published in 2010 that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity.

  4. Maternally Administered Interventions for Preterm Infants in the NICU: Effects on Maternal Psychological Distress and Mother-Infant Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; Levy, Janet A.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 grams for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-minute videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal

  5. Maternally administered interventions for preterm infants in the NICU: effects on maternal psychological distress and mother-infant relationship.

    PubMed

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C; Levy, Janet A; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 g for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-min videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal distress

  6. Mutual mother-infant recognition in mice: The role of pup ultrasonic vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Kazutaka; Takakuda, Ayaka; Tsukamoto, Chihiro; Ooyama, Rumi; Okabe, Shota; Koshida, Nobuyoshi; Nagasawa, Miho; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2017-05-15

    The importance of the mother-infant bond for the development of offspring health and sociality has been studied not only in primate species but also in rodent species. A social bond is defined as affiliative behaviors toward a specific partner. However, controversy remains concerning whether mouse pups can distinguish between their own mother and an alien mother, and whether mothers can differentiate their own pups from alien pups. In this study, we investigated whether mutual recognition exists between mother and infant in ICR mice. Furthermore, we studied pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which are emitted by pups when isolated from their mothers, to determine whether they constituted an individual signature used by the mother for pup recognition. We conducted a variety of two-choice tests and selective-retrieving tests. In a two-choice test for mother recognition by the pup, pups between the ages of 17 and 21days preferred their own mothers to alien mothers. In a two-choice test for pup recognition by its mother, the mothers located their own pups faster than alien pups at the beginning of the test, yet displayed similar retrieving activity for both their own and alien pups in the subsequent selective-retrieving test. Furthermore, after recording USVs from pups from subject and alien mothers, then playing them simultaneously, subject mothers displayed a preference for pup USVs emitted by their own pups. Overall, our findings support the existence of mother-infant bonding in mice and suggest that pup USVs contribute to pup recognition by mothers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Vocal Coordination During Early Parent-Infant Interactions Predicts Language Outcome in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Jessie B.; Iverson, Jana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined vocal coordination during mother-infant interactions in the infant siblings (high risk infants; HR) of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a population at heightened risk for developing language delays. Vocal coordination between mothers and HR infants was compared to a group of low risk (LR; no first- or second-degree relative with ASD) dyads, and used to predict later language development. Nine-month-old infants were videotaped at home playing with their mothers, and interactions were coded for the frequency and timing of vocalizations. Percent infant simultaneous speech was predictive of later language delay (LD), and dyads with LD infants were less coordinated with one another in average latency to respond than dyads with non-delayed (ND) infants. The degree of coordination between mothers and infants on this variable predicted a continuous measure of language development in the third year. This research underscores the importance of understanding early development in the context of interaction. PMID:26345517

  8. Evidence of Placentophagia and Mother-Infant Cannibalism in Free-Ranging Macaca mulatta tcheliensis in Mount Taihangshan, Jiyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jundong; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yongman; Garber, Paul A; Guo, Weijie; Kuang, San''ao; Lu, Jiqi

    2016-01-01

    Placentophagia or the consumption of the afterbirth is reported in many primate species, whereas cannibalism is a relatively rare event. Based on our field observations over the course of 3 years, we present evidence of placentophagia and mother-infant cannibalism in a free-ranging population of the Taihangshan macaque, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis, in the Mt. Taihangshan area, Jiyuan, Henan, China. We documented 1 case in which a mother consumed the afterbirth of her infant. In a second instance, we observed a fresh placenta discarded on the ground by an unknown individual. We also present a description of the first documented instance of mother-infant cannibalism in the same group of free-ranging rhesus macaques. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations Between Foster Mothers’ Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Simons, Robert; Grasso, Damion

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads (N = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers’ oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of all infant faces in the first two months of the relationship. Three months later, foster mothers’ oxytocin production was still associated with delight toward their foster infant and was also specifically associated with their P3 response to an image of their foster infant. Similar to biologically-related mothers and infants, oxytocin appears to be associated with foster mothers’ brain activity and caregiving behavior, with patterns suggestive of bond formation. PMID:23163703

  10. Quality-Improvement Effort to Reduce Hypothermia Among High-Risk Infants on a Mother-Infant Unit.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christine; Whatley, Colleen; Smith, Meaghan; Brayton, Emily Caron; Simone, Suzanne; Holmes, Alison Volpe

    2018-02-14

    Neonatal hypothermia is common in low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g) and late-preterm infants (LPIs) (34 0/7-36 6/7 weeks' gestation). It can be a contributory factor for newborn admission to a NICU, resulting in maternal-infant separation and increased resource use. Our objective was to study the efficacy of a quality-improvement bundle of hypothermia preventive measures for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit. We conducted plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles aimed at decreasing environmental hypothermia for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit with no other indications for NICU-level care. Interventions included using warm towels after delivery, a risk identification card, an occlusive hat, delayed timing of first bath, submersion instead of sponge-bathing, and conducting all assessments under a radiant warmer during the initial hours of life. We implemented these interventions in 3 PDSA cycles and followed hypothermia rates by using statistical process control methods. The baseline mean monthly hypothermia rate among mother-infant unit LPIs and/or LBW infants was 29.8%. Postintervention, the rate fell to 13.3% (-16.5%; P = .002). This decrease occurred in a stepwise fashion in conjunction with the PDSA cycles. In the final, full-intervention period, the rate was 10.0% (-19.8%; P = .0003). A special-cause signal shift was observed in this final period. Targeted interventions can significantly reduce hypothermia in otherwise healthy LPIs and/or LBW newborns and allow them to safely remain in a mother-infant unit. If applied broadly, such preventive practices could decrease preventable hypothermia in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    PubMed

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies.

  12. Patterns And Determinants Of Breast Feeding Among Mother Infant Pairs In Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Moazzam Ali; Qureshi, Zubia; Khan, Kauser Aftab; Gill, Fouzia Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to determine the patterns and explore the determinants associated with breast feeding practices among the nursing women in Dera Ghazi Khan. A cross sectional study was conducted on randomly selected lactating mother infant pairs in Dera Ghazi Khan. Structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Analysis was done by using SPSS, chi square test was applied to see the association between breast feeding practices and its determinants such as knowledge of breast feeding practices. Majority 372 (93%) of mothers mentioned that they had ever breastfed the youngest child. About 292 (73%) mothers gave colostrum to the child, and 48 (12%) exclusively breastfed. Weaning babies before four month of age was practiced by 84 (21%) of the mothers, 120 (55%) mothers started weaning at 4-6 months of child age, while 72 (18%) started to give additional food after baby turned six months old. Out of total 276 (69%) mothers reported that they had knowledge regarding breast feeding. Significant association was found between knowledge of breastfeeding and initiation and Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) practices (p-values <0.05). Income, family type, mode of delivery and assistance for child were significantly associated with initiation of breastfeeding within one hour after birth (p-value <0.001). Breast feeding practices in the studied area were not up to the mark. There is a strong need to improve the breastfeeding practices by Behavior Change Communication.

  13. Mother-infant joint attention and sharing: relations to disorganized attachment and maternal disrupted communication.

    PubMed

    Annie Yoon, Seungyeon; Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Lock, Anna; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    The normative development of infant shared attention has been studied extensively, but few studies have examined the impact of disorganized attachment and disturbed maternal caregiving on mother-infant shared attention. The authors examined both maternal initiations of joint attention and infants' responses to those initiations during the reunion episodes of the Strange Situation Procedure at 12 and 18 months of infant age. The mothers' initiations of joint attention and three forms of infant response, including shunning, simple joint attention, and sharing attention, were examined in relation to infant disorganized attachment and maternal disrupted communication. Mothers who were disrupted in communication with their infants at 18 months initiated fewer bids for joint attention at 12 months, and, at 18 months, mothers of infants classified disorganized initiated fewer bids. However, the infant' responses were unrelated to either the infant' or the mother' disturbed attachment. At both ages, disorganized infants and infants of disrupted mothers were as likely to respond to maternal bids as were their lower risk counterparts. Our results suggest that a disposition to share experiences with others is robust in infancy, even among infants with adverse attachment experiences, but this infant disposition may depend on adult initiation of bids to be realized.

  14. The music of containment: Addressing the participants in mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment.

    PubMed

    Salomonsson, Björn

    2011-11-01

    The author discusses the psychoanalyst's approach in mother-infant treatments. Emphasis is given to the infant as an important, though often neglected, addressee. A clinical example is used in which a telephone call during a prior session triggered fretting in a 3-month-old girl and distress in her mother. It is suggested that in the session, nonverbal levels of the interventions reached the girl and contained her, and that this containment worked along similar lines as the communicative musicality between mother and baby. In the discussion, the psychoanalytic concept of containment (Bion, 1962) is linked with the concept of communicative musicality (Trevarthen & Aitken, 2001). The mother's need for containment also is emphasized, and the therapist must be on alert when it is essential to focus on either participant in the therapy room. This choice is guided both by explicit deliberations and by the unconscious countertransference. However, the therapist's wish to grasp the countertransference is countered by his or her unwillingness of being reminded of feelings of infantile helplessness. Similarly, when the mother's conscious and unconscious messages diverge, the baby's ability to receive her caretaking is compromised. In the article's clinical case, this happened when the mother tried to soothe her daughter while being preoccupied with anger at the therapist to an extent to which she was not fully aware. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. ARE HEALTH VISITORS' OBSERVATIONS OF EARLY PARENT-INFANT INTERACTIONS RELIABLE? A CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Ingeborg H; Trillingsgaard, Tea; Simonsen, Marianne; Kronborg, Hanne

    2017-03-01

    Health visitors need competences to promote healthy early parent-infant relationships. The aims of this study were to explore whether there are differences between groups of health visitors with and without additional parenting program education in terms of their knowledge of infant-parent interaction and their observation and assessment skills of such interactions. The cross-sectional study included 36 health visitors' certified Marte Meo therapists and 85 health visitors without additional parenting program education. Health visitors' observation skills were measured assessing five video-recorded mother-infant interactions. A questionnaire was used to measure their intention, self-efficacy, and knowledge. More certified Marte Meo therapists than health visitors without additional parenting program education reported a significantly higher mean level of knowledge of the early relationship, 6.42 (95% CI; 6.18-6.66) versus 5.05 (95% CI; 4.86-6.10), p = .04; and more certified Marte Meo therapists than health visitors without additional parenting program education reported a higher mean level of knowledge of infant self-regulation, 2.44 (95% CI; 2.18-2.71) versus 1.83 (95% CI; 1.62-2.03), p < .001. In the latter group, 54% (95% CI; 0.43-0.64) reported a significantly higher need for further education versus 22% (95% CI; 0.11-0.39), p = .001. Compared to health visitors without any parenting program education, health visitors certified as Marte Meo therapists reported a significantly higher frequency of correct assessment of mothers' sensitivity in two of five video-recordings, with 77.78% (95% CI; 0.61-0.87) compared to 45.88% (95% CI; 0.35-0.57) in Video 3, p = .001, and 69.44% (95% CI; 0.52-0.82) compared to 49.41% (95% CI; 0.39-0.60) in Video 4, p = .04, respectively. The results of the present study support the use of video-based education of health visitors to increase their knowledge of and skills in assessing parent-infant interactions. Randomized controlled

  16. [Mother-infant and indirect transmission of HSV infection: treatment and prevention].

    PubMed

    Henrot, A

    2002-04-01

    Neonatal herpes is a serious condition. The objectives of this critical review of the literature are to: 1) define the modes of mother-infant and indirect transmission of HSV infection; 2) determine current treatments and perspectives for the future. We searched for articles published since 1980 in databases using a series of key words. The articles were classed into three categories by level of scientific proof: good (level 1), fair (level 2), poor (level 3, 4 or 5). General reviews were excluded. We selected 153 articles and retained 96. Man to woman contamination was generally reported: 10p.100 of the couples were serodiscordant. Presence of anti-HSV1 antibodies was partially protective against HSV2 infection. Neonates can be contaminated in utero via transplacental hematogenic transmission, at delivery (the most frequent route), or during the postnatal period (indirect transmission). The risk of neonatal contamination is greatest for primary infection (PI) or non-primary infection occurring the last month of pregnancy (50p.100), but transmission is low for maternal recurrence during the week before delivery (5p.100). Cesarean section is mandatory in case of genital PI or non-primary maternal infection during the last month of pregnancy, especially in case of membrane rupture<6 hr, but does not protect the infant in two-thirds of the cases. The decision for cesarean is controversial in case of recurrence. Antiviral treatment of the mother using aciclovir (ACV) is well tolerated. ACV-cesarean combination provides maximal protection for the neonate. A neonate with proven or suspected HSV infection should be isolated from other neonates but not from the mother. Breastfeeding is contraindicated in case of breast lesions. Parenteral ACV 60 g/kg/d is preferred over vidarabine. It should be started immediately after the first virology samples. The risk of recurrence is estimated at 7p.100 for all neonates and warrants treatment using a high oral dose (90-100mg

  17. The Effects of Music and Movement on Mother-Infant Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlismas, Wendy; Malloch, Stephen; Burnham, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of a music and movement (M&M) programme on healthy first-time mothers and their 2-6-month-old infants over a five-week period. Experiment 1 (N?=?96) examined the effects of the M&M activities and the face-to-face (F2F) social contact of a group instruction method on the perception of mothers'…

  18. The Effects of Maternal Social Phobia on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Social Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Schofield, Elizabeth; Sack, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We…

  19. The Effects of the Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) System on Sensitivity in Mother-Infant Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, J. Kevin; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Von Ende, Adam; Valim, Clarissa

    2017-01-01

    The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) system is a neurobehavioral observation tool designed to sensitize parents to infants' capacities and individuality and to enhance the parent-infant relationship by strengthening parents' confidence and practical skills in caring for their children. The NBO's focus on relationship building is intended for…

  20. Head Movement Dynamics During Play and Perturbed Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hammal, Zakia; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Messinger, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of head movement in mothers and infants during an age-appropriate, well-validated emotion induction, the Still Face paradigm. In this paradigm, mothers and infants play normally for 2 minutes (Play) followed by 2 minutes in which the mothers remain unresponsive (Still Face), and then two minutes in which they resume normal behavior (Reunion). Participants were 42 ethnically diverse 4-month-old infants and their mothers. Mother and infant angular displacement and angular velocity were measured using the CSIRO head tracker. In male but not female infants, angular displacement increased from Play to Still-Face and decreased from Still Face to Reunion. Infant angular velocity was higher during Still-Face than Reunion with no differences between male and female infants. Windowed cross-correlation suggested changes in how infant and mother head movements are associated, revealing dramatic changes in direction of association. Coordination between mother and infant head movement velocity was greater during Play compared with Reunion. Together, these findings suggest that angular displacement, angular velocity and their coordination between mothers and infants are strongly related to age-appropriate emotion challenge. Attention to head movement can deepen our understanding of emotion communication. PMID:26640622

  1. Infant temperament reactivity and early maternal caregiving: independent and interactive links to later childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Natalie V; Degnan, Kathryn A; Hane, Amie A; Fox, Nathan A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2018-06-11

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with origins early in life. There is growing evidence that individual differences in temperament reactivity are predictive of ADHD symptoms, yet little is known about the relations between temperament reactivity in early infancy and later ADHD symptoms or the combined effect of reactivity with early environmental factors on ADHD symptom development. Using a 9-year prospective longitudinal design, this study tested the independent and interactive contributions of infant reactivity and maternal caregiving behaviors (MCB) on parent- and teacher-reported childhood ADHD symptoms. Participants included 291 children (132 male; 159 female) who participated in a larger study of temperament and social-emotional development. Reactivity was assessed by behavioral observation of negative affect, positive affect, and motor activity during novel stimuli presentations at 4 months of age. MCB were observed during a series of semistructured mother-infant tasks at 9 months of age. Finally, ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent- and teacher-report questionnaires at 7 and 9 years, respectively. Reactivity was predictive of ADHD symptoms, but results were sex specific. For boys, infant motor activity was positively predictive of later ADHD symptoms, but only at lower quality MCB. For girls, infant positive affect was positively predictive of later ADHD symptoms at lower quality MCB, and-unexpectedly-infant positive affect and motor activity were negatively predictive of later ADHD symptoms at higher quality MCB. These results point to early parenting as a moderating factor to mitigate temperament-related risk for later ADHD, suggesting this as a potential intervention target to mitigate risk for ADHD among reactive infants. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Effects of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on severe latch-on problems in older infants: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Kristin E; Velandia, Marianne I; Matthiesen, Ann-Sofi T; Welles-Nyström, Barbara L; Widström, Ann-Marie E

    2013-03-11

    Infants with latch-on problems cause stress for parents and staff, often resulting in early termination of breastfeeding. Healthy newborns experiencing skin-to-skin contact at birth are pre-programmed to find the mother's breast. This study investigates if skin-to-skin contact between mothers with older infants having severe latching on problems would resolve the problem. Mother-infant pairs with severe latch-on problems, that were not resolved during screening procedures at two maternity hospitals in Stockholm 1998-2004, were randomly assigned to skin-to-skin contact (experimental group) or not (control group) during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding counseling was given to both groups according to a standard model. Participants were unaware of their treatment group. Objectives were to compare treatment groups concerning the proportion of infants regularly latching on, the time from intervention to regular latching on and maternal emotions and pain before and during breastfeeding. On hundred and three mother-infant pairs with severe latch-on problems 1-16 weeks postpartum were randomly assigned and analyzed. There was no significant difference between the groups in the proportion of infants starting regular latching-on (75% experimental group, vs. 86% control group). Experimental group infants, who latched on, had a significantly shorter median time from start of intervention to regular latching on than control infants, 2.0 weeks (Q1 = 1.0, Q3 = 3.7) vs. 4.7 weeks (Q1 = 2.0, Q3 = 8.0), (p-value = 0.020). However, more infants in the experimental group (94%), with a history of "strong reaction" during "hands-on latch intervention", latched-on within 3 weeks compared to 33% in the control infants (Fisher Exact test p-value = 0.0001). Mothers in the experimental group (n = 53) had a more positive breastfeeding experience according to the Breastfeeding Emotional Scale during the intervention than mothers in the control group (n = 50) (p-value = 0.022). Skin-to-skin contact

  3. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Stephen S. H.; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  4. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Huang, Stephen S H; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  5. Characteristics Associated With Adding Cereal Into the Bottle Among Immigrant Mother-Infant Dyads of Low Socioeconomic Status and Hispanic Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Candice Taylor; Messito, Mary Jo; Gross, Rachel S; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Fierman, Arthur H; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Johnson, Samantha Berkule; Dreyer, Benard; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2017-01-01

    Determine maternal and infant characteristics associated with adding cereal into the bottle. Secondary data analysis. Study participants were immigrant, low-income, urban mother-infant dyads (n = 216; 91% Hispanic, 19% US-born) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial entitled the Bellevue Project for Early Language, Literacy and Education Success. Maternal characteristics (age, marital status, ethnicity, primary language, country of origin, education, work status, income, depressive symptoms, and concern about infant's future weight) and infant characteristics (gender, first born, and difficult temperament). Fisher exact test, chi-square test, and simultaneous multiple logistic regression of significant (P < .05) variables identified in unadjusted analyses. Twenty-seven percent of mothers added cereal into the bottle. After adjusting for confounding variables identified in bivariate analyses, mothers who were single (P = .02), had moderate to severe depressive symptoms (P = .01) and perceived their infant had a difficult temperament (P = .03) were more likely to add cereal into the bottle. Conversely, mothers who expressed concern about their infants becoming overweight were less likely to add cereal (P = .02). Health care providers should screen for adding cereal in infant bottles. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of adding cereal into the bottle on weight trajectories over time. Causal associations also need to be identified to effectively prevent this practice. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Embodied intersubjective engagement in mother-infant tactile communication: a cross-cultural study of Japanese and Scottish mother-infant behaviors during infant pick-up.

    PubMed

    Negayama, Koichi; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T; Momose, Keiko; Ishijima, Konomi; Kawahara, Noriko; Lux, Erin J; Murphy, Andrew; Kaliarntas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the early development of cultural differences in a simple, embodied, and intersubjective engagement between mothers putting down, picking up, and carrying their infants between Japan and Scotland. Eleven Japanese and ten Scottish mothers with their 6- and then 9-month-old infants participated. Video and motion analyses were employed to measure motor patterns of the mothers' approach to their infants, as well as their infants' collaborative responses during put-down, pick-up, and carry phases. Japanese and Scottish mothers approached their infants with different styles and their infants responded differently to the short duration of separation during the trial. A greeting-like behavior of the arms and hands was prevalent in the Scottish mothers' approach, but not in the Japanese mothers' approach. Japanese mothers typically kneeled before making the final reach to pick-up their children, giving a closer, apparently gentler final approach of the torso than Scottish mothers, who bent at the waist with larger movements of the torso. Measures of the gap closure between the mothers' hands to their infants' heads revealed variably longer duration and distance gap closures with greater velocity by the Scottish mothers than by the Japanese mothers. Further, the sequence of Japanese mothers' body actions on approach, contact, pick-up, and hold was more coordinated at 6 months than at 9 months. Scottish mothers were generally more variable on approach. Measures of infant participation and expressivity indicate more active participation in the negotiation during the separation and pick-up phases by Scottish infants. Thus, this paper demonstrates a culturally different onset of development of joint attention in pick-up. These differences reflect cultures of everyday interaction.

  7. The Effects of Massage by Mothers on Mother-Infant Attachment.

    PubMed

    Shoghi, Mahnaz; Sohrabi, Soroor; Rasouli, Mahboobe

    2018-05-01

    Context • Transferring a newborn to the intensive care unit due to a premature birth is a major obstacle in the establishment of emotional attachment between a mother and her child. Researchers believe that the formation and continuation of such an attachment have a profound effect on the child's mental development and behavior in the coming years of life. Not all studies have agreed, however, that skin contact alone, such as massage provides, can improve attachment. Objective • The aim of this study was to determine the effects on maternal attachment behaviors of infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of massage provided by mothers for their premature neonates. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. Setting • The study took place at the Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital of the Iran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran). Participants • Participants were 40 mothers and 40 newborns admitted to the NICU at the hospital. Intervention • The study divided participants randomly into a massage (intervention) group and a control group receiving no massages. Mothers in the intervention group trained by watching educational videos and practicing the massage on infant manikins. Subsequently, the intervention group massaged its infants according to a 5-d program, in which each neonate received a 15-min massage session per day. Outcome Measures • Mother-infant attachment behaviors were assessed in both groups 4 times. The maternal attachment scale was used for data collection. Results • According to the statistical analyses, the between-groups difference was not significant at baseline (P > .05). The study showed a statistically significant difference between baseline and postintervention in the mean frequencies of maternal attachment behaviors for both groups (P < .001). In addition, a significant between-group difference existed postintervention between the means for maternal attachment between the

  8. Mother-infant dyadic reparation and individual differences in vagal tone affect 4-month-old infants' social stress regulation.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Casini, Erica; de Simone, Paola; Reni, Gianluigi; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-12-01

    Infants' social stress regulation (i.e., reactivity and recovery) might be affected by mother-infant dyadic functioning and infants' vagal tone (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA). This study investigated the role of a specific dyadic functioning feature (i.e., dyadic reparation) and individual differences in vagal tone regulation (i.e., RSA suppression vs. non-suppression) in relation to social stress regulation in 4-month-old infants. A total of 65 mother-infant dyads participated in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Social stress reactivity and recovery were measured as negative emotionality during Still-Face and Reunion episodes, respectively. RSA was measured during Play, Still-Face, and Reunion episodes. Suppressors had higher dyadic reparation during Play and higher recovery from social stress compared with non-suppressors. Higher reparation during Play was associated with lower reactivity and higher recovery only for suppressors. Findings suggest a joint role of infants' RSA individual differences and dyadic reparation in affecting infants' social stress regulation at 4 months of age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic Treatment of Early Disturbances in the Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broden, Margareta Berg

    A theory of normal mother-infant relationship based on Margaret Mahler's theories is the basis of a treatment program for disturbed mother/infant relationships. This theory includes the concept of symbiosis which for the child is an undifferentiated condition, a fusion with the mother where the two have a common outward border, thereby protecting…

  10. Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

  11. Infant Television and Video Exposure Associated With Limited Parent-Child Verbal Interactions in Low Socioeconomic Status Households

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Huberman, Harris S.; Alvir, Jose; Dreyer, Benard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess verbal interactions related to television and other electronic media exposure among mothers and 6 month-old-infants. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 154 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Setting Urban public hospital. Participants Low socioeconomic status mothers of 6-month-old infants. Main Exposure Media exposure and content. Main Outcome Measures Mother-infant verbal interaction associated with media exposure and maternal coviewing. Results Of 154 low socioeconomic status mothers, 149 (96.8%) reported daily media exposure in their infants, with median exposure of 120 (interquartile range, 60-210) minutes in a 24-hour period. Among 426 program exposures, mother-infant interactions were reported during 101 (23.7%). Interactions were reported most frequently with educational young child–oriented media (42.8% of programs), compared with 21.3% of noneducational young child–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.98) and 14.7% of school-age/teenage/adult–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3). Among coviewed programs with educational content, mothers reported interactions during 62.7% of exposures. Coviewing was not reported more frequently for educational young child–oriented programs. Conclusions We found limited verbal interactions during television exposure in infancy, with interactions reported for less than one-quarter of exposures. Although interactions were most commonly reported among programs with educational content that had been coviewed, programs with educational content were not more likely to be coviewed than were other programs. Our findings do not support development of infant-directed educational programming in the absence of strategies to increase coviewing and interactions. PMID:18458186

  12. Infant television and video exposure associated with limited parent-child verbal interactions in low socioeconomic status households.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Alan L; Berkule, Samantha B; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Huberman, Harris S; Alvir, Jose; Dreyer, Benard P

    2008-05-01

    To assess verbal interactions related to television and other electronic media exposure among mothers and 6 month-old-infants. Cross-sectional analysis of 154 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Urban public hospital. Low socioeconomic status mothers of 6-month-old infants. Main Exposure Media exposure and content. Mother-infant verbal interaction associated with media exposure and maternal coviewing. Of 154 low socioeconomic status mothers, 149 (96.8%) reported daily media exposure in their infants, with median exposure of 120 (interquartile range, 60-210) minutes in a 24-hour period. Among 426 program exposures, mother-infant interactions were reported during 101 (23.7%). Interactions were reported most frequently with educational young child-oriented media (42.8% of programs), compared with 21.3% of noneducational young child-oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.98) and 14.7% of school-age/teenage/adult-oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3). Among coviewed programs with educational content, mothers reported interactions during 62.7% of exposures. Coviewing was not reported more frequently for educational young child-oriented programs. We found limited verbal interactions during television exposure in infancy, with interactions reported for less than one-quarter of exposures. Although interactions were most commonly reported among programs with educational content that had been coviewed, programs with educational content were not more likely to be coviewed than were other programs. Our findings do not support development of infant-directed educational programming in the absence of strategies to increase coviewing and interactions.

  13. Can Social Support in the Guise of an Oral Health Education Intervention Promote Mother-Infant Bonding in Chinese Immigrant Mothers and Their Infants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Si-Yang; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine if social support in the guise of a culturally sensitive, community-based oral health intervention could promote mother-infant bonding in socially-isolated immigrant mothers. Design: A quasi-experimental design. Participants: A convenience sample of 36 Chinese immigrant mothers with 8-week-old infants was divided into…

  14. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  15. Taking stress response out of the box: stability, discontinuity, and temperament effects on HPA and SNS across social stressors in mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as were associations with infant temperament. Primiparous mothers and their 18-month-old infants (n = 86 dyads) completed an attachment stressor--Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978)--at Session 1 and challenge stressors--cleanup task and emotion task battery--at Session 2. Mother and infant saliva samples collected to index pre-stress, stress, and post-stress response during each session were assayed for cortisol (HPA marker) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA; SNS marker). Multilevel modeling of cortisol/sAA trajectories across sessions revealed rank-order stability in mother/infant stress measures but discontinuity in absolute levels; cortisol trajectories were higher during attachment stress, and sAA trajectories were higher during challenge stress. Varying degrees of mother-infant attunement were found across sessions/systems. Infant surgency predicted higher stress measures, and negative affect and effortful control predicted lower stress measures, though associations depended on session/system. Findings are discussed in terms of advancing a multisystemic, contextual definition of developing stress responsiveness.

  16. Another Look Inside the Gap: Ecological Contributions to the Transmission of Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabulsy, George M.; Bernier, Annie; Provost, Marc A.; Maranda, Johanne; Larose, Simon; Moss, Ellen; Larose, Marie; Tessier, Rejean

    2005-01-01

    Ecological contributions to attachment transmission were studied in a sample of 64 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal sensitivity was assessed when infants were 6 and 10 months old, and infant security was assessed at 15 and 18 months. Maternal attachment state of mind was measured with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) after the 1st…

  17. Predictors of postnatal mother-infant bonding: the role of antenatal bonding, maternal substance use and mental health.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Larissa; Hutchinson, Delyse; Wilson, Judy; Burns, Lucy; A Olsson, Craig; Allsop, Steve; J Elliott, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Sue; Macdonald, Jacqueline A; Mattick, Richard P

    2016-08-01

    The emotional bond that a mother feels towards her baby is critical to social, emotional and cognitive development. Maternal health and wellbeing through pregnancy and antenatal bonding also play a key role in determining bonding postnatally, but the extent to which these relationships may be disrupted by poor mental health or substance use is unclear. This study aimed to examine the extent to which mother-fetal bonding, substance use and mental health through pregnancy predicted postnatal mother-infant bonding at 8 weeks. Participants were 372 women recruited from three metropolitan hospitals in Australia. Data was collected during trimesters one, two and three of pregnancy and 8 weeks postnatal using the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS), Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS), the Edinburgh Antenatal and Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Depression and Anxiety Scales (DASS-21), frequency and quantity of substance use (caffeine, alcohol and tobacco) as well as a range of demographic and postnatal information. Higher antenatal bonding predicted higher postnatal bonding at all pregnancy time-points in a fully adjusted regression model. Maternal depressive symptoms in trimesters two and three and stress in trimester two were inversely related to poorer mother-infant bonding 8 weeks postnatally. This study extends previous work on the mother's felt bond to her developing child by drawing on a large sample of women and documenting the pattern of this bond at three time points in pregnancy and at 8 weeks postnatally. Utilising multiple antenatal waves allowed precision in isolating the relationships in pregnancy and at key intervention points. Investigating methods to enhance bonding and intervene in pregnancy is needed. It is also important to assess maternal mental health through pregnancy.

  18. Bed sharing among mother-infant pairs in Klang district, Peninsular Malaysia and its relationship to breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Leong

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of mother-infant bed sharing in Klang district, Peninsular Malaysia and to identify factors associated with bed sharing. This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to 6 months attending government clinics in Klang district, Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire for a 4-month period in 2006. Data regarding maternal, paternal, obstetric, infant, occupancy, breast-feeding characteristics, and bed-sharing practice were collected. Data on bed sharing were based on practice in the past 1-month period. Bed sharing was defined as an infant sharing a bed with mother, and infant must be within arms reach from the mother, whereas a bed was defined as either a sleeping mattress placed on a bed frame or placed on the floor. The prevalence of bed sharing was estimated. Relationship and magnitude of association between independent factors and bed sharing were examined using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for confounding factors. The prevalence of bed sharing among mothers with infants aged between 1 and 6 months was 73.5% (95% confidence interval: 70.0-76.7). In multivariate analysis, urban/rural differences, mothers' ethnicity, occupation, family income, husbands' support on bed sharing, number of children younger than 12 years staying in the house, and breast-feeding were associated with bed sharing. These factors need to be considered in analyzing the overall risks and benefits of bed sharing, paying attention to breastfeeding practices.

  19. [The role of playful interactions in the development of the early mother-child relationship--factors of risk and protection].

    PubMed

    Eigner, Bernadett

    2015-01-01

    The early mother-child relationship is taking shape and evolving during the series of their everyday interactions. The main aim of the research that focus on the risks at the beginning, and the future mother infant interactions are factors that have influence on the quality of the early mother-child relationship, and the exploration of the jeopardy and vulnerability of the early relationship disorders. I examined fifty mothers who have their first child. I researched the motherly, child- and interactional factors in the days right after the birth and then when the kids were one month old, and again at the age of four and a half month. I assessed the parental stress by the longer version of the PSI (Parenting Stress Index), and the mother anxiety with the help of the STAI-Y (State and feature anxiety value Index), and the features of the depression were tested by the EPDS scale, the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale. PBQ, the Postpartum Bonding Questionnare--reveals the quality of the motherly emotions and behaviour focusing on the kid. The observation of interactions when the child was four and a half month old happened while a 'face-to-face' free play, and the analyses of that were assessed by an own code system. We found correlations between input risk factors and features of motherly interactional styles. The indexes of the after birth depression (depression right after the birth), and the anxiety also showed correlation to the indexes of the attachment of the mother to her child and the parental stress. The correlations among the playfulness, the risk kotodefactors and the quality of the interactions are obvious, that we found. The interactional style of the mother and the interactional strategies of the baby showed correlated patterns too as we examined those. We found that pre-history of pregnancy and perinatal events have predictive value on the relationship of the four and a half month old baby and his/her mother. These can add important facts to the

  20. Mesmerism and Masonry: early historical interactions.

    PubMed

    Gravitz, M A

    1997-04-01

    During the early years of animal magnetism, the Mesmeric and Masonic movements in France frequently shared membership, philosophical positions, ambience, and ritualistic style. There was even a proposal to establish a blend of the two to be called Mesmeric Masonry, although nothing came of that. This article documents such interactions and notes that important Mesmeric figures including Mesmer, the Puységur brothers, Lafayette, and Gébelin, were also active Masons. Both movements were suppressed in France during the revolution, because they were considered to be threats to revolutionary goals.

  1. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. A WEB-BASED SURVEY OF MOTHER-INFANT BOND, ATTACHMENT EXPERIENCES, AND METACOGNITION IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS FOLLOWING CHILDBIRTH.

