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Sample records for early mouse embryos

  1. Tissue morphodynamics shaping the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Ann E

    2016-07-01

    Generation of the elongated vertebrate body plan from the initially radially symmetrical embryo requires comprehensive changes to tissue form. These shape changes are generated by specific underlying cell behaviors, coordinated in time and space. Major principles and also specifics are emerging, from studies in many model systems, of the cell and physical biology of how region-specific cell behaviors produce regional tissue morphogenesis, and how these, in turn, are integrated at the level of the embryo. New technical approaches have made it possible more recently, to examine the morphogenesis of the mouse embryo in depth, and to elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the cellular basis for the early fundamental events that establish the basic form of the embryo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation in Early Mouse Embryos.

    PubMed

    García-González, Estela G; Roque-Ramirez, Bladimir; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Hernández-Hernández, J Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation is achieved at many levels by different factors such as tissue-specific transcription factors, members of the basal transcriptional apparatus, chromatin-binding proteins, and noncoding RNAs. Importantly, chromatin structure dictates the availability of a specific genomic locus for transcriptional activation as well as the efficiency with which transcription can occur. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a method that allows elucidating gene regulation at the molecular level by assessing if chromatin modifications or proteins are present at a specific locus. Initially, the majority of ChIP experiments were performed on cultured cell lines and more recently this technique has been adapted to a variety of tissues in different model organisms. Using ChIP on mouse embryos, it is possible to document the presence or absence of specific proteins and chromatin modifications at genomic loci in vivo during mammalian development and to get biological meaning from observations made on tissue culture analyses. We describe here a ChIP protocol on freshly isolated mouse embryonic somites for in vivo analysis of muscle specific transcription factor binding on chromatin. This protocol has been easily adapted to other mouse embryonic tissues and has also been successfully scaled up to perform ChIP-Seq.

  3. Expression profiling of the mouse early embryo: Reflections and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory mouse plays important role in our understanding of early mammalian development and provides invaluable model for human early embryos, which are difficult to study for ethical and technical reasons. Comprehensive collection of cDNA clones, their sequences, and complete genome sequence information, which have been accumulated over last two decades, have provided even more advantages to mouse models. Here the progress in global gene expression profiling in early mouse embryos and, to some extent, stem cells are reviewed and the future directions and challenges are discussed. The discussions include the restatement of global gene expression profiles as snapshot of cellular status, and subsequent distinction between the differentiation state and physiological state of the cells. The discussions then extend to the biological problems that can be addressed only through global expression profiling, which include: bird’s-eye view of global gene expression changes, molecular index for developmental potency, cell lineage trajectory, microarray-guided cell manipulation, and the possibility of delineating gene regulatory cascades and networks. PMID:16739220

  4. MiRNA-mediated regulation of cell signaling and homeostasis in the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Pernaute, Barbara; Spruce, Thomas; Rodriguez, Tristan A; Manzanares, Miguel

    2011-02-15

    At the time of implantation the mouse embryo is composed of three tissues the epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. As development progresses the epiblast goes on to form the foetus whilst the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm give rise to extra-embryonic structures with important roles in embryo patterning and nutrition. Dramatic changes in gene expression occur during early embryo development and these require regulation at different levels. miRNAs are small non coding RNAs that have emerged over the last decade as important post-transcriptional repressors of gene expression. The roles played by miRNAs during early mammalian development are only starting to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into the function of miRNAs in the different lineages of the early mouse embryo we have analysed in depth the phenotype of embryos and extra-embryonic stem cells mutant for the miRNA maturation protein Dicer. This study revealed that miRNAs are involved in regulating cell signaling and homeostasis in the early embryo. Specifically, we identified a role for miRNAs in regulating the Erk signaling pathway in the extra-embryonic endoderm, cell cycle progression in extra-embryonic tissues and apoptosis in the epiblast.

  5. Radiation induced abnormalities in early in vitro mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J.F.

    1973-08-01

    Female mice were superovulated and mated, and the two-cell embryos were collected and cultured in vitro. The embryos were exposed to x-irradiation (0 to 491 rads) during the two-cell stage before the appearance of the next cleavage plate, placed in new unirradiated culture medium and observed during subsequent development. Morphological abnormalities, which occurred as a result of irradiation, included fragmentation, disintegration, granlation, incomplete cleavage, cleavage cessation, nuclear degeneration and pycnosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization. There was no damage to the zona pellucida. The types of abnormalities indicate an agreement with the results of previous in vivo studies. A distinct correlation existedmore » between morphological abnormalities and embryo death. The greatest number of abnormalities resulted within five hours following irradiation, but increased through 20 hours post-exposure. At doses above 300 rads, the magnitude of damage was greater in the in vitro embryos than that shown in previous in vivo studies. (auth)« less

  6. Metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction in early mouse embryos following maternal dietary protein intervention.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Megan; Schulz, Samantha L; Armstrong, David T; Lane, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    Dietary supply of nutrients, both periconception and during pregnancy, influence the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. Despite the importance of research efforts surrounding the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, the biological mechanisms involved remain elusive. Mitochondria are of major importance in the oocyte and early embryo, particularly as a source of ATP generation, and perturbations in their function have been related to reduced embryo quality. The present study examined embryo development following periconception exposure of females to a high-protein diet (HPD) or a low-protein diet (LPD) relative to a medium-protein diet (MPD; control), and we hypothesized that perturbed mitochondrial metabolism in the mouse embryo may be responsible for the impaired embryo and fetal development reported by others. Although the rate of development to the blastocyst stage did not differ between diets, both the HPD and LPD reduced the number of inner cell mass cells in the blastocyst-stage embryo. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced and mitochondrial calcium levels increased in the 2-cell embryo. Embryos from HPD females had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and ADP concentrations, indicative of metabolic stress and, potentially, the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, whereas embryos from LPD females had reduced mitochondrial clustering around the nucleus, suggestive of an overall quietening of metabolism. Thus, although periconception dietary supply of different levels of protein is permissive of development, mitochondrial metabolism is altered in the early embryo, and the nature of the perturbation differs between HPD and LPD exposure.

  7. Sensitivity of early mouse embryos to (/sup 3/H)thymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Spindle, A.; Wu, K.; Pedersen, R.A.

    1982-12-01

    Effects of intranuclear radiation on the developmental capacity of early mouse embryos were studied by exposing embryos to (/sup 3/H)thymidine and counting the number of embryos forming blastocysts, trophoblast outgrowths, inner cell masses (ICMs), and two-layer ICMs (differentiated into primary endoderm and ectoderm). When embryos were cultured from the 2-cell stage for 8 days in the continuous presence of (/sup 3/H)thymidine, concentrations as low as 0.2 nCi/ml reduced the number of embryos forming two-layer ICMs. At 1 nCi/ml, the number of both ICMs and two-layer ICMs were reduced, and at 10 nCi/ml the number of embryos developing to all threemore » post-blastocyst endpoints was reduced. Blastocyst formation was not affected even at the highst concentration (/sup 3/H)thymidine and then cultured further in unlabelled medium, the effects were similar to those of 8-day exposure. When embryos were exposed to (/sup 3/H)thymidine for 24 h at various developmental stages, effects were less severe than when they were exposed continuously for 3 or 8 days, and the sensitivity of embryos differed between stages. The 24-h exposure of immunosurgically isolated ICMS to (/sup 3/H)thymidine revealed that the high sensitivity of the ICM to (/sup 3/H)thymidine persists through the late blastocyst stage and declines progressively thereafter. Autoradiography indicated that the change in radiosensitivity of embryos or ICMs is generally related to their ability to incorporate (/sup 3/H)thymidine into the DNA.« less

  8. Recognition of the CDEI motif GTCACATG by mouse nuclear proteins and interference with the early development of the mouse embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Blangy, A; Léopold, P; Vidal, F; Rassoulzadegan, M; Cuzin, F

    1991-01-01

    We have reported previously (1) two unexpected consequences of the microinjection into fertilized mouse eggs of a recombinant plasmid designated p12B1, carrying a 343 bp insert of non-repetitive mouse DNA. Injected at very low concentrations, this plasmid could be established as an extrachromosomal genetic element. When injected in greater concentration, an early arrest of embryonic development resulted. In the present work, we have studied this toxic effect in more detail by microinjecting short synthetic oligonucleotides with sequences from the mouse insert. Lethality was associated with the nucleotide sequence GTCACATG, identical with the CDEl element of yeast centromeres. Development of injected embryos was arrested between the one-cell and the early morula stages, with abnormal structures and DNA contents. Electrophoretic mobility shift and DNAse foot-printing assays demonstrated the binding of mouse nuclear protein(s) to the CDEl-like box. Base changes within the CDEl sequence prevented both the toxic effects in embryos and the formation of protein complex in vitro, suggesting that protein binding at such sites in chromosomal DNA plays an important role in early development. Images PMID:1766880

  9. Alcohol exposure alters DNA methylation profiles in mouse embryos at early neurulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunlong; Balaraman, Yokesh; Wang, Guohua; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Zhou, Feng C.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development can cause variable neurofacial deficit and growth retardation known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The mechanism underlying FASD is not fully understood. However, alcohol, which is known to affect methyl donor metabolism, may induce aberrant epigenetic changes contributing to FASD. Using a tightly controlled whole-embryo culture, we investigated the effect of alcohol exposure (88 mM) at early embryonic neurulation on genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the C57BL/6 mouse. The DNA methylation landscape around promoter CpG islands at early mouse development was analyzed using MeDIP (methylated DNA immunoprecipitation) coupled with microarray (MeDIP-chip). At early neurulation, genes associated with high CpG promoters (HCP) had a lower ratio of methylation but a greater ratio of expression. Alcohol-induced alterations in DNA methylation were observed, particularly in genes on chromosomes 7, 10 and X; remarkably, a >10 fold increase in the number of genes with increased methylation on chromosomes 10 and X was observed in alcohol-exposed embryos with a neural tube defect phenotype compared to embryos without a neural tube defect. Significant changes in methylation were seen in imprinted genes, genes known to play roles in cell cycle, growth, apoptosis, cancer, and in a large number of genes associated with olfaction. Altered methylation was associated with significant (p < 0.01) changes in expression for 84 genes. Sequenom EpiTYPER DNA methylation analysis was used for validation of the MeDIP-chip data. Increased methylation of genes known to play a role in metabolism (Cyp4f13) and decreased methylation of genes associated with development (Nlgn3, Elavl2, Sox21 and Sim1), imprinting (Igf2r) and chromatin (Hist1h3d) was confirmed. In a mouse model for FASD, we show for the first time that alcohol exposure during early neurulation can induce aberrant changes in DNA methylation patterns with associated changes

  10. Alcohol exposure alters DNA methylation profiles in mouse embryos at early neurulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunlong; Balaraman, Yokesh; Wang, Guohua; Nephew, Kenneth P; Zhou, Feng C

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol exposure during development can cause variable neurofacial deficit and growth retardation known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The mechanism underlying FASD is not fully understood. However, alcohol, which is known to affect methyl donor metabolism, may induce aberrant epigenetic changes contributing to FASD. Using a tightly controlled whole-embryo culture, we investigated the effect of alcohol exposure (88mM) at early embryonic neurulation on genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the C57BL/6 mouse. The DNA methylation landscape around promoter CpG islands at early mouse development was analyzed using MeDIP (methylated DNA immunoprecipitation) coupled with microarray (MeDIP-chip). At early neurulation, genes associated with high CpG promoters (HCP) had a lower ratio of methylation but a greater ratio of expression. Alcohol-induced alterations in DNA methylation were observed, particularly in genes on chromosomes 7, 10, and X; remarkably, a >10 fold increase in the number of genes with increased methylation on chromosomes 10 and X was observed in alcohol-exposed embryos with a neural tube defect phenotype compared to embryos without a neural tube defect. Significant changes in methylation were seen in imprinted genes, genes known to play roles in cell cycle, growth, apoptosis, cancer, and in a large number of genes associated with olfaction. Altered methylation was associated with significant (p<0.01) changes in expression for 84 genes. Sequenom EpiTYPER DNA methylation analysis was used for validation of the MeDIP-chip data. Increased methylation of genes known to play a role in metabolism (Cyp4f13) and decreased methylation of genes associated with development (Nlgn3, Elavl2, Sox21 and Sim1), imprinting (Igf2r) and chromatin (Hist1h3d) was confirmed. In a mouse model for FASD, we show for the first time that alcohol exposure during early neurulation can induce aberrant changes in DNA methylation patterns with associated changes in

  11. Essential Role of Chromatin Remodeling Protein Bptf in Early Mouse Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Joseph; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Xiao, Hua; Southon, Eileen; Matta, Jennifer; Tessarollo, Lino; Zhang, Ying E.; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Kuehn, Michael R.; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Wu, Carl

    2008-01-01

    We have characterized the biological functions of the chromatin remodeling protein Bptf (Bromodomain PHD-finger Transcription Factor), the largest subunit of NURF (Nucleosome Remodeling Factor) in a mammal. Bptf mutants manifest growth defects at the post-implantation stage and are reabsorbed by E8.5. Histological analyses of lineage markers show that Bptf−/− embryos implant but fail to establish a functional distal visceral endoderm. Microarray analysis at early stages of differentiation has identified Bptf-dependent gene targets including homeobox transcriptions factors and genes essential for the development of ectoderm, mesoderm, and both definitive and visceral endoderm. Differentiation of Bptf−/− embryonic stem cell lines into embryoid bodies revealed its requirement for development of mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm tissue lineages, and uncovered many genes whose activation or repression are Bptf-dependent. We also provide functional and physical links between the Bptf-containing NURF complex and the Smad transcription factors. These results suggest that Bptf may co-regulate some gene targets of this pathway, which is essential for establishment of the visceral endoderm. We conclude that Bptf likely regulates genes and signaling pathways essential for the development of key tissues of the early mouse embryo. PMID:18974875

  12. Role of nucleation-promoting factors in mouse early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao-Chu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Fei; Duan, Xing; Dai, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Teng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Sun, Shao-Chen; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2013-06-01

    During mitosis nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) bind to the Arp2/3 complex and activate actin assembly. JMY and WAVE2 are two critical members of the NPFs. Previous studies have demonstrated that NPFs promote multiple processes such as cell migration and cytokinesis. However, the role of NPFs in development of mammalian embryos is still unknown. Results of the present study show that the NPFs JMY and WAVE2 are critical for cytokinesis during development of mouse embryos. Both JMY and WAVE2 are expressed in mouse embryos. After injection of JMY or WAVE2 siRNA, all embryos failed to develop to the morula or blastocyst stages. Moreover, using fluorescence intensity analysis, we found that the expression of actin decreased, and multiple nuclei were observed within a single cell indicating that NPFs-induced actin reduction caused the failure of cell division. In addition, injection of JMY and WAVE2 siRNA also caused ARP2 degradation, indicating that involvement of NPFs in development of mouse embryos is mainly through regulation of ARP2/3-induced actin assembly. Taken together, these data suggested that WAVE2 and JMY are involved in development of mouse embryos, and their regulation may be through a NPFs-Arp2/3-actin pathway.

  13. Making lineage decisions with biological noise: Lessons from the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Simon, Claire S; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Schröter, Christian

    2018-04-30

    Understanding how individual cells make fate decisions that lead to the faithful formation and homeostatic maintenance of tissues is a fundamental goal of contemporary developmental and stem cell biology. Seemingly uniform populations of stem cells and multipotent progenitors display a surprising degree of heterogeneity, primarily originating from the inherent stochastic nature of molecular processes underlying gene expression. Despite this heterogeneity, lineage decisions result in tissues of a defined size and with consistent proportions of differentiated cell types. Using the early mouse embryo as a model we review recent developments that have allowed the quantification of molecular intercellular heterogeneity during cell differentiation. We first discuss the relationship between these heterogeneities and developmental cellular potential. We then review recent theoretical approaches that formalize the mechanisms underlying fate decisions in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage embryo. These models build on our extensive knowledge of the genetic control of fate decisions in this system and will become essential tools for a rigorous understanding of the connection between noisy molecular processes and reproducible outcomes at the multicellular level. We conclude by suggesting that cell-to-cell communication provides a mechanism to exploit and buffer intercellular variability in a self-organized process that culminates in the reproducible formation of the mature mammalian blastocyst stage embryo that is ready for implantation into the maternal uterus. This article is categorized under: Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Cellular Differentiation Establishment of Spatial and Temporal Patterns > Regulation of Size, Proportion, and Timing Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Gene Networks and Genomics Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Quantitative Methods and Models. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Single-cell multi-omics sequencing of mouse early embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fan; Li, Lin; Li, Jingyun; Wu, Xinglong; Hu, Boqiang; Zhu, Ping; Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2017-08-01

    Single-cell epigenome sequencing techniques have recently been developed. However, the combination of different layers of epigenome sequencing in an individual cell has not yet been achieved. Here, we developed a single-cell multi-omics sequencing technology (single-cell COOL-seq) that can analyze the chromatin state/nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, copy number variation and ploidy simultaneously from the same individual mammalian cell. We used this method to analyze the reprogramming of the chromatin state and DNA methylation in mouse preimplantation embryos. We found that within < 12 h of fertilization, each individual cell undergoes global genome demethylation together with the rapid and global reprogramming of both maternal and paternal genomes to a highly opened chromatin state. This was followed by decreased openness after the late zygote stage. Furthermore, from the late zygote to the 4-cell stage, the residual DNA methylation is preferentially preserved on intergenic regions of the paternal alleles and intragenic regions of maternal alleles in each individual blastomere. However, chromatin accessibility is similar between paternal and maternal alleles in each individual cell from the late zygote to the blastocyst stage. The binding motifs of several pluripotency regulators are enriched at distal nucleosome depleted regions from as early as the 2-cell stage. This indicates that the cis-regulatory elements of such target genes have been primed to an open state from the 2-cell stage onward, long before pluripotency is eventually established in the ICM of the blastocyst. Genes may be classified into homogeneously open, homogeneously closed and divergent states based on the chromatin accessibility of their promoter regions among individual cells. This can be traced to step-wise transitions during preimplantation development. Our study offers the first single-cell and parental allele-specific analysis of the genome-scale chromatin state and DNA

  15. Single-cell multi-omics sequencing of mouse early embryos and embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fan; Li, Lin; Li, Jingyun; Wu, Xinglong; Hu, Boqiang; Zhu, Ping; Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell epigenome sequencing techniques have recently been developed. However, the combination of different layers of epigenome sequencing in an individual cell has not yet been achieved. Here, we developed a single-cell multi-omics sequencing technology (single-cell COOL-seq) that can analyze the chromatin state/nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, copy number variation and ploidy simultaneously from the same individual mammalian cell. We used this method to analyze the reprogramming of the chromatin state and DNA methylation in mouse preimplantation embryos. We found that within < 12 h of fertilization, each individual cell undergoes global genome demethylation together with the rapid and global reprogramming of both maternal and paternal genomes to a highly opened chromatin state. This was followed by decreased openness after the late zygote stage. Furthermore, from the late zygote to the 4-cell stage, the residual DNA methylation is preferentially preserved on intergenic regions of the paternal alleles and intragenic regions of maternal alleles in each individual blastomere. However, chromatin accessibility is similar between paternal and maternal alleles in each individual cell from the late zygote to the blastocyst stage. The binding motifs of several pluripotency regulators are enriched at distal nucleosome depleted regions from as early as the 2-cell stage. This indicates that the cis-regulatory elements of such target genes have been primed to an open state from the 2-cell stage onward, long before pluripotency is eventually established in the ICM of the blastocyst. Genes may be classified into homogeneously open, homogeneously closed and divergent states based on the chromatin accessibility of their promoter regions among individual cells. This can be traced to step-wise transitions during preimplantation development. Our study offers the first single-cell and parental allele-specific analysis of the genome-scale chromatin state and DNA

  16. Mouse Embryo Compaction.

    PubMed

    White, M D; Bissiere, S; Alvarez, Y D; Plachta, N

    2016-01-01

    Compaction is a critical first morphological event in the preimplantation development of the mammalian embryo. Characterized by the transformation of the embryo from a loose cluster of spherical cells into a tightly packed mass, compaction is a key step in the establishment of the first tissue-like structures of the embryo. Although early investigation of the mechanisms driving compaction implicated changes in cell-cell adhesion, recent work has identified essential roles for cortical tension and a compaction-specific class of filopodia. During the transition from 8 to 16 cells, as the embryo is compacting, it must also make fundamental decisions regarding cell position, polarity, and fate. Understanding how these and other processes are integrated with compaction requires further investigation. Emerging imaging-based techniques that enable quantitative analysis from the level of cell-cell interactions down to the level of individual regulatory molecules will provide a greater understanding of how compaction shapes the early mammalian embryo. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative imaging of lipids in live mouse oocytes and early embryos using CARS microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Josephine; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Sanusi, Randa; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes contain lipid droplets that are a store of fatty acids, whose metabolism plays a substantial role in pre-implantation development. Fluorescent staining has previously been used to image lipid droplets in mammalian oocytes and embryos, but this method is not quantitative and often incompatible with live cell imaging and subsequent development. Here we have applied chemically specific, label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. We show that CARS imaging can quantify the size, number and spatial distribution of lipid droplets in living mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Notably, it can be used in a way that does not compromise oocyte maturation or embryo development. We have also correlated CARS with two-photon fluorescence microscopy simultaneously acquired using fluorescent lipid probes on fixed samples, and found only a partial degree of correlation, depending on the lipid probe, clearly exemplifying the limitation of lipid labelling. In addition, we show that differences in the chemical composition of lipid droplets in living oocytes matured in media supplemented with different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids can be detected using CARS hyperspectral imaging. These results demonstrate that CARS microscopy provides a novel non-invasive method of quantifying lipid content, type and spatial distribution with sub-micron resolution in living mammalian oocytes and embryos. PMID:27151947

  18. Quantitative imaging of lipids in live mouse oocytes and early embryos using CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Josephine; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Sanusi, Randa; Langbein, Wolfgang; Swann, Karl; Borri, Paola

    2016-06-15

    Mammalian oocytes contain lipid droplets that are a store of fatty acids, whose metabolism plays a substantial role in pre-implantation development. Fluorescent staining has previously been used to image lipid droplets in mammalian oocytes and embryos, but this method is not quantitative and often incompatible with live cell imaging and subsequent development. Here we have applied chemically specific, label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. We show that CARS imaging can quantify the size, number and spatial distribution of lipid droplets in living mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Notably, it can be used in a way that does not compromise oocyte maturation or embryo development. We have also correlated CARS with two-photon fluorescence microscopy simultaneously acquired using fluorescent lipid probes on fixed samples, and found only a partial degree of correlation, depending on the lipid probe, clearly exemplifying the limitation of lipid labelling. In addition, we show that differences in the chemical composition of lipid droplets in living oocytes matured in media supplemented with different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids can be detected using CARS hyperspectral imaging. These results demonstrate that CARS microscopy provides a novel non-invasive method of quantifying lipid content, type and spatial distribution with sub-micron resolution in living mammalian oocytes and embryos. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Characterisation of the dynamic behaviour of lipid droplets in the early mouse embryo using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Thayil, Anisha; Jesacher, Alexander; Grieve, Kate; Debarre, Delphine; Wilson, Tony; Booth, Martin; Srinivas, Shankar

    2010-06-03

    Lipid droplets (LD) are organelles with an important role in normal metabolism and disease. The lipid content of embryos has a major impact on viability and development. LD in Drosophila embryos and cultured cell lines have been shown to move and fuse in a microtubule dependent manner. Due to limitations in current imaging technology, little is known about the behaviour of LD in the mammalian embryo. Harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) allows one to image LD without the use of exogenous labels. Adaptive optics can be used to correct aberrations that would otherwise degrade the quality and information content of images. We have built a harmonic generation microscope with adaptive optics to characterise early mouse embryogenesis. At fertilization, LD are small and uniformly distributed, but in the implanting blastocyst, LD are larger and enriched in the invading giant cells of the trophectoderm. Time-lapse studies reveal that LD move continuously and collide but do not fuse, instead forming aggregates that subsequently behave as single units. Using specific inhibitors, we show that the velocity and dynamic behaviour of LD is dependent not only on microtubules as in other systems, but also on microfilaments. We explore the limits within which HGM can be used to study living embryos without compromising viability and make the counterintuitive finding that 16 J of energy delivered continuously over a period of minutes can be less deleterious than an order of magnitude lower energy delivered dis-continuously over a period of hours. LD in pre-implantation mouse embryos show a previously unappreciated complexity of behaviour that is dependent not only on microtubules, but also microfilaments. Unlike LD in other systems, LD in the mouse embryo do not fuse but form aggregates. This study establishes HGM with adaptive optics as a powerful tool for the study of LD biology and provides insights into the photo-toxic effects of imaging embryos.

  20. Paternal Diet-Induced Obesity Retards Early Mouse Embryo Development, Mitochondrial Activity and Pregnancy Health

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Natalie K.; Hannan, Natalie J.; Gardner, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, 48% of adult males are overweight or obese. An association between infertility and excessive body weight is now accepted, although focus remains primarily on females. It has been shown that parental obesity results in compromised embryo development, disproportionate changes in embryo metabolism and reduced blastocyst cell number. The aim of this study was to determine whether paternal obesity has negative effects on the resultant embryo. Specifically, using in vitro fertilisation (IVF), we wanted to isolate the functional effects of obesity on sperm by examining the subsequent embryo both pre- and post-implantation. Epididymal sperm was collected from age matched normal and obese C57BL/6 mice and cryopreserved for subsequent IVF with oocytes collected from Swiss females (normal diet/weight). Obesity was induced in male mice by feeding a high fat diet of 22% fat for 10 weeks. Resultant embryos were cultured individually and development monitored using time-lapse microscopy. Paternal obesity resulted in a significant delay in preimplantation embryo development as early as syngamy (P<0.05). Metabolic parameters were measured across key developmental stages, demonstrating significant reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01). Blastocysts were stained to determine trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers, revealing significant differences in the ratio of cell allocation to TE and ICM lineages (P<0.01). Functional studies examining blastocyst attachment, growth and implantation demonstrated that blastocysts derived from sperm of obese males displayed significantly reduced outgrowth on fibronectin in vitro (P<0.05) and retarded fetal development in vivo following embryo transfer (P<0.05). Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that paternal obesity has significant negative effects on the embryo at a variety of key early developmental stages, resulting in delayed development, reduced placental size and smaller offspring

  1. Redundant roles of Sox17 and Sox18 in early cardiovascular development of mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Youhei; Hara, Kenshiro; Kanai-Azuma, Masami

    Sox7, -17 and -18 constitute the Sox subgroup F (SoxF) of HMG box transcription factor genes, which all are co-expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells in mice. Here we characterized cardiovascular phenotypes of Sox17/Sox18-double and Sox17-single null embryos during early-somite stages. Whole-mount PECAM staining demonstrated the aberrant heart looping, enlarged cardinal vein and mild defects in anterior dorsal aorta formation in Sox17 single-null embryos. The Sox17/Sox18 double-null embryos showed more severe defects in formation of anterior dorsal aorta and head/cervical microvasculature, and in some cases, aberrant differentiation of endocardial cells and defective fusion of the endocardial tube. However, the posteriormore » dorsal aorta and allantoic microvasculature was properly formed in all of the Sox17/Sox18 double-null embryos. The anomalies in both anterior dorsal aorta and head/cervical vasculature corresponded with the weak Sox7 expression sites. This suggests the region-specific redundant activities of three SoxF members along the anteroposterior axis of embryonic vascular network.« less

  2. The cell cycle of early mammalian embryos: lessons from genetic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Artus, Jérôme; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2006-03-01

    Genes coding for cell cycle components predicted to be essential for its regulation have been shown to be dispensable in mice, at the whole organism level. Such studies have highlighted the extraordinary plasticity of the embryonic cell cycle and suggest that many aspects of in vivo cell cycle regulation remain to be discovered. Here, we discuss the particularities of the mouse early embryonic cell cycle and review the mutations that result in cell cycle defects during mouse early embryogenesis, including deficiencies for genes of the cyclin family (cyclin A2 and B1), genes involved in cell cycle checkpoints (Mad2, Bub3, Chk1, Atr), genes involved in ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like pathways (Uba3, Ubc9, Cul1, Cul3, Apc2, Apc10, Csn2) as well as genes the function of which had not been previously ascribed to cell cycle regulation (Cdc2P1, E4F and Omcg1).

  3. Selective loss of mouse embryos due to the expression of transgenic major histocompatibility class I molecules early in embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aït-Azzouzene, D; Langkopf, A; Cohen, J; Bleux, C; Gendron, M C; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, C

    1998-05-01

    Among the numerous hypotheses proposed to explain the absence of fetal rejection by the mother in mammals, it has been suggested that regulation of expression of the polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) at the fetal-maternal interface plays a major role. In addition to a lack of MHC gene expression in the placenta throughout gestation, the absence of polymorphic MHC molecules on the early embryo, as well as their low level of expression after midgestation, could contribute to this important biologic phenomenon. In order to test this hypothesis, we have produced transgenic mice able to express polymorphic MHC class I molecules early in embryogenesis. We have placed the MHC class la gene H-2Kb under the control of a housekeeping gene promoter, the hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG) gene minimal promoter. This construct has been tested for functionality after transfection into mouse fibroblast L cells. The analysis of three founder transgenic mice and their progeny suggested that fetoplacental units that could express the H-2Kb heavy chains are unable to survive in utero beyond midgestation. We have shown further that a much higher resorption rate, on days 11 to 13 of embryonic development, is observed among transgenic embryos developing from eggs microinjected at the one-cell stage with the pHMG-Kb construct than in control embryos. This lethality is not due to immune phenomena, since it is observed in histocompatible combinations between mother and fetus. These results are discussed in the context of what is currently known about the regulation of MHC expression at the fetal-maternal interface and in various transgenic mouse models.

  4. Selection and dynamics of embryonic stem cell integration into early mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, Stoyana; Kalkan, Tuzer; Humphreys, Peter; Riddell, Andrew; Scognamiglio, Roberta; Trumpp, Andreas; Nichols, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The process by which pluripotent cells incorporate into host embryos is of interest to investigate cell potency and cell fate decisions. Previous studies suggest that only a minority of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) inoculum contributes to the adult chimaera. How incoming cells are chosen for integration or elimination remains unclear. By comparing a heterogeneous mix of undifferentiated and differentiating ESCs (serum/LIF) with more homogeneous undifferentiated culture (2i/LIF), we examine the role of cellular heterogeneity in this process. Time-lapse ex vivo imaging revealed a drastic elimination of serum/LIF ESCs during early development in comparison with 2i/LIF ESCs. Using a fluorescent reporter for naive pluripotency (Rex1-GFP), we established that the acutely eliminated serum/LIF ESCs had started to differentiate. The rejected cells were apparently killed by apoptosis. We conclude that a selection process exists by which unwanted differentiating cells are eliminated from the embryo. However, occasional Rex1− cells were able to integrate. Upregulation of Rex1 occurred in a proportion of these cells, reflecting the potential of the embryonic environment to expedite diversion from differentiation priming to enhance the developing embryonic epiblast. PMID:26586221

  5. The methyltransferase Setdb1 is essential for meiosis and mitosis in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    PubMed

    Eymery, Angeline; Liu, Zichuan; Ozonov, Evgeniy A; Stadler, Michael B; Peters, Antoine H F M

    2016-08-01

    Oocytes develop the competence for meiosis and early embryogenesis during their growth. Setdb1 is a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase required for post-implantation development and has been implicated in the transcriptional silencing of genes and endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs). To address its role in oogenesis and pre-implantation development, we conditionally deleted Setdb1 in growing oocytes. Loss of Setdb1 expression greatly impaired meiosis. It delayed meiotic resumption, altered the dynamics of chromatin condensation, and impaired kinetochore-spindle interactions, bipolar spindle organization and chromosome segregation in more mature oocytes. The observed phenotypes related to changes in abundance of specific transcripts in mutant oocytes. Setdb1 maternally deficient embryos arrested during pre-implantation development and showed comparable defects during cell cycle progression and in chromosome segregation. Finally, transcriptional profiling data indicate that Setdb1 downregulates rather than silences expression of ERVK and ERVL-MaLR retrotransposons and associated chimearic transcripts during oogenesis. Our results identify Setdb1 as a newly discovered meiotic and embryonic competence factor safeguarding genome integrity at the onset of life. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Position- and Hippo signaling-dependent plasticity during lineage segregation in the early mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Posfai, Eszter; Petropoulos, Sophie; de Barros, Flavia Regina Oliveira; Schell, John Paul; Jurisica, Igor; Sandberg, Rickard; Lanner, Fredrik; Rossant, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The segregation of the trophectoderm (TE) from the inner cell mass (ICM) in the mouse blastocyst is determined by position-dependent Hippo signaling. However, the window of responsiveness to Hippo signaling, the exact timing of lineage commitment and the overall relationship between cell commitment and global gene expression changes are still unclear. Single-cell RNA sequencing during lineage segregation revealed that the TE transcriptional profile stabilizes earlier than the ICM and prior to blastocyst formation. Using quantitative Cdx2-eGFP expression as a readout of Hippo signaling activity, we assessed the experimental potential of individual blastomeres based on their level of Cdx2-eGFP expression and correlated potential with gene expression dynamics. We find that TE specification and commitment coincide and occur at the time of transcriptional stabilization, whereas ICM cells still retain the ability to regenerate TE up to the early blastocyst stage. Plasticity of both lineages is coincident with their window of sensitivity to Hippo signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22906.001 PMID:28226240

  7. Identification and functional analysis of long non-coding RNAs in human and mouse early embryos based on single-cell transcriptome data

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jia-jun; Ren, Zhao-rui; Yan, Jing-bin

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics regulations have an important role in fertilization and proper embryonic development, and several human diseases are associated with epigenetic modification disorders, such as Rett syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. However, the dynamics and functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), one type of epigenetic regulators, in human pre-implantation development have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of human and mouse early-stage embryonic lncRNAs was performed based on public single-cell RNA sequencing data. Expression profile analysis revealed that lncRNAs are expressed in a developmental stage–specific manner during human early-stage embryonic development, whereas a more temporal-specific expression pattern was identified in mouse embryos. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis suggested that lncRNAs involved in human early-stage embryonic development are associated with several important functions and processes, such as oocyte maturation, zygotic genome activation and mitochondrial functions. We also found that the network of lncRNAs involved in zygotic genome activation was highly preservative between human and mouse embryos, whereas in other stages no strong correlation between human and mouse embryo was observed. This study provides insight into the molecular mechanism underlying lncRNA involvement in human pre-implantation embryonic development. PMID:27542205

  8. In Amnio MRI of Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas A.; Norris, Francesca C.; Carnaghan, Helen; Savery, Dawn; Wells, Jack A.; Siow, Bernard; Scambler, Peter J.; Pierro, Agostino; De Coppi, Paolo; Eaton, Simon; Lythgoe, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse embryo imaging is conventionally carried out on ex vivo embryos excised from the amniotic sac, omitting vital structures and abnormalities external to the body. Here, we present an in amnio MR imaging methodology in which the mouse embryo is retained in the amniotic sac and demonstrate how important embryonic structures can be visualised in 3D with high spatial resolution (100 µm/px). To illustrate the utility of in amnio imaging, we subsequently apply the technique to examine abnormal mouse embryos with abdominal wall defects. Mouse embryos at E17.5 were imaged and compared, including three normal phenotype embryos, an abnormal embryo with a clear exomphalos defect, and one with a suspected gastroschisis phenotype. Embryos were excised from the mother ensuring the amnion remained intact and stereo microscopy was performed. Embryos were next embedded in agarose for 3D, high resolution MRI on a 9.4T scanner. Identification of the abnormal embryo phenotypes was not possible using stereo microscopy or conventional ex vivo MRI. Using in amnio MRI, we determined that the abnormal embryos had an exomphalos phenotype with varying severities. In amnio MRI is ideally suited to investigate the complex relationship between embryo and amnion, together with screening for other abnormalities located outside of the mouse embryo, providing a valuable complement to histology and existing imaging methods available to the phenotyping community. PMID:25330230

  9. Glucocorticoid teratogenesis in mouse whole embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Pratt, R M; Perry, E L; Chapman, L M; Goulding, E H

    1984-08-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as triamcinolone acetonide (TAC-A) and triamcinolone hexacetonide (TAC-HA), are potent inducers of cleft palate in vivo in various mouse strains when administered on day 11 of gestation, whereas they are poor or ineffective inducers of cleft lip when given on day 7. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether glucocorticoids are capable of interfering with early embryonic development in culture. CD-1 mouse embryos were cultured for 48 hours starting either on day 8 (plug day 0) with the embryo inside the yolk sac, or on day 10 with the embryo exteriorized from its functional yolk sac. At the end of the culture period, embryos were examined grossly for malformations and biochemically for altered DNA and protein levels. With the day 8 cultures, TAC-A produced a dose-dependent inhibition of growth along with malformations consisting of cardiac irregularities, abnormal rotation, and irregular neural tube closure. With the day 10 cultures, these malformations were not observed, presumably due to the advanced stage of development when the embryos were exposed to TAC-A; however, TAC-A did produce growth inhibition along with cleft lip. When TAC-HA was administered in vivo to pregnant donor females on day 7, in combination with TAC-A added on day 10 to the culture medium, there was a dramatic increase in the frequency of cleft lip along with other alterations in craniofacial appearance. Our results demonstrate that glucocorticoids are capable of directly affecting embryonic growth and development during the early stages of organogenesis.

  10. Imaging of cardiovascular dynamics in early mouse embryos with swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Liebling, Michael; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2009-02-01

    Congenital cardiovascular defects are very common, occurring in 1% of live births, and cardiovascular failures are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths in infants. To improve diagnostics, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities, we need to understand not only how cells form the heart and vessels but also how physical factors such as heart contraction and blood flow influence heart development and changes in the circulatory network. Mouse models are an excellent resource for studying cardiovascular development and disease because of the resemblance to humans, rapid generation time, and availability of mutants with cardiovascular defects linked to human diseases. In this work, we present results on development and application of Doppler Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (DSS-OCT) for imaging of cardiovascular dynamics and blood flow in the mouse embryonic heart and vessels. Our studies demonstrated that the spatial and temporal resolution of the DSS-OCT makes it possible to perform sensitive measurements of heart and vessel wall movements and to investigate how contractile waves facilitate the movement of blood through the circulatory system.

  11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Voss, Anne K; Dixon, Mathew P; McLennan, Tamara; Kueh, Andrew J; Thomas, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During prenatal development, a large number of different cell types are formed, the vast majority of which contain identical genetic material. The basis of the great variety in cell phenotype and function is the differential expression of the approximately 25,000 genes in the mammalian genome. Transcriptional activity is regulated at many levels by proteins, including members of the basal transcriptional apparatus, DNA-binding transcription factors, and chromatin-binding proteins. Importantly, chromatin structure dictates the availability of a specific genomic locus for transcriptional activation as well as the efficiency, with which transcription can occur. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a method to assess if chromatin modifications or proteins are present at a specific locus. ChIP involves the cross linking of DNA and associated proteins and immunoprecipitation using specific antibodies to DNA-associated proteins followed by examination of the co-precipitated DNA sequences or proteins. In the last few years, ChIP has become an essential technique for scientists studying transcriptional regulation and chromatin structure. Using ChIP on mouse embryos, we can document the presence or absence of specific proteins and chromatin modifications at genomic loci in vivo during mammalian development. Here, we describe a ChIP technique adapted for mouse embryos.

  12. [Effect of human oviductal embryotrophic factors on gene expression of mouse preimplantation embryos].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan-Qing; Lee, Kai-Fai; Xu, Jia-Seng; Ho, Pak-Chung; Yeung, Shu-Biu

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the effect of embryotrophic factors (ETF) from human oviductal cells on gene expression of mouse early developmental embryos and discuss the role of fallopian tube in early development of embryos. ETF was isolated from conditioned medium of human oviductal cell line by sequential liquid chromatographic systems. Mouse embryos were treated by ETF in vitro. Using differential display RT-PCR, the gene expression of embryos treated by ETF was compared with embryos without ETF treatment. The differentially expressed genes were separated, re-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Gene expression profiles of embryos with ETF treatment was different from embryos without this treatment. Eight differentially expressed genes were cloned and sequenced. These genes functioned in RNA degradation, synthesis, splicing, protein trafficking, cellular differentiation and embryo development. Embryotrophic factors from human oviductal cells affect gene expression of early developmental embryos. The human oviductal cells play wide roles in early developmental stages of embryos.

  13. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh) impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Woda, Juliana M; Calzonetti, Teresa; Hilditch-Maguire, Paige; Duyao, Mabel P; Conlon, Ronald A; MacDonald, Marcy E

    2005-01-01

    Background Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdhex4/5 huntingtin deficient embryos. Results In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0–7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury) and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) are specified. Conclusion Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in Huntington's disease. PMID:16109169

  14. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh) impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Woda, Juliana M; Calzonetti, Teresa; Hilditch-Maguire, Paige; Duyao, Mabel P; Conlon, Ronald A; MacDonald, Marcy E

    2005-08-18

    Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdh(ex4/5) huntingtin deficient embryos. In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0-7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury) and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) are specified. Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in Huntington's disease.

  15. Mouse Mix gene is activated early during differentiation of ES and F9 stem cells and induces endoderm in frog embryos.

    PubMed

    Mohn, Deanna; Chen, Siming W; Dias, Dora Campos; Weinstein, Daniel C; Dyer, Michael A; Sahr, Kenneth; Ducker, Charles E; Zahradka, Elizabeth; Keller, Gordon; Zaret, Kenneth S; Gudas, Lorraine J; Baron, Margaret H

    2003-03-01

    In frog and zebrafish, the Mix/Bix family of paired type homeodomain proteins play key roles in specification and differentiation of mesendoderm. However, in mouse, only a single Mix gene (mMix) has been identified to date and its function is unknown. We have analyzed the expression of mouse Mix RNA and protein in embryos, embryoid bodies formed from embryonic stem cells and F9 teratocarcinoma cells, as well as several differentiated cell types. Expression in embryoid bodies in culture mirrors that in embryos, where Mix is transcribed transiently in primitive (visceral) endoderm (VE) and in nascent mesoderm. In F9 cells induced by retinoic acid to differentiate to VE, mMix is coordinately expressed with three other endodermal transcription factors, well before AFP, and its protein product is localized to the nucleus. In a subpopulation of nascent mesodermal cells from embryonic stem cell embryoid bodies, mMix is coexpressed with Brachyury. Intriguingly, mMix mRNA is detected in a population (T+Flk1+) of cells which may contain hemangioblasts, before the onset of hematopoiesis and activation of hematopoietic markers. In vitro and in vivo, mMix expression in nascent mesoderm is rapidly down-regulated and becomes undetectable in differentiated cell types. In the region of the developing gut, mMix expression is confined to the mesoderm of mid- and hindgut but is absent from definitive endoderm. Injection of mouse mMix RNA into early frog embryos results in axial truncation of developing tadpoles and, in animal cap assays, mMix alone is sufficient to activate expression of several endodermal (but not mesodermal) markers. Although these observations do not exclude a possible cell-autonomous function for mMix in mesendodermal progenitor cells, they do suggest an additional, non-cell autonomous role in nascent mesoderm in the formation and/or patterning of adjacent definitive endoderm. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Insulin and branched-chain amino acid depletion during mouse preimplantation embryo culture programmes body weight gain and raised blood pressure during early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Miguel A; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Smith, Stephanie J; Eckert, Judith J; Osmond, Clive; Fleming, Tom P

    2018-02-01

    Mouse maternal low protein diet exclusively during preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to programme altered growth and cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring. Here, we use an in vitro model comprising preimplantation culture in medium depleted in insulin and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), two proposed embryo programming inductive factors from Emb-LPD studies, to examine the consequences for blastocyst organisation and, after embryo transfer (ET), postnatal disease origin. Two-cell embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in defined KSOM medium supplemented with four combinations of insulin and BCAA concentrations. Control medium contained serum insulin and uterine luminal fluid amino acid concentrations (including BCAA) found in control mothers from the maternal diet model (N-insulin+N-bcaa). Experimental medium (three groups) contained 50% reduction in insulin and/or BCAA (L-insulin+N-bcaa, N-insulin+L-bcaa, and L-insulin+N-bcaa). Lineage-specific cell numbers of resultant blastocysts were not affected by treatment. Following ET, a combined depletion of insulin and BCAA during embryo culture induced a non sex-specific increase in birth weight and weight gain during early postnatal life. Furthermore, male offspring displayed relative hypertension and female offspring reduced heart/body weight, both characteristics of Emb-LPD offspring. Combined depletion of metabolites also resulted in a strong positive correlation between body weight and glucose metabolism that was absent in the control group. Our results support the notion that composition of preimplantation culture medium can programme development and associate with disease origin affecting postnatal growth and cardiovascular phenotypes and implicate two important nutritional mediators in the inductive mechanism. Our data also have implications for human assisted reproductive treatment (ART) practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contrast imaging in mouse embryos using high-frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Denbeigh, Janet M; Nixon, Brian A; Puri, Mira C; Foster, F Stuart

    2015-03-04

    Ultrasound contrast-enhanced imaging can convey essential quantitative information regarding tissue vascularity and perfusion and, in targeted applications, facilitate the detection and measure of vascular biomarkers at the molecular level. Within the mouse embryo, this noninvasive technique may be used to uncover basic mechanisms underlying vascular development in the early mouse circulatory system and in genetic models of cardiovascular disease. The mouse embryo also presents as an excellent model for studying the adhesion of microbubbles to angiogenic targets (including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) or αvβ3) and for assessing the quantitative nature of molecular ultrasound. We therefore developed a method to introduce ultrasound contrast agents into the vasculature of living, isolated embryos. This allows freedom in terms of injection control and positioning, reproducibility of the imaging plane without obstruction and motion, and simplified image analysis and quantification. Late gestational stage (embryonic day (E)16.6 and E17.5) murine embryos were isolated from the uterus, gently exteriorized from the yolk sac and microbubble contrast agents were injected into veins accessible on the chorionic surface of the placental disc. Nonlinear contrast ultrasound imaging was then employed to collect a number of basic perfusion parameters (peak enhancement, wash-in rate and time to peak) and quantify targeted microbubble binding in an endoglin mouse model. We show the successful circulation of microbubbles within living embryos and the utility of this approach in characterizing embryonic vasculature and microbubble behavior.

  18. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization.more » During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.« less

  19. Learning to segment mouse embryo cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Juan; Pardo, Alejandro; Arbeláez, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in microscopy enable the capture of temporal sequences during cell development stages. However, the study of such sequences is a complex task and time consuming task. In this paper we propose an automatic strategy to adders the problem of semantic and instance segmentation of mouse embryos using NYU's Mouse Embryo Tracking Database. We obtain our instance proposals as refined predictions from the generalized hough transform, using prior knowledge of the embryo's locations and their current cell stage. We use two main approaches to learn the priors: Hand crafted features and automatic learned features. Our strategy increases the baseline jaccard index from 0.12 up to 0.24 using hand crafted features and 0.28 by using automatic learned ones.

  20. Role of glucose in mouse preimplantation embryo development.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L; Leese, H J

    1995-04-01

    Mouse preimplantation embryos consume pyruvate preferentially during the early developmental stages, before glucose becomes the predominant energy substrate in the blastocyst. To investigate the importance of the switch to glucose utilization at the later developmental stages, mouse embryos from F1 hybrid mice (CBA/Ca x C57BL/6) were cultured from the one- and two-cell stages (22 and 46 h post hCG, respectively) for 5 days in a modified medium, M16, containing 0.33 mM pyruvate and 5 or 23 mM D + L-lactate, in the presence and absence of 1 mM glucose (M16 + G and M16 - G, respectively). Nutrient uptakes were also determined over this time. Some embryos cultured in M16 - G were transferred to M16 + G at 94 or 118 h post hCG. Embryos cultured from the two-cell stage in M16 + G exhibited the characteristic fall in pyruvate consumption between the morula and the blastocyst stage; those cultured from the two-cell stage in M16 - G compensated for the lack of glucose by consuming increasing amounts of pyruvate, from 2.78 pmol/embryo/h at 58 h post hCG to 5.21 pmol/embryo/h at 154 h post hCG. However, the percentage of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage, the hatching rate, and blastocyst cell numbers (50.6 +/- 2.5 [28] vs. 105 +/- 3.8 [37]) were all lower in this group. When exposed to glucose at 94 or 118 h post hCG, embryos cultured from the two-cell stage in M16 - G readily consumed glucose in preference to pyruvate, although the characteristic fall in pyruvate consumption was not observed. One-cell embryos cultured continuously in M16 - G were only able to develop to the morula stage, after which time they degenerated. In these embryos pyruvate was readily consumed between 22 and 94 h post hCG, before falling from 2.77 pmol/embryo/h at 83 h post hCG to 0.045 pmol/embryo/h at 130 h post hCG. Transfer of these embryos to M16 + G at 94 and 118 h post hCG did not support development to the hatching blastocyst stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Progesterone is critical for the development of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Murphy, Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    Infertility affects approximately 10-15 % of reproductive-aged couples, and embryo loss due to preimplantation death is common to many mammals. Previous studies showed that a complex series of interactive molecular events are associated with this process, especially hormones (progesterone and estrogens) and growth factors, and are important for the cleavage and differentiation of the blastocysts. Yet, the mechanism of preimplantation embryo development is unclear. Using conditional knockout mice (CKO), we showed the development of blastocyst is tightly controlled by the level of progesterone (P4); furthermore, we found that the time when P4 should increase is also crucial for the formation of blastocysts. In CKO mice whose Lrh1 (liver receptor homolog 1) is deleted under the expression of Cre recombinase driven by progesterone receptor promoter, which reduced P4 synthesis, few of their embryos can reach blastocyst stage. When these CKO mice were supplied with P4 in the afternoon of dpc 1 (day post copulation), most of the embryos can form blastocysts; when CKO mice were supplied with P4 from the morning of dpc1, one-third of the embryos can reach blastocyst stage; however, the supplement of P4 in the morning of dpc 2 made very few of the embryos become blastocysts. We conclude that early exposure to P4 is essential for timely progression of early embryogenesis in the mouse.