    PubMed

    Williams, Charlotte; Patricia Taylor, Emily; Schwannauer, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal depression is linked to adverse outcomes for parent and child, with metacognition and parenting experiences key variables in the development and maintenance of depression. The attachment between mother and infant is especially vulnerable to the effects of untreated postnatal depression. Despite high levels of reported postnatal stress symptoms, less attention has been given the relationship between attachment, metacognition, and postnatal traumatic symptoms in the context of birth trauma. This study tested several hypotheses regarding the relationships between recalled parenting experiences, metacognition, postnatal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression and perceptions of the mother-infant bond, confirming and extending upon metacognitive and mentalization theories. A Web-based, cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire design was employed in an analog sample of new mothers. Participants were 502 women recruited via open-access Web sites associated with birth organizations. Structural equation modeling was employed for the principal analysis. Metacognition fully mediated the relationship between recalled parenting experiences and postnatal psychological outcomes. Posttraumatic stress was indirectly associated with maternal perceptions of the bond, with this relationship mediated by depression. Metacognition may have a key role in postnatal psychological distress. Where postnatal depression or traumatic birth experiences are identified, screening for posttraumatic stress is strongly indicated. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Psychotherapy process and relationship in the context of a brief attachment-based mother-infant intervention.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Susan S; Lauer, Maria; Beeney, Julie R S; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated links between the observer-rated process of psychotherapy and 2 key psychotherapy relationship constructs (i.e., working alliance and attachment to the therapist) in the context of a brief, attachment-based, home-visiting, mother-infant intervention that aimed to promote later secure infant attachment. Additionally, links between observer ratings of intervener and mother contributions to process were examined. Participants included 85 economically stressed mothers of first-born, 5.5-month-old, temperamentally irritable infants. Therapists included 2 doctoral-level and 4 master's-level home visitors. Observer-rated therapist psychotherapy process variables (i.e., warmth, exploration, and negative attitude) were not linked to maternal ratings of working alliance. Therapist warmth, however, was positively associated with maternal ratings of security of attachment to the therapist, and therapist negative attitude was positively related to maternal ratings of preoccupied-merger attachment to the therapist. As expected, both therapist warmth and exploration were positively associated with both maternal participation and exploration. Therapist negative attitude was inversely related to maternal exploration, but not to maternal participation. Results support the idea that attention to the psychotherapy process and relationship may be important in the context of a brief home-visiting parenting intervention with a nonclinical sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Developmental Changes in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Birth to 3 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated development of face-to-face communication in infants between 1 and 14 weeks old and their mothers. Found a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with increases occurring between weeks 4 and 9. When placed on a sofa, infants' face-to-face communication was longer than when they were held. Girls spent a longer…

  5. Individual Differences in Visual Self-Recognition as a Function of Mother-Infant Attachment Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compares attachment relationships of infants at 12 months to their visual self-recognition at both 18 and 24 months. Individual differences in early attachment relations were related to later self-recognition. In particular, insecurely attached infants showed a trend toward earlier self-recognition than did securely attached infants. (Author/NH)

  6. Response to social challenge in young bonnet (Macaca radiata) and pigtail (Macaca nemestrina) macaques is related to early maternal experiences.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ann; Richardson, Rebecca; Worlein, Julie; De Waal, Frans; Laudenslager, Mark

    2004-04-01

    Previous experience affects how young primates respond to challenging social situations. The present retrospective study looked at one aspect of early experience, the quality of the mother-infant relationship, to determine its relationship to young bonnet and pigtail macaques' responses to two social challenges: temporary maternal separation at 5-6 months and permanent transfer to an unfamiliar peer group at 16-17 months. Relationship quality was measured quantitatively on 30 macaque mother-infant pairs with the Relationship Quality Index (RQI), the ratio of relative affiliation to relative agonism as previously applied to capuchin monkeys. Infants with high RQI values had amicable mother-infant relationships and infants with low RQI values had agonistic mother-infant relationships. Young monkeys with amicable and agonistic relationships showed consistent differences in behavior before, during, and after each social challenge, supporting the hypothesis that juveniles from amicable mother-infant relationships based on the RQI coped more effectively with social challenges than did juveniles from agonistic mother-infant relationships. Results suggest 1) characteristic amicability or agonism in early mother-offspring macaque relationships has the potential to influence offspring behavior in tense social contexts and 2) the RQI is useful as one of a coordinated suite of methods for studying the development of social skills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. From Biological Rhythms to Social Rhythms: Physiological Precursors of Mother-Infant Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Links between neonatal biological rhythms and the emergence of interaction rhythms were examined in 3 groups (N=71): high-risk preterms (HR; birth weight less than 1,000 g), low-risk preterms (LR; birth weight=1,700-1,850 g), and full-term (FT) infants. Once a week for premature infants and on the 2nd day for FT infants, sleep-wake cyclicity was…

  8. DHA supplementation during pregnancy does not reduce BMI or body fat mass in children: follow-up of the DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muhlhausler, Beverly S; Yelland, Lisa N; McDermott, Robyn; Tapsell, Linda; McPhee, Andrew; Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has proven effective at reducing fat storage in animal studies. However, a systematic review of human trials showed a lack of quality data to support or refute this hypothesis. We sought to determine whether maternal DHA supplementation during the second half of pregnancy results in a lower body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat in children. We conducted a follow-up at 3 and 5 y of age of children who were born to mothers enrolled in the DOMInO (DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome) double-blind, randomized controlled trial, in which women with a singleton pregnancy were provided with DHA-rich fish-oil capsules (800 mg DHA/d) or vegetable-oil capsules (control group) in the second half of pregnancy. Primary outcomes were the BMI z score and percentage of body fat at 3 and 5 y of age. Potential interactions between prenatal DHA and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) genotype as a measure of the genetic predisposition to obesity were investigated. A total of 1614 children were eligible for the follow-up. Parent or caregiver consent was obtained for 1531 children (95%), and these children were included in the analysis. BMI z scores and percentages of body fat of children in the DHA group did not differ from those of children in the control group at either 3 y of age [BMI z score adjusted mean difference: 0.03 (95% CI: -0.07, 0.13; P = 0.61); percentage of body fat adjusted mean difference: -0.26 (95% CI: -0.99, 0.46; P = 0.47)] or 5 y of age [BMI z score adjusted mean difference: 0.02 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.12; P = 0.66); percentage of body fat adjusted mean difference: 0.11 (95% CI: -0.60, 0.82; P = 0.75)]. No treatment effects were modified by the PPARγ genotype of the child. Independent of a genetic predisposition to obesity, maternal intake of DHA-rich fish oil during the second half of pregnancy does not affect the growth or body composition

  9. Attachment, Mothering and Mental Illness: Mother-Infant Therapy in an Institutional Context.

    PubMed

    Masciantonio, Sonia; Hemer, Susan R; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2018-03-01

    This paper is an ethnographic exploration of how attachment theory underpins therapeutic practices in an Australian institutional context where mothers of infants have been diagnosed and are undergoing treatment for mental illness. We argue that attachment theory in this particular context rests on a series of principles or assumptions: that attachment theory is universally applicable; that attachment is dyadic and gendered; that there is an attachment template formed which can be transferred across generations and shapes future social interactions; that there is understood to be a mental health risk to the infant when attachment is characterised as problematic; and that this risk can be mitigated through the therapeutic practices advocated by the institution. Through an in-depth case study, this paper demonstrates how these assumptions cohere in practice and are used to assess mothering as deficient, to choose therapeutic options, to shape women's behaviour, and to formulate decisions about child placement.

  10. A focused ethnographic assessment of Middle Eastern mothers' infant feeding practices in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to following complementary feeding guidelines among Middle Eastern mothers and the cultural considerations of practitioners from an emic perspective. This is a two-phase focused ethnographic assessment of infant feeding among 22 Middle Eastern mothers in Western Canada who had healthy infants aged <1 year. Data were collected through four focus groups conducted in Arabic/Farsi, and were further complemented by comprehensive survey data collected in the second phase of study. Mothers' main criterion for choosing infant foods was whether or not foods were Halal, while food allergens were not causes for concern. Vitamin D supplements were not fed to 18/22 of infants, and mashed dates (Halawi), rice pudding (Muhallabia/Ferni) and sugared water/tea were the first complementary foods commonly consumed. Through constant comparison of qualitative data, three layers of influence emerged, which described mothers' process of infant feeding: socio-cultural, health care system and personal factors. Culture was an umbrella theme influencing all aspects of infant feeding decisions. Mothers cited health care professionals' lack of cultural considerations and lack of relevance and practicality of infant feeding guidelines as the main reasons for ignoring infant feeding recommendations. Early introduction of pre-lacteal feeds and inappropriate types of foods fed to infants among immigrant/refugee Middle Eastern mothers in Canada is cause of concern. Involving trained language interpreters in health teams and educating health care staff on cultural competency may potentially increase maternal trust in the health care system and eventually lead to increased awareness of and adherence to best practices with infant feeding recommendations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Mother-Infant Study Cohort (MISC): Methodology, challenges, and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Mona; Shaker Obaid, Reyad; Hasan, Hayder; Naja, Farah; Al Ghazal, Hessa; Jan Jan Mohamed, Hamid; Al Hilali, Marwa; Rayess, Rana; Izzaldin, Ghamra

    2018-01-01

    Background The United Arab Emirates (UAE) exhibits alarming high prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors. Emerging evidence highlighted the role of maternal and early child nutrition in preventing later-onset NCDs. The objectives of this article are to describe the design and methodology of the first Mother and Infant Study Cohort (MISC) in UAE; present the baseline demographic characteristics of the study participants; and discuss the challenges of the cohort and their respective responding strategies. Methods The MISC is an ongoing two-year prospective cohort study which recruited Arab pregnant women in their third trimester from prenatal clinics in Dubai, Sharjah and Ajman. Participants will be interviewed six times (once during pregnancy, at delivery, and at 2, 6, 12 and 24months postpartum). Perinatal information is obtained from hospital records. Collected data include socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, dietary intake and anthropometry; infant feeding practices, cognitive development; along with maternal and infant blood profile and breast milk profile. Results The preliminary results reported that 256 completed baseline assessment (mean age: 30.5±6.0 years; 76.6% multiparous; about 60% were either overweight or obese before pregnancy). The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 19.2%. Upon delivery, 208 women-infant pairs were retained (mean gestational age: 38.5±1.5 weeks; 33.3% caesarean section delivery; 5.3% low birthweight; 5.7% macrosomic deliveries). Besides participant retention, the main encountered challenges pertained to cultural complexity, underestimation the necessary start-up time, staff, and costs, and biochemical data collection. Conclusions Despite numerous methodological, logistical and sociocultural challenges, satisfactory follow-up rates are recorded. Strategies addressing challenges are documented, providing information for planning and implementing future birth cohort studies locally and

  12. Maternal Oxytocin Is Linked to Close Mother-Infant Proximity in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Kelly J.; Twiss, Sean D.; Hazon, Neil; Pomeroy, Patrick P.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal behaviour is a crucial component of reproduction in all mammals; however the quality of care that mothers give to infants can vary greatly. It is vital to document variation in maternal behaviour caused by the physiological processes controlling its expression. This underlying physiology should be conserved throughout reproductive events and should be replicated across all individuals of a species; therefore, any correlates to maternal care quality may be present across many individuals or contexts. Oxytocin modulates the initiation and expression of maternal behaviour in mammals; therefore we tested whether maternal plasma oxytocin concentrations correlated to key maternal behaviours in wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Plasma oxytocin concentrations in non-breeding individuals (4.3 ±0.5 pg/ml) were significantly lower than those in mothers with dependent pups in both early (8.2 ±0.8 pg/ml) and late (6.9 ±0.7 pg/ml) lactation. Maternal plasma oxytocin concentrations were not correlated to the amount of nursing prior to sampling, or a mother’s nursing intensity throughout the dependant period. Mothers with high plasma oxytocin concentrations stayed closer to their pups, reducing the likelihood of mother-pup separation during lactation which is credited with causing starvation, the largest cause of pup mortality in grey seals. This is the first study to link endogenous oxytocin concentrations in wild mammalian mothers with any type of maternal behaviour. Oxytocin’s structure and function is widely conserved across mammalian mothers, including humans. Defining the impact the oxytocin system has on maternal behaviour highlights relationships that may occur across many individuals or species, and such behaviours heavily influence infant development and an individual’s lifetime reproductive success. PMID:26698856

  13. Do different data analytic approaches generate discrepant findings when measuring mother-infant HPA axis attunement?

    PubMed

    Bernard, Nicola K; Kashy, Deborah A; Levendosky, Alytia A; Bogat, G Anne; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2017-03-01

    Attunement between mothers and infants in their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to acute stressors is thought to benefit the child's emerging physiological and behavioral self-regulation, as well as their socioemotional development. However, there is no universally accepted definition of attunement in the literature, which appears to have resulted in inconsistent statistical analyses for determining its presence or absence, and contributed to discrepant results. We used a series of data analytic approaches, some previously used in the attunement literature and others not, to evaluate the attunement between 182 women and their 1-year-old infants in their HPA axis responsivity to acute stress. Cortisol was measured in saliva samples taken from mothers and infants before and twice after a naturalistic laboratory stressor (infant arm restraint). The results of the data analytic approaches were mixed, with some analyses suggesting attunement while others did not. The strengths and weaknesses of each statistical approach are discussed, and an analysis using a cross-lagged model that considered both time and interactions between mother and infant appeared the most appropriate. Greater consensus in the field about the conceptualization and analysis of physiological attunement would be valuable in order to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Study protocol: An investigation of mother-infant signalling during breastfeeding using a randomised trial to test the effectiveness of breastfeeding relaxation therapy on maternal psychological state, breast milk production and infant behaviour and growth.

    PubMed

    Shukri, N H M; Wells, J; Mukhtar, F; Lee, M H S; Fewtrell, M

    2017-01-01

    The physiological and psychological signalling between mother and infant during lactation is one of the prominent mother-infant factors that may influence breastfeeding outcomes. The infant can 'signal' his needs through vocalisation, and the mother can respond by allowing or restricting nipple access, which might alter the breast milk composition or volume. This may lead to parent-offspring conflict during the lactation period. Challenging infant behaviour has also been associated with maternal psychological distress, which might affect breastfeeding performance. Most attempts to improve breastfeeding rates focus on providing additional support, yet many aspects of the breastfeeding process are poorly understood. Thus, our objective is to investigate mother-infant signalling during breastfeeding by manipulating maternal psychological state using a relaxation therapy intervention. The study will test the hypothesis that mothers who listen to the therapy will be more relaxed/less stressed and this will favourably alter breast milk composition and/or affect milk volume and hence influence infant outcomes. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in first-time breastfeeding mothers and their new-born infants. Pregnant mothers will be recruited at antenatal clinics in Selangor, Malaysia, and four home visits will be carried out at 2, 6, 12 and 14 weeks postnatally. Participants will be randomised into a control and an intervention group in the early post-partum period. Mothers from the intervention group will be asked to listen daily to an audio recording with relaxation therapy during breastfeeding. Maternal psychological state, breastfeeding practices and infant behaviour will be assessed using validated questionnaires. Milk volume will be measured using stable isotopes. Breast milk samples will be collected to measure macronutrient content and hormone levels. Anthropometric measurements (weight, length and head circumference) will be performed during all

  15. Parasocial Interactions and Relationships in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.

    2017-01-01

    Parasocial interactions and relationships, one-sided connections imagined with celebrities and media figures, are common in adolescence and might play a role in adolescent identity formation and autonomy development. We asked 151 early adolescents (Mage = 14.8 years) to identify a famous individual of whom they are fond; we examined the type of celebrities chosen and why they admired them, and the relationships imagined with these figures across the entire sample and by gender. Adolescents emphasized highly salient media figures, such as actors, for parasocial attention. While different categories of celebrities were appreciated equally for their talent and personality, actors/singers were endorsed for their attractiveness more so than other celebrity types. Most adolescents (61.1%) thought of their favorite media figures as relationship partners, and those who did reported more parasocial involvement and emotional intensity than those who did not. Gender differences emerged in that boys chose more athletes than girls and were more likely to imagine celebrities as authority figures or mentors than friends. Celebrities afforded friendship for girls, who overwhelmingly focused on actresses. Hierarchical parasocial relationships may be linked to processes of identity formation as adolescents, particularly boys, imagine media figures as role models. In contrast, egalitarian parasocial relationships might be associated with autonomy development via an imagined affiliation with an attractive and admirable media figure. PMID:28280479

  16. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: a comparison between full-term and preterm dyads.

    PubMed

    Hall, R A S; Hoffenkamp, H N; Tooten, A; Braeken, J; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother's representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and infant attachment. The participants were mothers of full-term (n = 75), moderately preterm (n = 68) and very preterm infants (n = 67). Maternal representations were assessed by the Working Model of the Child Interview at 6 months post-partum. Maternal interactive behavior was evaluated at 6 and 24 months post-partum, using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Care Research Network mother-infant observation scales. Infant attachment was observed at 24 months post-partum and was coded by the Attachment Q-Set. The results reveal that a premature childbirth does not necessarily generate disrupted maternal representations of the infant. Furthermore, maternal interactive behavior appears to be an important mechanism through which maternal representations influence the development of infant attachment in full-term and preterm infants. Early assessment of maternal representations can identify mother-infant dyads at risk, in full-term and preterm samples.

  17. Maternal Attitudinal Inflexibility: Longitudinal Relations with Mother-Infant Disrupted Interaction and Childhood Hostile-Aggressive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najmi, Sadia; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Chen, Diyu; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Personal Attitude Scale (PAS; Hooley, 2000) is a method that is under development for identifying individuals high in Expressed Emotion based on personality traits of inflexibility, intolerance, and norm-forming. In the current study, the goal was to measure the association between this maternal attitudinal inflexibility, early…

  18. Emotional Interactions in European American Mother-Infant Firstborn and Secondborn Dyads: A Within-Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2016-01-01

    The developmental science literature is riven with respect to (a) parental similar versus different treatment of siblings and (b) sibling similarities and differences. Most methodologies in the field are flawed or confounded. To address these issues, this study employed a within-family longitudinal design to examine developmental processes of…

  19. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    PubMed

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.

  20. Interactive Silences within Spontaneous Early Infant-Father "Dialogues"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinaki, Theano

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to investigate infants' and fathers' facial expressions of emotions during pauses preceding and following spontaneous early infant-father conversation. Studying emotional expressions in the course of pauses in early infant-father interaction is important because it may extend our knowledge on…

  1. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  2. A Comparative Case Study of Music Interactions between Mothers and Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrn, Michelle D.; Hourigan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the music interactions between mothers and young infants. Research questions included: (1) What type of musical interactions took place in the mother/infant relationship? and (2) What importance did mothers place on musical interactions within the family structure? Data included interviews, observations,…

  3. The impact of parents' mental health on parent-baby interaction: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

    2013-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the effect of fathers' and mothers' pre and postnatal mental health on mother-infant and father-infant interactions. Mental health was broadly defined to include anxiety, depression and PTSD. A community sample of 44 mothers and 40 fathers from 45 families completed questionnaire measures of mental health in late pregnancy and three months postpartum. Mother-infant and father-infant interactions were observed and videoed three months postpartum and analysed using the CARE-index. Results showed that prenatal mental health, in particular anxiety, was associated with parent-infant interactions to a greater extent than postnatal mental health. Fathers' prenatal symptoms were associated with higher paternal unresponsiveness and infant passivity whilst fathers' postnatal symptoms were associated with higher levels of infant difficulty in the father-baby interaction. The results also indicated that mothers and fathers interaction with their babies were similar, both on average and within the couples, with 34% being inept or at risk. These findings highlight the need for early detection and prevention of both mental health and parent-infant relationship problems in fathers as well as mothers. However, further prospective and longitudinal studies are needed to understand the influences of parental mental health on the parent-infant interactions further. Also it should be noted that the mental health scores were low in this sample, which may reflect the sample characteristics. Future studies therefore would benefit from focusing on more vulnerable groups of parents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multimodal Transcription of Video: Examining Interaction in Early Years Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Video is an increasingly popular data collection tool for those undertaking social research, offering a temporal, sequential, fine-grained record which is durable, malleable and sharable. These characteristics make video a valuable resource for researching Early Years classrooms, particularly with regard to the study of children's interaction in…

  5. Early Intervention for Reading Difficulties: The Interactive Strategies Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Donna M.; Anderson, Kimberly L.; Sweeney, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a research-supported framework for early literacy instruction that aligns with multi-tiered response-to-intervention (RTI) models. The book focuses on giving teachers a better understanding of literacy development and how to effectively support children as they begin to read and write. The authors' interactive strategies…

  6. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Interactional Styles and Infant Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxon, Terrill F.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined interactional and attentional relationships in 65 mother-infant dyads (infants at ages 6 and 8 months), focusing on attention following (AF), attention switching (AS), and joint attention. Found that AF and AS were unrelated at 6 months but inversely related at 8 months. AF and AS were unrelated to joint attention. (MDM)

  8. Perinatal Experiences: The Association of Stress, Childbearing, Breastfeeding, and Early Mothering

    PubMed Central

    Humenick, Sharron S.; Howell, Olivia S.

    2003-01-01

    The support of women and their families through childbirth, breastfeeding, and early parenting experiences are often treated as separate areas of maternity care. In fact, growing evidence, as cited in this article, links their intertwined impact on the health of mothers, infants, and their families. PMID:17273350

  9. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol: Interaction of early adversity and 5-HTTLPR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frances R; Stroud, Catherine B; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and early adversity on trait-like levels of cortisol. A community sample of 117 early adolescent girls (M age=12.39years) provided DNA samples for 5-HTTLPR genotyping, and saliva samples for assessing cortisol 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking, and bedtime) over a three-day period. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) was modeled using the first 2 samples of each day. Early adversity was assessed with objective contextual stress interviews with adolescents and their mothers. A significant 5-HTTLPR×early adversity interaction indicated that greater early adversity was associated with lower LTC levels, but only among individuals with either L/L or S/L genotype. Findings suggest that serotonergic genetic variation may influence the impact of early adversity on individual differences in HPA-axis regulation. Future research should explore whether this interaction contributes to the development of psychopathology through HPA axis functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modernization: A Case Study of the Interaction of Setting, Custom, and Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Daniel G.; Roer-Bornstein, Dorit

    An investigation was conducted to better understand the interaction between physical and social settings, culturally based customs for parenting, and the ideology of caretakers in two Israeli cultures undergoing modernization. Yemenite and Kurdish parenting systems were examined by observing mother/infant interactions in unstructured naturalistic…

  11. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother-Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chebaya, Philip; Karakochuk, Crystal D; March, Kaitlin M; Chen, Nancy N; Stamm, Rosemary A; Kroeun, Hou; Sophonneary, Prak; Borath, Mam; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Houghton, Lisa A; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Tim J; Whitfield, Kyly C

    2017-03-12

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother-infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum) and in Cambodia (assessed between 3-27 weeks post-partum). Canadian mothers ( n = 124) consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers ( n = 69) were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI) in pmol/L) were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747), 452 (400, 504), and 506 (459, 552); in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687), 317 (256, 378), and 357 (312, 402). The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L): 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated ( p < 0.05); only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians ( p < 0.001).

  12. Hepatitis B Immunoprophylactic Failure and Characteristics of the Hepatitis B Virus Gene in Mother-Infant Pairs in Parts of China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen Jiao; Shen, Li Ping; Wang, Fu Zhen; Zhang, Guo Min; Zheng, Hui; Wang, Feng; Liu, Tie Zhu; Meng, Qing Ling; Yi, Yao; Cui, Fu Qiang; Bi, Sheng Li

    2016-11-01

    To determine the hepatitis B immunoprophylactic failure rate in infants born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected mothers and to characterize HBV genes. HBV-serological testing was conducted for pregnant women and infants. The complete genomes of 30 HBV isolates were sequenced, and genetic characteristics were analyzed using MEGA 5 software. The immunoprophylactic failure rate for infants who had completed the scheduled hepatitis B vaccination program was 5.76% (32/556). High sequence homology (99.8%-100%) was observed in 8 of the 10 mother-infant pairs. We identified 19 subgenotype C2 strains, 9 subgenotype B2 strains, and 2 subgenotype C1 strains. Three serotypes were detected: adr (19/30), adw (9/30), and ayw (2/30). The frequency of amino acid mutation of the 'a' determinant region was 16.67% (5/30), including that of Q129H, F134Y, S136Y, and G145E. We detected 67 amino acid mutations in the basal core promoter, precore, and core regions of the genome. The immunoprophylactic failure rate in infants born to HBV-infected mothers is low in the regions of China examined during this study. Moreover, HBV mutation in the 'a' determinant region could not account for immunoprophylactic failure for all infants. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Early multisensory interactions affect the competition among multiple visual objects.

    PubMed

    Van der Burg, Erik; Talsma, Durk; Olivers, Christian N L; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-04-01

    In dynamic cluttered environments, audition and vision may benefit from each other in determining what deserves further attention and what does not. We investigated the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for attentional guidance by audiovisual stimuli in such an environment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured during visual search through dynamic displays consisting of line elements that randomly changed orientation. Search accuracy improved when a target orientation change was synchronized with an auditory signal as compared to when the auditory signal was absent or synchronized with a distractor orientation change. The ERP data show that behavioral benefits were related to an early multisensory interaction over left parieto-occipital cortex (50-60 ms post-stimulus onset), which was followed by an early positive modulation (80-100 ms) over occipital and temporal areas contralateral to the audiovisual event, an enhanced N2pc (210-250 ms), and a contralateral negative slow wave (CNSW). The early multisensory interaction was correlated with behavioral search benefits, indicating that participants with a strong multisensory interaction benefited the most from the synchronized auditory signal. We suggest that an auditory signal enhances the neural response to a synchronized visual event, which increases the chances of selection in a multiple object environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mother-Infant Vagal Regulation in the Face-to-Face Still-Face Paradigm is Moderated by Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ginger A.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.; Propper, Cathi B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger.; Cox, Martha J.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' physiological regulation may support infants' regulation. Mothers (N=152) and 6-month-old male and female infants were observed in normal and disrupted social interaction. Affect was coded at 1-s intervals and vagal tone measured as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Maternal sensitivity was assessed in free play. Mothers and infants…

  15. Computer keyboard interaction as an indicator of early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Giancardo, L; Sánchez-Ferro, A; Arroyo-Gallego, T; Butterworth, I; Mendoza, C S; Montero, P; Matarazzo, M; Obeso, J A; Gray, M L; Estépar, R San José

    2016-10-05

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disease with early manifestation of motor signs. Objective measurements of motor signs are of vital importance for diagnosing, monitoring and developing disease modifying therapies, particularly for the early stages of the disease when putative neuroprotective treatments could stop neurodegeneration. Current medical practice has limited tools to routinely monitor PD motor signs with enough frequency and without undue burden for patients and the healthcare system. In this paper, we present data indicating that the routine interaction with computer keyboards can be used to detect motor signs in the early stages of PD. We explore a solution that measures the key hold times (the time required to press and release a key) during the normal use of a computer without any change in hardware and converts it to a PD motor index. This is achieved by the automatic discovery of patterns in the time series of key hold times using an ensemble regression algorithm. This new approach discriminated early PD groups from controls with an AUC = 0.81 (n = 42/43; mean age = 59.0/60.1; women = 43%/60%;PD/controls). The performance was comparable or better than two other quantitative motor performance tests used clinically: alternating finger tapping (AUC = 0.75) and single key tapping (AUC = 0.61).

  16. Nutrient-gene interactions in early pregnancy: a vascular hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Steegers, E A P

    2003-02-10

    It is hypothesized that the following periconceptional and early pregnancy nutrient-gene interactions link vascular-related reproductive complications and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood: (1) Maternal and paternal genetically controlled nutrient status affects the quality of gametes and fertilization capacity; (2) The embryonic genetic constitution, derived from both parents, and the maternal genetically controlled nutrient environment determine embryogenesis and fetal growth; (3) Trophoblast invasion of decidua and spiral arteries is driven by genes derived from both parents as well as by maternal nutritional factors; (4) Angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and vascular function are dependent on the genetic constitution of the embryo, derived from both parents, and the maternal genetically controlled nutritional environment.Early intra-uterine programming of vessels may concern the same (in)dependent determinants of vascular-related complications during pregnancy and cardiovascular diseases in later life.

  17. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on infant anthropometric measurements and bone mass of mother-infant pairs: A randomized placebo clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Farideh; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Samsami, Alamtaj; Nasiri, Samira; Shirazi, Pedram Talezadeh

    2016-12-01

    Based on the essential role of vitamin D in the regulation of calcium metabolism, we evaluated the effects of 2000IUvitamin D/day in late pregnancy on infant's anthropometric measurements and bone mass parameters of mother-infant pairs. In this randomized clinical trial, the main inclusion criteria were: aged 18 or older, no history of internal diseases and pregnancy complications, and a singleton live fetus. The intervention group received two 1000IU vitamin D 3 pills (2000IU) daily from weeks 26-28 until childbirth. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, infants' anthropometric measurements (at birth, 4th and 8th weeks postnatal), and maternal and infant bone mass parameters were examined. The two groups were not statistically different in relation to baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. However, there was a significant difference between the study groups with regard to change in vitamin D status over time (p<0.001). In cross-sectional analysis, the two groups were not different with respect to anthropometric measurements in three time points. Also, in repeated measure analysis, the two groups did not show any statistical differences concerning the infants' anthropometric measurements. The bone mass measurements of all the 28 mothers who belonged to the two study groups were not different. Finally, the bones mass measurements of the infants in the two study groups were not different. Ingestion of 2000IUvitamin D 3 /day during late pregnancy did not improve anthropometric measurements of infants from birth until the 8th week postnatal, nor improve the maternal and infant bone mass measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal singing of lullabies during pregnancy and after birth: Effects on mother-infant bonding and on newborns' behaviour. Concurrent Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Persico, Giuseppina; Antolini, Laura; Vergani, Patrizia; Costantini, Walter; Nardi, Maria Teresa; Bellotti, Lidia

    2017-08-01

    Mother-infant bonding is of great importance for the development and the well-being of the baby. The aim of this Concurrent Cohort Study was to investigate the effects of mothers singing lullabies on bonding, newborns' behaviour and maternal stress. Eighty-three (singing cohort) and 85 (concurrent cohort) women were recruited at antenatal classes at 24 weeks g.a. and followed up to 3 months after birth. The Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS) were used to assess maternal-foetal attachment and postnatal bonding. No significant influence was found on Prenatal Attachment; by contrast, Postnatal Bonding was significantly greater (i.e. lower MIBS) in the singing group 3 months after birth (mean 1.28 vs 1.96; p=0.001). In the same singing group, the incidence of neonatal crying episodes in the first month was significantly lower (18.5% vs 28.2; p<0.0001) as were the infantile colic (64.7% vs 38.3%; p=0.003) and perceived maternal stress (29.6% vs 36.5%; p<0.05). Infantile colic was reduced in the singing group, even in the second month after birth (22.8% vs 36.5; p=0.002). At the same time, a reduction was observed in the neonatal nightly awakening (1.5% vs 4.7; p<0.0001). Mothers singing lullabies could improve maternal-infant bonding. It could also have positive effects on neonatal behaviour and maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between home birth and breast feeding outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 28 125 mother-infant pairs from Ireland and the UK.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Clare; Taut, Cristina; Zigman, Tamara; Gallagher, Louise; Campbell, Harry; Zgaga, Lina

    2016-08-08

    To examine the association between breast feeding outcomes and place of birth (home vs hospital birth). Population-based cross-sectional study. Ireland and UK. 10 604 mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Ireland study (GUI, 2008-2009) and 17 521 pairs from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (UKMCS, 2001-2002) at low risk of delivery complications were included in the study. Breast feeding initiation, exclusivity and duration. Home birth was found to be significantly associated with breast feeding at all examined time points, including at birth, 8 weeks, 6 months and breast feeding exclusively at 6 months. In GUI, adjusted OR was 1.90 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.02), 1.78 (1.18 to 2.69), 1.85 (1.23 to 2.77) and 2.77 (1.78 to 4.33), respectively, and in UKMCS it was 2.49 (1.84 to 3.44), 2.49 (1.92 to 3.26), 2.90 (2.25 to 3.73) and 2.24 (1.14 to 4.03). Home birth was strongly associated with improved breast feeding outcomes in low-risk deliveries. While the association between home birth and breast feeding is unlikely to be directly causal, further research is needed to determine which factor(s) drive the observed differences, to facilitate development of perinatal care that supports breast feeding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Fits and Starts: A Mother-Infant Case-Study Involving Intergenerational Violent Trauma and Pseudoseizures Across Three Generations.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Daniel S; Kaminer, Tammy; Grienenberger, John F; Amat, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This case-study presents in detail the clinical assessment of a 29-year-old mother and her daughter who first presented to infant mental health specialists at age 16-months, with a hospital record suggesting the presence of a dyadic disturbance since age 8-months. Data from psychiatric and neurological assessments, as well as observational measures of child and mother are reviewed with attention to issues of disturbed attachment, intergenerational trauma, and cultural factors for this inner-city Latino dyad. Severe maternal affect dysregulation in the wake of chronic, early-onset violent-trauma exposure manifested as psychogenic seizures, referred to in the mother's native Spanish as "ataques de nervios," the latter, an idiom of distress, commonly associated with childhood trauma and dissociation. We explore the mechanisms by which the mothers' reexperiencing of violent traumatic experience, together with physiologic hyperarousal and associated negative affects, are communicated to the very young child and the clinician-observer via action and language from moment to moment during the assessment process. The paper concludes with a discussion of diagnostic and treatment implications by Drs. Marshall, Gaensbauer, and Zeanah.

  1. Fits and Starts: A Mother-Infant Case-Study Involving Intergenerational Violent Trauma and Pseudoseizures Across Three Generations

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Kaminer, Tammy; Grienenberger, John F.; Amat, Jose

    2007-01-01

    This case-study presents in detail the clinical assessment of a 29-year-old mother and her daughter who first presented to infant mental health specialists at age 16-months, with a hospital record suggesting the presence of a dyadic disturbance since age 8-months. Data from psychiatric and neurological assessments, as well as observational measures of child and mother are reviewed with attention to issues of disturbed attachment, intergenerational trauma, and cultural factors for this inner-city Latino dyad. Severe maternal affect dysregulation in the wake of chronic, early-onset violent-trauma exposure manifested as psychogenic seizures, referred to in the mother’s native Spanish as “ataques de nervios,” the latter, an idiom of distress, commonly associated with childhood trauma and dissociation. We explore the mechanisms by which the mothers’ reexperiencing of violent traumatic experience, together with physiologic hyperarousal and associated negative affects, are communicated to the very young child and the clinician-observer via action and language from moment to moment during the assessment process. The paper concludes with a discussion of diagnostic and treatment implications by Drs. Marshall, Gaensbauer, and Zeanah. PMID:18007961

  2. On the nature and consequences of early loss.

    PubMed

    Hofer, M A

    1996-01-01

    To describe how an animal model system can be used to explore basic questions about the nature of loss and the effects of early loss on later vulnerability to disease. The physiological and behavioral responses of infant rats to separation from their mothers are first described and then analyzed experimentally into component mechanisms. These studies have revealed an extensive layer of processes underlying the psychological constructs generally used to understand the response to loss. Hidden within the observable interactions of parent and offspring, we found a number of discrete sensorimotor, thermal, and nutrient-based events that have unexpected long-term regulatory effects on specific components of infant physiology and behavior. Release from all of these inhibitory and excitatory regulators together during maternal separation constitutes a novel mechanism by which the experience of loss can be translated into a complex patterned response. Evidence for early regulatory processes has also been found in monkey and human mother-infant interactions. Here they may well constitute the building blocks from which attachment and object representations develop. We and others have found long-term effects of loss, and of selective replacement of regulators, on behavioral development and on later vulnerability to disease. The results give us a new understanding of early attachment as a developmental force and of human grief as a risk to health.