  2. Functional analysis of lysosomes during mouse preimplantation embryo development.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Hara, Taichi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ohta, Yuki; Wada, Ayako; Ishida, Yuka; Kito, Seiji; Nishikawa, Tetsu; Minami, Naojiro; Sato, Ken; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic and highly dynamic organelles that are essential for macromolecule degradation and many other cellular functions. However, little is known about lysosomal function during early embryogenesis. Here, we found that the number of lysosomes increased after fertilization. Lysosomes were abundant during mouse preimplantation development until the morula stage, but their numbers decreased slightly in blastocysts. Consistently, the protein expression level of mature cathepsins B and D was high from the one-cell to morula stages but low in the blastocyst stage. One-cell embryos injected with siRNAs targeted to both lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 and 2 (LAMP1 and LAMP2) were developmentally arrested at the two-cell stage. Pharmacological inhibition of lysosomes also caused developmental retardation, resulting in accumulation of lipofuscin. Our findings highlight the functional changes in lysosomes in mouse preimplantation embryos.

  3. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, Jan; Norris, Francesca; Cleary, Jon; Zhang, Edward; Treeby, Bradley; Cox, Ben; Johnson, Peter; Scambler, Pete; Lythgoe, Mark; Beard, Paul

    2012-06-01

    The ability to noninvasively image embryonic vascular anatomy in mouse models is an important requirement for characterizing the development of the normal cardiovascular system and malformations in the heart and vascular supply. Photoacoustic imaging, which can provide high resolution non invasive images of the vasculature based upon optical absorption by endogenous hemoglobin, is well suited to this application. In this study, photoacoustic images of mouse embryos were obtained ex vivo and in vivo. The images show intricate details of the embryonic vascular system to depths of up to 10 mm, which allowed whole embryos to be imaged in situ. To achieve this, an all-optical photoacoustic scanner and a novel time reversal image reconstruction algorithm, which provide deep tissue imaging capability while maintaining high spatial resolution and contrast were employed. This technology may find application as an imaging tool for preclinical embryo studies in developmental biology as well as more generally in preclinical and clinical medicine for studying pathologies characterized by changes in the vasculature.

  4. Electroporation of Postimplantation Mouse Embryos In Utero.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Carcagno, Abel

    2018-02-01

    Gene transfer by electroporation is possible in mouse fetuses within the uterus. As described in this protocol, the pregnant female is anesthetized, the abdominal cavity is opened, and the uterus with the fetuses is exteriorized. A solution of plasmid DNA is injected through the uterine wall directly into the fetus, typically into a cavity like the brain ventricle, guided by fiber optic illumination. Electrodes are positioned on the uterus around the region of the fetus that was injected, and electrical pulses are delivered. The uterus is returned to the abdominal cavity, the body wall is sutured closed, and the female is allowed to recover. The manipulated fetuses can then be collected and analyzed at various times after the electroporation. This method allows experimental access to later-stage developing mouse embryos. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Effect of Culture Conditions on Viability of Mouse and Rat Embryos Developed in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Elena; Bader, Michael; Krivokharchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Currently in vitro culture of mouse preimplantation embryos has become a very important technique to investigate different mechanisms of early embryogenesis. However, there is a big difference in the preimplantation development between mammalian species. Despite close relatedness to mice, in vitro cultivation of rat preimplantation embryos is still delicate and needs further investigation and optimizations. In this study we have compared the in vitro developmental potential of mouse and rat embryos cultured at different culture conditions in parallel experiments. Interestingly, mouse zygotes developed in vitro until blastocyst stage even in inadequate medium without any phosphates and with low osmolarity which was formulated especially for cultivation of rat embryos. Rat parthenotes and zygotes developed in M16 medium formulated for mouse embryos only till 2-cell stage and further development is blocked completely at this stage. Moreover, developmental ability of rat embryos in vitro was significantly lower in comparison with mouse even in special rat mR1ECM medium. Mouse and rat embryos at 2-cell stage obtained in vivo developed until blastocyst stages significantly more efficiently compared to zygotes. Culture of mouse zygotes in glass capillaries resulted in a significantly higher rate of morula and blastocyst development compared with dishes. The Well-of-the-Well system resulted in a significant improvement when compared with dishes for the culture of rat zygotes only until morula stage. Reduced oxygen tension increased the developmental rate of rat but not mouse zygotes until blastocyst stage. This study demonstrates that development of early preimplantation embryos is altered by different culture conditions and show strong differences even between two related species such as mice and rats. Therefore, for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of early mammalian development it is very important to use embryos of various species. PMID:24710194

  6. Mouse Embryo Cryopreservation by Rapid Cooling.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jillian

    2018-05-01

    Embryo cryopreservation has been used to archive mouse strains. Protocols have evolved over this time and now vary considerably in terms of cryoprotectant solution, cooling and warming rates, methods to add and remove cryoprotectant, container or carrier type, volume of cryoprotectant, the stage of preimplantation development, and the use of additional treatments such as blastocyst puncture and microinjection. The rapid cooling methods use concentrated solutions of cryoprotectants to reduce the water content of the cell before cooling commences, thus preventing the formation of ice crystals. Embryos are equilibrated with the cryoprotectants, loaded into a carrier, and then rapidly cooled (e.g., by being plunged directly into LN 2 or onto a surface cooled in LN 2 ). The rapid cooling methods eliminate the need for controlled-rate freezers and seeding procedures. However, they are much more sensitive to minor variations when performing the steps. The rapid-cooling protocol described here is suitable for use with plastic insemination straws. Because it uses relatively large volumes, it is less technically demanding than some other methods that use minivolume devices. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Fundamental cryobiology of mouse ova and embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Leibo, S. P.

    An increasing fraction of mouse ova and embryos are killed as the rate at which they are cooled to -196/sup 0/C is increased. The survival of these cells depends not only on cooling rate, but also on the minimum subzero temperature to which the cells are cooled. Low temperature microscopy demonstrates that lethal cooling rates are coincident with those that produce intracellular ice formation, and that the lethal temperature appears to be that at which intracellular ice forms. Furthermore, the microscopy shows that ova do not dehydrate when cooled at rates that produce intracellular ice and cell death, but undergomore » substantial shrinkage when cooled at rates that produce little intracellular ice and high survival. Measurements of the water permeability of mouse ova and the temperature coefficient of that permeability can be used to test a mathematical model formulated to describe the kinetics of water loss at subzero temperatures from a hypothetical cell. The observed dehydration of ova cooled to subzero temperatures at given rates is approximately predicted by the mathematical model, although there is some quantitative discrepancy between the observed and calculated responses.« less

  8. Preimplantation death of xenomitochondrial mouse embryo harbouring bovine mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Manabu; Koyama, Shiori; Iimura, Satomi; Yamazaki, Wataru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kohri, Nanami; Sasaki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, cellular organelles playing essential roles in eukaryotic cell metabolism, are thought to have evolved from bacteria. The organization of mtDNA is remarkably uniform across species, reflecting its vital and conserved role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Our objectives were to evaluate the compatibility of xenogeneic mitochondria in the development of preimplantation embryos in mammals. Mouse embryos harbouring bovine mitochondria (mtB-M embryos) were prepared by the cell-fusion technique employing the haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). The mtB-M embryos showed developmental delay at embryonic days (E) 3.5 after insemination. Furthermore, none of the mtB-M embryos could implant into the maternal uterus after embryo transfer, whereas control mouse embryos into which mitochondria from another mouse had been transferred developed as well as did non-manipulated embryos. When we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) of mouse and bovine ND5, we found that the mtB-M embryos contained 8.3% of bovine mitochondria at the blastocyst stage. Thus, contamination with mitochondria from another species induces embryonic lethality prior to implantation into the maternal uterus. The heteroplasmic state of these xenogeneic mitochondria could have detrimental effects on preimplantation development, leading to preservation of species-specific mitochondrial integrity in mammals. PMID:26416548

  9. Dynamic Imaging of Mouse Embryos and Cardiodynamics in Static Culture.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Andrew L; Larina, Irina V

    2018-01-01

    The heart is a dynamic organ that quickly undergoes morphological and mechanical changes through early embryonic development. Characterizing these early moments is important for our understanding of proper embryonic development and the treatment of heart disease. Traditionally, tomographic imaging modalities and fluorescence-based microscopy are excellent approaches to visualize structural features and gene expression patterns, respectively, and connect aberrant gene programs to pathological phenotypes. However, these approaches usually require static samples or fluorescent markers, which can limit how much information we can derive from the dynamic and mechanical changes that regulate heart development. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is unique in this circumstance because it allows for the acquisition of three-dimensional structural and four-dimensional (3D + time) functional images of living mouse embryos without fixation or contrast reagents. In this chapter, we focus on how OCT can visualize heart morphology at different stages of development and provide cardiodynamic information to reveal mechanical properties of the developing heart.

  10. THE NEOPLASTIC POTENTIALITIES OF MOUSE EMBRYO TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Smith, William E.

    1950-01-01

    The lung tissue of mouse embryos of the C strain proliferates to some extent after implantation in adult hosts of the same breed and rapidly differentiates, forming a parenchyma remarkably like the normal. The grafts persist long. When methylcholanthrene dissolved in olive oil has been introduced with them much more growth of them occurs. The carcinogen induces a pronounced metaplasia of the epithelium of the bronchial tree, and the altered cells are often aggressive, multiplying, invading, and largely replacing the parenchyma about them. So closely do they resemble malignant elements in aspect and behavior that it is frequently difficult to tell whether carcinomatous change is not actually present. Genuine tumors soon arise, multiple benign adenomas sometimes appearing within 3 weeks, and indubitable carcinomas a few weeks later. Not a few of the cancers are of transitional cell type, that is to say are expressive of an intermediate stage in the metaplasia. Under the influence of methylcholanthrene the cells lining the alveolar spaces of the graft sometimes undergo metaplasia also, with result in stratified squamous epithelium. It follows that there is reason to doubt the current assumption that all squamous cell carcinomas of the lung necessarily arise from the bronchial tree. The findings, taken with others previously reported, make it difficult to suppose, furthermore, that the generality of lung tumors can be due to neoplastic viruses entering the organism in postnatal life and having no broader scope than those thus far discovered. PMID:15395575

  11. Effect of Short-Term Hypergravity Treatment on Mouse 2-Cell Embryo Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Li-Na; Lei, Xiao-Hua; Cao, Yu-Jing; Zhang, Yun-Fang; Cao, Zhong-Hong; Chen, Qi; Duan, En-Kui

    2015-11-01

    Though there are numerous biological experiments, which have been performed in a space environment, to study the physiological effect of space travel on living organisms, while the potential effect of weightlessness or short-term hypergravity on the reproductive system in most species, particularly in mammalian is still controversial and unclear. In our previous study, we investigated the effect of space microgravity on the development of mouse 4-cell embryos by using Chinese SJ-8. .Unexpectedly, we did not get any developed embryo during the space-flight. Considering that the process of space experiment is quite different from most experiments done on earth in several aspects such as, the vibration and short-term hypergravity during the rock launching and landing. Thus we want to know whether the short-term hypergravity produced by the launch process affect the early embryo development in mice, and howthe early embryos respond to the hypergravity. In present study, we are mimicking the short-term hypergravity during launch by using a centrifuge to investigate its influence on the development of early embryo (2-cell) in mice. We also examined the actin filament distribution in 2-cell embryos by immunostaining to test their potential capacity of development under short-term hypergravity exposure. Our results showed that most 2-cell embryos in the hypergravity exposure groups developed into blastocysts with normal morphology after 72h cultured in vitro, and there is no obvious difference in the development rate of blastocyst formation compared to the control. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in birth rates after oviduct transfer of 2-cell mouse embryos exposed on short-term hypergravity compared with 1 g condition. In addition, the well-organized actin distribution appeared in 2-cell embryos after exposed on hypergravity and also in the subsequent developmental blastocysts. Taken together, our data shows that short-term exposure in

  12. Immunostaining, dehydration, and clearing of mouse embryos for ultramicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Klaus; Jährling, Nina; Saghafi, Saiedeh; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-08-01

    This protocol describes the preparation of mouse embryos for ultramicroscopy (UM), a powerful imaging technique that achieves precise and accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of intact macroscopic specimens with micrometer resolution. In UM, a specimen in the size range of ∼1-15 mm is illuminated perpendicular to the observation pathway by two thin counterpropagating sheets of laser light. In combination with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) immunostaining, UM allows visualization of somatic motor and sensorial nerve fibers in whole mouse embryos. Even the fine branches of the sensomotoric fibers can be visualized over a distance of up to several millimeters. In this protocol, mouse embryos are fixed and immunostained in preparation for UM. Because UM requires the excitation light sheet to travel throughout the entire horizontal width of the specimen, specimens usually have to be rendered transparent before microscope inspection. Here, the embryos are dehydrated in ethanol and then cleared in a solution of benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate.

  13. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion.

    PubMed

    Delia, Jesse R J; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-06-22

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations.

  14. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    PubMed Central

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations. PMID:24789892

  15. Induction of autophagy improves embryo viability in cloned mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shen, XingHui; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhenDong; Bai, GuangYu; Zheng, Zhong; Gu, YanLi; Wu, YanShuang; Liu, Hui; Zhou, DongJie; Lei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Moreover, autophagy is essential for preimplantation development in mammals. Here we show that autophagy is also important for reprogramming in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Our data indicate that unlike fertilized oocytes, autophagy is not triggered in SCNT embryos during 6 hours of activation. Mechanistically, the inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation is due to the cytochalasin B (CB) caused depolymerization of actin filaments. In this study, we induced autophagy during SCNT activation by rapamycin and pp242, which could restore the expected level of autophagy and significantly enhance the development of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage when compared with the control (68.5% and 68.7% vs. 41.5%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the treatment of rapamycin and pp242 accelerates active DNA demethylation indicated by the conversion of 5 mC to 5 hmC, and treatment of rapamycin improves degradation of maternal mRNA as well. Thus, our findings reveal that autophagy is important for development of SCNT embryos and inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation might be one of the serious causes of low efficiency of SCNT. PMID:26643778

  16. Mouse embryo attachment to substratum and interaction of trophoblast with cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.H.; Spindle, A.I.; Pedersen, R.A.

    1979-06-01

    Hatching, attachment, and trophoblast outgrowth of mouse embryos in vitro were examined as a model for implantation. Mouse embryos attached and grew out on glass cover slips that were partially covered with cultured mouse cells (L cells, liver cells, transformed JLS-V11 cells, and teratocarcinoma cells). Scanning electron microscopy showed that processes of these cells made contact with trophoblast, but there was no evidence of cell lysis or of phagocytosis of the cells by trophoblast. Time-lapse cinematography showed that after contact the cultured mouse cells retracted from the trophoblast, which then spread into the areas vacated by those cells. This suggestsmore » a means by which the trophoblast gains entry into the endometrium without destruction of maternal cells. Neuraminidase (100 or 250 units/ml) had no effect on attachment of mouse embryos to glass. However, attachment was inhibited by trypsin at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.025%, and 0.0025%. Treatment of early blastocysts with diazooxo-norleucine, an inhibitor of glycoprotein synthesis, decreased the number of embryos hatching from the zona pellucida; treatment at the late blastocyst stage decreased hatching to a lesser extent. Among the late blastocysts that did hatch, the number forming trophoblast outgrowths was lower than in controls. These results suggest that glycoproteins may be of importance for embryo hatching, attachment, and outgrowth.« less

  17. ZINC INFLUENCES THE IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT OF PERI-IMPLANTATION MOUSE EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: For humans, it is estimated that over 70% of concepti are lost during early development. In culture, mouse peri-implantation embryos can mimic development from the blastocyst to the egg cylinder stage of development, a period during which implantation occurs in viv...

  18. Expanding Actin Rings Zipper the Mouse Embryo for Blastocyst Formation.

    PubMed

    Zenker, Jennifer; White, Melanie D; Gasnier, Maxime; Alvarez, Yanina D; Lim, Hui Yi Grace; Bissiere, Stephanie; Biro, Maté; Plachta, Nicolas

    2018-04-19

    Transformation from morula to blastocyst is a defining event of preimplantation embryo development. During this transition, the embryo must establish a paracellular permeability barrier to enable expansion of the blastocyst cavity. Here, using live imaging of mouse embryos, we reveal an actin-zippering mechanism driving this embryo sealing. Preceding blastocyst stage, a cortical F-actin ring assembles at the apical pole of the embryo's outer cells. The ring structure forms when cortical actin flows encounter a network of polar microtubules that exclude F-actin. Unlike stereotypical actin rings, the actin rings of the mouse embryo are not contractile, but instead, they expand to the cell-cell junctions. Here, they couple to the junctions by recruiting and stabilizing adherens and tight junction components. Coupling of the actin rings triggers localized myosin II accumulation, and it initiates a tension-dependent zippering mechanism along the junctions that is required to seal the embryo for blastocyst formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cinemicrographic study of the cell movement in the primitive-streak-stage mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, N; Snow, M H; Wylie, C C

    1986-07-01

    Migration of the mesoderm cells in the primitive-streak-stage mouse embryo was directly studied by cinemicrography using whole embryo culture and Nomarski differential interference contrast optics. Relative transparency and small size of the early mouse embryos enabled direct observation of the individual cells and their cell processes. Seven-day-old mouse embryos were isolated and cultured in a small chamber in a medium consisting of 50% rat serum and 50% Dulbecco's modified minimum essential medium. The mesoderm cells move away from the primitive streak in both anterior and antimesometrial (distal) directions at a mean velocity of 46 micron h-1. They extend cell processes and constantly change cell shape. They do not translocate extensively as isolated single cells, but usually maintain attachment to other mesoderm cells. They show frequent cell division preceded by rounding up of the cell bodies, and accompanied by vigorous blebbing before and after cytokinesis. This study shows that it is possible to examine the motility of embryonic cells inside the mammalian embryo by direct observation if the embryo is small and transparent enough for the use of the Nomarski optics.

  20. The first cell-fate decisions in the mouse embryo: destiny is a matter of both chance and choice.

    PubMed

    Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2006-08-01

    Development of the early mouse embryo has always been classified as regulative, meaning that when parts or blastomeres of the embryo are isolated they change their developmental fate and can even reconstruct the whole. However, regulative development does not mean that, in situ, these parts or blastomeres are equivalent; it does not mean that the early mammalian embryo is a ball of identical cells without any bias. Regulative development simply means that whatever bias the regions of the embryo might have they still remain flexible and can respond to experimental interference by changes of fate. This realization -- that regulative development and patterning can co-exist -- has led to a renaissance of interest in the first days of development of the mouse embryo, and several laboratories have provided evidence for some early bias. Now the challenge is to gain some understanding of the molecular basis of this bias.

  1. A modified culture method significantly improves the development of mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiangpeng; Hao, Jie; Zhou, Qi

    2009-08-01

    Many strategies have been established to improve the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), but relatively few focused on improving culture conditions. The effect of different culture media on preimplantation development of mouse nuclear transfer embryos was investigated. A modified sequential media method, named D media (M16/KSOM and CZB-EG/KSOM), was successfully established that significantly improves SCNT embryo development. Our result demonstrated that while lacking any adverse effect on in vivo fertilized embryos, the D media dramatically improves the blastocyst development of SCNT embryos compared with other commonly used media, including KSOM, M16, CZB, and alphaMEM. Specifically, the rate of blastocyst formation was 62.3% for D1 (M16/KSOM) versus 10-30% for the other media. An analysis of media components indicated that removing EDTA and glutamine from the media can be beneficial for early SCNT embryo development. Our results suggest that in vitro culture environment plays an important role in somatic cell reprogramming, and D media represent the most efficient culture method reported to date to support mouse SCNT early embryo development in vitro.

  2. HALOACETIC ACIDS PERTURB PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IN MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    HALOACETIC ACIDS PERTURB PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IN MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO. MR Blanton and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Sponsor: JM Rogers.
    Haloacetic Acids (HAAs) formed during the disinfection process are present in drin...

  3. PFOA INDUCES DYSMORPHOGENESIS IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFOA Induces Dysmorphogenesis In Mouse Whole Embryo Culture.

    MR Blanton1, JM Padowski2, ES Hunter1, JM Rogers1, and C Lau1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

    Perfluorooctanoa...

  4. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES OF MOUSE EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transcriptional responses of mouse embryo cultures exposed to bromochloroacetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductive Tox...

  5. PreImplantation Factor (PIF) correlates with early mammalian embryo development-bovine and murine models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos is essential for pregnancy: PIF modulates local immunity, promotes decidual pro-adhesion molecules and enhances trophoblast invasion. To determine the role of PIF in post-fertilization embryo development, we measured the peptide's concentration in the culture medium and tested endogenous PIF's potential trophic effects and direct interaction with the embryo. Methods Determine PIF levels in culture medium of multiple mouse and single bovine embryos cultured up to the blastocyst stage using PIF-ELISA. Examine the inhibitory effects of anti-PIF-monoclonal antibody (mAb) added to medium on cultured mouse embryos development. Test FITC-PIF uptake by cultured bovine blastocysts using fluorescent microscopy. Results PIF levels in mouse embryo culture medium significantly increased from the morula to the blastocyst stage (ANOVA, P = 0.01). In contrast, atretic embryos medium was similar to the medium only control. Detectable - though low - PIF levels were secreted already by 2-cell stage mouse embryos. In single bovine IVF-derived embryos, PIF levels in medium at day 3 of culture were higher than non-cleaving embryos (control) (P = 0.01) and at day 7 were higher than day 3 (P = 0.03). In non-cleaving embryos culture medium was similar to medium alone (control). Anti-PIF-mAb added to mouse embryo cultures lowered blastocyst formation rate 3-fold in a dose-dependent manner (2-way contingency table, multiple groups, X2; P = 0.01) as compared with non-specific mouse mAb, and medium alone, control. FITC-PIF was taken-up by cultured bovine blastocysts, but not by scrambled FITC-PIF (control). Conclusions PIF is an early embryo viability marker that has a direct supportive role on embryo development in culture. PIF-ELISA use to assess IVF embryo quality prior to transfer is warranted. Overall, our data supports PIF's endogenous self sustaining role in embryo development and the utility of PIF

  6. Establishment of left–right asymmetry in vertebrate development: the node in mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of vertebrate left–right asymmetry is a critical process for normal embryonic development. After the discovery of genes expressed asymmetrically along the left–right axis in chick embryos in the mid 1990s, the molecular mechanisms responsible for left–right patterning in vertebrate embryos have been studied extensively. In this review article, we discuss the mechanisms by which the initial symmetry along the left–right axis is broken in the mouse embryo. We focus on the role of primary cilia and molecular mechanisms of ciliogenesis at the node when symmetry is broken and left–right asymmetry is established. The node is considered a signaling center for early mouse embryonic development, and the results we review here have led to a better understanding of how the node functions and establishes left–right asymmetry. PMID:23771646

  7. Establishment of left-right asymmetry in vertebrate development: the node in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji

    2013-12-01

    Establishment of vertebrate left-right asymmetry is a critical process for normal embryonic development. After the discovery of genes expressed asymmetrically along the left-right axis in chick embryos in the mid 1990s, the molecular mechanisms responsible for left-right patterning in vertebrate embryos have been studied extensively. In this review article, we discuss the mechanisms by which the initial symmetry along the left-right axis is broken in the mouse embryo. We focus on the role of primary cilia and molecular mechanisms of ciliogenesis at the node when symmetry is broken and left-right asymmetry is established. The node is considered a signaling center for early mouse embryonic development, and the results we review here have led to a better understanding of how the node functions and establishes left-right asymmetry.

  8. Estrogen receptor-mediated effects of a xenoestrogen, bisphenol A, on preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Takai, Y; Tsutsumi, O; Ikezuki, Y; Hiroi, H; Osuga, Y; Momoeda, M; Yano, T; Taketani, Y

    2000-04-21

    The effects of bisphenol A, a xenoestrogen widely used in industry and dentistry, were studied in early preimplantation mouse embryos. Two-cell mouse embryos were cultured with 100 pM to 100 microM bisphenol A with or without 100 nM tamoxifen and evaluated at 24-h intervals for their development to eight-cell and blastocyst stages. At 72 h, blastocysts were cultured for another 48 h without bisphenol A, and surface areas of trophoblast spread were measured. At 24 h, more embryos exposed to 3 nM bisphenol A than to controls had reached the eight-cell stage. At 48 h, more embryos exposed to 1 nM and 3 nM bisphenol A than to controls had become blastocysts. At 100 microM, bisphenol A decreased frequency of development to blastocysts. Tamoxifen counteracted both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of bisphenol A on blastocyst formation. Although bisphenol A did not alter blastocyst morphology or cell number, early exposure to 100 microM bisphenol A increased subsequent trophoblast areas. These findings suggest that bisphenol A may not only effect early embryonic development via estrogen receptors even at low, environmentally relevant doses, but also exert some late effects on subsequent development of these embryos. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Embryo density and medium volume effects on early murine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Canseco, R S; Sparks, A E; Pearson, R E; Gwazdauskas, F C

    1992-10-01

    One-cell mouse embryos were used to determine the effects of drop size and number of embryos per drop for optimum development in vitro. Embryos were collected from immature C57BL6 female mice superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated by CD1 males. Groups of 1, 5, 10, or 20 embryos were cultured in 5-, 10-, 20-, or 40-microliters drops of CZB under silicon oil at 37.5 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. Development score for embryos cultured in 10 microliters was higher than that of embryos cultured in 20 or 40 microliters. Embryos cultured in groups of 5, 10, or 20 had higher development scores than embryos cultured singly. The highest development score was obtained by the combination of 5 embryos per 10-microliters drop. The percentage of live embryos in 20 or 40 microliters was lower than that of embryos cultured in 10 microliters. Additionally, the percentage of live embryos cultured singly was lower than that of embryos cultured in groups. Our results suggest that a stimulatory interaction occurs among embryos possibly exerted through the secretion of growth factors. This effect can be diluted if the embryos are cultured in large drops or singly.

  10. Vitrification of mouse embryos using the thin plastic strip method

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Yong Soo; Ann, Ji Young; Maeng, Ja Young; Park, Miji; Park, Jeong Hyun; Yoon, Jung; Yoon, San Hyun; Hur, Chang Young; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare vitrification optimization of mouse embryos using electron microscopy (EM) grid, cryotop, and thin plastic strip (TPS) containers by evaluating developmental competence and apoptosis rates. Methods Mouse embryos were obtained from superovulated mice. Mouse cleavage-stage, expanded, hatching-stage, and hatched-stage embryos were cryopreserved in EM grid, cryotop, and TPS containers by vitrification in 15% ethylene glycol, 15% dimethylsulfoxide, 10 µg/mL Ficoll, and 0.65 M sucrose, and 20% serum substitute supplement (SSS) with basal medium, respectively. For the three groups in which the embryos were thawed in the EM grid, cryotop, and TPS containers, the thawing solution consisted of 0.25 M sucrose, 0.125 M sucrose, and 20% SSS with basal medium, respectively. Rates of survival, re-expansion, reaching the hatched stage, and apoptosis after thawing were compared among the three groups. Results Developmental competence after thawing of vitrified expanded and hatching-stage blastocysts using cryotop and TPS methods were significantly higher than survival using the EM grid (p<0.05). Also, apoptosis positive nuclei rates after thawing of vitrified expanded blastocysts using cryotop and TPS were significantly lower than when using the EM grid (p<0.05). Conclusion The TPS vitrification method has the advantages of achieving a high developmental ability and effective preservation. PMID:23346525

  11. THE NEOPLASTIC POTENTIALITIES OF MOUSE EMBRYO TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Smith, William E.

    1947-01-01

    Epithelial tumors have been readily obtained by the implantation of embryo stomach tissue together with olive oil containing methylcholanthrene (with or without Scharlach R) in adult mice of homologous strain. The implanted tissue from the squamous portion of the stomach rapidly encysted the oil, and benign and malignant papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas soon arose from the stratified squamous lining of the cysts. Bits of the glandular portion of the stomach also formed cysts, but the gland cells underwent metaplasia in response to the carcinogen, altering first to transitional epithelium and then to a stratified squamous layer. So swiftly did these changes take place that nearly all of the tumors took origin from epithelium that had already become stratified and squamous, and the growths themselves were of this type. A single transitional cell carcinoma and an adenoacanthoma were procured, but no adenocarcinomas; nor did any benign papillomas develop, though they often resulted from the action of methylcholanthrene on the squamous portion of the embryo stomach. Search failed to disclose any distinctive precancerous changes in the gastric tissue. Five of the cancers were transplanted and they grew in every host. No tumors arose from any of the numerous control implants. Those consisting of glandular tissue formed cysts lined partly with columnar epithelium secreting mucus and partly with tubular glands equipped with chief and parietal cells in good condition. Pepsin and rennin were found in the fluid contained in these cysts, but no free hydrochloric acid. The enzymes were present also when the cysts contained methylcholanthrene and the glands had not yet been wholly replaced by metaplastic epithelium. The tumors appeared months sooner than when methylcholanthrene is injected into the stomach of adult animals or given by mouth; some of them were well established after 5 or 6 weeks. They arose regularly when the requisite experimental conditions were provided

  12. Laser fusion of mouse embryonic cells and intra-embryonic fusion of blastomeres without affecting the embryo integrity.

    PubMed

    Krivokharchenko, Alexander; Karmenyan, Artashes; Sarkisov, Oleg; Bader, Michael; Chiou, Arthur; Shakhbazyan, Avetik

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation with early mammalian embryos is the one of the most important approach to study preimplantation development. Artificial cell fusion is a research tool for various biotechnological experiments. However, the existing methods have various disadvantages, first of them impossibility to fuse selected cells within multicellular structures like mammalian preimplantation embryos. In our experiments we have successfully used high repetition rate picosecond near infrared laser beam for fusion of pairs of oocytes and oocytes with blastomeres. Fused cells looked morphologically normal and keep their ability for further divisions in vitro. We also fused two or three blastomeres inside four-cell mouse embryos. The presence of one, two or three nuclei in different blastomeres of the same early preimplantation mouse embryo was confirmed under UV-light after staining of DNA with the vital dye Hoechst-33342. The most of established embryos demonstrated high viability and developed in vitro to the blastocyst stage. We demonstrated for the first time the use of laser beam for the fusion of various embryonic cells of different size and of two or three blastomeres inside of four-cell mouse embryos without affecting the embryo's integrity and viability. These embryos with blastomeres of various ploidy maybe unique model for numerous purposes. Thus, we propose laser optical manipulation as a new tool for investigation of fundamental mechanisms of mammalian development.

  13. Inhibitory effect of a Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria) toxin on development of preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, M S; Rojas, M; Zambrano, F

    1992-07-01

    1. A soluble toxin, purified from the algae bloom of an eutrophic lake dominated by Microcystis, is a very effective inhibitor of early embryo development in a dose-response relationship. 2. Two- and 8-cell mouse embryos under the influence of Microcystis toxin do not reach the developmental stages of morula and blastocyst, respectively. 3. Actin cortex is disorganized without change in the microtubules structure. 4. Results are discussed in terms of the possible mechanisms by which the toxin arrests development considering, specifically, effects on the cytoskeleton and/or on voltage-insensitive transmembrane Ca2+ channels.

  14. Localization and expression of peroxiredoxin II in the mouse ovary, oviduct, uterus, and preimplantation embryo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shie; Huang, Weiquan; Shi, Hexiu; Lin, Cuiying; Xie, Meirong; Wang, Jianxin

    2010-02-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) II belongs to a recently discovered family of peroxidases that play important roles in antioxidation and signal transduction. In this study, we aimed to study the localization and expression of Prx II in the mouse ovary, oviduct, and uterus, and preimplantation embryos. Immunohistochemical staining analysis showed that, in the ovary, Prx II was expressed in the oocyte cytoplasm of the primary follicle, the secondary follicle, and the premature follicle; Prx II was expressed in germinal vesicle-intact oocytes (GV oocytes) and metaphase II eggs (MII eggs), as well as at various stages in early embryos. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results indicated that the Prx II mRNA was expressed at a high level in GV eggs, slightly lower levels in MII eggs, and had no detectable expression in four-cell embryos and early blastocysts. In the oviduct, Prx II was expressed in the epithelia, while in the uterus Prx II was mainly distributed in the endometrial stroma. Taken together, our results suggest that Prx II plays a key antioxidation role in the maturation of oocytes and development of early embryos, thus providing crucial experimental evidence for further exploring the function of Prx II in the development of oocytes and preimplantation embryos. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Laser Fusion of Mouse Embryonic Cells and Intra-Embryonic Fusion of Blastomeres without Affecting the Embryo Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Krivokharchenko, Alexander; Karmenyan, Artashes; Sarkisov, Oleg; Bader, Michael; Chiou, Arthur; Shakhbazyan, Avetik

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation with early mammalian embryos is the one of the most important approach to study preimplantation development. Artificial cell fusion is a research tool for various biotechnological experiments. However, the existing methods have various disadvantages, first of them impossibility to fuse selected cells within multicellular structures like mammalian preimplantation embryos. In our experiments we have successfully used high repetition rate picosecond near infrared laser beam for fusion of pairs of oocytes and oocytes with blastomeres. Fused cells looked morphologically normal and keep their ability for further divisions in vitro. We also fused two or three blastomeres inside four-cell mouse embryos. The presence of one, two or three nuclei in different blastomeres of the same early preimplantation mouse embryo was confirmed under UV-light after staining of DNA with the vital dye Hoechst-33342. The most of established embryos demonstrated high viability and developed in vitro to the blastocyst stage. We demonstrated for the first time the use of laser beam for the fusion of various embryonic cells of different size and of two or three blastomeres inside of four-cell mouse embryos without affecting the embryo’s integrity and viability. These embryos with blastomeres of various ploidy maybe unique model for numerous purposes. Thus, we propose laser optical manipulation as a new tool for investigation of fundamental mechanisms of mammalian development. PMID:23227157

  16. Automation and Optimization of Multipulse Laser Zona Drilling of Mouse Embryos During Embryo Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Yee; Mills, James K

    2017-03-01

    Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures. Develop a method for the automation and optimization of multipulse LZD, applied to cleavage-stage embryos. A two-stage optimization is used. The first stage uses computer vision algorithms to identify embryonic structures and determines the optimal ablation zone farthest away from critical structures such as blastomeres. The second stage combines a genetic algorithm with a previously reported thermal analysis of LZD to optimize the combination of laser pulse locations and pulse durations. The goal is to minimize the peak temperature experienced by the blastomeres while creating the desired opening in the ZP. A proof of concept of the proposed LZD automation and optimization method is demonstrated through experiments on mouse embryos with positive results, as adequately sized openings are created. Automation of LZD is feasible and is a viable step toward the automation of embryo biopsy procedures. LZD is a common but delicate procedure performed by human operators using subjective methods to gauge proper LZD procedure. Automation of LZD removes human error to increase the success rate of LZD. Although the proposed methods are developed for cleavage-stage embryos, the same methods may be applied to most types LZD procedures, embryos at different developmental stages, or nonembryonic cells.

  17. Modeling of optical quadrature microscopy for imaging mouse embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2008-02-01

    Optical quadrature microscopy (OQM) has been shown to provide the optical path difference through a mouse embryo, and has led to a novel method to count the total number of cells further into development than current non-toxic imaging techniques used in the clinic. The cell counting method has the potential to provide an additional quantitative viability marker for blastocyst transfer during in vitro fertilization. OQM uses a 633 nm laser within a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration to measure the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. Four cameras preceded by multiple beamsplitters record the four interferograms that are used within a reconstruction algorithm to produce an image of the complex electric field amplitude. Here we present a model for the electric field through the primary optical components in the imaging configuration and the reconstruction algorithm to calculate the signal to noise ratio when imaging mouse embryos. The model includes magnitude and phase errors in the individual reference and sample paths, fixed pattern noise, and noise within the laser and detectors. This analysis provides the foundation for determining the imaging limitations of OQM and the basis to optimize the cell counting method in order to introduce additional quantitative viability markers.

  18. Inhibitors of choline uptake and metabolism cause developmental abnormalities in neurulating mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M C; Zeisel, S H; Mar, M H; Sadler, T W

    2001-08-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient in methylation, acetylcholine and phospholipid biosynthesis, and in cell signaling. The demand by an embryo or fetus for choline may place a pregnant woman and, subsequently, the developing conceptus at risk for choline deficiency. To determine whether a disruption in choline uptake and metabolism results in developmental abnormalities, early somite staged mouse embryos were exposed in vitro to either an inhibitor of choline uptake and metabolism, 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), or an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH(3)). Cell death following inhibitor exposure was investigated with LysoTracker Red and histology. Embryos exposed to 250-750 microM DMAE for 26 hr developed craniofacial hypoplasia and open neural tube defects in the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain regions. Embryos exposed to 125-275 microM ET-18-OCH(3) exhibited similar defects or expansion of the brain vesicles. ET-18-OCH(3)-affected embryos also had a distended neural tube at the posterior neuropore. Embryonic growth was reduced in embryos treated with either DMAE (375, 500, and 750 microM) or ET-18-OCH(3) (200 and 275 microM). Whole mount staining with LysoTracker Red and histological sections showed increased areas of cell death in embryos treated with 275 microM ET-18-OCH(3) for 6 hr, but there was no evidence of cell death in DMAE-exposed embryos. Inhibition of choline uptake and metabolism during neurulation results in growth retardation and developmental defects that affect the neural tube and face. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Direct embryo tagging and identification system by attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the zona pellucida of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Penon, Oriol; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Santaló, Josep; Durán, Sara; Gómez-Matínez, Rodrigo; Samitier, Josep; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Is the attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the outer surface of the zona pellucida an effective approach for the direct tagging and identification of cultured embryos? The results achieved provide a proof of concept for a direct embryo tagging system using biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes, which could help to minimize the risk of mismatching errors (mix-ups) in human assisted reproduction technologies. Even though the occurrence of mix-ups is rare, several cases have been reported in fertility clinics around the world. Measures to prevent the risk of mix-ups in human assisted reproduction technologies are therefore required. Mouse embryos were tagged with 10 barcodes and the effectiveness of the tagging system was tested during fresh in vitro culture (n=140) and after embryo cryopreservation (n = 84). Finally, the full-term development of tagged embryos was evaluated (n =105). Mouse pronuclear embryos were individually rolled over wheat germ agglutinin-biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to distribute them uniformly around the ZONA PELLUCIDA surface. Embryo viability and retention of barcodes were determined during 96 h of culture. The identification of tagged embryos was performed every 24 h in an inverted microscope and without embryo manipulation to simulate an automatic reading procedure. Full-term development of the tagged embryos was assessed after their transfer to pseudo-pregnant females. To test the validity of the embryo tagging system after a cryopreservation process, tagged embryos were frozen at the 2-cell stage using a slow freezing protocol, and followed in culture for 72 h after thawing. Neither the in vitro or in vivo development of tagged embryos was adversely affected. The tagging system also proved effective during an embryo cryopreservation process. Global identification rates higher than 96 and 92% in fresh and frozen-thawed tagged embryos, respectively, were obtained when simulating an automatic barcode reading

  20. Mechanical control of notochord morphogenesis by extra-embryonic tissues in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Imuta, Yu; Koyama, Hiroshi; Shi, Dongbo; Eiraku, Mototsugu; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Mammalian embryos develop in coordination with extraembryonic tissues, which support embryonic development by implanting embryos into the uterus, supplying nutrition, providing a confined niche, and also providing patterning signals to embryos. Here, we show that in mouse embryos, the expansion of the amniotic cavity (AC), which is formed between embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, provides the mechanical forces required for a type of morphogenetic movement of the notochord known as convergent extension (CE) in which the cells converge to the midline and the tissue elongates along the antero-posterior (AP) axis. The notochord is stretched along the AP axis, and the expansion of the AC is required for CE. Both mathematical modeling and physical simulation showed that a rectangular morphology of the early notochord caused the application of anisotropic force along the AP axis to the notochord through the isotropic expansion of the AC. AC expansion acts upstream of planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which regulates CE movement. Our results highlight the importance of extraembryonic tissues as a source of the forces that control the morphogenesis of embryos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Live dynamic OCT imaging of cardiac structure and function in mouse embryos with 43 Hz direct volumetric data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Singh, Manmohan; Lopez, Andrew L.; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Schill, Alexander; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient phenotyping of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos has significant implications on understanding of early mammalian heart development and congenital cardiac defects. Recent studies established optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a powerful tool for live embryonic heart imaging in various animal models. However, current four-dimensional (4D) OCT imaging of the beating embryonic heart largely relies on gated data acquisition or postacquisition synchronization, which brings errors when cardiac cycles lack perfect periodicity and is time consuming and computationally expensive. Here, we report direct 4D OCT imaging of the structure and function of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos achieved by employing a Fourier domain mode-locking swept laser source that enables ~1.5 MHz A-line rate. Through utilizing both forward and backward scans of a resonant mirror, we obtained a ~6.4 kHz frame rate, which allows for a direct volumetric data acquisition speed of ~43 Hz, around 20 times of the early-stage mouse embryonic heart rate. Our experiments were performed on mouse embryos at embryonic day 9.5. Time-resolved 3D cardiodynamics clearly shows the heart structure in motion. We present analysis of cardiac wall movement and its velocity from the primitive atrium and ventricle. Our results suggest that the combination of ultrahigh-speed OCT imaging with live embryo culture could be a useful embryonic heart phenotyping approach for mouse mutants modeling human congenital heart diseases.

  2. Initiating head development in mouse embryos: integrating signalling and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Arkell, Ruth M; Tam, Patrick P L

    2012-03-01

    The generation of an embryonic body plan is the outcome of inductive interactions between the progenitor tissues that underpin their specification, regionalization and morphogenesis. The intercellular signalling activity driving these processes is deployed in a time- and site-specific manner, and the signal strength must be precisely controlled. Receptor and ligand functions are modulated by secreted antagonists to impose a dynamic pattern of globally controlled and locally graded signals onto the tissues of early post-implantation mouse embryo. In response to the WNT, Nodal and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signalling cascades, the embryo acquires its body plan, which manifests as differences in the developmental fate of cells located at different positions in the anterior-posterior body axis. The initial formation of the anterior (head) structures in the mouse embryo is critically dependent on the morphogenetic activity emanating from two signalling centres that are juxtaposed with the progenitor tissues of the head. A common property of these centres is that they are the source of antagonistic factors and the hub of transcriptional activities that negatively modulate the function of WNT, Nodal and BMP signalling cascades. These events generate the scaffold of the embryonic head by the early-somite stage of development. Beyond this, additional tissue interactions continue to support the growth, regionalization, differentiation and morphogenesis required for the elaboration of the structure recognizable as the embryonic head.

  3. EMAGE mouse embryo spatial gene expression database: 2010 update

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Stevenson, Peter; Yang, Yiya; Burton, Nicholas; Rao, Jianguo; Fisher, Malcolm; Baldock, Richard A.; Davidson, Duncan R.; Christiansen, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    EMAGE (http://www.emouseatlas.org/emage) is a freely available online database of in situ gene expression patterns in the developing mouse embryo. Gene expression domains from raw images are extracted and integrated spatially into a set of standard 3D virtual mouse embryos at different stages of development, which allows data interrogation by spatial methods. An anatomy ontology is also used to describe sites of expression, which allows data to be queried using text-based methods. Here, we describe recent enhancements to EMAGE including: the release of a completely re-designed website, which offers integration of many different search functions in HTML web pages, improved user feedback and the ability to find similar expression patterns at the click of a button; back-end refactoring from an object oriented to relational architecture, allowing associated SQL access; and the provision of further access by standard formatted URLs and a Java API. We have also increased data coverage by sourcing from a greater selection of journals and developed automated methods for spatial data annotation that are being applied to spatially incorporate the genome-wide (∼19 000 gene) ‘EURExpress’ dataset into EMAGE. PMID:19767607

  4. Genetic mouse embryo assay: improving performance and quality testing for assisted reproductive technology (ART) with a functional bioassay.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Rebecca S; Nunez, Brandy; Sakurai, Kumi; Fielder, Thomas; Ni, Hsiao-Tzu

    2016-03-24

    Growing concerns about safety of ART on human gametes, embryos, clinical outcomes and long-term health of offspring require improved methods of risk assessment to provide functionally relevant assays for quality control testing and pre-clinical studies prior to clinical implementation. The one-cell mouse embryo assay (MEA) is the most widely used for development and quality testing of human ART products; however, concerns exist due to the insensitivity/variability of this bioassay which lacks standardization and involves subjective analysis by morphology alone rather than functional analysis of the developing embryos. We hypothesized that improvements to MEA by the use of functional molecular biomarkers could enhance sensitivity and improve detection of suboptimal materials/conditions. Fresh one-cell transgenic mouse embryos with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by Pou6f1 or Cdx2 control elements were harvested and cultured to blastocysts in varied test and control conditions to compare assessment by standard morphology alone versus the added dynamic expression of GFP for screening and selection of critical raw materials and detection of suboptimal culture conditions. Transgenic mouse embryos expressing functionally relevant biomarkers of normal early embryo development can be used to monitor the developmental impact of culture conditions. This novel approach provides a superior MEA that is more meaningful and sensitive for detection of embryotoxicity than morphological assessment alone.

  5. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of apoptosis in organogenesis-stage mouse embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with a vital stain has been used to study apoptosis in organogenesis-stage mouse embryos. In order to achieve optical sectioning through embryos, it was necessary to use low power objectives and to prepare the sample appropriately. Mous...

  6. Organogenesis of heart-vascular system derived from mouse 2 cell stage embryos and from early embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Isamu; Tamagawa, Tomoharu; Tokieda, Yuko; Iguchi, Megumi; Sato, Kahei; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    Regenerative medical treatment with embryonic stem cells (an ES cell) is a goal for organ transplantation. Structures that are tubular in nature (i.e. blood capillaries) were induced from early embryonic stem (EES) cells in vitro using embryotrophic factor (ETFs). In addition, cardiac muscle cells could be identified as well. However, differentiation of EES cells into a complete cardiovascular system was difficult because 3 germ layer primordial organs are directed embryologically in various ways and it is not possible to guide only cardiovascular organs. Thus, we introduced ETFs after the formation of an embryoid body and were successful in cloning cell clusters that beat, thus deriving only cardiovascular organs. The application of this to the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases is promising.

  7. [Association of human chorionic gonadotropin level in embryo culture media with early embryo development].

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Renli; Han, Dong; Liu, Caixia; Cai, Jiajie; Bi, Yanling; Wen, Anmin; Quan, Song

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level on day 3 of embryo culture with embryo development. Spent culture media were collected from individually cultured embryos on day 3 of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. HCG concentration in the culture media was measured using an ELISA kit and its association with embryo development was assessed. In the 163 samples of embryo culture media from 60 patients, HCG was positive in 153 sample (93.8%) with a mean level of 0.85 ± 0.43 mIU/ml. The concentration of hCG in the culture media increased gradually as the number of blastomeres increased (F=2.273, P=0.03), and decreased as the morphological grade of the embryo was lowered (F=3.900, P=0.02). ELISA is capable of detecting HCG levels in spent culture media of embryos on day 3 of in vitro culture. The concentration of HCG in spent culture media is positively correlated with the status of early embryo development and implantation rate and thus serves as a useful marker for embryo selection in IVF-ET procedure.

  8. Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Flores, Luis E; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Kühl, Anja A; Drews, Barbara

    2014-05-10

    Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9-11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert's membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart

  9. Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. Methods In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. Results The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9–11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert’s membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and

  10. Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1997-06-01

    We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the illumination and sensing to change the angle between these fibers. There were two dips on the scattering angular distribution from the embryo. These dips existed on 30 and 85 deg. We calculated the scattering angular pattern by Mie theory to fit the measured scattering estimated scattering size and density. The best fitting was obtained when the particle size and density were 0.9 micrometers and 1010 particles per ml, respectively. These values coincided with the approximated values of mitochondrial in the embryo. The measured light scattering may mainly originated from mitochondria in spite of the existence of the various scattering particles in the embryo. Since our simple scattering measurement may offer the mitochondrial density in the embryo, it might become the practical method of human embryo on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  11. Impact of PCOS on early embryo cleavage kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wissing, M L; Bjerge, M R; Olesen, A I G; Hoest, T; Mikkelsen, A L

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affected early embryo development assessed by time-lapse analysis of embryo kinetics from fertilization to the blastocyst stage. This was a prospective cohort study of two pronuclei (2PN) embryos from 25 hyperandrogenic PCOS patients (110 2PN embryos), 26 normoandrogenic PCOS patients (140 2PN embryos) and 20 healthy, regularly cycling women (controls, 97 2PN embryos). Patients underwent the same baseline evaluation and the same ovarian stimulation from April 2010 to February 2013. Oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and incubated in an EmbryoScope with pictures taken every 20 min in seven focal planes. Time to 2PN breakdown, first cleavage and cleavage to 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 cells, morula and blastocyst (t₂, t₃, t₄, t₅, t₆, t₇, t₈, t(M), t(B)) were annotated. Differences in embryo kinetics between groups were assessed by mixed modelling. Compared with controls, embryos from hyperandrogenic PCOS patients were significantly delayed at 2PN breakdown, t₂, t₃, t₄ and t₇ but not at t₅, t₆, t₈, t(M) or t(B). Embryos from hyperandrogenic PCOS women had developed slower from fertilization to the 8-cell stage compared with embryos from controls. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of adriamycin exposure on the notochord of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Hajduk, Piotr; May, Alison; Puri, Prem; Murphy, Paula

    2012-04-01

    The notochord has important structural and signaling properties during vertebrate development with key roles in patterning surrounding tissues, including the foregut. The adriamycin mouse model is an established model of foregut anomalies where exposure of embryos in utero to the drug adriamycin leads to malformations including oesophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. In addition to foregut abnormalities, treatment also causes branching, displacement, and hypertrophy of the notochord. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the notochord may be a primary target of disruption leading to abnormal patterning of the foregut by examining notochord position and structure in early embryos following adriamycin exposure. Treated (n = 46) and control (n = 30) embryos were examined during the crucial period when the notochord normally delaminates away from the foregut endoderm (6-28 somite pairs). Transverse sections were derived from the anterior foregut and analyzed by confocal microscopy following immunodetection of extracellular matrix markers E-cadherin and Laminin. In adriamycin-treated embryos across all stages, the notochord was abnormally displaced ventrally with prolonged attachment to the foregut endoderm. While E-cadherin was normally detected in the foregut endoderm with no expression in the notochord of control embryos, treated embryos up to 24 somites showed ectopic notochordal expression indicating a change in characteristics of the tissue; specifically an increase in intracellular adhesiveness, which may be instrumental in structural changes, affecting mechanical and signaling properties. This is consistent with disruption of the notochord leading to altered signaling to the foregut causing abnormal patterning and congenital foregut malformations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Kid depletion in mouse oocytes associated with multinucleated blastomere formation and inferior embryo development.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Akiyoshi; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Islam, Md Rashedul; Yamagami, Kazuki; Tanaka, Asami; Suyama, Hikaru; El-Sayed, El-Sharawy Mohamed; Tabata, Shoji; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the knockdown (KD) of Kid on maturation developmental competence and multinucleation of mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. Data revealed that Kid messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed in GV and MII stage oocyte and 1- and 2-cell embryos. Additionally, Kid mRNA expression in the Kid KD group decreased by nearly 46% compared to the control small interfering RNA (siRNA) groups. The rate of multinucleated embryos in the Kid KD group (52.4%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control siRNA group (4.7%). Finally, the developmental rates were significantly lower in the Kid siRNA group at > 4-cell stage (28.6% vs. 53.5%) and the blastocyst stage (2.4% vs. 23.3%) compared to the control siRNA groups. Suppression of Kid using siRNA caused multinucleation in early embryos with high frequency and it may increase 2- to 4-cell arrested embryos and reduce the developmental competence to blastocyst. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Lack of centrioles and primary cilia in STIL(-/-) mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    David, Ahuvit; Liu, Fengying; Tibelius, Alexandra; Vulprecht, Julia; Wald, Diana; Rothermel, Ulrike; Ohana, Reut; Seitel, Alexander; Metzger, Jasmin; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Izraeli, Shai; Krämer, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    Although most animal cells contain centrosomes, consisting of a pair of centrioles, their precise contribution to cell division and embryonic development is unclear. Genetic ablation of STIL, an essential component of the centriole replication machinery in mammalian cells, causes embryonic lethality in mice around mid gestation associated with defective Hedgehog signaling. Here, we describe, by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, that STIL(-/-) mouse embryos do not contain centrioles or primary cilia, suggesting that these organelles are not essential for mammalian development until mid gestation. We further show that the lack of primary cilia explains the absence of Hedgehog signaling in STIL(-/-) cells. Exogenous re-expression of STIL or STIL microcephaly mutants compatible with human survival, induced non-templated, de novo generation of centrioles in STIL(-/-) cells. Thus, while the abscence of centrioles is compatible with mammalian gastrulation, lack of centrioles and primary cilia impairs Hedgehog signaling and further embryonic development.