  3. Parental Interactions with Latino Infants: Variation by Country of Origin and English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; West, Jerry; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study examined variation in mother-infant interactions, father engagement, and infant cognition as a function of country of origin, socioeconomic status, and English language proficiency in a national sample of Latino infants (age 9 months) born in the United States and living with both biological parents (N=1,099). Differences between…

  4. The Interrelation of Parenting, Spousal Interaction and Infant Competence: A Suggestive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay

    This paper argues that researchers should not investigate child development simply through studies of the child alone or mother-infant interactions, but rather through studies of the family as a system. Data is reported which seem to support this view. A review of recent literature indicates that an adequate account of child development requires…

  5. [An Integrative Review of Home Care Service for Pregnant Women, Mothers, Infants, and Toddlers in Vulnerable Group].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dasom; Lee, Insook

    2017-10-01

    This study was intended to integrate the evidence of home care service intervention for mothers and children in vulnerable groups through an integrative literature review. We searched the MEDLINE (PubMED), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, DBpia databases. The quality of the articles was assessed by one doctoral researcher and verified by one professor of community health nursing who had participated in the systematic review of literature. A framework was developed to identify the intervention patterns in the selected papers and categorize various elements. The extracted intervention elements were grouped into potential themes, which were verified by assessors on whether they clearly reflected the interventions in the papers. Among 878 searched papers, we selected 16 papers after excluding literature that does not satisfy the selection criteria and quality evaluation. The intervention elements of 16 selected papers were categorized into six themes. The extracted intervention elements were divided into the themes of Patient-specific/Situation-specific care planning and intervention, Emphasis on self care competency, Intense home visit by developmental milestone, Reinforcing and modeling mother-child attachment, Communication and interaction across the intervention, Linkage with community resource and multidisciplinary approach. As a result of the analysis of proper interventions of home care services for mothers and children in vulnerable groups, it was found that it is necessary to consider indispensable intervention elements that can standardize the quality of home care services, and conduct studies on developing intervention programs based on the elements. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  6. A Comparison of Dyadic Interactions and Coping with Still-Face in Healthy Pre-Term and Full-Term Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination…

  7. Prosodic Modification and Vocal Adjustments in Mothers' Speech during Face-to-Face Interaction with Their Two- to Four-Month-Old Infants: A Double Video Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine 32 mothers' sensitivity to social contingency during face-to-face interaction with their two- to four-month-old infants in a closed circuit TV set-up. Prosodic qualities and vocal sounds in mother's infant-directed (ID) speech during sequences of live interaction were compared to sequences where expressive…

  8. The role of sociodemographic factors in maternal psychological distress and mother-preterm infant interactions.

    PubMed

    Gondwe, Kaboni W; White-Traut, Rosemary; Brandon, Debra; Pan, Wei; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with greater psychological distress and less positive mother infant interactions than were experienced by mothers of full-term infants. Maternal and infant sociodemographic factors have also shown a strong association with psychological distress and the mother-infant relationship. However, findings on their effects over time are limited. In this longitudinal analysis, we explored the relationship of maternal and infant sociodemographic variables (maternal age, maternal education, marital status, being on social assistance, maternal race, infant birth weight, and infant gender) to maternal psychological distress (depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, parenting stress symptoms, and maternal worry about child's health) through 12 months corrected age for prematurity, and on the home environment, and mother-infant interactions through 6 months corrected age for prematurity. We also explored differences related to maternal obstetrical characteristics (gestational age at birth, parity, mode of delivery, and multiple birth) and severity of infant conditions (Apgar scores, need for mechanical ventilation, and infant medical complications). Although the relationship of maternal and infant characteristics with these outcomes did not change over time, psychological distress differed based on marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and infant medical complications. Older mothers provided more a positive home environment. Mother-infant interactions differed by maternal age, being on public assistance, maternal race, infant gender, and infant medical complications. More longitudinal research is needed to better understand these effects over time in order to identify and support at-risk mothers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Plasma and breast milk pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine, tenofovir and lamivudine using dried blood and breast milk spots in nursing African mother-infant pairs.

    PubMed

    Waitt, Catriona; Olagunju, Adeniyi; Nakalema, Shadia; Kyohaire, Isabella; Owen, Andrew; Lamorde, Mohammed; Khoo, Saye

    2018-04-01

    Breast milk transfer of first-line ART from mother to infant is not fully understood. To determine the concentrations of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in maternal blood, breast milk and infant blood from breastfeeding mother-infant pairs. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling of maternal dried blood spots (DBS), dried breast milk spots (DBMS) and infant DBS from 30 Ugandan and 29 Nigerian mothers receiving first-line ART and their infants was conducted. DBS and DBMS were collected pre-dose and at 5-6 timepoints up to 12 h following observed dosing. Infant DBS were sampled twice during this period. Lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir were quantified using LC-MS/MS, with non-compartmental analysis to calculate key pharmacokinetic parameters. Peak concentrations in breast milk from women taking lamivudine and emtricitabine occurred later than in plasma (4-8 h compared with 2 h for lamivudine and 2-4 h for emtricitabine). Consequently, the milk-to-plasma (M:P) ratio of lamivudine taken once daily was 0.95 (0.82-1.15) for AUC0-12, whereas for AUC12-20 this was 3.04 (2.87-4.16). Lamivudine was detectable in 36% (14/39) of infants [median 17.7 (16.3-22.7) ng/mL]. For 200 mg of emtricitabine once daily, the median M:P ratio was 3.01 (2.06-3.38). Three infants (19%) had measurable emtricitabine [median 18.5 (17.6-20.8) ng/mL]. For 300 mg of tenofovir once daily, the median M:P ratio was 0.015 (0-0.03) and no infant had measurable tenofovir concentrations. Emtricitabine and lamivudine accumulate in breast milk and were detected in breastfeeding infants. In contrast, tenofovir penetrates the breast milk to a small degree, but is undetectable in breastfeeding infants.

  10. Interaction Pattern and Developmental Outcome of Infants with Severe Asphyxia: A Longitudinal Study of the First Years of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Philippa H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Seven full-term infants with severe encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia were followed longitudinally to two years of age to determine health and developmental outcome and to investigate mother-infant interaction patterns over time. Six infants demonstrated delayed development; five were diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Mother-infant…

  11. How bodies and voices interact in early emotion perception.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Sarah; Obleser, Jonas; Kotz, Sonja A

    2012-01-01

    Successful social communication draws strongly on the correct interpretation of others' body and vocal expressions. Both can provide emotional information and often occur simultaneously. Yet their interplay has hardly been studied. Using electroencephalography, we investigated the temporal development underlying their neural interaction in auditory and visual perception. In particular, we tested whether this interaction qualifies as true integration following multisensory integration principles such as inverse effectiveness. Emotional vocalizations were embedded in either low or high levels of noise and presented with or without video clips of matching emotional body expressions. In both, high and low noise conditions, a reduction in auditory N100 amplitude was observed for audiovisual stimuli. However, only under high noise, the N100 peaked earlier in the audiovisual than the auditory condition, suggesting facilitatory effects as predicted by the inverse effectiveness principle. Similarly, we observed earlier N100 peaks in response to emotional compared to neutral audiovisual stimuli. This was not the case in the unimodal auditory condition. Furthermore, suppression of beta-band oscillations (15-25 Hz) primarily reflecting biological motion perception was modulated 200-400 ms after the vocalization. While larger differences in suppression between audiovisual and audio stimuli in high compared to low noise levels were found for emotional stimuli, no such difference was observed for neutral stimuli. This observation is in accordance with the inverse effectiveness principle and suggests a modulation of integration by emotional content. Overall, results show that ecologically valid, complex stimuli such as joined body and vocal expressions are effectively integrated very early in processing.

  12. Breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity predict early infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wibke; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J; Wazana, Ashley; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-07-01

    Research findings are inconclusive when it comes to whether breastfeeding is associated with the mother-infant relationship or infant temperament. We examined the association between breastfeeding at three months postpartum and infant temperament at 18 months postpartum and whether this link was affected by the mothers' anxiety and mediated by her sensitivity. We assessed 170 mothers for breastfeeding and anxiety using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at three months postpartum, maternal sensitivity using the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale at six months postpartum and infant temperament using the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire at 18 months postpartum. Mothers who breastfed at three months postpartum were more sensitive in their interactions with their infants at six months postpartum, and elevated sensitivity, in turn, predicted reduced levels of negative affectivity in infant temperament at 18 months postpartum. This indirect mediation persisted after controlling for confounders (effect ab = -0.0312 [0.0208], 95% CI = -0.0884 to -0.0031). A subsequent analysis showed that the mediation through sensitivity only occurred in women experiencing higher anxiety, with a STAI score ≥33.56 at three months (ab = -0.0250 [0.0179], 95% CI = -0.0759 to -0.0013). Our results suggest that breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity may have a positive impact on the early development of infant temperament. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The relation of infant attachment to attachment and cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2014-09-01

    In China, research on the relation of mother-infant attachment to children's development is scarce. This study sought to investigate the relation of mother-infant attachment to attachment, cognitive and behavioural development in young children. This study used a longitudinal study design. The subjects included healthy infants (n=160) aged 12 to 18 months. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation Procedure" was used to evaluate mother-infant attachment types. The attachment Q-set (AQS) was used to evaluate the attachment between young children and their mothers. The Bayley scale of infant development-second edition (BSID-II) was used to evaluate cognitive developmental level in early childhood. Achenbach's child behaviour checklist (CBCL) for 2- to 3-year-olds was used to investigate behavioural problems. In total, 118 young children (73.8%) completed the follow-up; 89.7% of infants with secure attachment and 85.0% of infants with insecure attachment still demonstrated this type of attachment in early childhood (κ=0.738, p<0.05). Infants with insecure attachment collectively exhibited a significantly lower mental development index (MDI) in early childhood than did infants with secure attachment, especially the resistant type. In addition, resistant infants were reported to have greater social withdrawal, sleep problems and aggressive behaviour in early childhood. There is a high consistency in attachment development from infancy to early childhood. Secure mother-infant attachment predicts a better cognitive and behavioural outcome; whereas insecure attachment, especially the resistant attachment, may lead to a lower cognitive level and greater behavioural problems in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Art of "Smart Gaff": Reshaping Early Childhood Caregiver-Child Interactions in Guyana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple-McBean, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on findings of Guyanese early childhood caregivers' practice of engaging in extended, cognitively challenging and stimulating interactions. These are the types of interactions cited in classroom effectiveness studies internationally as potentially the most critical determinants for optimising learning during early years. The…

  15. Motherese, affect, and vocabulary development: dyadic communicative interactions in infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Dave, Shruti; Mastergeorge, Ann M; Olswang, Lesley B

    2018-07-01

    Responsive parental communication during an infant's first year has been positively associated with later language outcomes. This study explores responsivity in mother-infant communication by modeling how change in guiding language between 7 and 11 months influences toddler vocabulary development. In a group of 32 mother-child dyads, change in early maternal guiding language positively predicted child language outcomes measured at 18 and 24 months. In contrast, a number of other linguistic variables - including total utterances and non-guiding language - did not correlate with toddler vocabulary development, suggesting a critical role of responsive change in infant-directed communication. We further assessed whether maternal affect during early communication influenced toddler vocabulary outcomes, finding that dominant affect during early mother-infant communications correlated to lower child language outcomes. These findings provide evidence that responsive parenting should not only be assessed longitudinally, but unique contributions of language and affect should also be concurrently considered in future study.

  16. [Early interaction is a prerequisite for favorable psychic development].

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies on the parent-baby interaction have greatly influenced our insight into the child's psychological development. Initial stages of the research attempted to reveal features in the mother's action that would predict the child's favorable development. Since then, also fathers and the child's development in a more broad sense have been studied. The most prominent progress has taken place in microanalytical methods for these interactions. The research has increased our knowledge of the baby's interactive capabilities and the significance of successful interactive events for the child's development, laying the basis for various interventions related to parenthood.

  17. Mothers' multimodal information processing is modulated by multimodal interactions with their infants.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2014-10-17

    Social learning in infancy is known to be facilitated by multimodal (e.g., visual, tactile, and verbal) cues provided by caregivers. In parallel with infants' development, recent research has revealed that maternal neural activity is altered through interaction with infants, for instance, to be sensitive to infant-directed speech (IDS). The present study investigated the effect of mother- infant multimodal interaction on maternal neural activity. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers were compared to non-mothers during perception of tactile-related words primed by tactile cues. Only mothers showed ERP modulation when tactile cues were incongruent with the subsequent words, and only when the words were delivered with IDS prosody. Furthermore, the frequency of mothers' use of those words was correlated with the magnitude of ERP differentiation between congruent and incongruent stimuli presentations. These results suggest that mother-infant daily interactions enhance multimodal integration of the maternal brain in parenting contexts.

  18. Mothers' multimodal information processing is modulated by multimodal interactions with their infants

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yukari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Social learning in infancy is known to be facilitated by multimodal (e.g., visual, tactile, and verbal) cues provided by caregivers. In parallel with infants' development, recent research has revealed that maternal neural activity is altered through interaction with infants, for instance, to be sensitive to infant-directed speech (IDS). The present study investigated the effect of mother- infant multimodal interaction on maternal neural activity. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers were compared to non-mothers during perception of tactile-related words primed by tactile cues. Only mothers showed ERP modulation when tactile cues were incongruent with the subsequent words, and only when the words were delivered with IDS prosody. Furthermore, the frequency of mothers' use of those words was correlated with the magnitude of ERP differentiation between congruent and incongruent stimuli presentations. These results suggest that mother-infant daily interactions enhance multimodal integration of the maternal brain in parenting contexts. PMID:25322936

  19. Effects of maternal separation, early handling, and gonadal sex on regional metabolic capacity of the preweanling rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Spivey, Jaclyn M.; Padilla, Eimeira; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the effects of mother-infant separation on regional metabolic capacity in the preweanling rat brain. Mother-infant separation is generally known to be stressful for rat pups. Holtzman adolescent rats show a depressive-like behavioral phenotype after maternal separation during the preweanling period. However, information is lacking on the effects of maternal separation on the brains of rat pups. We addressed this issue by mapping the brains of preweanling Holtzman rat pups using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, which reflects long-term changes in brain metabolic capacity, following two weeks of repeated, prolonged maternal separation, and compared this to both early handled and non-handled pups. Quantitative image analysis revealed that maternal separation reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell. Maternal separation reduced prefrontal cytochrome oxidase to a greater degree in female pups than in males. Early handling reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the posterior parietal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and subiculum, but increased cytochrome oxidase activity in the lateral frontal cortex. The sex-dependent effects of early handling on cytochrome oxidase activity were limited to the medial prefrontal cortex. Regardless of separation group, females had greater cytochrome oxidase activity in the habenula and ventral tegmental area compared to males. These findings suggest that early life mother-infant separation results in dysfunction of prefrontal and mesolimbic regions in the preweanling rat brain that may contribute to behavioral changes later in life. PMID:20969837

  20. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGA<28 weeks) or on their relationship with motor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pollen–pistil interactions and early fruiting in parthenocarpic citrus

    PubMed Central

    Distefano, G.; Gentile, A.; Herrero, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims An intense pollen–pistil interaction precedes fertilization. This interaction is of particular relevance in agronomically important species where seeds or fruits are the edible part. Over time some agronomically species have been selected for the ability to produce fruit without seeds. While this phenomenon is critical for commercial production in some species, very little is known about the events behind the production of seedless fruit. In this work, the relationship between pollen–pistil interaction and the onset of fruiting was investigated in citrus mandarin. Methods Pistils were sequentially examined in hand-pollinated flowers paying attention to pollen-tube behaviour, and to cytochemical changes along the pollen-tube pathway. To evaluate which of these changes were induced by pollination/fertilization and which were developmentally regulated, pollinated and unpollinated pistils were compared. Also the onset of fruiting was timed and changes in the ovary examined. Key Results Conspicuous changes occurred in the pistil along the pollen-tube pathway, which took place in a basipetal way encompassing the timing of pollen-tube growth. However, these changes appear to be developmentally regulated as they happened in the same way and at the same time in unpollinated flowers. Moreover, the onset of fruiting occurred prior to fertilization and the very same changes could be observed in unpollinated flowers. Conclusions Pollen–pistil interaction in citrus showed similarities with unrelated species and families belonging to other taxa. The uncoupling of the reproductive and fruiting processes accounts for the parthenocarpic ability of unpollinated flowers to produce fruit in citrus. However, the maintenance of a functional reproductive process reflects the potential to produce seeded fruits, providing a basis for the understanding of the production of seeded or unseeded fruits and further understanding of the process of parthenocarpy in other

  2. Critical Interactions Shaping Early Academic Career Development in Two Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug; Sharp, John G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the critical interactions within work environments that support the development of early career academics as researchers in institutions with lower order research profiles, that is, environments that differ from research-intensive universities. Ten early career academics, five from Australia and five from the…

  3. Early Markers of Language and Attention: Mutual Contributions and the Impact of Parent-Infant Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Crawford, Jennifer; Robertson, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the contribution of attentional skills to early language, and the influence of early language markers on the development of attention, simultaneously examining the impact of parent-child interaction factors (reciprocity/synchrony and sensitivity/responsivity), including their potential moderator effects. All…

  4. Action Priority: Early Neurophysiological Interaction of Conceptual and Motor Representations

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Handling our everyday life, we often react manually to verbal requests or instruction, but the functional interrelations of motor control and language are not fully understood yet, especially their neurophysiological basis. Here, we investigated whether specific motor representations for grip types interact neurophysiologically with conceptual information, that is, when reading nouns. Participants performed lexical decisions and, for words, executed a grasp-and-lift task on objects of different sizes involving precision or power grips while the electroencephalogram was recorded. Nouns could denote objects that require either a precision or a power grip and could, thus, be (in)congruent with the performed grasp. In a control block, participants pointed at the objects instead of grasping them. The main result revealed an event-related potential (ERP) interaction of grip type and conceptual information which was not present for pointing. Incongruent compared to congruent conditions elicited an increased positivity (100–200 ms after noun onset). Grip type effects were obtained in response-locked analyses of the grasping ERPs (100–300 ms at left anterior electrodes). These findings attest that grip type and conceptual information are functionally related when planning a grasping action but such an interaction could not be detected for pointing. Generally, the results suggest that control of behaviour can be modulated by task demands; conceptual noun information (i.e., associated action knowledge) may gain processing priority if the task requires a complex motor response. PMID:27973539

  5. Multitasking during social interactions in adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Kathryn L.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11–17 and 22–30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking. PMID:26715991

  6. Multitasking during social interactions in adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-11-01

    Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11-17 and 22-30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking.

  7. Eco-evolutionary processes affecting plant-herbivore interactions during early community succession.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mia M; Kalske, Aino; Kessler, André

    2018-06-01

    The quality and outcome of organismal interactions are not only a function of genotypic composition of the interacting species, but also the surrounding environment. Both the strength and direction of natural selection on interacting populations vary with the community context, which itself is changed by these interactions. Here, we test for the role of interacting evolutionary and ecological processes in plant-herbivore interactions during early community succession in the tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima. We use surveys in a large-scale field experiment with repeated plots representing 6 years of early oldfield succession and reciprocal transplant common garden experiments to test for the relative importance of rapid evolution (genetic) and environmental changes (soil quality) in affecting mean plant resistance and growth phenotypes during community succession. While plant growth varied strongly with soil quality over the first 5 years of agricultural abandonment, plant secondary metabolism, and herbivore resistance varied minimally with the soil environment. Instead, mean composition and abundance of plant secondary compound bouquets differed between S. altissima plants from populations collected in communities in the first ("early") and sixth ("intermediate") years of oldfield succession, which was reflected in the feeding preference of the specialist herbivore, Trirhabda virgata, for early succession lines. Moreover, this preference was most pronounced on poorer quality, early succession soils. Overall, our data demonstrate that plant quality varies for insect herbivores during the course of early succession and this change is a combination of altered genotypic composition of the population and phenotypic plasticity in different soil environments.

  8. Laser plasma interaction at an early stage of laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. F.; Hong, M. H.; Low, T. S.

    1999-03-01

    Laser scattering and its interaction with plasma during KrF excimer laser ablation of silicon are investigated by ultrafast phototube detection. There are two peaks in an optical signal with the first peak attributed to laser scattering and the second one to plasma generation. For laser fluence above 5.8 J/cm2, the second peak rises earlier to overlap with the first one. The optical signal is fitted by a pulse distribution for the scattered laser light and a drifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with a center-of-mass velocity for the plasma. Peak amplitude and its arrival time, full width at half maximum (FWHM), starting time, and termination time of the profiles are studied for different laser fluences and detection angles. Laser pulse is scattered from both the substrate and the plasma with the latter part as a dominant factor during the laser ablation. Peak amplitude of the scattered laser signal increases but its FWHM decreases with the laser fluence. Angular distribution of the peak amplitude can be fitted with cosn θ(n=4) while the detection angle has no obvious influence on the FWHM. In addition, FWHM and peak amplitude of plasma signal increase with the laser fluence. However, starting time and peak arrival time of plasma signal reduce with the laser fluence. The time interval between plasma starting and scattered laser pulse termination is proposed as a quantitative parameter to characterize laser plasma interaction. Threshold fluence for the interaction is estimated to be 3.5 J/cm2. For laser fluence above 12.6 J/cm2, the plasma and scattered laser pulse distributions tend to saturate.

  9. Books, toys, parent-child interaction, and development in young Latino children.

    PubMed

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Dreyer, Benard P; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Flynn, Virginia; Rovira, Irene; Tineo, Wendy; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2006-01-01

    To describe the interrelationships between books and toys in the home, parent-child interaction, and child development at 21 months among low-income Latino children. Latino mother-infant dyads enrolled in a level 1 nursery and infants were followed to 21 months. The subjects consisted of the control group of a larger intervention study. At 6 and 18 months, the number of books and toys in the home and the frequency of reading aloud were measured by the StimQ. At 21 months, child cognitive and language development and parent-child interaction were assessed by the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI), the Preschool Language Scale-3 (PLS-3), and the Caregiver-Child Interaction Rating Scale, respectively. Eligibility for early intervention (EI) services was determined on the basis of the MDI and PLS-3. Data were obtained for 46 (63.0%) of 73 at 21 months. In multiple regression analysis, books provided at 18 months predicted both cognition (semipartial correlation [sr] = .49, P= .001) and receptive language (sr = .37, P= .02), whereas toys provided at both 6 and 18 months predicted 21-month receptive language (sr = .40, P= .01; sr = .32, P= .047, respectively). Reading aloud by parents > or =4 days a week was associated with decreased EI eligibility (adjusted odds ratio = 0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.99). Reading aloud and provision of toys are associated with better child cognitive and language development as well as with decreased likelihood of EI eligibility.

  10. Professionals' Judgments of Peer Interaction Interventions: A Survey of Members of the Division for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Tracy Newman; Brown, William H.; Grego, John M.; Johnson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed a sample of the membership of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) with the Social Interaction Program Features Questionnaire-Revised (SIPFQ-R) to determine their judgments of the acceptability, feasibility, and current use of contemporary peer interaction intervention tactics and…

  11. Stability and Change in Early Childhood Classroom Interactions during the First Two Hours of a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood classrooms support children's learning in a variety of ways. Of critical importance are the interactions teachers have with children. The type and quality of classroom interactions vary and can be grouped into three domains: instructional, organizational, and emotional. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which…

  12. Contingencies in Mother-Child Teaching Interactions and Behavioral Regulation and Dysregulation in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Kemp, Christine J.; Albrecht, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    Predictable patterns in early parent-child interactions may help lay the foundation for how children learn to self-regulate. The present study examined contingencies between maternal teaching and directives and child compliance in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5 and whether they predicted children's behavioral regulation and…

  13. Dynamic changes in the interchromosomal interaction of early histone gene loci during development of sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaya; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Hayashi, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Takashi; Awazu, Akinori; Sakamoto, Naoaki

    2017-12-15

    The nuclear positioning and chromatin dynamics of eukaryotic genes are closely related to the regulation of gene expression, but they have not been well examined during early development, which is accompanied by rapid cell cycle progression and dynamic changes in nuclear organization, such as nuclear size and chromatin constitution. In this study, we focused on the early development of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and performed three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization of gene loci encoding early histones (one of the types of histone in sea urchin). There are two non-allelic early histone gene loci per sea urchin genome. We found that during the morula stage, when the early histone gene expression levels are at their maximum, interchromosomal interactions were often formed between the early histone gene loci on separate chromosomes and that the gene loci were directed to locate to more interior positions. Furthermore, these interactions were associated with the active transcription of the early histone genes. Thus, such dynamic interchromosomal interactions may contribute to the efficient synthesis of early histone mRNA during the morula stage of sea urchin development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  15. Early life family conflict, Social interactions and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    John-Henderson, Neha A.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean Intima-Media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Methods Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean age: 42.8 years [SD=7.3]). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Results Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β=0.08, t(447)=2.13, p=0.034, R2=0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and EMA reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001, 95% CI, 0.0001–0.0014 and β=0.001, 95% CI, 0.0002–0.0015, respectively). Conclusions These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions. PMID:26809109

  16. Attachment and caregiver-infant interaction: a review of observational-assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota D; Letourneau, Nicole; Ditommaso, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between maternal-infant interaction and attachment quality to infant developmental outcomes has long been established. As children mature, problems stemming from troubled caregiver-infant relations may result in referral to mental health or child protection services. The accurate and appropriate assessment of attachment is critical for early recognition of problematic relations and for informing suitable treatment modalities. Evaluating the quality of attachment poses a challenge for researchers and clinicians seeking to explore the association between infant development and the quality of early caregiving experiences. Although providing a definitive answer to the question of which of these assessment procedures is the single universal standard for measuring attachment quantity is beyond the scope of this article, readers will be provided with a description and comparison of strengths and limitations of the most commonly used measures of attachment, including the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978), Attachment Q-Sort (E. Waters & K.E. Deane, 1985), Toddler Attachment Sort (TAS-45; J. Kirkland, D. Bimler, A. Drawneek, M. McKim, & A. Scholmerich, 2004), CARE-Index (P. Crittenden, 1985), Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE; E. Bronfman, E. Parsons, & K. Lyons-Ruth, 1999), Massie-Campbell Scale of Mother-Infant Attachment Indicators During Stress Scale (Attachment During Stress Scale; H.N. Massie & B.K. Campbell, 1983), and the Risky Situation Procedure (D. Paquette & M. Bigras, 2010). © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes as potential moderators of the relation between maternal history of care and maternal cortisol secretion in the context of mother-infant separation.

    PubMed

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Jamieson, Brittany; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie

    2017-10-01

    A mother's cortisol secretion is importantly associated with her own mental health and her infant's cortisol secretion. This study investigated the influences of maternal history of care and maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes on maternal cortisol in the context of infant stress. A community sample of 296 mother-infant dyads completed a maternal separation at infant age 17 months. Maternal salivary cortisol, buccal cells, and self-reported history of care were collected. Multilevel models revealed that history of care had a greater influence on maternal baseline cortisol (but not cortisol trajectory) for mothers with more plasticity alleles of SLC6A3 (10R) and OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer or no plasticity alleles. Findings indicate that a mother's history of care is related to her cortisol secretion in anticipation of infant stress, but that this relation depends on her genetic characteristics. Findings are discussed in relation to the maternal protective system and anticipatory cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistent maternal anxiety affects the interaction between mothers and their very low birthweight children at 24 months.

    PubMed

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Papageorgiou, Apostolos; Bardin, Claudette; Wang, Tongtong

    2009-01-01

    Parental distress following the birth of a premature infant diminishes the parent's ability to be sensitive to the infant's cues, and this may affect infant developmental outcomes. The present study examined the effects of maternal anxiety during infant hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) on the interactive behavior of mothers with their very low birthweight (VLBW) children in toddlerhood. A sample of 56 mothers and their VLBW infants were recruited in the NICU. During the infant's NICU stay, mothers completed a self-report measure of trait anxiety. These mothers and their infants were followed when the infants were 24 months corrected age, when mothers and their children were videotaped during free play at home. These videotapes were then coded using the Emotional Availability Scales. Maternal anxiety was not found to be related to severity of neonatal illness. Maternal anxiety in the NICU was associated with less sensitivity and less structure in interaction with their toddlers at 24 months corrected age, even controlling for maternal education and child birthweight. Children of mothers with higher anxiety scores in the NICU were less likely to involve their mothers in their play at 24 months corrected age. Maternal anxiety in the NICU predicted adverse interactive behaviors when the children were 24 months corrected age. Early identification of anxious mothers in the NICU is needed in order to initiate preventive intervention to support the mother-infant relationship.

  19. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactions between empathy and resting heart rate in early adolescence predict violent behavior in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Galán, Chardée A; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S

    2017-12-01

    Although resting heart rate (RHR) and empathy are independently and negatively associated with violent behavior, relatively little is known about the interplay between these psychophysiological and temperament-related risk factors. Using a sample of 160 low-income, racially diverse men followed prospectively from infancy through early adulthood, this study examined whether RHR and empathy during early adolescence independently and interactively predict violent behavior and related correlates in late adolescence and early adulthood. Controlling for child ethnicity, family income, and child antisocial behavior at age 12, empathy inversely predicted moral disengagement and juvenile petitions for violent crimes, while RHR was unrelated to all measures of violent behavior. Interactive effects were also evident such that among men with lower but not higher levels of RHR, lower empathy predicted increased violent behavior, as indexed by juvenile arrests for violent offenses, peer-reported violent behavior at age 17, self-reported moral disengagement at age 17, and self-reported violent behavior at age 20. Implications for prevention and intervention are considered. Specifically, targeting empathic skills among individuals at risk for violent behavior because of specific psychophysiological profiles may lead to more impactful interventions. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Mother-Child Interaction and Resilience in Children with Early Developmental Risk

    PubMed Central

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    Although prenatal and genetic factors make strong contributions to the emergence of intellectual disability (ID), children's early environment may have the potential to alter developmental trajectories and to foster resilience in children with early risk. The present study examined mother-child interaction and the promotion of competence in 50 children with early developmental delays. Three related but distinct aspects of mother-child interaction were considered: maternal technical scaffolding, maternal positive-sensitivity, and mother-child dyadic pleasure. Children were classified as exhibiting undifferentiated delays at age three based upon performance on developmental assessments and the absence of known genetic syndromes. Mother-child interaction was assessed at age four through observational ratings of structured laboratory tasks and through naturalistic home observations. ID was identified at age five using the dual criteria of clinically significant delays in cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. Maternal technical scaffolding and dyadic pleasure each uniquely predicted reduced likelihood of later ID, beyond the contributions of children's early developmental level and behavioral functioning. Follow-up analyses suggested that mother-child interaction was primarily important to resilience in the area of adaptive behavior, with scaffolding and dyadic pleasure differentially associated with particular sub-domains. Implications for theories of intellectual disability and for family-based early intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:22662771

  2. The early development of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: Characteristics of sibling interactions.

    PubMed

    Bontinck, Chloè; Warreyn, Petra; Van der Paelt, Sara; Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Although sibling interactions play an important role in children's early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated. Sibling interactions in ASD-dyads were characterized by higher levels of negativity. Although somewhat less pronounced in ASD-dyads, role asymmetry was present in both groups, with the older child taking the dominant position. Finally, siblings pairs with an older sister were characterized by more positive behaviours. Since differences in sibling interactions may alter the developmental trajectories of both siblings, these early relationships should be taken into account in future ASD research and interventions.

  3. War trauma and maternal-fetal attachment predicting maternal mental health, infant development, and dyadic interaction in Palestinian families.

    PubMed

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Diab, Safwat Y

    2017-10-01

    Optimal maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) is believed to be beneficial for infant well-being and dyadic interaction, but research is scarce in general and among risk populations. Our study involved dyads living in war conditions and examined how traumatic war trauma associates with MFA and which factors mediate that association. It also modeled the role of MFA in predicting newborn health, infant development, mother-infant interaction, and maternal postpartum mental health. Palestinian women from the Gaza Strip (N = 511) participated during their second trimester (T1), and when their infants were 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months. Mothers reported MFA (interaction with, attributions to, and fantasies about the fetus), social support, and prenatal mental health (post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety) at T1, newborn health at T2, and the postpartum mental health, infant's sensorimotor and language development, and mother-infant interaction (emotional availability) at T3. Results revealed, first, that war trauma was not directly associated with MFA but that it was mediated through a low level of social support and high level of maternal prenatal mental health problems. Second, intensive MFA predicted optimal mother-reported infant's sensorimotor and language development and mother-infant emotional availability but not newborn health or maternal postpartum mental health.

  4. Why Synchrony Matters during Mother-Child Interactions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Avril, Marie; Achard, Catherine; Chetouani, Mohamed; Missonnier, Sylvain; Cohen, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of mother-child interactions is a core issue of early child development and psychopathology. This paper focuses on the concept of “synchrony” and examines (1) how synchrony in mother-child interaction is defined and operationalized; (2) the contribution that the concept of synchrony has brought to understanding the nature of mother-child interactions. Method Between 1977 and 2013, we searched several databases using the following key-words: « synchrony » « interaction » and « mother-child ». We focused on studies examining parent-child interactions among children aged 2 months to 5 years. From the 63 relevant studies, we extracted study description variables (authors, year, design, number of subjects, age); assessment conditions and modalities; and main findings. Results The most common terms referring to synchrony were mutuality, reciprocity, rhythmicity, harmonious interaction, turn-taking and shared affect; all terms were used to characterize the mother-child dyad. As a consequence, we propose defining synchrony as a dynamic and reciprocal adaptation of the temporal structure of behaviors and shared affect between interactive partners. Three main types of assessment methods for studying synchrony emerged: (1) global interaction scales with dyadic items; (2) specific synchrony scales; and (3) micro-coded time-series analyses. It appears that synchrony should be regarded as a social signal per se as it has been shown to be valid in both normal and pathological populations. Better mother-child synchrony is associated with familiarity (vs. unknown partner), a healthy mother (vs. pathological mother), typical development (vs. psychopathological development), and a more positive child outcomes. Discussion Synchrony is a key feature of mother-infant interactions. Adopting an objective approach in studying synchrony is not a simple task given available assessment tools and due to its temporality and multimodal expression. We propose an

  5. Hospitalization for early bonding of the genetic mother after a surrogate pregnancy: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sharan, H; Yahav, J; Peleg, D; Ben-Rafael, Z; Merlob, P

    2001-12-01

    In surrogate pregnancies the genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding to their infant, either prenatally (in utero) or in the immediate postnatal period. The purpose of this article is to describe a new method for encouraging early parent-infant bonding after surrogate pregnancy by hospitalizing the genetic mother in the maternity ward immediately after the delivery. Two genetic mothers were hospitalized in the maternity ward (rooming-in system) at the Rabin Medical Center in Israel immediately after delivery of their infants by surrogate arrangement. The first birth was a singleton pregnancy with vaginal delivery and the second, a twin pregnancy with delivery by cesarean section. The genetic parents were counseled by a social worker from the adoption agency, starting 3 months before the estimated date of delivery. The parents were referred to the hospital social worker before the delivery. To assess attachment, we observed the parents' behavior toward their children during two daily 15-minute periods of free, unstructured interaction. The parents showed good primary caregiving functions and established affective verbal and physical contact with the infants. They began to recognize the infants' needs and temperament, and exhibited an aura of self-confidence during their interactions. All expressed satisfaction with the method at discharge and reported on reduction of their fears about returning home with the infants. We believe that early hospitalization of the genetic mother in a surrogate delivery may be desirable to establish good and safe early mother-infant bonding, and that it should be considered for adoption as regular hospital policy. Further randomized studies with larger samples over the long term are warranted.