  15. EMG1 is essential for mouse pre-implantation embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoli; Sandhu, Sumit; Patel, Nehal; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Ding, Hao

    2010-09-21

    Essential for mitotic growth 1 (EMG1) is a highly conserved nucleolar protein identified in yeast to have a critical function in ribosome biogenesis. A mutation in the human EMG1 homolog causes Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS), a developmental disorder characterized by severe growth failure and psychomotor retardation leading to death in early childhood. To begin to understand the role of EMG1 in mammalian development, and how its deficiency could lead to Bowen-Conradi syndrome, we have used mouse as a model. The expression of Emg1 during mouse development was examined and mice carrying a null mutation for Emg1 were generated and characterized. Our studies indicated that Emg1 is broadly expressed during early mouse embryonic development. However, in late embryonic stages and during postnatal development, Emg1 exhibited specific expression patterns. To assess a developmental role for EMG1 in vivo, we exploited a mouse gene-targeting approach. Loss of EMG1 function in mice arrested embryonic development prior to the blastocyst stage. The arrested Emg1-/- embryos exhibited defects in early cell lineage-specification as well as in nucleologenesis. Further, loss of p53, which has been shown to rescue some phenotypes resulting from defects in ribosome biogenesis, failed to rescue the Emg1-/- pre-implantation lethality. Our data demonstrate that Emg1 is highly expressed during mouse embryonic development, and essential for mouse pre-implantation development. The absolute requirement for EMG1 in early embryonic development is consistent with its essential role in yeast. Further, our findings also lend support to the previous study that showed Bowen-Conradi syndrome results from a partial EMG1 deficiency. A complete deficiency would not be expected to be compatible with a live birth.

  16. Cyclin B in mouse oocytes and embryos: importance for human reproduction and aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Polański, Zbigniew; Homer, Hayden; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2012-01-01

    Oocyte maturation and early embryo development require precise coordination between cell cycle progression and the developmental programme. Cyclin B plays a major role in this process: its accumulation and degradation is critical for driving the cell cycle through activation and inactivation of the major cell cycle kinase, CDK1. CDK1 activation is required for M-phase entry whereas its inactivation leads to exit from M-phase. The tempo of oocyte meiotic and embryonic mitotic divisions is set by the rate of cyclin B accumulation and the timing of its destruction. By controlling when cyclin B destruction is triggered and by co-ordinating this with the completion of chromosome alignment, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a critical quality control system important for averting aneuploidy and for building in the flexibility required to better integrate cell cycle progression with development. In this review we focus on cyclin B metabolism in mouse oocytes and embryos and illustrate how the cell cycle-powered clock (in fact cyclin B-powered clock) controls oocyte maturation and early embryo development, thereby providing important insight into human reproduction and potential causes of Down syndrome.

  17. Heart valve cardiomyocytes of mouse embryos express the serotonin transporter SERT

    SciTech Connect

    Pavone, Luigi Michele; Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Naples; Spina, Anna

    2008-12-12

    Multiple evidence demonstrate a role for serotonin and its transporter SERT in heart valve development and disease. By utilizing a Cre/loxP system driven by SERT gene expression, we recently demonstrated a regionally restricted distribution of SERT-expressing cells in developing mouse heart. In order to characterize the cell types exhibiting SERT expression within the mouse heart valves at early developmental stages, in this study we performed immunohistochemistry for Islet1 (Isl1) and connexin-43 (Cx-43) on heart sections from SERT{sup Cre/+};ROSA26R embryos previously stained with X-gal. We observed the co-localization of LacZ staining with Isl1 labelling in the outflow tract, the right ventriclemore » and the conal region of E11.5 mouse heart. Cx-43 labelled cells co-localized with LacZ stained cells in the forming atrioventricular valves. These results demonstrate the cardiomyocyte phenotype of SERT-expressing cells in heart valves of the developing mouse heart, thus suggesting an active role of SERT in early heart valve development.« less

  18. In vitro culture of individual mouse preimplantation embryos: the role of embryo density, microwells, oxygen, timing and conditioned media.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Rebecca L; Gardner, David K

    2017-05-01

    Single embryo culture is suboptimal compared with group culture, but necessary for embryo monitoring, and culture systems should be improved for single embryos. Pronucleate mouse embryos were used to assess the effect of culture conditions on single embryo development. Single culture either before or after compaction reduced cell numbers (112.2 ± 3.1; 110.2 ± 3.5) compared with group culture throughout (127.0 ± 3.4; P < 0.05). Reduction of media volume from 20 µl to 2 µl increased blastocyst cell numbers in single embryos cultured in 5% oxygen (84.4 ± 3.2 versus 97.8 ± 2.8; P < 0.05), but not in 20% oxygen (55.2 ± 2.9 versus 57.1 ± 2.8). Culture in microwell plates for the EmbryoScope and Primo Vision time-lapse systems changed cleavage timings and increased inner cell mass cell number (24.1 ± 1.0; 23.4 ± 1.2) compared with a 2 µl microdrop (18.4 ± 1.0; P < 0.05). Addition of embryo-conditioned media to single embryos increased hatching rate and blastocyst cell number (91.5 ± 4.7 versus 113.1 ± 4.4; P < 0.01). Single culture before or after compaction is therefore detrimental; oxygen, media volume and microwells influence single embryo development; and embryo-conditioned media may substitute for group culture. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [In vitro development and chimeric efficiency of mouse-porcine interspecies chimeric embryos in different culture systems].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Ren, Jilong; Song, Yuran; Hai, Tang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-07-25

    With the advancements of stem cells and regenerative medicine, interspecies chimera has become a hot topic and will pave a new way of providing donor sources in organ transplantation. However, the interspecies chimera is confronted with a number of scientific questions and technical obstacles, including selections of appropriate embryonic stage and appropriate culture medium; those factors will deeply influence the developmental balance between donor cells and receptor embryos. Due to its relatively rapid reproductive cycle and similar organ size to human's, porcine is a very potential donor candidate to study these questions. To compare the development and chimeric efficiency of interspecies embryos, we tested and evaluated three different culture systems, PZM-3 (Porcine zygotic medium), culture medium for iPSCs (N2B27) and 3.5 h of N2B27 before PZM-3 (N2B27(3.5 h)), and two different embryonic stages, 8-cell and blastocyst in mouse-porcine chimeric embryos using parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos and mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPS). The results showed that, PZM-3 was beneficial for both development of chimeric embryos and miPSCs proliferation in porcine embryos in the 8-cell injection group. After early blastocyst injection, the chimeric efficiency did not appear significantly different among the three culture systems but was lower than 8-cell injection. In summary, the results suggest that 8-cell injection and PZM-3 culture medium are more beneficial to the in vitro development and chimeric efficiency of mouse-porcine chimeric embryos.

  20. ALTERED TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES OF MOUSE EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BISINDOLYLMALEIMIDE (BIS L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered transcriptional responses in mouse embryos exposed to bisindolylmaleimide I (Bis I) in whole embryo culture

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid*, Maria R. Blanton*and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ...

  1. Surface Antigens Common to Mouse Cleavage Embryos and Primitive Teratocarcinoma Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Artzt, Karen; Dubois, Philippe; Bennett, Dorothea; Condamine, Hubert; Babinet, Charles; Jacob, François

    1973-01-01

    Syngeneic antisera have been produced in mouse strain 129/Sv-CP males against the primitive cells of teratocarcinoma. These sera react specifically with the primitive cells and are negative on various types of differentiated teratoma cells derived from the same original tumor. They are negative on all other mouse cells tested, with the exception of male germ cells and cleavage-stage embryos. Thus, teratoma cells possess cell-surface antigens in common with normal cleavage-stage embryos. Images PMID:4355379

  2. De novo formation of nucleoli in developing mouse embryos originating from enucleolated zygotes.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Fulka, Josef; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Miyano, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    The large, compact oocyte nucleoli, sometimes referred to as nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs), are essential for embryonic development in mammals; in their absence, the oocytes complete maturation and can be fertilized, but no nucleoli are formed in the zygote or embryo, leading to developmental failure. It has been convincingly documented that zygotes inherit the oocyte nucleolar material and form NPBs again in pronuclei. It is commonly accepted that during early embryonic development, the original compact zygote NPBs gradually transform into reticulated nucleoli of somatic cells. Here, we show that zygote NPBs are not required for embryonic and full-term development in the mouse. When NPBs were removed from late-stage zygotes by micromanipulation, the enucleolated zygotes developed to the blastocyst stage and, after transfer to recipients, live pups were obtained. We also describe de novo formation of nucleoli in developing embryos. After removal of NPBs from zygotes, they formed new nucleoli after several divisions. These results indicate that the zygote NPBs are not used in embryonic development and that the nucleoli in developing embryos originate from de novo synthesized materials. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Position- and polarity-dependent Hippo signaling regulates cell fates in preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    During the preimplantation stage, mouse embryos establish two cell lineages by the time of early blastocyst formation: the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM). Historical models have proposed that the establishment of these two lineages depends on the cell position within the embryo (e.g., the positional model) or cell polarization along the apicobasal axis (e.g., the polarity model). Recent findings have revealed that the Hippo signaling pathway plays a central role in the cell fate-specification process: active and inactive Hippo signaling in the inner and outer cells promote ICM and TE fates, respectively. Intercellular adhesion activates, while apicobasal polarization suppresses Hippo signaling, and a combination of these processes determines the spatially regulated activation of the Hippo pathway in 32-cell-stage embryos. Therefore, there is experimental evidence in favor of both positional and polarity models. At the molecular level, phosphorylation of the Hippo-pathway component angiomotin at adherens junctions (AJs) in the inner (apolar) cells activates the Lats protein kinase and triggers Hippo signaling. In the outer cells, however, cell polarization sequesters Amot from basolateral AJs and suppresses activation of the Hippo pathway. Other mechanisms, including asymmetric cell division and Notch signaling, also play important roles in the regulation of embryonic development. In this review, I discuss how these mechanisms cooperate with the Hippo signaling pathway during cell fate-specification processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Technique for Facile and Precise Transfer of Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sarvari, Ali; Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background Successful Embryo Transfer (ET) technique is a fateful step of all efforts to achieve live births from in vitro produced embryos in assisted reproductive techniques or in knockout, transgenic or cloned animal projects. Small reproductive tract of mice and limitation of current techniques may not well satisfy the requirements for mass production of genetically modified mice. Genetic abnormalities of embryos, receptivity and uterine contractions, expulsion of embryos, blood, mucus or bacterial contamination on the transfer pipette tip, technical problems and even animal strain may affect embryo transfer outcome. Methods In this study, two techniques of embryo transfer in mice were compared. In conventional technique the oviduct wall was punctured with a 30-gauge needle and the loaded Pasteur pipette with embryos and medium was inserted into the hole. In new technique, embryos that were loaded in modified micropipette with minimal medium were transferred directly to the oviduct by manual piston micro-pump easily. Embryo viability was evaluated considering the percentage of live healthy newborns. Results Results of the two techniques were compared by t-test within the NPAR1WAY procedure of SAS software (ver. 9.2). The average live birth rates in the novel methods was significantly higher (42.4%) than the conventional method (21.7%, p<0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, using new embryo transfer technique improved birth rate by preventing embryos expulsion from the oviduct, saving time and easy transfer of embryos with minimum volume of medium. PMID:23626878

  5. Micronucleus formation causes perpetual unilateral chromosome inheritance in mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Diez, Cayetana; Yamagata, Kazuo; Trivedi, Shardul; Haverfield, Jenna; FitzHarris, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segregation defects in cancer cells lead to encapsulation of chromosomes in micronuclei (MN), small nucleus-like structures within which dangerous DNA rearrangements termed chromothripsis can occur. Here we uncover a strikingly different consequence of MN formation in preimplantation development. We find that chromosomes from within MN become damaged and fail to support a functional kinetochore. MN are therefore not segregated, but are instead inherited by one of the two daughter cells. We find that the same MN can be inherited several times without rejoining the principal nucleus and without altering the kinetics of cell divisions. MN motion is passive, resulting in an even distribution of MN across the first two cell lineages. We propose that perpetual unilateral MN inheritance constitutes an unexpected mode of chromosome missegregation, which could contribute to the high frequency of aneuploid cells in mammalian embryos, but simultaneously may serve to insulate the early embryonic genome from chromothripsis. PMID:26729872

  6. Micronucleus formation causes perpetual unilateral chromosome inheritance in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Diez, Cayetana; Yamagata, Kazuo; Trivedi, Shardul; Haverfield, Jenna; FitzHarris, Greg

    2016-01-19

    Chromosome segregation defects in cancer cells lead to encapsulation of chromosomes in micronuclei (MN), small nucleus-like structures within which dangerous DNA rearrangements termed chromothripsis can occur. Here we uncover a strikingly different consequence of MN formation in preimplantation development. We find that chromosomes from within MN become damaged and fail to support a functional kinetochore. MN are therefore not segregated, but are instead inherited by one of the two daughter cells. We find that the same MN can be inherited several times without rejoining the principal nucleus and without altering the kinetics of cell divisions. MN motion is passive, resulting in an even distribution of MN across the first two cell lineages. We propose that perpetual unilateral MN inheritance constitutes an unexpected mode of chromosome missegregation, which could contribute to the high frequency of aneuploid cells in mammalian embryos, but simultaneously may serve to insulate the early embryonic genome from chromothripsis.

  7. [The composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora].

    PubMed

    Lei, D; Lin, Y; Jiang, X; Lan, L; Zhang, W; Wang, B X

    2017-03-02

    Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens.The relative content of predominant bacterial phyla in each group: Proteobacteria (95.00%, 88.14%, 87.26%), Bacteroidetes(1.71%, 2.15%, 2.63%), Actino-Bacteria(1.16%, 4.10%, 3.38%), Firmicutes(0.75%, 2.62%, 2.01%). At the level of family, there were nine predominant bacterial families in which Enterobacteriaeae , Shewanel laceae and Moraxellaceae were dominant.The relative content of dominant bacterial family in eachgroup: Enterobacteriaeae (46.99%, 44.34%, 41.08%), Shewanellaceae (21.99%, 21.10%, 19.05%), Moraxellaceae (9.18%, 7.09%, 5.64%). From the species of flora, the flora from fetal gastrointestinal in early pregnancy and late pregnancy (65.44% and 62.73%) were the same as that from placenta tissue in the late pregnancy.From the abundance of bacteria, at the level of family, the same content of bacteria in three groups accounted for 78.16%, 72.53% and 65.78% respectively. Conclusion: It was proved that the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora were colonized. At the same time the bacteria are classified.

  8. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayil, Anisha; Watanabe, Tomoko; Jesacher, Alexander; Wilson, Tony; Srinivas, Shankar; Booth, Martin

    2011-04-01

    We present a detailed description of an adaptive harmonic generation (HG) microscope and culture techniques that permit long-term, three-dimensional imaging of mouse embryos. HG signal from both pre- and postimplantation stage (0.5-5.5 day-old) mouse embryos are fully characterized. The second HG images reveal central spindles during cytokinesis whereas third HG images show several features, such as lipid droplets, nucleoli, and plasma membranes. The embryos are found to develop normally during one-day-long discontinuous HG imaging, permitting the observation of several dynamic events, such as morula compaction and blastocyst formation.

  10. Effects of in vitro fertilization and embryo culture on TRP53 and Bax expression in B6 mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Chandrakanthan, Vashe; Li, Aiqing; Chami, Omar; O'Neill, Christopher

    2006-11-21

    In the mouse, embryo culture results in a characteristic phenotype of retarded embryo preimplantation development and reduced numbers of cells within embryos. The expression of TRP53 is central to the regulation of the cell's capacity to proliferate and survive. In this study we found that Trp53 mRNA is expressed throughout the preimplantation stage of development. Levels of TRP53 protein expression were low during the cleavage stages and increased at the morula and blastocyst stages in B6 embryos collected from the reproductive tract. Embryos collected at the zygote stage and cultured for 96 h also showed low levels of TRP53 expression at precompaction stages. There were higher levels of TRP53 in cultured morula and the level in cultured blastocysts was clearly increased above blastocysts collected directly from the uterus. Immunolocalization of TRP53 showed that its increased expression in cultured blastocysts corresponded with a marked accumulation of TRP53 within the nuclei of embryonic cells. This pattern of expression was enhanced in embryos produced by in vitro fertilization and subjected to culture. The TRP53 was transcriptionally active since culture also induced increased expression of Bax, yet this did not occur in embryos lacking Trp53 (Trp53-/-). The rate of development of Trp53-/- zygotes to the blastocyst stage was not different to wildtype controls when embryos were cultured in groups of ten but was significantly faster when cultured individually. The results show that zygote culture resulted in the accumulation of transcription activity of TRP53 in the resulting blastocysts. This accounts for the adverse effects of culture of embryos individually, but does not appear to be the sole cause of the retarded preimplantation stage growth phenotype associated with culture in vitro.

  11. Perturbations in choline metabolism cause neural tube defects in mouse embryos in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie C; Zeisel, Steven H; Mar, Mei-Heng; Sadler, Thomas W

    2002-04-01

    A role for choline during early stages of mammalian embryogenesis has not been established, although recent studies show that inhibitors of choline uptake and metabolism, 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), and 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH3), produce neural tube defects in mouse embryos grown in vitro. To determine potential mechanisms responsible for these abnormalities, choline metabolism in the presence or absence of these inhibitors was evaluated in cultured, neurulating mouse embryos by using chromatographic techniques. Results showed that 90%-95% of 14C-choline was incorporated into phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), which was metabolized to sphingomyelin. Choline was oxidized to betaine, and betaine homocysteine methyltransferase was expressed. Acetylcholine was synthesized in yolk sacs, but 70 kDa choline acetyltransferase was undetectable by immunoblot. DMAE reduced embryonic choline uptake and inhibited phosphocholine, PtdCho, phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), and sphingomyelin synthesis. ET-18-OCH3 also inhibited PtdCho synthesis. In embryos and yolk sacs incubated with 3H-ethanolamine, 95% of recovered label was PtdEtn, but PtdEtn was not converted to PtdCho, which suggested that phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase (PeMT) activity was absent. In ET-18-OCH3 treated yolk sacs, PtdEtn was increased, but PtdCho was still not generated through PeMT. Results suggest that endogenous PtdCho synthesis is important during neurulation and that perturbed choline metabolism contributes to neural tube defects produced by DMAE and ET-18-OCH3.

  12. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    PubMed

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1 hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  13. Analysis of Hippo and TGFβ signaling in polarizing epithelial cells and mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, Masahiro; Labibi, Batool; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Attisano, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is involved in numerous biological events ranging from early development to organogenesis and when disrupted, impacts various human diseases including cancer. The Hippo pathway also interacts with and controls the activity of other signaling pathways such as the TGFβ/Smad pathway, in which Hippo pathway activity influences the subcellular localization of Smad transcription factors. Here, we describe techniques for examining crosstalk between Hippo and TGFβ signaling in polarizing mammary epithelial cells. In addition, we provide detailed methods for analyzing the subcellular localization of the Hippo pathway effectors, Taz and Yap using both in vitro cultured epithelial cells and in vivo in pregastrulation mouse embryos. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) from Yunnan white kidney bean on development of mouse embryos].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifen; Wang, Changmei; Yang, Mingjie; Zhang, Tian; Wang, Minkang

    2011-06-01

    To study the effect of different concentration of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) on mouse embryo development. In experiment 1, crude and purified PHA extracted from Yunnan white kidney bean with different concentration were added into M16 culture medium, the final concentration of PHA were: 50, 100, 200, 500, 1 000, 2 000 and 5 000 mg x L(-1) respectively. 2-cell stage embryos were collected and cultured in PHA containing or control medium for 72-96 h and their development were recorded. In experiment 2, different stage of embryos from 1-cell to blastocyst were treated by different concentrations of PHA same as experiment 1 and 10 000 mg x L(-1) in culture medium for 24 h before washing and cultured in M16 + PVA without PHA to blastocyst or hatching blastocyst stage. Low concentrations PHA at 50-100 mg x L(-1) promoted embryo development and increased the number of blastocyst stage embryos. In contrast, high concentrations of PHA (> 1 000 mg x L(-1)) blocked the embryos development from 1-cell to blastocyst stage and showed apoptosis morphology or death. Depending on the concentrations, PHA from white kidney bean shown promotion or inhibition on mouse embryo development. 1-cell stage embryo shown more sensitive to PHA treatment than that of later stage embryos. Pretreatment 24 h in PHA containing medium can influence the further development of embryos. Low concentrations of PHA is benefit to embryo development, but high concentrations of PHA (> 1 000 mg x L(-1)) will block of the development of embryos.

  15. Parental genetic material and oxygen concentration affect hatch dynamics of mouse embryo in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shaoquan; Cao, Shanbo; Du, Hongzi; Sun, Yuan; Li, Li; Ding, Chenhui; Zheng, Haiyan; Huang, Junjiu

    2018-04-21

    Hatching is crucial for mammalian embryo implantation, since difficulties during this process can lead to implantation failure, ectopic pregnancy and consequent infertility. Despite years of intensive researches, how internal and external factors affecting embryo hatch are still largely unclear. The effects of parental genetic material and oxygen concentration on hatch process were examined. Fertilized and parthenogenetic mouse preimplantation embryos were cultured in vitro under 5 and 20% oxygen for 120 h. Zona pellucida drilling by Peizo micromanipulation were performed to resemble the breach by sperm penetration. Firstly, parthenogenetic embryos had similarly high blastocyst developmental efficiency as fertilized embryos, but significantly higher hatch ratio than fertilized embryos in both O 2 concentrations. 5% O 2 reduced the hatch rate of fertilized embryos from 58.2 to 23.8%, but increased that of parthenogenetic embryos from 81.2 to 90.8% significantly. Analogously, 5% O 2 decreased the ratio of Oct4-positive cells in fertilized blastocysts, whereas increased that in parthenogenetic blastocysts. Additionally, 5% O 2 increased the total embryonic cell number in both fertilized and parthegenetic embryos, when compared to 20% O 2 , and the total cell number of fertilized embryos was also higher than that of parthegenetic embryos, despite O 2 concentration. Real-time PCR revealed that the expression of key genes involving in MAPK pathway and superoxide dismutase family might contribute to preimplantation development and consequent blastocyst hatch in vitro. Finally, we showed that fertilized and parthenogenetic embryos have diverse hatch dynamics in vitro, although the zona pellucida integrity is not the main reason for their mechanistic differences. Both parental genetic material and O 2 concentration, as the representative of intrinsic and extrinsic factors respectively, have significant impacts on mouse preimplantation development and subsequent hatch

  16. 4D atlas of the mouse embryo for precise morphological staging.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael D; van Eede, Matthijs C; Spring, Shoshana; Jevtic, Stefan; Boughner, Julia C; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

    2015-10-15

    After more than a century of research, the mouse remains the gold-standard model system, for it recapitulates human development and disease and is quickly and highly tractable to genetic manipulations. Fundamental to the power and success of using a mouse model is the ability to stage embryonic mouse development accurately. Past staging systems were limited by the technologies of the day, such that only surface features, visible with a light microscope, could be recognized and used to define stages. With the advent of high-throughput 3D imaging tools that capture embryo morphology in microscopic detail, we now present the first 4D atlas staging system for mouse embryonic development using optical projection tomography and image registration methods. By tracking 3D trajectories of every anatomical point in the mouse embryo from E11.5 to E14.0, we established the first 4D atlas compiled from ex vivo 3D mouse embryo reference images. The resulting 4D atlas comprises 51 interpolated 3D images in this gestational range, resulting in a temporal resolution of 72 min. From this 4D atlas, any mouse embryo image can be subsequently compared and staged at the global, voxel and/or structural level. Assigning an embryonic stage to each point in anatomy allows for unprecedented quantitative analysis of developmental asynchrony among different anatomical structures in the same mouse embryo. This comprehensive developmental data set offers developmental biologists a new, powerful staging system that can identify and compare differences in developmental timing in wild-type embryos and shows promise for localizing deviations in mutant development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Oxygen regulates amino acid turnover and carbohydrate uptake during the preimplantation period of mouse embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wale, Petra L; Gardner, David K

    2012-07-01

    Oxygen is a powerful regulator of preimplantation embryo development, affecting gene expression, the proteome, and energy metabolism. Even a transient exposure to atmospheric oxygen can have a negative impact on embryo development, which is greatest prior to compaction, and subsequent postcompaction culture at low oxygen cannot alleviate this damage. In spite of this evidence, the majority of human in vitro fertilization is still performed at atmospheric oxygen. One of the physiological parameters shown to be affected by the relative oxygen concentration, carbohydrate metabolism, is linked to the ability of the mammalian embryo to develop in culture and remain viable after transfer. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of oxygen concentration on the ability of mouse embryos to utilize both amino acids and carbohydrates both before and after compaction. Metabolomic and fluorometric analysis of embryo culture media revealed that when embryos were exposed to atmospheric oxygen during the cleavage stages, they exhibited significantly greater amino acid utilization and pyruvate uptake than when cultured under 5% oxygen. In contrast, postcompaction embryos cultured in atmospheric oxygen showed significantly lower mean amino acid utilization and glucose uptake. These metabolic changes correlated with developmental compromise because embryos grown in atmospheric oxygen at all stages showed significantly lower blastocyst formation and proliferation. These findings confirm the need to consider both embryo development and metabolism in establishing optimal human embryo growth conditions and prognostic markers of viability, and further highlight the impact of oxygen on such vital parameters.

  18. The Ras/Raf signaling pathway is required for progression of mouse embryos through the two-cell stage.

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, N; Kiessling, A A; Cooper, G M

    1994-01-01

    We have used microinjection of antisense oligonucleotides, monoclonal antibody, and the dominant negative Ras N-17 mutant to interfere with Ras expression and function in mouse oocytes and early embryos. Microinjection of either ras antisense oligonucleotides or anti-Ras monoclonal antibody Y13-259 did not affect normal progression of oocytes through meiosis and arrest at metaphase II. However, microinjection of fertilized eggs with constructs expressing Ras N-17 inhibited subsequent development through the two-cell stage. The inhibitory effect of Ras N-17 was overcome by simultaneous injection of a plasmid expressing an active raf oncogene, indicating that it resulted from interference with the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. In contrast to the inhibition of two-cell embryo development resulting from microinjection of pronuclear stage eggs, microinjection of late two-cell embryos with Ras N-17 expression constructs did not affect subsequent cleavages and development to morulae and blastocysts. It thus appears that the Ras/Raf signaling pathway, presumably activated by autocrine growth factor stimulation, is specifically required at the two-cell stage, which is the time of transition between maternal and embryonic gene expression in mouse embryos. Images PMID:7935384

  19. Precision matters for position decoding in the early fly embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Mariela D.; Tkacik, Gasper; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Bialek, William; Gregor, Thomas

    Genetic networks can determine cell fates in multicellular organisms with precision that often reaches the physical limits of the system. However, it is unclear how the organism uses this precision and whether it has biological content. Here we address this question in the developing fly embryo, in which a genetic network of patterning genes reaches 1% precision in positioning cells along the embryo axis. The network consists of three interconnected layers: an input layer of maternal gradients, a processing layer of gap genes, and an output layer of pair-rule genes with seven-striped patterns. From measurements of gap gene protein expression in hundreds of wild-type embryos we construct a ``decoder'', which is a look-up table that determines cellular positions from the concentration means, variances and co-variances. When we apply the decoder to measurements in mutant embryos lacking various combinations of the maternal inputs, we predict quantitative changes in the output layer such as missing, altered or displaced stripes. We confirm these predictions by measuring pair-rule expression in the mutant embryos. Our results thereby show that the precision of the patterning network is biologically meaningful and a necessary feature for decoding cell positions in the early fly embryo.

  20. Individual blastomeres of 16- and 32-cell mouse embryos are able to develop into foetuses and mice.

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Andrzej K; Suwińska, Aneta; Czołowska, Renata; Ożdżeński, Wacław

    2010-12-15

    Cell and developmental studies have clarified how, by the time of implantation, the mouse embryo forms three primary cell lineages: epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PE), and trophectoderm (TE). However, it still remains unknown when cells allocated to these three lineages become determined in their developmental fate. To address this question, we studied the developmental potential of single blastomeres derived from 16- and 32-cell stage embryos and supported by carrier, tetraploid blastomeres. We were able to generate singletons, identical twins, triplets, and quadruplets from individual inner and outer cells of 16-cell embryos and, sporadically, foetuses from single cells of 32-cell embryos. The use of embryos constitutively expressing GFP as the donors of single diploid blastomeres enabled us to identify their cell progeny in the constructed 2n↔4n blastocysts. We showed that the descendants of donor blastomeres were able to locate themselves in all three first cell lineages, i.e., epiblast, primitive endoderm, and trophectoderm. In addition, the application of Cdx2 and Gata4 markers for trophectoderm and primitive endoderm, respectively, showed that the expression of these two genes in the descendants of donor blastomeres was either down- or up-regulated, depending on the cell lineage they happened to occupy. Thus, our results demonstrate that up to the early blastocysts stage, the destiny of at least some blastomeres, although they have begun to express markers of different lineage, is still labile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Embryo sac formation and early embryo development in Agave tequilana (Asparagaceae).

    PubMed

    González-Gutiérrez, Alejandra G; Gutiérrez-Mora, Antonia; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana is an angiosperm species that belongs to the family Asparagaceae (formerly Agavaceae). Even though there is information regarding to some aspects related to the megagametogenesis of A. tequilana, this is the first report describing the complete process of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, the early embryo and endosperm development process in detail. The objective of this work was to study and characterize all the above processes and the distinctive morphological changes of the micropylar and chalazal extremes after fertilization in this species. The agave plant material for the present study was collected from commercial plantations in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Ovules and immature seeds, previously fixed in FAA and kept in ethanol 70%, were stained based on a tissue clarification technique by using a Mayer's-Hematoxylin solution. The tissue clarification technique was successfully used for the characterization of the megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, mature embryo sac formation, the early embryo and endosperm development processes by studying intact cells. The embryo sac of A. tequilana was confirmed to be of the monosporic Polygonum-type and an helobial endosperm formation. Also, the time-lapse of the developmental processes studied was recorded.

  2. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Choe, Changyong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ik; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5μM fluoxetine for 6h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5μM) over 24h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K(+) channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ~30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluorescence-based visualization of autophagic activity predicts mouse embryo viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Hara, Taichi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kito, Seiji; Minami, Naojiro; Kubota, Toshiro; Sato, Ken; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2014-03-01

    Embryo quality is a critical parameter in assisted reproductive technologies. Although embryo quality can be evaluated morphologically, embryo morphology does not correlate perfectly with embryo viability. To improve this, it is important to understand which molecular mechanisms are involved in embryo quality control. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process in which cytoplasmic materials sequestered by autophagosomes are degraded in lysosomes. We previously demonstrated that autophagy is highly activated after fertilization and is essential for further embryonic development. Here, we developed a simple fluorescence-based method for visualizing autophagic activity in live mouse embryos. Our method is based on imaging of the fluorescence intensity of GFP-LC3, a versatile marker for autophagy, which is microinjected into the embryos. Using this method, we show that embryonic autophagic activity declines with advancing maternal age, probably due to a decline in the activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also demonstrate that embryonic autophagic activity is associated with the developmental viability of the embryo. Our results suggest that embryonic autophagic activity can be utilized as a novel indicator of embryo quality.

  4. Clonal analysis identifies hemogenic endothelium as the source of the blood-endothelial common lineage in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Padrón-Barthe, Laura; Temiño, Susana; Villa del Campo, Cristina; Carramolino, Laura; Isern, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The first blood and endothelial cells of amniote embryos appear in close association in the blood islands of the yolk sac (YS). This association and in vitro lineage analyses have suggested a common origin from mesodermal precursors called hemangioblasts, specified in the primitive streak during gastrulation. Fate mapping and chimera studies, however, failed to provide strong evidence for a common origin in the early mouse YS. Additional in vitro studies suggest instead that mesodermal precursors first generate hemogenic endothelium, which then generate blood cells in a linear sequence. We conducted an in vivo clonal analysis to determine the potential of individual cells in the mouse epiblast, primitive streak, and early YS. We found that early YS blood and endothelial lineages mostly derive from independent epiblast populations, specified before gastrulation. Additionally, a subpopulation of the YS endothelium has hemogenic activity and displays characteristics similar to those found later in the embryonic hemogenic endothelium. Our results show that the earliest blood and endothelial cell populations in the mouse embryo are specified independently, and that hemogenic endothelium first appears in the YS and produces blood precursors with markers related to definitive hematopoiesis. PMID:25139355

  5. The Effect of Vitrification and in vitro Culture on the Adenosine Triphosphate Content and Mitochondrial Distribution of Mouse Pre-Implantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Amoushahi, Mahboobeh; Salehnia, Mojdeh; HosseinKhani, Saman

    2013-01-01

    Background: The mitochondria are an important source of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in pre-implantation embryo. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vitrification and in vitro culture of mouse embryos on their mitochondrial distribution and ATP content. Methods: The embryos at 2-PN, 4-cell and blastocyst stages were collected from the oviduct of stimulated pregnant mice and uterine horns. Then, the embryos were vitrified with the cryotop method using ethylene glycol and dimethylsulphoxide. After evaluating the survival rates of vitrified embryos, their development to hatching stages were assessed. The ATP content of collected in vivo and in vitro embryos at different stages was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. The distribution of mitochondria was studied using Mito-tracker green staining under a fluorescent microscope. Results: The survival rates of vitrified embryos at 2-PN, 4-cell and early blastocyst stages were 84.3, 87.87 and 89.89%, respectively. The hatching rates in previous developmental stages in vitrified group were 57.44, 66.73 and 70.89% and in non-vitrified group were 66.32, 73.25 and 75.89%, respectively (P>0.05). The ATP content of in vivo or in vitro collected embryos was not significantly different in both vitrified and non-vitrified groups (P>0.05). Mitochondrial distribution of vitrified and non-vitrified 2-PN embryos was similar, but some clampings or large aggregation of mitochondria within the vitrified 4-cell embryos was prominent. Conclusions: Vitrification method did not affect the mouse embryo ATP content. Also, the cellular stress was not induced by this procedure and the safety of vitrification was shown. PMID:23748889

  6. Optical coherence tomography guided microinjections in live mouse embryos: high-resolution targeted manipulation for mouse embryonic research

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Saba H.; Coughlin, Andrew J.; Garcia, Monica D.; Wang, Shang; West, Jennifer L.; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The ability to conduct highly localized delivery of contrast agents, viral vectors, therapeutic or pharmacological agents, and signaling molecules or dyes to live mammalian embryos is greatly desired to enable a variety of studies in the field of developmental biology, such as investigating the molecular regulation of cardiovascular morphogenesis. To meet such a demand, we introduce, for the first time, the concept of employing optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guide microinjections in live mouse embryos, which provides precisely targeted manipulation with spatial resolution at the micrometer scale. The feasibility demonstration is performed with experimental studies on cultured live mouse embryos at E8.5 and E9.5. Additionally, we investigate the OCT-guided microinjection of gold–silica nanoshells to the yolk sac vasculature of live cultured mouse embryos at the stage when the heart just starts to beat, as a potential approach for dynamic assessment of cardiovascular form and function before the onset of blood cell circulation. Also, the capability of OCT to quantitatively monitor and measure injection volume is presented. Our results indicate that OCT-guided microinjection could be a useful tool for mouse embryonic research. PMID:25581495

  7. Optical coherence tomography guided microinjections in live mouse embryos: high-resolution targeted manipulation for mouse embryonic research.

    PubMed

    Syed, Saba H; Coughlin, Andrew J; Garcia, Monica D; Wang, Shang; West, Jennifer L; Larin, Kirill V; Larina, Irina V

    2015-05-01

    The ability to conduct highly localized delivery of contrast agents, viral vectors, therapeutic or pharmacological agents, and signaling molecules or dyes to live mammalian embryos is greatly desired to enable a variety of studies in the field of developmental biology, such as investigating the molecular regulation of cardiovascular morphogenesis. To meet such a demand, we introduce, for the first time, the concept of employing optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guide microinjections in live mouse embryos, which provides precisely targeted manipulation with spatial resolution at the micrometer scale. The feasibility demonstration is performed with experimental studies on cultured live mouse embryos at E8.5 and E9.5. Additionally, we investigate the OCT-guided microinjection of gold–silica nanoshells to the yolk sac vasculature of live cultured mouse embryos at the stage when the heart just starts to beat, as a potential approach for dynamic assessment of cardiovascular form and function before the onset of blood cell circulation. Also, the capability of OCT to quantitatively monitor and measure injection volume is presented. Our results indicate that OCT-guided microinjection could be a useful tool for mouse embryonic research.

  8. Alternation of apoptotic and implanting genes expression of mouse embryos after re-vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Majidi Gharenaz, Nasrin; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Mazaheri, Zohreh; Pour beiranvand, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, oocytes and embryos vitrification has become a routine technique. Based on clinical judgment, re-vitrification maybe required. But little is known about re-vitrification impact on genes expression. Objective: The impact of re-vitrification on apoptotic and implanting genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4, at compaction stage embryos were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 cell embryos (n=240) were collected from female mature mice, 60-62 hr post HCG injection. The embryos were divided randomly to 3 groups included: fresh (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage thawed and re-vitrified at compaction stage (n=80). Embryos were vitrified by using cryolock, (open system) described by Kuwayama. Q-PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax, Bcl2 ErbB4 genes in derived blastocysts. Results: Our result showed that expanded blastocyst rate was similar between vitrified and re-vitrified groups, while re-vitrified embryos showed significant decrease in expanded blastocyst rate comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.03). In addition, significant difference was observed on apoptotic gene expression when comparing re-vitrified and fresh embryos (p=0.004), however expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (apoptotic) genes didn't demonstrate a significant difference between re-vitrified and vitrified groups. The expression rate of ErbB4, an implantation gene was decreased in re-vitrified embryos comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.003), but it was similar between re-vitrified and vitrified embryos. Conclusion: Re-vitrification can alter the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4 genes and developmental rate of mouse embryos in compaction stage. PMID:27679826

  9. Development, glycolytic activity, and viability of preimplantation mouse embryos subjected to different periods of glucose starvation.

    PubMed

    Leppens-Luisier, G; Sakkas, D

    1997-03-01

    After compaction, the preimplantation mouse embryo switches to a glucose-based metabolism, whereas for the 2- to 4-cell stage embryo, glucose can be inhibitory. In this study, we investigated the adaptability of preimplantation embryos to different periods of glucose starvation by culturing in vitro fertilized (IVF) and in vivo-fertilized 1-cell OF1 mouse embryos. Blastocysts obtained from exposure to glucose starvation for different periods of time were examined for the number of cells in the trophectoderm and inner cell mass, and for glycolytic activity and viability. A high percentage of blastocysts was obtained when 1-cell embryos fertilized in vitro or in vivo were cultured in M16 until the 2-cell stage, were transferred to M16 without glucose (M16-G) until the 4- or 8-cell stage, and then were transferred to fresh M16-G. When in vivo-fertilized 1-cell embryos were cultured to the 2-cell stage and then left in M16, less than 5% formed blastocysts compared to 26% of those transferred into M16-G. Blastocysts obtained when in vivo-fertilized 1-cell embryos were left in M16-G after the 2-cell stage, however, showed a significantly elevated glycolytic activity compared to those transferred to fresh M16 or M16-G medium at the 4- or 8-cell stage. Interestingly, even though these embryos displayed elevated glycolytic activity, they did not exhibit differences in the numbers of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells or in viability compared to embryos cultured according to other protocols. Blastocysts from all cultured protocols had a significantly lower total cell number and a lower trophectoderm, but not inner cell mass, cell number compared to blastocysts developed in vivo. This study documents the metabolic adaptability of the preimplantation embryo by highlighting its ability to proceed with development and retain viability when challenged with glucose starvation at different periods.

  10. Evidence for a Stable Intermediate in Leukemia Virus Activation in AKR Mouse Embryo Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, James N.; Kenney, Francis T.; Tennant, Raymond W.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the requirement for serum in the activation of the endogenous leukemia virus expression in AKR mouse embryo cells by 5-iododeoxyuridine shows that activation can be dissociated into two discrete serum-dependent events. The first involves incorporation of 5-iododeoxyuridine into DNA and results in the formation of a stable “activation intermediate” resembling the provirus formed during infection of stationary mouse embryo cells with exogenous leukemia virus. The second event, resulting in expression of the activation intermediate as synthesis of virus proteins, requires DNA replication but not 5-iododeoxyuridine. PMID:4604455

  11. Mitotic wavefronts mediated by mechanical signaling in early Drosophila embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Louis; Idema, Timon; Liu, Andrea; Lubensky, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo demonstrates spatial and temporal correlations in the form of wavefronts that travel across the embryo in each cell cycle. This coordinated phenomenon requires a signaling mechanism, which we suggest is mechanical in origin. We have constructed a theoretical model that supports nonlinear wavefront propagation in a mechanically-excitable medium. Previously, we have shown that this model captures quantitatively the wavefront speed as it varies with cell cycle number, for reasonable values of the elastic moduli and damping coefficient of the medium. Now we show that our model also captures the displacements of cell nuclei in the embryo in response to the traveling wavefront. This new result further supports that mechanical signaling may play an important role in mediating mitotic wavefronts.

  12. Low cost labeling with highlighter ink efficiently visualizes developing blood vessels in avian and mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Takase, Yuta; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2013-12-01

    To understand how blood vessels form to establish the intricate network during vertebrate development, it is helpful if one can visualize the vasculature in embryos. We here describe a novel labeling method using highlighter ink, easily obtained in stationery stores with a low cost, to visualize embryo-wide vasculatures in avian and mice. We tested 50 different highlighters for fluorescent microscopy with filter sets equipped in a standard fluorescent microscope. The yellow and violet inks yielded fluorescent signals specifically detected by the filters used for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) detections, respectively. When the ink solution was infused into chicken/quail and mouse embryos, vasculatures including large vessels and capillaries were labeled both in living and fixed embryos. Ink-infused embryos were further subjected to histological sections, and double stained with antibodies including QH-1 (quail), α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and PECAM-1 (mouse), revealing that the endothelial cells were specifically labeled by the infused highlighter ink. Highlighter-labeled signals were detected with a resolution comparable to or higher than signals of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-lectin and Rhodamine-dextran, conventionally used for angiography. Furthermore, macroconfocal microscopic analyses with ink-infused embryos visualized fine vascular structures of both embryo proper and extra-embryonic plexus in a Z-stack image of 2400 μm thick with a markedly high resolution. Together, the low cost highlighter ink serves as an alternative reagent useful for visualization of blood vessels in developing avian and mouse embryos and possibly in other animals. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  13. Micropattern differentiation of mouse pluripotent stem cells recapitulates embryo regionalized cell fate patterning

    PubMed Central

    Morgani, Sophie M; Metzger, Jakob J; Nichols, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    During gastrulation epiblast cells exit pluripotency as they specify and spatially arrange the three germ layers of the embryo. Similarly, human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) undergo spatially organized fate specification on micropatterned surfaces. Since in vivo validation is not possible for the human, we developed a mouse PSC micropattern system and, with direct comparisons to mouse embryos, reveal the robust specification of distinct regional identities. BMP, WNT, ACTIVIN and FGF directed mouse epiblast-like cells to undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and radially pattern posterior mesoderm fates. Conversely, WNT, ACTIVIN and FGF patterned anterior identities, including definitive endoderm. By contrast, epiblast stem cells, a developmentally advanced state, only specified anterior identities, but without patterning. The mouse micropattern system offers a robust scalable method to generate regionalized cell types present in vivo, resolve how signals promote distinct identities and generate patterns, and compare mechanisms operating in vivo and in vitro and across species. PMID:29412136

  14. Culture of bovine embryos in deproteinized hemodialysate-supplemented media and immature mouse uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Thuemmel, A E; Gwazdauskas, F C; Canseco, R S; Pearson, R E; Jochle, W

    1991-06-01

    Bovine morulae (d 6) were used to evaluate embryonic development in a deproteinized hemodialysate, agar embedding, and in the uterus of the immature mouse. Agar-embedded embryos were cultured in Ham's F-10 and 10% steer serum either (treatment 1) immediately after collection or (treatment 2) 24 h after storage in the uterus of the immature mouse. Unembedded embryos were cultured in Ham's F-10 containing (treatment 3) 10% steer serum, (treatment 4) 1% deproteinized hemodialysate CLB1107, or (treatment 5) 1% de-proteinized hemodialysate CLB1107 and 10% steer serum. A greater percentage of the embryos reached the hatched blastocyst stage after culture in treatments 1, 3, 4, and 5 (38.1, 34.6, 28.6, and 21.1%) than in treatment 2 (9.5%) in which embryos were stored in the immature mouse uterus for 24 h prior to in vitro culture. Final development scores for unembedded and agar-embedded embryos cultured in Ham's F-10 (5.5 +/- .3) and 10% steer serum (4.9 +/- .4) were similar and higher than those of embryos cultured in deproteinized hemodialysate CLB1107 (4.2 +/- .4), deproteinized hemodialysate CLB1107 and steer serum (4.2 +/- .4), or immature mouse uteri (3.4 +/- .4). It is concluded that deproteinized hemodialysate supplementation at 1% (vol/vol) failed to enhance embryonic development in vitro. Moreover, bovine morulae were unaffected by agar embedding and were able to develop to a limited extent following short-term storage in the uterus of the immature mouse.

  15. Survival of mouse embryos after vitrification depending on the cooling rate of the cryoprotectant solution.

    PubMed

    Hredzák, R; Ostró, A; Zdilová, Viera; Maracek, I; Kacmárik, J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of cooling of eight-cell mouse embryos to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and their developmental capacity after thawing on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') during in vitro culturing. Eight-cell embryos were obtained from superovulated female mice and divided into three experimental and one control group. Embryos from the experimental groups were cryopreserved by the vitrification method using ethylene glycol as cryoprotectant. The vitrification protocols used in the study differed in the rate of cooling of the cryoprotectant solution. Embryos from the first group were frozen in conventional 0.25-ml plastic straws, those from the second group in pipetting 'tips', and embryos from the third group, placed in vitrification solution, were introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen. The control group of embryos was cultured in vitro without freezing in a culturing medium in an environment consisting of 95% air and 5% CO2. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos was assessed on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') after three days of in vitro culturing. In the control group 95.1% of embryos 'hatched'. A significantly higher number of embryos that 'hatched' after thawing was observed in the group introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen (60.0%) compared to the group frozen in pipetting 'tips' (37.9%). The group frozen in straws yielded significantly the lowest proportion of 'hatching' embryos (8.1%). These results showed that increasing cooling rates during vitrification of embryos improved their survival.

  16. Human Stem Cells Can Differentiate in Post-implantation Mouse Embryos.

    PubMed

    Tam, Patrick P L

    2016-01-07

    The potency of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to differentiate into germ layer derivatives is conventionally assessed by teratoma induction and in vitro differentiation. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Mascetti and Pedersen (2016) demonstrate that the human-mouse post-implantation chimera offers an efficient avenue to test the germ layer differentiation potential of hPSCs in mouse embryos ex vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient vitrification of mouse embryos using the Kitasato Vitrification System as a novel vitrification device.

    PubMed

    Momozawa, Kenji; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Yukio; Abe, Shiori; Koyanagi, Yumi; Kurita, Miho; Nakano, Marina; Miyake, Takao

    2017-04-24

    Currently, the cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes is essential for assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratories worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Kitasato Vitrification System (KVS) as a vitrification device for the cryopreservation of mouse embryos to determine whether this novel device can be adapted to the field of ART. In Experiment 1, blastocysts were vitrified using the KVS. Vitrified blastocysts were warmed and subsequently cultured for 72 h. In Experiment 2, 2-cell-stage embryos were vitrified using the KVS, and vitrified embryos were warmed and subsequently cultured for 96 h. In Experiment 3, we evaluated the in vivo developmental potential of vitrified 2-cell-stage embryos using the KVS, and in Experiment 4, we evaluated the cooling and warming rates for these devices using a numerical simulation. In Experiment 1, there were no significant differences between the survival rates of the KVS and a control device. However, re-expanded (100%) and hatching (91.8%) rates were significantly higher for blastocysts vitrified using the KVS. In Experiment 2, there were no significant differences between the survival rates, or rates of development to the blastocyst stage, of vitrified and fresh embryos. In Experiment 3, after embryo transfer, 41% of the embryos developed into live offspring. In Experiment 4, the cooling and warming rates of the KVS were 683,000 and 612,000 °C/min, respectively, exceeding those of the control device. Our study clearly demonstrates that the KVS is a novel vitrification device for the cryopreservation of mouse embryos at the blastocyst and 2-cell stage.