  6. FKBP5 genotype interacts with early life trauma to predict heavy drinking in college students.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Richard; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Kranzler, Henry R; Tennen, Howard; Covault, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is debilitating and costly. Identification and better understanding of risk factors influencing the development of AUD remain a research priority. Although early life exposure to trauma increases the risk of adulthood psychiatric disorders, including AUD, many individuals exposed to early life trauma do not develop psychopathology. Underlying genetic factors may contribute to differential sensitivity to trauma experienced in childhood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is susceptible to long-lasting changes in function following childhood trauma. Functional genetic variation within FKBP5, a gene encoding a modulator of HPA axis function, is associated with the development of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, particularly among individuals exposed to trauma early in life. In the current study, we examined interactions between self-reported early life trauma, past-year life stress, past-year trauma, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1360780) in FKBP5 on heavy alcohol consumption in a sample of 1,845 college students from two university settings. Although we found no effect of early life trauma on heavy drinking in rs1360780*T-allele carriers, rs1360780*C homozygotes exposed to early life trauma had a lower probability of heavy drinking compared to rs1360780*C homozygotes not exposed to early life trauma (P < 0.01). The absence of an interaction between either current life stress or past-year trauma, and FKBP5 genotype on heavy drinking suggests that there exists a developmental period of susceptibility to stress that is moderated by FKBP5 genotype. These findings implicate interactive effects of early life trauma and FKBP5 genetic variation on heavy drinking. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Impact of Early Powered Mobility on Parental Stress, Negative Emotions, and Family Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics…

  8. How Do Early Childhood Practitioners Define Professionalism in Their Interactions with Parents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ute

    2018-01-01

    This study deepens the understanding of the interactions between early childhood practitioners and the parents of young children in English day care settings, nurseries and pre-schools. Using a phenomenological approach and semi-structured interviews with 17 experienced practitioners the study highlights practitioners' lived experiences and their…

  9. Early Childhood Family Structure and Mother-Child Interactions: Variation by Race and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2010-01-01

    With data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 6,449), a nationally representative sample of births in 2001, we used hierarchical linear modeling to analyze differences in observed interactions between married, cohabiting, never-married, and divorced mothers and their children. In contrast to previous studies, we…

  10. Semantic Interaction in Early and Late Bilinguals: All Words Are Not Created Equally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller; Moawad, Ruba Abdelmatloub

    2010-01-01

    This study examines L1-L2 interaction in semantic categorization in early and late L2 learners. Word categories that overlapped but were not identical in Arabic and English were tested. Words always showed a "wider" range of application in one language, "narrower" in the other. Three types of categories--"classical", "radial", and…

  11. Genetic Vulnerability Interacts with Parenting and Early Care and Education to Predict Increasing Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental…

  12. Understanding Early Childhood Student Teachers' Acceptance and Use of Interactive Whiteboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Russo, Sharon; McDowall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand early childhood student teachers' self-reported acceptance and use of interactive whiteboard (IWB), by employing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as the research framework. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 112 student teachers enrolled in science-related…

  13. Interactive Whole Language E-Story for Early Literacy Development in Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phadung, Muneeroh; Suksakulchai, Surachai; Kaewprapan, Wacheerapan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using an interactive e-story for early literacy instruction on word recognition, story comprehension and story application. The study was conducted in two classrooms in the southern border provinces of Thailand with ethnic minority children at the kindergarten level. The samples consisted of 60 children who…

  14. An Observational Study of the Interactions of Socially Withdrawn/Anxious Early Adolescents and Their Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The friendships of socially withdrawn/anxious children and early adolescents have been found to lack critical rewarding qualities. Observational research may help elucidate the obstacles they face in forming and maintaining high-quality friendships with sociable peers. Method: We observed the interactions of 38 socially withdrawn early…

  15. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  16. Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum. III. Follow-up at one year.

    PubMed

    de Château, P; Wiberg, B

    1984-01-01

    The present prospective study examined, one year after delivery, the possible effects of early extra contact during the first hour following delivery. An extra skin-to-skin contact and suckling contact was allowed 22 primiparous mothers and their infants (P + group). One control group of 20 primiparous mothers and their infants were given routine care immediately after birth (P group). During observation of a physical examination of the infant, 'extra contact mothers' held and touched their infants more frequently and more often talked positively to their infants than did mothers given routine care. 'Extra contact mothers' had returned to their professional employment outside the home to a lesser extent than had routine care mothers. A greater proportion of 'extra contact' infants slept in a room of their own. In the P+ group, mothers who had returned to gainful employment were also able to have their babies sleep in a room of their own--no such correspondence was found in the P group. The Gesell Developmental Schedules revealed that, in four parts out of five, infants with extra contact immediately after birth, were ahead of those in the control group. On the other hand, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Cesarec Marke Personality Scheme did not reveal any major differences between the two groups. Mothers with early extra skin-to-skin contact and suckling contact breast-fed their infants on an average for 2 1/2 months longer than did routine care mothers. No other differences in feeding habits were found. The influence of extra contact was more pronounced in boy-mother than in girl-mother pairs.

  17. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

  18. The early response during the interaction of fungal phytopathogen and host plant.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yilin; Liu, Na; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Wan; Xing, Guozhen; Zheng, Wenming

    2017-05-01

    Plants can be infected by a variety of pathogens, most of which can cause severe economic losses. The plants resist the invasion of pathogens via the innate or acquired immune system for surviving biotic stress. The associations between plants and pathogens are sophisticated beyond imaging and the interactions between them can occur at a very early stage after their touching each other. A number of researchers in the past decade have shown that many biochemical events appeared even as early as 5 min after their touching for plant disease resistance response. The early molecular interactions of plants and pathogens are likely to involve protein phosphorylation, ion fluxes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other signalling transduction. Here, we reviewed the recent progress in the study for molecular interaction response of fungal pathogens and host plant at the early infection stage, which included many economically important crop fungal pathogens such as cereal rust fungi, tomato Cladosporium fulvum , rice blast and so on. By dissecting the earlier infection stage of the diseases, the avirulent/virulent genes of pathogen or resistance genes of plant could be defined more clearly and accurately, which would undoubtedly facilitate fungal pathogenesis study and resistant crop breeding. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. The early response during the interaction of fungal phytopathogen and host plant

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yilin; Liu, Na; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Wan; Xing, Guozhen

    2017-01-01

    Plants can be infected by a variety of pathogens, most of which can cause severe economic losses. The plants resist the invasion of pathogens via the innate or acquired immune system for surviving biotic stress. The associations between plants and pathogens are sophisticated beyond imaging and the interactions between them can occur at a very early stage after their touching each other. A number of researchers in the past decade have shown that many biochemical events appeared even as early as 5 min after their touching for plant disease resistance response. The early molecular interactions of plants and pathogens are likely to involve protein phosphorylation, ion fluxes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other signalling transduction. Here, we reviewed the recent progress in the study for molecular interaction response of fungal pathogens and host plant at the early infection stage, which included many economically important crop fungal pathogens such as cereal rust fungi, tomato Cladosporium fulvum, rice blast and so on. By dissecting the earlier infection stage of the diseases, the avirulent/virulent genes of pathogen or resistance genes of plant could be defined more clearly and accurately, which would undoubtedly facilitate fungal pathogenesis study and resistant crop breeding. PMID:28469008

  20. Verbal Play as an Interactional Discourse Resource in Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease as part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use. Aims To document the frequency of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners. To characterize the interactional forms, resources, and functions of playful episodes. Methods Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, we analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task, and with a researcher between task trials. Results A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. Despite being in the early stages of AD, all the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of verbal play episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those playful episodes between AD and healthy comparison pair sessions. Conclusions The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play. This work also offers a promising clinical tool for tracking and targeting verbal play across disease progression. PMID

  1. A quantitative approach to the study of cell shapes and interactions during early chordate embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tassy, Olivier; Daian, Fabrice; Hudson, Clare; Bertrand, Vincent; Lemaire, Patrick

    2006-02-21

    The prospects of deciphering the genetic program underlying embryonic development were recently boosted by the generation of large sets of precisely organized quantitative molecular data. In contrast, although the precise arrangement, interactions, and shapes of cells are crucial for the fulfilment of this program, their description remains coarse and qualitative. To bridge this gap, we developed a generic software, 3D Virtual Embryo, to quantify the geometry and interactions of cells in interactive three-dimensional embryo models. We applied this approach to early ascidian embryos, chosen because of their simplicity and their phylogenetic proximity to vertebrates. We generated a collection of 19 interactive ascidian embryos between the 2- and 44-cell stages. We characterized the evolution with time, and in different cell lineages, of the volume of cells and of eight mathematical descriptors of their geometry, and we measured the surface of contact between neighboring blastomeres. These analyses first revealed that early embryonic blastomeres adopt a surprising variety of shapes, which appeared to be under strict and dynamic developmental control. Second, we found novel asymmetric cell divisions in the posterior vegetal lineages, which gave birth to sister cells with different fates. Third, during neural induction, differences in the area of contact between individual competent animal cells and inducing vegetal blastomeres appeared important to select the induced cells. In addition to novel insight into both cell-autonomous and inductive processes controlling early ascidian development, we establish a generic conceptual framework for the quantitative analysis of embryo geometry that can be applied to other model organisms.

  2. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  3. Reported experiences from occupational therapists interacting with teachers in inclusive early childhood classrooms.

    PubMed

    Bose, Pia; Hinojosa, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This grounded theory study described the perspectives of school-based occupational therapists working in inclusive early childhood classrooms emphasizing interactions with teaching staff. Six therapists were interviewed multiple times over several months. The participants viewed their interactions with teaching staff as challenging but potentially rewarding experiences. Viewing collaboration as valuable, their descriptions nonetheless generally omitted many collaborative features, with therapists often assigned the role of "expert." Data analysis revealed four major themes: (1) "It's Not Like I Don't Value Collaboration" (the benefits of collaboration); (2) "Collaboration--I Can't Do It Alone" (the challenges of interactions); (3) "My Opinion, Please Ask for It" (attachment to the expert status), and (4) "Is This Collaboration?" (interactions in practice). The results of this study suggest that current recommendations for collaboration for inclusion in school-based occupational therapy are not optimally implemented in all practice settings.

  4. The evolution of early cellular systems viewed through the lens of biological interactions.

    PubMed

    Poole, Anthony M; Lundin, Daniel; Rytkönen, Kalle T

    2015-01-01

    The minimal cell concept represents a pragmatic approach to the question of how few genes are required to run a cell. This is a helpful way to build a parts-list, and has been more successful than attempts to deduce a minimal gene set for life by inferring the gene repertoire of the last universal common ancestor, as few genes trace back to this hypothetical ancestral state. However, the study of minimal cellular systems is the study of biological outliers where, by practical necessity, coevolutionary interactions are minimized or ignored. In this paper, we consider the biological context from which minimal genomes have been removed. For instance, some of the most reduced genomes are from endosymbionts and are the result of coevolutionary interactions with a host; few such organisms are "free-living." As few, if any, biological systems exist in complete isolation, we expect that, as with modern life, early biological systems were part of an ecosystem, replete with organismal interactions. We favor refocusing discussions of the evolution of cellular systems on processes rather than gene counts. We therefore draw a distinction between a pragmatic minimal cell (an interesting engineering problem), a distributed genome (a system resulting from an evolutionary transition involving more than one cell) and the looser coevolutionary interactions that are ubiquitous in ecosystems. Finally, we consider the distributed genome and coevolutionary interactions between genomic entities in the context of early evolution.

  5. Genetic vulnerability interacts with parenting and early care education to predict increasing externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Shannon T; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children.

  6. Genetic vulnerability interacts with parenting and early care education to predict increasing externalizing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children’s early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children. PMID:25067867

  7. Interactions between callous unemotional behaviors and executive function in early childhood predict later socioemotional functioning

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2018-01-01

    Callous unemotional (CU) behaviors are linked to aggression, behavior problems, and difficulties in peer relationships in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether early childhood CU behaviors predict aggression or peer-rejection during late-childhood or potential moderation of this relationship by executive function. The current study examined whether the interaction of CU behaviors and executive function in early childhood predicted different forms of aggression in late-childhood, including proactive, reactive, and relational aggression, as well as how much children were liked by their peers. Data from cross-informant reports and multiple observational tasks were collected from a high-risk sample (N=240; female=118) at ages 3 and 10 years old. Parent reports of CU behaviors at age 3 predicted teacher reports of reactive, proactive, and relational aggression, as well as lower peer-liking at age 10. Moderation analysis showed that specifically at high levels of CU behaviors and low levels of observed executive function, children were reported by teachers as showing greater reactive and proactive aggression, and were less-liked by peers. Findings demonstrate that early childhood CU behaviors and executive function have unique main and interactive effects on both later aggression and lower peer-liking even when taking into account stability in behavior problems over time. By elucidating how CU behaviors and deficits in executive function potentiate each other during early childhood, we can better characterize the emergence of severe and persistent behavior and interpersonal difficulties across development. PMID:27418255

  8. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother-infant relationship.

  9. The early development of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: Characteristics of sibling interactions

    PubMed Central

    Warreyn, Petra; Van der Paelt, Sara; Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Although sibling interactions play an important role in children’s early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated. Sibling interactions in ASD-dyads were characterized by higher levels of negativity. Although somewhat less pronounced in ASD-dyads, role asymmetry was present in both groups, with the older child taking the dominant position. Finally, siblings pairs with an older sister were characterized by more positive behaviours. Since differences in sibling interactions may alter the developmental trajectories of both siblings, these early relationships should be taken into account in future ASD research and interventions. PMID:29543814

  10. Coordinated Development of Muscles and Tendon-Like Structures: Early Interactions in the Drosophila Leg.

    PubMed

    Soler, Cedric; Laddada, Lilia; Jagla, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the musculoskeletal system is a remarkable example of tissue assembly. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, precise connectivity between muscles and skeleton (or exoskeleton) via tendons or equivalent structures is fundamental for movement and stability of the body. The molecular and cellular processes underpinning muscle formation are well-established and significant advances have been made in understanding tendon development. However, the mechanisms contributing to proper connection between these two tissues have received less attention. Observations of coordinated development of tendons and muscles suggest these tissues may interact during the different steps in their development. There is growing evidence that, depending on animal model and muscle type, these interactions can take place from progenitor induction to the final step of the formation of the musculoskeletal system. Here, we briefly review and compare the mechanisms behind muscle and tendon interaction throughout the development of vertebrates and Drosophila before going on to discuss our recent findings on the coordinated development of muscles and tendon-like structures in Drosophila leg. By altering apodeme formation (the functional Drosophila equivalent of tendons in vertebrates) during the early steps of leg development, we affect the spatial localization of subsequent myoblasts. These findings provide the first evidence of the developmental impact of early interactions between muscle and tendon-like precursors, and confirm the appendicular Drosophila muscle system as a valuable model for studying these processes.

  11. Coordinated Development of Muscles and Tendon-Like Structures: Early Interactions in the Drosophila Leg

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Cedric; Laddada, Lilia; Jagla, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the musculoskeletal system is a remarkable example of tissue assembly. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, precise connectivity between muscles and skeleton (or exoskeleton) via tendons or equivalent structures is fundamental for movement and stability of the body. The molecular and cellular processes underpinning muscle formation are well-established and significant advances have been made in understanding tendon development. However, the mechanisms contributing to proper connection between these two tissues have received less attention. Observations of coordinated development of tendons and muscles suggest these tissues may interact during the different steps in their development. There is growing evidence that, depending on animal model and muscle type, these interactions can take place from progenitor induction to the final step of the formation of the musculoskeletal system. Here, we briefly review and compare the mechanisms behind muscle and tendon interaction throughout the development of vertebrates and Drosophila before going on to discuss our recent findings on the coordinated development of muscles and tendon-like structures in Drosophila leg. By altering apodeme formation (the functional Drosophila equivalent of tendons in vertebrates) during the early steps of leg development, we affect the spatial localization of subsequent myoblasts. These findings provide the first evidence of the developmental impact of early interactions between muscle and tendon-like precursors, and confirm the appendicular Drosophila muscle system as a valuable model for studying these processes. PMID:26869938

  12. Early-life risperidone administration alters maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Matthew A; Brown, Clifford J; Stevens, Rachel M; Griffith, Molly S; Marczinski, Cecile A; Bardgett, Mark E

    2015-03-01

    Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is approved for use in childhood psychiatric disorders such as autism. One concern regarding the use of this drug in pediatric populations is that it may interfere with social interactions that serve to nurture brain development. This study used rats to assess the impact of risperidone administration on maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting between cage mates. Mixed-sex litters received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1.0 or 3.0mg/kg of risperidone between postnatal days (PNDs) 14-42. Rats were weaned and housed three per cage on PND 21. In observations made between PNDs 14-17, risperidone significantly suppressed several aspects of maternal-offspring interactions at 1-hour post-injection. At 23 h post-injection, pups administered risperidone had lower activity scores and made fewer non-nursing contacts with their moms. In observations of play-fighting behavior made once a week between PNDs 22-42, risperidone profoundly decreased many forms of social interaction at 1h post-injection. At 23h post-injection, rats administered risperidone made more non-social contacts with their cage mates, but engaged in less social grooming. Risperidone administration to rats at ages analogous to early childhood through adolescence in humans produces a pattern of abnormal social interactions across the day that could impact how such interactions influence brain development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early-Life Risperidone Administration Alters Maternal-Offspring Interactions and Juvenile Play Fighting

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Matthew A.; Brown, Clifford J.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Griffith, Molly S.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Bardgett, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is approved for use in childhood psychiatric disorders such as autism. One concern regarding the use of this drug in pediatric populations is that it may interfere with social interactions that serve to nurture brain development. This study used rats to assess the impact of risperidone administration on maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting between cage mates. Mixed-sex litters received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg of risperidone between postnatal days (PNDs) 14-42. Rats were weaned and housed three per cage on PND 21. In observations made between PNDs 14-17, risperidone significantly suppressed several aspects of maternal-offspring interactions at one-hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, pups administered risperidone had lower activity scores and made fewer non-nursing contacts with their moms. In observations of play-fighting behavior made once a week between PNDs 22-42, risperidone profoundly decreased many forms of social interaction at one hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, rats administered risperidone made more non-social contacts with their cage mates, but engaged in less social grooming. Risperidone administration to rats at ages analogous to early childhood through adolescence in humans produces a pattern of abnormal social interactions across the day that could impact how such interactions influence brain development. PMID:25600754

  14. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  15. Early relations between language development and the quality of mother-child interaction in very-low-birth-weight children.

    PubMed

    Stolt, S; Korja, R; Matomäki, J; Lapinleimu, H; Haataja, L; Lehtonen, L

    2014-05-01

    It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxytocin receptors (OXTR) and early parental care: An interaction that modulates psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Ilaria; Azhari, Atiqah; Lepri, Bruno; Esposito, Gianluca

    2017-10-21

    Oxytocin plays an important role in the modulation of social behavior in both typical and atypical contexts. Also, the quality of early parental care sets the foundation for long-term psychosocial development. Here, we review studies that investigated how oxytocin receptor (OXTR) interacts with early parental care experiences to influence the development of psychiatric disorders. Using Pubmed, Scopus and PsycInfo databases, we utilized the keyword "OXTR" before subsequently searching for specific OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), generating a list of 598 studies in total. The papers were catalogued in a database and filtered for gene-environment interaction, psychiatric disorders and involvement of parental care. In particular, rs53576 and rs2254298 were found to be significantly involved in gene-environment interactions that modulated risk for psychopathology and the following psychiatric disorders: disruptive behavior, depression, anxiety, eating disorder and borderline personality disorder. These results illustrate the importance of OXTR in mediating the impact of parental care on the emergence of psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Computer keyboard interaction as an indicator of early Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancardo, L.; Sánchez-Ferro, A.; Arroyo-Gallego, T.; Butterworth, I.; Mendoza, C. S.; Montero, P.; Matarazzo, M.; Obeso, J. A.; Gray, M. L.; Estépar, R. San José

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disease with early manifestation of motor signs. Objective measurements of motor signs are of vital importance for diagnosing, monitoring and developing disease modifying therapies, particularly for the early stages of the disease when putative neuroprotective treatments could stop neurodegeneration. Current medical practice has limited tools to routinely monitor PD motor signs with enough frequency and without undue burden for patients and the healthcare system. In this paper, we present data indicating that the routine interaction with computer keyboards can be used to detect motor signs in the early stages of PD. We explore a solution that measures the key hold times (the time required to press and release a key) during the normal use of a computer without any change in hardware and converts it to a PD motor index. This is achieved by the automatic discovery of patterns in the time series of key hold times using an ensemble regression algorithm. This new approach discriminated early PD groups from controls with an AUC = 0.81 (n = 42/43 mean age = 59.0/60.1 women = 43%/60%PD/controls). The performance was comparable or better than two other quantitative motor performance tests used clinically: alternating finger tapping (AUC = 0.75) and single key tapping (AUC = 0.61).

  18. Computer keyboard interaction as an indicator of early Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Giancardo, L.; Sánchez-Ferro, A.; Arroyo-Gallego, T.; Butterworth, I.; Mendoza, C. S.; Montero, P.; Matarazzo, M.; Obeso, J. A.; Gray, M. L.; Estépar, R. San José

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disease with early manifestation of motor signs. Objective measurements of motor signs are of vital importance for diagnosing, monitoring and developing disease modifying therapies, particularly for the early stages of the disease when putative neuroprotective treatments could stop neurodegeneration. Current medical practice has limited tools to routinely monitor PD motor signs with enough frequency and without undue burden for patients and the healthcare system. In this paper, we present data indicating that the routine interaction with computer keyboards can be used to detect motor signs in the early stages of PD. We explore a solution that measures the key hold times (the time required to press and release a key) during the normal use of a computer without any change in hardware and converts it to a PD motor index. This is achieved by the automatic discovery of patterns in the time series of key hold times using an ensemble regression algorithm. This new approach discriminated early PD groups from controls with an AUC = 0.81 (n = 42/43; mean age = 59.0/60.1; women = 43%/60%;PD/controls). The performance was comparable or better than two other quantitative motor performance tests used clinically: alternating finger tapping (AUC = 0.75) and single key tapping (AUC = 0.61). PMID:27703257

  19. A Prospective Birth Cohort Study on Early Childhood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insight on Sex Differences.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Riley, Anne W; Lee, Li-Ching; Surkan, Pamela J; Bartell, Tami R; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2018-05-08

    To investigate the prospective associations between early childhood lead exposure and subsequent risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and its potential effect modifiers. We analyzed data from 1479 mother-infant pairs (299 ADHD, 1180 neurotypical) in the Boston Birth Cohort. The child's first blood lead measurement and physician-diagnosed ADHD was obtained from electronic medical records. Graphic plots and multiple logistic regression were used to examine dose-response associations between lead exposure and ADHD and potential effect modifiers, adjusting for pertinent covariables. We found that 8.9% of the children in the Boston Birth Cohort had elevated lead levels (5-10 µg/dL) in early childhood, which was associated with a 66% increased risk of ADHD (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.08-2.56). Among boys, the association was significantly stronger (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.46-4.26); in girls, the association was largely attenuated (P value for sex-lead interaction = .017). The OR of ADHD associated with elevated lead levels among boys was reduced by one-half if mothers had adequate high-density lipoprotein levels compared with low high-density lipoprotein, or if mothers had low stress compared with high stress during pregnancy. Elevated early childhood blood lead levels increased the risk of ADHD. Boys were more vulnerable than girls at a given lead level. This risk of ADHD in boys was reduced by one-half if the mother had adequate high-density lipoprotein levels or low stress. These findings shed new light on the sex difference in ADHD and point to opportunities for early risk assessment and primary prevention of ADHD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Plant-arthropod interaction in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) of the Araripe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Etiene Fabbrin; Sommer, Margot Guerra

    2009-02-01

    Plant-arthropod interactions provide the first relevant data for addressing evidence of phytophagy for an assemblage of coniferous silicified woods from the pre-rift phase in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. A complex system of borings, sometimes filled with small, oval to hexagonal coprolites, allow inferences to be made about the activities of termites (Isoptera). Previous dendrological data indicated that the climate during the Early Cretaceous on the landmasses of the northern Afro-Brazilian Depression was dry and savanna like, where termite borings were common. Features of wood preservation demonstrate that the damage was probably caused by herbivores, not detritivores.

  1. Parent-Child Interaction, Self-Regulation, and Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah E; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologic evidence linking parent-child relationships, self-regulation, and weight status with a focus on early childhood. The emotional quality of parent-child interactions may influence children's risk for obesity through multiple pathways. Prospective studies linking observer ratings of young children's self-regulation, particularly inhibitory control, to future weight status are discussed. Although findings are preliminary, promoting positive relationships between parents/caregivers and young children holds promise as a component of efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between researchers with training in developmental science and child health should be encouraged.

  2. Better quality of mother-child interaction at 4 years of age decreases emotional overeating in IUGR girls.

    PubMed

    Escobar, R S; O'Donnell, K A; Colalillo, S; Pawlby, S; Steiner, M; Meaney, M J; Levitan, R D; Silveira, P P

    2014-10-01

    While most "fetal programming" area focused on metabolic disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is also associated with a preference for less healthy food. Post-natal factors such as strained maternal-child interactions are equally related to obesogenic eating behaviors. We investigated if IUGR and the quality of the mother/child relationship affect emotional overeating in children. Participants were 196 children from a prospective birth cohort (the MAVAN project). As part of the protocol at 4 years of age, mothers completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and mother-child interactions were scored during a structured task. A GLM adjusted for BMI examined the interaction between the "Atmosphere" score (ATM) task, sex and IUGR on the emotional over-eating domain of the CEBQ. There was a significant interaction of BWR vs. sex vs. ATM (P = .02), with no effects of IUGR, sex or ATM. The model was significant for girls with low ATM scores (B = -2.035, P = .014), but not for girls with high (P = 0.94) or boys with high (P = .27) or low (P = .19) ATM scores. Only in IUGR girls, 48 months emotional over-eating correlated with BMI at that age (r = 0.560, P = 0.013) and predicted BMI in the subsequent years (r = 0.654, P = 0.006 at 60 months and r = 0.750, P = 0.005 at 72 months). IUGR and exposure to a negative emotional atmosphere during maternal-child interactions predicted emotional overeating in girls but not in boys. The quality of mother-infant interaction may be an important target for interventions to prevent emotional overeating and overweight in early development, particularly in girls with a history of IUGR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antisocial boys and their friends in early adolescence: relationship characteristics, quality, and interactional process.

    PubMed

    Dishion, T J; Andrews, D W; Crosby, L

    1995-02-01

    This study examines the close friendships of early adolescent boys in relation to antisocial behavior. 186 13-14-year-old boys and their close friends were interviewed, assessed at school, and videotaped in a problem-solving task. Similarity was observed between the demographic characteristics and antisocial behavior of the boys and their close friends. There was a tendency for the close friends of antisocial boys to live within the same neighborhood block and to have met in unstructured, unsupervised activities. Direct observations of interactions with close friends revealed a reliable correlation between antisocial behavior, directives, and negative reciprocity. Positive interactions within the friendship were uncorrelated with antisocial behavior and relationship quality. Implications of these findings for clinical and developmental theory are discussed.

  4. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  5. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2006-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  6. Early Life Stress, MAOA, and Gene-Environment Interactions Predict Behavioral Disinhibition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Steer, Colin D.; Newman, Timothy K.; Gibson, Nerea; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth – 3 years) stressors to influence behavior in pre-pubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, U.K., is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first three years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3 ½ years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1 ½ and 2 ½ years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of pre-pubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR - stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity. PMID:19804559

  7. Early life stress, MAOA, and gene-environment interactions predict behavioral disinhibition in children.

    PubMed

    Enoch, M-A; Steer, C D; Newman, T K; Gibson, N; Goldman, D

    2010-02-01

    Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth-3 years) stressors to influence behavior in prepubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, UK, is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first 3 years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3.5 years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1.5 and 2.5 years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of prepubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR- stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity.

  8. Searching for roots of entrainment and joint action in early musical interactions.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Keller, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    When people play music and dance together, they engage in forms of musical joint action that are often characterized by a shared sense of rhythmic timing and affective state (i.e., temporal and affective entrainment). In order to understand the origins of musical joint action, we propose a model in which entrainment is linked to dual mechanisms (motor resonance and action simulation), which in turn support musical behavior (imitation and complementary joint action). To illustrate this model, we consider two generic forms of joint musical behavior: chorusing and turn-taking. We explore how these common behaviors can be founded on entrainment capacities established early in human development, specifically during musical interactions between infants and their caregivers. If the roots of entrainment are found in early musical interactions which are practiced from childhood into adulthood, then we propose that the rehearsal of advanced musical ensemble skills can be considered to be a refined, mimetic form of temporal and affective entrainment whose evolution begins in infancy.

  9. Searching for Roots of Entrainment and Joint Action in Early Musical Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Keller, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    When people play music and dance together, they engage in forms of musical joint action that are often characterized by a shared sense of rhythmic timing and affective state (i.e., temporal and affective entrainment). In order to understand the origins of musical joint action, we propose a model in which entrainment is linked to dual mechanisms (motor resonance and action simulation), which in turn support musical behavior (imitation and complementary joint action). To illustrate this model, we consider two generic forms of joint musical behavior: chorusing and turn-taking. We explore how these common behaviors can be founded on entrainment capacities established early in human development, specifically during musical interactions between infants and their caregivers. If the roots of entrainment are found in early musical interactions which are practiced from childhood into adulthood, then we propose that the rehearsal of advanced musical ensemble skills can be considered to be a refined, mimetic form of temporal and affective entrainment whose evolution begins in infancy. PMID:22375113

  10. The interaction of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and early life stress on emotional empathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Simone; Wirth, Katharina; Fan, Yan; Weigand, Anne; Gärtner, Matti; Feeser, Melanie; Dziobek, Isabel; Bajbouj, Malek; Aust, Sabine

    2017-06-30

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased vulnerability for depression, changes to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system and structural and functional changes in hippocampus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene interact with ELS to predict depression, cognitive functions and hippocampal activity. Social cognition has been related to hippocampal function and might be crucial for maintaining mental health. However, the interaction of CRHR1 gene variation and ELS on social cognition has not been investigated yet. We assessed social cognition in 502 healthy subjects to test effects of ELS and the CRHR1 gene. Participants were genotyped for rs110402 and rs242924. ELS was assessed by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, social cognition was measured via Multifaceted Empathy Test and Empathy Quotient. Severity of ELS was associated with decreased emotional, but not cognitive empathy. Subjects with the common homozygous GG GG genotype showed decreased implicit emotional empathy after ELS exposure regardless of its severity. The results reveal that specific CRHR1 polymorphisms moderate the effect of ELS on emotional empathy. Exposure to ELS in combination with a vulnerable genotype results in impaired emotional empathy in adulthood, which might represent an early marker of increased vulnerability after ELS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Temperament in early childhood and peer interactions in third grade: the role of teacher-child relationships in early elementary grades.

    PubMed

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Niehaus, Kate; Buhs, Eric; White, Jamie M

    2013-12-01

    Children's interactions with peers in early childhood have been consistently linked to their academic and social outcomes. Although both child and classroom characteristics have been implicated as contributors to children's success, there has been scant research linking child temperament, teacher-child relationship quality, and peer interactions in the same study. The purpose of this study is to examine children's early temperament, rated at preschool age, as a predictor of interactions with peers (i.e., aggression, relational aggression, victimization, and prosociality) in third grade while considering teacher-child relationship quality in kindergarten through second grades as a moderator and mediator of this association. The sample (N=1364) was drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Results from structural equation models indicated that teacher-child conflict in early elementary grades mediated links between children's temperament and later peer interactions. Findings underscore the importance of considering children's temperament traits and teacher-child relationship quality when examining the mechanisms of the development of peer interactions. © 2013.

  12. A randomized comparison of home visits and hospital-based group follow-up visits after early postpartum discharge.

    PubMed

    Escobar, G J; Braveman, P A; Ackerson, L; Odouli, R; Coleman-Phox, K; Capra, A M; Wong, C; Lieu, T A

    2001-09-01

    Short postpartum stays are common. Current guidelines provide scant guidance on how routine follow-up of newly discharged mother-infant pairs should be performed. We aimed to compare 2 short-term (within 72 hours of discharge) follow-up strategies for low-risk mother-infant pairs with postpartum length of stay (LOS) of <48 hours: home visits by a nurse and hospital-based follow-up anchored in group visits. We used a randomized clinical trial design with intention-to-treat analysis in an integrated managed care setting that serves a largely middle class population. Mother-infant pairs that met LOS and risk criteria were randomized to the control arm (hospital-based follow-up) or to the intervention arm (home nurse visit). Clinical utilization and costs were studied using computerized databases and chart review. Breastfeeding continuation, maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal satisfaction were assessed by means of telephone interviews at 2 weeks postpartum. During a 17-month period in 1998 to 1999, we enrolled and randomized 1014 mother-infant pairs (506 to the control group and 508 to the intervention group). There were no significant differences between the study groups with respect to maternal age, race, education, household income, parity, previous breastfeeding experience, early initiation of prenatal care, or postpartum LOS. There were no differences with respect to neonatal LOS or Apgar scores. In the control group, 264 mother-infant pairs had an individual visit only, 157 had a group visit only, 64 had both a group and an individual visit, 4 had a home health and a hospital-based follow-up, 13 had no follow-up within 72 hours, and 4 were lost to follow-up. With respect to outcomes within 2 weeks after discharge, there were no significant differences in newborn or maternal hospitalizations or urgent care visits, breastfeeding discontinuation, maternal depressive symptoms, or a combined clinical outcome measure indicating whether a mother-infant pair had

  13. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  14. Dyadic Coregulation and Deviant Talk in Adolescent Friendships: Interaction Patterns Associated with Problematic Substance Use in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention…

  15. Associations between Relational Pronoun Usage and the Quality of Early Family Interactions.

    PubMed

    Galdiolo, Sarah; Roskam, Isabelle; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; De Mol, Jan; Dewinne, Laura; Vandaudenard, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA). We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness ) and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness ) by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modeling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a couple level and an individual level) was tested on 47 non-referred families ( n = 31 primiparous families; child's age, M = 15.75 months, SD = 2.73) with we-ness and separateness as outcomes and FA functions as between-dyads variables. Analyses revealed that we-ness within the parental couple was only positively associated with family affect sharing while separateness was negatively associated with different FA functions (e.g., communication mistakes). Our main finding suggested that the kinds of personal pronouns used by parental couples when discussing children's education would be associated to the emotional quality of the family interactions.