  18. Protective effect of [6]-gingerol on the ethanol-induced teratogenesis of cultured mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Yon, Jung-Min; Baek, In-Jeoung; Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Hong, Jin Tae; Yong, Hwanyul; Lee, Beom Jun; Yun, Young Won; Nam, Sang-Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption during pregnancy causes fetal alcohol syndrome. We investigated the effect of [6]-gingerol on ethanol-induced embryotoxicity using a whole embryo culture system. The morphological changes of embryos and the gene expression patterns of the antioxidant enzymes cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (cGPx), cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), and Mn-SOD (SOD2), and SOD activity were examined in the cultured mouse embryos exposed to ethanol (5 μL/3 mL) and/or [6]-gingerol (1×10(-8) or 1×10(-7) μg/mL) for 2 days. In ethanol-exposed embryos, the standard morphological score of embryos was significantly decreased compared with those of the control (vehicle) group. However, cotreatment of embryos with [6]-gingerol and ethanol significantly improved all of the developmental parameters except crownrump length and head length, compared with those of the ethanol alone group. The mRNA expression levels of cGPx and SOD2, not SOD1, were decreased consistently, SOD activity were significantly decreased compared with the control group. However, the decreases in mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and SOD activity were significantly restored to the control levels by [6]-gingerol supplement. These results indicate that [6]-gingerol has a protective effect against ethanol-induced teratogenicity during mouse embryogenesis.

  19. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723; Choe, Changyong

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetinemore » (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  20. Assessment of the developmental totipotency of neural cells in the cerebral cortex of mouse embryo by nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Yukiko; Makino, Hatsune; Hamaguchi-Hamada, Kayoko; Hamada, Shun; Sugino, Hidehiko; Kawase, Eihachiro; Miyata, Takaki; Ogawa, Masaharu; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Yagi, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    When neural cells were collected from the entire cerebral cortex of developing mouse fetuses (15.5–17.5 days postcoitum) and their nuclei were transferred into enucleated oocytes, 5.5% of the reconstructed oocytes developed into normal offspring. This success rate was the highest among all previous mouse cloning experiments that used somatic cells. Forty-four percent of live embryos at 10.5 days postcoitum were morphologically normal when premature and early-postmitotic neural cells from the ventricular side of the cortex were used. In contrast, the majority (95%) of embryos were morphologically abnormal (including structural abnormalities in the neural tube) when postmitotic-differentiated neurons from the pial side of the cortex were used for cloning. Whereas 4.3% of embryos cloned with ventricular-side cells developed into healthy offspring, only 0.5% of those cloned with differentiated neurons in the pial side did so. These facts seem to suggest that the nuclei of neural cells in advanced stages of differentiation had lost their developmental totipotency. The underlying mechanism for this developmental limitation could be somatic DNA rearrangements in differentiating neural cells. PMID:11698647

  1. BROMOCHLORO-HALOACETIC ACIDS: EFFECTS ON MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO AND QSAR CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The haloacetic acids (HAA) are a family of chemicals that are drinking water disinfection byproducts. We previously reported that bromo- and chloro-acetic acids altered embryonic development when mouse conceptuses were directly exposed to these xenobiotics in whole embryo culture...

  2. Regulation of cAMP on the first mitotic cell cycle of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Aiming; Zhang, Zhe; Bi, Qiang; Sun, Bingqi; Su, Wenhui; Guan, Yifu; Mu, Runqing; Miao, Changsheng; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Bingzhi

    2008-03-01

    Mitosis promoting factor (MPF) plays a central role during the first mitosis of mouse embryo. We demonstrated that MPF activity increased when one-cell stage mouse embryo initiated G2/M transition following the decrease of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. When cAMP and PKA activity increases again, MPF activity decreases and mouse embryo starts metaphase-anaphase transition. In the downstream of cAMP/PKA, there are some effectors such as polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), Cdc25, Mos (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase), MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Wee1, anaphase-promoting complex (APC), and phosphoprotein phosphatase that are involved in the regulation of MPF activity. Here, we demonstrated that following activation of MPF, MAPK activity was steady, whereas Plk1 activity fluctuated during the first cell cycle. Plk1 activity was the highest at metaphase and decreased at metaphase-anaphase transition. Further, we established a mathematical model using Gepasi algorithm and the simulation was in agreement with the experimental data. Above all the evidences, we suggested that cAMP and PKA might be the upstream factors which were included in the regulation of the first cell cycle development of mouse embryo. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. (14)C METHANOL INCORPORATION INTO DNA AND SPECIFIC PROTEINS OF ORGANOGENESIS STAGE MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanol (MeOH), a widely used industrial solvent and alternative motor fuel, has been shown to be mutagenic and teratogenic. We have demonstrated that methanol is teratogenic in mice in vivo and causes dysmorphogenesis in cultured organogenesis stage mouse embryos. Methanol is ...

  4. COMPARATIVE PATHOGENESIS OF HALOACETIC ACID AND PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITOR EMBRYOTOXICITY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative pathogenesis of haloacetic acid and protein kinase inhibitor embryotoxicity in mouse whole embryo culture.

    Ward KW, Rogers EH, Hunter ES 3rd.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7270, USA.

    Haloacetic acids ...

  5. MAP KINASE ERK 1/2 INHIBITORS INDUCE DYSMORPHOLOGY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ROSEN, M.B. and E. S. HUNTER. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. MAP kinase Erk1/2 inhibitors induce dysmorphology in mouse whole embryo culture.

    MAP Kinase signal transduction is associated with a variety ...

  6. INCREASED APOPTOSIS IN ORGANOGENESIS-STAGED MOUSE EMBRYOS INDUCED BY DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased apoptosis in organogenesis-staged mouse embryos induced by disinfection by-products. Sid Hunter1,2, Ellen Rogers1 and Keith Ward2, 1 Developmental Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC; 2 Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC Chapel Hill, Cha...

  7. Establishment of mouse embryonic stem cells from isolated blastomeres and whole embryos using three derivation methods

    PubMed Central

    González, Sheyla; Ibáñez, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study is to compare three previously described mouse embryonic stem cell derivation methods to evaluate the influence of culture conditions, number of isolated blastomeres and embryonic stage in the derivation process. Methods Three embryonic stem cell derivation methods: standard, pre-adhesion and defined culture medium method, were compared in the derivation from isolated blastomeres and whole embryos at 4- and 8-cell stages. Results A total of 200 embryonic stem cell lines were obtained with an efficiency ranging from 1.9% to 72%. Conclusions Using either isolated blastomeres or whole embryos, the highest rates of mouse embryonic stem cell establishment were achieved with the defined culture medium method and efficiencies increased as development progressed. Using isolated blastomeres, efficiencies increased in parallel to the proportion of the embryo volume used to start the derivation process. PMID:20862536

  8. Near-infrared laser irradiation improves the development of mouse pre-implantation embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoo, Masaki; Mori, Miho

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of near-infrared laser irradiation on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. Female ICR mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and mated with male mice. Two-cell stage embryos were collected 40 h after administering hCG and cultured in M16 medium. Two-cell embryos (0 h after culture), 8-cell embryos (approx. 30 h after culture), morula (approx. 48 h after culture), and blastocysts (approx. 73 h after culture) were irradiated at 904 nm for 60 s. These embryos were cultured in a time-lapse monitoring system and the timing ofmore » blastocyst hatching was evaluated. Some of the irradiated blastocysts were transferred to the uterine horns of pseudopregnant recipients immediately after irradiation. Pregnancy rates, and offspring growth and fertility, were evaluated. Near-infrared laser irradiation increased the speed of in vitro mouse embryo development. In irradiated blastocysts, hatching was faster than in control (non-irradiated) blastocysts (18.4 vs. 28.2 h, P < 0.05). When 195 irradiated blastocysts were transferred to 18 pseudopregnant mice, all became pregnant and 92 (47.2%) normal-looking pups were born alive. When 182 control blastocysts were transferred to 17 pseudopregnant mice, 14 (82.4%) became pregnant and 54 (29.7%) normal-looking pups were born alive. The growth trajectories (up to 5 weeks) of offspring from irradiated blastocysts were similar to those from control blastocysts. Second generation offspring from transplanted animals were all fertile. These results indicate that near-infrared laser irradiation improves the quality of mouse embryo development in vitro, and increases the live birth rate without affecting the normality of the offspring. Thus, the near-infrared laser method may enhance the quality of embryos and contribute to improvements in reproductive technologies in mammals. - Highlights: • Irradiation of

  9. Deciphering the mechanisms of developmental disorders: phenotype analysis of embryos from mutant mouse lines

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert; McGuire, Christina; Mohun, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) consortium is a research programme set up to identify genes in the mouse, which if mutated (or knocked-out) result in embryonic lethality when homozygous, and initiate the study of why disruption of their function has such profound effects on embryo development and survival. The project uses a combination of comprehensive high resolution 3D imaging and tissue histology to identify abnormalities in embryo and placental structures of embryonic lethal lines. The image data we have collected and the phenotypes scored are freely available through the project website (http://dmdd.org.uk). In this article we describe the web interface to the images that allows the embryo data to be viewed at full resolution in different planes, discuss how to search the database for a phenotype, and our approach to organising the data for an embryo and a mutant line so it is easy to comprehend and intuitive to navigate. PMID:26519470

  10. Ftx is dispensable for imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in preimplantation mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Miki; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Okabe, Masaru; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kobayashi, Shin

    2014-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) equalizes gene expression between the sexes by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes in female mammals. Xist has been considered as a major cis-acting factor that inactivates the paternally derived X chromosome (Xp) in preimplantation mouse embryos (imprinted XCI). Ftx has been proposed as a positive regulator of Xist. However, the physiological role of Ftx in female animals has never been studied. We recently reported that Ftx is located in the cis-acting regulatory region of the imprinted XCI and expressed from the inactive Xp, suggesting a role in the imprinted XCI mechanism. Here we examined the effects on imprinted XCI using targeted deletion of Ftx. Disruption of Ftx did not affect the survival of female embryos or expression of Xist and other X-linked genes in the preimplantation female embryos. Our results indicate that Ftx is dispensable for imprinted XCI in preimplantation embryos. PMID:24899465

  11. Ftx is dispensable for imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Soma, Miki; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Okabe, Masaru; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kobayashi, Shin

    2014-06-05

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) equalizes gene expression between the sexes by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes in female mammals. Xist has been considered as a major cis-acting factor that inactivates the paternally derived X chromosome (Xp) in preimplantation mouse embryos (imprinted XCI). Ftx has been proposed as a positive regulator of Xist. However, the physiological role of Ftx in female animals has never been studied. We recently reported that Ftx is located in the cis-acting regulatory region of the imprinted XCI and expressed from the inactive Xp, suggesting a role in the imprinted XCI mechanism. Here we examined the effects on imprinted XCI using targeted deletion of Ftx. Disruption of Ftx did not affect the survival of female embryos or expression of Xist and other X-linked genes in the preimplantation female embryos. Our results indicate that Ftx is dispensable for imprinted XCI in preimplantation embryos.

  12. Transcriptome analyses of rhesus monkey preimplantation embryos reveal a reduced capacity for DNA double-strand break repair in primate oocytes and early embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinyi; Liu, Denghui; He, Dajian; Suo, Shengbao; Xia, Xian; He, Xiechao; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Zheng, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Preimplantation embryogenesis encompasses several critical events including genome reprogramming, zygotic genome activation (ZGA), and cell-fate commitment. The molecular basis of these processes remains obscure in primates in which there is a high rate of embryo wastage. Thus, understanding the factors involved in genome reprogramming and ZGA might help reproductive success during this susceptible period of early development and generate induced pluripotent stem cells with greater efficiency. Moreover, explaining the molecular basis responsible for embryo wastage in primates will greatly expand our knowledge of species evolution. By using RNA-seq in single and pooled oocytes and embryos, we defined the transcriptome throughout preimplantation development in rhesus monkey. In comparison to archival human and mouse data, we found that the transcriptome dynamics of monkey oocytes and embryos were very similar to those of human but very different from those of mouse. We identified several classes of maternal and zygotic genes, whose expression peaks were highly correlated with the time frames of genome reprogramming, ZGA, and cell-fate commitment, respectively. Importantly, comparison of the ZGA-related network modules among the three species revealed less robust surveillance of genomic instability in primate oocytes and embryos than in rodents, particularly in the pathways of DNA damage signaling and homology-directed DNA double-strand break repair. This study highlights the utility of monkey models to better understand the molecular basis for genome reprogramming, ZGA, and genomic stability surveillance in human early embryogenesis and may provide insights for improved homologous recombination-mediated gene editing in monkey. PMID:28223401

  13. Human endometrial cell coculture reduces the endocrine disruptor toxicity on mouse embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds Previous studies suggested that endocrine disruptors (ED) are toxic on preimplantation embryos and inhibit development of embryos in vitro culture. However, information about the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on preimplantation development of embryo in human reproductive environment is lacking. Methods Bisphenol A (BPA) and Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls) were used as endocrine disruptors in this study. Mouse 2-cell embryos were cultured in medium alone or vehicle or co-cultured with human endometrial epithelial layers in increasing ED concentrations. Results At 72 hours the percentage of normal blastocyst were decreased by ED in a dose-dependent manner while the co-culture system significantly enhanced the rate and reduced the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on the embryonic development in vitro. Conclusions In conclusion, although EDs have the toxic effect on embryo development, the co-culture with human endometrial cell reduced the preimplantation embryo from it thereby making human reproductive environment protective to preimplantation embryo from the toxicity of endocrine disruptors. PMID:22546201

  14. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cellmore » embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.« less

  15. Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations.

    PubMed

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Chéraud, Yvonnick; Sharpe, Paul; Fontaine-Pérus, Josiane

    2003-05-27

    Teeth were lost in birds 70-80 million years ago. Current thinking holds that it is the avian cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme that has lost odontogenic capacity, whereas the oral epithelium retains the signaling properties required to induce odontogenesis. To investigate the odontogenic capacity of ectomesenchyme, we have used neural tube transplantations from mice to chick embryos to replace the chick neural crest cell populations with mouse neural crest cells. The mouse/chick chimeras obtained show evidence of tooth formation showing that avian oral epithelium is able to induce a nonavian developmental program in mouse neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells.

  16. Axial elongation in mouse embryos involves mediolateral cell intercalation behavior in the paraxial mesoderm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, WeiWei; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sutherland, Ann E.

    2006-02-01

    The cell mechanical and signaling pathways involved in gastrulation have been studied extensively in invertebrates and amphibians, such as Xenopus, and more recently in non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chick. However, because culturing mouse embryos extra-utero is very difficult, this fundamental process has been least characterized in the mouse. As the primary mammalian model for genetics, biochemistry, and the study of human disease and birth defects, it is important to investigate how gastrulation proceeds in murine embryos. We have developed a method of using 4D multiphoton excitation microscopy and extra-utero culture to visualize and characterize the morphogenetic movements in mouse embryos dissected at 8.5 days of gestation. Cells are labeled by expression of an X chromosome-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. This method has provided a unique approach, where, for the first time, patterns of cell behavior in the notochord and surrounding paraxial mesoderm can be visualized and traced quantitatively. Our observations of mouse embryos reveal both distinct differences as well as striking similarities in patterned cell motility relative to other vertebrate models such as Xenopus, where axial extension is driven primarily by mediolateral oriented cell behaviors in the notochord and paraxial somitic mesoderm. Unlike Xenopus, the width of the mouse notochord remains the same between 4-somite stage and 8-somite stage embryos. This implies the mouse notochord plays a lesser role in driving axial extension compared to Xenopus, although intercalation may occur where the anterior region of the node becomes notochordal plate. In contrast, the width of mouse paraxial mesoderm narrows significantly during this period and cells within the paraxial mesoderm are both elongated and aligned perpendicular to the midline. In addition, these cells are observed to intercalate, consistent with a role for paraxial mesoderm in driving convergence

  17. Intra-spindle Microtubule Assembly Regulates Clustering of Microtubule-Organizing Centers during Early Mouse Development.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Sadanori; Shioi, Go; Furuta, Yasuhide; Goshima, Gohta

    2016-04-05

    Errors during cell division in oocytes and early embryos are linked to birth defects in mammals. Bipolar spindle assembly in early mouse embryos is unique in that three or more acentriolar microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) are initially formed and are then clustered into two spindle poles. Using a knockout mouse and live imaging of spindles in embryos, we demonstrate that MTOC clustering during the blastocyst stage requires augmin, a critical complex for MT-dependent MT nucleation within the spindle. Functional analyses in cultured cells with artificially increased numbers of centrosomes indicate that the lack of intra-spindle MT nucleation, but not loss of augmin per se or overall reduction of spindle MTs, is the cause of clustering failure. These data suggest that onset of mitosis with three or more MTOCs is turned into a typical bipolar division through augmin-dependent intra-spindle MT assembly. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Palate morphogenesis in mouse embryos after x-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Callas, Gerald; Walker, Bruce E.

    1963-01-01

    The development of cleft palate was investigated by irradiating pregnant female C57BL and A/Jax mice on the 11 1/3 day of gestation with 300-r, whole-body doses and examining the fetuses at subsequent intervals. When palate stage was compared with chronological age, morphological rating, or embryonic weight, it was obvious that intermediate stages of palate closure persisted in x-irradiated embryos long after such stages had been passed in normal embryos. Thus, movement of the palatine shelves from the sagittal to the horizontal plane was retarded by x irradiation. Measurements of head and palate did not show any consistent disproportionality of palatemore » growth in the xirradiated embryos except that which resulted from retardation of shelf movement. X irradiation affected A/Jax strain litters more severely than C57BL strain litters according to cleft palate frequency and average palate stage at 18 1/3 days postconception. Cleft palate was seen in 73.1% of strain C57BL fetuses and in 99.5% of A/Jax fetuses. A variety of malformations other than cleft palate were also observed in the offspring of treated mice. Morphologic analysis of cleft palate development after xray treatment gave essentially the same results as comparable analyses of cleft palates produced by cortisone, hypervitaminosis A, and riboflavin deficiency. (TCO)« less

  19. Dynamic changes in leptin distribution in the progression from ovum to blastocyst of the pre-implantation mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Laura C.; Roberts, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The hormone leptin, which is primarily produced by adipose tissue, is a critical permissive factor for multiple reproductive events in the mouse, including implantation. In the CD1 strain, maternally-derived leptin from the oocyte becomes differentially distributed among blastomeres of pre-implantation embryos to create a polarized pattern, a feature consistent with a model of development in which blastomeres are biased towards a particular fate as early as the 2-cell stage. Here, we have confirmed that embryonic leptin is of maternal origin and re-examined leptin distribution in two distinct strains in which embryos were derived after either normal ovulation or superovulation. A polarized pattern of leptin distribution was found in the majority of both CD1 and CF1 embryos (79.1 % and 76.9 %, respectively) collected following superovulation, but was reduced, particularly in CF1 embryos (29.8 %; p < 0.0001), after natural ovulation. The difference in leptin asymmetries in the CF1 strain arose between ovulation and the first cleavage division, and was not affected by removal of the zona pellucida. Presence or absence of leptin polarization was not linked to differences in ability of embryos to develop normally to blastocyst. In the early blastocyst, leptin was confined subcortically to trophectoderm but upon blastocoel expansion it was lost from cells. Throughout development leptin co-localized with LRP2, a multi-ligand transport protein, and its patterning resembled that noted for the maternal-effect proteins OOEP, NLRP5, and PADI6, suggesting that it is a component of the subcortical maternal complex with as yet unknown significance in pre-implantation development. PMID:21444625

  20. [Specification of cell destiny in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo].

    PubMed

    Schierenberg, E

    1997-02-01

    Embryogenesis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been described completely on a cell-by-cell basis and found to be essentially invariant. With this knowledge in hands, micromanipulated embryos and mutants have been analyzed for cell lineage defects and the distribution of specific gene products. The results challenge the classical view of cell-autonomous development in nematodes and indicate that the early embryo of C. elegans is a highly dynamic system. A network of inductive events between neighboring cells is being revealed, which is necessary to assign different developmental programs to blastomeres. In those cases where molecules involved in these cell-cell interactions have been identified, homologies to cell surface receptors, ligands and transcription factors found in other systems have become obvious.

  1. Melatonin protect the development of preimplantation mouse embryos from sodium fluoride-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiamin; Fu, Beibei; Peng, Wei; Mao, Tingchao; Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Recently study shows that melatonin can protect embryos from the culture environment oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of melatonin on the mouse development of preimplantation embryos under sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative stress is still unclear. Here, we showed that exposure to NaF significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, decreased the blastocyst formation rates, and increased the fragmentation, apoptosis and retardation of blastocysts in the development of mouse preimplantation embryos. However, the protective of melatonin remarkable increased the of blastocyst formation rates, maintained mitochondrial function and total antioxidant capacity by clearing ROS. Importantly the data showed that melatonin improved the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, including glutathione(GSH), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA), and increased the expression levels of antioxidative genes. Taken together, our results indicate that melatonin prevent NaF-induced oxidative damage to mouse preimplantation embryo through down regulation of ROS level, stabilization of mitochondrial function and modulation of the activity of antioxidases and antioxidant genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative analyses of cell behaviors underlying notochord formation and extension in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Sausedo, R A; Schoenwolf, G C

    1994-05-01

    Formation and extension of the notochord (i.e., notogenesis) is one of the earliest and most obvious events of axis development in vertebrate embryos. In birds and mammals, prospective notochord cells arise from Hensen's node and come to lie beneath the midline of the neural plate. Throughout the period of neurulation, the notochord retains its close spatial relationship with the developing neural tube and undergoes rapid extension in concert with the overlying neuroepithelium. In the present study, we examined notochord development quantitatively in mouse embryos. C57BL/6 mouse embryos were collected at 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, and 10 days of gestation. They were then embedded in paraffin and sectioned transversely. Serial sections from 21 embryos were stained with Schiff's reagent according to the Feulgen-Rossenbeck procedure and used for quantitative analyses of notochord extension. Quantitative analyses revealed that extension of the notochord involves cell division within the notochord proper and cell rearrangement within the notochordal plate (the immediate precursor of the notochord). In addition, extension of the notochord involves cell accretion, that is, the addition of cells to the notochord's caudal end, a process that involves considerable cell rearrangement at the notochordal plate-node interface. Extension of the mouse notochord occurs similarly to that described previously for birds (Sausedo and Schoenwolf, 1993 Anat. Rec. 237:58-70). That is, in both birds (i.e., quail and chick) and mouse embryos, notochord extension involves cell division, cell rearrangement, and cell accretion. Thus higher vertebrates utilize similar morphogenetic movements to effect notogenesis.

  3. Evaluation of RNA quality in fixed and unembedded mouse embryos by different methods.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yuan; Zhou, Hong; Li, Wenyan; Hu, Lichao; Zhang, Yiting

    2013-10-01

    Many miRNAs are highly expressed in spatiotemporal and precise tissue-specific patterns in development. Thus it is necessary to examine their expression pattern in mouse embryos. However, embryos from one pregnant mouse are more than enough for expression analysis such as RT-qPCR, which results in reluctant disposal of remaining embryos. Due to the limitation of short sampling time, it is vitally important to quickly preserve samples to ensure the RNA quality. Thus, it is necessary to develop appropriate methods to fix samples in advance. In this study, two fixatives [methanol/DMSO (4:1) and paraformaldehyde] were applied for embryo (12.5 dpc) fixation and two preservatives (methanol and 30% sucrose) were used for fixed embryo preservation. After storage for one month, the skin, skeletal muscle and brain tissues were dissected from the fixed and unembedded embryos. Total RNAs were extracted by TRIzol® reagent and measured by a spectrophotometer, then were subjected to amplify Actb, Hprt, Gapdh, Rnu6, Snord68 and miR-206-3p by RT-qPCR. Embryos fixed in methanol/DMSO and preserved in 100% methanol at -20°C were able to yield at least 349 bp amplifiable RNA. Although paraformaldehyde fixation and 30% sucrose preservation method only yielded amplicons less than 156 bp, it showed a remarkable ability in preserving small RNAs. Snord68 was expressed stably across skin, skeletal muscle and brain tissues like Rnu6, making its possibility as an internal control for qPCR data normalization. Using Snord68 and/or Rnu6 as internal control, we found that the miR-206-3p expression level in skin was about one quarter of its highest level in the skeletal muscle. Therefore, the techniques in this study would be useful for us to reasonably utilize and preserve precious samples. © 2013.

  4. The relevance and use of mouse embryo bioassays for quality control in an assisted reproductive technology program.

    PubMed

    Scott, L F; Sundaram, S G; Smith, S

    1993-09-01

    To define both the limits of a mouse embryo bioassay for quality control in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) program and the areas where it can be effectively used. Embryos at the pronuclear and two-cell stage from three different strains of mice were used to assess the effectiveness of this assay for media quality control using five different media routinely used in ART. Pronuclear and two-cell embryos from CD-1 mice were used to test the ability of a mouse embryo bioassay to control for water quality, contaminants in the culture system, and fluctuations in the environmental conditions using a medium, culture system, and scoring technique that were optimized for this strain. The mouse embryo bioassay is not effective in differentiating media appropriate for supporting human embryo development since the development of mouse embryos in vitro is strain, stage, and media related. However, CD-1 embryos were shown to be sensitive to variations in water quality, pH, temperature, incubator conditions, and contaminants in the system when grown in a protein-free medium optimized for their development. Both total blastocyst number and the cell count in the blastocysts were affected. Pronuclear embryos were more sensitive to perturbations in the culture system than two-cell embryos. A mouse embryo bioassay can be effectively used as a means of quality control of water, chemicals, and contact materials and for technique standardization and training in an assisted reproduction program. All the conditions of the test should be defined, pronuclear embryos should be used, and the end point should be fully expanded blastocysts and/or cell numbers in these blastocysts where appropriate.

  5. Rapid and simple method for in vivo ex utero development of mouse embryo explants.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, André B; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig; Deries, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The in utero development of mammals drastically reduces the accessibility of the mammalian embryo and therefore limits the range of experimental manipulation that can be done to study functions of genes or signaling pathways during embryo development. Over the past decades, tissue and organ-like culture methods have been developed with the intention of reproducing in vivo situations. Developing accessible and simple techniques to study and manipulate embryos is an everlasting challenge. Herein, we describe a reliable and quick technique to culture mid-gestation explanted mouse embryos on top of a floating membrane filter in a defined medium. Viability of the cultured tissues was assessed by apoptosis and proliferation analysis showing that cell proliferation is normal and there is only a slight increase in apoptosis after 12h of culture compared to embryos developing in utero. Moreover, differentiation and morphogenesis proceed normally as assessed by 3D imaging of the transformation of the myotome into deep back muscles. Not only does muscle cell differentiation occur as expected, but so do extracellular matrix organization and the characteristic splitting of the myotome into the three epaxial muscle groups. Our culture method allows for the culture and manipulation of mammalian embryo explants in a very efficient way, and it permits the manipulation of in vivo developmental events in a controlled environment. Explants grown under these ex utero conditions simulate real developmental events that occur in utero. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heterogeneity in Oct4 and Sox2 Targets Biases Cell Fate in 4-Cell Mouse Embryos.

    PubMed

    Goolam, Mubeen; Scialdone, Antonio; Graham, Sarah J L; Macaulay, Iain C; Jedrusik, Agnieszka; Hupalowska, Anna; Voet, Thierry; Marioni, John C; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2016-03-24

    The major and essential objective of pre-implantation development is to establish embryonic and extra-embryonic cell fates. To address when and how this fundamental process is initiated in mammals, we characterize transcriptomes of all individual cells throughout mouse pre-implantation development. This identifies targets of master pluripotency regulators Oct4 and Sox2 as being highly heterogeneously expressed between blastomeres of the 4-cell embryo, with Sox21 showing one of the most heterogeneous expression profiles. Live-cell tracking demonstrates that cells with decreased Sox21 yield more extra-embryonic than pluripotent progeny. Consistently, decreasing Sox21 results in premature upregulation of the differentiation regulator Cdx2, suggesting that Sox21 helps safeguard pluripotency. Furthermore, Sox21 is elevated following increased expression of the histone H3R26-methylase CARM1 and is lowered following CARM1 inhibition, indicating the importance of epigenetic regulation. Therefore, our results indicate that heterogeneous gene expression, as early as the 4-cell stage, initiates cell-fate decisions by modulating the balance of pluripotency and differentiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel multistep mechanism for initial lymphangiogenesis in mouse embryos based on ultramicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hägerling, René; Pollmann, Cathrin; Andreas, Martin; Schmidt, Christian; Nurmi, Harri; Adams, Ralf H; Alitalo, Kari; Andresen, Volker; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Kiefer, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    During mammalian development, a subpopulation of endothelial cells in the cardinal vein (CV) expresses lymphatic-specific genes and subsequently develops into the first lymphatic structures, collectively termed as lymph sacs. Budding, sprouting and ballooning of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) have been proposed to underlie the emergence of LECs from the CV, but the exact mechanisms of lymph vessel formation remain poorly understood. Applying selective plane illumination-based ultramicroscopy to entire wholemount-immunostained mouse embryos, we visualized the complete developing vascular system with cellular resolution. Here, we report emergence of the earliest detectable LECs as strings of loosely connected cells between the CV and superficial venous plexus. Subsequent aggregation of LECs resulted in formation of two distinct, previously unidentified lymphatic structures, the dorsal peripheral longitudinal lymphatic vessel (PLLV) and the ventral primordial thoracic duct (pTD), which at later stages formed a direct contact with the CV. Providing new insights into their function, we found vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and the matrix component CCBE1 indispensable for LEC budding and migration. Altogether, we present a significantly more detailed view and novel model of early lymphatic development. PMID:23299940

  8. Clonal and molecular analysis of the prospective anterior neural boundary in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Cajal, Marieke; Lawson, Kirstie A.; Hill, Bill; Moreau, Anne; Rao, Jianguo; Ross, Allyson; Collignon, Jérôme; Camus, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In the mouse embryo the anterior ectoderm undergoes extensive growth and morphogenesis to form the forebrain and cephalic non-neural ectoderm. We traced descendants of single ectoderm cells to study cell fate choice and cell behaviour at late gastrulation. In addition, we provide a comprehensive spatiotemporal atlas of anterior gene expression at stages crucial for anterior ectoderm regionalisation and neural plate formation. Our results show that, at late gastrulation stage, expression patterns of anterior ectoderm genes overlap significantly and correlate with areas of distinct prospective fates but do not define lineages. The fate map delineates a rostral limit to forebrain contribution. However, no early subdivision of the presumptive forebrain territory can be detected. Lineage analysis at single-cell resolution revealed that precursors of the anterior neural ridge (ANR), a signalling centre involved in forebrain development and patterning, are clonally related to neural ectoderm. The prospective ANR and the forebrain neuroectoderm arise from cells scattered within the same broad area of anterior ectoderm. This study establishes that although the segregation between non-neural and neural precursors in the anterior midline ectoderm is not complete at late gastrulation stage, this tissue already harbours elements of regionalisation that prefigure the later organisation of the head. PMID:22186731

  9. ATRX contributes to epigenetic asymmetry and silencing of major satellite transcripts in the maternal genome of the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    De La Fuente, Rabindranath; Baumann, Claudia; Viveiros, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    A striking proportion of human cleavage-stage embryos exhibit chromosome instability (CIN). Notably, until now, no experimental model has been described to determine the origin and mechanisms of complex chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we examined mouse embryos deficient for the chromatin remodeling protein ATRX to determine the cellular mechanisms activated in response to CIN. We demonstrate that ATRX is required for silencing of major satellite transcripts in the maternal genome, where it confers epigenetic asymmetry to pericentric heterochromatin during the transition to the first mitosis. This stage is also characterized by a striking kinetochore size asymmetry established by differences in CENP-C protein between the parental genomes. Loss of ATRX results in increased centromeric mitotic recombination, a high frequency of sister chromatid exchanges and double strand DNA breaks, indicating the formation of mitotic recombination break points. ATRX-deficient embryos exhibit a twofold increase in transcripts for aurora kinase B, the centromeric cohesin ESCO2, DNMT1, the ubiquitin-ligase (DZIP3) and the histone methyl transferase (EHMT1). Thus, loss of ATRX activates a pathway that integrates epigenetic modifications and DNA repair in response to chromosome breaks. These results reveal the cellular response of the cleavage-stage embryo to CIN and uncover a mechanism by which centromeric fission induces the formation of large-scale chromosomal rearrangements. Our results have important implications to determine the epigenetic origins of CIN that lead to congenital birth defects and early pregnancy loss, as well as the mechanisms involved in the oocyte to embryo transition. PMID:25926359

  10. STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    BRINSTER, RALPH L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The interactions of a number of possible energy sources for in-vitro development of 2-cell mouse ova were examined using statistical experimental designs. These experiments indicated that glucose has no beneficial effect on development when employed with the optimum concentration of pyruvate. Optimum concentrations of pyruvate and oxaloacetate when employed together resulted in a significantly lower response than when either compound was employed alone. It was found that the best medium for the development of 2-cell mouse ova into blastocysts contained 2·5 to 5·0 × 10−4 M-pyruvate + 2·5 to 5·0 × 10−2 M-lactate. PMID:5836270

  11. Near-infrared laser irradiation improves the development of mouse pre-implantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Yokoo, Masaki; Mori, Miho

    2017-05-27

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of near-infrared laser irradiation on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. Female ICR mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and mated with male mice. Two-cell stage embryos were collected 40 h after administering hCG and cultured in M16 medium. Two-cell embryos (0 h after culture), 8-cell embryos (approx. 30 h after culture), morula (approx. 48 h after culture), and blastocysts (approx. 73 h after culture) were irradiated at 904 nm for 60 s. These embryos were cultured in a time-lapse monitoring system and the timing of blastocyst hatching was evaluated. Some of the irradiated blastocysts were transferred to the uterine horns of pseudopregnant recipients immediately after irradiation. Pregnancy rates, and offspring growth and fertility, were evaluated. Near-infrared laser irradiation increased the speed of in vitro mouse embryo development. In irradiated blastocysts, hatching was faster than in control (non-irradiated) blastocysts (18.4 vs. 28.2 h, P < 0.05). When 195 irradiated blastocysts were transferred to 18 pseudopregnant mice, all became pregnant and 92 (47.2%) normal-looking pups were born alive. When 182 control blastocysts were transferred to 17 pseudopregnant mice, 14 (82.4%) became pregnant and 54 (29.7%) normal-looking pups were born alive. The growth trajectories (up to 5 weeks) of offspring from irradiated blastocysts were similar to those from control blastocysts. Second generation offspring from transplanted animals were all fertile. These results indicate that near-infrared laser irradiation improves the quality of mouse embryo development in vitro, and increases the live birth rate without affecting the normality of the offspring. Thus, the near-infrared laser method may enhance the quality of embryos and contribute to improvements in reproductive technologies in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening.

    PubMed

    Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D E; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

    2013-05-01

    Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data.

  13. Facilitated glucose transporters play a crucial role throughout mouse preimplantation embryo development.

    PubMed

    Leppens-Luisier, G; Urner, F; Sakkas, D

    2001-06-01

    The role of glucose fluctuates during preimplantation mouse embryo development, indicating that a specific interplay exists between glucose metabolism and uptake. In this study, attempts were made to characterize the role of the Na(+)-coupled active and the facilitated glucose transporters (GLUT) during preimplantation development by using specific glucose analogues and transport inhibitors and by examining the expression of GLUT1. One-cell outbred mouse embryos were cultured in medium M16 (5.5 mmol/l glucose), M16 without glucose (M16-G), M16-G + 2-deoxyglucose, M16-G + 3-O-methylglucose, M16 + phlorizin and M16 + phloretin and development to the blastocyst stage assessed. The absence of glucose, or the presence of 3-O-methylglucose, which is taken up but not metabolized, did not inhibit blastocyst development. 2-Deoxyglucose, which is phosphorylated but not metabolized, inhibited blastocyst development. Culture in M16 supplemented with phlorizin, an inhibitor of Na(+)-coupled active glucose transport did not inhibit blastocyst formation. Phloretin had no effect on the cleavage of two-cell embryos to the four-cell stage, but inhibited the morula/blastocyst transition. Both phloretin and phlorizin inhibited glucose uptake in two-cell embryos. Finally, GLUT1 expression was 10-fold less in blastocysts cultured in M16 compared to in-vivo blastocysts and those cultured in M16-G. The results show that both types of glucose transporters influence preimplantation embryo development and that the embryo has an innate ability to control the uptake of glucose by regulating the expression of GLUT1.

  14. Histone variant H3.3-mediated chromatin remodeling is essential for paternal genome activation in mouse preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingran; Banaszynski, Laura A; Geng, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Heng; O'Neill, Claire L; Yan, Peidong; Liu, Zhonghua; Shido, Koji; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Allis, C David; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev; Wen, Duancheng

    2018-03-09

    Derepression of chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression of paternal and maternal genomes is considered the first major step that initiates zygotic gene expression after fertilization. The histone variant H3.3 is present in both male and female gametes and is thought to be important for remodeling the paternal and maternal genomes for activation during both fertilization and embryogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using our H3.3B-HA-tagged mouse model, engineered to report H3.3 expression in live animals and to distinguish different sources of H3.3 protein in embryos, we show here that sperm-derived H3.3 (sH3.3) protein is removed from the sperm genome shortly after fertilization and extruded from the zygotes via the second polar bodies (PBII) during embryogenesis. We also found that the maternal H3.3 (mH3.3) protein is incorporated into the paternal genome as early as 2 h postfertilization and is detectable in the paternal genome until the morula stage. Knockdown of maternal H3.3 resulted in compromised embryonic development both of fertilized embryos and of androgenetic haploid embryos. Furthermore, we report that mH3.3 depletion in oocytes impairs both activation of the Oct4 pluripotency marker gene and global de novo transcription from the paternal genome important for early embryonic development. Our results suggest that H3.3-mediated paternal chromatin remodeling is essential for the development of preimplantation embryos and the activation of the paternal genome during embryogenesis. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Expression and localization of components of the histone deacetylases multiprotein repressory complexes in the mouse preimplantation embryo.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Boris; Makedonski, Kirill; Shemer, Ruth; Razin, Aharon

    2003-12-01

    DNA methylation had been implicated in the assembly of multiprotein repressory complexes that affect chromatin architecture thereby rendering genes inactive. Proteins containing methyl binding domains (MBDs) are major components of these complexes. MBD3 is a component of the HDAC associated chromatin remodeling complex Mi2/NuRD. The addition of MBD2 to the Mi2/NuRD complex creates MeCP1, a complex that is known to inactivate methylated promoters. The undermethylated state of the mouse preimplantation embryo prompted us to investigate the known repressory complexes at this developmental stage. We found individual components of Mi2/NuRD: MBD3, Mi2, HDAC1 and HDAC2 to be expressed from a very early stage of embryo development and to localize in close proximity with each other and with constitutive heterochromatin by the blastula stage. Expression of MBD2, a component of MeCP1, starts in the blastula stage. Then it is also found to be in proximity with heterochromatin (based on DAPI staining) and with MBD3, Mi2 and HDAC1. In contrast, expression of MeCP2, an MBD containing component of a third repressory complex (MeCP2/Sin3A), is not seen in the preimplantation embryo. Our results suggest that both Mi2/NuRD and MeCP1 complexes are already present at the very early stages of embryo development, while a MeCP2 complex is added to the arsenal of repressory complexes post-implantation at a stage when DNA methylation takes place.

  16. Archiving and Distributing Mouse Lines by Sperm Cryopreservation, IVF, and Embryo Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hideko; Liu, Chengyu

    2012-01-01

    The number of genetically modified mouse lines has been increasing exponentially in the past few decades. In order to safeguard them from accidental loss and genetic drifting, to reduce animal housing cost, and to efficiently distribute them around the world, it is important to cryopreserve these valuable genetic resources. Preimplantation-stage embryos from thousands of mouse lines have been cryopreserved during the past two to three decades. Although reliable, this method requires several hundreds of embryos, which demands a sizable breeding colony, to safely preserve each line. This requirement imposes significant delay and financial burden for the archiving effort. Sperm cryopreservation is now emerging as the leading method for storing and distributing mouse lines, largely due to the recent finding that addition of a reducing agent, monothioglycerol, into the cryoprotectant can significantly increase the in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate in many mouse strains, including the most widely used C57BL/6 strain. This method is quick, inexpensive, and requires only two breeding age male mice, but it still remains tricky and strain-dependent. A small change in experimental conditions can lead to significant variations in the outcome. In this chapter, we describe in detail our sperm cryopreservation, IVF, and oviduct transfer procedures for storing and reviving genetically modified mouse lines. PMID:20691860

  17. Microdrop preparation factors influence culture-media osmolality, which can impair mouse embryo preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Swain, J E; Cabrera, L; Xu, X; Smith, G D

    2012-02-01

    Because media osmolality can impact embryo development, the effect of conditions during microdrop preparation on osmolality was examined. Various sizes of microdrops were prepared under different laboratory conditions. Drops were pipetted directly onto a dish and covered by oil (standard method) or pipetted on the dish, overlaid with oil before removing the underlying media and replaced with fresh media (wash-drop method). Drops were made at 23°C or on a heated stage (37°C) and with or without airflow. Osmolality was assessed at 5 min and 24h. The biological impact of osmolality change was demonstrated by culturing 1-cell mouse embryos in media with varying osmolality. Reduced drop volume, increased temperature and standard method were associated with a significant increase in osmolality at both 5 min and 24h (P-values <0.001, <0.0001 and <0.0001, respectively). There was a significant interaction between airflow, decreased volume, increased temperature and standard method that caused a significant increase in osmolality (40mOsm/kg) compared with controls (P<0.04). There was no significant change in osmolality over time. Mouse embryo development was significantly reduced in media with elevated osmolality (>310mOsm/kg; P<0.05). Procedures in the IVF laboratory can alter osmolality and impact embryo development. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Restraint stress delays endometrial adaptive remodeling during mouse embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanhui; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2015-01-01

    In mice, previously, we showed that restraint stress reduces the number of embryo implantation sites in the endometrium. Here, we hypothesized that the uterine microenvironment is altered by restraint stress and consequently is suboptimal for embryo implantation. On embryonic day 1 (E1), 60 of 154 pregnant CD1 mice underwent restraint stress (4 h), repeated daily to E3, E5 or E7 (n = 10 mice per group). Restraint stress decreased food intake and suppressed body weight gain on E3, E5 and E7. Restraint stress decreased the actual and relative weight (percent body weight) of uterus and ovary on E5 (by 14.9%, p = 0.03; 16.1%, p = 0.004) and E7 (by 16.8%, p = 0.03; 20.0%, p = 0.01). Morphologically, restraint stress decreased relative endometrial area (by 8.94-18.8%, p = 0.003-0.021) and uterine gland area (by 30.6%, p < 0.01 on E3 and 44.5%, p < 0.01 on E5). Immunohistochemistry showed that restraint stress decreased microvessel density (by 12.9-70.5%, p < 0.01) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (by 14.6-45.9%, p = 0.007-0.02). Restraint stress decreased by 32.4-39.8% (p = 0.002-0.01) the mean optical density ratio for proliferating cell nuclear antigen/terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay showed a dose-dependent decrease in proliferative activity of endometrial stromal cells (from 52 of 154 pregnant E5 control mice) incubated with H2O2 (100-1000 μM) in vitro. These findings supported the hypothesis that restraint stress negatively influences endometrial adaptive remodeling via an oxidative stress pathway, which resulted in fewer implantation sites.

  19. Non-destructive monitoring of mouse embryo development and its qualitative evaluation at the molecular level using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Mika; Hashimoto, Kosuke; Sato, Hidetoshi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-03-01

    Current research focuses on embryonic development and quality not only by considering fundamental biology, but also by aiming to improve assisted reproduction technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. In this study, we explored the development of mouse embryo and its quality based on molecular information, obtained nondestructively using Raman spectroscopy. The detailed analysis of Raman spectra measured in situ during embryonic development revealed a temporary increase in protein content after fertilization. Proteins with a β-sheet structure—present in the early stages of embryonic development—are derived from maternal oocytes, while α-helical proteins are additionally generated by switching on a gene after fertilization. The transition from maternal to embryonic control during development can be non-destructively profiled, thus facilitating the in situ assessment of structural changes and component variation in proteins generated by metabolic activity. Furthermore, it was indicated that embryos with low-grade morphology had high concentrations of lipids and hydroxyapatite. This technique could be used for embryo quality testing in the future.

  20. Efficient harvesting methods for early-stage snake and turtle embryos.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Reptile development is an intriguing research target for understating the unique morphogenesis of reptiles as well as the evolution of vertebrates. However, there are numerous difficulties associated with studying development in reptiles. The number of available reptile eggs is usually quite limited. In addition, the reptile embryo is tightly adhered to the eggshell, making it a challenge to isolate reptile embryos intact. Furthermore, there have been few reports describing efficient procedures for isolating intact embryos especially prior to pharyngula stage. Thus, the aim of this review is to present efficient procedures for obtaining early-stage reptilian embryos intact. We first describe the method for isolating early-stage embryos of the Japanese striped snake. This is the first detailed method for obtaining embryos prior to oviposition in oviparous snake species. Second, we describe an efficient strategy for isolating early-stage embryos of the soft-shelled turtle. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  1. ART culture conditions change the probability of mouse embryo gestation through defined cellular and molecular responses.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Caroline; Esteves, Telma Cristina; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Le Gac, Séverine; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele

    2012-09-01

    Do different human ART culture protocols prepare embryos differently for post-implantation development? The type of ART culture protocol results in distinct cellular and molecular phenotypes in vitro at the blastocyst stage as well as subsequently during in vivo development. It has been reported that ART culture medium affects human development as measured by gestation rates and birthweights. However, due to individual variation across ART patients, it is not possible as yet to pinpoint a cause-effect relationship between choice of culture medium and developmental outcome. In a prospective study, 13 human ART culture protocols were compared two at a time against in vivo and in vitro controls. Superovulated mouse oocytes were fertilized in vivo using outbred and inbred mating schemes. Zygotes were cultured in medium or in the oviduct and scored for developmental parameters 96 h later. Blastocysts were either analyzed or transferred into fosters to measure implantation rates and fetal development. In total, 5735 fertilized mouse oocytes, 1732 blastocysts, 605 fetuses and 178 newborns were examined during the course of the study (December 2010-December 2011). Mice of the B6C3F1, C57Bl/6 and CD1 strains were used as oocyte donors, sperm donors and recipients for embryo transfer, respectively. In vivo fertilized B6C3F1 oocytes were allowed to cleave in 13 human ART culture protocols compared with mouse oviduct and optimized mouse medium (KSOM(aa)). Cell lineage composition of resultant blastocysts was analyzed by immunostaining and confocal microscopy (trophectoderm, Cdx2; primitive ectoderm, Nanog; primitive endoderm, Sox17), global gene expression by microarray analysis, and rates of development to midgestation and to term. Mouse zygotes show profound variation in blastocyst (49.9-91.9%) and fetal (15.7-62.0%) development rates across the 13 ART culture protocols tested (R(2)= 0.337). Two opposite protocols, human tubal fluid/multiblast (high fetal rate) and ISM1/ISM2

  2. The effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Özeren, Ersin; Er, Uygur; Güvenç, Yahya; Demirci, Adnan; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Şenveli, Engin; Ergün, Rüçhan Behzat

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos. We looked at four groups with a total of 36 embryos. There was a control group, a normal saline group, a normal-dose group and a high-dose group with ten, ten, eight and eight eggs with embryo respectively. Two embryos in the control group, studied with light microscopy at 48 h, were consistent with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton System. They had open neural tubes. The other embryos in this group were considered normal. One embryo in the normal saline group was on the occlusion stage at 48 h. One embryo showed an open neural tube. They were compatible with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton system. The remaining eight embryos showed normal development. In the normal dose group, one embryo showed underdevelopment of the embryonic disc and the embryo was dead. In four embryos, the neural tubes were open. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly in one embryo. In two embryos the neural tubes were closed, as they showed normal development, and they reached their expected stages according to the Hamburger-Hamilton classification. There was no malformation or growth retardation. Four experimental embryos were anencephalic in the high dose group, and three embryos had open neural tubes. One embryo exhibited both anencephaly and a neural tube closure defect. None of the embryos in this group showed normal development. Even the usual therapeutic doses of flurbiprofen increased the risk of neural tube defect. Flurbiprofen was found to significantly increase the risk of anencephaly. The provision of improved technical materials and studies with larger sample sizes will reveal the stage of morphological disruption during the development of embryos.

  3. Embryos aggregation improves development and imprinting gene expression in mouse parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Guang-Yu; Song, Si-Hang; Wang, Zhen-Dong; Shan, Zhi-Yan; Sun, Rui-Zhen; Liu, Chun-Jia; Wu, Yan-Shuang; Li, Tong; Lei, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Mouse parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (PgESCs) could be applied to study imprinting genes and are used in cell therapy. Our previous study found that stem cells established by aggregation of two parthenogenetic embryos at 8-cell stage (named as a2 PgESCs) had a higher efficiency than that of PgESCs, and the paternal expressed imprinting genes were observably upregulated. Therefore, we propose that increasing the number of parthenogenetic embryos in aggregation may improve the development of parthenogenetic mouse and imprinting gene expression of PgESCs. To verify this hypothesis, we aggregated four embryos together at the 4-cell stage and cultured to the blastocyst stage (named as 4aPgB). qPCR detection showed that the expression of imprinting genes Igf2, Mest, Snrpn, Igf2r, H19, Gtl2 in 4aPgB were more similar to that of fertilized blastocyst (named as fB) compared to 2aPgB (derived from two 4-cell stage parthenogenetic embryos aggregation) or PgB (single parthenogenetic blastocyst). Post-implantation development of 4aPgB extended to 11 days of gestation. The establishment efficiency of GFP-a4 PgESCs which derived from GFP-4aPgB is 62.5%. Moreover, expression of imprinting genes Igf2, Mest, Snrpn, notably downregulated and approached the level of that in fertilized embryonic stem cells (fESCs). In addition, we acquired a 13.5-day fetus totally derived from GFP-a4 PgESCs with germline contribution by 8-cell under zona pellucida (ZP) injection. In conclusion, four embryos aggregation improves parthenogenetic development, and compensates imprinting genes expression in PgESCs. It implied that a4 PgESCs could serve as a better scientific model applied in translational medicine and imprinting gene study. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  4. Interspecies chimera between primate embryonic stem cells and mouse embryos: monkey ESCs engraft into mouse embryos, but not post-implantation fetuses.