  16. Associations between Relational Pronoun Usage and the Quality of Early Family Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Galdiolo, Sarah; Roskam, Isabelle; Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; De Mol, Jan; Dewinne, Laura; Vandaudenard, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA). We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness) and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness) by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modeling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a couple level and an individual level) was tested on 47 non-referred families (n = 31 primiparous families; child’s age, M = 15.75 months, SD = 2.73) with we-ness and separateness as outcomes and FA functions as between-dyads variables. Analyses revealed that we-ness within the parental couple was only positively associated with family affect sharing while separateness was negatively associated with different FA functions (e.g., communication mistakes). Our main finding suggested that the kinds of personal pronouns used by parental couples when discussing children’s education would be associated to the emotional quality of the family interactions. PMID:27847495

  17. The Synchronization within and Interaction between the Default and Dorsal Attention Networks in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, John H.; Shen, Dinggang; Smith, Jeffery Keith; Zhu, Hongtu

    2013-01-01

    An anticorrelated interaction between the dorsal attention and the default-mode networks has been observed, although how these 2 networks establish such relationship remains elusive. Behavioral studies have reported the emergence of attention and default network–related functions and a preliminary competing relationship between them at early infancy. This study attempted to test the hypothesis—resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging will demonstrate not only improved network synchronization of the dorsal attention and the default networks, respectively, during the first 2 years of life but also an anticorrelated network interaction pattern between the 2 networks at 1 year which will be further enhanced at 2 years old. Our results demonstrate that both networks start from an isolated region in neonates but evolve to highly synchronized networks at 1 year old. Paralleling the individual network maturation process, the anticorrelated behaviors are absent at birth but become apparent at 1 year and are further enhanced during the second year of life. Our studies elucidate not only the individual maturation process of the dorsal attention and default networks but also offer evidence that the maturation of the individual networks may be needed prior exhibiting the adult-like interaction patterns between the 2 networks. PMID:22368080

  18. Influences of maternal postpartum depression on fathers and on father-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Janice H

    2008-11-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has been shown to negatively influence mother-infant interaction; however, little research has explored how fathers and father-infant interaction are affected when a mother is depressed. This study examined the influence of maternal PPD on fathers and identified maternal and paternal factors associated with father-infant interaction in families with depressed as compared with nondepressed mothers. A convenience sample of 128 mother-father-infant triads, approximately half of which included women with significant symptoms of PPD at screening, were recruited from a screening sample of 790 postpartum women. Mothers and fathers completed measures of depression, marital satisfaction, and parenting stress at 2 to 3 months' postpartum and were each videotaped interacting with their infants. Results indicate that maternal PPD is associated with increased paternal depression and higher paternal parenting stress. Partners of depressed women demonstrated less optimal interaction with their infants, indicating that fathers do not compensate for the negative effects of maternal depression on the child. Although mother-infant interaction did not influence father-infant interaction, how the mother felt about her relationship with the infant did, even more so than maternal depression. The links between maternal PPD, fathers, and father-infant interaction indicate a need for further understanding of the reciprocal influences between mothers, fathers, and infants. Copyright © 2008 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Affective facial expression in sub-clinically depressed and non-depressed mothers during contingent and non-contingent face-to-face interactions with their infants.

    PubMed

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Skotheim, Siv; Høie, Kjartan; Markhus, Maria Wik; Kjellevold, Marian; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Berle, Jan Øystein; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2017-08-01

    Depression in the postpartum period involves feelings of sadness, anxiety and irritability, and attenuated feelings of pleasure and comfort with the infant. Even mild- to- moderate symptoms of depression seem to have an impact on caregivers affective availability and contingent responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate non-depressed and sub-clinically depressed mothers interest and affective expression during contingent and non-contingent face-to-face interaction with their infant. The study utilized a double video (DV) set-up. The mother and the infant were presented with live real-time video sequences, which allowed for mutually responsive interaction between the mother and the infant (Live contingent sequences), or replay sequences where the interaction was set out of phase (Replay non-contingent sequences). The DV set-up consisted of five sequences: Live1-Replay1-Live2-Replay2-Live3. Based on their scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the mothers were divided into a non-depressed and a sub-clinically depressed group (EPDS score≥6). A three-way split-plot ANOVA showed that the sub-clinically depressed mothers displayed the same amount of positive and negative facial affect independent of the quality of the interaction with the infants. The non-depressed mothers displayed more positive facial affect during the non-contingent than the contingent interaction sequences, while there was no such effect for negative facial affect. The results indicate that sub-clinically level depressive symptoms influence the mothers' affective facial expression during early face-to-face interaction with their infants. One of the clinical implications is to consider even sub-clinical depressive symptoms as a risk factor for mother-infant relationship disturbances. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical modeling of the early interaction of a planar shock with a dense particle field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, Jonathan; Blanquart, Guillaume

    2011-11-01

    Dense compressible multiphase flows are of interest for multiphase turbomachinary and energetic material detonations. Still, there is little understanding of the detailed interaction mechanisms between shock waves and dense (particle volume fraction αd > 0 . 001) particle fields. A recent experimental study [Wagner et al, AIAA Aero. Sci., Orlando, 2011-188] has focused on the impingement of a planar shock wave on a dense particle curtain. In the present work, numerical solutions of the Euler equations in one and two dimensions are performed for a planar shock wave impinging on a fixed particle curtain and are compared to the experimental data for early times. Comparison of the one- and two-dimensional results demonstrate that the one-dimensional description captures the large scale flow behavior, but is inadequate to capture all the details observed in the experiments. The two-dimensional solutions are shown to reproduce the experimentally observed flow structures and provide insight into how these details originate.

  1. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive function (EF) deficits to depression during early adolescence (sixth grade). Youth (267 girls, 227 boys; X̄age at Wave 1 = 7.95, SD = .37) completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to assess peer stress and depression, respectively; teachers completed the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function to assess everyday performance in several EF domains. As anticipated, exposure to peer stress in childhood predicted heightened sixth-grade depression in girls but not boys with higher levels of EF deficits. This study extends theory and research on individual differences in vulnerability to adolescent depression, in turn elucidating potential intervention targets. PMID:28936024

  2. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Agoston, Anna M; Rudolph, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive function (EF) deficits to depression during early adolescence (sixth grade). Youth (267 girls, 227 boys; X̄ age at Wave 1 = 7.95, SD = .37) completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to assess peer stress and depression, respectively; teachers completed the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function to assess everyday performance in several EF domains. As anticipated, exposure to peer stress in childhood predicted heightened sixth-grade depression in girls but not boys with higher levels of EF deficits. This study extends theory and research on individual differences in vulnerability to adolescent depression, in turn elucidating potential intervention targets.

  3. Interaction between prenatal risk and infant parasympathetic and sympathetic stress reactivity predicts early aggression.

    PubMed

    Suurland, J; van der Heijden, K B; Huijbregts, S C J; van Goozen, S H M; Swaab, H

    2017-09-01

    Nonreciprocal action of the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems, increases susceptibility to emotional and behavioral problems in children exposed to adversity. Little is known about the PNS and SNS in interaction with early adversity during infancy. Yet this is when the physiological systems involved in emotion regulation are emerging and presumably most responsive to environmental influences. We examined whether parasympathetic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and sympathetic pre-ejection period (PEP) response and recovery at six months, moderate the association between cumulative prenatal risk and physical aggression at 20 months (N=113). Prenatal risk predicted physical aggression, but only in infants exhibiting coactivation of PNS and SNS (i.e., increase in RSA and decrease in PEP) in response to stress. These findings indicate that coactivation of the PNS and SNS in combination with prenatal risk is a biological marker for the development of aggression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mother-child interactions in young children with excessive physical aggression and in typically developing young children.

    PubMed

    Urbain-Gauthier, Nadine; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2017-07-01

    Among the multiple risk factors, the emergence of conduct problems in young children may be linked to harsh parenting and child's temperamental difficulties, leading to a reciprocal early discordant relationship. Little is known about the characteristics of early parent-child interactions in young children with physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the characteristics of mother-child interactions in dyads referred for excessive physical aggression in young children under 5 years of age compared to mother-child interactions in typically developing young children. Mother-child interactions were assessed during a free-play session in both a clinical sample ( N = 70, child mean age  = 3.5 years) and a nonclinical sample ( N = 80, child mean age  = 3.5 years) by using the Rating Scale of Interaction Style (Clark and Seifer, adapted by Molitor and Mayes). Significant differences were found between several interactive features in clinical and nonclinical dyads. In clinical dyads, mothers' behaviors were often characterized by intrusiveness and criticism toward children, and poor facilitative positioning. Children with excessive aggressive behavior often displayed poor communication, initiation of bids, and poor responsiveness toward the mother. They displayed fewer sustained bouts of play than typically developing children did. In clinical dyads, strong positive correlations were found between child responsiveness and maternal interest in engagement ( r = .41, p < .001), while the child displaying sustained bouts of play was negatively correlated with the mother's attempts to intrude on the child's activity ( r = .64, p < .05). These data show that children with excessive aggressive behavior develop disrupted mother-infant interactions from a very young age. Several negative interactive features and correlations between child behavior and maternal behavior were found in clinical samples. The effects of

  5. Child, family, and neighborhood associations with parent and peer interactive play during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Mary Kay

    2012-04-01

    To examine national patterns of peer and parent interactive play opportunities that enhance early learning/socialization. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 22,797 children aged 1-5 years from the National Survey of Children's Health 2007 were performed to determine the child, family, and neighborhood factors associated with four parent-initiated activities. Outcomes measures included time (days/week) children spent: participating in peer play; being read to; sung to/told stories; and taken on family outings. Covariates included race/ethnicity, poverty, TV watching, childcare, child and maternal physical and mental health, family factors (structure, size, language, stress, education), and neighborhood factors (amenities, support, physical condition, safety). According to adjusted regression models, minority children from lower income, non-English-speaking households with limited education, poorer maternal health and greater parenting stress were read to/told stories less than children without these characteristics, while neighborhood factors exerted less influence. In contrast, significant reductions in days/week of peer play were associated with unsupportive neighborhoods and those with the poorest physical conditions and limited amenities. Likewise, reductions in outings were associated with fewer neighborhood amenities. The findings of this study indicate that a variety of child, family, and neighborhood factors are associated with parent-initiated behaviors such as reading, storytelling, peer interactive play, and family outings. Appropriate evidence-based home visiting interventions targeting child health, parenting skills, early childhood education, and social services in at-risk communities would appear to be appropriate vehicles for addressing such parent-initiated play activities that have the potential to enhance development.

  6. An observational study of the interactions of socially withdrawn/anxious early adolescents and their friends.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barry H

    2009-07-01

    The friendships of socially withdrawn/anxious children and early adolescents have been found to lack critical rewarding qualities. Observational research may help elucidate the obstacles they face in forming and maintaining high-quality friendships with sociable peers. We observed the interactions of 38 socially withdrawn early adolescents with their friends and compared them to a community control group. In negotiating the sharing of an object, the socially withdrawn, anxious group was more passive than controls. The socially withdrawn, anxious participants engaged less actively in a fast-paced game involving miniature cars. While completing a quiet drawing task, the socially anxious, withdrawn participants tended to refrain from comparing their work to that of their friends. In all three of our closed-field situations, the socially withdrawn, anxious participants displayed relatively neutral affect in comparison with the control group. These results suggest that the social withdrawal and social anxiety of children with social phobia are very evident even within the confines of their close friendships. Therefore, therapeutic interventions at the level of the dyad may be indicated.

  7. Gene–Environment Interactions and Intermediate Phenotypes: Early Trauma and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Orla P.; Heim, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on current research developments in the study of gene by early life stress (ELS) interactions and depression. ELS refers to aversive experiences during childhood and adolescence such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse, emotional or physical neglect as well as parental loss. Previous research has focused on investigating and characterizing the specific role of ELS within the pathogenesis of depression and linking these findings to neurobiological changes of the brain, especially the stress response system. The latest findings highlight the role of genetic factors that increase vulnerability or, likewise, promote resilience to depression after childhood trauma. Considering intermediate phenotypes has further increased our understanding of the complex relationship between early trauma and depression. Recent findings with regard to epigenetic changes resulting from adverse environmental events during childhood promote current endeavors to identify specific target areas for prevention and treatment schemes regarding the long-term impact of ELS. Taken together, the latest research findings have underscored the essential role of genotypes and epigenetic processes within the development of depression after childhood trauma, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions. PMID:24596569

  8. Cultural innovation and megafauna interaction in the early settlement of arid Australia.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Giles; Mitchell, Peter; Arnold, Lee J; Prideaux, Gavin J; Questiaux, Daniele; Spooner, Nigel A; Levchenko, Vladimir A; Foley, Elizabeth C; Worthy, Trevor H; Stephenson, Birgitta; Coulthard, Vincent; Coulthard, Clifford; Wilton, Sophia; Johnston, Duncan

    2016-11-10

    Elucidating the material culture of early people in arid Australia and the nature of their environmental interactions is essential for understanding the adaptability of populations and the potential causes of megafaunal extinctions 50-40 thousand years ago (ka). Humans colonized the continent by 50 ka, but an apparent lack of cultural innovations compared to people in Europe and Africa has been deemed a barrier to early settlement in the extensive arid zone. Here we present evidence from Warratyi rock shelter in the southern interior that shows that humans occupied arid Australia by around 49 ka, 10 thousand years (kyr) earlier than previously reported. The site preserves the only reliably dated, stratified evidence of extinct Australian megafauna, including the giant marsupial Diprotodon optatum, alongside artefacts more than 46 kyr old. We also report on the earliest-known use of ochre in Australia and Southeast Asia (at or before 49-46 ka), gypsum pigment (40-33 ka), bone tools (40-38 ka), hafted tools (38-35 ka), and backed artefacts (30-24 ka), each up to 10 kyr older than any other known occurrence. Thus, our evidence shows that people not only settled in the arid interior within a few millennia of entering the continent, but also developed key technologies much earlier than previously recorded for Australia and Southeast Asia.

  9. Early interactions between leukocytes and three different potentially bioactive titanium surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Anna; Malmberg, Per; Kjellin, Per; Currie, Fredrik; Arvidsson, Martin; Franke Stenport, Victoria

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the early interactions between leukocytes and three different surface modifications, suggested as bioactive. Blasted titanium discs were modified by alkali and heat treatment, sodium fluoride treatment, or hydroxyapatite coating. A number of these discs were also immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for a week, a treatment which yielded high levels of calcium and phosphate on each surface type. The specimens were exposed for human venous blood for 32 minutes and the respiratory burst response was measured in terms of reactive oxygen species with a luminometer, and coverage of viable cells with a fluorescence microscope after staining steps. The topography, morphology, and chemistry of the surfaces were evaluated with optical interferometry and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). A high respiratory burst response was found for HA coated titanium in comparison with the other surface groups (p < 0.0005). The SBF immersion resulted in an increased respiratory burst response (p < 0.0005) and removed statistically significant differences between the surface groups. Thus, the results in the present study indicate that different titanium surface modifications influence the early inflammatory response differently, and that calcium phosphate compounds increase the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life. PMID:22743759

  11. Modeling carbon-nutrient interactions during the early recovery of tundra after fire.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yueyang; Rastetter, Edward B; Rocha, Adrian V; Pearce, Andrea R; Kwiatkowski, Bonnie L; Shaver, Gaius R

    2015-09-01

    Fire frequency has dramatically increased in the tundra of northern Alaska, USA, which has major implications for the carbon budget of the region and the functioning of these ecosystems, which support important wildlife species. We investigated the postfire succession of plant and soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) fluxes and stocks along a burn severity gradient in the 2007 Anaktuvuk River fire scar in northern Alaska. Modeling results indicated that the early regrowth of postfire tundra vegetation was limited primarily by its canopy photosynthetic potential, rather than nutrient availability, because of the initially low leaf area and relatively high inorganic N and P concentrations in soil. Our simulations indicated that the postfire recovery of tundra vegetation was sustained predominantly by the uptake of residual inorganic N (i.e., in the remaining ash), and the redistribution of N and P from soil organic matter to vegetation. Although residual nutrients in ash were higher in the severe burn than the moderate burn, the moderate burn recovered faster because of the higher remaining biomass and consequent photosynthetic potential. Residual nutrients in ash allowed both burn sites to recover and exceed the unburned site in both aboveground biomass and production five years after the fire. The investigation of interactions among postfire C, N, and P cycles has contributed to a mechanistic understanding of the response of tundra ecosystems to fire disturbance. Our study provided insight on how the trajectory of recovery of tundra from wildfire is regulated during early succession.

  12. Global analysis of host-pathogen interactions that regulate early stage HIV-1 replication

    PubMed Central

    König, Renate; Zhou, Yingyao; Elleder, Daniel; Diamond, Tracy L.; Bonamy, Ghislain M.C.; Irelan, Jeffrey T.; Chiang, Chih-yuan; Tu, Buu P.; De Jesus, Paul D.; Lilley, Caroline E.; Seidel, Shannon; Opaluch, Amanda M.; Caldwell, Jeremy S.; Weitzman, Matthew D.; Kuhen, Kelli L.; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ideker, Trey; Orth, Anthony P.; Miraglia, Loren J.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Young, John A.; Chanda, Sumit K.

    2008-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) rely upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate their replication. Here we combined genome-wide siRNA analyses with interrogation of human interactome databases to assemble a host-pathogen biochemical network containing 213 confirmed host cellular factors and 11 HIV-1-encoded proteins. Protein complexes that regulate ubiquitin conjugation, proteolysis, DNA damage response and RNA splicing were identified as important modulators of early stage HIV-1 infection. Additionally, over 40 new factors were shown to specifically influence initiation and/or kinetics of HIV-1 DNA synthesis, including cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, modulators of post-translational modification, and nucleic acid binding proteins. Finally, fifteen proteins with diverse functional roles, including nuclear transport, prostaglandin synthesis, ubiquitination, and transcription, were found to influence nuclear import or viral DNA integration. Taken together, the multi-scale approach described here has uncovered multiprotein virus-host interactions that likely act in concert to facilitate early steps of HIV-1 infection. PMID:18854154

  13. Parenting and the Family Check-Up: Changes in Observed Parent-Child Interaction Following Early Childhood Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gill, Anne; Dishion, Thomas; Winter, Charlotte; Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Coercion theory posits a cyclical relationship between harsh and coercive parent–child interactions and problem behavior beginning in early childhood. As coercive interactions have been theorized and found to facilitate the development and growth of early conduct problems, early interventions often target parenting to prevent or reduce early disruptive problem behavior. This study utilizes direct observations of parent–child interactions from the Early Steps Multisite study (N = 731; 369 boys) to examine the effect of the Family Check-Up, a family-centered intervention program, on measures of parent–child positive engagement and coercion from age 2 through 5, as well as on childhood problem behavior at age 5. Results indicate that high levels of parent–child positive engagement were associated with less parent–child coercion the following year, but dyadic coercion was unrelated to future levels of positive engagement. In addition, families assigned to the Family Check-Up showed increased levels of positive engagement at ages 3 and 5, and the association between positive engagement at age 3 and child problem behavior at age 5 was mediated by reductions in parent–child coercion at age 4. These findings provide longitudinal confirmation that increasing positive engagement in parent–child interaction can reduce the likelihood of coercive family dynamics in early childhood and growth in problem behavior. PMID:25133754

  14. Parenting and the Family Check-Up: Changes in Observed Parent-Child Interaction Following Early Childhood Intervention.

    PubMed

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Gill, Anne; Dishion, Thomas; Winter, Charlotte; Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Coercion theory posits a cyclical relationship between harsh and coercive parent-child interactions and problem behavior beginning in early childhood. As coercive interactions have been theorized and found to facilitate the development and growth of early conduct problems, early interventions often target parenting to prevent or reduce early disruptive problem behavior. This study utilizes direct observations of parent-child interactions from the Early Steps Multisite study (N = 731; 369 boys) to examine the effect of the Family Check-Up, a family-centered intervention program, on measures of parent-child positive engagement and coercion from age 2 through 5, as well as on childhood problem behavior at age 5. Results indicate that high levels of parent-child positive engagement were associated with less parent-child coercion the following year, but dyadic coercion was unrelated to future levels of positive engagement. In addition, families assigned to the Family Check-Up showed increased levels of positive engagement at ages 3 and 5, and the association between positive engagement at age 3 and child problem behavior at age 5 was mediated by reductions in parent-child coercion at age 4. These findings provide longitudinal confirmation that increasing positive engagement in parent-child interaction can reduce the likelihood of coercive family dynamics in early childhood and growth in problem behavior.

  15. Evidence of an IFN-γ by early life stress interaction in the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Redlich, Ronny; Stacey, David; Opel, Nils; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-12-01

    Since numerous studies have found that exposure to early life stress leads to increased peripheral inflammation and psychiatric disease, it is thought that peripheral immune activation precedes and possibly mediates the onset of stress-associated psychiatric disease. Despite early studies, IFNγ has received little attention relative to other inflammatory cytokines in the context of the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Neuroimaging endophenotypes have emerged recently as a promising means of elucidating these types of complex relationships including the modeling of the interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Here we investigate the GxE relationship between early-life stress and genetic variants of IFNγ on emotion processing. To investigate the impact of the relationship between genetic variants of IFNγ (rs1861494, rs2069718, rs2430561) and early life stress on emotion processing, a sample of healthy adults (n=409) undergoing an emotional faces paradigm in an fMRI study were genotyped and analysed. Information on early life stress was obtained via Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). A positive association between early life stress and amygdala reactivity was found. Specifically, the main effect of genotype of rs1861494 on amygdala reactivity indicates a higher neural response in C allele carriers compared to T homozygotes, while we did not find main effects of rs2069718 and rs2430561. Importantly, interaction analyses revealed a specific interaction between IFNγ genotype (rs1861494) and early life stress affecting amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, resulting from a positive association between CTQ scores and amygdala reactivity in C allele carriers while this association was absent in T homozygotes. Our findings indicate that firstly the genetic variant of IFNγ (rs1861494) is involved with the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli and secondly, that this genetic variant moderates effects of early life

  16. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT-INFANT INTERACTION.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.

  17. The impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, and family social interactions.

    PubMed

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics such as size and durability. The participants were parents of 23 children with disabilities-10 with orthopedic disabilities (average age 30.1 months) and 13 with cerebral palsy (average age 47.0 months). Pretest assessments were completed two times: at initial wheelchair evaluation and at wheelchair delivery. A posttest assessment was completed after each child had used the wheelchair for 4-6 months. Parents reported a lower perceived level of stress at the time of wheelchair delivery, although the magnitude of this effect was fairly small, standardized mean difference (δ) = .27. They also reported an increased satisfaction with their child's social and play skills (δ = .38), ability to go where desired (δ = .86), sleep/wake pattern (δ = .61), and belief that the general public accepts their child (δ = .39) after several months using the wheelchair. Parents reported an increase in interactions within the family at the time of wheelchair delivery (δ = .66). There was no decrease in negative emotions. Parents were satisfied with most factors relating to the wheelchair itself, with areas of concern being wheelchair size and difficulty adjusting the wheelchair. The findings suggest that self-initiated powered mobility for a young child had a positive impact on the family.

  18. Interdisciplinary Interactions During R&D and Early Design of Large Engineered Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    2014-01-01

    Designing Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems (LaCES) such as aircraft and submarines requires the input of thousands of engineers and scientists whose work is proximate in neither time nor space. Comprehensive knowledge of the system is dispersed among specialists whose expertise is in typically one system component or discipline. This study examined the interactive work practices among such specialists seeking to improve engineering practice through a rigorous and theoretical understanding of current practice. This research explored current interdisciplinary practices and perspectives during R&D and early LaCES design and identified why these practices and perspectives prevail and persist. The research design consisted of a three-fold, integrative approach that combined an open-ended survey, semi-structured interviews, and ethnography. Significant empirical data from experienced engineers and scientists in a large engineering organization were obtained and integrated with theories from organization science and engineering. Qualitative analysis was used to obtain a holistic, contextualized understanding. The over-arching finding is that issues related to cognition, organization, and social interrelations mostly dominate interactions across disciplines. Engineering issues, such as the integration of hardware or physics-based models, are not as significant. For example, organization culture is an important underlying factor that guided researchers more toward individual sovereignty over cross-disciplinarity. The organization structure and the engineered system architecture also serve as constraints to the engineering work. Many differences in work practices were observed, including frequency and depth of interactions, definition or co-construction of requirements, clarity or creation of the system architecture, work group proximity, and cognitive challenges. Practitioners are often unaware of these differences resulting in confusion and incorrect assumptions

  19. Nurse Home Visits Improve Maternal-Infant Interaction and Decrease Severity of Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, June Andrews; Murphy, Christine A.; Gregory, Katherine; Wojcik, Joanne; Pulcini, Joyce; Solon, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the efficacy of the relationship-focused behavioral coaching intervention Communicating and Relating Effectively (CARE) in increasing maternal-infant relational effectiveness between depressed mothers and their infants during the first nine months postpartum. Design Randomized clinical trial (RCT) with three phases. Methods In this three-phase study, women were screened for postpartum depression (PPD) in Phase I at 6 weeks postpartum. In Phase II, women were randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions and maternal-infant interaction was video-recorded at four intervals postpartum: 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months. Phase III involved focus group and individual interviews with study participants. Setting Phase I mothers were recruited from obstetric units of two major medical centers. Phase II involved the RCT, a series of nurse-led home visits beginning at 6 weeks and ending at 9 months postpartum. Phase III focus groups were conducted at the university and personal interviews were conducted by telephone or in participants’ homes. Participants Postpartum mother-infant dyads (134) representative of southeastern New England, United States participated in the RCT. One hundred and twenty-five mother-infant dyads were fully retained in the 9-month protocol. Results Treatment and control groups had significant increases in quality of mother-infant interaction and decreases in depression severity. Qualitative findings indicated presence of the nurse, empathic listening, focused attention and self-reflection during data collection, directions for video-recorded interaction, and assistance with referrals likely contributed to improvements for both groups. Conclusions Efficacy of the CARE intervention was only partially supported. Nurse attention given to the control group and the data collection process likely confounded results and constituted an unintentional treatment. Results suggest that nurse-led home visits had a positive effect

  20. Taking Up an Active Role: Emerging Participation in Early Mother–Infant Interaction during Peekaboo Routines

    PubMed Central

    Nomikou, Iris; Leonardi, Giuseppe; Radkowska, Alicja; Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Rohlfing, Katharina J.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamical systems approaches to social coordination underscore how participants' local actions give rise to and maintain global interactive patterns and how, in turn, they are also shaped by them. Developmental research can deliver important insights into both processes: (1) the stabilization of ways of interacting, and (2) the gradual shaping of the agentivity of the individuals. In this article we propose that infants' agentivity develops out of participation, i.e., acting a part in an interaction system. To investigate this development this article focuses on the ways in which participation in routinized episodes may shape infant's agentivity in social events. In contrast to existing research addressing more advanced forms of participating in social routines, our goal was to assess infants' early participation as evidence of infants' agentivity. In our study, 19 Polish mother–infant dyads were filmed playing peekaboo when the infants were 4 and 6 months of age. We operationalized infants' participation in the peekaboo in terms of their use of various behaviors across modalities during specific phases of the game: We included smiles, vocalizations, and attempts to cover and uncover themselves or their mothers. We hypothesized that infants and mothers would participate actively in the routine by regulating their behavior so as to adhere to the routine format. Furthermore, we hypothesized that infants who experienced more scaffolding would be able to adopt a more active role in the routine. We operationalized scaffolding as mothers' use of specific peekaboo structures that allowed infants to anticipate when it was their turn to act. Results suggested that infants as young as 4 months of age engaged in peekaboo and took up turns in the game, and that their participation increased at 6 months of age. Crucially, our results suggest that infants' behavior was organized by the global structure of the peekaboo game, because smiles, vocalizations, and attempts to

  1. The long-term impact of early life poverty on orbitofrontal cortex volume in adulthood: results from a prospective study over 25 years.

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Converging evidence has highlighted the association between poverty and conduct disorder (CD) without specifying neurobiological pathways. Neuroimaging research has emphasized structural and functional alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as one key mechanism underlying this disorder. The present study aimed to clarify the long-term influence of early poverty on OFC volume and its association with CD symptoms in healthy participants of an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth. At age 25 years, voxel-based morphometry was applied to study brain volume differences. Poverty (0=non-exposed (N=134), 1=exposed (N=33)) and smoking during pregnancy were determined using a standardized parent interview, and information on maternal responsiveness was derived from videotaped mother-infant interactions at the age of 3 months. CD symptoms were assessed by diagnostic interview from 8 to 19 years of age. Information on life stress was acquired at each assessment and childhood maltreatment was measured using retrospective self-report at the age of 23 years. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental psychopathology and delinquency, obstetric adversity, parental education, and current poverty. Individuals exposed to early life poverty exhibited a lower OFC volume. Moreover, we replicated previous findings of increased CD symptoms as a consequence of childhood poverty. This effect proved statistically mediated by OFC volume and exposure to life stress and smoking during pregnancy, but not by childhood maltreatment and maternal responsiveness. These findings underline the importance of studying the impact of early life adversity on brain alterations and highlight the need for programs to decrease income-related disparities.

  2. Breastmilk-Saliva Interactions Boost Innate Immunity by Regulating the Oral Microbiome in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehri, Saad S.; Knox, Christine L.; Liley, Helen G.; Cowley, David M.; Wright, John R.; Henman, Michael G.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Charles, Bruce G.; Shaw, Paul N.; Sweeney, Emma L.; Duley, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Xanthine oxidase (XO) is distributed in mammals largely in the liver and small intestine, but also is highly active in milk where it generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Adult human saliva is low in hypoxanthine and xanthine, the substrates of XO, and high in the lactoperoxidase substrate thiocyanate, but saliva of neonates has not been examined. Results Median concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine in neonatal saliva (27 and 19 μM respectively) were ten-fold higher than in adult saliva (2.1 and 1.7 μM). Fresh breastmilk contained 27.3±12.2 μM H2O2 but mixing baby saliva with breastmilk additionally generated >40 μM H2O2, sufficient to inhibit growth of the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Oral peroxidase activity in neonatal saliva was variable but low (median 7 U/L, range 2–449) compared to adults (620 U/L, 48–1348), while peroxidase substrate thiocyanate in neonatal saliva was surprisingly high. Baby but not adult saliva also contained nucleosides and nucleobases that encouraged growth of the commensal bacteria Lactobacillus, but inhibited opportunistic pathogens; these nucleosides/bases may also promote growth of immature gut cells. Transition from neonatal to adult saliva pattern occurred during the weaning period. A survey of saliva from domesticated mammals revealed wide variation in nucleoside/base patterns. Discussion and Conclusion During breast-feeding, baby saliva reacts with breastmilk to produce reactive oxygen species, while simultaneously providing growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays more than a simply nutritional role in mammals, interacting with infant saliva to produce a potent combination of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral–and hence gut–microbiota. Consequently, milk-saliva mixing appears to represent unique biochemical synergism which boosts early innate immunity. PMID:26325665

  3. Interactions of non-detergent sulfobetaines with early folding intermediates facilitate in vitro protein renaturation.

    PubMed

    Vuillard, L; Rabilloud, T; Goldberg, M E

    1998-08-15

    Non-detergent sulfobetaines (NDSB) are a family of solubilizing and stabilizing agents for proteins. In a previous study [Goldberg, M. E., Expert-Bezancon, N., Vuillard, L. & Rabilloud, T. (1996) Folding & Design 1, 21-27] we showed that the amount of active protein recovered in in vitro folding experiments could be significantly increased by some NDSBS. In this work we investigated the mechanisms by which these molecules facilitate protein renaturation. Stopped-flow and manual-mixing fluorescence and enzyme activity measurements were used to compare the kinetics of protein folding in the presence and absence of N-phenyl-methyl-N,N-dimethylammonium-propane-sulfonate (NDSB 256). Hen lysozyme and the beta2 subunit of Escherichia coli tryptophan synthase were chosen as model systems since their folding pathways had been previously investigated in detail. It is shown that, massive aggregation of tryptophan synthase occurs within less than 2.5 s after dilution in the renaturation buffer, but can be prevented by NDSB 256; only very early folding phases (such as the formation of a loosely packed hydrophobic core able to bind 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulphonic acid, and the initial burying of tryptophan 177) are significantly altered by NDSB 256; none of the later phases is affected. Furthermore, NDSB 256 did not significantly affect any of the kinetic phases observed during the refolding of denatured lysozyme retaining intact disulphide bonds. This shows that NDSB 256 only interferes with very early steps in the folding process and acts by limiting the abortive interactions that could lead to the formation of inactive aggregates.

  4. Interactions of sex and early life social experiences at two developmental stages shape nonapeptide receptor profiles.

    PubMed

    Hiura, Lisa C; Ophir, Alexander G

    2018-05-31

    Early life social experiences are critical to behavioral and cognitive development, and can have a tremendous influence on developing social phenotypes. Most work has focused on outcomes of experiences at a single stage of development (e.g., perinatal, or post-weaning). Few studies have assessed the impact of social experience at multiple developmental stages and across sex. Oxytocin and vasopressin are profoundly important for modulating social behavior and these nonapeptide systems are highly sensitive to developmental social experience, particularly in brain areas important for social behavior. We investigated whether oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor (V1aR) distributions of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) change as a function of parental composition within the natal nest or social composition after weaning. We raised pups either in the presence or absence of their fathers. At weaning, offspring were housed either individually or with a same-sex sibling. We also examined whether changes in receptor distributions are sexually dimorphic because the impact of the developmental environment on the nonapeptide system could be sex-dependent. We found that differences in nonapeptide receptor expression were region-, sex-, and rearing condition-specific, indicating a high level of complexity in the ways that early life experiences shape the social brain. We found many more differences in V1aR density compared to OTR density, indicating that nonapeptide receptors demonstrate differential levels of neural plasticity and sensitivity to environmental and biological variables. Our data highlight that critical factors including biological sex and multiple experiences across the developmental continuum interact in complex ways to shape the social brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Difficulties with Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology Interact to Predict Early Smoking Cessation Lapse

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    There is little knowledge about how emotion regulation difficulties interplay with psychopathology in terms of smoking cessation. Participants (n = 250; 53.2 % female, Mage = 39.5, SD = 13.85) were community-recruited daily smokers (≥8 cigarettes per day) who self-reported motivation to quit smoking; 38.8 % of the sample met criteria for a current (past 12-month) psychological disorder. Emotion regulation deficits were assessed pre-quit using the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer in J Psychopathol Behav Assess 26(1):41–54, 2004) and smoking behavior in the 28 days post-quit was assessed using the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB; Sobell and Sobell in Measuring alcohol consumption: psychosocial and biochemical methods. Humana Press, Totowa, 1992). A Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to model the effects of past-year psychopathology, DERS (total score), and their interaction, in terms of time to lapse post-quit day. After adjusting for the effects of gender, age, pre-quit level of nicotine dependence, and treatment condition, the model revealed a non-significant effect of past-year psychopathology (OR = 1.14, CI95 % = 0.82–1.61) and difficulties with emotion regulation (OR = 1.01, CI95 % = 1.00–1.01) on likelihood of lapse rate. However, the interactive effect of psychopathology status and difficulties with emotion regulation was significant (OR = 0.98, CI95 % = 0.97–0.99). Specifically, there was a significant conditional effect of psychopathology status on lapse rate likelihood at low, but not high, levels of emotion regulation difficulties. Plots of the cumulative survival functions indicated that for smokers without a past-year psychological disorder, those with lower DERS scores relative to elevated DERS scores had significantly lower likelihood of early smoking lapse, whereas for smokers with past-year psychopathology, DERS scores did not differentially impact lapse rate likelihood. Smokers with emotion

  6. Difficulties with Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology Interact to Predict Early Smoking Cessation Lapse.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-06-01

    There is little knowledge about how emotion regulation difficulties interplay with psychopathology in terms of smoking cessation. Participants ( n = 250; 53.2 % female, M age = 39.5, SD = 13.85) were community-recruited daily smokers (≥8 cigarettes per day) who self-reported motivation to quit smoking; 38.8 % of the sample met criteria for a current (past 12-month) psychological disorder. Emotion regulation deficits were assessed pre-quit using the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer in J Psychopathol Behav Assess 26(1):41-54, 2004) and smoking behavior in the 28 days post-quit was assessed using the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB; Sobell and Sobell in Measuring alcohol consumption: psychosocial and biochemical methods. Humana Press, Totowa, 1992). A Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to model the effects of past-year psychopathology, DERS (total score), and their interaction, in terms of time to lapse post-quit day. After adjusting for the effects of gender, age, pre-quit level of nicotine dependence, and treatment condition, the model revealed a non-significant effect of past-year psychopathology ( OR = 1.14, CI 95 % = 0.82-1.61) and difficulties with emotion regulation ( OR = 1.01, CI 95 % = 1.00-1.01) on likelihood of lapse rate. However, the interactive effect of psychopathology status and difficulties with emotion regulation was significant ( OR = 0.98, CI 95 % = 0.97-0.99). Specifically, there was a significant conditional effect of psychopathology status on lapse rate likelihood at low, but not high, levels of emotion regulation difficulties. Plots of the cumulative survival functions indicated that for smokers without a past-year psychological disorder, those with lower DERS scores relative to elevated DERS scores had significantly lower likelihood of early smoking lapse, whereas for smokers with past-year psychopathology, DERS scores did not differentially impact lapse rate likelihood. Smokers with emotion

  7. The Low-luminosity Type IIP Supernova 2016bkv with Early-phase Circumstellar Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Kawabata, Koji S.; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Moriya, Takashi J.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Kawahara, Naoki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Shiki, Kensei; Mori, Hiroki; Hirochi, Jun; Abe, Taisei; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Moritani, Yuki; Ueno, Issei; Urano, Takeshi; Isogai, Mizuki; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of a low-luminosity (LL) Type IIP supernova (SN) 2016bkv from the initial rising phase to the plateau phase. Our observations show that the end of the plateau is extended to ≳140 days since the explosion, indicating that this SN takes one of the longest times to finish the plateau phase among Type IIP SNe (SNe IIP), including LL SNe IIP. The line velocities of various ions at the middle of the plateau phase are as low as 1000–1500 km s‑1, which is the lowest even among LL SNe IIP. These measurements imply that the ejecta mass in SN 2016bkv is larger than that of the well-studied LL IIP SN 2003Z. In the early phase, SN 2016bkv shows a strong bump in the light curve. In addition, the optical spectra in this bump phase exhibit a blue continuum accompanied by a narrow Hα emission line. These features indicate an interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM) as in SNe IIn. Assuming the ejecta–CSM interaction scenario, the mass loss rate is estimated to be ∼ 1.7× {10}-2 {M}ȯ yr‑1 within a few years before the SN explosion. This is comparable to or even larger than the largest mass loss rate observed for the Galactic red supergiants (∼ {10}-3 {M}ȯ yr‑1 for VY CMa). We suggest that the progenitor star of SN 2016bkv experienced a violent mass loss just before the SN explosion.

  8. MAOA-uVNTR and early physical discipline interact to influence delinquent behavior.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexis C; Dodge, Kenneth A; Latendresse, Shawn J; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Budde, John P; Goate, Alison M; Dick, Danielle M

    2010-06-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002; Kim-Cohen et al., 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N = 250) by parent, teacher, and self-report using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype.

  9. MAOA uVNTR and Early Physical Discipline Interact to Influence Delinquent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Budde, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Dick, Danielle M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002, Kim-Cohen et al. 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. Method This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N=250) by parent, teacher, and self report using Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. Results We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. Conclusion The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype. PMID:19951362

  10. [Depressed mothers: the impact of depression on early interactions. An analysis of Anglo-Saxon studies].

    PubMed

    Guedeney, N

    1993-10-01

    Maternal depression remains a public health problem as indicated by many studies focusing on depression in mothers of young children. Although the high prevalence of depression in mothers of infants and young children is now a recognized fact, the detection and management of maternal depression in everyday practice still raises significant problems. This initial review centers on studies providing diagnostic guidelines. The problem of maternal depression and of its impact on the offspring is relevant to the issue of how qualities, abilities, and vulnerabilities are transmitted from one generation to the next. Psychoanalysts, infant psychiatrists, and developmental psychologists show great interest in this field. The current review was restricted to recent Anglo-Saxon studies on depression-related changes in early maternal behavior. The most striking findings are as follows: although depression affects maternal behavior overall, there is considerable variation across mothers; timing alterations (in terms of micro and macro sequences) in mother-child interactions occur in every case and are among the obstacles to harmony and synchronization; subtle alterations in the mother's response to her baby's signals preclude flexibility and anticipation.

  11. Nonassociative Plasticity Alters Competitive Interactions Among Mixture Components In Early Olfactory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Fernando F; Fernandez, Patricia C; Villareal, Francis; Muezzinoglu, Kerem; Huerta, Ramon; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Smith, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Experience related plasticity is an essential component of networks involved in early olfactory processing. However, the mechanisms and functions of plasticity in these neural networks are not well understood. We studied nonassociative plasticity by evaluating responses to two pure odors (A and X) and their binary mixture using calcium imaging of odor elicited activity in output neurons of the honey bee antennal lobe. Unreinforced exposure to A or X produced no change in the neural response elicited by the pure odors. However, exposure to one odor (e.g. A) caused the response to the mixture to become more similar to the other component (X). We also show in behavioral analyses that unreinforced exposure to A caused the mixture to become perceptually more similar to X. These results suggest that nonassociative plasticity modifies neural networks in such a way that it affects local competitive interactions among mixture components. We used a computational model to evaluate the most likely targets for modification. Hebbian modification of synapses from inhibitory local interneurons to projection neurons most reliably produces the observed shift in response to the mixture. These results are consistent with a model in which the antennal lobe acts to filter olfactory information according to its relevance for performing a particular task. PMID:23167675

  12. Dyssynchrony and perinatal psychopathology impact of child disease on parents-child interactions, the paradigm of Prader Willi syndrom.

    PubMed

    Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Guedeney, Antoine; Diene, Gwenaelle; Çabal-Berthoumieu, Sophie; Fichaux-Bourin, Pascale; Molinas, Catherine; Faye, Sandy; Valette, Marion; Bascoul, Céline; Cohen, David; Tauber, Maïthé

    2016-11-01

    Infant-mother interaction is a set of bidirectional processes, where the baby is not only affected by the influences of his caregiver, but is also at the origin of considerable modifications. The recent discovery of biological correlates of synchrony during interaction validated its crucial value during child development. Here, we focus on the paradigmatic case of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) where early endocrinal dysfunction is associated with severe hypotonia and early feeding disorder. As a consequence, parent-infant interaction is impaired. In a recent study (Tauber et al., 2017), OXT intranasal infusion was able to partially reverse the feeding phenotype, infant's behavior and brain connectivity. This article details the interaction profile found during feeding in these dyads and their improvement after OXT treatment. Eighteen infants (≤6months) with PWS were recruited and hospitalized 9days in a French reference center for PWS where they were treated with a short course of intranasal OXT. Social withdrawal behavior and mother-infant interaction were assessed on videos of feeding before and after treatment using the Alarm Distress Baby (ADBB) Scale and the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) Scale. Raters were blind to treatment status. At baseline, infants with PWS showed hypotonia, low expressiveness of affects, fatigability and poor involvement in the relationship with severe withdrawal. Parents tended to adapt to their child difficulties, but the interaction was perturbed, tense, restricted and frequently intrusive with a forcing component during the feeding situation. After OXT treatment, infants were more alert, less fatigable, more expressive, and had less social withdrawal. They initiated mutual activities and were more engaged in relationships through gaze, behavior, and vocalizations. They had a better global tonicity with better handling. These modifications helped the parents to be more sensitive and the synchrony of the dyad was in a positive

  13. Revisiting a Progressive Pedagogy. The Developmental-Interaction Approach. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education: Inquiries and Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nager, Nancy, Ed.; Shapiro, Edna K., Ed.

    This book reviews the history of the developmental-interactive approach, a formulation rooted in developmental psychology and educational practice, progressively informing educational thinking since the early 20th century. The book describes and analyzes key assumptions and assesses the compatibility of new theoretical approaches, focuses on…

  14. Early Adverse Environments and Genetic Influences on Age at First Sex: Evidence for Gene × Environment Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marie D.; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige

    2014-01-01

    Youth who experience adverse environments in early life initiate sexual activity at a younger age, on average, than those from more advantaged circumstances. Evolutionary theorists have posited that ecological stress precipitates earlier reproductive and sexual onset, but it is unclear how stressful environments interact with genetic influences on…

  15. Early Social Interaction Project for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Beginning in the Second Year of Life: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherby, Amy M.; Woods, Juliann J.

    2006-01-01

    The Early Social Interaction (ESI) Project (Woods & Wetherby, 2003) was designed to apply the recommendations of the National Research Council (2001) to toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by using a parent-implemented intervention that (a) embeds naturalistic teaching strategies in everyday routines and (b) is compatible with the…

  16. Enhancing Peer Interaction: An Aspect of a High-Quality Learning Environment in Finnish Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrjämäki, Marja; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Alijoki, Alisa; Nislin, Mari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the pedagogical learning environment in early childhood special education (ECSE). The theoretical framework is based on a conception of interaction being as well a basic human need as, according to sociocultural theories, the basis of learning. Our study was conducted in ECSE kindergarten groups (N = 17)…

  17. Authentic Early Experience in Medical Education: A Socio-Cultural Analysis Identifying Important Variables in Learning Interactions within Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question "what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?" AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually…

  18. Video interaction guidance inviting transcendence of postpartum depressed mothers' self-centered state and holding behavior.

    PubMed

    Vik, Kari; Braten, Stein

    2009-05-01

    By sometimes evoking self-absorbed and avoidance behaviors in new mothers, postnatal depression affects the quality of mother-infant interaction, which in turn may invoke distress and avoidance in the infant and cause even more lasting impairment in the child's development. Three depressed mothers, A, B, and C, are reported upon after having been offered counseling in accordance with the Marte Meo approach through jointly watching with the therapist video replays of themselves interacting with their newborns. Clinical vignettes are offered which indicate how empathic and positive support of a sensitive therapist can be helpful in inviting the mother's recognition of her importance to her infant and facilitating mutually gratifying interaction between mother and child. Protocol analyses of select sessions of video-related therapy reveal that two of the mothers sometimes complete the therapist's unfinished statements in an other-centered manner, thereby transcending their initial self-centered state. This is most dramatic in the case of Mother A, who starts out in the first session almost incapable of speech, merely nodding or shaking her head. In addition to other indications of improved mother-infant interaction, comparison of pre- and postguidance windows regarding the three mothers' holding behaviors reveals a shift from an avoidance or anxious stance to closer and more secure holding. Copyright © 2009 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Mental health and social networks in early adolescence: a dynamic study of objectively-measured social interaction behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Mark C; Ozer, Emily J; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    How are social interaction dynamics associated with mental health during early stages of adolescence? The goal of this study is to objectively measure social interactions and evaluate the roles that multiple aspects of the social environment--such as physical activity and food choice--may jointly play in shaping the structure of children's relationships and their mental health. The data in this study are drawn from a longitudinal network-behavior study conducted in 2012 at a private K-8 school in an urban setting in California. We recruited a highly complete network sample of sixth-graders (n = 40, 91% of grade, mean age = 12.3), and examined how two measures of distressed mental health (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) are positionally distributed in an early adolescent interaction network. We ascertained how distressed mental health shapes the structure of relationships over a three-month period, adjusting for relevant dimensions of the social environment. Cross-sectional analyses of interaction networks revealed that self-esteem and depressive symptoms are differentially stratified by gender. Specifically, girls with more depressive symptoms have interactions consistent with social inhibition, while boys' interactions suggest robustness to depressive symptoms. Girls higher in self-esteem tended towards greater sociability. Longitudinal network behavior models indicate that gender similarity and perceived popularity are influential in the formation of social ties. Greater school connectedness predicts the development of self-esteem, though social ties contribute to more self-esteem improvement among students who identify as European-American. Cross-sectional evidence shows associations between distressed mental health and students' network peers. However, there is no evidence that connected students' mental health status becomes more similar in their over time because of their network interactions. These findings suggest that mental health during early

  20. Constraining early and interacting dark energy with gravitational wave standard sirens: the potential of the eLISA mission

    SciT

    Caprini, Chiara; Tamanini, Nicola, E-mail: chiara.caprini@cea.fr, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr

    We perform a forecast analysis of the capability of the eLISA space-based interferometer to constrain models of early and interacting dark energy using gravitational wave standard sirens. We employ simulated catalogues of standard sirens given by merging massive black hole binaries visible by eLISA, with an electromagnetic counterpart detectable by future telescopes. We consider three-arms mission designs with arm length of 1, 2 and 5 million km, 5 years of mission duration and the best-level low frequency noise as recently tested by the LISA Pathfinder. Standard sirens with eLISA give access to an intermediate range of redshift 1 ∼< zmore » ∼< 8, and can therefore provide competitive constraints on models where the onset of the deviation from ΛCDM (i.e. the epoch when early dark energy starts to be non-negligible, or when the interaction with dark matter begins) occurs relatively late, at z ∼< 6. If instead early or interacting dark energy is relevant already in the pre-recombination era, current cosmological probes (especially the cosmic microwave background) are more efficient than eLISA in constraining these models, except possibly in the interacting dark energy model if the energy exchange is proportional to the energy density of dark energy.« less

  1. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, E R; Anderson, G C; Bergman, N

    2007-07-18

    Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, covered across the back with a warm blanket, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically 'sensitive period' for programming future behavior. To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, behavior, and physiological adaptation in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's and Neonatal Group's Trials Registers (August 2006), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1976 to 2006). Randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Thirty studies involving 1925 participants (mother-infant dyads), were included. Data from more than two trials were available for only 8-of-64 outcome measures. We found statistically significant and positive effects of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (10 trials; 552 participants) (odds ratio (OR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 3.07), and breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (weighted mean difference (WMD) 42.55, 95% CI -1.69 to 86.79). Trends were found for improved summary scores for maternal affectionate love/touch during observed breastfeeding (four trials; 314 participants) (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.52, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98) and maternal attachment behavior (six trials; 396 participants) (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.72) with early SSC. SSC infants cried for a shorter length of time (one trial; 44 participants) (WMD -8.01, 95% CI -8.98 to -7.04). Late preterm infants had

  2. Effects of parenting role and parent-child interaction on infant motor development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Dai-Chan; Lee, Chun-Yang; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have rarely focused on healthy infants' motor development, and nationwide birth cohort studies in Taiwan are limited. It has been shown that parent-child interactions significantly influence infant motor development and the effect of mother-infant attachment on infant development is stronger than father-infant attachment. However, it is not well understood that whether the mother-infant or father-infant interaction has the confounding effect on infant motor development. To understand healthy infant motor development in Taiwan; and to investigate the effects of parenting roles and parent-child interactions on infant motor development. Data were derived from the 1st through the 2nd waves of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Pilot Database. Infants were classified into two categories (complete or incomplete development) according to their developmental milestones. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random effects models were used to clarify the possible long-term effects. The rate of infants who completed development in 6 months was 30.50%; however the rate was increased in 18 month-old children (80.01%). A mother's perceived infant care competence was the most important factor for infant motor development. "Whether or not the infant was the only baby in the family" and "parent-child interaction" had slightly significant effect on infant motor development. In conclusion, the mother's perceived competence must be strengthened and parent-infant interactions should be emphasized on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Authentic early experience in Medical Education: a socio-cultural analysis identifying important variables in learning interactions within workplaces.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the question 'what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?' AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually orientated to a socio-cultural perspective. Study participants were recruited from three groups at one UK medical school: students, workplace supervisors, and medical school faculty. A series of intersecting spectra identified in the data describe dyadic variables that make explicit the parameters within which social interactions are conducted in this setting. Four of the spectra describe social processes related to being in workplaces and developing the ability to manage interactions during authentic early experiences. These are: (1) legitimacy expressed through invited participation or exclusion; (2) finding a role-a spectrum from student identity to doctor mindset; (3) personal perspectives and discomfort in transition from lay to medical; and, (4) taking responsibility for 'risk'-moving from aversion to management through graded progression of responsibility. Four further spectra describe educational consequences of social interactions. These spectra identify how the reality of learning is shaped through social interactions and are (1) generic-specific objectives, (2) parallel-integrated-learning, (3) context specific-transferable learning and (4) performing or simulating-reality. Attention to these variables is important if educators are to maximise constructive learning from AEE. Application of each of the spectra could assist workplace supervisors to maximise the positive learning potential of specific workplaces.

  4. Dyadic Coregulation and Deviant Talk in Adolescent Friendships: Interaction Patterns Associated With Problematic Substance Use in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention synchrony). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, deviant content in adolescent interactions at age 16–17 years was strongly predictive of problematic use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana at ages 22 and 23. Although dyadic coregulation was not directly predictive of early adulthood substance use, it did moderate the impact of deviant talk within the dyad on future alcohol and marijuana use. For these substances, high levels of dyadic coregulation increased the risk associated with high levels of deviant talk for problematic use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. The results suggest that these interpersonal dynamics are associated with developmental trajectories of risk for or resilience to peer influence processes. PMID:24188039

  5. Dyadic coregulation and deviant talk in adolescent friendships: interaction patterns associated with problematic substance use in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Piehler, Timothy F; Dishion, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention synchrony). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, deviant content in adolescent interactions at age 16-17 years was strongly predictive of problematic use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana at ages 22 and 23. Although dyadic coregulation was not directly predictive of early adulthood substance use, it did moderate the impact of deviant talk within the dyad on future alcohol and marijuana use. For these substances, high levels of dyadic coregulation increased the risk associated with high levels of deviant talk for problematic use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. The results suggest that these interpersonal dynamics are associated with developmental trajectories of risk for or resilience to peer influence processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. After Early Autism Diagnosis: Changes in Intervention and Parent-Child Interaction.

    PubMed

    Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L; Abrams, Danielle N

    2016-08-01

    This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD risk during a well-baby checkup. Children diagnosed with ASD (n = 44) were 2.69 times more likely to increase intervention hours. After ASD diagnosis, the relation between intervention and interaction quality was complex: although increases in intervention and interaction quality were only modestly related, the overall amount of intervention after diagnosis was associated with higher quality interactions. Moreover, lower quality interactions before diagnosis significantly increased the likelihood that intervention would increase post-diagnosis.

  7. Risk factors for early lactation problems among Peruvian primiparous mothers.

    PubMed

    Matias, Susana L; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for early lactation problems [suboptimal infant breastfeeding behaviour (SIBB), delayed onset of lactogenesis (OL) and excessive neonatal weight loss] among mother-infant pairs in Lima, Peru. All primiparous mothers who gave birth to a healthy, single, term infant at a government hospital in a peri-urban area of Lima during the 8-month recruitment period were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected at the hospital (day 0) and during a home visit (day 3). Infant breastfeeding behaviour was evaluated using the Infant Breastfeeding Assessment Tool; SIBB was defined as < or = 10 score. OL was determined by maternal report of breast fullness changes; delayed OL was defined as perceived after 72 h. Excessive neonatal weight loss was defined as > or = 10% of birthweight by day 3. One hundred seventy-one mother-infant pairs participated in the study. SIBB prevalence was 52% on day 0 and 21% on day 3; it was associated with male infant gender (day 0), < 8 breastfeeds during the first 24 h (days 0 and 3), and gestational age < 39 weeks (day 3). Delayed OL incidence was 17% and was associated with infant Apgar score < 8. Excessive neonatal weight loss occurred in 10% of neonates and was associated with maternal overweight and Caesarean-section delivery. Early lactation problems may be influenced by modifiable factors such as delivery mode and breastfeeding frequency. Infant status at birth and maternal characteristics could indicate when breastfeeding dyads need extra support.

  8. Single-virus tracking approach to reveal the interaction of Dengue virus with autophagy during the early stage of infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Li-Wei; Huang, Yi-Lung; Lee, Jin-Hui; Huang, Long-Ying; Chen, Wei-Jun; Lin, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Jyun-Yu; Xiang, Rui; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Ping, Yueh-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious pathogens worldwide. DENV infection is a highly dynamic process. Currently, no antiviral drug is available for treating DENV-induced diseases since little is known regarding how the virus interacts with host cells during infection. Advanced molecular imaging technologies are powerful tools to understand the dynamics of intracellular interactions and molecular trafficking. This study exploited a single-virus particle tracking technology to address whether DENV interacts with autophagy machinery during the early stage of infection. Using confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image analysis, we showed that DENV triggered the formation of green fluorescence protein-fused microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta, and DENV-induced autophagosomes engulfed DENV particles within 15-min postinfection. Moreover, single-virus particle tracking revealed that both DENV particles and autophagosomes traveled together during the viral infection. Finally, in the presence of autophagy suppressor 3-methyladenine, the replication of DENV was inhibited and the location of DENV particles spread in cytoplasma. In contrast, the numbers of newly synthesized DENV were elevated and the co-localization of DENV particles and autophagosomes was detected while the cells were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin. Taken together, we propose that DENV particles interact with autophagosomes at the early stage of viral infection, which promotes the replication of DENV.

  9. Explaining Teacher-Student Interactions in Early Childhood: An Interpersonal Theoretical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijs, Jochem; Koomen, Helma; Roorda, Debora; ten Hagen, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The present study used an interpersonal theoretical perspective to examine the interactions between Dutch teachers and kindergartners. Interpersonal theory provides explanations for dyadic interaction behaviors by stating that complementary behaviors (dissimilar in terms of control, and similar in terms of affiliation) elicit and sustain each…

  10. Explicit Instructional Interactions: Observed Stability and Predictive Validity during Early Literacy and Beginning Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.; Nelson-Walker, Nancy; Kosty, Derek; Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors conceptualize teaching episodes such as an integrated set of observable student-teacher interactions. Instructional interactions that take place between teachers and students around critical academic content are a defining characteristic of classroom instruction and a component carefully defined in many education…

  11. After Early Autism Diagnosis: Changes in Intervention and Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L.; Abrams, Danielle N.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD…

  12. The early interaction of Leishmania with macrophages and dendritic cells and its influence on the host immune response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude E

    2012-01-01

    The complicated interactions between Leishmania and the host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have fundamental effects on the final outcome of the disease. Two major APCs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), play critical roles in mediating resistance and susceptibility during Leishmania infection. Macrophages are the primary resident cell for Leishmania: they phagocytose and permit parasite proliferation. However, these cells are also the major effector cells to eliminate infection. The effective clearance of parasites by macrophages depends on activation of appropriate immune response, which is usually initiated by DCs. Here, we review the early interaction of APCs with Leishmania parasites and how these interactions profoundly impact on the ensuing adaptive immune response. We also discuss how the current knowledge will allow further refinement of our understanding of the interplay between Leishmania and its hosts that leads to resistance or susceptibility.

  13. The early interaction of Leishmania with macrophages and dendritic cells and its influence on the host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude E.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated interactions between Leishmania and the host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have fundamental effects on the final outcome of the disease. Two major APCs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), play critical roles in mediating resistance and susceptibility during Leishmania infection. Macrophages are the primary resident cell for Leishmania: they phagocytose and permit parasite proliferation. However, these cells are also the major effector cells to eliminate infection. The effective clearance of parasites by macrophages depends on activation of appropriate immune response, which is usually initiated by DCs. Here, we review the early interaction of APCs with Leishmania parasites and how these interactions profoundly impact on the ensuing adaptive immune response. We also discuss how the current knowledge will allow further refinement of our understanding of the interplay between Leishmania and its hosts that leads to resistance or susceptibility. PMID:22919674

  14. Interactions among the early Escherichia coli divisome proteins revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; Natale, Paolo; Margolin, William; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays to detect protein-protein interactions of all possible pairs of the essential Escherichia coli proto-ring components, FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA, as well as the non-essential FtsZ-associated proteins ZapA and ZapB. We found an unexpected interaction between ZipA and ZapB at potential cell division sites, and when co-overproduced, they induced long narrow constrictions at division sites that were dependent on FtsZ. These assays also uncovered an interaction between ZipA and ZapA that was mediated by FtsZ. BiFC with ZapA and ZapB showed that in addition to their expected interaction at midcell, they also interact at the cell poles. BiFC detected interaction between FtsZ and ZapB at midcell and close to the poles. Results from the remaining pairwise combinations confirmed known interactions between FtsZ and ZipA, and ZapB with itself. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tightly Regulated Expression of Autographa californica Multicapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus Immediate Early Genes Emerges from Their Interactions and Possible Collective Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Taka, Hitomi; Asano, Shin-ichiro; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Bando, Hisanori

    2015-01-01

    To infect their hosts, DNA viruses must successfully initiate the expression of viral genes that control subsequent viral gene expression and manipulate the host environment. Viral genes that are immediately expressed upon infection play critical roles in the early infection process. In this study, we investigated the expression and regulation of five canonical regulatory immediate-early (IE) genes of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus: ie0, ie1, ie2, me53, and pe38. A systematic transient gene-expression analysis revealed that these IE genes are generally transactivators, suggesting the existence of a highly interactive regulatory network. A genetic analysis using gene knockout viruses demonstrated that the expression of these IE genes was tolerant to the single deletions of activator IE genes in the early stage of infection. A network graph analysis on the regulatory relationships observed in the transient expression analysis suggested that the robustness of IE gene expression is due to the organization of the IE gene regulatory network and how each IE gene is activated. However, some regulatory relationships detected by the genetic analysis were contradictory to those observed in the transient expression analysis, especially for IE0-mediated regulation. Statistical modeling, combined with genetic analysis using knockout alleles for ie0 and ie1, showed that the repressor function of ie0 was due to the interaction between ie0 and ie1, not ie0 itself. Taken together, these systematic approaches provided insight into the topology and nature of the IE gene regulatory network. PMID:25816136

  16. Heidelberg Interaction Training for Language Promotion in Early Childhood Settings (HIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschmann, Anke; Sachse, Steffi

    2018-01-01

    Beside parents, teachers in early childhood education and care have the greatest potential to foster language acquisition in children. This is especially important for children with language delays, language disorders or bi-/multilingual children. However, they present teachers with a particular challenge in language support. Therefore, integrated…

  17. Interacting effects of early dietary conditions and reproductive effort on the oxidative costs of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that oxidative damage accumulation can mediate the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan has recently been questioned. However, in captive conditions, studies reporting no evidence in support of this hypothesis have usually provided easy access to food which may have mitigated the cost of reproduction. Here, I test the hypothesis that greater investment in reproduction should lead to oxidative damage accumulation and telomere loss in domestic zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. Moreover, since the change or fluctuation in diet composition between early and late postnatal period can impair the ability to produce antioxidant defences in zebra finches, I also tested if early nutritional conditions (constant vs fluctuating early diet) influenced the magnitude of any subsequent costs of reproduction (e.g., oxidative damage and/or telomere shortening). In comparison to pairs with reduced broods, the birds that had to feed enlarged broods showed a higher level of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), but brood size had no effect on telomeres. Fluctuating early diet composition reduced the capacity to maintain the activity of endogenous antioxidants (GPx), particularly when reproductive costs were increased (enlarged brood). The decline in GPx in birds feeding enlarged broods was accompanied by a change in bill colouration. This suggests that birds with lower endogenous antioxidant defences might have strategically increased the mobilization of antioxidants previously stored in other tissues (i.e., bill and liver) and thus, preventing an excessive accumulation of damage during reproduction. PMID:28316895

  18. Pulling the River: The Interactions of Local and Global Influences in Chinese Early Childhood Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen-Hafteck, Lily; Zhuoya, X. U.

    2008-01-01

    Educators in China are facing challenges as a tug-of-war between local culture and global influences in Chinese early childhood music educations plays out. By exploring the situations of Hong Kong and Nanjing, the authors demonstrate a wide gap between policy and practice. The top-down policy from government officials is based on global views of…

  19. Differential Exposure to Early Childhood Education Services and Mother-Toddler Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebanov, P.K.; Brooks-Gunn, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the associations of exposure to early childhood education (ECE) services upon 2.5-year-old children's task persistence and enthusiasm and their mothers' authoritative and authoritarian behavior and support stimulation. Families participated in the Infant Health and Development Program, an eight-site randomized comprehensive ECE…

  20. Early-life estrogen exposure and uterine pathogenesis: ?A model for gene-environment interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aberrant cellular differentiation early in life can contribute to increased cancer risk later in life. In a classic model of this effect, female mice exposed on postnatal day (PND) 1-5 to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) have a high incidence of uterine carcinoma. ...

  1. Gender and Power: Male and Female Teachers' Interactions in Early Years Contexts. Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This article presents research on female teachers exploring their perceptions and experiences of male teachers in the early years and it also examines the views of male teachers in relation to this environment. It considers the dominant UK public discourse calling for more men in primary teaching and it shows how this affects both male and female…

  2. Development of Social Relationships, Interactions and Behaviours in Early Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kington, Alison; Gates, Peter; Sammons, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Recent research and policy regarding the advantages of early years provision has focused largely on the enhancement and development of cognitive skills for preschoolers. This study, based in the United Kingdom, focuses on a range of cognitive and social skills and identifies beneficial characteristics of a government pilot scheme for 2-year-olds…

  3. Training Early Childhood Educators to Promote Peer Interactions: Effects on Children's Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the effects of educators' participation in an in-service training program on the aggressive and prosocial behaviors of preschool-age children. Seventeen early childhood educators were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. A total of 68 preschool children, 4 from each educator's classroom, also…

  4. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Infancy Interact to Predict Executive Functioning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The relation of observed emotional reactivity and regulation in infancy to executive function in early childhood was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children from predominantly low-income and rural communities. Children participated in a fear eliciting task at ages 7, 15, and 24 months and completed an executive function…

  5. Road to Readiness: Pathways from Low-Income Children's Early Interactions to School Readiness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martoccio, Tiffany L.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Onaga, Esther E.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized data from the Michigan component of the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study to examine toddlers' joint attention at 14 months (parent report measure of toddlers' initiating behaviors, e.g., extends arm to show you something he or she is holding, reaches out and gives you a toy he or she has been holding, and…

  6. Gene-by-Preschool Interaction on the Development of Early Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preschool involves an array of new social experiences that may impact the development of early externalizing behavior problems over the transition to grade school. Methods: Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of over 600 pairs of US twins, we tested whether the genetic and environmental influences on…

  7. Selective visual attention to emotional words: Early parallel frontal and visual activations followed by interactive effects in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sebastian; Kissler, Johanna

    2016-10-01

    Human brains spontaneously differentiate between various emotional and neutral stimuli, including written words whose emotional quality is symbolic. In the electroencephalogram (EEG), emotional-neutral processing differences are typically reflected in the early posterior negativity (EPN, 200-300 ms) and the late positive potential (LPP, 400-700 ms). These components are also enlarged by task-driven visual attention, supporting the assumption that emotional content naturally drives attention. Still, the spatio-temporal dynamics of interactions between emotional stimulus content and task-driven attention remain to be specified. Here, we examine this issue in visual word processing. Participants attended to negative, neutral, or positive nouns while high-density EEG was recorded. Emotional content and top-down attention both amplified the EPN component in parallel. On the LPP, by contrast, emotion and attention interacted: Explicit attention to emotional words led to a substantially larger amplitude increase than did explicit attention to neutral words. Source analysis revealed early parallel effects of emotion and attention in bilateral visual cortex and a later interaction of both in right visual cortex. Distinct effects of attention were found in inferior, middle and superior frontal, paracentral, and parietal areas, as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Results specify separate and shared mechanisms of emotion and attention at distinct processing stages. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3575-3587, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. TPH-2 Polymorphisms Interact with Early Life Stress to Influence Response to Treatment with Antidepressant Drugs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi; Reynolds, Gavin P; Yuan, Yonggui; Shi, Yanyan; Pu, Mengjia; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-11-01

    Variation in genes implicated in monoamine neurotransmission may interact with environmental factors to influence antidepressant response. We aimed to determine how a range of single nucleotide polymorphisms in monoaminergic genes influence this response to treatment and how they interact with childhood trauma and recent life stress in a Chinese sample. An initial study of monoaminergic coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms identified significant associations of TPH2 and HTR1B single nucleotide polymorphisms with treatment response that showed interactions with childhood and recent life stress, respectively (Xu et al., 2012). A total of 47 further single nucleotide polymorphisms in 17 candidate monoaminergic genes were genotyped in 281 Chinese Han patients with major depressive disorder. Response to 6 weeks' antidepressant treatment was determined by change in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, and previous stressful events were evaluated by the Life Events Scale and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Three TPH2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs11178998, rs7963717, and rs2171363) were significantly associated with antidepressant response in this Chinese sample, as was a haplotype in TPH2 (rs2171363 and rs1487278). One of these, rs2171363, showed a significant interaction with childhood adversity in its association with antidepressant response. These findings provide further evidence that variation in TPH2 is associated with antidepressant response and may also interact with childhood trauma to influence outcome of antidepressant treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  9. TPH-2 Polymorphisms Interact with Early Life Stress to Influence Response to Treatment with Antidepressant Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Gavin P.; Yuan, Yonggui; Shi, Yanyan; Pu, Mengjia; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variation in genes implicated in monoamine neurotransmission may interact with environmental factors to influence antidepressant response. We aimed to determine how a range of single nucleotide polymorphisms in monoaminergic genes influence this response to treatment and how they interact with childhood trauma and recent life stress in a Chinese sample. An initial study of monoaminergic coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms identified significant associations of TPH2 and HTR1B single nucleotide polymorphisms with treatment response that showed interactions with childhood and recent life stress, respectively (Xu et al., 2012). Methods: A total of 47 further single nucleotide polymorphisms in 17 candidate monoaminergic genes were genotyped in 281 Chinese Han patients with major depressive disorder. Response to 6 weeks’ antidepressant treatment was determined by change in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, and previous stressful events were evaluated by the Life Events Scale and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Results: Three TPH2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs11178998, rs7963717, and rs2171363) were significantly associated with antidepressant response in this Chinese sample, as was a haplotype in TPH2 (rs2171363 and rs1487278). One of these, rs2171363, showed a significant interaction with childhood adversity in its association with antidepressant response. Conclusions: These findings provide further evidence that variation in TPH2 is associated with antidepressant response and may also interact with childhood trauma to influence outcome of antidepressant treatment. PMID:27521242

  10. From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2013-01-01

    This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages 3½, 4½, and 5½ during activities related to the past and future, internal states, and graphic systems. Although the amount of symbol-infused joint engagement reached a ceiling by 3½, its focus continued to became more complex and its form more balanced. Individual differences in children’s symbol-infused joint engagement were stable across four years. These findings highlight both how joint engagement is transformed as conversational skills develop and how it remains rooted in earlier interactions and supported by caregiver’s actions. PMID:24266591

  11. Sex-specific effects of early life stress on social interaction and prefrontal cortex dendritic morphology in young rats.