    PubMed

    Simerly, Calvin; McFarland, Dave; Castro, Carlos; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Redinger, Carrie; Jacoby, Ethan; Mich-Basso, Jocelyn; Orwig, Kyle; Mills, Parker; Ahrens, Eric; Navara, Chris; Schatten, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Unequivocal evidence for pluripotency in which embryonic stem cells contribute to chimeric offspring has yet to be demonstrated in human or nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here, rhesus and baboons ESCs were investigated in interspecific mouse chimera generated by aggregation or blastocyst injection. Aggregation chimera produced mouse blastocysts with GFP-nhpESCs at the inner cell mass (ICM), and embryo transfers (ETs) generated dimly-fluorescencing abnormal fetuses. Direct injection of GFP-nhpESCs into blastocysts produced normal non-GFP-fluorescencing fetuses. Injected chimera showed >70% loss of GFP-nhpESCs after 21 h culture. Outgrowths of all chimeric blastocysts established distinct but separate mouse- and NHP-ESC colonies. Extensive endogenous autofluorescence compromised anti-GFP detection and PCR analysis did not detect nhpESCs in fetuses. NhpESCs localize to the ICM in chimera and generate pregnancies. Because primate ESCs do not engraft post-implantation, and also because endogenous autofluorescence results in misleading positive signals, interspecific chimera assays for pluripotency with primate stem cells is unreliable with the currently available ESCs. Testing primate ESCs reprogrammed into even more naïve states in these inter-specific chimera assays will be an important future endeavor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interspecies chimera between primate embryonic stem cells and mouse embryos: Monkey ESCs engraft into mouse embryos, but not post-implantation fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Simerly, Calvin; McFarland, Dave; Castro, Carlos; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Redinger, Carrie; Jacoby, Ethan; Mich-Basso, Jocelyn; Orwig, Kyle; Mills, Parker; Ahrens, Eric; Navara, Chris; Schatten, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Unequivocal evidence for pluripotency in which embryonic stem cells contribute to chimeric offspring has yet to be demonstrated in human or nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here, rhesus and baboons ESCs were investigated in interspecific mouse chimera generated by aggregation or blastocyst injection. Aggregation chimera produced mouse blastocysts with GFP-nhpESCs at the inner cell mass (ICM), and embryo transfers (ETs) generated dimly-fluorescencing abnormal fetuses. Direct injection of GFP-nhpESCs into blastocysts produced normal non-GFP-fluorescencing fetuses. Injected chimera showed >70% loss of GFP-nhpESCs after 21 h culture. Outgrowths of all chimeric blastocysts established distinct but separate mouse- and NHP-ESC colonies. Extensive endogenous autofluorescence compromised anti-GFP detection and PCR analysis did not detect nhpESCs in fetuses. NhpESCs localize to the ICM in chimera and generate pregnancies. Because primate ESCs do not engraft post-implantation, and also because endogenous autofluorescence results in misleading positive signals, interspecific chimera assays for pluripotency with primate stem cells is unreliable with the currently available ESCs. Testing primate ESCs reprogrammed into even more naïve states in these inter-specific chimera assays will be an important future endeavor. PMID:21543277

  6. The role of Mixer in patterning the early Xenopus embryo.

    PubMed

    Kofron, Matt; Wylie, Chris; Heasman, Janet

    2004-05-01

    The transcription factor VegT, is required in early Xenopus embryos for the formation of both the mesoderm and endoderm germ layers. Inherited as a maternal mRNA localized only in vegetal cells, VegT activates the transcription of a large number of transcription factors, as well as signaling ligands that induce cells in the vegetal mass to form endoderm, and the marginal zone to form mesoderm. It is important now to understand the extent to which transcription factors downstream of VegT play individual, or overlapping, roles in the specification and patterning of the endoderm and mesoderm. In addition, it is important to understand the mechanism that specifies the boundary between endoderm and mesoderm. One of the downstream targets of VegT, the homeodomain protein Mixer, is expressed at high levels at the mesoderm/endoderm boundary at the late blastula stage. We therefore examined its functions by blocking its translation using morpholino oligos. In Mixer-depleted embryos, the expression of many signaling ligands and transcription factors was affected. In particular, we found that the expression of several genes, including several normally expressed in mesoderm, was upregulated. Functional assays of Mixer-depleted vegetal cells showed that they have increased mesoderm-inducing activity. This demonstrates that Mixer plays an essential role in controlling the amount of mesoderm induction by the vegetal cells.

  7. Method of Electroporation for the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Shimamura, Kenji

    Chick embryos have long been one of the favored model systems in the field of embryology and developmental biology. Recent advances in the gene manipulation technologies (Muramatsu et al., 1997; Nakamura et al., 2004) make this model system even more attractive for the developmental biologists (see review by Stern, 2005). Thanks to its two dimensional geometry, easiness in accessibility and observation, and well-established fate maps (e.g. Couly and Le Douarin, 1988; Garcia-Martinez et al., 1993; Hatada and Stern, 1994; Psychoyos and Stern, 1996; Sawada and Aoyama, 1999; Cobos et al., 2001; Lopez-Sanchez et al., 2001; Redkar et al., 2001; Fernandez-Garre et al., 2002; Kimura et al., 2006; Matsushita et al., 2008), it has great advantages especially for studies at the early embryonic stages, such as the processes of gastrulation, neural induction, left-right patterning, etc. For such purposes, a whole embryo culture system, originally invented by Dennis A. T. New (New, 1955), and its derivatives (Flamme, 1987; Sundin and Eichele, 1992; Stern, 1993; Chapman et al., 2001) have been widely used.

  8. Elevated aminopeptidase N affects sperm motility and early embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Do-Yeal; Kwon, Woo-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) is a naturally occurring ectopeptidase present in mammalian semen. Previous studies have demonstrated that APN adversely affects male fertility through the alteration of sperm motility. This enzyme constitutes 0.5 to 1% of the seminal plasma proteins, which can be transferred from the prostasomes to sperms by a fusion process. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of action of APN and its role in regulating sperm functions and male fertility. In this in vitro study, epididymal mouse spermatozoa were incubated in a capacitating media (pH 7) containing 20 ng/mL of recombinant mouse APN for 90 min. Our results demonstrated that the supplementation of recombinant APN in sperm culture medium significantly increased APN activity, and subsequently altered motility, hyperactivated motility, rapid and medium swimming speeds, viability, and the acrosome reaction of mouse spermatozoa. These effects were potentially caused by increased toxicity in the spermatozoa. Further, altered APN activity in sperm culture medium affected early embryonic development. Interestingly, the effect of elevated APN activity in sperm culture medium was independent of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and protein kinase A activity. On the basis of these results, we concluded that APN plays a significant role in the regulation of several sperm functions and early embryonic development. In addition, increased APN activity could potentially lead to several adverse consequences related to male fertility. PMID:28859152

  9. rRNA Genes Are Not Fully Activated in Mouse Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Jia, Jia-Lin; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Hu, Li-Li; Wang, Zhen-Dong; Shen, Xing-Hui; Shan, Zhi-Yan; Shen, Jing-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Lei, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The well known and most important function of nucleoli is ribosome biogenesis. However, the nucleolus showed delayed development and malfunction in somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Previous studies indicated that nearly half rRNA genes (rDNA) in somatic cells were inactive and not transcribed. We compared the rDNA methylation level, active nucleolar organizer region (NORs) numbers, nucleolar proteins (upstream binding factor (UBF), nucleophosmin (B23)) distribution, and nucleolar-related gene expression in three different donor cells and NT embryos. The results showed embryonic stem cells (ESCs) had the most active NORs and lowest rDNA methylation level (7.66 and 6.76%), whereas mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were the opposite (4.70 and 22.57%). After the donor cells were injected into enucleated MII oocytes, cumulus cells and MEFs nuclei lost B23 and UBF signals in 20 min, whereas in ESC-NT embryos, B23 and UBF signals could still be detected at 60 min post-NT. The embryos derived from ESCs, cumulus cells, and MEFs showed the same trend in active NORs numbers (7.19 versus 6.68 versus 5.77, p < 0.05) and rDNA methylation levels (6.36 versus 9.67% versus 15.52%) at the 4-cell stage as that in donor cells. However, the MEF-NT embryos displayed low rRNA synthesis/processing potential at morula stage and had an obvious decrease in blastocyst developmental rate. The results presented clear evidences that the rDNA reprogramming efficiency in NT embryos was determined by the rDNA activity in donor cells from which they derived. PMID:22467869

  10. Evaluation of mouse embryos produced in vitro after electromagnetic waves exposure; Morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Rostamzadeh, Ayoob; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Ahmadi, Reza; Nazari, Afshin; Ghaderi, Omar; Anjomshoa, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Today, the use of electromagnetic waves in medical diagnostic devices, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has increased, and many of its biological effects have been reported. The aim of the present study was to assess the biological effects of 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on fertility and reproductive parameters. Eighty adult male and female NMRI mice (NMRI: Naval Medical Research Institute) of age 6-8 weeks were studied and randomly divided into two study and control groups. After confirmation of pregnancy, the mice in the study group were exposed to the MRI (1.5 T) machine's waves over the next three weeks, once a week for 36 minutes. One day and thirty-five days after the last radiation, the mice were killed in order to do the in vitro fertilization (IVF) by neck beads' displacement and the impact on the evolution of embryos, and its quality was studied. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and the significance level of less than 0.05 was considered. Embryo morphometry showed that the total diameter and the cytoplasm diameter of the study group embryos suffered significant reduction compared to the control group, 1 day after the last irradiation (p < 0.05), but the diameter of the perivitelline space of this group's embryos had a significant increase (p < 0.05). The qualitative results during 35 days after irradiation showed that morphologically parameters of the embryos in the study group had no significant differences from the control group. Exposure to MRI irradiation can transiently disturb the development of mouse embryos and fertility, but these effects are reversible 35 days after the last irradiation.

  11. Culture of preimplantation mouse embryos affects fetal development and the expression of imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Khosla, S; Dean, W; Brown, D; Reik, W; Feil, R

    2001-03-01

    Culture of preimplantation mammalian embryos and cells can influence their subsequent growth and differentiation. Previously, we reported that culture of mouse embryonic stem cells is associated with deregulation of genomic imprinting and affects the potential for these cells to develop into normal fetuses. The purpose of our current study was to determine whether culture of preimplantation mouse embryos in a chemically defined medium (M16) with or without fetal calf serum (FCS) can affect their subsequent development and imprinted gene expression. Only one third of the blastocysts that had been cultured from two-cell embryos in M16 medium complemented with FCS developed into viable Day 14 fetuses after transfer into recipients. These M16 + FCS fetuses were reduced in weight as compared with controls and M16 fetuses and had decreased expression of the imprinted H19 and insulin-like growth factor 2 genes associated with a gain of DNA methylation at an imprinting control region upstream of H19. They also displayed increased expression of the imprinted gene Grb10. The growth factor receptor binding gene Grb7, in contrast, was strongly reduced in its expression in most of the M16 + FCS fetuses. No alterations were detected for the imprinted gene MEST: Preimplantation culture in the presence of serum can influence the regulation of multiple growth-related imprinted genes, thus leading to aberrant fetal growth and development.

  12. Effects of Multimodal Analgesia on the Success of Mouse Embryo Transfer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parker, John M.; Austin, Jamie; Wilkerson, James; Carbone, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Multimodal analgesia is promoted as the best practice pain management for invasive animal research procedures. Universal acceptance and incorporation of multimodal analgesia requires assessing potential effects on study outcome. The focus of this study was to assess effects on embryo survival after multimodal analgesia comprising an opioid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) compared with opioid-only analgesia during embryo transfer procedures in transgenic mouse production. Mice were assigned to receive either carprofen (5 mg/kg) with buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg; CB) or vehicle with buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg; VB) in a prospective, double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. Data were analyzed in surgical sets of 1 to 3 female mice receiving embryos chimeric for a shared targeted embryonic stem-cell clone and host blastocyst cells. A total of 99 surgical sets were analyzed, comprising 199 Crl:CD1 female mice and their 996 offspring. Neither yield (pups weaned per embryo implanted in the surgical set) nor birth rate (average number of pups weaned per dam in the set) differed significantly between the CB and VB conditions. Multimodal opioid–NSAID analgesia appears to have no significant positive or negative effect on the success of producing novel lines of transgenic mice by blastocyst transfer. PMID:21838973

  13. Determination of the reactivity of cytotoxic immune cells with preimplantation mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Ewoldsen, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cytotoxic immune cells were used in an assay, MELIA (mixed embryo leukocyte interaction assay) to test the ability of the cells to kill blastocyst stage embryos. The cytotoxic immune cells generated for use in this study, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells were shown to have phenotypic and cytolytic characteristics similar to those reported by other investigators. The lysis of the blastocysts in the MELIA was determined by measuring the inhibition of blastocoel retention and/or by the inhibition of incorporation of tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) into embryonic DNA. Blastocysts which possess ormore » lack their zonae pellucidae were tested to determine whether the zona pellucida plays an immunoprotective role in preimplantation development. The results indicated that CTLs only lysed embryonic cells when the zona pellucida was absent, but NK and LAK cells lysed embryonic cells whether the zona pellucida was present or absent. The results suggest that the zona pellucida may protect the preimplantation mouse embryo from lysis by CTLs but what protects the embryo from lysis by NK and LAK cells is unclear.« less

  14. Vitrification of mouse embryo-derived ICM cells: a tool for preserving embryonic stem cell potential?

    PubMed

    Desai, Nina; Xu, Jing; Tsulaia, Tamara; Szeptycki-Lawson, Julia; AbdelHafez, Faten; Goldfarb, James; Falcone, Tommaso

    2011-02-01

    Vitrification technology presents new opportunities for preservation of embryo derived stem cells without first establishing a viable ESC line. This study tests the feasibility of cryopreserving ICM cells using vitrification. ICMs from mouse embryos were isolated and vitrified in HSV straws or on cryoloops. Upon warming, the vitrified ICMs were cultured and observed for attachment and morphology. Colonies were passaged every 3-6 days. ICMs and ICM-derived ESC colonies were tested for expression of stem cell specific markers. ICMs vitrified on both the cryoloop and the HSV straw had high survival rates. ICM derived ESCs remained undifferentiated for several passages and demonstrated expression of typical stem cell markers; SSEA-1, Sox-2, Oct 4 and alkaline phosphatase. This is the first report on successful vitrification of isolated ICMs and the subsequent derivation of ESC colonies. Vitrification of isolated ICMs is a novel approach for preservation of the "stem cell source" material.

  15. Stress Induces AMP-Dependent Loss of Potency Factors Id2 and Cdx2 in Early Embryos and Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yufen; Awonuga, Awoniyi; Liu, Jian; Rings, Edmond; Puscheck, Elizabeth Ella

    2013-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates rapid, stress-induced loss of the inhibitor of differentiation (Id)2 in blastocysts and trophoblast stem cells (TSC), and a lasting differentiation in TSC. However, it is not known if AMPK regulates other potency factors or regulates them before the blastocyst stage. The caudal-related homeodomain protein (Cdx)2 is a regulatory gene for determining TSC, the earliest placental lineage in the preimplantation mouse embryo, but is expressed in the oocyte and in early cleavage stage embryos before TSC arise. We assayed the expression of putative potency-maintaining phosphorylated Cdx2 ser60 in the oocyte, two-cell stage embryo, blastocyst, and in TSC. We studied the loss of Cdx2 phospho ser60 expression induced by hyperosmolar stress and its underlying mechanisms. Hyperosmolar stress caused rapid loss of nuclear Cdx2 phospho ser60 and Id2 in the two-cell stage embryo by 0.5 h. Stress-induced Cdx2 phospho ser60 and Id2 loss is reversed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C and is induced by the AMPK agonist 5-amino-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide in the absence of stress. In the two-cell stage embryo and TSC hyperosmolar, stress caused AMPK-mediated loss of Cdx2 phospho ser60 as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblot. We propose that AMPK may be the master regulatory enzyme for mediating stress-induced loss of potency as AMPK is also required for stress-induced loss of Id2 in blastocysts and TSC. Since AMPK mediates potency loss in embryos and stem cells it will be important to measure, test mechanisms for, and manage the AMPK function to optimize the stem cell and embryo quality in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23316940

  16. DNA methylation dynamics in mouse preimplantation embryos revealed by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Naoko; Suzuki, Toru; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Asami, Maki; Matsuda, Tomonari; Kojima, Nakao; Perry, Anthony C F; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2016-01-11

    Following fertilization in mammals, paternal genomic 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5 mC) content is thought to decrease via oxidation to 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5 hmC). This reciprocal model of demethylation and hydroxymethylation is inferred from indirect, non-quantitative methods. We here report direct quantification of genomic 5 mC and 5 hmC in mouse embryos by small scale liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (SMM). Profiles of absolute 5 mC levels in embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were almost identical. By 10 h after fertilization, 5 mC levels had declined by ~40%, consistent with active genomic DNA demethylation. Levels of 5 mC in androgenotes (containing only a paternal genome) and parthenogenotes (containing only a maternal genome) underwent active 5 mC loss in the first 6 h, showing that both parental genomes can undergo demethylation independently. We found no evidence for net loss of 5 mC 10-48 h after fertilization, implying that any passive 'demethylation' following DNA replication was balanced by active 5 mC maintenance methylation. However, levels of 5 mC declined during development after 48 h, to 1% (measured as a fraction of G-residues) in blastocysts (~96 h). 5 hmC levels were consistently low (<0.2% of G-residues) throughout development in normal diploid embryos. This work directly quantifies the dynamics of global genomic DNA modification in mouse preimplantation embryos, suggesting that SMM will be applicable to other biomedical situations with limiting sample sizes.

  17. Acentriolar mitosis activates a p53-dependent apoptosis pathway in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Hisham; Anderson, Kathryn V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes are the microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells that organize interphase microtubules and mitotic spindles. Centrioles are the microtubule-based structures that organize centrosomes, and a defined set of proteins, including spindle assembly defective-4 (SAS4) (CPAP/CENPJ), is required for centriole biogenesis. The biological functions of centrioles and centrosomes vary among animals, and the functions of mammalian centrosomes have not been genetically defined. Here we use a null mutation in mouse Sas4 to define the cellular and developmental functions of mammalian centrioles in vivo. Sas4-null embryos lack centrosomes but survive until midgestation. As expected, Sas4−/− mutants lack primary cilia and therefore cannot respond to Hedgehog signals, but other developmental signaling pathways are normal in the mutants. Unlike mutants that lack cilia, Sas4−/− embryos show widespread apoptosis associated with global elevated expression of p53. Cell death is rescued in Sas4−/− p53−/− double-mutant embryos, demonstrating that mammalian centrioles prevent activation of a p53-dependent apoptotic pathway. Expression of p53 is not activated by abnormalities in bipolar spindle organization, chromosome segregation, cell-cycle profile, or DNA damage response, which are normal in Sas4−/− mutants. Instead, live imaging shows that the duration of prometaphase is prolonged in the mutants while two acentriolar spindle poles are assembled. Independent experiments show that prolonging spindle assembly is sufficient to trigger p53-dependent apoptosis. We conclude that a short delay in the prometaphase caused by the absence of centrioles activates a previously undescribed p53-dependent cell death pathway in the rapidly dividing cells of the mouse embryo. PMID:24706806

  18. [Cryopreservation of mouse embryos in ethylene glycol-based solutions: a search for the optimal and simple protocols].

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming-Jiu; Liu, Na; Miao, De-Qiang; Lan, Guo-Cheng; Suo-Feng; Chang, Zhong-Le; Tan, Jing-He

    2005-09-01

    Although ethylene glycol (EG) has been widely used for embryo cryopreservation in domestic animals, few attempts were made to use this molecule to freeze mouse and human embryos. In the few studies that used EG for slow-freezing of mouse and human embryos, complicated protocols for human embryos were used, and the protocols need to be simplified. Besides, freezing mouse morula with EG as a cryoprotectant has not been reported. In this paper, we studied the effects of embryo stages, EG concentration, duration and procedure of equilibration, sucrose supplementation and EG removal after thawing on the development of thawed mouse embryos, using the simple freezing and thawing procedures for bovine embryos. The blastulation and hatching rates (81.92% +/- 2.24% and 68.56% +/- 2.43%, respectively) of the thawed late compact morulae were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of embryos frozen-thawed at other stages. When mouse late compact morulae were frozen with different concentrations of EG, the highest rates of blastocyst formation and hatching were obtained with 1.8mol/L EG. The blastulation rate was significantly higher when late morulae were equilibrated in 1.8 mol/L EG for 10 min prior to freezing than when they were equilibrated for 30 min, and the hatching rate of embryos exposed to EG for 10 min was significantly higher than that of embryos exposed for 20 and 30 min. Both rates of blastocyst formation and hatching obtained with two-step equilibration were higher (P < 0.05) than with one-step equilibration in 1.8 mol/L EG. Addition of sucrose to the EG-based solution had no beneficial effects. On the contrary, an increased sucrose level (0.4 mol/L) in the solution impaired the development of the frozen-thawed embryos. In contrast, addition of 0.1 mol/L sucrose to the propylene glycol (PG)-based solution significantly improved the development of the frozen-thawed embryos. Elimination of the cryoprotectant after thawing did not improve the development of the

  19. Nuclear reprogramming by interphase cytoplasm of two-cell mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunju; Wu, Guangming; Ma, Hong; Li, Ying; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Wolf, Don P; Schöler, Hans R; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-05-01

    Successful mammalian cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) into unfertilized, metaphase II (MII)-arrested oocytes attests to the cytoplasmic presence of reprogramming factors capable of inducing totipotency in somatic cell nuclei. However, these poorly defined maternal factors presumably decline sharply after fertilization, as the cytoplasm of pronuclear-stage zygotes is reportedly inactive. Recent evidence suggests that zygotic cytoplasm, if maintained at metaphase, can also support derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells after SCNT, albeit at low efficiency. This led to the conclusion that critical oocyte reprogramming factors present in the metaphase but not in the interphase cytoplasm are 'trapped' inside the nucleus during interphase and effectively removed during enucleation. Here we investigated the presence of reprogramming activity in the cytoplasm of interphase two-cell mouse embryos (I2C). First, the presence of candidate reprogramming factors was documented in both intact and enucleated metaphase and interphase zygotes and two-cell embryos. Consequently, enucleation did not provide a likely explanation for the inability of interphase cytoplasm to induce reprogramming. Second, when we carefully synchronized the cell cycle stage between the transplanted nucleus (ES cell, fetal fibroblast or terminally differentiated cumulus cell) and the recipient I2C cytoplasm, the reconstructed SCNT embryos developed into blastocysts and ES cells capable of contributing to traditional germline and tetraploid chimaeras. Last, direct transfer of cloned embryos, reconstructed with ES cell nuclei, into recipients resulted in live offspring. Thus, the cytoplasm of I2C supports efficient reprogramming, with cell cycle synchronization between the donor nucleus and recipient cytoplasm as the most critical parameter determining success. The ability to use interphase cytoplasm in SCNT could aid efforts to generate autologous human ES cells for regenerative

  20. Early Cambrian Pentamerous Cubozoan Embryos from South China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Kubota, Shin; Li, Guoxiang; Yao, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoguang; Shu, Degan; Li, Yong; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Sasaki, Osamu; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Yan, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Background Extant cubozoans are voracious predators characterized by their square shape, four evenly spaced outstretched tentacles and well-developed eyes. A few cubozoan fossils are known from the Middle Cambrian Marjum Formation of Utah and the well-known Carboniferous Mazon Creek Formation of Illinois. Undisputed cubozoan fossils were previously unknown from the early Cambrian; by that time probably all representatives of the living marine phyla, especially those of basal animals, should have evolved. Methods Microscopic fossils were recovered from a phosphatic limestone in the Lower Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation of South China using traditional acetic-acid maceration. Seven of the pre-hatched pentamerous cubozoan embryos, each of which bears five pairs of subumbrellar tentacle buds, were analyzed in detail through computed microtomography (Micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) without coating. Results The figured microscopic fossils are unequivocal pre-hatching embryos based on their spherical fertilization envelope and the enclosed soft-tissue that has preserved key anatomical features arranged in perfect pentaradial symmetry, allowing detailed comparison with modern cnidarians, especially medusozoans. A combination of features, such as the claustrum, gonad-lamella, suspensorium and velarium suspended by the frenula, occur exclusively in the gastrovascular system of extant cubozoans, indicating a cubozoan affinity for these fossils. Additionally, the interior anatomy of these embryonic cubozoan fossils unprecedentedly exhibits the development of many new septum-derived lamellae and well-partitioned gastric pockets unknown in living cubozoans, implying that ancestral cubozoans had already evolved highly specialized structures displaying unexpected complexity at the dawn of the Cambrian. The well-developed endodermic lamellae and gastric pockets developed in the late embryonic stages of these cubozoan fossils are comparable with extant pelagic

  1. Immunocytochemical localisation of the nucleolar protein fibrillarin and RNA polymerase I during mouse early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cuadros-Fernández, J M; Esponda, P

    1996-02-01

    We have employed immunocytochemical procedures to localise the nucleolar protein fibrillarin and the enzyme RNA polymerase I in the numerous dense fibrillar bodies (nucleolar precursor bodies) which appear in the nuclei of mammalian early embryos. The aim of this study was to search for relationships between the localisation of these proteins, the changes in the structure of the nucleolar precursor bodies and the resumption of rRNA gene transcription during mouse early embryogenesis. Three human autoimmune sera which recognised fibrillarin and a rabbit antiserum created against RNA polymerase I were employed for fluorescence and electron microscopic immunocytochemical assays. A statistical analysis was also applied. Immunocytochemistry revealed that fibrillarin and RNA polymerase I showed the same localisation in the nucleolar precursor bodies. These proteins were immunolocalised only from the late 2-cell stage onward. Fibrillarin was initially detected at the periphery of the nucleolar precursor bodies and the labelling gradually increased until the morula and blastocyst stages, where normally active nucleoli are found. The pattern of increase of fibrillarin during early embryogenesis shows a parallelism with the rise in rRNA gene transcription occurring during these embryonic stages, and a possible correlation between these two phenomena is suggested. Results demonstrated that nucleolar precursor bodies differ in their biochemical composition from the nucleolus and also from the prenucleolar bodies which appear during mitosis. When anti-fibrillarin antibodies were microinjected into the male pronucleus of mouse embryos to analyse the functions of fibrillarin during early development, they partially blocked the early development of mouse embryos and only 23.8% of injected embryos reach the blastocyst stage.

  2. A multicenter prospective study to assess the effect of early cleavage on embryo quality, implantation, and live-birth rate.

    PubMed

    de los Santos, Maria José; Arroyo, Gemma; Busquet, Ana; Calderón, Gloria; Cuadros, Jorge; Hurtado de Mendoza, Maria Victoria; Moragas, Marta; Herrer, Raquel; Ortiz, Agueda; Pons, Carme; Ten, Jorge; Vilches, Miguel Angel; Figueroa, Maria José

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of early cleavage (EC) on embryo quality, implantation, and live-birth rates. Prospective cross-sectional study. Multicenter study. Seven hundred embryo transfers and 1,028 early-stage human embryos. None. Implantation according to the presence of EC and embryo quality. The presence of EC is associated with embryo quality, especially in cycles with autologous oocytes. However, the use of EC as an additional criterion for selecting an embryo for transfer does not appear to significantly improve likelihood of implantation. Furthermore, embryos that presented EC had live-birth rates per implanted embryo similar to those that did not show any sign of cleavage. At least for conventional embryo culture and morphologic evaluations, the additional evaluation of EC in embryos may not be valuable to improve embryo implantation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Apoptosis in the preimplantation mouse embryo: effect of strain difference and in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Kamjoo, Marziel; Brison, Daniel R; Kimber, Susan J

    2002-01-01

    Cell death by apoptosis occurs predominantly in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst, the cell population which carries the germ line and gives rise to the foetus. The frequency of apoptosis in blastocysts varies widely within outbred species such as human and cow. We have addressed the basis of this variation by examining the relative influence of strain difference and in vitro culture conditions on apoptosis, using embryos from two different strains of mice (MF1 and C57BL6/CBA) in two different culture media (M16 and kSOM). In both strains and all crosses apoptosis was first detected by nuclear fragmentation or TUNEL [Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated d-UTP nick end-labelling] labelling at the early blastocyst stage. This was true for embryos which had developed in vivo, and in vitro in both M16 and kSOM. The apoptotic index in blastocysts was found to be significantly different between both media and strain (P < 0.0001). Blastocysts from MF1 x MF1 at equivalent stages had an apoptotic index of 32.4% in M16 and 20.3% in kSOM. Blastocysts from C57BL6/CBA x C57BL6/CBA had an apoptotic index of 19.3% in M16 and 14.4% in kSOM. When embryos of similar cell number were compared, a significantly greater apoptotic index was found for cultured MF1 x MF1 embryos with a cell number between 40 and 59 compared to similar directly flushed C57BL6/CBA embryos (P = 0.001), and MF1 embryos (P < 0.0005). MF1 x MF1 embryos and C57BL6/CBA x MF1 embryos of 60-79 cells had a greater apoptotic index in M16 than kSOM (P < 0.0005) but the difference between media was not significant for C57BL6/CBA x C57BL6/CBA. When strain was compared MF1 x MF1 embryos of 60-79 cells had a significantly greater apoptotic index than C57BL6/CBA x MF1 in both media (P < 0.0005 M16; P = 0.002 kSOM) and than C57BL6/CBA x C57BL6/CBA in M16 (P = 0.019). Our data suggest that genetic make-up and the chemical composition of simple medium are equally important in determining the level of

  4. Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for cell surface molecules expressed on early mouse endoderm.

    PubMed

    Gadue, Paul; Gouon-Evans, Valerie; Cheng, Xin; Wandzioch, Ewa; Zaret, Kenneth S; Grompe, Markus; Streeter, Philip R; Keller, Gordon M

    2009-09-01

    The development of functional cell populations such as hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells from embryonic stem cell (ESC) is dependent on the efficient induction of definitive endoderm early in the differentiation process. To monitor definitive endoderm formation in mouse ESC differentiation cultures in a quantitative fashion, we generated a reporter cell line that expresses human CD25 from the Foxa3 locus and human CD4 from the Foxa2 locus. Induction of these reporter ESCs with high concentrations of activin A led to the development of a CD25-Foxa3+CD4-Foxa2+ population within 4-5 days of culture. Isolation and characterization of this population showed that it consists predominantly of definitive endoderm that is able to undergo hepatic specification under the appropriate conditions. To develop reagents that can be used for studies on endoderm development from unmanipulated ESCs, from induced pluripotent stem cells, and from the mouse embryo, we generated monoclonal antibodies against the CD25-Foxa3+CD4-Foxa2+ population. With this approach, we identified two antibodies that react specifically with endoderm from ESC cultures and from the early embryo. The specificity of these antibodies enables one to quantitatively monitor endoderm development in ESC differentiation cultures, to study endoderm formation in the embryo, and to isolate pure populations of culture- or embryo-derived endodermal cells.

  5. Supraadditive formation of micronuclei in preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro after combined treatment with X-rays and caffeine

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, W.U.S.; Streffer, C.; Wurm, R.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of caffeine (0.1 or 2 mM), X-rays (0.24 Gy or 0.94 Gy, or of a combination of both on the formation of micronuclei in early stages of preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro was studied. X-rays as well as caffeine induced micronuclei. The dose-effect curve after irradiation was linear for the dose range measured. Caffeine did not induce micronuclei if the concentration was 1 mM or less; between 1 mM and 7 mM, however, there was a linear increase in the number of micronuclei. A considerable enhancement of the number of radiation-induced micronuclei was observed when irradiation of themore » embryos was followed by a treatment with caffeine. Not only was the sum of the single effects exceeded by the combination effects, but the combination results even lay in the range of supraadditivity of the envelope of additivity.« less

  6. High-Frequency Ultrasound for the Study of Early Mouse Embryonic Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Greco, Adelaide; Coda, Anna Rita Daniela; Albanese, Sandra; Ragucci, Monica; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Auletta, Luigi; Gargiulo, Sara; Lamagna, Francesco; Salvatore, Marco; Mancini, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    An accurate diagnosis of congenital heart defects during fetal development is critical for interventional planning. Mice can be used to generate animal models with heart defects, and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging enables in utero imaging of live mouse embryos. A wide range of physiological measurements is possible using Doppler-HFUS imaging; limitations of any single measurement warrant a multiparameter approach to characterize cardiovascular function. Doppler-HFUS was used to explore the embryonic (heart, aorta) and extraembryonic (umbilical blood flow) circulatory systems to create a database in normal mouse embryos between 9.5 and 16.5 days of gestation. Multivariate analyses were performed to explore correlations between gestational age and embryo echocardiographic parameters. Heart rate and peak velocity in the aorta were positively correlated with gestational time, whereas cardiac cycle length, isovolumetric relaxation time, myocardial performance index, and arterial deceleration time of the umbilical cord were negatively correlated with it. Doppler-HFUS facilitated detailed characterization of the embryonic mouse circulation and represents a useful tool for investigation of the early mouse embryonic cardiovascular system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Assisted Reproductive Technology affects developmental kinetics, H19 Imprinting Control Region methylation and H19 gene expression in individual mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Fauque, Patricia; Jouannet, Pierre; Lesaffre, Corinne; Ripoche, Marie-Anne; Dandolo, Luisa; Vaiman, Daniel; Jammes, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Background In the last few years, an increase in imprinting anomalies has been reported in children born from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Various clinical and experimental studies also suggest alterations of embryo development after ART. Therefore, there is a need for studying early epigenetic anomalies which could result from ART manipulations, especially on single embryos. In this study, we evaluated the impact of superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture conditions on proper genomic imprinting and blastocyst development in single mouse embryos. In this study, different experimental groups were established to obtain embryos from superovulated and non-superovulated females, either from in vivo or in vitro fertilized oocytes, themselves grown in vitro or not. The embryos were cultured either in M16 medium or in G1.2/G2.2 sequential medium. The methylation status of H19 Imprinting Control Region (ICR) and H19 promoter was assessed, as well as the gene expression level of H19, in individual blastocysts. In parallel, we have evaluated embryo cleavage kinetics and recorded morphological data. Results We show that: 1. The culture medium influences early embryo development with faster cleavage kinetics for culture in G1.2/G2.2 medium compared to M16 medium. 2. Epigenetic alterations of the H19 ICR and H19 PP are influenced by the fertilization method since methylation anomalies were observed only in the in vitro fertilized subgroup, however to different degrees according to the culture medium. 3. Superovulation clearly disrupted H19 gene expression in individual blastocysts. Moreover, when embryos were cultured in vitro after either in vivo or in vitro fertilization, the percentage of blastocysts which expressed H19 was higher in G1.2/G2.2 medium compared to M16. Conclusion Compared to previous reports utilizing pools of embryos, our study enables us to emphasize a high individual variability of blastocysts in the H19 ICR and H19

  8. Assisted Reproductive Technology affects developmental kinetics, H19 Imprinting Control Region methylation and H19 gene expression in individual mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Fauque, Patricia; Jouannet, Pierre; Lesaffre, Corinne; Ripoche, Marie-Anne; Dandolo, Luisa; Vaiman, Daniel; Jammes, Hélène

    2007-10-18

    In the last few years, an increase in imprinting anomalies has been reported in children born from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Various clinical and experimental studies also suggest alterations of embryo development after ART. Therefore, there is a need for studying early epigenetic anomalies which could result from ART manipulations, especially on single embryos. In this study, we evaluated the impact of superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture conditions on proper genomic imprinting and blastocyst development in single mouse embryos. In this study, different experimental groups were established to obtain embryos from superovulated and non-superovulated females, either from in vivo or in vitro fertilized oocytes, themselves grown in vitro or not. The embryos were cultured either in M16 medium or in G1.2/G2.2 sequential medium. The methylation status of H19 Imprinting Control Region (ICR) and H19 promoter was assessed, as well as the gene expression level of H19, in individual blastocysts. In parallel, we have evaluated embryo cleavage kinetics and recorded morphological data. We show that: 1. The culture medium influences early embryo development with faster cleavage kinetics for culture in G1.2/G2.2 medium compared to M16 medium. 2. Epigenetic alterations of the H19 ICR and H19 PP are influenced by the fertilization method since methylation anomalies were observed only in the in vitro fertilized subgroup, however to different degrees according to the culture medium. 3. Superovulation clearly disrupted H19 gene expression in individual blastocysts. Moreover, when embryos were cultured in vitro after either in vivo or in vitro fertilization, the percentage of blastocysts which expressed H19 was higher in G1.2/G2.2 medium compared to M16. Compared to previous reports utilizing pools of embryos, our study enables us to emphasize a high individual variability of blastocysts in the H19 ICR and H19 promoter methylation and H19 gene

  9. Maternal SENP7 programs meiosis architecture and embryo survival in mouse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jie; Wu, Di; Jiao, Xiao-Fei; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Jing; Yin, Tai-Lang; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying abnormal egg production and pregnancy loss is significant for human fertility. SENP7, a SUMO poly-chain editing enzyme, has been regarded as a mitotic regulator of heterochromatin integrity and DNA repair. Herein, we report the roles of SENP7 in mammalian reproductive scenario. Mouse oocytes deficient in SENP7 experienced meiotic arrest at prophase I and metaphase I stages, causing a substantial decrease of mature eggs. Hyperaceylation and hypomethylation of histone H3 and up-regulation of Cdc14B/C accompanied by down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CyclinB2 were further recognized as contributors to defective M-phase entry and spindle assembly in oocytes. The spindle assembly checkpoint activated by defective spindle morphogenesis, which was also caused by mislocalization and ubiquitylation-mediated proteasomal degradation of γ-tubulin, blocked oocytes at meiosis I stage. SENP7-depleted embryos exhibited severely defective maternal-zygotic transition and progressive degeneration, resulting in nearly no blastocyst production. The disrupted epigenetic landscape on histone H3 restricted Rad51C loading onto DNA lesions due to elevated HP1α euchromatic deposition, and reduced DNA 5hmC challenged the permissive status for zygotic DNA repair, which induce embryo death. Our study pinpoints SENP7 as a novel determinant in epigenetic programming and major pathways that govern oocyte and embryo development programs in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos using optical quadrature and differential interference contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Zhao, Bing; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2006-02-01

    Present imaging techniques used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics are unable to produce accurate cell counts in developing embryos past the eight-cell stage. We have developed a method that has produced accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos ranging from 13-25 cells by combining Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) and Optical Quadrature Microscopy. Optical Quadrature Microscopy is an interferometric imaging modality that measures the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. The phase is transformed into an image of optical path length difference, which is used to determine the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell. DIC microscopy gives distinct cell boundaries for cells within the focal plane when other cells do not lie in the path to the objective. Fitting an ellipse to the boundary of a single cell in the DIC image and combining it with the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell creates an ellipsoidal model cell of optical path length deviation. Subtracting the model cell from the Optical Quadrature image will either show the optical path length deviation of the culture medium or reveal another cell underneath. Once all the boundaries are used in the DIC image, the subtracted Optical Quadrature image is analyzed to determine the cell boundaries of the remaining cells. The final cell count is produced when no more cells can be subtracted. We have produced exact cell counts on 5 samples, which have been validated by Epi-Fluorescence images of Hoechst stained nuclei.

  11. Par-aPKC-dependent and -independent mechanisms cooperatively control cell polarity, Hippo signaling, and cell positioning in 16-cell stage mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Hirate, Yoshikazu; Hirahara, Shino; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Niwa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    In preimplantation mouse embryos, the Hippo signaling pathway plays a central role in regulating the fates of the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM). In early blastocysts with more than 32 cells, the Par-aPKC system controls polarization of the outer cells along the apicobasal axis, and cell polarity suppresses Hippo signaling. Inactivation of Hippo signaling promotes nuclear accumulation of a coactivator protein, Yap, leading to induction of TE-specific genes. However, whether similar mechanisms operate at earlier stages is not known. Here, we show that slightly different mechanisms operate in 16-cell stage embryos. Similar to 32-cell stage embryos, disruption of the Par-aPKC system activated Hippo signaling and suppressed nuclear Yap and Cdx2 expression in the outer cells. However, unlike 32-cell stage embryos, 16-cell stage embryos with a disrupted Par-aPKC system maintained apical localization of phosphorylated Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (p-ERM), and the effects on Yap and Cdx2 were weak. Furthermore, normal 16-cell stage embryos often contained apolar cells in the outer position. In these cells, the Hippo pathway was strongly activated and Yap was excluded from the nuclei, thus resembling inner cells. Dissociated blastomeres of 8-cell stage embryos form polar-apolar couplets, which exhibit different levels of nuclear Yap, and the polar cell engulfed the apolar cell. These results suggest that cell polarization at the 16-cell stage is regulated by both Par-aPKC-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Asymmetric cell division is involved in cell polarity control, and cell polarity regulates cell positioning and most likely controls Hippo signaling. © The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  12. Direct production of mouse disease models by embryo microinjection of TALENs and oligodeoxynucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Wefers, Benedikt; Meyer, Melanie; Ortiz, Oskar; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Hansen, Jens; Wurst, Wolfgang; Kühn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The study of genetic disease mechanisms relies mostly on targeted mouse mutants that are derived from engineered embryonic stem (ES) cells. Nevertheless, the establishment of mutant ES cells is laborious and time-consuming, restricting the study of the increasing number of human disease mutations discovered by high-throughput genomic analysis. Here, we present an advanced approach for the production of mouse disease models by microinjection of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides into one-cell embryos. Within 2 d of embryo injection, we created and corrected chocolate missense mutations in the small GTPase RAB38; a regulator of intracellular vesicle trafficking and phenotypic model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Because ES cell cultures and targeting vectors are not required, this technology enables instant germline modifications, making heterozygous mutants available within 18 wk. The key features of direct mutagenesis by TALENs and oligodeoxynucleotides, minimal effort and high speed, catalyze the generation of future in vivo models for the study of human disease mechanisms and interventions. PMID:23426636

  13. Early embryo development in Fucus distichus is auxin sensitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Swati; Sun, Haiguo; Brian, Leigh; Quatrano, Ralph L.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2002-01-01

    Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling embryo development in land plants. The goal of these studies was to determine if auxin and auxin transport are also important during the earliest stages of development in embryos of the brown alga Fucus distichus. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified in F. distichus embryos and mature tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. F. distichus embryos accumulate [(3)H]IAA and an inhibitor of IAA efflux, naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), elevates IAA accumulation, suggesting the presence of an auxin efflux protein complex similar to that found in land plants. F. distichus embryos normally develop with a single unbranched rhizoid, but growth on IAA leads to formation of multiple rhizoids and growth on NPA leads to formation of embryos with branched rhizoids, at concentrations that are active in auxin accumulation assays. The effects of IAA and NPA are complete before 6 h after fertilization (AF), which is before rhizoid germination and cell division. The maximal effects of IAA and NPA are between 3.5 and 5 h AF and 4 and 5.5 h AF, respectively. Although, the location of the planes of cell division was significantly altered in NPA- and IAA-treated embryos, these abnormal divisions occurred after abnormal rhizoid initiation and branching was observed. The results of this study suggest that auxin acts in the formation of apical basal patterns in F. distichus embryo development.

  14. Early Embryo Development in Fucus distichus Is Auxin Sensitive1

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Swati; Sun, Haiguo; Brian, Leigh; Quatrano, Ralph L.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2002-01-01

    Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling embryo development in land plants. The goal of these studies was to determine if auxin and auxin transport are also important during the earliest stages of development in embryos of the brown alga Fucus distichus. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified in F. distichus embryos and mature tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. F. distichus embryos accumulate [3H]IAA and an inhibitor of IAA efflux, naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), elevates IAA accumulation, suggesting the presence of an auxin efflux protein complex similar to that found in land plants. F. distichus embryos normally develop with a single unbranched rhizoid, but growth on IAA leads to formation of multiple rhizoids and growth on NPA leads to formation of embryos with branched rhizoids, at concentrations that are active in auxin accumulation assays. The effects of IAA and NPA are complete before 6 h after fertilization (AF), which is before rhizoid germination and cell division. The maximal effects of IAA and NPA are between 3.5 and 5 h AF and 4 and 5.5 h AF, respectively. Although, the location of the planes of cell division was significantly altered in NPA- and IAA-treated embryos, these abnormal divisions occurred after abnormal rhizoid initiation and branching was observed. The results of this study suggest that auxin acts in the formation of apical basal patterns in F. distichus embryo development. PMID:12226509

  15. Entire mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is present in preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingchun; Wang, Fangfei; Sun, Tong; Trostinskaia, Anna; Wygle, Dana; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2004-09-01

    studies aimed at understanding the role of the major mitogenic pathway in preimplantation mouse embryos.

  16. Aberrant behavior of mouse embryo development after blastomere biopsy as observed through time-lapse cinematography.

    PubMed

    Ugajin, Tomohisa; Terada, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Hisataka; Velayo, Clarissa L; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2010-05-15

    To analyze whether blastomere biopsy affects early embryonal growth as observed through time-lapse cinematography. Comparative prospective study between embryos in which a blastomere was removed and embryos in which a blastomere was not removed. An experimental laboratory of the university. We calculated the time between blastocele formation and the end of hatching, the time between the start and end of hatching, the number of contractions and expansions between blastocyst formation and the end of hatching, and the maximum diameter of the expanded blastocyst. In blastomere removal embryos, compaction began at the six-cell stage instead of at the eight-cell stage. We also found that hatching was delayed in these embryos as compared with matched controls. Moreover, the frequency of contraction and expansion movements after blastocyst formation was significantly higher in the blastomere removal group as compared with the control group. Finally, the maximum diameter of the expanded blastocyst just before hatching was not significantly different between both groups. These findings suggested that blastomere removal has an adverse effect on embryonic development around the time of hatching. Thus, future developments in preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening should involve further consideration and caution in light of the influence of blastomere biopsy on embryonal growth. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Establishment of sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, You-Ji; Xie, Yi; Han, Jin-Lan; Wang, Zack; Chen, Tong

    2008-10-14

    To establish a sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo. Human embryonic stem were (hESCs) were cultured on the mouse embryo fibroblasts and then were induced to differentiate to form three-dimensional EB. The hEBs were cultured in media containing various angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endostatin, angiostatin, and platelet factor (PF)-4 of different concentrations for 3 days to observe the sprouting of the hEBs. 3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (Dil-AcLDL) was added onto the hEBs foe 4 h Immunofluorescence assay was used to observe if Dil-AcLDL was absorbed and if CD31 was expressed so as to determine the existence of embryonic endothelial cells in the sprouting structures. The ideal culturing condition was analyzed. The differentiated EBs formed sprouting structures in the collagen I matrix containing VEGF and FGF. The sprouts among individual EBs were able to link to each other and form vascular network-like structures. In the presence of VEGF and FGF, the sprouts branching from the EBs assimilated Dil-AcLDL, expressed CD31 and formed a 3-dimensional cylindrical organization. The concentrations of growth factors ideally stimulating sprouting growth were 100 ng/ml of VEGF and 50 ng/ml of FGF. The networks among the EBs were abolished by the angiostatin, endostatin, and PF4. The sprouting from hEBs accumulates embryonic endothelial cells and the sprouting network-like structures are indeed endothelial in nature. Inducing of sprouting EBs is an ideal model that mimics early embryonic vasculogenesis in humans.

  18. Embryo developmental capacity of oocytes fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress.

    PubMed

    Ghasem, Saki; Majid, Jasemi; Shiva, Razi

    2013-07-01

    To assess developmental capacity of fertilised oocytes by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress. The experimental study was conducted at the Physiology Research Center of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, from August 2011 to January 2012. It comprised 20 adult male and 10 female mice. The male mice were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=10): control and experimental. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to forced swimming stress. All male mice were euthanised and the cauda epididymis removed before contents were squeezed out. A pre-incubated capacitated sperm was gently added to the freshly collected ova of the two groups of study. The combined sperm-oocyte suspension was incubated for 4-6 hours under a condition of 5% Carbon dioxide and 37 degreeC temperature. The ova were then washed through several changes of medium and finally incubated. Fertilisation was assessed by recording the number of 1-cell embryos 4-6 hours after insemination. The 1-cell embryos were allowed to further develop in vitro for about 120 hours. Development of embryos everyday and during 5 days of culture was observed by using inverted microscope. SPSS 13.0.1 was used for statistical analysis. The percentage of oocytes fertilised was 75:96 (78.12+/-4.8%) and 50:10 (49.5+/-3.9%) in the control and experimental groups, respectively. The difference was significant (p <0.001). At 24 hours after insemination, 70:75 (93.33+/-2.7%) and 39:50 (78+/-3.5%)of fertilized oocytes developed to two=cell embryos in control and experimental groups respectively.The difference was significant (p <0.02).There were not significant differences (p>0.05) between the two groups in terms of speed and developmental capacity of blastocysts. Fertilisation capacity of male mice affected by forced swimming stress and also the developmental capacity of oocyte fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress decreased.