    PubMed

    Farrell, M R; Holland, F H; Shansky, R M; Brenhouse, H C

    2016-09-01

    Early life stress has been linked to depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in adolescence and adulthood. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in stress-related psychopathology, is a target for stress hormones, and mediates social behavior. The present study investigated sex differences in early-life stress effects on juvenile social interaction and adolescent mPFC dendritic morphology in rats using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm. Half of the rat pups of each sex were separated from their mother for 4h a day between postnatal days 2 and 21, while the other half remained with their mother in the animal facilities and were exposed to minimal handling. At postnatal day 25 (P25; juvenility), rats underwent a social interaction test with an age and sex matched conspecific. Distance from conspecific, approach and avoidance behaviors, nose-to-nose contacts, and general locomotion were measured. Rats were euthanized at postnatal day 40 (P40; adolescence), and randomly selected infralimbic pyramidal neurons were filled with Lucifer yellow using iontophoretic microinjections, imaged in 3D, and then analyzed for dendritic arborization, spine density, and spine morphology. Early-life stress increased the latency to make nose-to-nose contact at P25 in females but not males. At P40, early-life stress increased infralimbic apical dendritic branch number and length and decreased thin spine density in stressed female rats. These results indicate that MS during the postnatal period influenced juvenile social behavior and mPFC dendritic arborization in a sex-specific manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extending Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for Early Childhood Internalizing Problems: New Advances for an Overlooked Population

    PubMed Central

    Puliafico, Anthony C.; Kurtz, Steven M. S.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Although efficacious psychological treatments for internalizing disorders are now well established for school-aged children, until recently there have regrettably been limited empirical efforts to clarify indicated psychological intervention methods for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders presenting in early childhood. Young children lack many of the developmental capacities required to effectively participate in established treatments for mood and anxiety problems presenting in older children, making simple downward extensions of these treatments for the management of preschool internalizing problems misguided. In recent years, a number of research groups have successfully adapted and modified parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT), originally developed to treat externalizing problems in young children, to treat various early internalizing problems with a set of neighboring protocols. As in traditional PCIT, these extensions target child symptoms by directly reshaping parent–child interaction patterns associated with the maintenance of symptoms. The present review outlines this emerging set of novel PCIT adaptations and modifications for mood and anxiety problems in young children and reviews preliminary evidence supporting their use. Specifically, we cover (a) PCIT for early separation anxiety disorder; (b) the PCIT-CALM (Coaching Approach behavior and Leading by Modeling) Program for the full range of early anxiety disorders; (c) the group Turtle Program for behavioral inhibition; and (d) the PCIT-ED (Emotional Development) Program for preschool depression. In addition, emerging PCIT-related protocols in need of empirical attention—such as the PCIT-SM (selective mutism) Program for young children with SM—are also considered. Implications of these protocols are discussed with regard to their unique potential to address the clinical needs of young children with internalizing problems. Obstacles to broad dissemination are addressed, and we consider

  13. Extending parent-child interaction therapy for early childhood internalizing problems: new advances for an overlooked population.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Aubrey L; Puliafico, Anthony C; Kurtz, Steven M S; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Although efficacious psychological treatments for internalizing disorders are now well established for school-aged children, until recently there have regrettably been limited empirical efforts to clarify indicated psychological intervention methods for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders presenting in early childhood. Young children lack many of the developmental capacities required to effectively participate in established treatments for mood and anxiety problems presenting in older children, making simple downward extensions of these treatments for the management of preschool internalizing problems misguided. In recent years, a number of research groups have successfully adapted and modified parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), originally developed to treat externalizing problems in young children, to treat various early internalizing problems with a set of neighboring protocols. As in traditional PCIT, these extensions target child symptoms by directly reshaping parent-child interaction patterns associated with the maintenance of symptoms. The present review outlines this emerging set of novel PCIT adaptations and modifications for mood and anxiety problems in young children and reviews preliminary evidence supporting their use. Specifically, we cover (a) PCIT for early separation anxiety disorder; (b) the PCIT-CALM (Coaching Approach behavior and Leading by Modeling) Program for the full range of early anxiety disorders; (c) the group Turtle Program for behavioral inhibition; and (d) the PCIT-ED (Emotional Development) Program for preschool depression. In addition, emerging PCIT-related protocols in need of empirical attention--such as the PCIT-SM (selective mutism) Program for young children with SM--are also considered. Implications of these protocols are discussed with regard to their unique potential to address the clinical needs of young children with internalizing problems. Obstacles to broad dissemination are addressed, and we consider

  14. On a connection between supernova occurrence and tidal interaction in early type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochhar, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    There are three types of supernovae: two subtypes SNIa and Ib; and SNII. Late type galaxies produce all types of SN, whereas early types (E, SO, and non-Magellanic irregulars IO) have hosted only SNIa. The recently identified SNIb, like SNII, have massive stars as their progenitors. Reviving Oemler and Tinsley's (1979) suggestion that SNIa also come from short-lived stars, the author asserts that they need not occur in all early-type galaxies. SNIa occur only in those galaxies that have access to gas and can form stars in their main body. (SN in nuclear regions are a different matter altogether). In this model, SNIa are not associated with typical stellar population of E/SOs but with regions of localized star formation. Note that data on SNIa from spirals is already consistent with this model.

  15. Early Career: The search for weakly interacting dark matter with liquid xenon

    SciT

    Hall, Carter

    2017-02-08

    We report results from a search for weakly interacting dark matter particles obtained with the LUX experiment. LUX was located at a depth of 4850 feet at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota from 2013 through 2016. It found no evidence for dark matter particle interactions and set new constraints on the properties of such particles for masses between 6 GeV and 100 TeV. The work reported here also characterized the performance of such experiments by developing a new calibration technique based upon a tritium beta decay source.

  16. Interactive effects of early and recent exposure to stressful contexts on cortisol reactivity in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, Sara R; McFarquhar, Tara; Stevens, Suzanne; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Melhuish, Edward; Belsky, Jay

    2015-02-01

    Given mixed findings as to whether stressful experiences and relationships are associated with increases or decreases in children's cortisol reactivity, we tested whether a child's developmental history of risk exposure explained variation in cortisol reactivity to an experimentally induced task. We also tested whether the relationship between cortisol reactivity and children's internalizing and externalizing problems varied as a function of their developmental history of stressful experiences and relationships. Participants included 400 children (M = 9.99 years, SD = 0.74 years) from the Children's Experiences and Development Study. Early risk exposure was measured by children's experiences of harsh, nonresponsive parenting at 3 years. Recent risk exposure was measured by children's exposure to traumatic events in the past year. Children's cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a social provocation task and parents and teachers described children's internalizing and externalizing problems. The effect of recent exposure to traumatic events was partially dependent upon a child's early experiences of harsh, nonresponsive parenting: the more traumatic events children had recently experienced, the greater their cortisol reactivity if they had experienced lower (but not higher) levels of harsh, nonresponsive parenting at age 3. The lowest levels of cortisol reactivity were observed among children who had experienced the most traumatic events in the past year and higher (vs. lower) levels of harsh, nonresponsive parenting in early childhood. Among youth who experienced harsh, nonresponsive parent-child relationships in early childhood and later traumatic events, lower levels of cortisol reactivity were associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing problems. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to psychological stressors and the relationship between HPA axis reactivity and children's internalizing and externalizing

  17. Early Adversity and Developmental Outcomes: Interaction Between Genetics, Epigenetics, and Social Experiences Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Frances A

    2010-09-01

    Longitudinal studies in humans demonstrate the association between prenatal and postnatal experiences of adversity and long-term changes in neurodevelopment. These studies raise the question of how experiences become incorporated at a biological level to induce persistent changes in functioning. Laboratory studies using animal models and recent analyses in human cohorts implicate epigenetic mechanisms as a possible route through which these environmental effects are achieved. In particular, there is evidence that changes in DNA methylation are associated with early life experiences with consequences for gene expression and behavior. Despite the potential stability of DNA methylation, it is apparent that this epigenetic mark can be dynamically modified through pharmacological targeting and behavioral experiences. Developmental plasticity may also be achieved through modification of the juvenile environment. Although these juvenile experiences may lead to common endpoints, there is evidence suggesting that the effects of early and later life experiences may be achieved by different molecular pathways. This review discusses evidence for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in shaping developmental trajectories in response to early life experience as well as the potential plasticity that can occur beyond the perinatal period. These studies have implications for approaches to intervention and suggest the importance of considering individual differences in genetic and epigenetic vulnerability in developing treatment strategies. © The Author(s) 2010.

  18. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  19. Interaction between Ailanthus altissima and Native Robinia pseudoacacia in Early Succession: Implications for Forest Management

    Erik Nilsen; Cynthia Huebner; David Carr; Zhe Bao

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to discover the nature and intensity of the interaction between an exotic invader Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and its coexisting native Robinia pseudoacacia L. and consider management implications. The study occurred in the Mid-Appalachian region of the eastern United States. ...

  20. The Early Childhood Interactive Technology Literacy Curriculum Project: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutinger, Patricia; Robinsosn, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Johanson, Joyce

    This final report describes the activities and outcomes of the Interactive Technology Literacy Curriculum (ITLC) project. This federally funded 5-year model demonstration project was designed to advance the availability, quality, use and effectiveness of computer technology in addressing the acquisition of emergent literacy among young children…

  1. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  2. Cadet Beliefs, Attitudes and Interactions During the Early Phases of Sex-Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFleur, Lois B.; Gillman, David

    Attitudes, beliefs, and interactions of male and female cadets at the U.S. Air Force Academy during the first year of sex integration are discussed. Background for the integration process is given, including policy changes and implementation. A survey was undertaken of a match sample of men and women six months after the women entered the Academy.…

  3. Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…

  4. Early Intervention for Reading Difficulties: The Interactive Strategies Approach. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Donna M.; Anderson, Kimberly L.; Sweeney, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in a strong evidence base, this indispensable text and practitioner guide has given thousands of teachers tools to support the literacy growth of beginning and struggling readers in grades K-2. The interactive strategies approach (ISA) is organized around core instructional goals related to enhancing word learning and comprehension of…

  5. Interactive Whiteboards in Early Childhood Mathematics: Strategies for Effective Implementation in Pre-K-Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers are using technological innovations--including interactive whiteboards--in pre-K-grade 3 classrooms across the country. An IWB is a wall-mounted, touch-sensitive flat screen. When connected to a computer (or another electronic device) and a projector, it displays enlarged instructional content (such as a math word problem, pictures or…

  6. Parenting and Child "DRD4" Genotype Interact to Predict Children's Early Emerging Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather J.; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Durbin, C. Emily; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Singh, Shiva M.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), or the trait-like capacity to regulate dominant responses, has important implications for children's development. Although genetic factors and parenting likely influence EC, few studies have examined whether they interact to predict its development. This study examined whether the "DRD4" exon III variable number tandem…

  7. Learning in the Early Years: Social Interactions around Picturebooks, Puzzles and Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops an approach to thinking about young children, digital technologies and learning, drawing on research literature that relates children's learning to the use of books, and on literature that discusses the nature of interaction between adults and children and its relationship to children's learning. An analysis is given of parents…

  8. How Socioeconomic Status, Executive Functioning and Verbal Interactions Contribute to Early Academic Achievement in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Liu, Hongyun; McBride, Catherine; Wong, Anita M. -Y.; Lo, Jason C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the relative importance of executive functioning, parent-child verbal interactions, phonological awareness and visual skills on reading and mathematics for Chinese children from low-versus middle-socio economic status (SES) backgrounds. A total of 199 kindergarten children were assessed on executive functioning,…

  9. Interactive Whiteboard Professional Development: A Look through the Eyes of Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nicole Southerland

    2012-01-01

    With vastly ever-changing technology, there come greater possibilities in the school classroom. One possibility includes the interactive whiteboard, IWB (Higgins, Beauchamp, & Miller, 2007). However, there is little research on how to effectively promote the use of an IWB in the classroom for anything other than as a mediating tool. One option…

  10. The Impact of Early Social Interactions on Later Language Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; García-Sierra, Adrián; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the impact of child-directed language input on language development in Spanish-English bilingual infants (N = 25, 11- and 14-month-olds from the Seattle metropolitan area), across languages and independently for each language, controlling for socioeconomic status. Language input was characterized by social interaction variables,…

  11. The Intersubjective and Transitional Function of Imitation in Early Grandparent-Infant Grandchild Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinaki, Theano; Pratikaki, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Primary objective: Research has provided evidence of the intersubjective function of imitation in grandparent-infant interaction based on the basic aspects of imitation. This lacks the systematic investigation of behaviour dynamics framing spontaneous imitation. The aim of this study was to compare the dyadic expressive behaviours (vocal, kinetic…

  12. The Relations among Theory of Mind, Behavioral Inhibition, and Peer Interactions in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suway, Jenna G.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Sussman, Amy L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined relations among child temperament, peer interaction, and theory of mind (ToM) development. We hypothesized that: (1) children classified as behaviorally inhibited at 24 months would show less ToM understanding at 36 months in comparison to nonbehaviorally inhibited children; (2) children who displayed negative peer…

  13. An Observational Study of Early Heterosexual Interaction at Middle School Dances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Long, Jeffery D.

    2007-01-01

    In this longitudinal, observational study of heterosexual interaction at middle school dances we examined the degree to which boys' and girls' groups became more gender integrated over time. The results show groups became more integrated over time with the pattern differing by gender. Boys had a relatively low level of contact with girls over the…

  14. Altered Memory Circulating T Follicular Helper-B Cell Interaction in Early Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Roshell; Metcalf, Talibah; Tardif, Virginie; Takata, Hiroshi; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Kroon, Eugene; Colby, Donn J.; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Valcour, Victor; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Trautmann, Lydie; Haddad, Elias K.

    2016-01-01

    The RV254 cohort of HIV-infected very early acute (4thG stage 1 and 2) (stage 1/2) and late acute (4thG stage 3) (stage 3) individuals was used to study T helper- B cell responses in acute HIV infection and the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) on T and B cell function. To investigate this, the function of circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh) from this cohort was examined, and cTfh and memory B cell populations were phenotyped. Impaired cTfh cell function was observed in individuals treated in stage 3 when compared to stage 1/2. The cTfh/B cell cocultures showed lower B cell survival and IgG secretion at stage 3 compared to stage 1/2. This coincided with lower IL-10 and increased RANTES and TNF-α suggesting a role for inflammation in altering cTfh and B cell responses. Elevated plasma viral load in stage 3 was found to correlate with decreased cTfh-mediated B cell IgG production indicating a role for increased viremia in cTfh impairment and dysfunctional humoral response. Phenotypic perturbations were also evident in the mature B cell compartment, most notably a decrease in resting memory B cells in stage 3 compared to stage 1/2, coinciding with higher viremia. Our coculture assay also suggested that intrinsic memory B cell defects could contribute to the impaired response despite at a lower level. Overall, cTfh-mediated B cell responses are significantly altered in stage 3 compared to stage 1/2, coinciding with increased inflammation and a reduction in memory B cells. These data suggest that early ART for acutely HIV infected individuals could prevent immune dysregulation while preserving cTfh function and B cell memory. PMID:27463374

  15. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions

    PubMed Central

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y.

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia. In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics. PMID:27402618

  16. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions.

    PubMed

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  17. Two distinct cellular proteins interact with the EIa-responsive element of an adenovirus early promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen-Durr, P; Wintzerith, M; Reimund, B; Hauss, C; Kédinger, C

    1990-01-01

    EIa-dependent transactivation of the adenovirus EIIa early (EIIaE) promoter is correlated with the activation of the cellular transcription factor E2F. In this study we identified a cellular protein, C alpha, that is distinct from E2F and that binds two sites in the EIIaE promoter, one of which overlaps with the proximal E2F binding site of the EIIaE promoter. The possible involvement of C alpha in the EIa responsiveness of this promoter is discussed. Images PMID:2139142

  18. A Wicked Problem: Early Childhood Safety in the Dynamic, Interactive Environment of Home

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jean; Fougere, Geoff; McGee, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Young children being injured at home is a perennial problem. When parents of young children and family workers discussed what influenced parents’ perceptions and responses to child injury risk at home, both “upstream” and “downstream” causal factors were identified. Among the former, complex and interactive facets of society and contemporary living emerged as potentially critical features. The “wicked problems” model arose from the need to find resolutions for complex problems in multidimensional environments and it proved a useful analogy for child injury. Designing dynamic strategies to provide resolutions to childhood injury, may address our over-dependence on ‘tame solutions’ that only deal with physical cause-and-effect relationships and which cannot address the complex interactive contexts in which young children are often injured. PMID:23615453

  19. Infant Attachment Security and Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition Interact to Predict Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multi-method BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25522059

  20. Infant attachment security and early childhood behavioral inhibition interact to predict adolescent social anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multimethod BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Investigating social functioning after early mild TBI: the quality of parent-child interactions.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Gabrielle; Bernier, Annie; Beaudoin, Cindy; Gravel, Jocelyn; Beauchamp, Miriam H

    2018-03-01

    The young brain is particularly vulnerable to injury due to inherent physiological and developmental factors, and even mild forms of traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can sometimes result in cognitive and behavioural difficulties. Despite the high prevalence of paediatric mTBI, little is known of its impact on children's social functioning. Parent-child relationships represent the centre of young children's social environments and are therefore ideal contexts for studying the potential effects of mTBI on children's social functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of parent-child interactions after mTBI using observational assessment methods and parental report. The sample included 130 children (18-60 months at recruitment) divided into three groups: children with uncomplicated mTBI (n = 47), children with orthopaedic injury (OI, n = 27), and non-injured children (NI, n = 56). The quality of parent-child interactions was assessed 6 months post-injury using the Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) scale, an observational measure which focuses on the dyadic nature of parent-child exchanges, and the Parental Stress Index questionnaire (Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction (PCDI) domain). Significant differences with medium effect sizes were found between the mTBI group and the NI group on the MRO, but not between the OI group and the other two groups. PCDI scores did not differ across groups, suggesting that observational measures may be more sensitive to changes in parent-child interactions after TBI. The current findings have implications for children's post-injury social development and highlight the importance of monitoring social outcomes even after minor head injuries. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. The study of early human embryos using interactive 3-dimensional computer reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, J; Aiton, J F; McLachlan, J C; Smart, S D; Whiten, S C

    1997-07-01

    Tracings of serial histological sections from 4 human embryos at different Carnegie stages were used to create 3-dimensional (3D) computer models of the developing heart. The models were constructed using commercially available software developed for graphic design and the production of computer generated virtual reality environments. They are available as interactive objects which can be downloaded via the World Wide Web. This simple method of 3D reconstruction offers significant advantages for understanding important events in morphological sciences.

  3. Ebb and Flow in Parent-Child Interactions: Shifts from Early through Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert H.; Pennar, Amy; Iida, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study documents the strength of relations between key parent and child behaviors as they occur during typical encounters for both mothers and fathers and determines whether there were shifts in the strength of relations between parent and child behaviors during early and middle childhood. Design Multivariate multi-level modeling was used to examine associations between three parent behaviors (respect for autonomy, stimulation of development, hostility) and two child behaviors (agency, negativity) as they occurred in typical parent-child activities at four time points from 54 months through 5th grade for 817 families. Results For mothers and fathers, respect for autonomy and stimulation were associated with child agency. Paternal hostility was negatively associated with child agency, but for mothers the relation became more positive with age. Parental respect for autonomy and hostility were associated with child negativity for both mothers and fathers; however, for mothers, relations between autonomy support and child negativity became more positive, and relations between hostility and child negativity became less positive. Conclusions There are clear shifts in the strength of relations between some parenting behaviors and child behaviors from early to middle childhood, indicative of a changing dialectic as children become more independent and different dialectics for mothers and fathers. Parenting behavior links to child competence and adaptive behavior, and the findings may help resolve some uncertainties about relations between parental behavior and children's developmental trajectories. PMID:26877717

  4. The relation between schizotypy and early attention to rejecting interactions: The influence of neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Albert, Jacobo; Kessel, Dominique; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Carretié, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Schizotypy relates to rejection sensitivity (anxiety reflecting an expectancy of social exclusion) and neuroticism (excessive evaluation of negative emotions). Positive schizotypy (e.g., perceptual aberrations and odd beliefs) and negative schizotypy (e.g., social and physical anhedonia) could relate to altered attention to rejection because of neuroticism. Methods: Forty-one healthy individuals were assessed on positive and negative schizotypy and neuroticism, and event-related potentials during rejecting, accepting and neutral scenes. Participants were categorised into high, moderate and low neuroticism groups. Using temporo-spatial principal components analyses, P200 (peak latency =290 ms) and P300 amplitudes (peak latency = 390 ms) were measured, reflecting mobilisation of attention and early attention, respectively. Results: Scalp-level and cortical source analysis revealed elevated fronto-parietal N300/P300 amplitude and P200-related dorsal anterior cingulate current density during rejection than acceptance/neutral scenes. Positive schizotypy related inversely to parietal P200 amplitude during rejection. Negative schizotypy related positively to P200 middle occipital current density. Negative schizotypy related positively to parietal P300, where the association was stronger in high and moderate, than low, neuroticism groups. Conclusions: Positive and negative schizotypy relate divergently to attention to rejection. Positive schizotypy attenuates, but negative schizotypy increases rejection-related mobilisation of attention. Negative schizotypy increases early attention to rejection partly due to elevated neuroticism. PMID:26452584

  5. Wind-Interaction Models for the Early Afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Case of GRB 021004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Yun; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2003-06-01

    Wind-interaction models for gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows predict that the optical emission from the reverse shock drops below that from the forward shock within hundreds of seconds of the burst. The typical frequency νm of the synchrotron emission from the forward shock passes through the optical band typically on a timescale of minutes to hours. Before the passage of νm, the optical flux evolves as t-1/4, and after the passage, the decay steepens to t-(3p-2)/4, where p is the exponent for the assumed power-law energy distribution of nonthermal electrons and is typically ~2. The steepening in the slope of temporal decay should be readily identifiable in the early afterglow light curves. We propose that such a steepening was observed in the R-band light curve of GRB 021004 around day 0.1. Available data at several radio frequencies are consistent with this interpretation, as are the X-ray observations around day 1. The early evolution of GRB 021004 contrasts with that of GRB 990123, which can be described by emission from interaction with a constant density medium.

  6. Interactions between Early Life Stress, Nucleus Accumbens MeCP2 Expression, and Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Candace R; Bastle, Ryan M; Manning, Tawny B; Himes, Sarah M; Fennig, Paulette; Conrad, Phoebe R; Colwell, Jenna; Pagni, Broc A; Hess, Lyndsay A; Matekel, Caitlin G; Newbern, Jason M; Olive, M Foster

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is highly related to the development of psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, including substance use disorders. A recent body of literature suggests that long-lasting changes in the epigenome may be a mechanism by which experiences early in life can alter neurobiological and behavioral phenotypes in adulthood. In this study, we replicate our previous findings that ELS, in the form of prolonged maternal separation, increases adult methamphetamine self-administration (SA) in male rats as compared with handled controls. In addition, we show new evidence that both ELS and methamphetamine SA alter the expression of the epigenetic regulator methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in key brain reward regions, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. In turn, viral-mediated knockdown of MeCP2 expression in the NAc core reduces methamphetamine SA, as well as saccharin intake. Furthermore, NAc core MeCP2 knockdown reduces methamphetamine, but not saccharin, SA on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. These data suggest that NAc core MeCP2 may be recruited by both ELS and methamphetamine SA and promote the development of certain aspects of drug abuse-related behavior. Taken together, functional interactions between ELS, methamphetamine SA, and the expression of MeCP2 in the NAc may represent novel mechanisms that can ultimately be targeted for intervention in individuals with adverse early life experiences who are at risk for developing substance use disorders. PMID:27312406

  7. Adverse early life experience and social stress during adulthood interact to increase serotonin transporter mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Katherine L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Plotsky, Paul M.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, depression and animal models of vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome have been associated with dysregulation of serotonergic systems in the brain. To evaluate the effects of early life experience, adverse experiences during adulthood, and potential interactions between these factors on serotonin transporter (slc6a4) mRNA expression, we investigated in rats the effects of maternal separation (180 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS180), neonatal handing (15 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS15), or normal animal facility rearing control conditions (AFR) with or without subsequent exposure to adult social defeat on slc6a4 mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and caudal linear nucleus. At the level of specific subdivisions of the DR, there were no differences in slc6a4 mRNA expression between MS15 and AFR rats. Among rats exposed to a novel cage control condition, increased slc6a4 mRNA expression was observed in the dorsal part of the DR in MS180 rats, relative to AFR control rats. In contrast, MS180 rats exposed to social defeat as adults had increased slc6a4 mRNA expression throughout the DR compared to both MS15 and AFR controls. Social defeat increased slc6a4 mRNA expression, but only in MS180 rats and only in the “lateral wings” of the DR. Overall these data demonstrate that early life experience and stressful experience during adulthood interact to determine slc6a4 mRNA expression. These data support the hypothesis that early life experience and major stressful life events contribute to dysregulation of serotonergic systems in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19781533

  8. Infantile Anorexia and Co-parenting: A Pilot Study on Mother–Father–Child Triadic Interactions during Feeding and Play

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Loredana; Ammaniti, Massimo; Porreca, Alessio; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Infantile Anorexia (IA), defined by the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood Revised (DC: 0-3R, Zero To Three, 2005), occurs when the child (a) refuses to eat adequate amounts of food for at least 1 month, and shows growth deficiency, (b) does not communicate hunger and lacks interest in food, and (c) the child’s food refusal does not follow a traumatic event and is not due to an underlying medical illness. IA usually emerges during the transition to self-feeding, when the child issues of autonomy are played out daily in the feeding situation. Studies evidence that the feeding interactions between children with IA and their mothers are characterized by low reciprocity, greater interactional conflict and negative affects (Chatoor et al., 2000; Ammaniti et al., 2010, 2012). Moreover, these studies pointed out that maternal depression and eating disorders are frequently associated with IA (Cooper et al., 2004; Ammaniti et al., 2010; Lucarelli et al., 2013). To date, research has focused almost exclusively on the mother–child dyad, while fathers’ involvement, co-parental and family interactions are poorly studied. The current study is a pilot research that investigated mother–father–child triadic interactions, during feeding and play, in families with children diagnosed with IA, in comparison to families with normally developing children. Until now, at the study participated N = 10 families (five with a child with IA diagnosis and five with lack of child’s IA diagnosis, matched for child’s age and gender). The parents–child triadic interactions were assessed in feeding and play contexts using the Lausanne Trilogue Play (Fivaz-Depeursinge and Corboz-Warnery, 1999), adapted to observe father-mother-infant primary triangle in the feeding context, compared to the play context (Lucarelli et al., 2012). Families of the IA-group showed difficulties in expressing and sharing pleasure and positive

  9. Interactive effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone on cortical thickness during early brain development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T; Ducharme, Simon; Cropp, Brett F; Botteron, Kelly N; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2013-06-26

    Humans and the great apes are the only species demonstrated to exhibit adrenarche, a key endocrine event associated with prepubertal increases in the adrenal production of androgens, most significantly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and to a certain degree testosterone. Adrenarche also coincides with the emergence of the prosocial and neurobehavioral skills of middle childhood and may therefore represent a human-specific stage of development. Both DHEA and testosterone have been reported in animal and in vitro studies to enhance neuronal survival and programmed cell death depending on the timing, dose, and hormonal context involved, and to potentially compete for the same signaling pathways. Yet no extant brain-hormone studies have examined the interaction between DHEA- and testosterone-related cortical maturation in humans. Here, we used linear mixed models to examine changes in cortical thickness associated with salivary DHEA and testosterone levels in a longitudinal sample of developmentally healthy children and adolescents 4-22 years old. DHEA levels were associated with increases in cortical thickness of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right temporoparietal junction, right premotor and right entorhinal cortex between the ages of 4-13 years, a period marked by the androgenic changes of adrenarche. There was also an interaction between DHEA and testosterone on cortical thickness of the right cingulate cortex and occipital pole that was most significant in prepubertal subjects. DHEA and testosterone appear to interact and modulate the complex process of cortical maturation during middle childhood, consistent with evidence at the molecular level of fast/nongenomic and slow/genomic or conversion-based mechanisms underlying androgen-related brain development.

  10. Nonstandard Work Schedules, Family Dynamics, and Mother-Child Interactions During Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kate C

    2018-03-01

    The rising number of parents who work nonstandard schedules has led to a growing body of research concerned with what this trend means for children. The negative outcomes for children of parents who work nonstandard schedules are thought to arise from the disruptions these schedules place on family life, and thus, the types of parenting that support their children's development, particularly when children are young. Using a nationally representative sample of two-parent families (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort, n = 3,650), this study examined whether mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' parenting when children were 2 and 4 years old. Structural equation models revealed that mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' lower scores on measures of positive and involved parenting. These associations were mediated by fathers' lower levels of participation in cognitively supportive parenting and greater imbalance in cognitively supportive tasks conducted by mothers versus fathers.

  11. Effects of Video Feedback on Early Coercive Parent–Child Interactions: The Intervening Role of Caregivers’ Relational Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Moore, Kevin J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of adding a video feedback intervention component to the assessment feedback session of the Family Check-Up intervention (FCU; Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We hypothesized that the addition of video feedback procedures during the FCU feedback at child age 2 would have a positive effect on caregivers’ negative relational schemas of their child, which in turn would mediate reductions in observed coercive caregiver-child interactions assessed at age 5. Method We observed the caregiver-child interaction videotapes of 79 high-risk families with toddlers exhibiting clinically significant problem behaviors. A quasi-random sample of families were provided with direct feedback on their interactions during the feedback session of the FCU protocol. Results Path analysis indicated that reviewing and engaging in feedback about videotaped age-2 assessment predicted reduced caregivers’ negative relational schemas of the child at age 3, which acted as an intervening variable on the reduction of observed parent–child coercive interactions recorded at age 5. Video feedback predicted improved family functioning over and above level of engagement in the FCU in subsequent years, indicating the important incremental contribution of using video feedback procedures in early family-based preventive interventions for problem behaviors. Conclusions Supportive video feedback on coercive family dynamics is an important strategy for promoting caregiver motivation to reduce negative attributions toward the child, which fuel coercive interactions. Our study also contributes to the clinical and research literature concerning coercion theory and effective intervention strategies by identifying a potential mechanism of change. PMID:23534831

  12. Lack of genetic interaction between Tbx20 and Tbx3 in early mouse heart development.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Svetlana; Harvey, Richard P; Papaioannou, Virginia E

    2013-01-01

    Members of the T-box family of transcription factors are important regulators orchestrating the complex regionalization of the developing mammalian heart. Individual mutations in Tbx20 and Tbx3 cause distinct congenital heart abnormalities in the mouse: Tbx20 mutations result in failure of heart looping, developmental arrest and lack of chamber differentiation, while hearts of Tbx3 mutants progress further, loop normally but show atrioventricular convergence and outflow tract defects. The two genes have overlapping areas of expression in the atrioventricular canal and outflow tract of the heart but their potential genetic interaction has not been previously investigated. In this study we produced compound mutants to investigate potential genetic interactions at the earliest stages of heart development. We find that Tbx20; Tbx3 double heterozygous mice are viable and fertile with no apparent abnormalities, while double homozygous mutants are embryonic lethal by midgestation. Double homozygous mutant embryos display abnormal cardiac morphogenesis, lack of heart looping, expression patterns of cardiac genes and time of death that are indistinguishable from Tbx20 homozygous mutants. Prior to death, the double homozygotes show an overall developmental delay similar to Tbx3 homozygous mutants. Thus the effects of Tbx20 are epistatic to Tbx3 in the heart but Tbx3 is epistatic to Tbx20 with respect to developmental delay.

  13. Metabolomics of Early Stage Plant Cell–Microbe Interaction Using Stable Isotope Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Qiuying; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Yang; Kong, Wenwen; Guan, Qijie; Yan, Xiufeng; Chen, Sixue

    2018-01-01

    Metabolomics has been used in unraveling metabolites that play essential roles in plant–microbe (including pathogen) interactions. However, the problem of profiling a plant metabolome with potential contaminating metabolites from the coexisting microbes has been largely ignored. To address this problem, we implemented an effective stable isotope labeling approach, where the metabolome of a plant bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 was labeled with heavy isotopes. The labeled bacterial cells were incubated with Arabidopsis thaliana epidermal peels (EPs) with guard cells, and excessive bacterial cells were subsequently removed from the plant tissues by washing. The plant metabolites were characterized by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using multiple reactions monitoring, which can differentiate plant and bacterial metabolites. Targeted metabolomic analysis suggested that Pst DC3000 infection may modulate stomatal movement by reprograming plant signaling and primary metabolic pathways. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the utility of this strategy in differentiation of the plant and microbe metabolomes, and it has broad applications in studying metabolic interactions between microbes and other organisms. PMID:29922325

  14. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  15. High-Quality Interactions with Infants: Relationships with Early-Childhood Practitioners' Interpretations and Qualification Levels in Play and Routine Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degotardi, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated factors related to the quality of early-childhood practitioners' interactions with infants in play and routine contexts. Participants were 24 practitioners working with 9-20-month-old infants in long day-care infant programmes. Video-recordings of their interactions with a nominated infant during play and in routine…

  16. Developing the Understanding of the Role of Interpersonal Interaction in Early Literacy Development: A Case Study of a Thai Public Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klibthong, Sunanta

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of interpersonal interaction in early literacy development in one public preschool school in Bangkok, Thailand. Specifically, it explores and analyses the nature of interpersonal interaction and collaborative activities the teachers employ in teaching literacy to children. The study involves observation of 82…

  17. Early Holocene vegetation - climate interactions in the central part of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novenko, Elena; Olchev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The new Early Holocene vegetation and climate reconstruction (approximately 10100 -7800 cal. yr. BP) for the forest zone the central European Russia are based on pollen records from three key regions located in taiga, mixed coniferous-broadleaved and broadleaved forest zones. The climatic parameters (the mean annual temperature and precipitation) and total forest coverage during the early Holocene were reconstructed using the Best Modern Analogue technique. Information about moistening conditions was revealed from reconstructions of actual evapotranspiration (ET) and potential evaporation (PET). For calculation of the annual ET and PET rates of the forest landscapes a regression model was applied. The model is based on nonlinear approximations of annual values of ET and PET provided by the Levenberg-Marquardt method using the results of numerical simulations of ET and PET carried out by a Mixfor-SVAT model for the forests with different species compositions under various thermal and moistening conditions. Mixfor-SVAT is an one-dimensional model of the energy, H2O and CO2 exchange between vertically structured mono- and multi-specific forest stands and the atmosphere (Olchev et al., 2002). Obtained results showed that the considered period was characterized by relatively low air temperatures and high precipitation compared with modern conditions. Analysis of the long-term pattern of the mean annual temperature for all three regions reveal two synchronous significant cooling periods observed in 9100-9300 cal. yr. BP and 8100-8500 cal. yr. BP as well as rapid growth of the air temperature in 8100-7800 cal. yr. BP, when the annual temperatures increased by 3°C during about 300 years. The cooling phase of 8100-8500 cal. yr. BP could be corresponded to the distinct "8.2 ka event" widely recorded across Europe. Periods of climate warming are coincided with periods of precipitation rise whereas the cool phases are characterized by its decrease. The lowest ET and PET rates

  18. Distinct Transcriptional Changes and Epithelial-stromal Interactions are Altered in Early Stage Colon Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Allen; Jackson, Stephen; Varma, Kamini; Carpino, Alan; Giardina, Charles; Devers, Thomas J.; Rosenberg, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    While the progression of mutated colonic cells is dependent upon interactions between the initiated epithelium and surrounding stroma, the nature of these interactions is poorly understood. Here the development of an ultra-sensitive laser-capture microdissection (LCM)/RNA-seq approach for studying the epithelial and stromal compartments of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) is described. ACF are the earliest identifiable pre-neoplastic lesion found within the human colon and are detected using high-definition endoscopy with contrast dye-spray. The current analysis focused on the epithelium of ACF with somatic mutations to either KRAS, BRAF, or APC, with expression patterns compared to normal mucosa from each patient. By comparing gene expression patterns between groups, an increase in a number of pro-inflammatory NF-κB target genes were identified that were specific to ACF epithelium, including TIMP1, RELA and RELB. Distinct transcriptional changes associated with each somatic mutation were observed and a subset display a BRAFV600E-mediated senescence-associated transcriptome characterized by increased expression of CDKN2A. Finally, LCM-captured ACF-associated stroma was found to be transcriptionally distinct from normal stroma, with an up-regulation of genes related to immune cell infiltration and fibroblast activation. Immunofluorescence confirmed increased CD3+ T cells within the stromal microenvironment of ACF and an abundance of activated fibroblasts. Collectively, these results provide new insight into the cellular interplay that occurs at the earliest stages of colonic neoplasia, highlighting the important role of NF-kB, activated stromal fibroblasts and lymphocyte infiltration. Implications Fibroblasts and immune cells in the stromal microenvironment play an important role during the earliest stages of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:27353028

  19. Early recruitment responses to interactions between frequent fires, nutrients, and herbivory in the southern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Massad, Tara Joy; Balch, Jennifer K; Mews, Cândida Lahís; Porto, Pábio; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; Brando, P M; Vieira, Simone A; Trumbore, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Understanding tropical forest diversity is a long-standing challenge in ecology. With global change, it has become increasingly important to understand how anthropogenic and natural factors interact to determine diversity. Anthropogenic increases in fire frequency are among the global change variables affecting forest diversity and functioning, and seasonally dry forest of the southern Amazon is among the ecosystems most affected by such pressures. Studying how fire will impact forests in this region is therefore important for understanding ecosystem functioning and for designing effective conservation action. We report the results of an experiment in which we manipulated fire, nutrient availability, and herbivory. We measured the effects of these interacting factors on the regenerative capacity of the ecotone between humid Amazon forest and Brazilian savanna. Regeneration density, diversity, and community composition were severely altered by fire. Additions of P and N + P reduced losses of density and richness in the first year post-fire. Herbivory was most important just after germination. Diversity was positively correlated with herbivory in unburned forest, likely because fire reduced the number of reproductive individuals. This contrasts with earlier results from the same study system in which herbivory was related to increased diversity after fire. We documented a significant effect of fire frequency; diversity in triennially burned forest was more similar to that in unburned than in annually burned forest, and the community composition of triennially burned forest was intermediate between unburned and annually burned areas. Preventing frequent fires will therefore help reduce losses in diversity in the southern Amazon's matrix of human-altered landscapes.