  19. Expression of renin–angiotensin system components in the early bovine embryo

    PubMed Central

    Pijacka, Wioletta; Hunter, Morag G; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Luck, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS), mainly associated with the regulation of blood pressure, has been recently investigated in female reproductive organs and the developing foetus. Angiotensin II (Ang II) influences oviductal gamete movements and foetal development, but there is no information about RAS in the early embryo. The aim of this study was to determine whether RAS components are present in the pre-implantation embryo, to determine how early they are expressed and to investigate their putative role at this stage of development. Bovine embryos produced in vitro were used for analysis of RAS transcripts (RT-PCR) and localisation of the receptors AGTR1 and AGTR2 (immunofluorescent labelling). We also investigated the effects of Ang II, Olmesartan (AGTR1 antagonist) and PD123319 (AGTR2 antagonist) on oocyte cleavage, embryo expansion and hatching. Pre-implanted embryos possessed AGTR1 and AGTR2 but not the other RAS components. Both receptors were present in the trophectoderm and in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. AGTR1 was mainly localised in granular-like structures in the cytoplasm, suggesting its internalisation into clathrin-coated vesicles, and AGTR2 was found mainly in the nuclear membrane and in the mitotic spindle of dividing trophoblastic cells. Treating embryos with PD123319 increased the proportion of hatched embryos compared with the control. These results, the first on RAS in the early embryo, suggest that the pre-implanted embryo responds to Ang II from the mother rather than from the embryo itself. This may be a route by which the maternal RAS influences blastocyst hatching and early embryonic development. PMID:23781300

  20. EXPOSURE TO A P13KINASE INHIBITOR PRODUCED DYSMORPHOGENESIS IN NEURULATION-STAGED MOUSE EMBRYOS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The haloacetic acids (HAA) are a family of chemicals that are drinking water disinfection byproducts. We previously reported that bromo- and chloro-acetic acids alter embryonic development when mouse conceptuses are directly exposed to these xenobiotics in whole embryo culture. C...

  1. Baicalin increases developmental competence of mouse embryos in vitro by inhibiting cellular apoptosis and modulating HSP70 and DNMT expression

    PubMed Central

    QI, Xiaonan; LI, Huatao; CONG, Xia; WANG, Xin; JIANG, Zhongling; CAO, Rongfeng; TIAN, Wenru

    2016-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis has been effectively used in Chinese traditional medicine to prevent miscarriages. However, little information is available on its mechanism of action. This study is designed specifically to reveal how baicalin, the main effective ingredient of S. baicalensis, improves developmental competence of embryos in vitro, using the mouse as a model. Mouse pronuclear embryos were cultured in KSOM medium supplemented with (0, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml) baicalin. The results demonstrated that in vitro culture conditions significantly decreased the blastocyst developmental rate and blastocyst quality, possibly due to increased cellular stress and apoptosis. Baicalin (4 µg/ml) significantly increased 2- and 4-cell cleavage rates, morula developmental rate, and blastocyst developmental rate and cell number of in vitro-cultured mouse embryos. Moreover, baicalin increased the expression of Gja1, Cdh1, Bcl-2, and Dnmt3a genes, decreased the expression of Dnmt1 gene, and decreased cellular stress and apoptosis as it decreased the expression of HSP70, CASP3, and BAX and increased BCL-2 expression in blastocysts cultured in vitro. In conclusion, baicalin improves developmental competence of in vitro-cultured mouse embryos through inhibition of cellular apoptosis and HSP70 expression, and improvement of DNA methylation. PMID:27478062

  2. Efficient and Rapid Isolation of Early-stage Embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Raissig, Michael T.; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

  3. Calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) is involved in porcine in vitro fertilisation and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Liu, Y; Larsen, K; Hou, Y P; Callesen, H

    2018-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that extracellular calcium is necessary in fertilisation and embryo development but the mechanism is still not well understood. The present study mainly focussed on the extracellular calcium effector called the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) and examined its expression in porcine gametes and embryos and its function during fertilisation and early embryo development. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, CASR was found to be expressed in porcine oocytes, spermatozoa and embryos at different developmental stages. Functionally, medium supplementation with a CASR agonist or an antagonist during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) was tested. During fertilisation, the presence of a CASR agonist increased sperm penetration rate and decreased polyspermy rate leading to an increased normal fertilisation rate. During embryo development, for the IVF embryos, agonist treatment during IVC significantly increased cleavage rate and blastocyst formation rate compared with the control group. Furthermore, parthenogenetically activated embryos showed similar results with lower cleavage and blastocyst formation rates in the antagonist group than in the other groups. It was concluded that CASR, as the effector of extracellular calcium, modulates porcine fertilisation and early embryo development.

  4. Chronology of early embryonic development and embryo uterine migration in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Picha, Y; Tibary, A; Memon, M; Kasimanickam, R; Sumar, J

    2013-03-01

    The objectives were to: (1) describe the chronology of early embryonic development from ovulation to entry into the uterus; and (2) to determine the timing of embryo migration to the left uterine horn when ovulation occurred from the right ovary. The experiment was conducted in Peru. Females (n = 132) were randomly assigned to 15 experimental groups. All females were mated to an intact male, given 50 μg GnRH im (Cystorelin) and ovulation time determined by transrectal ultrasonography, conducted every 6 hours, starting 24 hours postmating. Animals were slaughtered at a specific intervals postovulation and reproductive tracts were recovered and subjected to oviductal and uterine flushing for females slaughtered between 1 and 6 days postovulation (dpo; Day 0 = ovulation) and uterine flushing for females slaughtered from 7 to 15 dpo for recovery of oocytes/embryos. Season of mating did not influence the interval from mating to ovulation (winter: 29 ± 6 hours vs. summer: 30 ± 6 hours; P = 0.49). Ovulation rates for females mated during winter and summer were 92% versus 100%, respectively (P = 0.05). Fertilization rates for winter and summer mated females were 72% and 82% (P = 0.29). Unfertilized ova were not retained in the uterine tube. All embryos collected were in the uterine tube ipsilateral to the side of ovulation between 1 and 5 dpo. Embryos reached the uterus on 6 dpo. Embryos began to elongate on 9 dpo; at this time, 83% of embryos derived from right-ovary ovulations were collected from the left uterine horn. Embryos occupied the entire uterine cavity by 10 dpo. In conclusion, we characterized early embryo development and location of embryo during its early developmental stages in alpaca. This was apparently the first report regarding chronology of embryo development and migration to the left horn in alpaca which merits further investigation regarding its role in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lack of centrioles and primary cilia in STIL−/− mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    David, Ahuvit; Liu, Fengying; Tibelius, Alexandra; Vulprecht, Julia; Wald, Diana; Rothermel, Ulrike; Ohana, Reut; Seitel, Alexander; Metzger, Jasmin; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Izraeli, Shai; Krämer, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    Although most animal cells contain centrosomes, consisting of a pair of centrioles, their precise contribution to cell division and embryonic development is unclear. Genetic ablation of STIL, an essential component of the centriole replication machinery in mammalian cells, causes embryonic lethality in mice around mid gestation associated with defective Hedgehog signaling. Here, we describe, by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, that STIL−/− mouse embryos do not contain centrioles or primary cilia, suggesting that these organelles are not essential for mammalian development until mid gestation. We further show that the lack of primary cilia explains the absence of Hedgehog signaling in STIL−/− cells. Exogenous re-expression of STIL or STIL microcephaly mutants compatible with human survival, induced non-templated, de novo generation of centrioles in STIL−/− cells. Thus, while the abscence of centrioles is compatible with mammalian gastrulation, lack of centrioles and primary cilia impairs Hedgehog signaling and further embryonic development. PMID:25486474

  6. Emergence of the pre-Bötzinger respiratory rhythm generator in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Trinh, Jean-Baptiste; Champagnat, Jean; Fortin, Gilles

    2005-04-27

    To obtain insights into the emergence of rhythmogenic circuits supporting respiration, we monitored spontaneous activities in isolated brainstem and medullary transverse slice preparations of mouse embryos, combining electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques. At embryonic day 15 (E15), in a restricted region ventral to the nucleus ambiguus, we observed the onset of a sustained high-frequency (HF) respiratory-like activity in addition to a preexisting low-frequency activity having a distinct initiation site, spatial extension, and susceptibility to gap junction blockers. At the time of its onset, the HF generator starts to express the neurokinin 1 receptor, is connected bilaterally, requires active AMPA/kainate glutamatergic synapses, and is modulated by substance P and the mu-opioid agonist D-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Glycol5-enkephalin. We conclude that a rhythm generator sharing the properties of the neonatal pre-Bötzinger complex becomes active during E15 in mice.

  7. Serotonin Receptor 6 Mediates Defective Brain Development in Monoamine Oxidase A-deficient Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi Chiu; Man, Gene Chi Wai; Chu, Ching Yan; Borchert, Astrid; Ugun-Klusek, Aslihan; Billett, E. Ellen; Kühn, Hartmut; Ufer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and MAO-B) are enzymes of the outer mitochondrial membrane that metabolize biogenic amines. In the adult central nervous system, MAOs have important functions for neurotransmitter homeostasis. Expression of MAO isoforms has been detected in the developing embryo. However, suppression of MAO-B does not induce developmental alterations. In contrast, targeted inhibition and knockdown of MAO-A expression (E7.5–E10.5) caused structural abnormalities in the brain. Here we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying defective brain development induced by MAO-A knockdown during in vitro embryogenesis. The developmental alterations were paralleled by diminished apoptotic activity in the affected neuronal structures. Moreover, dysfunctional MAO-A expression led to elevated levels of embryonic serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)), and we found that knockdown of serotonin receptor-6 (5-Htr6) expression or pharmacologic inhibition of 5-Htr6 activity rescued the MAO-A knockdown phenotype and restored apoptotic activity in the developing brain. Our data suggest that excessive 5-Htr6 activation reduces activation of caspase-3 and -9 of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and enhances expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Moreover, we found that elevated 5-HT levels in MAO-A knockdown embryos coincided with an enhanced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and a reduction of proliferating cell numbers. In summary, our findings suggest that excessive 5-HT in MAO-A-deficient mouse embryos triggers cellular signaling cascades via 5-Htr6, which suppresses developmental apoptosis in the brain and thus induces developmental retardations. PMID:24497636

  8. Cytoplasmic asters are required for progression past the first cell cycle in cloned mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Miki, Hiromi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Mochida, Keiji; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Baba, Tadashi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2004-12-01

    Unlike the oocytes of most other animal species, unfertilized murine oocytes contain cytoplasmic asters, which act as microtubule-organizing centers following fertilization. This study examined the role of asters during the first cell cycle of mouse nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. NT was performed by intracytoplasmic injection of cumulus cells. Cytoplasmic asters were localized by staining with an anti-alpha-tubulin antibody. Enucleation of MII oocytes caused no significant change in the number of cytoplasmic asters. The number of asters decreased after transfer of the donor nuclei into these enucleated oocytes, probably because some of the asters participated in the formation of the spindle that anchors the donor chromosomes. The cytoplasmic asters became undetectable within 2 h of oocyte activation, irrespective of the presence or absence of the donor chromosomes. After the standard NT protocol, a spindle-like structure persisted between the pseudopronuclei of these oocytes throughout the pronuclear stage. The asters reappeared shortly before the first mitosis and formed the mitotic spindle. When the donor nucleus was transferred into preactivated oocytes (delayed NT) that were devoid of free asters, the microtubules and microfilaments were distributed irregularly in the ooplasm and formed dense bundles within the cytoplasm. Thereafter, all of the delayed NT oocytes underwent fragmentation and arrested development. Treatment of these delayed NT oocytes with Taxol, which is a microtubule-assembling agent, resulted in the formation of several aster-like structures and reduced fragmentation. Some Taxol-treated oocytes completed the first cell cycle and developed further. This study demonstrates that cytoplasmic asters play a crucial role during the first cell cycle of murine NT embryos. Therefore, in mouse NT, the use of MII oocytes as recipients is essential, not only for chromatin reprogramming as previously reported, but also for normal cytoskeletal organization

  9. Developmental expression of membrane type 4-matrix metalloproteinase (Mt4-mmp/Mmp17) in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Cristina; Montalvo, María Gregoria; Seiki, Motoharu; Arroyo, Alicia G.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large group of endoproteases that play important functions during embryonic development, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis by degrading components of the extracellular matrix. Within this family, we focused our study on Mt4-mmp (also called Mmp17) that belongs to a distinct subset that is anchored to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety and with the catalytic site exposed to the extracellular space. Information about its function and substrates is very limited to date, and little has been reported on its role in the developing embryo. Here, we report a detailed expression analysis of Mt4-mmp during mouse embryonic development by using a LacZ reporter transgenic mouse line. We showed that Mt4-mmp is detected from early stages of development to postnatal stages following a dynamic and restricted pattern of expression. Mt4-mmp was first detected at E8.5 limited to the intersomitic vascularization, the endocardial endothelium and the dorsal aorta. Mt4-mmpLacZ/+ cells were also observed in the neural crest cells, somites, floor plate and notochord at early stages. From E10.5, expression localized in the limb buds and persists during limb development. A strong expression in the brain begins at E12.5 and continues to postnatal stages. Specifically, staining was observed in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, septum, dorsal thalamus and the spinal cord. In addition, LacZ-positive cells were also detected during eye development, initially at the hyaloid artery and later on located in the lens and the neural retina. Mt4-mmp expression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis in some embryonic tissues. Our data point to distinct functions for this metalloproteinase during embryonic development, particularly during brain formation, angiogenesis and limb development. PMID:28926609

  10. In vitro and in vivo effects of ulipristal acetate on fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Elías, Matías D; Munuce, María J; Bahamondes, Luis; Cuasnicú, Patricia S; Cohen, Débora J

    2016-01-01

    Does ulipristal acetate (UPA), a selective progesterone receptor modulator used for emergency contraception (EC), interfere with fertilization or early embryo development in vitro and in vivo? At doses similar to those used for EC, UPA does not affect mouse gamete transport, fertilization or embryo development. UPA acts as an emergency contraceptive mainly by inhibiting or delaying ovulation. However, there is little information regarding its effects on post-ovulatory events preceding implantation. This was an in vitro and in vivo experimental study involving the use of mouse gametes and embryos from at least three animals in each set of experiments. For in vitro fertilization experiments, mouse epididymal spermatozoa capacitated in the presence of different concentrations of UPA (0-1000 ng/ml) were used to inseminate cumulus-intact or cumulus-free eggs in the presence or absence of UPA during gamete co-incubation, and the percentage of fertilized eggs was determined. For in vivo fertilization experiments, superovulated females caged with proven fertile males were injected with UPA (40 mg/kg) or vehicle just before or just after mating and the percentage of fertilized eggs recovered from the ampulla was determined. To investigate the effect of UPA on embryo development, zygotes were recovered from mated females, cultured in the presence of UPA (1000 ng/ml) for 4 days and the progression of embryo development was monitored daily. In vitro studies revealed that the presence of UPA during capacitation and/or gamete co-incubation does not affect fertilization. Whereas the in vivo administration of UPA at the same time as hCG injection produced a decrease in the number of eggs ovulated compared with controls (vehicle injected animals, P < 0.05), no effects on fertilization were observed when UPA was administered shortly before or after mating. No differences were observed in either the percentage of cleaved embryos or the cleavage speed when UPA was present during in

  11. Early Activation of MAPK and Apoptosis in Nutritive Embryos of Calyptraeid Gastropods.

    PubMed

    Lesoway, Maryna P; Collin, Rachel; Abouheif, Ehab

    2017-07-01

    Investigation of alternative phenotypes, different morphologies produced by a single genome, has contributed novel insights into development and evolution. Yet, the mechanisms underlying developmental switch points between alternative phenotypes remain poorly understood. The calyptraeid snails Crepidula navicella and Calyptraea lichen produce two phenotypes: viable and nutritive embryos, where nutritive embryos arrest their development after gastrulation and are ingested by their viable siblings as a form of intracapsular nutrition. Here, we investigate the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, ERK1/2) and apoptosis during early cleavage. MAPK and apoptosis, found in a previous transcriptomic study, are known to be involved in organization of other spiralian embryos and nutritive embryo development, respectively. In the model Crepidula fornicata, MAPK activation begins at the 16-cell stage. In contrast, we discovered in C. navicella and C. lichen that many embryos begin MAPK activation at the one-cell stage. A subset of embryos shows a similar pattern of MAPK activation to C. fornicata at later stages. In all stages where MAPK is detected, the activation pattern is highly variable, frequently occurring in all quadrants or in multiple tiers of cells. We also detected apoptosis in cleaving embryos, while C. fornicata and Crepidula lessoni, which do not produce nutritive embryos, show no signs of apoptosis during cleavage. Our results show that MAPK and apoptosis are expressed during early development in species with nutritive embryos, and raises the possibility that these processes may play a role and even interact with one another in producing the nutritive embryo phenotype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. EHMT2 directs DNA methylation for efficient gene silencing in mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Auclair, Ghislain; Borgel, Julie; Sanz, Lionel A.; Vallet, Judith; Guibert, Sylvain; Dumas, Michael; Cavelier, Patricia; Girardot, Michael; Forné, Thierry; Feil, Robert; Weber, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which histone modifying enzymes contribute to DNA methylation in mammals remains unclear. Previous studies suggested a link between the lysine methyltransferase EHMT2 (also known as G9A and KMT1C) and DNA methylation in the mouse. Here, we used a model of knockout mice to explore the role of EHMT2 in DNA methylation during mouse embryogenesis. The Ehmt2 gene is expressed in epiblast cells but is dispensable for global DNA methylation in embryogenesis. In contrast, EHMT2 regulates DNA methylation at specific sequences that include CpG-rich promoters of germline-specific genes. These loci are bound by EHMT2 in embryonic cells, are marked by H3K9 dimethylation, and have strongly reduced DNA methylation in Ehmt2−/− embryos. EHMT2 also plays a role in the maintenance of germline-derived DNA methylation at one imprinted locus, the Slc38a4 gene. Finally, we show that DNA methylation is instrumental for EHMT2-mediated gene silencing in embryogenesis. Our findings identify EHMT2 as a critical factor that facilitates repressive DNA methylation at specific genomic loci during mammalian development. PMID:26576615

  13. Early embryonic survival and embryo development in two lines of rabbits divergently selected for uterine capacity.

    PubMed

    Peiró, R; Santacreu, M A; Climent, A; Blasco, A

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study early embryo survival and development in 2 lines divergently selected for high and low uterine capacity throughout 10 generations. A total of 162 female rabbits from the high line and 133 from the low line were slaughtered at 25, 48, or 62 h of gestation. There were no differences in ovulation rate and fertilization rate between lines in any of the 3 stages of gestation. Embryo survival, estimated as the number of normal embryos recovered at a constant ovulation rate, was similar in both lines at 25 and 48 h. Embryo survival was greater in the high line [D (posterior mean of the difference between the high and low lines) = 0.57 embryos] at 62 h of gestation. There was no difference in embryonic stage of development at 25 h, but at 48 and 62 h of gestation, the high line, compared with the low line, had a greater percentage of early morulae (83 vs. 72%) and compacted morulae (55 vs. 38%). Divergent selection for uterine capacity appeared to modify embryo development, at least from 48 h of gestation, and embryo survival from 62 h.

  14. The early Cambrian fossil embryo Pseudooides is a direct-developing cnidarian, not an early ecdysozoan

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Early Cambrian Pseudooides prima has been described from embryonic and post-embryonic stages of development, exhibiting long germ-band development. There has been some debate about the pattern of segmentation, but this interpretation, as among the earliest records of ecdysozoans, has been generally accepted. Here, we show that the ‘germ band’ of P. prima embryos separates along its mid axis during development, with the transverse furrows between the ‘somites’ unfolding into the polar aperture of the ten-sided theca of Hexaconularia sichuanensis, conventionally interpreted as a scyphozoan cnidarian; co-occurring post-embryonic remains of ecdysozoans are unrelated. We recognize H. sichuanensis as a junior synonym of P. prima as a consequence of identifying these two form-taxa as distinct developmental stages of the same organism. Direct development in P. prima parallels the co-occuring olivooids Olivooides, and Quadrapyrgites and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a novel phenotype dataset indicates that, despite differences in their tetra-, penta- and pseudo-hexa-radial symmetry, these hexangulaconulariids comprise a clade of scyphozoan medusozoans, with Arthrochites and conulariids, that all exhibit direct development from embryo to thecate polyp. The affinity of hexangulaconulariids and olivooids to extant scyphozoan medusozoans indicates that the prevalence of tetraradial symmetry and indirect development are a vestige of a broader spectrum of body-plan symmetries and developmental modes that was manifest in their early Phanerozoic counterparts. PMID:29237861

  15. The early Cambrian fossil embryo Pseudooides is a direct-developing cnidarian, not an early ecdysozoan.

    PubMed

    Duan, Baichuan; Dong, Xi-Ping; Porras, Luis; Vargas, Kelly; Cunningham, John A; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2017-12-20

    Early Cambrian Pseudooides prima has been described from embryonic and post-embryonic stages of development, exhibiting long germ-band development. There has been some debate about the pattern of segmentation, but this interpretation, as among the earliest records of ecdysozoans, has been generally accepted. Here, we show that the 'germ band' of P. prima embryos separates along its mid axis during development, with the transverse furrows between the 'somites' unfolding into the polar aperture of the ten-sided theca of Hexaconularia sichuanensis , conventionally interpreted as a scyphozoan cnidarian; co-occurring post-embryonic remains of ecdysozoans are unrelated. We recognize H. sichuanensis as a junior synonym of P. prima as a consequence of identifying these two form-taxa as distinct developmental stages of the same organism. Direct development in P. prima parallels the co-occuring olivooids Olivooides, and Quadrapyrgites and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a novel phenotype dataset indicates that, despite differences in their tetra-, penta- and pseudo-hexa-radial symmetry, these hexangulaconulariids comprise a clade of scyphozoan medusozoans, with Arthrochites and conulariids, that all exhibit direct development from embryo to thecate polyp. The affinity of hexangulaconulariids and olivooids to extant scyphozoan medusozoans indicates that the prevalence of tetraradial symmetry and indirect development are a vestige of a broader spectrum of body-plan symmetries and developmental modes that was manifest in their early Phanerozoic counterparts. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. The early-stage diagnosis of albinic embryos by applying optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Yen; Cai, Jyun-Jhang; Chang, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Albinism is a kind of congenital disease of abnormal metabolism. Poecilia reticulata (guppy fish) is chosen as the model to study the development of albinic embryos as it is albinic, ovoviviparous and with short life period. This study proposed an imaging method for penetrative embryo investigation using optical coherence tomography. By imaging through guppy mother’s reproduction purse, we found the embryo’s eyes were the early-developed albinism features. As human’s ocular albinism typically appear at about four weeks old, it is the time to determine if an embryo will grow into an albino.

  17. Optical coherence microscopy as a novel, non-invasive method for the 4D live imaging of early mammalian embryos.

    PubMed

    Karnowski, Karol; Ajduk, Anna; Wieloch, Bartosz; Tamborski, Szymon; Krawiec, Krzysztof; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Szkulmowski, Maciej

    2017-06-23

    Imaging of living cells based on traditional fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy has delivered an enormous amount of information critical for understanding biological processes in single cells. However, the requirement for a high numerical aperture and fluorescent markers still limits researchers' ability to visualize the cellular architecture without causing short- and long-term photodamage. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a promising alternative that circumvents the technical limitations of fluorescence imaging techniques and provides unique access to fundamental aspects of early embryonic development, without the requirement for sample pre-processing or labeling. In the present paper, we utilized the internal motion of cytoplasm, as well as custom scanning and signal processing protocols, to effectively reduce the speckle noise typical for standard OCM and enable high-resolution intracellular time-lapse imaging. To test our imaging system we used mouse and pig oocytes and embryos and visualized them through fertilization and the first embryonic division, as well as at selected stages of oogenesis and preimplantation development. Because all morphological and morphokinetic properties recorded by OCM are believed to be biomarkers of oocyte/embryo quality, OCM may represent a new chapter in imaging-based preimplantation embryo diagnostics.

  18. IN VITRO CULTURE OF POSTIMPLANTATION HAMSTER EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro culture of intact rat and mouse embryos has been described extensively, but information on the culture of other species is sparse. The present study examined some culture requirements of early somite stage hamster embryos and assessed the embryotoxic effects of sodium sa...

  19. Visualization of early post-implantation mouse embryogenesis using 3D imaging modality (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Le, Henry H.; Li-Villarreal, Nanbing; Piazza, Victor G.; Kalaga, Sowmya; Dickinson, Mary E.

    2017-02-01

    Hemodynamic force is vital to cardiovascular remodeling in the early post-implantation mouse embryo. Here, we present work using microCT and lightsheet microscopy to establish the critical sequence of developmental events required for forming functional vasculature and circulation in the embryo, yolk sac, and placenta in the context of normal and impaired flow. A flow impaired model, Mlc2a+/- will be used to determine how hemodynamic force affects the specific events during embryonic development and vascular remodeling between the 4 and 29-somite stage using microCT. We have recently established high-resolution methods for the generation of 3D image volumes from the whole embryo within the deciduum (Hsu et al., in revision). This method enables the careful characterization of 3D images of vitelline and umbilical vessel remodeling to define how poor blood flow impacts both vitelline and umbilical vessel remodeling. Novel lightsheet live imaging techniques will be used to determine the consequence of impaired blood flow on yolk sac vasculature remodeling and formation of umbilical vessels using transgenic reporters: Flk-myr::mCherry, Flk1-H2B::YFP, or ɛGlobin-GFP. High-resolution 3D imaging of fixed and ScaleA2-cleared whole mount embryos labeled with Ki67 and Caspase3 will also be performed using lightsheet microscopy to quantify the proliferation and apoptotic indexes of early post-implanted embryos and yolk sac. This multi-modality approach is aimed at revealing further information about the cellular mechanisms required for proper vessel remodeling and the initial stages in placentation during early post-implantation development.

  20. Esrrb-Cre Excises loxP-Flanked Alleles in Early Four-Cell Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suyeon; Shaffer, Benjamin; Simerly, Calvin R.; Richard Chaillet, J.; Barak, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    Among transgenic mice with ubiquitous Cre recombinase activity, all strains to date excise loxP-flanked (floxed) alleles, either at or before the zygote stage or at nondescript stages of development. This manuscript describes a new mouse strain, in which Cre recombinase, integrated into the Esrrb locus, efficiently excises floxed alleles in pre-implantation embryos at the onset of the four-cell stage. By enabling inactivation of genes only after the embryo has undergone two cleavages, this strain should facilitate in vivo studies of genes with essential gametic or zygotic functions. In addition, this study describes a new, highly pluripotent hybrid C57BL/6J × 129S1/SvImJ mouse embryonic stem cell line, HYB12, in which this knock-in and additional targeted alleles have been generated. PMID:26663459

  1. Laminarin improves developmental competence of porcine early stage embryos by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Liang, Shuang; Yao, Xue-Rui; Jin, Yong-Xun; Shen, Xing-Hui; Yuan, Bao; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2018-04-23

    Laminarin (LMA), a β-glucan mixture with good biocompatibility, improves the growth performance and immune response when used as food additives and nutraceuticals. The aim of the present research was to explore the effects of LMA on porcine early stage embryo development, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that the developmental competence of porcine early stage embryos was dramatically improved after LMA supplementation during the in vitro culture period. The presence of 20 μg/mL LMA during the in vitro culture period significantly improved cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rates, hatching rate, and total cell number in the blastocyst compared to that in the control group. Notably, LMA attenuated the intracellular reactive oxygen species generation induced by H 2 O 2 . Furthermore, LMA not only increased intracellular glutathione levels, but also ameliorated mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the expression of a zygotic genome activation related gene (YAP1), pluripotency-related genes (OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2), and hatching-related genes (COX2, GATA4, and ITGA5) were up-regulated following LMA supplementation during porcine early stage embryo development. These results demonstrate that LMA has beneficial effects on the development of porcine early stage embryos via regulation of oxidative stress. This evidence provides a novel method for embryo development improvement associated with exposure to LMA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Wounded cells drive rapid epidermal repair in the early Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Zallen, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are protective barriers that display a remarkable ability to repair wounds. Wound repair is often associated with an accumulation of actin and nonmuscle myosin II around the wound, forming a purse string. The role of actomyosin networks in generating mechanical force during wound repair is not well understood. Here we investigate the mechanisms of force generation during wound repair in the epidermis of early and late Drosophila embryos. We find that wound closure is faster in early embryos, where, in addition to a purse string around the wound, actomyosin networks at the medial cortex of the wounded cells contribute to rapid wound repair. Laser ablation demonstrates that both medial and purse-string actomyosin networks generate contractile force. Quantitative analysis of protein localization dynamics during wound closure indicates that the rapid contraction of medial actomyosin structures during wound repair in early embryos involves disassembly of the actomyosin network. By contrast, actomyosin purse strings in late embryos contract more slowly in a mechanism that involves network condensation. We propose that the combined action of two force-generating structures—a medial actomyosin network and an actomyosin purse string—contributes to the increased efficiency of wound repair in the early embryo. PMID:23985320

  3. Irreversible barrier to the reprogramming of donor cells in cloning with mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yukiko; Kono, Tomohiro

    2006-08-01

    Somatic cloning does not always result in ontogeny in mammals, and development is often associated with various abnormalities and embryo loss with a high frequency. This is considered to be due to aberrant gene expression resulting from epigenetic reprogramming errors. However, a fundamental question in this context is whether the developmental abnormalities reported to date are specific to somatic cloning. The aim of this study was to determine the stage of nuclear differentiation during development that leads to developmental abnormalities associated with embryo cloning. In order to address this issue, we reconstructed cloned embryos using four- and eight-cell embryos, morula embryos, inner cell mass (ICM) cells, and embryonic stem cells as donor nuclei and determined the occurrence of abnormalities such as developmental arrest and placentomegaly, which are common characteristics of all mouse somatic cell clones. The present analysis revealed that an acute decline in the full-term developmental competence of cloned embryos occurred with the use of four- and eight-cell donor nuclei (22.7% vs. 1.8%) in cases of standard embryo cloning and with morula and ICM donor nuclei (11.4% vs. 6.6%) in serial nuclear transfer. Histological observation showed abnormal differentiation and proliferation of trophoblastic giant cells in the placentae of cloned concepti derived from four-cell to ICM cell donor nuclei. Enlargement of placenta along with excessive proliferation of the spongiotrophoblast layer and glycogen cells was observed in the clones derived from morula embryos and ICM cells. These results revealed that irreversible epigenetic events had already started to occur at the four-cell stage. In addition, the expression of genes involved in placentomegaly is regulated at the blastocyst stage by irreversible epigenetic events, and it could not be reprogrammed by the fusion of nuclei with unfertilized oocytes. Hence, developmental abnormalities such as placentomegaly as

  4. Early bovine embryos regulate oviduct epithelial cell gene expression during in vitro co-culture.

    PubMed

    Schmaltz-Panneau, Barbara; Cordova, Amanda; Dhorne-Pollet, Sophie; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Uzbekova, Sveltlana; Martinot, Emmanuelle; Doret, Sarah; Martin, Patrice; Mermillod, Pascal; Locatelli, Yann

    2014-10-01

    In mammals, the oviduct may participate to the regulation of early embryo development. In vitro co-culture of early bovine embryos with bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) has been largely used to mimic the maternal environment. However, the mechanisms of BOEC action have not been clearly elucidated yet. The aim of this study was to determine the response of BOEC cultures to the presence of developing bovine embryos. A 21,581-element bovine oligonucleotide array was used compare the gene expression profiles of confluent BOEC cultured for 8 days with or without embryos. This study revealed 34 differentially expressed genes (DEG). Of these 34 genes, IFI6, ISG15, MX1, IFI27, IFI44, RSAD2, IFITM1, EPSTI1, USP18, IFIT5, and STAT1 expression increased to the greatest extent due to the presence of embryos with a major impact on antiviral and immune response. Among the mRNAs at least 25 are already described as induced by interferons. In addition, transcript levels of new candidate genes involved in the regulation of transcription, modulation of the maternal immune system and endometrial remodeling were found to be increased. We selected 7 genes and confirmed their differential expression by quantitative RT-PCR. The immunofluorescence imaging of cellular localization of STAT1 protein in BOEC showed a nuclear translocation in the presence of embryos, suggesting the activation of interferon signaling pathway. This first systematic study of BOEC transcriptome changes in response to the presence of embryos in cattle provides some evidences that these cells are able to adapt their transcriptomic profile in response to embryo signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Internalization of silver nanoparticles into mouse spermatozoa results in poor fertilization and compromised embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Yoisungnern, Ton; Choi, Yun-Jung; Woong Han, Jae; Kang, Min-Hee; Das, Joydeep; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Kyung Chang, Won; Chang, Byung-Soo; Parnpai, Rangsun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have many features that make them attractive as medical devices, especially in therapeutic agents and drug delivery systems. Here we have introduced AgNPs into mouse spermatozoa and then determined the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on sperm function and subsequent embryo development. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that AgNPs could be internalized into sperm cells. Furthermore, exposure to AgNPs inhibited sperm viability and the acrosome reaction in a dose-dependent manner, whereas sperm mitochondrial copy numbers, morphological abnormalities, and mortality due to reactive oxygen species were significantly increased. Likewise, sperm abnormalities due to AgNPs internalization significantly decreased the rate of oocyte fertilization and blastocyst formation. Blastocysts obtained from AgNPs-treated spermatozoa showed lower expression of trophectoderm-associated and pluripotent marker genes. Overall, we propose that AgNPs internalization into spermatozoa may alter sperm physiology, leading to poor fertilization and embryonic development. Such AgNPs-induced reprotoxicity may be a valuable tool as models for testing the safety and applicability of medical devices using AgNPs. PMID:26054035

  6. Spindle formation in the mouse embryo requires Plk4 in the absence of centrioles.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paula A; Bury, Leah; Sharif, Bedra; Riparbelli, Maria G; Fu, Jingyan; Callaini, Giuliano; Glover, David M; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2013-12-09

    During the first five rounds of cell division in the mouse embryo, spindles assemble in the absence of centrioles. Spindle formation initiates around chromosomes, but the microtubule nucleating process remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Plk4, a protein kinase known as a master regulator of centriole formation, is also essential for spindle assembly in the absence of centrioles. Depletion of maternal Plk4 prevents nucleation and growth of microtubules and results in monopolar spindle formation. This leads to cytokinesis failure and, consequently, developmental arrest. We show that Plk4 function depends on its kinase activity and its partner protein, Cep152. Moreover, tethering Cep152 to cellular membranes sequesters Plk4 and is sufficient to trigger spindle assembly from ectopic membranous sites. Thus, the Plk4-Cep152 complex has an unexpected role in promoting microtubule nucleation in the vicinity of chromosomes to mediate bipolar spindle formation in the absence of centrioles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell cycle of matrix cells in the mouse embryo during histogenesis of telencephalon

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Murakami, U.

    1973-01-01

    Pregnant female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5 mu Ci/g body weight of /sup 3/H-thymidine (spec. act. 12 mu Ci/mM) at 1:30 p.m. on day 10, 13, or 17 of gestation and were put to death at 1 or 2 hr intervals per group. Embryos were removed quickly from mothers and fixed in Bouin's solution. The prepared slides were observed microscopically. The duration of the cell cycle of the matrix cells of the telencephalon was determined by direct graphic measurement, plotting the percentage of labeled mitosis against the time after / sup 3/H-thymidine injection according to the method of Quastlermore » and Sherman. The total cell cycle times in day 10, 13, and 17 groups were 7.0, 15.5, and 26.0 hr, respectively. It was characteristic in the alteration of cell cycle of matrix cells in the telencephalon during mouse embryonic life that not only G/sub 1/ but also S phase lengthened linearly with embryonic age, and both G/sub 2/ and M phases remained constant. According to these facts, the matrix cells seemed to change cytogenetically with increase of age so as to produce different neurons that would progressively make up different layers in the neocortex. (JA)« less

  8. Inhibition of Apoptosis Overcomes Stage-Related Compatibility Barriers to Chimera Formation in Mouse Embryos.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Hideki; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Umino, Ayumi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Era, Takumi; Loh, Kyle M; Wu, Sean M; Weissman, Irving L; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2016-11-03

    Cell types more advanced in development than embryonic stem cells, such as EpiSCs, fail to contribute to chimeras when injected into pre-implantation-stage blastocysts, apparently because the injected cells undergo apoptosis. Here we show that transient promotion of cell survival through expression of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 enables EpiSCs and Sox17 + endoderm progenitors to integrate into blastocysts and contribute to chimeric embryos. Upon injection into blastocyst, BCL2-expressing EpiSCs contributed to all bodily tissues in chimeric animals while Sox17 + endoderm progenitors specifically contributed in a region-specific fashion to endodermal tissues. In addition, BCL2 expression enabled rat EpiSCs to contribute to mouse embryonic chimeras, thereby forming interspecies chimeras that could survive to adulthood. Our system therefore provides a method to overcome cellular compatibility issues that typically restrict chimera formation. Application of this type of approach could broaden the use of embryonic chimeras, including region-specific chimeras, for basic developmental biology research and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exceptional preservation of tiny embryos documents seed dormancy in early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, Peter R; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica

    2015-12-24

    The rapid diversification of angiosperms through the Early Cretaceous period, between about 130-100 million years ago, initiated fundamental changes in the composition of terrestrial vegetation and is increasingly well understood on the basis of a wealth of palaeobotanical discoveries over the past four decades and their integration with improved knowledge of living angiosperms. Prevailing hypotheses, based on evidence both from living and from fossil plants, emphasize that the earliest angiosperms were plants of small stature with rapid life cycles that exploited disturbed habitats in open, or perhaps understorey, conditions. However, direct palaeontogical data relevant to understanding the seed biology and germination ecology of Early Cretaceous angiosperms are sparse. Here we report the discovery of embryos and their associated nutrient storage tissues in exceptionally well-preserved angiosperm seeds from the Early Cretaceous. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy of the fossil embryos from many taxa reveals that all were tiny at the time of dispersal. These results support hypotheses based on extant plants that tiny embryos and seed dormancy are basic for angiosperms as a whole. The minute size of the fossil embryos, and the modest nutrient storage tissues dictated by the overall small seed size, is also consistent with the interpretation that many early angiosperms were opportunistic, early successional colonizers of disturbance-prone habitats.

  10. The novel use of modified pig zygotic medium for the efficient culture of the preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Amarnath, Dasari; Wakayama, Sayaka; Zhu, Jie; Moawad, Adel R; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Campbell, Keith H S

    2011-12-01

    A high potassium concentration in culture media is considered detrimental to in vitro culture of mouse embryos. Here we show that pig zygotic medium (PZM) containing a higher concentration of potassium, and modified to contain 0.2 mM glucose and 0.01 mM EDTA, supported efficient pre- and post-implantation development of mouse zygotes to blastocysts and live pups, respectively. At first, modified PZM (mPZM) was compared with other culture media such as M16, CZB and KSOM-AA for its ability to support development of in vivo mouse zygotes to the blastocyst stage. The proportions of zygotes reaching 2-cell (94-99%) and blastocyst (90-96%) stages in mPZM and other media were not different. However, hatching rates of blastocysts were different (P < 0.05); whereas more than 90% of the blastocysts were hatching in mPZM or KSOM-AA, only 60% of the blastocysts did in M16 or CZB media (P < 0.05). Next we compared post-implantation development of in vitro fertilized zygotes developed to blastocysts in mPZM and KSOM-AA. The proportion of blastocysts developing into live pups was not different between mPZM (49%) and KSOM-AA (44%). Finally, we evaluated whether mPZM could be also used as a fertilization medium. Modified PZM containing 5.56 mM of glucose and 0.4% BSA efficiently supported IVF of mouse gametes. The percent of zygotes cleaving to 2-cell (94-98%) and blastocysts (91-93%) stage was not different from zygotes fertilized in human tubal fluid medium. We concluded that modified pig zygotic medium containing a higher potassium concentration than any other commonly used mouse media supported not only culture of mouse embryos, but also efficient IVF of mouse gametes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) impairs fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

    PubMed

    Glenn, David R J; McClure, Neil; Cosby, S Louise; Stevenson, Michael; Lewis, Sheena E M

    2009-03-01

    To determine the effects of sildenafil citrate, a cyclic monophosphate-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor known to affect sperm function, on fertilization and early embryo cleavage. This acute mammal study included male and female mice assigned randomly, the females sacrificed after mating and their oocytes/embryos evaluated at four time periods after treatment. Academic research environment. Male and female CBAB(6) mice. Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5 IU gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate follicular growth and induce ovulation. They were each caged with a male that had been gavaged with sildenafil citrate (0.06 mg/0.05 mL) and allowed to mate. After 12, 36, 60, and 84 h, females were killed, their oviducts were dissected out, and retrieved embryos were assessed for blastomere number and quality. Fertilization rates and numbers of embryos were evaluated after treatment. Fertilization rates (day 1) were markedly reduced (-33%) in matings where the male had taken sildenafil citrate. Over days 2-4, the numbers of embryos developing in the treated group were significantly fewer than in the control group. There was also a trend for impaired cleavage rates within those embryos, although this did not reach significance. The impairments to fertility caused by sildenafil citrate have important implications for infertility centers and for couples who are using this drug precoitally while attempting to conceive.

  12. Expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 during early mouse development.

    PubMed

    Winking, H; Gerdes, J; Traut, W

    2004-01-01

    In somatic tissues, the mouse Ki-67 protein (pKi-67) is expressed in proliferating cells only. Depending on the stage of the cell cycle, pKi-67 is associated with different nuclear domains: with euchromatin as part of the perichromosomal layer, with centromeric heterochromatin, and with the nucleolus. In gametes, sex-specific expression is evident. Mature MII oocytes contain pKi-67, whereas pKi-67 is not detectable in mature sperm. We investigated the re-establishment of the cell cycle-dependent distribution of pKi-67 during early mouse development. After fertilization, male and female pronuclei exhibited very little or no pKi-67, while polar bodies were pKi-67 positive. Towards the end of the first cell cycle, prophase chromosomes of male and female pronuclei simultaneously got decorated with pKi-67. In 2-cell embryos, the distribution pattern changed, presumably depending on the progress of development of the embryo, from a distribution all over the nucleus to a preferential location in the nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs). From the 4-cell stage onwards, pKi-67 showed the regular nuclear relocations known from somatic tissues: during mitosis the protein was found covering the chromosome arms as a constituent of the perichromosomal layer, in early G1 it was distributed in the whole nucleus, and for the rest of the cell cycle it was associated with NPBs or with the nucleolus. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Expression of voltage-activated calcium channels in the early zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Dayán; Montoya, Andro; Sierralta, Jimena; Kukuljan, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    Increases in cytosolic calcium concentrations regulate many cellular processes, including aspects of early development. Calcium release from intracellular stores and calcium entry through non-voltage-gated channels account for signalling in non-excitable cells, whereas voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) are important in excitable cells. We report the expression of multiple transcripts of CaV, identified by its homology to other species, in the early embryo of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, at stages prior to the differentiation of excitable cells. CaV mRNAs and proteins were detected as early as the 2-cell stages, which indicate that they arise from both maternal and zygotic transcription. Exposure of embryos to pharmacological blockers of CaV does not perturb early development significantly, although late effects are appreciable. These results suggest that CaV may have a role in calcium homeostasis and control of cellular process during early embryonic development.

  14. Early embryo mortality in natural human reproduction: What the data say

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Gavin E.

    2017-01-01

    How many human embryos die between fertilisation and birth under natural conditions? It is widely accepted that natural human embryo mortality is high, particularly during the first weeks after fertilisation, with total prenatal losses of 70% and higher frequently claimed. However, the first external sign of pregnancy occurs two weeks after fertilisation with a missed menstrual period, and establishing the fate of embryos before this is challenging. Calculations are additionally hampered by a lack of data on the efficiency of fertilisation under natural conditions. Four distinct sources are used to justify quantitative claims regarding embryo loss: (i) a hypothesis published by Roberts & Lowe in The Lancet  is widely cited but has no practical quantitative value; (ii) life table analyses give consistent assessments of clinical pregnancy loss, but cannot illuminate losses at earlier stages of development; (iii) studies that measure human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) reveal losses in the second week of development and beyond, but not before; and (iv) the classic studies of Hertig and Rock offer the only direct insight into the fate of human embryos from fertilisation under natural conditions. Re-examination of Hertig’s data demonstrates that his estimates for fertilisation rate and early embryo loss are highly imprecise and casts doubt on the validity of his numerical analysis. A recent re-analysis of hCG study data concluded that approximately 40-60% of embryos may be lost between fertilisation and birth, although this will vary substantially between individual women. In conclusion, natural human embryo mortality is lower than often claimed and widely accepted. Estimates for total prenatal mortality of 70% or higher are exaggerated and not supported by the available data. PMID:28580126

  15. Ectopic expression of Cripto-1 in transgenic mouse embryos causes hemorrhages, fatal cardiac defects and embryonic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wentao; Jia, Junshuang; Lin, Taoyan; Xiao, Gaofang; Wang, Shengchun; Lin, Xia; Liu, Yu; Chen, Li; Qin, Yujuan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Tingting; Hao, Weichao; Chen, Bangzhu; Xie, Raoying; Cheng, Yushuang; Xu, Kang; Yao, Kaitai; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Dong; Sun, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Targeted disruption of Cripto-1 in mice caused embryonic lethality at E7.5, whereas we unexpectedly found that ectopic Cripto-1 expression in mouse embryos also led to embryonic lethality, which prompted us to characterize the causes and mechanisms underlying embryonic death due to ectopic Cripto-1 expression. RCLG/EIIa-Cre embryos displayed complex phenotypes between embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) and E17.5, including fatal hemorrhages (E14.5-E15.5), embryo resorption (E14.5-E17.5), pale body surface (E14.5-E16.5) and no abnormal appearance (E14.5-E16.5). Macroscopic and histological examination revealed that ectopic expression of Cripto-1 transgene in RCLG/EIIa-Cre embryos resulted in lethal cardiac defects, as evidenced by cardiac malformations, myocardial thinning, failed assembly of striated myofibrils and lack of heartbeat. In addition, Cripto-1 transgene activation beginning after E8.5 also caused the aforementioned lethal cardiac defects in mouse embryos. Furthermore, ectopic Cripto-1 expression in embryonic hearts reduced the expression of cardiac transcription factors, which is at least partially responsible for the aforementioned lethal cardiac defects. Our results suggest that hemorrhages and cardiac abnormalities are two important lethal factors in Cripto-1 transgenic mice. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate that sustained Cripto-1 transgene expression after E11.5 causes fatal hemorrhages and lethal cardiac defects, leading to embryonic death at E14.5-17.5. PMID:27687577

  16. Extra-embryonic tissue spreading directs early embryo morphogenesis in killifish

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Germán; Cerda, Mauricio; Sepúlveda, Néstor; Flores, Daniela; Castañeda, Victor; Tada, Masazumi; Härtel, Steffen; Concha, Miguel L.

    2017-01-01

    The spreading of mesenchymal-like cell layers is critical for embryo morphogenesis and tissue repair, yet we know little of this process in vivo. Here we take advantage of unique developmental features of the non-conventional annual killifish embryo to study the principles underlying tissue spreading in a simple cellular environment, devoid of patterning signals and major morphogenetic cell movements. Using in vivo experimentation and physical modelling we reveal that the extra-embryonic epithelial enveloping cell layer, thought mainly to provide protection to the embryo, directs cell migration and the spreading of embryonic tissue during early development. This function relies on the ability of embryonic cells to couple their autonomous random motility to non-autonomous signals arising from the expansion of the extra-embryonic epithelium, mediated by cell membrane adhesion and tension. Thus, we present a mechanism of extra-embryonic control of embryo morphogenesis that couples the mechanical properties of adjacent tissues in the early killifish embryo. PMID:28580937

  17. Changes in Oscillatory Dynamics in the Cell Cycle of Early Xenopus laevis Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tony Y.-C.; Theriot, Julie A.; Ferrell, James E.

    2014-01-01

    During the early development of Xenopus laevis embryos, the first mitotic cell cycle is long (∼85 min) and the subsequent 11 cycles are short (∼30 min) and clock-like. Here we address the question of how the Cdk1 cell cycle oscillator changes between these two modes of operation. We found that the change can be attributed to an alteration in the balance between Wee1/Myt1 and Cdc25. The change in balance converts a circuit that acts like a positive-plus-negative feedback oscillator, with spikes of Cdk1 activation, to one that acts like a negative-feedback-only oscillator, with a shorter period and smoothly varying Cdk1 activity. Shortening the first cycle, by treating embryos with the Wee1A/Myt1 inhibitor PD0166285, resulted in a dramatic reduction in embryo viability, and restoring the length of the first cycle in inhibitor-treated embryos with low doses of cycloheximide partially rescued viability. Computations with an experimentally parameterized mathematical model show that modest changes in the Wee1/Cdc25 ratio can account for the observed qualitative changes in the cell cycle. The high ratio in the first cycle allows the period to be long and tunable, and decreasing the ratio in the subsequent cycles allows the oscillator to run at a maximal speed. Thus, the embryo rewires its feedback regulation to meet two different developmental requirements during early development. PMID:24523664

  18. Pluripotency maintenance in mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos and its improvement by treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA.

    PubMed

    Hai, Tang; Hao, Jie; Wang, Liu; Jouneau, Alice; Zhou, Qi

    2011-02-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency can be achieved by nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes (SCNT). A key event of this process is the demethylation of the Oct4 gene and its temporally and spatially regulated expression. Different studies have shown that it occurs abnormally in some SCNT embryos. TSA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor known to increase the efficiency of development to term of SCNT embryos, but its impact on the developmental features of SCNT embryos is poorly understood. Here, we have followed the fate of the pluripotent cells within SCNT embryos, from the late blastocyst to the early epiblast prior to gastrulation. Our data show a delay in development correlated with a defect in forming and maintaining a correct number of Oct4 expressing ICM and epiblast cells in SCNT embryos. As a consequence, during the outgrowth phase of embryonic stem cell derivation as well as during diapause in vivo, part of the SCNT blastocysts completely lose their ICM cells. Meanwhile, the others display a correctly reprogrammed ICM compatible with the derivation of ES cells and development of the epiblast. Our data also indicate that TSA favors the establishment of pluripotency in SCNT embryos.

  19. A technique for sexing fully developed embryos and early-instar larvae of the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Gilbert Levesque

    1963-01-01

    Because variation in sex ratio is an important factor in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar), it is necessary to have some means of determining the ratio of males to females in a population at the beginning of the larval period as well as in the later stages. For determining the sex of fully developed embryos and early-...

  20. Effects of embryo size at transfer (whole versus demi) and early pregnancy progesterone supplementation on embryo growth and pregnancy-specific protein bovine concentrations in recipient dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Lopes-da-Costa, L; Chagas e Silva, J; Deloche, M C; Jeanguyot, N; Humblot, P; Horta, A E M

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate embryonic size and survival, plasma progesterone (P4) and pregnancy-specific protein bovine (PSPB) concentrations in early pregnancies (n = 99) following the transfer of one whole (n = 66) or one demi (n = 33) embryo to recipient virgin dairy heifers. The experiment was designed to evaluate the fixed effects of embryo size at transfer (whole or demi embryo) on Day 7 of the estrous cycle (Day 0 = estrus) and P4 supplementation between Days 7 to 19 through an intravaginal device (yes or no) on plasma P4 and PSPB concentrations and on embryo measurements. Plasma P4 concentrations were measured by RIA on Days 0, 7, 14, 19, 21, 25, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 of pregnancy and, PSPB concentrations were measured by ELISA on Days 7, 21, 25, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63. The presence of an embryonic vesicle was detected on Day 25, embryonic/fetal movements and heartbeat were evaluated on Days 42 and 63 and embryo measurements [crown-rump length (CRL) and width at mid body] were obtained on Day 42 through ultrasonography. In non-supplemented pregnancies, Day 42 whole embryos had higher (P < 0.05) CRL and width than demi embryos, but the difference averaged only 1 to 2 mm. In P4 supplemented pregnancies, whole and demi embryos attained a similar size on Day 42 of pregnancy. Embryo size at transfer, early exogenous P4 supplementation and their interactions had no effects (P > 0.05) on plasma P4 concentrations. However, the post-hoc LSD evaluation showed that plasma P4 concentrations on Day 25 were higher (P < 0.001) in whole than in demi embryo derived pregnancies and, that exogenous P4 supplementation increased (P < 0.05) plasma P4 concentrations on Day 19 of pregnancy. The plasma PSPB detection rate on Days 7 to 63 of pregnancy was similar in pregnancies resulting from the transfer of whole and demi embryos. From a total of 93 recipients remaining pregnant until Day 63, plasma PSPB was constantly undetectable on Day 7, was detected in 4% of

  1. The influence of early embryo traits on human embryonic stem cell derivation efficiency.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Thomas; Heindryckx, Björn; Lierman, Sylvie; Van der Jeught, Margot; Menten, Björn; Deforce, Dieter; Cornelissen, Ria; de Sousa Lopes, Susana Chuva; De Sutter, Petra

    2011-05-01

    Despite its prognostic value in in vitro fertilization, early embryo morphology is not reported on in the derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. Standard hESC derivation does rely on blastocyst development and its efficiency is highly correlated to inner cell mass (ICM) quality. Poor-quality embryos (PQEs) donated for hESC derivation may have a range of cleavage-stage abnormalities that are known to compromise further development. This study was implemented to determine whether specific PQEs traits influence the efficiency of good-quality ICMs to derive new hESC lines. We found that although the types of PQEs investigated were all able to make blastocysts with good-quality ICMs, the ICMs were unequal in their ability to derive hESCs. Good-quality ICMs from embryos with multiple poor-quality traits were unable to generate hESC lines, in contrast to good-quality ICMs from embryos with a single poor-quality trait. In addition, our data suggest a direct correlation between the number of ICM cells present in the blastocyst and its capacity to derive new hESC lines. This study is the first to demonstrate that ICM quality alone is an incomplete indicator of hESC derivation and that application of in vitro fertilization-based early embryo scoring can help predict hESC derivation efficiency. Experiments aiming to quantify, improve upon, or compare hESC derivation efficiency should thus take into consideration early embryo morphology scoring for the comparison of groups with equal developmental competence.

  2. Effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor 'Scriptaid' on the developmental competence of mouse embryos generated through round spermatid injection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Pengcheng; Yin, Mingru; Chen, Dongbao; Li, Shangang; Li, Yao; Xing, Fengying; Jiang, Manxi; Fang, Zhenfu; Lyu, Qifeng; Chen, Xuejin

    2017-01-01

    Can the histone deacetylase inhibitor Scriptaid improve the efficiency of the development of round spermatid injection (ROSI)-fertilized embryos in a mouse model? Treatment of ROSI mouse zygotes with Scriptaid increased the expression levels of several development-related genes at the blastocyst stage, resulting in more efficient in vitro development of the blastocyst and an increased birth rate of ROSI-derived embryos. The full-term development of embryos derived through ROSI is significantly lower than that following ICSI in humans and other species. Oocytes, spermatozoa and round spermatids were collected from BDF1 (C57BL/6 × DBA/2) mice. For in vitro development experiments, mouse ROSI-derived zygotes were treated with Scriptaid at different concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 nM) and for different exposure times (0, 6, 10, 16 or 24 h). Next, blastocysts of the optimal Scriptaid-treated group and the non-treated ROSI group were separately transferred into surrogate ICR mice to compare in vivo development with the ICSI group (control). Each experiment was repeated at least three times. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes, spermatozoa and round spermatids were obtained from sexually mature BDF1 female or male mice. The developmental potential of embryos among the three groups (the ICSI, ROSI and optimal Scriptaid-treated ROSI groups) was assessed based on the rates of obtaining zygotes, two-cell stage embryos, four-cell stage embryos, blastocysts and full-term offspring. In addition, the expression levels of development-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, Klf4 and Sox2) were analysed using real-time PCR, and the methylation states of imprinted genes (H19 and Snrpn) in these three groups were detected using methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) sequencing following bisulfite treatment. The in vitro experiments revealed that treating ROSI-derived zygotes with 250 nM Scriptaid for 10 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate (59%) compared with the non-treated group

  3. Biopsy of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization affects development in C57BL/6 mouse strain

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Atsushi; Ward, Monika A.

    2012-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is considered highly successful in respect to its accuracy in detecting genetic anomalies but the effects of embryo biopsy on embryonic/fetal growth and development are less known, particularly in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Here, we compared biopsied (B) and non-biopsied (NB) mouse embryos for their developmental competence. Embryos C57BL/6 (B6) and B6D2F2 (F2) generated by IVF were subjected to single blastomere biopsy at the 4-cell stage, and were either cultured for 120 h and subjected to differential inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast (T) staining, or were transferred into the uterine tubes of surrogate mothers after 72 h of culture, to examine their pre- and post-implantation development, respectively. Non-biopsied embryos from the same IVF cohorts served as controls. Embryo biopsy negatively affected preimplantation development to blastocyst in C57BL/6 (69 vs 79%, P<0.01) but not in B6D2F1 mice (89 vs 91%, P=NS). Although B6 embryos had lower total cell number than F2 (B6: 47 and 61 vs. F1: 53 and 70; B and NB, respectively, P<0.05) there were no differences between B and NB blastocysts in %ICM (B6: 19.8 vs 19.8; F2: 20.9 vs 20.4, P=NS) and ICM:T ratio (B6: 4.7 vs 4.7; F2: 4.4 vs. 4.7) in both mouse strains. Post-implantation development to live fetuses of B embryos as compared to NB counterparts was impaired in C57BL/6 (6 vs 18%, P<0.001) but not in B6D2F1 mice (26 vs 35%, P=NS). We conclude that blastomere biopsy impairs embryonic/fetal development in mice known to be sensitive to in vitro culture and manipulations. Such mice model infertile couples with poor quality gametes seeking help in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) clinics. PMID:23174776

  4. Immunological mechanisms to establish embryo tolerance in early bovine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Groebner, A E; Schulke, K; Schefold, J C; Fusch, G; Sinowatz, F; Reichenbach, H D; Wolf, E; Meyer, H H D; Ulbrich, S E

    2011-01-01

    A well-balanced immunological interaction between mother and the semi-allogenic embryo is of particular importance. The objective of the present study was to analyse mechanisms of immune tolerance in bovine pregnancy during peri-implantation. Simmental heifers inseminated with either cryopreserved spermatozoa or seminal plasma were killed 12, 15 or 18 days after oestrus. Uteri were flushed for the recovery of conceptuses and the ipsilateral intercaruncular endometrium was sampled for gene expression analysis. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA, coding for the initial enzyme of the kynurenine pathway, was 18-fold (P < 0.001) more abundant in the endometrium of Day 18 pregnant v. non-pregnant animals. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed a decrease of endometrial l-tryptophan (P = 0.0008), but an increase of l-kynurenine concentration (P = 0.005) from Day 12 to Day 18, suggesting increasing IDO activity (P < 0.03). An in vitro coculture model of endometrial cells showed an induction of IDO expression following interferon-τ exposure primarily in stroma cells, which was confirmed by in situ hybridisation localising IDO mRNA mainly in deep stroma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed fewer CD45-positive leucocytes in the zona basalis of pregnant animals. Elevated IDO activity may reduce the presence of leucocytes in the pregnant endometrium, providing a possible mechanism for protecting the semi-allogenic conceptus from maternal rejection.

  5. Early Maternal Alcohol Consumption Alters Hippocampal DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Volume in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Marjonen, Heidi; Sierra, Alejandra; Nyman, Anna; Rogojin, Vladimir; Gröhn, Olli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are known, but the molecular events that lead to the phenotypic characteristics are unclear. To unravel the molecular mechanisms, we have used a mouse model of gestational ethanol exposure, which is based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v) ethanol for the first 8 days of gestation (GD 0.5-8.5). Early neurulation takes place by the end of this period, which is equivalent to the developmental stage early in the fourth week post-fertilization in human. During this exposure period, dynamic epigenetic reprogramming takes place and the embryo is vulnerable to the effects of environmental factors. Thus, we hypothesize that early ethanol exposure disrupts the epigenetic reprogramming of the embryo, which leads to alterations in gene regulation and life-long changes in brain structure and function. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in the mouse hippocampus revealed altered expression of 23 genes and three miRNAs in ethanol-exposed, adolescent offspring at postnatal day (P) 28. We confirmed this result by using two other tissues, where three candidate genes are known to express actively. Interestingly, we found a similar trend of upregulated gene expression in bone marrow and main olfactory epithelium. In addition, we observed altered DNA methylation in the CpG islands upstream of the candidate genes in the hippocampus. Our MRI study revealed asymmetry of brain structures in ethanol-exposed adult offspring (P60): we detected ethanol-induced enlargement of the left hippocampus and decreased volume of the left olfactory bulb. Our study indicates that ethanol exposure in early gestation can cause changes in DNA methylation, gene expression, and brain structure of offspring. Furthermore, the results support our hypothesis of early epigenetic origin of alcohol-induced disorders: changes in gene regulation may have already taken place in embryonic stem cells and therefore can be seen in different tissue

  6. Influence of follicle characteristics at ovulation on early embryo survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reproductive losses are significant in domestic animals and represent huge economic inefficiencies in livestock production. Across livestock species, embryonic mortality is the greatest contributor to reproductive losses. In most livestock species, early pregnancy diagnosis is an impediment to mak...

  7. Nucleolus Precursor Bodies and Ribosome Biogenesis in Early Mammalian Embryos: Old Theories and New Discoveries.

    PubMed

    Fulka, Helena; Aoki, Fugaku

    2016-06-01

    In mammals, mature oocytes and early preimplantation embryos contain transcriptionally inactive structures termed nucleolus precursor bodies instead of the typical fibrillo-granular nucleoli. These nuclear organelles are essential and strictly of maternal origin. If they are removed from oocytes, the resulting embryos are unable to replace them and consequently fail to develop. Historically, nucleolus precursor bodies have been perceived as a passive repository site of nucleolar proteins that are required for embryos to form fully functional nucleoli. Recent results, however, contradict this long-standing dogma and show that these organelles are dispensable for nucleologenesis and ribosome biogenesis. In this article, we discuss the possible roles of nucleolus precursor bodies and propose how they might be involved in embryogenesis. Furthermore, we argue that these organelles are essential only shortly after fertilization and suggest that they might actively participate in centromeric chromatin establishment. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  8. The Effect of Levetiracetam on Closure of the Midline in Early Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Ozgural, Onur; Armagan, Ercan; Bozkurt, Melih; Eroglu, Umit; Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Unlu, Agahan

    2015-01-01

    Genetic predisposition and some environmental factors play an important role in the development of neural tube defects. Levetiracetam is a new drug that has been approved in the treatment of partial seizures. We aimed in this study to determine the effect of levetiracetam on chick embryos. One hundred and sixty fertile non-pathogenic Super Nick eggs were incubated for 24 hours and were divided into four groups of 40 eggs each. Levetiracetam was administered via the sub-blastodermic route. The eggs were incubated for another 24 hours. All eggs were opened at the 48th hour, and the embryos were evaluated morphologically and histopathologically. The effects of levetiracetam on the embryo were correlated with the dose of levetiracetam. In the light of the results, it was determined that the use of increasing doses of levetiracetam led to defects of midline closure in early chicken embryos. Levetiracetam, a new antiepileptic drug that is effective especially on calcium ion concentration, leads to defects in midline closure in embryos in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies are needed to show the mechanism of embryonic damage and the mechanisms of its teratogenous effects associated with genetic and environmental factors.

  9. Chicken Embryos as a Potential New Model for Early Onset Type I Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liheng; Ko, Michael L.; Huang, Cathy Chia-Yu; Park, So-Young; Hong, Min-Pyo; Ko, Gladys Y.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population. The purpose of this study is to establish a new diabetic animal model using a cone-dominant avian species to address the distorted color vision and altered cone pathway responses in prediabetic and early diabetic patients. Chicken embryos were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ), high concentration of glucose (high-glucose), or vehicle at embryonic day 11. Cataracts occurred in varying degrees in both STZ- and high glucose-induced diabetic chick embryos at E18. Streptozotocin-diabetic chicken embryos had decreased levels of blood insulin, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT). In STZ-injected E20 embryos, the ERG amplitudes of both a- and b-waves were significantly decreased, the implicit time of the a-wave was delayed, while that of the b-wave was significantly increased. Photoreceptors cultured from STZ-injected E18 embryos had a significant decrease in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) currents, which was reflected in the decreased level of L-VGCCα1D subunit in the STZ-diabetic retinas. Through these independent lines of evidence, STZ-injection was able to induce pathological conditions in the chicken embryonic retina, and it is promising to use chickens as a potential new animal model for type I diabetes. PMID:25133191

  10. Expression of genes involved in early cell fate decisions in human embryos and their regulation by growth factors.

    PubMed

    Kimber, S J; Sneddon, S F; Bloor, D J; El-Bareg, A M; Hawkhead, J A; Metcalfe, A D; Houghton, F D; Leese, H J; Rutherford, A; Lieberman, B A; Brison, D R

    2008-05-01

    Little is understood about the regulation of gene expression in human preimplantation embryos. We set out to examine the expression in human preimplantation embryos of a number of genes known to be critical for early development of the murine embryo. The expression profile of these genes was analysed throughout preimplantation development and in response to growth factor (GF) stimulation. Developmental expression of a number of genes was similar to that seen in murine embryos (OCT3B/4, CDX2, NANOG). However, GATA6 is expressed throughout preimplantation development in the human. Embryos were cultured in IGF-I, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), all of which are known to stimulate the development of human embryos. Our data show that culture in HBEGF and LIF appears to facilitate human embryo expression of a number of genes: ERBB4 (LIF) and LIFR and DSC2 (HBEGF) while in the presence of HBEGF no blastocysts expressed EOMES and when cultured with LIF only two out of nine blastocysts expressed TBN. These data improve our knowledge of the similarities between human and murine embryos and the influence of GFs on human embryo gene expression. Results from this study will improve the understanding of cell fate decisions in early human embryos, which has important implications for both IVF treatment and the derivation of human embryonic stem cells.

  11. Rotatin is a novel gene required for axial rotation and left-right specification in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Faisst, Anja M; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo; Treichel, Dieter; Gruss, Peter

    2002-04-01

    The genetic cascade that governs left-right (L-R) specification is starting to be elucidated. In the mouse, the lateral asymmetry of the body axis is revealed first by the asymmetric expression of nodal, lefty2 and pitx2 in the left lateral plate mesoderm of the neurulating embryo. Here we describe a novel gene, rotatin, essential for the correct expression of the key L-R specification genes nodal, lefty and Pitx2. Embryos deficient in rotatin show also randomized heart looping and delayed neural tube closure, and fail to undergo the critical morphogenetic step of axial rotation. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA is predicted to contain at least three transmembrane domains. Our results show a novel key player in the genetic cascade that determines L-R specification, and suggest a causal link between this process and axial rotation.

  12. Comparison of embryo development between intracytoplasmic and Piezo-assisted sperm injection after treating mouse sperms by Ca2+ ionophore.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Kazemi Ashtiani, Saeid

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and Piezo-assisted sperm injection after pretreatment with calcium ionophore (CaI) on the mouse embryo development. In this study, the conventional ICSI and Piezo-ICSI procedures were used. The efficacy of the methods was examined after mouse matured oocytes were fertilized with or without CaI-treated sperms. Piezo-ICSI demonstrated significantly more favorable results, with a fertilization rate of 64% (conventional ICSI: 42%, P<0.001) and a cleavage rate of 73% (conventional ICSI: 58%, P<0.05). When the Piezo-ICSI procedure was performed with CaI-pretreated sperms, the cleavage rate significantly increased (92% vs. 73%, P<0.05). However, the fertilization rate did not change significantly (64% vs. 56%). The Piezo-ICSI accompanies with CaI-treated sperms is more efficient than the conventional ICSI method for fertilizing and thus obtaining more mouse embryos.

  13. Repeated use of surrogate mothers for embryo transfer in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Thomas; Palme, Rupert; Touma, Chadi; Rülicke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Embryo transfer in mice is a crucial technique for generation of transgenic animals, rederivation of contaminated lines, and revitalization of cryopreserved strains, and it is a key component of assisted reproduction techniques. It is common practice to use females only once as surrogate mothers. However, their reuse for a second embryo transfer could provide hygienic and economic advantages and conform to the concept of the 3Rs (replace, reduce, refine). This investigation evaluated the potential for a second embryo transfer in terms of feasibility, reproductive results, and experimental burden for the animal. Virgin female ICR mice (age 8-16 wk) were used as recipients for the first embryo transfer. Immediately after weaning of the first litter, a second surgical embryo transfer was performed into the same oviduct. Virgin females of comparable age to the reused mothers served as controls and underwent the same procedure. The first surgery did not affect the success of the second embryo transfer. Histological sections showed excellent wound healing without relevant impairment of involved tissues. We observed no differences in pregnancy rates or litter sizes between the transfer groups. Most importantly, we found no change in behavior indicating reduced well-being and no increase of corticosterone metabolites in the feces of surrogate mothers reused for a second embryo transfer. We conclude that a second embryo transfer in mice is feasible with regard to reproductive and animal welfare aspects.

  14. Femtosecond laser surgery of two-cell mouse embryos: effect on viability, development, and tetraploidization.

    PubMed

    Osychenko, Alina A; Zalessky, Alexandr D; Kostrov, Andrey N; Ryabova, Anastasia V; Krivokharchenko, Alexander S; Nadtochenko, Viktor A

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the laser pulse energy and total expose of the energy incident on the embryo blastomere fusion probability was investigated. The probability of the four different events after laser pulse was determined: the fusion of two blastomeres with the following formation of tetraploid embryo, the destruction of the first blastomere occurs, the second blastomere conservation remains intact, the destruction and the death of both cells; two blastomeres were not fused, and no morphological changes occurred. We report on viability and quality of the embryo after laser surgery as a function of the laser energy incident. To characterize embryo quality, the probability of the blastocyst stage achievement was estimated and the blastocyst cells number was calculated. Blastocoel formation is the only event of morphogenesis in the preimplantation development of mammals, so we assumed it as an indicator of the time of embryonic "clocks" and observed it among fused and control embryos. The blastocoel formation time is the same for fused and control embryos. It indicates that embryo clocks were not affected due to blastomere fusion. Thus, the analysis of the fluorescence microscopic images of nuclei in the fused embryo revealed that nuclei fusion does not occur after blastomere fusion. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. Femtosecond laser surgery of two-cell mouse embryos: effect on viability, development, and tetraploidization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osychenko, Alina A.; Zalessky, Alexandr D.; Kostrov, Andrey N.; Ryabova, Anastasia V.; Krivokharchenko, Alexander S.; Nadtochenko, Viktor A.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the laser pulse energy and total expose of the energy incident on the embryo blastomere fusion probability was investigated. The probability of the four different events after laser pulse was determined: the fusion of two blastomeres with the following formation of tetraploid embryo, the destruction of the first blastomere occurs, the second blastomere conservation remains intact, the destruction and the death of both cells; two blastomeres were not fused, and no morphological changes occurred. We report on viability and quality of the embryo after laser surgery as a function of the laser energy incident. To characterize embryo quality, the probability of the blastocyst stage achievement was estimated and the blastocyst cells number was calculated. Blastocoel formation is the only event of morphogenesis in the preimplantation development of mammals, so we assumed it as an indicator of the time of embryonic "clocks" and observed it among fused and control embryos. The blastocoel formation time is the same for fused and control embryos. It indicates that embryo clocks were not affected due to blastomere fusion. Thus, the analysis of the fluorescence microscopic images of nuclei in the fused embryo revealed that nuclei fusion does not occur after blastomere fusion.

  16. Embryotrophic factor-3 from human oviductal cells enhances proliferation, suppresses apoptosis and stimulates the expression of the beta1 subunit of sodium-potassium ATPase in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Xu, J S; Lee, Y L; Lee, K F; Kwok, K L; Lee, W M; Luk, J M; Yeung, W S B

    2004-12-01

    Embrytrophic factor-3 (ETF-3) from human oviductal cells enhanced the development of mouse preimplantation embryos. This report studied the embryotrophic mechanisms of the molecule. Mouse embryos were incubated with ETF-3 for 24 h at different stages of development. ETF-3 treatment between 96 and 120 h post-HCG increased the cell count of blastocysts, whilst treatment between 72 and 96 h post-HCG enhanced the expansion and hatching of the blastocysts. ETF-3 increased the cell number of the embryos by suppressing apoptosis and increasing proliferation as determined by TUNEL and bromodeoxyuridine uptake assays, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the in vivo developed and ETF-3-treated blastocysts had a significantly higher mRNA copy number of Na/K-ATPase-beta1, but not of hepsin, than that of blastocysts cultured in medium alone. The former gene was associated with cavitation of blastocysts while the latter was related to hatching of blastocyst. The beneficial effect of ETF-3 on blastocyst hatching was also seen when ETF-3-supplemented commercially available sequential culture medium for human embryo culture was used to culture mouse embryos. ETF-3 improves embryo development by enhancing proliferation, suppressing apoptosis and stimulating expression of genes related to blastocyst cavitation. Supplementating human embryo culture medium with ETF-3 may improve the success rate in clinical assisted reproduction.

  17. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  18. Successful development of viable blastocysts from enhanced green fluorescent protein transgene-microinjected mouse embryos: comparison of culture media.

    PubMed

    Devgan, Vikram; Seshagiri, Polani B

    2003-07-01

    To improve efficiency of transgenesis, we compared M16 and CZB embryo culture media, supporting development to blastocysts of FVB/N mouse pronuclear-eggs, microinjected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. When EGFP-injected-eggs were cultured (120 hr), blastocyst development was significantly (P < 0.03) higher in M16 medium (72.5 +/- 2.4%) than that in CZB (13.2 +/- 4.3%) or CZBG (CZB with 5.6 mM glucose at 48 hr culture) (62.1 +/- 3.7%) media. Blastocyst development of noninjected embryos was higher in M16 (92.0 +/- 2.6%) and CZBG (83.9 +/- 3.9%) media than in CZB (31.9 +/- 2.8%) medium (P < 0.0001). However, percentages of morulae at 72 hr were comparable in all treatments. Developed blastocysts were better in M16 than in CZB or CZBG media. Consistent with this, mean cell number per blastocyst, developed from injected embryos, was significantly (P < 0.002) higher in M16 medium (79.6), than those in CZB (31.3) or CZBG media (60.7); similar with noninjected embryos. Cell allocation to trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), i.e., TE:ICM ratio, for injected blastocysts in M16 (3.0) was less than (P < 0.05) those in CZB (4.2) and CZBG (4.4) media; similar with noninjected blastocysts. Moreover, blastocysts, developed in M16 and CZBG media, hatched, attached, and exhibited trophoblast outgrowth; 18% of them showed EGFP-expression. Importantly, blastocysts from M16 medium produced live transgenic "green" pups (11%) following embryo transfer. Taken together, our results indicate that supplementation of glucose, at 48 hr of culture (CZBG), is required for morula to blastocyst transition; M16 medium, containing glucose from the beginning of culture, is superior to CZB or CZBG for supporting development of biologically viable blastocysts from EGFP-transgene-injected mouse embryos. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Six post-implantation lethal knockouts of genes for lipophilic MAPK pathway proteins are expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos and trophoblast stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yufen; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Tong; Wang, Fangfei; Trostinskaia, Anna; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2005-05-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play an important role in controlling embryonic proliferation and differentiation. It has been demonstrated that sequential lipophilic signal transduction mediators that participate in the MAPK pathway are null post-implantation lethal. It is not clear why the lethality of these null mutants arises after implantation and not before. One hypothesis is that the gene product of these post-implantation lethal null mutants are not present before implantation in normal embryos and do not have function until after implantation. To test this hypothesis, we selected a set of lipophilic genes mediating MAPK signal transduction pathways whose null mutants result in early peri-implantation or placental lethality. These included FRS2alpha, GAB1, GRB2, SOS1, Raf-B, and Raf1. Products of these selected genes were detected and their locations and functions indicated by indirect immunocytochemistry and Western blotting for proteins and RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mRNA transcription. We report here that all six signal mediators are detected at the protein level in preimplantation mouse embryo, placental trophoblasts, and in cultured trophoblast stem cells (TSC). Proteins are all detected in E3.5 embryos at a time when the first known mitogenic intercellular communication has been documented. mRNA transcripts of two post-implantation null mutant genes are expressed in mouse preimplantation embryos and unfertilized eggs. These mRNA transcripts were detected as maternal mRNA in unfertilized eggs that could delay the lethality of null mutants. All of the proteins were detected in the cytoplasm or in the cell membrane. This study of spatial and temporal expression revealed that all of these six null mutants post-implantation genes in MAPK pathway are expressed and, where tested, phosphorylated/activated proteins are detected in the blastocyst. Studies on RNA expression using RT-PCR suggest that maternal RNA could play

  20. Rapid Induction of Apoptosis in Gastrulating Mouse Embryos by Ethanol and Its Prevention by HB-EGF

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Brian A.; Chiang, Po Jen; Wang, Jun; Flentke, George R.; Smith, Susan M.; Armant, D. Randall

    2006-01-01

    Background Ethanol exposure during gastrulation and early neurulation induces apoptosis within certain embryonic cell populations, leading to craniofacial and neurological defects. There is currently little information about the initial kinetics of ethanol-induced apoptosis, and interest in the ability of endogenous survival factors to moderate apoptosis is growing. Ethanol alters intracellular signaling, leading to cell death in chick embryos, suggesting that apoptosis could occur rapidly and that signaling pathways activated by survival factors might reduce apoptosis. Methods Pregnant mice were intubated with 1, 2, or 4 g/kg ethanol on day 7.5 of embryogenesis (E7.5) 1, 3, or 6, hours before harvesting gastrulation-stage embryos. Control animals received maltose/dextran. Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) were determined by gas chromatography. E7.5 embryos isolated from untreated dams were cultured in vitro for 1 or 3 hr with 0 or 400 mg% ethanol and 0 or 5 nM heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Apoptosis was quantified using fluorescence microscopy to detect annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation [terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-X nick end labeling (TUNEL)] in whole-mount or sectioned embryos. Results Both annexin V binding and TUNEL were elevated (p<0.05) in embryos exposed in utero to 1 g/kg ethanol for 3 hours, increasing linearly with time and ethanol concentration. Apoptosis increased (p<0.05) in all germ cell layers. Mice treated with 4 g/kg sustained BAC of 400 mg% for nearly 3 hours, significantly increasing apoptosis within the first hour. Cultured embryos exposed to 400 mg% ethanol displayed 2- to 3-fold more TUNEL than vehicle-treated embryos (p<0.05); however, exogenous HB-EGF prevented apoptosis. Conclusions Ethanol rapidly produced apoptosis in gastrulation-stage embryos, consistent with induction by intracellular signaling. The ethanol-induced apoptotic pathway was blocked by the

  1. Transcriptome analyses based on genetic screens for Pax3 myogenic targets in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pax3 is a key upstream regulator of the onset of myogenesis, controlling progenitor cell survival and behaviour as well as entry into the myogenic programme. It functions in the dermomyotome of the somite from which skeletal muscle derives and in progenitor cell populations that migrate from the somite such as those of the limbs. Few Pax3 target genes have been identified. Identifying genes that lie genetically downstream of Pax3 is therefore an important endeavour in elucidating the myogenic gene regulatory network. Results We have undertaken a screen in the mouse embryo which employs a Pax3GFP allele that permits isolation of Pax3 expressing cells by flow cytometry and a Pax3PAX3-FKHR allele that encodes PAX3-FKHR in which the DNA binding domain of Pax3 is fused to the strong transcriptional activation domain of FKHR. This constitutes a gain of function allele that rescues the Pax3 mutant phenotype. Microarray comparisons were carried out between Pax3GFP/+ and Pax3GFP/PAX3-FKHR preparations from the hypaxial dermomyotome of somites at E9.5 and forelimb buds at E10.5. A further transcriptome comparison between Pax3-GFP positive and negative cells identified sequences specific to myogenic progenitors in the forelimb buds. Potential Pax3 targets, based on changes in transcript levels on the gain of function genetic background, were validated by analysis on loss or partial loss of function Pax3 mutant backgrounds. Sequences that are up- or down-regulated in the presence of PAX3-FKHR are classified as somite only, somite and limb or limb only. The latter should not contain sequences from Pax3 positive neural crest cells which do not invade the limbs. Verification by whole mount in situ hybridisation distinguishes myogenic markers. Presentation of potential Pax3 target genes focuses on signalling pathways and on transcriptional regulation. Conclusions Pax3 orchestrates many of the signalling pathways implicated in the activation or repression of myogenesis

  2. Embryo selection using time-lapse analysis (Early Embryo Viability Assessment) in conjunction with standard morphology: a prospective two-center pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kieslinger, Dorit C; De Gheselle, Stefanie; Lambalk, Cornelis B; De Sutter, Petra; Kostelijk, E Hanna; Twisk, Jos W R; van Rijswijk, Joukje; Van den Abbeel, Etienne; Vergouw, Carlijn G

    2016-11-01

    Does prospective embryo selection using the results from the Eava Test (Early Embryo Viability Assessment) in combination with standard morphology increase the pregnancy rate of IVF and ICSI patients compared to embryo selection based on morphology only? Embryo selection using the Eeva Test plus standard morphology on Day 3 results in comparable pregnancy rates as conventional morphological embryo selection. Time-lapse monitoring of embryo development may represent a superior way to culture and select embryos in vitro. The Eeva Test records the development of each embryo with a cell-tracking system and predicts the likelihood (High, Medium or Low) that an embryo will form a blastocyst based on an automated analysis of early cell division timings. This trial was designed as a prospective, observational, two-center pilot study with a propensity matched control group. The analysis involved 280 of 302 enrolled patients who were included in the Eeva Test group in 2013 and 560 control patients who were treated in the years 2011-2013. The majority of transfers (98%) were single embryo transfers. Two academic hospitals (VUmc Amsterdam and UZ Gent) enrolled patients <41 years old, with <3 previous attempts and ≥5 normally fertilized eggs. Propensity matching was used to identify a propensity matched control group from a cohort of 1777 patients based on age, cycle number, oocyte number and number of fertilized oocytes. There was no difference in patient baseline characteristics between the two groups. The ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) of patients enrolled in the Eeva Test group (34.3%; 96/280) did not differ significantly from the OPR in the propensity matched control group (34.6%, 194/560; P = 0.92). However, significantly less top quality embryos (eight-cell embryos with ≤25% fragmentation) were transferred in the Eeva Test group compared to the propensity matched control group (70.4% vs. 82.3%; P < 0.001). The transfer of Eeva High and Medium embryos resulted in a

  3. Central cell-derived peptides regulate early embryo patterning in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Costa, Liliana M; Marshall, Eleanor; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Mori, Masashi; Umetsu, Yoshitaka; Otterbach, Sophie L; Papareddy, Ranjith; Dickinson, Hugh G; Boutiller, Kim; VandenBosch, Kathryn A; Ohki, Shinya; Gutierrez-Marcos, José F

    2014-04-11

    Plant embryogenesis initiates with the establishment of an apical-basal axis; however, the molecular mechanisms accompanying this early event remain unclear. Here, we show that a small cysteine-rich peptide family is required for formation of the zygotic basal cell lineage and proembryo patterning in Arabidopsis. EMBRYO SURROUNDING FACTOR 1 (ESF1) peptides accumulate before fertilization in central cell gametes and thereafter in embryo-surrounding endosperm cells. Biochemical and structural analyses revealed cleavage of ESF1 propeptides to form biologically active mature peptides. Further, these peptides act in a non-cell-autonomous manner and synergistically with the receptor-like kinase SHORT SUSPENSOR to promote suspensor elongation through the YODA mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Our findings demonstrate that the second female gamete and its sexually derived endosperm regulate early embryonic patterning in flowering plants.

  4. Estrogen-induced transcription factor EGR1 regulates c-Kit transcription in the mouse uterus to maintain uterine receptivity for embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Park, Mira; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Yeon Sun; Yang, Seung Chel; Yoon, Jung Ah; Lyu, Sang Woo; Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Hong, Seok-Ho; Song, Haengseok

    2018-07-15

    Early growth response 1 (Egr1) is a key transcription factor that mediates the action of estrogen (E 2 ) to establish uterine receptivity for embryo implantation. However, few direct target genes of EGR1 have been identified in the uterus. Here, we demonstrated that E 2 induced EGR1-regulated transcription of c-Kit, which plays a crucial role in cell fate decisions. Spatiotemporal expression of c-Kit followed that of EGR1 in uteri of ovariectomized mice at various time points after E 2 treatment. E 2 activated ERK1/2 and p38 to induce EGR1, which then activated c-Kit expression in the uterus. EGR1 transfection produced rapid and transient induction of c-KIT in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, luciferase assays to measure c-Kit promoter activity confirmed that a functional EGR1 binding site(s) (EBS) was located within -1 kb of the c-Kit promoter. Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR for three putative EBS within -1 kb demonstrated that the EBS at -818/-805 was critical for EGR1-dependent c-Kit transcription. c-Kit expression was significantly increased in the uterus on day 4 and administration of Masitinib, a c-Kit inhibitor, effectively interfered with embryo implantation. Collectively, our results showed that estrogen induces transcription factor EGR1 to regulate c-Kit transcription for uterine receptivity for embryo implantation in the mouse uterus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-lineage transcriptome analysis reveals key regulatory pathways in primitive erythroid progenitors in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Isern, Joan; He, Zhiyong; Fraser, Stuart T.; Nowotschin, Sonja; Ferrer-Vaquer, Anna; Moore, Rebecca; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Schulz, Vincent; Tuck, David; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2011-01-01

    Primitive erythroid (EryP) progenitors are the first cell type specified from the mesoderm late in gastrulation. We used a transgenic reporter to image and purify the earliest blood progenitors and their descendants from developing mouse embryos. EryP progenitors exhibited remarkable proliferative capacity in the yolk sac immediately before the onset of circulation, when these cells comprise nearly half of all cells of the embryo. Global expression profiles generated at 24-hour intervals from embryonic day 7.5 through 2.5 revealed 2 abrupt changes in transcript diversity that coincided with the entry of EryPs into the circulation and with their late maturation and enucleation, respectively. These changes were paralleled by the expression of critical regulatory factors. Experiments designed to test predictions from these data demonstrated that the Wnt-signaling pathway is active in EryP progenitors, which display an aerobic glycolytic profile and the numbers of which are regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 and hypoxia. This is the first transcriptome assembled for a single hematopoietic lineage of the embryo over the course of its differentiation. PMID:21263157

  6. Microspore embryogenesis in wheat: new marker genes for early, middle and late stages of embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa Angélica; Castillo, Ana María; Vallés, María Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Microspore embryogenesis involves reprogramming of the pollen immature cell towards embryogenesis. We have identified and characterized a collection of 14 genes induced along different morphological phases of microspore-derived embryo development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) anther culture. SERKs and FLAs genes previously associated with somatic embryogenesis and reproductive tissues, respectively, were also included in this analysis. Genes involved in signalling mechanisms such as TaTPD1-like and TAA1b, and two glutathione S-transferase (GSTF2 and GSTA2) were induced when microspores had acquired a 'star-like' morphology or had undergone the first divisions. Genes associated with control of plant development and stress response (TaNF-YA, TaAGL14, TaFLA26, CHI3, XIP-R; Tad1 and WALI6) were activated before exine rupture. When the multicellular structures have been released from the exine, TaEXPB4, TaAGP31-like and an unknown embryo-specific gene TaME1 were induced. Comparison of gene expression, between two wheat cultivars with different response to anther culture, showed that the profile of genes activated before exine rupture was shifted to earlier stages in the low responding cultivar. This collection of genes constitutes a value resource for study mechanism of intra-embryo communication, early pattern formation, cell wall modification and embryo differentiation.

  7. DYZ1 copy number variation, Y chromosome polymorphism and early recurrent spontaneous abortion/early embryo growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhao; Fan, Lingling; Zhao, Yueran; You, Li; Wang, Laicheng; Zhao, Han; Li, Yuan; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2011-12-01

    To find the association between recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA)/early embryo growth arrest and Y chromosome polymorphism. Peripheral blood samples of the male patients of big Y chromosome, small Y chromosome and other male patients whose partners suffered from unexplained RSA/early embryo growth arrest were collected. PCR and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR were used to test the deletion and the copy number variation of DYZ1 region in Y chromosome of the patients. A total of 79 big Y chromosome patients (48 of whose partners suffered from RSA or early embryo growth arrest), 7 small Y chromosome patients, 106 other male patients whose partners had suffered from unexplained RSA or early embryo growth arrest, and 100 normal male controls were enrolled. There was no fraction deletion of DYZ1 detected both in big Y patients and in normal men. Of RSA patients, 1 case showed deletion of 266bp from the gene locus 25-290bp, and 2 cases showed deletion of 773bp from 1347 to 2119bp. Of only 7 small Y chromosome patients, 2 cases showed deletion of 266bp from 25 to 290bp, and 4 cases showed deletion of 773bp from 1347 to 2119bp and 275bp from 3128 to 3420bp. The mean of DYZ1 copies was 3900 in normal control men; the mean in big Y patients was 5571, in RSA patients was 2655, and in small Y patients was 1059. All of the others were significantly different (P<0.01) compared with normal control men, which meant that DYZ1 copy number in normal control men was less than that of big Y chromosome patients, and was more than that of unexplained early RSA patients and small Y patients. The integrity and copy number variation of DYZ1 are closely related to the Y chromosome length under microscope. The cause of RSA/early embryo growth arrest in some couples may be the increase (big Y patients) or decrease of DYZ1 copy number in the husbands' Y chromosome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards a CRISPR view of early human development: applications, limitations and ethical concerns of genome editing in human embryos.

    PubMed

    Plaza Reyes, Alvaro; Lanner, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Developmental biologists have become increasingly aware that the wealth of knowledge generated through genetic studies of pre-implantation mouse development might not easily be translated to the human embryo. Comparative studies have been fueled by recent technological advances in single-cell analysis, allowing in-depth analysis of the human embryo. This field could shortly gain more momentum as novel genome editing technologies might, for the first time, also allow functional genetic studies in the human embryo. In this Spotlight article, we summarize the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system and discuss its potential applications and limitations in human pre-implantation embryos, and the ethical considerations thereof. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Complementary Gli activity mediates early patterning of the mouse visual system.

    PubMed

    Furimsky, Marosh; Wallace, Valerie A

    2006-03-01

    The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system, including the eye. This pathway is mediated by the Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) that differentially activate and repress the expression of specific downstream target genes. In this study, we investigated the roles of the three vertebrate Glis in mediating midline Shh signaling in early ocular development. We examined the ocular phenotypes of Shh and Gli combination mutant mouse embryos and monitored proximodistal and dorsoventral patterning by the expression of specific eye development regulatory genes using in situ hybridization. We show that midline Shh signaling relieves the repressor activity of Gli3 adjacent to the midline and then promotes eye pattern formation through the nonredundant activities of all three Gli proteins. Gli3, in particular, is required to specify the dorsal optic stalk and to define the boundary between the optic stalk and the optic cup.

  10. Killing of preimplantation mouse embryos by main ingredients of cleansers AS and LAS.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Hata, S; Shibata, K; Kusafuka, T

    1987-01-01

    When main ingredients of cleansers, alcohol sulfate (AS) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), were applied to the dorsal skin of pregnant JCL:ICR mice during preimplantation period (days 0-2), significant numbers of embryos collected from the oviducts and uteri on day 3 showed severe deformity or remained at the morula stage. Most of abnormal embryos were fragmented or remained at the 1-8 cell stages, and they were either dead or dying. Even when these abnormal embryos were cultivated in the detergent-free medium, they were not recovered, while most growth-retarded embryos (morula) could grow and hatch with one or two days lag by the further in vitro cultivation. Similar results were observed with commercially obtained kitchen detergent and hair shampoo, although such embryocidal effects were not detected with natural soap and distilled water. Fertilized eggs may be specifically sensitive to synthetic detergents. Very low doses of X-rays also induced significant yields of abnormal embryos. Major difference between X-rays and detergents was that X-ray-induced abnormality appeared at the morula or blastocyst stage, while detergent-induced one did at the earlier stages.

  11. Shorter Exposures to Harder X-Rays Trigger Early Apoptotic Events in Xenopus laevis Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Dong, JiaJia; Mury, Sean P.; Drahos, Karen E.; Moscovitch, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Background A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and utilized for therapeutic

  12. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    PubMed Central

    Petrek, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Bartusek, Karel; Anjum, Naser A.; Pereira, Eduarda; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis in conifer species has great potential for the forestry industry. Hence, a number of methods have been developed for their efficient and rapid propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Although information is available regarding the previous process-mediated generation of embryogenic cells to form somatic embryos, there is a dearth of information in the literature on the detailed structure of these clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings The main aim of this study was to provide a more detailed structure of the embryogenic tissue clusters obtained through the in vitro propagation of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). We primarily focused on the growth of early somatic embryos (ESEs). The data on ESE growth suggested that there may be clear distinctions between their inner and outer regions. Therefore, we selected ESEs collected on the 56th day after sub-cultivation to dissect the homogeneity of the ESE clusters. Two colourimetric assays (acetocarmine and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining) and one metabolic assay based on the use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride uncovered large differences in the metabolic activity inside the cluster. Next, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The ESE cluster seemed to be compactly aggregated during the first four weeks of cultivation; thereafter, the difference between the 1H nuclei concentration in the inner and outer clusters was more evident. There were clear differences in the visual appearance of embryos from the outer and inner regions. Finally, a cluster was divided into six parts (three each from the inner and the outer regions of the embryo) to determine their growth and viability. The innermost embryos (centripetally towards the cluster centre) could grow after sub-cultivation but exhibited the slowest rate and required the longest time to reach the common growth rate. To confirm our hypothesis on the organisation of the ESE cluster, we

  13. The first whole transcriptomic exploration of pre-oviposited early chicken embryos using single and bulked embryonic RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Sun; Seo, Minseok; Choi, Hee Jung; Kim, Sang Kyung; Kim, Heebal; Han, Jae Yong

    2018-04-01

    The chicken is a valuable model organism, especially in evolutionary and embryology research because its embryonic development occurs in the egg. However, despite its scientific importance, no transcriptome data have been generated for deciphering the early developmental stages of the chicken because of practical and technical constraints in accessing pre-oviposited embryos. Here, we determine the entire transcriptome of pre-oviposited avian embryos, including oocyte, zygote, and intrauterine embryos from Eyal-giladi and Kochav stage I (EGK.I) to EGK.X collected using a noninvasive approach for the first time. We also compare RNA-sequencing data obtained using a bulked embryo sequencing and single embryo/cell sequencing technique. The raw sequencing data were preprocessed with two genome builds, Galgal4 and Galgal5, and the expression of 17,108 and 26,102 genes was quantified in the respective builds. There were some differences between the two techniques, as well as between the two genome builds, and these were affected by the emergence of long intergenic noncoding RNA annotations. The first transcriptome datasets of pre-oviposited early chicken embryos based on bulked and single embryo sequencing techniques will serve as a valuable resource for investigating early avian embryogenesis, for comparative studies among vertebrates, and for novel gene annotation in the chicken genome.

  14. Moral uncertainty in bioethical argumentation: a new understanding of the pro-life view on early human embryos.

    PubMed

    Żuradzki, Tomasz

    2014-12-01

    In this article, I present a new interpretation of the pro-life view on the status of early human embryos. In my understanding, this position is based not on presumptions about the ontological status of embryos and their developmental capabilities but on the specific criteria of rational decisions under uncertainty and on a cautious response to the ambiguous status of embryos. This view, which uses the decision theory model of moral reasoning, promises to reconcile the uncertainty about the ontological status of embryos with the certainty about normative obligations. I will demonstrate that my interpretation of the pro-life view, although seeming to be stronger than the standard one, has limited scope and cannot be used to limit destructive research on human embryos.

  15. Early developmental gene regulation in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos in response to elevated CO₂ seawater conditions.

    PubMed

    Hammond, LaTisha M; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2012-07-15

    Ocean acidification, or the increased uptake of CO(2) by the ocean due to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, may variably impact marine early life history stages, as they may be especially susceptible to changes in ocean chemistry. Investigating the regulatory mechanisms of early development in an environmental context, or ecological development, will contribute to increased understanding of potential organismal responses to such rapid, large-scale environmental changes. We examined transcript-level responses to elevated seawater CO(2) during gastrulation and the initiation of spiculogenesis, two crucial developmental processes in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Embryos were reared at the current, accepted oceanic CO(2) concentration of 380 microatmospheres (μatm), and at the elevated levels of 1000 and 1350 μatm, simulating predictions for oceans and upwelling regions, respectively. The seven genes of interest comprised a subset of pathways in the primary mesenchyme cell gene regulatory network (PMC GRN) shown to be necessary for the regulation and execution of gastrulation and spiculogenesis. Of the seven genes, qPCR analysis indicated that elevated CO(2) concentrations only had a significant but subtle effect on two genes, one important for early embryo patterning, Wnt8, and the other an integral component in spiculogenesis and biomineralization, SM30b. Protein levels of another spicule matrix component, SM50, demonstrated significant variable responses to elevated CO(2). These data link the regulation of crucial early developmental processes with the environment that these embryos would be developing within, situating the study of organismal responses to ocean acidification in a developmental context.

  16. EVALUATION OF BENZO[C]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF BENZO[c]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T?CL8 CELLS

    Abstract The morphological cell transforming activities of three dihydrodiols of benzo[c]chrysene (B[c]C), trans-B[c]C-7,8-diol, trans-B[c]C-9...

  17. AMELIORATION OF ETHANOL-INDUCED DYSMORPHOGENESIS BY ADENOVIRAL-MEDIATED CU,ZN-SOD AND MN-SOD EXPRESSION IN NEURULATION STAGED MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    AMELIORATION OF ETHANOL-INDUCED DYSMORPHOGENESIS BY ADENOVIRAL-MEDIATED Cu,Zn-SOD AND Mn-SOD EXPRESSION IN NEURULATION STAGED MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO. JB Smith1, PC Hartig3, MR Blanton3, KK Sulik1,2, and ES Hunter3. 1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and 2Bowles Cente...

  18. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  19. Endogenous Nod-Factor-Like Signal Molecules Promote Early Somatic Embryo Development in Norway Spruce1

    PubMed Central

    Dyachok, Julia V.; Wiweger, Malgorzata; Kenne, Lennart; von Arnold, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies) are composed of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs) and somatic embryos of various developmental stages. Auxin is important for PEM formation and proliferation. In this report we show that depletion of auxin blocks PEM development and causes large-scale cell death. Extracts of the media conditioned by embryogenic cultures stimulate development of PEM aggregates in auxin-deficient cultures. Partial characterization of the conditioning factor shows that it is a lipophilic, low-molecular-weight molecule, which is sensitive to chitinase and contains GlcNAc residues. On the basis of this information, we propose that the factor is a lipophilic chitin oligosaccharide (LCO). The amount of LCO correlates to the developmental stages of PEMs and embryos, with the highest level in the media conditioned by developmentally blocked cultures. LCO is not present in nonembryogenic cultures. Cell death, induced by withdrawal of auxin, is suppressed by extra supply of endogenous LCO or Nod factor from Rhizobium sp. NGR234. The effect can be mimicked by a chitotetraose or chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. Taken together, our data suggest that endogenous LCO acts as a signal molecule stimulating PEM and early embryo development in Norway spruce. PMID:11842156

  20. The effects of the early uterine environment on the subsequent development of embryo and fetus.

    PubMed

    Barnes, F L

    2000-01-15

    Synchrony between the embryo and the uterine endometrium is essential for the establishment of pregnancy and birth in people and livestock. When asynchronous conditions occur a variety of complication result that include failure of the embryo to implant, early embryonic mortality, retarded development and growth, and accelerated development and growth. These complications all appear to be induced within the first week of embryo development and not withstanding the immediate endpoint of large or small size at birth, may alter the course of development throughout the life of the animal. Progesterone appears to play a causative role in establishing the abnormal growth of the fetus by decelerating or accelerating embryonic development. This may act through increasing the transport of blood born growth factors into the uterine lumen or by stimulating the release of growth factors from the endometrium directly. It can not be ruled out that progesterone mediated abundance of, or absence of, appropriate nutrition may bring about the same lifelong outcome. In vitro culture situations that include serum and/or co-culture can also bring about these abnormalities of growth. It is hypothesized that exposure to growth factors "out of phase" may result in an irreversible induction of abnormal development. The described abnormalities that occur in sheep and cattle have not yet been described for children resulting from IVF.