  20. How to assess driver's interaction with partially automated driving systems - A framework for early concept assessment.

    PubMed

    van den Beukel, Arie P; van der Voort, Mascha C

    2017-03-01

    The introduction of partially automated driving systems changes the driving task into supervising the automation with an occasional need to intervene. To develop interface solutions that adequately support drivers in this new role, this study proposes and evaluates an assessment framework that allows designers to evaluate driver-support within relevant real-world scenarios. Aspects identified as requiring assessment in terms of driver-support within the proposed framework are Accident Avoidance, gained Situation Awareness (SA) and Concept Acceptance. Measurement techniques selected to operationalise these aspects and the associated framework are pilot-tested with twenty-four participants in a driving simulator experiment. The objective of the test is to determine the reliability of the applied measurements for the assessment of the framework and whether the proposed framework is effective in predicting the level of support offered by the concepts. Based on the congruency between measurement scores produced in the test and scores with predefined differences in concept-support, this study demonstrates the framework's reliability. A remaining concern is the framework's weak sensitivity to small differences in offered support. The article concludes that applying the framework is especially advantageous for evaluating early design phases and can successfully contribute to the efficient development of driver's in-control and safe means of operating partially automated vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dimensions of maternal parenting and infants’ autonomic functioning interactively predict early internalizing behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Propper, Cathi; Gueron-Sela, Noa; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger

    2015-01-01

    Developmental pathways to childhood internalizing behavior problems are complex, with both environmental and child-level factors contributing to their emergence. The authors use data from a prospective longitudinal study (n = 206) to examine the associations between dimensions of caregiving experiences in the first year of life and anxious/depressed and withdrawn behaviors in early childhood. Additionally, the authors examine the extent to which these associations were moderated by infants’ autonomic functioning in the first year of life indexed using measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart period (HP). Findings suggest that higher levels of maternal sensitivity in infancy are associated with fewer anxious/depressed and withdrawn behaviors at age 3 years. Negative intrusiveness was found to be positively associated with children’s anxious/depressed behaviors but not withdrawn behaviors. Further, moderation analyses suggested that the link between negative intrusive parenting during infancy and subsequent anxious/depressed behaviors is exacerbated for infants with average or low baseline HP and that positive engaging parenting during infancy was negatively related to withdrawn behaviors for infants demonstrating average to high levels baseline HP. Interestingly, RSA was not found to moderate the associations between parenting in infancy and later internalizing behavior problems suggesting that, during infancy, overall autonomic functioning may have greater implications for the development of internalizing behaviors than do parasympathetic influences alone. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:26063322

  2. Biomolecule-Mineral Interactions in the Geochemical Environment on Early Earth and in the Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, N.

    2011-12-01

    We worked on four projects consistent with the broad goals of the grant to investigate (i) the potential impacts of mineral surface chemistry and particle size on the stability and viability of cell membranes, bacteria and human cells and (ii) the influence of biomolecules on mineral nucleation and growth. The projects are of relevance to the origin and early evolution of life, biomineralization, medical mineralogy, and environmental biogeochemistry. The freedom enabled by the five-year grant to explore high-risk scientific areas, and the resulting high impact outcomes, cannot be overstated. We developed an almost entirely new field of Medical Mineralogyy and extended our concepts and knowledge-base to the potential roles of mineral surfaces in the evolution of protocells and the earliest cells. These exciting connections to medical mineralogy, and to the origin and evolution of life on early Earth are fascinating topics to the general public and even to other scientists, especially when the links to mineralogy and geochemistry are highlighted. In brief, we examined the stability of lipid bilayers representing model protocell membranes comprised of phospholipid bilayers with mineral surfaces. We found that the stability of lipid bilayers depends on mineral surface charge and increases as silica glass ~ quartz < rutile ~ mica < corundum. In a second project, we investigated whether the evolution of bacterial extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) may have been driven by nanomineral toxicity. Results showed that EPS does protect against mineral toxicity, and toxicity increases as amorphous SiO2 < β-TiO2 (anatase) < γ-Al2O3. A commonly accepted mechanism for Biomineralization is protein-templated nucleation. We used Molecular Dynamics and Bioinformatics computational chemistry approaches and showed that the random coil structure of a specific peptide promotes formation of an amorphous Ca-PO4 cluster, but not direct templation of hydroxyapatite. The consistency

  3. Bidirectional psychoneuroimmune interactions in the early postpartum period influence risk of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Elizabeth J; Pajer, Kathleen; Paul, Sudeshna; Lowe, Nancy; Weber, Mary; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-10-01

    More than 500,000 U.S. women develop postpartum depression (PPD) annually. Although psychosocial risks are known, the underlying biology remains unclear. Dysregulation of the immune inflammatory response and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are associated with depression in other populations. While significant research on the contribution of these systems to the development of PPD has been conducted, results have been inconclusive. This is partly because few studies have focused on whether disruption in the bidirectional and dynamic interaction between the inflammatory response and the HPA axis together influence PPD. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that disruption in the inflammatory-HPA axis bidirectional relationship would increase the risk of PPD. Plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in women during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and on Days 7 and 14, and Months 1, 2, 3, and 6 after childbirth. Saliva was collected 5 times the day preceding blood draws for determination of cortisol area under the curve (AUC) and depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Survey (EPDS). Of the 152 women who completed the EPDS, 18% were depressed according to EDPS criteria within the 6months postpartum. Cortisol AUC was higher in symptomatic women on Day 14 (p=.017). To consider the combined effects of cytokines and cortisol on predicting symptoms of PPD, a multiple logistic regression model was developed that included predictors identified in bivariate analyses to have an effect on depressive symptoms. Results indicated that family history of depression, day 14 cortisol AUC, and the day 14 IL8/IL10 ratio were significant predictors of PPD symptoms. One unit increase each in the IL8/IL10 ratio and cortisol AUC resulted in 1.50 (p=0.06) and 2.16 (p=0.02) fold increases respectively in the development of PPD. Overall, this model correctly classified 84.2% of individuals in their respective groups. Findings

  4. Combat Exposure in Early Adulthood Interacts with Recent Stressors to Predict PTSD in Aging Male Veterans.

    PubMed

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Joiner, Thomas E; Cougle, Jesse R; Stanley, Ian H; Sheffler, Julia L

    2016-02-01

    Combat is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, less is known about how exposure to combat in early adulthood may contribute to the development of PTSD as the individual ages. Prior exposure to trauma may "sensitize" people to respond more intensely to subsequent stressors. Further, aging initiates new challenges that may undermine previous coping strategies. Over the life course combat veterans may be more reactive to new stressors and thus be more vulnerable to PTSD. This study draws on the two waves of the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS-1) and NCS-2 (10-year follow-up). Participants were male (noncombat N = 620 and combat N = 107) and 50-65 years of age at Wave-2. At baseline, participants were assessed for exposure to wartime combat, number of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnoses in the past year, and life-time PTSD. At follow-up, PTSD occurring between waves was determined. A measure of recent life stressors was also obtained. Using logistic regression analyses, combat predicted PTSD at follow-up (controlling for baseline demographics, number of DSM diagnoses in the past year, life-time PTSD). Recent life stressors were also associated with PTSD. Importantly, the effect of combat on PTSD was significant at high levels, but not low levels, of recent life stress. Veterans who have experienced combat may be more reactive to new stressors, and in turn be more vulnerable to PTSD. Combat veterans should be regularly assessed for current stressors and PTSD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Brain regions and functional interactions supporting early word recognition in the face of input variability.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Siugzdaite, Roma; Gómez, David Maximiliano; Macagno, Francesco; Cattarossi, Luigi; Mehler, Jacques

    2017-07-18

    Perception and cognition in infants have been traditionally investigated using habituation paradigms, assuming that babies' memories in laboratory contexts are best constructed after numerous repetitions of the very same stimulus in the absence of interference. A crucial, yet open, question regards how babies deal with stimuli experienced in a fashion similar to everyday learning situations-namely, in the presence of interfering stimuli. To address this question, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to test 40 healthy newborns on their ability to encode words presented in concomitance with other words. The results evidenced a habituation-like hemodynamic response during encoding in the left-frontal region, which was associated with a progressive decrement of the functional connections between this region and the left-temporal, right-temporal, and right-parietal regions. In a recognition test phase, a characteristic neural signature of recognition recruited first the right-frontal region and subsequently the right-parietal ones. Connections originating from the right-temporal regions to these areas emerged when newborns listened to the familiar word in the test phase. These findings suggest a neural specialization at birth characterized by the lateralization of memory functions: the interplay between temporal and left-frontal regions during encoding and between temporo-parietal and right-frontal regions during recognition of speech sounds. Most critically, the results show that newborns are capable of retaining the sound of specific words despite hearing other stimuli during encoding. Thus, habituation designs that include various items may be as effective for studying early memory as repeated presentation of a single word.

  6. A Report of Neuropsychological Differentation and De-Differentation in Very Young Children in Conflict with Special Reference to Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massie, Henry N.; And Others

    Longitudinal studies of mother-child interactions for the third trimester of pregnancy to age 4 are described. The effort is aimed at analyzing early childhood data to determine stability of mother-infant interaction, correlations among mothers' character as defined by adaptive and maladaptive defenses, major conflicts, sense of reality, and…

  7. The interaction between hot and cold gas in early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hogg, David E.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1995-01-01

    SO and Sa galaxies have approximately equal masses of H I and X-ray emitting gas and are ideal sites for studying the interaction between hot and cold gas. An X-ray observation of the Sa galaxy NGC 1291 with the ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) shows a striking spatial anticorrelation between hot and cold gas where X-ray emitting material fills the large central black hole in the H I disk. This supports a previous suggestion that hot gas is a bulge phenomenon and neutral hydrogen is a disk phenomenon. The X-ray luminosity (1.5 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s) and radial surface brightness distribution (beta = 0.51) is the same as for elliptical galaxies with optical luminosities and velocity dispersions like that of the bulge of NGC 1291. Modeling of the X-ray spectrum requires a component with a temperature of 0.15 keV, similar to that expected from the velocity dispersion of the stars, and with a hotter component where kT = 1.07 keV. This hotter component is not due to emission from stars and its origin remains unclear. PSPC observations are reported for the SO NGC 4203, where a nuclear point source dominates the emission, preventing a study of the radial distribution of the hot gas relative to the H I.

  8. Intermolecular interactions at early stage of protein/detergent particle association induced by salt/polyethylene glycol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Odahara, Takayuki; Odahara, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Mixtures of neutral salts and polyethylene glycol are used for various purposes in biological studies. Although the effects of each component of the mixtures are theoretically well investigated, comprehension of their integrated effects remains insufficient. In this work, their roles and effects as a precipitant were clarified by studying dependence of precipitation curves on salt concentration for integral membrane protein/detergent particles of different physicochemical properties. The dependence of precipitation curves was reasonably related to intermolecular interactions among relevant molecules such as protein, detergent and polyethylene glycol by considering their physicochemical properties. The obtained relationships are useful as basic information to learn the early stage of biological macromolecular associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction between parental psychosis and early motor development and the risk of schizophrenia in a general population birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Keskinen, E.; Marttila, A.; Marttila, R.; Jones, P.B.; Murray, G.K.; Moilanen, K.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H.; Mäki, P.; Isohanni, M.; Jääskeläinen, E.; Miettunen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed motor development in infancy and family history of psychosis are both associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, but their interaction is largely unstudied. Aim To investigate the association of the age of achieving motor milestones and parental psychosis and their interaction in respect to risk of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from the general population-based prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,283). Developmental information of the cohort members was gathered during regular visits to Finnish child welfare clinics. Several registers were used to determine the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the cohort members and psychosis among the parents. Altogether 152 (1.5%) individuals had schizophrenia by the age of 46 years, with 23 (15.1%) of them having a parent with psychosis. Cox regression analysis was used in analyses. Results Parental psychosis was associated (P < 0.05) with later achievement of holding the head up, grabbing an object, and walking without support. In the parental psychosis group, the risk for schizophrenia was increased if holding the head up (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.46; degrees of freedom [df] = 1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07–5.66) and touching the thumb with the index finger (HR: 1.84; df = 1; 95% CI: 1.11–3.06) was later. In the group without parental psychosis, a delay in the following milestones increased the risk of schizophrenia: standing without support and walking without support. Parental psychosis had an interaction with delayed touching thumb with index finger (HR: 1.87; df = 1; 95% CI: 1.08–3.25) when risk of schizophrenia was investigated. Conclusions Parental psychosis was associated with achieving motor milestones later in infancy, particularly the milestones that appear early in a child's life. Parental psychosis and touching the thumb with the index finger had a significant interaction on risk of schizophrenia. Genetic risk for psychosis may interact

  10. Interaction between parental psychosis and early motor development and the risk of schizophrenia in a general population birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Keskinen, E; Marttila, A; Marttila, R; Jones, P B; Murray, G K; Moilanen, K; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H; Mäki, P; Isohanni, M; Jääskeläinen, E; Miettunen, J

    2015-09-01

    Delayed motor development in infancy and family history of psychosis are both associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, but their interaction is largely unstudied. To investigate the association of the age of achieving motor milestones and parental psychosis and their interaction in respect to risk of schizophrenia. We used data from the general population-based prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n=10,283). Developmental information of the cohort members was gathered during regular visits to Finnish child welfare clinics. Several registers were used to determine the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the cohort members and psychosis among the parents. Altogether 152 (1.5%) individuals had schizophrenia by the age of 46 years, with 23 (15.1%) of them having a parent with psychosis. Cox regression analysis was used in analyses. Parental psychosis was associated (P<0.05) with later achievement of holding the head up, grabbing an object, and walking without support. In the parental psychosis group, the risk for schizophrenia was increased if holding the head up (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.46; degrees of freedom [df]=1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-5.66) and touching the thumb with the index finger (HR: 1.84; df=1; 95% CI: 1.11-3.06) was later. In the group without parental psychosis, a delay in the following milestones increased the risk of schizophrenia: standing without support and walking without support. Parental psychosis had an interaction with delayed touching thumb with index finger (HR: 1.87; df=1; 95% CI: 1.08-3.25) when risk of schizophrenia was investigated. Parental psychosis was associated with achieving motor milestones later in infancy, particularly the milestones that appear early in a child's life. Parental psychosis and touching the thumb with the index finger had a significant interaction on risk of schizophrenia. Genetic risk for psychosis may interact with delayed development to raise future risk of schizophrenia, or delayed

  11. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quasi-Periodic Long-Term Quadrature Light Variability in Early Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan

    2015-08-01

    Four years of Kepler observations have revealed a class of Algol-type binaries in which the relative brightness of the quadrature light varies from > 1 to <1 on a time scale of about 100-400 days. The behavior pattern is quasi-periodic. We call these systems L/T (leading hemisphere/ trailing hemisphere) variables. Although L/T inequality in eclipsing binaries has been noted from ground-based photometry by several observers since the early 1950s, the regular or quasi-regular switching between maxima is new. Twenty L/T systems have so far been found in the Kepler database and at least three classes of L/T behavior have been identified. In this presentation I will give an update on the L/T phenomenon gleaned from the Kepler and K2 databases. The Kepler and K2 light curves are being analyzed with the 2015 version of the Wilson-Devinney (WD) program that includes major improvements in modeling star spots (i.e. spot motions due to drift and stellar rotation and spot growth and decay). The prototype L/T variable is WX Draconis (A8V + K0IV, P=1.80 d) which shows L/ T light variations of 2-3%. The primary is a delta Scuti star with a dominant pulsation period of 41 m. Preliminary analysis of the WX Dra data suggests that the L/T variability can be fit with either an accretion hot spot on the primary (T = 2.3 Tphot) that jumps in longitude or a magnetic cool spotted region on the secondary. If the latter model is correct the dark region must occupy at least 20% of the surface of the facing hemisphere of the secondary if it is completely black, or a larger area if not completely black. In both hot and cool spot scenarios magnetic fields must play a role in the activity. Support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and NNX12AE44G and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  13. BISPHENOL A EXPOSURE DURING EARLY DEVELOPMENT INDUCES SEX-SPECIFIC CHANGES IN ADULT ZEBRAFISH SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Hoke, Elizabeth S.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is associated with adverse behavioral effects, although underlying modes of action remain unclear. Because BPA is a suspected xenoestrogen, the objective was to identify sex-based changes in adult zebrafish social behavior developmentally exposed to BPA (0.0, 0.1 or 1 μM) or one of two control compounds (0.1μM 17β-estradiol [E2], and 0.1 μM GSK4716, a synthetic estrogen-related receptor γ ligand). A test chamber was divided lengthwise so each arena held one fish unable to detect the presence of the other fish. A mirror was inserted at one end of each arena; baseline activity levels were determined without mirror. Arenas were divided into 3, computer-generated zones to represent different distances from mirror image. Circadian rhythm patterns were evaluated at 1–3 (= AM) and 5–8 (= PM) hr postprandial. Adult zebrafish were placed into arenas and monitored by digital camera for 5 min. Total distance traveled, % time spent at mirror image, and number of attacks on mirror image were quantified. E2, GSK4716, and all BPA treatments dampened male activity and altered male circadian activity patterns; there was no marked effect on female activity. BPA induced non-monotonic effects (response curve changes direction within range of concentrations examined) on male % time at mirror only in AM. All treatments produced increased % time at the mirror during PM. Male attacks on the mirror were reduced by BPA exposure only during AM. There were sex-specific effects of developmental BPA on social interactions and time-of-day of observation affected results. PMID:25424546

  14. Embryo-endometrial interactions during early development after embryonic diapause in the marsupial tammar wallaby.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Shaw, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The marsupial tammar wallaby has the longest period of embryonic diapause of any mammal. Reproduction in the tammar is seasonal, regulated by photoperiod and also lactation. Reactivation is triggered by falling daylength after the austral summer solstice in December. Young are born late January and commence a 9-10-month lactation. Females mate immediately after birth. The resulting conceptus develops over 6- 7 days to form a unilaminar blastocyst of 80-100 cells and enters lactationally, and later seasonally, controlled diapause. The proximate endocrine signal for reactivation is an increase in progesterone which alters uterine secretions. Since the diapausing blastocyst is surrounded by the zona and 2 other acellular coats, the mucoid layer and shell coat, the uterine signals that maintain or terminate diapause must involve soluble factors in the secretions rather than any direct cellular interaction between uterus and embryo. Our studies suggest involvement of a number of cytokines in the regulation of diapause in tammars. The endometrium secretes platelet activating factor (PAF) and leukaemia inhibitory factor, which increase after reactivation. Receptors for PAF are low on the blastocyst during diapause but are upregulated at reactivation. Conversely, there is endometrial expression of the muscle segment homeobox gene MSX2 throughout diapause, but it is rapidly downregulated at reactivation. These patterns are consistent with those observed in diapausing mice and mink after reactivation, despite the very different patterns of endocrine control of diapause in these 3 divergent species. These common patterns suggest a similar underlying mechanism for diapause, perhaps common to all mammals, but which is activated in only a few.

  15. A Qualitative Application of the Belsky Model to Explore Early Care and Education Teachers' Mealtime History, Beliefs, and Interactions.

    PubMed

    Swindle, Taren M; Patterson, Zachary; Boden, Carrie J

    Studies on factors associated with nutrition practices in early care and education settings often focus on sociodemographic and programmatic characteristics. This qualitative study adapted and applied Belsky's determinants of parenting model to inform a broader exploration of Early Care and Education Teachers (ECETs) practices. Qualitative cross-sectional study with ECETs. The researchers interviewed ECETs in their communities across a Southern state. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit ECETs (n = 28) from Head Start or state-funded centers serving low-income families. Developmental histories of ECETs regarding food and nutrition, beliefs about child nutrition, and teaching interactions related to food. Qualitative interviews were coded using a deductive content analysis approach. Three distinct interrelationships were observed across the themes. First, rules and routines regarding food and mealtime in the educators' childhood often aligned with educator beliefs and behaviors at meals in their classroom. Second, some ECETs described motivations to leave a healthy food legacy for children in their class. Finally, an experience of food insecurity appeared in narratives that also emphasized making sure children got enough through various strategies. The influence of ECET developmental histories and their related beliefs can be addressed through professional development and ongoing support. Future study should quantify model constructs in a larger sample and study their relationships over time. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) for 3 weeks (120 mg twice daily). Trough concentrations of drugs were measured before and after ginkgo biloba treatment using LC-MS/MS. Toxicities were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Trough concentrations before and after treatment with ginkgo biloba were not significantly different for tamoxifen (93.5 ± 29.0, 86.5 ± 25.3 ng/mL; p=0.16), letrozole (91.1 ± 50.4, 89.6 ± 52.14 ng/mL; p=0.60) or anastrozole (29.1 ± 8.6, 29.1 ± 7.6 ng/mL; p=0.97). Ginkgo biloba was well tolerated, with no difference in toxicity during ginkgo biloba. Co-administration of ginkgo biloba does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole. There was no difference in the toxicity profile of hormone therapy with ginkgo biloba use in women with early stage breast cancer.

  17. The meaning of early intervention: A parent's experience and reflection on interactions with professionals using a phenomenological ethnographic approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe how a parent's partnership with professionals progresses and evolves throughout the service provisioning process. Using a phenomenological ethnographic approach, the lived reality of a family is depicted as the parent walks through different stages of the Individualized Family Service Plan process over a 6-month period. Data concerning parent-professional interactions were obtained via observation notes and document reviews whereas data regarding parent perceptions were collected through multiple individual interviews. Overall, the parent conveyed her satisfaction with actual services especially regarding the professionals' knowledge and parental advocacy. However, the parent also indicated frustration with the early intervention planning process and "obligated" partnerships with providers. In particular, the providers' lack of sensitivity was noted, and greater emotional and psychological support was suggested. The overall process of developing partnerships with professionals can be excessively intrusive to the family's lives. Future research directions are offered as a contribution for the development of improved policies for early intervention programs regarding family-centered practice, utilizing the perspectives of families.

  18. Modeling the Interaction between Quinolinate and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE): Relevance for Early Neuropathological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Serratos, Iris N.; Castellanos, Pilar; Pastor, Nina; Millán-Pacheco, César; Rembao, Daniel; Pérez-Montfort, Ruy; Cabrera, Nallely; Reyes-Espinosa, Francisco; Díaz-Garrido, Paulina; López-Macay, Ambar; Martínez-Flores, Karina; López-Reyes, Alberto; Sánchez-García, Aurora; Cuevas, Elvis; Santamaria, Abel

    2015-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor involved in neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. RAGE induces cellular signaling upon binding to a variety of ligands. Evidence suggests that RAGE up-regulation is involved in quinolinate (QUIN)-induced toxicity. We investigated the QUIN-induced toxic events associated with early noxious responses, which might be linked to signaling cascades leading to cell death. The extent of early cellular damage caused by this receptor in the rat striatum was characterized by image processing methods. To document the direct interaction between QUIN and RAGE, we determined the binding constant (Kb) of RAGE (VC1 domain) with QUIN through a fluorescence assay. We modeled possible binding sites of QUIN to the VC1 domain for both rat and human RAGE. QUIN was found to bind at multiple sites to the VC1 dimer, each leading to particular mechanistic scenarios for the signaling evoked by QUIN binding, some of which directly alter RAGE oligomerization. This work contributes to the understanding of the phenomenon of RAGE-QUIN recognition, leading to the modulation of RAGE function. PMID:25757085

  19. What are the unique and interacting contributions of school and family factors to early adolescents' empathic concern and perspective taking?

    PubMed

    Batanova, Milena D; Loukas, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Empathy in children has received considerable attention in the literature, but limited research has investigated the contributions of various socializing factors on both affective (e.g., empathic concern) and cognitive (e.g., perspective taking) components of empathy in early adolescents. Guided by socialization theories, this study examined the unique and interacting contributions of school connectedness and parent-child conflict to subsequent levels of both components of empathy across a 1-year period of time. Participants were 487 10- to 14- year old middle school students (54 % female; 76 % European-American) involved in two waves of a study with 1 year between each wave. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, among girls, reports of parent-child conflict contributed to a decrease in empathic concern one year later, whereas school connectedness was a protective factor that offset the negative impact of parent-child conflict on girls' subsequent perspective taking. Alternatively, only boys' reports of school connectedness contributed to subsequent increases in both empathic concern and perspective taking 1 year later. Findings indicate that school connectedness and conflict with parents play different socializing roles for girls' and boys' empathic concern and perspective taking. The current study calls for further research and youth programs to consider the important contributions that socializing agents can make on both components of empathy for early adolescent girls and boys.

  20. Interaction of early infant feeding, heredity and other environmental factors as determinants in the development of allergy and sensitization.

    PubMed

    Savilahti, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    The role of early infant nutrition in the development of allergic symptoms and allergic sensitization has been disputed for 70 years. Interaction between genetic factors and infant feeding has been limited to studies on parental heredity of allergy and length of breastfeeding, as well as the qualities of breast milk. In the 10 original studies comparing the development of allergic symptoms among children in whom breastfeeding duration was used as a risk factor separately among those with either positive or negative parental heredity for atopy, no definite answer could be found. The effect of early feeding was even changed in both heredity negative and positive groups when looking at symptoms at ages 2 and 5 years. Of 9 possible combinations, 6 were present in the studies, and none in more than 2 studies. For sensitization, long breastfeeding was a risk in 3 of 5 reports if the family history of allergy was positive, and in 2 if negative. Low levels of soluble CD14 and cow's milk-specific IgA antibodies in breast milk may increase an infant's risk of developing allergy.

  1. Gene-environment interaction in atopic diseases: a population-based twin study of early-life exposures.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Niklas; Naeser, Vibeke; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    The development of atopic diseases early in life suggests an important role of perinatal risk factors. To study whether early-life exposures modify the genetic influence on atopic diseases in a twin population. Questionnaire data on atopic diseases from 850 monozygotic and 2279 like-sex dizygotic twin pairs, 3-9 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were cross-linked with data on prematurity, Cesarean section, maternal age at birth, parental cohabitation, season of birth and maternal smoking during pregnancy, from the Danish National Birth Registry. Significant predictors of atopic diseases were identified with logistic regression and subsequently tested for genetic effect modification using variance components analysis. After multivariable adjustment, prematurity (gestational age below 32 weeks) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.93, confidence interval (CI) = 1.45-2.56], Cesarean section (OR = 1.25, CI = 1.05-1.49) and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.70, CI = 1.42-2.04) significantly influenced the risk of asthma, whereas none of the factors were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis and hay fever. Variance components analysis stratified by exposure status showed no significant change in the heritability of asthma according to the identified risk factors. In this population-based study of children, there was no evidence of genetic effect modification of atopic diseases by several identified early-life risk factors. The causal relationship between these risk factors and atopic diseases may therefore be mediated via mechanisms different from gene-environment interaction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sex, Temperament, and Family Context: How the Interaction of Early Factors Differentially Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Are Mediated by Proximal Adolescent Factors

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Klein, Marjorie H.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and 2-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents. PMID:21443307

  3. Sex, temperament, and family context: how the interaction of early factors differentially predict adolescent alcohol use and are mediated by proximal adolescent factors.

    PubMed

    Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Goldsmith, H Hill; Klein, Marjorie H; Strauman, Timothy J; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and two-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents.

  4. Challenges and Early Results: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, NEPTUNE Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Thomsen, L.; de Beer, D.

    2012-04-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, operating and online since 2009, is an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ~865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including a camera, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler developed at the Max Planck Institute with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance from the mound. In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of the natural materials, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, observations of the experimental specimens are being made on a regular basis using

  5. Solar Wind Interaction with the Martian Upper Atmosphere at Early Mars/Extreme Solar Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Lee, Y.; Nagy, A. F.; Tenishev, V.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Combi, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The investigation of ion escape fluxes from Mars, resulting from the solar wind interaction with its upper atmosphere/ionosphere, is important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3-D Mars cold neutral atmosphere profiles (0 ~ 300 km) from the newly developed and validated Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) and the 3-D hot oxygen profiles (100 km ~ 5 RM) from the exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS). We apply these 3-D model output fields into the 3-D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD (MF-MHD) model (100 km ~ 20 RM) that can simulate the interplay between Mars upper atmosphere and solar wind by considering the dynamics of individual ion species. The multi-fluid MHD model solves separate continuity, momentum and energy equations for each ion species (H+, O+, O2+, CO2+). The M-GITM model together with the AMPS exosphere model take into account the effects of solar cycle and seasonal variations on both cold and hot neutral atmospheres. This feature allows us to investigate the corresponding effects on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., both the M-GITM and AMPS model output fields are used as the input for the multi-fluid MHD model and the M-GITM is used as input into the AMPS exosphere model. In this study, we present M-GITM, AMPS, and MF-MHD calculations (1-way coupled) for 2.5 GYA conditions and/or extreme solar conditions for present day Mars (high solar wind velocities, high solar wind dynamic pressure, and high solar irradiance conditions, etc.). Present day extreme conditions may result in MF-MHD outputs that are similar to 2.5 GYA cases. The crustal field orientations are also considered in this study. By comparing estimates of past ion escape rates with the current ion loss rates to be returned by the MAVEN spacecraft (2013-2016), we can better constrain the

  6. Early rearing interacts with temperament and housing to influence the risk for motor stereotypy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Vandeleest, Jessica J; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John P

    2011-06-01

    Laboratory and zoo housed non-human primates sometimes exhibit abnormal behaviors that are thought to reflect reduced wellbeing. Previous research attempted to identify risk factors to aid in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors, and focused on demographic (e.g. sex or age) and experience-related (e.g. single housing or nursery rearing) factors. However, not all animals that display abnormal behavior possess these risk factors and some individuals that possess a risk factor do not show behavioral abnormalities. We hypothesized that other aspects of early experience and individual characteristics might identify animals that were more likely to display one specific abnormal behavior, motor stereotypy (MS). Using logistic regression we explored the influence of early rearing (involving four different types of rearing conditions), and variation in temperament, on likelihood of displaying MS while controlling for previously identified risk factors. Analyses indicated that having a greater proportion of life lived indoors, a greater proportion of life-indoors singly-housed, and a greater number of anesthesias and blood draws significantly increased the risk of displaying MS (P < 0.001). Rearing condition failed to independently predict the display of MS; however significant interactions indicated that single housing had a greater impact on risk for indoor-reared animals versus outdoor-reared animals, and for indoor mother-reared animals versus nursery-reared animals. There were no main effects of temperament, although interactions with rearing were evident: scoring high on Gentle or Nervous was a risk factor for indoor-reared animals but not outdoor-reared animals. The final model accounted for approximately 69.3 % of the variance in the display of MS, and correctly classified 90.6% of animals. These results indicate that previously identified risk factors may impact animals differently depending on the individual's early rearing condition. These results are

  7. Interactive effects of ocean acidification, elevated temperature, and reduced salinity on early-life stages of the pacific oyster.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ginger W K; Dineshram, R; Campanati, Camilla; Chan, Vera B S; Havenhand, Jon; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2014-09-02

    Ocean acidification (OA) effects on larvae are partially attributed for the rapidly declining oyster production in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. This OA effect is a serious concern in SE Asia, which produces >80% of the world's oysters. Because climate-related stressors rarely act alone, we need to consider OA effects on oysters in combination with warming and reduced salinity. Here, the interactive effects of these three climate-related stressors on the larval growth of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were examined. Larvae were cultured in combinations of temperature (24 and 30 °C), pH (8.1 and 7.4), and salinity (15 psu and 25 psu) for 58 days to the early juvenile stage. Decreased pH (pH 7.4), elevated temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu) significantly delayed pre- and post-settlement growth. Elevated temperature lowered the larval lipid index, a proxy for physiological quality, and negated the negative effects of decreased pH on attachment and metamorphosis only in a salinity of 25 psu. The negative effects of multiple stressors on larval metamorphosis were not due to reduced size or depleted lipid reserves at the time of metamorphosis. Our results supported the hypothesis that the C. gigas larvae are vulnerable to the interactions of OA with reduced salinity and warming in Yellow Sea coastal waters now and in the future.

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