  1. Context-specific function of the LIM homeobox 1 transcription factor in head formation of the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Fossat, Nicolas; Ip, Chi Kin; Jones, Vanessa J; Studdert, Joshua B; Khoo, Poh-Lynn; Lewis, Samara L; Power, Melinda; Tourle, Karin; Loebel, David A F; Kwan, Kin Ming; Behringer, Richard R; Tam, Patrick P L

    2015-06-01

    Lhx1 encodes a LIM homeobox transcription factor that is expressed in the primitive streak, mesoderm and anterior mesendoderm of the mouse embryo. Using a conditional Lhx1 flox mutation and three different Cre deleters, we demonstrated that LHX1 is required in the anterior mesendoderm, but not in the mesoderm, for formation of the head. LHX1 enables the morphogenetic movement of cells that accompanies the formation of the anterior mesendoderm, in part through regulation of Pcdh7 expression. LHX1 also regulates, in the anterior mesendoderm, the transcription of genes encoding negative regulators of WNT signalling, such as Dkk1, Hesx1, Cer1 and Gsc. Embryos carrying mutations in Pcdh7, generated using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, and embryos without Lhx1 function specifically in the anterior mesendoderm displayed head defects that partially phenocopied the truncation defects of Lhx1-null mutants. Therefore, disruption of Lhx1-dependent movement of the anterior mesendoderm cells and failure to modulate WNT signalling both resulted in the truncation of head structures. Compound mutants of Lhx1, Dkk1 and Ctnnb1 show an enhanced head truncation phenotype, pointing to a functional link between LHX1 transcriptional activity and the regulation of WNT signalling. Collectively, these results provide comprehensive insight into the context-specific function of LHX1 in head formation: LHX1 enables the formation of the anterior mesendoderm that is instrumental for mediating the inductive interaction with the anterior neuroectoderm and LHX1 also regulates the expression of factors in the signalling cascade that modulate the level of WNT activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in one-cell mouse embryos mediated by the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Yasue, Akihiro; Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Watanabe, Takahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-07-16

    Since the establishment of embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, the combined use of gene targeting with homologous recombination has aided in elucidating the functions of various genes. However, the ES cell technique is inefficient and time-consuming. Recently, two new gene-targeting technologies have been developed: the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system. In addition to aiding researchers in solving conventional problems, these technologies can be used to induce site-specific mutations in various species for which ES cells have not been established. Here, by targeting the Fgf10 gene through RNA microinjection in one-cell mouse embryos with the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems, we produced the known limb-defect phenotypes of Fgf10-deficient embryos at the F0 generation. Compared to the TALEN system, the CRISPR/Cas system induced the limb-defect phenotypes with a strikingly higher efficiency. Our results demonstrate that although both gene-targeting technologies are useful, the CRISPR/Cas system more effectively elicits single-step biallelic mutations in mice.

  3. Use of micro computed-tomography and 3D printing for reverse engineering of mouse embryo nasal capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesařová, M.; Zikmund, T.; Kaucká, M.; Adameyko, I.; Jaroš, J.; Paloušek, D.; Škaroupka, D.; Kaiser, J.

    2016-03-01

    Imaging of increasingly complex cartilage in vertebrate embryos is one of the key tasks of developmental biology. This is especially important to study shape-organizing processes during initial skeletal formation and growth. Advanced imaging techniques that are reflecting biological needs give a powerful impulse to push the boundaries of biological visualization. Recently, techniques for contrasting tissues and organs have improved considerably, extending traditional 2D imaging approaches to 3D . X-ray micro computed tomography (μCT), which allows 3D imaging of biological objects including their internal structures with a resolution in the micrometer range, in combination with contrasting techniques seems to be the most suitable approach for non-destructive imaging of embryonic developing cartilage. Despite there are many software-based ways for visualization of 3D data sets, having a real solid model of the studied object might give novel opportunities to fully understand the shape-organizing processes in the developing body. In this feasibility study we demonstrated the full procedure of creating a real 3D object of mouse embryo nasal capsule, i.e. the staining, the μCT scanning combined by the advanced data processing and the 3D printing.

  4. Oxidative Stress in Mouse Sperm Impairs Embryo Development, Fetal Growth and Alters Adiposity and Glucose Regulation in Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Michelle; McPherson, Nicole O.; Fullston, Tod; Spillane, Marni; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Zander-Fox, Deirdre L.

    2014-01-01

    Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM) in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:25006800

  5. Induction of sister chromatid exchange in preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro by /sup 3/H-thymidine or ultraviolet light in combination with caffeine

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, W.U.S.; Spindle, A.

    1986-01-01

    Preimplantation mouse embryos were exposed in vitro to /sup 3/H-thymidine (25, 100, or 250 Bq/ml) or ultraviolet (UV) light (1.35 or 4.05 J/m2), either alone or in combination with caffeine (1 mM with /sup 3/H-thymidine and 0.5 mM with UV light). Exposure to /sup 3/H-thymidine lasted for 2 days, from the two-cell stage to the late morula/early blastocyst stage, and UV radiation was applied acutely at the late morula/early blastocyst stage. The effects were quantified by the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. All three agents induced SCEs when used singly. /sup 3/H-thymidine was effective in inducing SCEs only at 250more » Bq/ml, whereas UV light was effective at both fluences. Although caffeine did not induce SCEs when it was added before exposure to bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd), which is used to visualize SCEs, it did induce SCEs when present during the entire culture period (/sup 3/H-thymidine experiments) or during incubation in BrdUrd (UV experiments). Caffeine markedly enhanced the SCE-inducing effect of UV light but did not influence the effect of /sup 3/H-thymidine.« less

  6. Studies on trypsin-like enzymes in sperm and early embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, A.

    1975-12-09

    Results are reported from a study of acrosomal proteinase, a trypsin-like enzyme (TLE), found in the acrosome of all eutherian mammals studied to date. It has been implicated in the dissolution of a passage for the sperm through the zona pellucida of the egg, a step necessary for in vivo fertilization. A cytochemical procedure employing autoradiographic film as a gelatin substrate is described for in situ detection and localization of acrosomal proteolytic activity. A role for TLE in the early development of embryos is suggested. (CH)

  7. Intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor beta superfamily signaling localize to endosomes in chicken embryo and mouse lenses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Ramya; Ishii, Shunsuke; Beebe, David C

    2007-06-25

    Endocytosis is a key regulator of growth factor signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the localization to endosomes of intracellular mediators of growth factor signaling may be required for their function. Although there is substantial evidence linking endocytosis and growth factor signaling in cultured cells, there has been little study of the endosomal localization of signaling components in intact tissues or organs. Proteins that are downstream of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily signaling pathway were found on endosomes in chicken embryo and postnatal mouse lenses, which depend on signaling by members of the TGFbeta superfamily for their normal development. Phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1), pSmad2, Smad4, Smad7, the transcriptional repressors c-Ski and TGIF and the adapter molecules Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) and C184M, localized to EEA-1- and Rab5-positive vesicles in chicken embryo and/or postnatal mouse lenses. pSmad1 and pSmad2 also localized to Rab7-positive late endosomes. Smad7 was found associated with endosomes, but not caveolae. Bmpr1a conditional knock-out lenses showed decreased nuclear and endosomal localization of pSmad1. Many of the effectors in this pathway were distributed differently in vivo from their reported distribution in cultured cells. Based on the findings reported here and data from other signaling systems, we suggest that the localization of activated intracellular mediators of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily to endosomes is important for the regulation of growth factor signaling.

  8. Somatic mutations reveal asymmetric cellular dynamics in the early human embryo

    DOE PAGES

    Ju, Young Seok; Martincorena, Inigo; Gerstung, Moritz; ...

    2017-03-22

    Somatic cells acquire mutations throughout the course of an individual’s life. Mutations occurring early in embryogenesis are often present in a substantial proportion of, but not all, cells in postnatal humans and thus have particular characteristics and effects. Depending on their location in the genome and the proportion of cells they are present in, these mosaic mutations can cause a wide range of genetic disease syndromes and predispose carriers to cancer. They have a high chance of being transmitted to offspring as de novo germline mutations and, in principle, can provide insights into early human embryonic cell lineages and theirmore » contributions to adult tissues. Although it is known that gross chromosomal abnormalities are remarkably common in early human embryos, our understanding of early embryonic somatic mutations is very limited. Here we use whole-genome sequences of normal blood from 241 adults to identify 163 early embryonic mutations. We estimate that approximately three base substitution mutations occur per cell per cell-doubling event in early human embryogenesis and these are mainly attributable to two known mutational signatures. We used the mutations to reconstruct developmental lineages of adult cells and demonstrate that the two daughter cells of many early embryonic cell-doubling events contribute asymmetrically to adult blood at an approximately 2:1 ratio. As a result, this study therefore provides insights into the mutation rates, mutational processes and developmental outcomes of cell dynamics that operate during early human embryogenesis.« less

  9. Somatic mutations reveal asymmetric cellular dynamics in the early human embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Young Seok; Martincorena, Inigo; Gerstung, Moritz

    Somatic cells acquire mutations throughout the course of an individual’s life. Mutations occurring early in embryogenesis are often present in a substantial proportion of, but not all, cells in postnatal humans and thus have particular characteristics and effects. Depending on their location in the genome and the proportion of cells they are present in, these mosaic mutations can cause a wide range of genetic disease syndromes and predispose carriers to cancer. They have a high chance of being transmitted to offspring as de novo germline mutations and, in principle, can provide insights into early human embryonic cell lineages and theirmore » contributions to adult tissues. Although it is known that gross chromosomal abnormalities are remarkably common in early human embryos, our understanding of early embryonic somatic mutations is very limited. Here we use whole-genome sequences of normal blood from 241 adults to identify 163 early embryonic mutations. We estimate that approximately three base substitution mutations occur per cell per cell-doubling event in early human embryogenesis and these are mainly attributable to two known mutational signatures. We used the mutations to reconstruct developmental lineages of adult cells and demonstrate that the two daughter cells of many early embryonic cell-doubling events contribute asymmetrically to adult blood at an approximately 2:1 ratio. As a result, this study therefore provides insights into the mutation rates, mutational processes and developmental outcomes of cell dynamics that operate during early human embryogenesis.« less

  10. Supplementation with CTGF, SDF1, NGF, and HGF promotes ovine in vitro oocyte maturation and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wang, D H; Ren, J; Zhou, C J; Han, Z; Wang, L; Liang, C G

    2018-05-17

    The strategies for improving the in vitro maturation (IVM) of domestic animal oocytes focus on promoting nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. The identification of paracrine factors and their supplementation in the culture medium represent effective approaches for oocyte maturation and embryo development. This study investigated the effects of paracrine factor supplementation including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and stromal derived factor 1 (SDF1) on ovine oocytes and early parthenogenetic embryos using an in vitro culture system. First, we identified the optimal concentrations of CTGF (30 ng/mL), SDF1 (10 ng/mL), NGF (3 ng/mL), and HGF (100 ng/mL) for promoting oocyte maturation, which combined, induced nuclear maturation in 94.19% of oocytes. This combination also promoted cumulus cell expansion and inhibited oocyte/cumulus apoptosis, while enabling a larger proportion (33.04%) of embryos to develop into blastocysts than in the controls and prevented embryo apoptosis. These novel findings demonstrate that the paracrine factors CTGF, SDF1, NGF, and HGF facilitate ovine oocyte and early parthenogenetic embryo development in vitro. Thus, supplementation with these factors may help optimize the IVM of ovine oocytes and early parthenogenetic embryo development strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Honeybee (Apis Mellifera) Haploid and Diploid Embryos Reveals Early Zygotic Transcription during Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Camilla Valente; Freitas, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Cristino, Alexandre S.; Dearden, Peter K.; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2016-01-01

    In honeybees, the haplodiploid sex determination system promotes a unique embryogenesis process wherein females develop from fertilized eggs and males develop from unfertilized eggs. However, the developmental strategies of honeybees during early embryogenesis are virtually unknown. Similar to most animals, the honeybee oocytes are supplied with proteins and regulatory elements that support early embryogenesis. As the embryo develops, the zygotic genome is activated and zygotic products gradually replace the preloaded maternal material. The analysis of small RNA and mRNA libraries of mature oocytes and embryos originated from fertilized and unfertilized eggs has allowed us to explore the gene expression dynamics in the first steps of development and during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). We localized a short sequence motif identified as TAGteam motif and hypothesized to play a similar role in honeybees as in fruit flies, which includes the timing of early zygotic expression (MZT), a function sustained by the presence of the zelda ortholog, which is the main regulator of genome activation. Predicted microRNA (miRNA)-target interactions indicated that there were specific regulators of haploid and diploid embryonic development and an overlap of maternal and zygotic gene expression during the early steps of embryogenesis. Although a number of functions are highly conserved during the early steps of honeybee embryogenesis, the results showed that zygotic genome activation occurs earlier in honeybees than in Drosophila based on the presence of three primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) (ame-mir-375, ame-mir-34 and ame-mir-263b) during the cleavage stage in haploid and diploid embryonic development. PMID:26751956

  12. Effect of exogenous transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) on early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Antonio D; García, Elina V; Miceli, Dora C

    2018-06-08

    SummaryDuring preimplantation development, embryos are exposed and have the capacity to respond to different growth factors present in the maternal environment. Among these factors, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a well known modulator of embryonic growth and development. However, its action during the first stages of development, when the embryo transits through the oviduct, has not been yet elucidated. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of early exposure to exogenous TGF-β1 on embryo development and expression of pluripotency (OCT4, NANOG) and DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B) genes in bovine embryos produced in vitro. First, gene expression analysis of TGF-β receptors confirmed a stage-specific expression pattern, showing greater mRNA abundance of TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 from the 2- to the 8-cell stage, before embryonic genome activation. Second, embryo culture for the first 48 h in serum-free CR1aa medium supplemented with 50 or 100 ng/ml recombinant TGF-β1 did not affect the cleavage and blastocyst rate (days 7 and 8). However, RT-qPCR analysis showed a significant increase in the relative abundance of NANOG and DNMT3A in the 8-cell stage embryos and expanded blastocysts (day 8) derived from TGF-β1 treated embryos. These results suggest an early action of exogenous TGF-β1 on the bovine embryo, highlighting the importance to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of TGF-β signalling during early embryogenesis.

  13. Genomic structure, promoter identification, and chromosomal mapping of a mouse nuclear orphan receptor expressed in embryos and adult testes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Wei, Li-Na; Copeland, N.G.

    We have isolated and characterized overlapping genomic clones containing the complete transcribed region of a newly isolated mouse cDNA encoding an orphan receptor expressed specifically in midgestation embryos and adult testis. This gene spans a distance of more than 50 kb and is organized into 13 exons. The transcription initiation site is located at the 158th nucleotide upstream from the translation initiation codon. All the exon/intron junction sequences follow the GT/AG rule. Based upon Northern blot analysis and the size of the transcribed region of the gene, its transcript was determined to be approximately 2.5 kb. Within approximately 500 hpmore » upstream from the transcription initiation site, several immune response regulatory elements were identified but no TATA box was located. This gene was mapped to the distal region of mouse chromosome 10 and its locus has been designated Tr2-11. Immunohistochemical studies show that the Tr2-11 protein is present mainly in advanced germ cell populations of mature testes and that Tr2-11 gene expression is dramatically decreased in vitamin A-depleted animals. 23 refs., 7 figs.« less

  14. HNK-1 immunoreactivity during early morphogenesis of the head region in a nonmodel vertebrate, crocodile embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The present study examines HNK-1 immunoidentification of a population of the neural crest (NC) during early head morphogenesis in the nonmodel vertebrate, the crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus) embryos. Although HNK-1 is not an exclusive NC marker among vertebrates, temporospatial immunoreactive patterns found in the crocodile are almost consistent with NC patterns derived from gene expression studies known in birds (the closest living relatives of crocodiles) and mammals. In contrast to birds, the HNK-1 epitope is immunoreactive in NC cells at the neural fold level in crocodile embryos and therefore provides sufficient base to assess early migratory events of the cephalic NC. I found that crocodile NC forms three classic migratory pathways in the head: mandibular, hyoid, and branchial. Further, I demonstrate that, besides this classic phenotype, there is also a forebrain-derived migratory population, which consolidates into a premandibular stream in the crocodile. In contrast to the closely related chick model, crocodilian premandibular and mandibular NC cells arise from the open neural tube suggesting that species-specific heterochronic behavior of NC may be involved in the formation of different vertebrate facial phenotypes.

  15. Bovine oocytes and early embryos express Staufen and ELAVL RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Calder, M D; Madan, P; Watson, A J

    2008-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBP) influence RNA editing, localization, stability and translation and may contribute to oocyte developmental competence by regulating the stability and turnover of oogenetic mRNAs. The expression of Staufen 1 and 2 and ELAVL1, ELAVL2 RNA-binding proteins during cow early development was characterized. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries, matured, inseminated and subjected to embryo culture in vitro. Oocyte or preimplantation embryo pools were processed for RT-PCR and whole-mount immunofluorescence analysis of mRNA expression and protein distribution. STAU1 and STAU2 and ELAVL1 mRNAs and proteins were detected throughout cow preimplantation development from the germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte to the blastocyst stage. ELAVL2 mRNAs were detectable from the GV to the morula stage, whereas ELAVL2 protein was in all stages examined and localized to both cytoplasm and nuclei. The findings provide a foundation for investigating the role of RBPs during mammalian oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis.

  16. Dissection and Downstream Analysis of Zebra Finch Embryos at Early Stages of Development

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jessica R.; Stanciauskas, Monika E.; Aralere, Tejas S.; Saha, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    The zebra finch (Taeniopygiaguttata) has become an increasingly important model organism in many areas of research including toxicology1,2, behavior3, and memory and learning4,5,6. As the only songbird with a sequenced genome, the zebra finch has great potential for use in developmental studies; however, the early stages of zebra finch development have not been well studied. Lack of research in zebra finch development can be attributed to the difficulty of dissecting the small egg and embryo. The following dissection method minimizes embryonic tissue damage, which allows for investigation of morphology and gene expression at all stages of embryonic development. This permits both bright field and fluorescence quality imaging of embryos, use in molecular procedures such as in situ hybridization (ISH), cell proliferation assays, and RNA extraction for quantitative assays such as quantitative real-time PCR (qtRT-PCR). This technique allows investigators to study early stages of development that were previously difficult to access. PMID:24999108

  17. Cytoskeletal changes in oocytes and early embryos during in vitro fertilization process in mice.

    PubMed

    Gumus, E; Bulut, H E; Kaloglu, C

    2010-02-01

    The cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in the development and fertilization of germ cells and in the early embryo development. The growth, maturation and fertilization of oocytes require an active movement and a correct localization of cellular organelles. This is performed by the re-organization of microtubules and actin filaments. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the changes in cytoskeleton during in vitro fertilization process using appropriate immunofluorescence techniques. While the chromatin content was found to be scattered throughout the nucleus during the oocyte maturation period, it was seen only around nucleolus following the completion of the maturation. Microtubules, during oocyte maturation, were regularly distributed throughout the ooplasm which was then localized in the subcortical region of oocytes. Similarly microfilaments were scattered throughout the ooplasm during the oocyte maturation period whereas they were seen in the subcortical region around the polar body and above the meiotic spindle throughout the late developmental stages. In conclusion, those changes occurred in microtubules and microfilaments might be closely related to the re-organization of the genetic material during the oocyte maturation and early embryo development.

  18. The mRNA-bound proteome of the early fly embryo

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Hans-Hermann; Imami, Koshi; Baltz, Alexander G.; Kolinski, Marcin; Beldovskaya, Anastasia; Selbach, Matthias; Small, Stephen; Ohler, Uwe; Landthaler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Early embryogenesis is characterized by the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT), in which maternally deposited messenger RNAs are degraded while zygotic transcription begins. Before the MZT, post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is the dominant force in embryo patterning. We used two mRNA interactome capture methods to identify RBPs bound to polyadenylated transcripts within the first 2 h of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. We identified a high-confidence set of 476 putative RBPs and confirmed RNA-binding activities for most of 24 tested candidates. Most proteins in the interactome are known RBPs or harbor canonical RBP features, but 99 exhibited previously uncharacterized RNA-binding activity. mRNA-bound RBPs and TFs exhibit distinct expression dynamics, in which the newly identified RBPs dominate the first 2 h of embryonic development. Integrating our resource with in situ hybridization data from existing databases showed that mRNAs encoding RBPs are enriched in posterior regions of the early embryo, suggesting their general importance in posterior patterning and germ cell maturation. PMID:27197210

  19. Effects of endocrine disruptors on imprinted gene expression in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diana A; Rivas, Guillermo E; Singh, Purnima; Pfeifer, Gerd P

    2011-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) are synthetic chemicals that resemble natural hormones and are known to cause epigenetic perturbations. EDs have profound effects on development and fertility. Imprinted genes had been identified as candidate susceptibility loci to environmental insults because they are functionally haploid, and because the imprints undergo epigenetic resetting between generations. To screen for possible epigenetic perturbations caused by EDs at imprinted loci, we treated pregnant mice daily between 8.5 and 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), bisphenol A (BPA), vinclozolin (VZ) or control oil vehicle. After isolating RNA from the placenta, yolk sac, amnion, head, body, heart, liver, lung, stomach and intestines of 13.5 dpc embryos we measured the allele-specific expression of 39 imprinted transcripts using multiplex single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) assays. In this representative data set we identified only a small number of transcripts that exhibited a substantial relaxation of imprinted expression with statistical significance: Slc22a18 with 10% relaxation in the embryo after BPA treatment; Rtl1as with 11 and 16% relaxation in the lung and placenta, respectively after BPA treatment; and Rtl1 with 12% relaxation in the yolk sac after DEHP treatment. Additionally, the standard deviation of allele-specificity increased in various organs after ED treatment for several transcripts including Igf2r, Rasgrf1, Usp29, Slc38a4 and Xist. Our data suggest that the maintenance of strongly biased monoallelic expression of imprinted genes is generally insensitive to EDs in the 13.5 dpc embryo and extra-embryonic organs, but is not immune to those effects. PMID:21636974

  20. Deprenyl Enhances the Teratogenicity of Hydroxyurea in Organogenesis Stage Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Schlisser, Ava E.; Hales, Barbara F.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyurea, an antineoplastic drug, is a model teratogen. The administration of hydroxyurea to CD1 mice on gestation day 9 induces oxidative stress, increasing the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts to redox-sensitive proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the caudal region of the embryo. GAPDH catalytic activity is reduced, and its translocation into the nucleus is increased. Because the nuclear translocation of GAPDH is associated with oxidative stress–induced cell death, we hypothesized that this translocation plays a role in mediating the teratogenicity of hydroxyurea. Deprenyl (also known as selegiline), a drug used as a neuroprotectant in Parkinson’s disease, inhibits the nuclear translocation of GAPDH. Hence, timed pregnant CD1 mice were treated with deprenyl (10mg/kg) on gestation day 9 followed by the administration of hydroxyurea (400 or 600mg/kg). Deprenyl treatment significantly decreased the hydroxyurea-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH in the caudal lumbosacral somites. Deprenyl enhanced hydroxyurea-mediated caudal malformations, inducing specifically limb reduction, digit anomalies, tail defects, and lumbosacral vertebral abnormalities. Deprenyl did not augment the hydroxyurea-induced inhibition of glycolysis or alter the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. However, it did dramatically increase cleaved caspase-3 in embryos. These data suggest that nuclear GAPDH plays an important, region-specific, role in teratogen-exposed embryos. Deprenyl exacerbated the developmental outcome of hydroxyurea exposure by a mechanism that is independent of oxidative stress. Although the administration of deprenyl alone did not affect pregnancy outcome, this drug may have adverse consequences when combined with exposures that increase the risk of malformations. PMID:23696560

  1. Early development of the circumferential axonal pathway in mouse and chick spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Holley, J A

    1982-03-10

    The early development of the circumferential axonal pathway in the brachial and lumbar spinal cord of mouse and chick embryos was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The cellular processes which comprise this pathway grow in the transverse plane and along the lateral margin of the marginal zone (i.e., circumferentially oriented), as typified by the early embryonic commissural axons. The first formative event observed was in the ventrolateral margin of the primitive spinal cord ventricular zone. Cellular processes were found near the external limiting membrane that appeared to grow a variable distance either dorsally or ventrally. Later in development, presumptive motor column neurons migrated into the ventrolateral region, distal to these early circumferentially oriented processes. Concurrently, other circumferentially oriented perikarya and processes appeared along the dorsolateral margin. Due to their aligned sites of origin and parallel growth, the circumferential processes formed a more or less continuous line or pathway, which in about 10% of the scanned specimens could be followed along the entire lateral margin of the embryonic spinal cord. Several specimens later in development had two sets of aligned circumferential processes in the ventral region. Large numbers of circumferential axons were then found to follow the preformed pathway by fasciculation, after the primitive motor column had become established. Since the earliest circumferential processes appeared to differentiate into axons and were found nearly 24 hours prior to growth of most circumferential axons, their role in guidance as pioneering axons was suggested.

  2. Types of neural cells in the spinal ganglia of human embryos and early fetuses.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, B; Woźniak, W; Gardner, E; O'Rahilly, R

    1979-01-01

    Spinal ganglial of human embryos and fetuses ranging in C.-R. length from 15 to 74 mm and in age from 6 1/2 to 11 postovulatory weeks were studied by light and electron microscopy. A sequence of events in differentiation and maturation enabled five types of cells to be distinguished: 1. apolar, undifferentiated neuroblasts are the main cells at 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 weeks; 2. early bipolar neuroblasts (strictly speaking, types 2 to 5 are immature neurons) predominate at the end of the embryonic period proper (8 postovulatory weeks); 3. intermediate bipolar neuroblasts are characteristic of the early fetal period; 4. late bipolar neuroblasts, in which two proceses arise separately from one pole of the cell, appear at about 10 postovulatory weeks; 5. unipolar neuroblasts are found within another week and, by that time, cells of types 1 and 2 are no longer present.

  3. Patterns of protein synthesis in oocytes and early embryos of Rana esculenta complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, P S; Stumm-Zollinger, E

    1986-01-01

    We have used isotopic labelling and both one-and two-dimensional electrophoretic procedures to analyse the protien synthesis patterns in oocytes and early embryos of three phenotypes of the European green frogs. The results demonstrated that protein patterns of Rana ridibunda and R. esculenta are identical, but that they differ from those of R. lessonae. Progeny of the lethal cross R. esculenta × R. esculenta showed a distinct delay in the appearance of stage-specific proteins during early embryogenesis. The heat-shock response of R. ridibunda and R. esculenta oocytes was found to be identical, but different from that of Xenopus laevis. The implications of these findings, with respect to hybridogenesis in R. esculenta complex and variations in the regulations of heat shock genes in different amphibian species, are discussed.

  4. Effects of deer velvet extract from Formosan sika deer on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative enzymes mRNA expression in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Lin; Lai, Yi-Ling; Lee, Ming-Che; Shen, Perng-Chih; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Liu, Bing-Tsan

    2014-07-03

    The deer velvet or its extracts has been widely used in clinic. It has been used in promoting reproductive performances and treating of oxidation and aging process. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of velvet extract from Formosan sika deer (Formosan sika deer; Cervus nippon taiouanus, FSD) velvet on mouse embryonic development and anti-oxidant ability in vitro. Mouse 4-cells embryos were divided into 16 groups for 72 h in vitro incubation. The embryonic development stages and morphology were evaluated every 12h in experimental period. The quantitative real time PCR was used to measure the CuZn-SOD, GPx and CAT mRNA expression of the blastocysts. The 4-cells embryos of hydrogen peroxide (HP) groups did not continue developing after oxidant stress challenged. The blastocyst developmental rate (90.0-90.4%, P>0.05) and normal morphological rate (84.4-85.1%, P>0.05) of the 1% and 2% DV extract groups were similar to those in the control group (90.7% and 88.8%, respectively). The embryos challenged by HP (5, 10 and 25 μM) and subsequently incubated in mHTF medium with 1% and 2% of deer velvet (DV) extracts were able to continue development; the blastocyst developmental rate of these groups were similar to that in the control group. The relative mRNA expression of the focused anti-oxidative enzymes in the mouse embryos did not significantly differ among the designed DV treatment groups (P>0.05). The FSD velvet extract in adequate concentration could promote anti-oxidative enzymes mRNA expression followed the challenge of hydrogen peroxide, relieve the mouse embryo under oxidative stress, and maintain the blastocyst developmental ability in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Semi-thin sections of epoxy resin-embedded mouse embryos in morphological analysis of whole mount in situ RNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Mitrecić, D; Cunko, V F; Gajović, S

    2008-12-01

    Descriptive morphological studies are often combined with gene expression pattern analyses. Unembedded vibratome or cryotome sections are compatible with in situ RNA hybridization, but spatial resolution is rather low for precise microscopic studies necessary in embryology. Therefore, use of plastic embedding media, which allow semi-thin and ultra-thin sectioning for light and electron microscopy, could be an important advantage. This work suggested a new approach based on the whole mount hybridization of mouse embryos and subsequent epoxy resin embedding. Epoxy resin allowed serial sectioning of semi-thin sections with preserved in situ RNA hybridization signal, which was a necessary prerequisite for precise morphological analysis of embryo development.

  6. Effects of tributyltin chloride on developing mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian-Ju; Shen, Ming; Wang, Lizhong; Yu, Fengxiang; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Tributyltin, an organotin, is ubiquitous in estuaries and freshwater systems. Previous reports suggest that tributyltin is an endocrine disruptor in many wildlife species and it inhibits aromatase in mammalian placental and granulosa-like tumor cell lines. However, no evidence showing the effects of tributyltin on oocytes or preimplantation embryonic developmental competence exists. Therefore, we investigated the role of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) in the development of female oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Briefly, female ICR mice were gavaged with 0 (vehicle), 4, and 8 mg/kg of TBTCl each day for 18 days. The fluorescence intensity analysis showed that the 5-methylcytosine level decreased after TBTCl treatment, indicating that the general DNA methylation level decreased in the treated oocytes. Our results demonstrate that TBTCl treatment results in decreased mRNA levels of imprinted genes H19, Igf2r, and Peg3 during oocyte growth. The TBTCl-treated oocytes showed a significant increase in reactive oxygen species levels in germinal vesicle oocytes. In TBTCl-treated oocytes, there was no difference in GPx and Sod1 expression, but a decreased mRNA level of Cat occurred when compared with control. Moreover, the blastocysts with TBTCl exposure displayed higher apoptotic signals. These results suggest that TBTCl induces developmental defects in oocytes and preimplantation embryos.

  7. Toxicity and cardiac effects of carbaryl in early developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.C.; Hui, Michelle N.Y.; Cheng, S.H. E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-07-15

    Carbaryl, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is known to be moderately toxic to adult zebrafish and has been reported to cause heart malformations and irregular heartbeat in medaka. We performed experiments to study the toxicity of carbaryl, specifically its effects on the heart, in early developing zebrafish embryos. LC50 and EC50 values for carbaryl at 28 h post-fertilization were 44.66 {mu}g/ml and 7.52 {mu}g/ml, respectively, and 10 {mu}g/ml carbaryl was used in subsequent experiments. After confirming acetylcholinesterase inhibition by carbaryl using an enzymatic method, we observed red blood cell accumulation, delayed hatching and pericardial edema, but not heart malformation as described inmore » some previous reports. Our chronic exposure data also demonstrated carbaryl-induced bradycardia, which is a common effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors due to the accumulation of acetylcholine, in embryos from 1 day post-fertilization (dpf) to 5 dpf. The distance between the sinus venosus, the point where blood enters the atrium, and the bulbus arteriosus, the point where blood leaves the ventricle, indicated normal looping of the heart tube. Immunostaining of myosin heavy chains with the ventricle-specific antibody MF20 and the atrium-specific antibody S46 showed normal development of heart chambers. At the same time, acute exposure resulted in carbaryl-induced bradycardia. Heart rate dropped significantly after a 10-min exposure to 100 {mu}g/ml carbaryl but recovered when carbaryl was removed. The novel observation of carbaryl-induced bradycardia in 1- and 2-dpf embryos suggested that carbaryl affected cardiac function possibly through an alternative mechanism other than acetylcholinesterase inhibition such as inhibition of calcium ion channels, since acetylcholine receptors in zebrafish are not functional until 3 dpf. However, the exact nature of this mechanism is currently unknown, and thus further studies are required.« less

  8. Loss of Bmal1 decreases oocyte fertilization, early embryo development and implantation potential in female mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Li, Yan; Wang, Yizi; Xu, Yanwen; Zhou, Canquan

    2016-10-01

    Biological clock genes expressed in reproductive tissues play important roles in maintaining the normal functions of reproductive system. However, disruption of female circadian rhythm on oocyte fertilization, preimplantation embryo development and blastocyst implantation potential is still unclear. In this study, ovulation, in vivo and in vitro oocyte fertilization, embryo development, implantation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in ovary and oviduct were studied in female Bmal1+/+ and Bmal1-/- mice. The number of naturally ovulated oocyte in Bmal1-/- mice decreased (5.2 ± 0.8 vs 7.8 ± 0.8, P < 0.001), with an increasing abnormal oocyte ratio (20.4 ± 3.5 vs 11.7 ± 2.0%, P = 0.001) after superovulation. Significantly lower fertilization rate and obtained blastocyst number were observed in Bmal1-/- female mice either mated with wild-type in vivo or fertilized by sperm from wild-type male mice in vitro (all P < 0.05). Interestingly, in vitro fertilization rate of oocytes derived from Bmal1-/- increased significantly compared with in vivo study (P < 0.01). After transferring blastocysts derived from Bmal1+/+ and Bmal1-/- female mice to pseudopregnant mice, the implantation sites of the latter decreased 5 days later (8.0 ± 0.8 vs 5.3 ± 1.0, P = 0.005). The intracellular ROS levels in the ovary on proestrus day and in the oviduct on metestrus day increased significantly in Bmal1-/- mice compared with that of Bmal1+/+ mice. Deletion of the core biological clock gene Bmal1 significantly decreases oocyte fertilization rate, early embryo development and implantation potential in female mice, and these may be possibly caused by excess ROS levels generated in ovary and oviduct.

  9. Effect of PMA-induced protein kinase C activation on development and apoptosis in early zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Samardzija, Dragana; Stanic, Bojana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana; Andric, Nebojsa

    2016-12-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have been implicated in several key steps during early development, but the consequences of xenobiotic-induced PKC activation during early embryogenesis are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a range of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) concentrations (0-200μg/L) at different time points after fertilization. Results showed that 200μgPMA/L caused development of yolk bags, cardiac edema, slow blood flow, pulsating blood flow, slow pulse, elongated heart, lack of tail fins, curved tail, and coagulation. PMA exposure decreased survival rate of the embryos starting within the first 24h and becoming more pronounced after prolonged exposure (96h). PMA increased the number of apoptotic cells in the brain region as demonstrated by acridine orange staining and caused up-regulation of caspase 9 (casp9) and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (puma) mRNA in whole embryos. PMA caused oxidative stress in the embryos as demonstrated by decreased mRNA expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase 2. Inhibition of Pkc with GF109203X improved overall survival rate, reduced apoptosis in the brain and decreased expression of casp9 and puma in the PMA-exposed embryos. However, Pkc inhibition neither prevented development of deformities nor reversed oxidative stress in the PMA-exposed embryos. These data suggest that direct over-activation of Pkc during early embryogenesis of zebrafish is associated with apoptosis and decreased survival rate of the embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Starch Turnover and Metabolism during Flower and Early Embryo Development1[CC-BY

    PubMed Central

    Pazmino, Diana; Gagliardini, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of starch within photosynthetic tissues and within dedicated storage organs has been characterized extensively in many species, and a function in buffering carbon availability or in fueling later growth phases, respectively, has been proposed. However, developmentally regulated starch turnover within heterotrophic tissues other than dedicated storage organs is poorly characterized, and its function is not well understood. Here, we report on the characterization of starch turnover during flower, early embryo, and silique development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using a combined clearing-staining technique on whole-mount tissue. Besides the two previously documented waves of transient starch accumulation in the stamen envelope, occurring during meiosis and pollen mitosis I, we identified a novel, third wave of starch amylogenesis/amylolysis during the last stages of stamen development. To gain insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed publicly available microarray data, which revealed a developmentally coordinated expression of carbohydrate transport and metabolism genes during these waves of transient starch accumulation. Based on this analysis, we characterized starch dynamics in mutants affecting hexose phosphate metabolism and translocation, and identified the Glc-6-phosphate/phosphate antiporter GPT1 as the putative translocator of Glc-6-phosphate for starch biosynthesis in reproductive tissues. Based on these results, we propose a model of starch synthesis within the pollen grain and discuss the nutrient transport route feeding the embryo within the developing seed. PMID:27794100

  11. Single-cell transcriptome of early embryos and cultured embryonic stem cells of cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomonori; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Sasaki, Kotaro; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Saitou, Mitinori

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, the development of pluripotency and specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been studied predominantly using mice as a model organism. However, divergences among mammalian species for such processes have begun to be recognized. Between humans and mice, pre-implantation development appears relatively similar, but the manner and morphology of post-implantation development are significantly different. Nevertheless, the embryogenesis just after implantation in primates, including the specification of PGCs, has been unexplored due to the difficulties in analyzing the embryos at relevant developmental stages. Here, we present a comprehensive single-cell transcriptome dataset of pre- and early post-implantation embryo cells, PGCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) of cynomolgus monkeys as a model of higher primates. The identities of each transcriptome were also validated rigorously by other way such as immunofluorescent analysis. The information reported here will serve as a foundation for our understanding of a wide range of processes in the developmental biology of primates, including humans. PMID:28649393

  12. Copper induces expression and methylation changes of early development genes in Crassostrea gigas embryos.

    PubMed

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Lebreton, Morgane; Rouxel, Julien; Akcha, Farida; Rivière, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    Copper contamination is widespread along coastal areas and exerts adverse effects on marine organisms such as mollusks. In the Pacific oyster, copper induces severe developmental abnormalities during early life stages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to better understand whether the embryotoxic effects of copper in Crassostrea gigas could be mediated by alterations in gene expression, and the putative role of DNA methylation, which is known to contribute to gene regulation in early embryo development. For that purpose, oyster embryos were exposed to 4 nominal copper concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 20 μg L -1 Cu 2+ ) during early development assays. Embryotoxicity was monitored through the oyster embryo-larval bioassay at the D-larva stage 24 h post fertilization (hpf) and genotoxicity at gastrulation 7 hpf. In parallel, the relative expression of 15 genes encoding putative homeotic, biomineralization and DNA methylation proteins was measured at three developmental stages (3 hpf morula stage, 7 hpf gastrula stage, 24 hpf D-larvae stage) using RT-qPCR. Global DNA content in methylcytosine and hydroxymethylcytosine were measured by HPLC and gene-specific DNA methylation levels were monitored using MeDIP-qPCR. A significant increase in larval abnormalities was observed from copper concentrations of 10 μg L -1 , while significant genotoxic effects were detected at 1 μg L -1 and above. All the selected genes presented a stage-dependent expression pattern, which was impaired for some homeobox and DNA methylation genes (Notochord, HOXA1, HOX2, Lox5, DNMT3b and CXXC-1) after copper exposure. While global DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine) at gastrula stage didn't show significant changes between experimental conditions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, its degradation product, decreased upon copper treatment. The DNA methylation of exons and the transcript levels were correlated in control samples for HOXA1 but such

  13. Disparities in reproductive outcomes according to the endometrial preparation protocol in frozen embryo transfer : The risk of early pregnancy loss in frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    PubMed

    Hatoum, I; Bellon, L; Swierkowski, N; Ouazana, M; Bouba, S; Fathallah, K; Paillusson, B; Bailly, M; Boitrelle, F; Alter, L; Bergère, M; Selva, J; Wainer, R

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stimulated and artificial endometrial preparation protocols on reproductive outcomes in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. We performed a retrospective study of 1926 FET cycles over a 3.5-year period in the Fertility Unit at a University Hospital. Stimulated and artificial protocols were used for endometrial preparation. The embryos for FET were obtained from either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Live birth rate and early pregnancy loss rates were retrospectively compared. In artificial protocols, oral or vaginal administration of oestradiol 2 mg two or three times a day was followed by vaginal supplementation with progesterone 200 mg two or three times a day. In stimulated protocols, recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone was administered from day 4 onward. Vaginal ultrasound was used for endometrial and ovarian monitoring. A pregnancy test was performed 14 days after FET. If it was positive, oestradiol and progesterone were administered up until the 12th week of gestation in artificial cycles. We defined early pregnancy losses as biochemical pregnancies (preclinical losses) and miscarriages. Data on 865 artificial cycles (45% of the total) and 1061 stimulated cycles (55%) were collected. Early pregnancy loss rate was significantly lower for stimulated cycles (34.2%) than for artificial cycles (56.9%), and the live birth rate was significantly higher for stimulated cycles (59.7%) than for artificial cycles (29.1%). In frozen embryo transfer, artificial cycles were associated with more early pregnancy loss and lower live birth rate than stimulated cycles.

  14. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (P<0.05). The calcium ion concentration was increased in low-intensity 2-h group but decreased in high-intensity 4-h group as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was found in mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells between low- or mid-intensity groups and the normal control group, indicating stronger intensity of the electromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely

  15. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: REPRODUCIBILITY OF INTERBLASTOMERE DIFFERENCES OF mRNA EXPRESSION IN 2-CELL STAGE MOUSE EMBRYOS IS REMARKABLY POOR DUE TO COMBINATORIAL MECHANISMS OF BLASTOMERE DIVERSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Casser, E; Israel, S; Schlatt, S; Nordhoff, V; Boiani, M

    2018-05-09

    What is the prevalence, reproducibility and biological significance of transcriptomic differences between sister blastomeres of the mouse 2-cell embryo? Sister 2-cell stage blastomeres are distinguishable from each other by mRNA analysis, attesting to the fact that differentiation starts mostly early in the mouse embryo; however, the interblastomere differences are poorly reproducible and invoke the combinatorial effects of known and new mechanisms of blastomere diversification. Transcriptomic datasets for single blastomeres in mice have been available for years but have never been systematically analysed together, although such an analysis may shed light onto some unclarified topics of early mammalian development. Two unknowns that remain are at which stage embryonic blastomeres start to diversify from each other and what is the molecular origin of that difference. At the earliest postzygotic stage, the 2-cell stage, opinions differ regarding the answer to these questions; one group claims that the first zygotic division yields two equal blastomeres capable of forming a full organism (totipotency) and another group claims evidence for interblastomere differences reminiscent of the prepatterning found in embryos of lower taxa. Regarding the molecular origin of interblastomere differences, there are four prevalent models which invoke 1) oocyte anisotropy, 2) sperm entry point, 3) partition errors of the transcript pool, and 4) asynchronous embryonic genome activation in the two blastomeres. Seven transcriptomic studies published between 2011 and 2017 were eligible for retrospective analysis, since both blastomeres of the mouse 2-cell embryo had been analysed individually regarding the original pair associations and since the datasets were made available in public repositories. Five of these studies, encompassing a total of 43 pairs of sister blastomeres, were selected for further analyses based on high interblastomere correlations of mRNA levels. A double cut

  16. Can a genetically-modified organism-containing diet influence embryo development? A preliminary study on pre-implantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, B; Flach, F; Vecchio, L; Barabino, S M L; Battistelli, S; Martin, T E; Malatesta, M; Biggiogera, M

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNAs undergo several transformation steps to generate mature mRNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that a diet containing a genetically modified (GM) soybean can induce modifications of nuclear constituents involved in RNA processing in some tissues of young, adult and old mice. On this basis, we have investigated the ultrastructural and immunocytochemical features of pre-implantation embryos from mice fed either GM or non- GM soybean in order to verify whether the parental diet can affect the morpho-functional development of the embryonic ribonucleoprotein structural constituents involved in pre-mRNA pathways. Morphological observations revealed that the general aspect of embryo nuclear components is similar in the two experimental groups. However, immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization results suggest a temporary decrease of pre-mRNA transcription and splicing in 2-cell embryos and a resumption in 4-8-cell embryos from mice fed GM soybean; moreover, pre-mRNA maturation seems to be less efficient in both 2-cell and 4-8-cell embryos from GM-fed mice than in controls. Although our results are still preliminary and limited to the pre-implantation phases, the results of this study encourage deepening on the effects of food components and/or contaminants on embryo development.

  17. Intracellular pH in early Xenopus embryos: its effect on current flow between blastomeres.

    PubMed Central

    Turin, L; Warner, A E

    1980-01-01

    1. Electrophysiological techniques were used to monitor the flow of electric current from one cell to the next in Xenopus laevis embryos between the 4-cell and early blastula stages of development. Intracellular pH and blastocoel pH were determined using pH-sensitive micro-electrodes. 2. The resting intracellular pH was 7.74+/-0.02 (S.E. of mean, n = 29); there were no systematic differences between developmental stages. Blastocoel cavity pH was 8.4+/-0.06 (S.E. of mean, n = 10). The intracellular buffer value was 18 m-equiv. H+/pH unit per litre. 3. In embryos treated with bicarbonate buffered Holtfreter solution equilibrated with 100% CO2 the intracellular pH fell to 6.3+/-0.17 (S.D., n = 8). The membrane potential fell and the input resistance increased. The size of the effect on membrane potential and input resistance varied. 4. From the 32-cell stage onwards current flow from one cell to the next was abolished when the intracellular pH fell to below 6.5; the effect was rapid in onset and completely reversible. At cleavage stages of development lowering intracellular pH with CO2 had no effect on current flow from cell to cell. 5. The relationship between intracellular pH and current flow from cell to cell was sigmoid and covered between 0.2 and 0.4 pH units. The pH at which current flow was completely abolished ranged from 6.85 to 6.4. 6. Alterations in extraembryonic pH over the range 5.8-7.5 had no effect on any parameter measured. 7. We conclude that lowering the intracellular pH increases the resistance of both non-junctional junctional membranes. The data do not allow us to extract the pH junctional conductance relationship. 8. Variations in intracellular pH may provide a useful tool for the study of the functional role of direct cell to cell communication in both adult organs and early embryos. PMID:6770084

  18. PITX2 and NODAL expression during axis formation in the early rabbit embryo.

    PubMed

    Plöger, Ruben; Viebahn, Christoph

    2018-04-26

    Attaining molecular and morphological axial polarity during gastrulation is a fundamental early requirement for normal development of the embryo. In mammals, the first morphological sign of the anterior-posterior axis appears anteriorly in the form of the anterior marginal crescent (or anterior visceral endoderm) while in the avian the first such sign is the Koller's sickle at the posterior pole of the embryonic disc. Despite this inverse mode of axis formation many genes and molecular pathways involved in various steps of this process seem to be evolutionary conserved amongst amniotes, the nodal gene being a well-known example with its functional involvement prior and during gastrulation. The pitx2 gene, however, is a new candidate described in the chick as an early marker for anterior-posterior polarity and as regulator of axis formation including twinning. To find out whether pitx2 has retained its inductive and early marker function during the evolution of mammals, this study analyzes pitx2 and nodal expression at parallel stages during formation of the anterior-posterior polarity in the early rabbit embryo using whole-mount in situ hybridization and serial light-microscopical sections. At a late pre-gastrulation stage a localized reduction of nodal expression presages the position of the anterior pole of the embryonic disc and thus serves as the earliest molecular marker of anterior-posterior polarity known so far. pitx2 is expressed in a polarized manner in the anterior marginal crescent and in the posterior half of the embryonic disc during further development only while nodal expression in the anterior segment of the posterior pitx2 expression domain helps to define the so-called anterior streak domain (ASD), a novel progenitor region of the anterior half of the primitive streak. The expression patterns of both genes thus serve as signs of a conserved involvement in early axis formation in amniotes and, possibly, in twinning in mammals as well. Copyright

  19. Characterization of the altered gene expression profile in early porcine embryos generated from parthenogenesis and somatic cell chromatin transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chi; Dobrinsky, John; Tsoi, Stephen; Foxcroft, George R; Dixon, Walter T; Stothard, Paul; Verstegen, John; Dyck, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro production of early porcine embryos is of particular scientific and economic interest. In general, embryos produced from in vitro Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) manipulations, such as somatic cell chromatin transfer (CT) and parthenogenetic activation (PA), are less developmentally competent than in vivo-derived embryos. The mechanisms underlying the deficiencies of embryos generated from PA and CT have not been completely understood. To characterize the altered genes and gene networks in embryos generated from CT and PA, comparative transcriptomic analyses of in vivo (IVV) expanded blastocysts (XB), IVV hatched blastocyst (HB), PA XB, PA HB, and CT HB were performed using a custom microarray platform enriched for genes expressed during early embryonic development. Differential expressions of 1492 and 103 genes were identified in PA and CT HB, respectively, in comparison with IVV HB. The "eIF2 signalling", "mitochondrial dysfunction", "regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signalling", "protein ubiquitination", and "mTOR signalling" pathways were down-regulated in PA HB. Dysregulation of notch signalling-associated genes were observed in both PA and CT HB. TP53 was predicted to be activated in both PA and CT HB, as 136 and 23 regulation targets of TP53 showed significant differential expression in PA and CT HB, respectively, in comparison with IVV HB. In addition, dysregulations of several critical pluripotency, trophoblast development, and implantation-associated genes (NANOG, GATA2, KRT8, LGMN, and DPP4) were observed in PA HB during the blastocyst hatching process. The critical genes that were observed to be dysregulated in CT and PA embryos could be indicative of underlying developmental deficiencies of embryos produced from these technologies.

  20. Maternal program of apoptosis activated shortly after midblastula transition by overexpression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in Xenopus early embryos.

    PubMed

    Shiokawa, K; Kai, M; Higo, T; Kaito, C; Yokoska, J; Yasuhiko, Y; Kajita, E; Nagano, M; Yamada, Y; Shibata, M; Muto, T; Shinga, J; Hara, H; Takayama, E; Fukamachi, H; Yaoita, Y; Igarashi, K

    2000-06-01

    When we studied polyamine metabolism in Xenopus embryos, we cloned the cDNA for Xenopus S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), which converts SAM (S-adenosylmethionine), the methyl donor, into decarboxylated SAM (dcSAM), the aminopropyl donor, and microinjected its in vitro transcribed mRNA into Xenopus fertilized eggs. We found here that the mRNA injection induces a SAM deficient state in early embryos due to over-function of the overexpressed SAMDC, which in turn induces inhibition of protein synthesis. Such embryos developed quite normally until blastula stage, but stopped development at the early gastrula stage, due to induction of massive cell dissociation and cell autolysis, irrespective of the dosage and stage of the mRNA injection. We found that the dissociated cells were TUNEL-positive, contained fragmented nuclei with ladder-forming DNA, and furthermore, rescued completely by coinjection of Bcl-2 mRNA. Thus, overexpression of SAMDC in Xenopus embryos appeared to switch on apoptotic program, probably via inhibition of protein synthesis. Here, we briefly review our results together with those reported from other laboratories. After discussing the general importance of this newly discovered apoptotic program, we propose that the maternal program of apoptosis serves as a surveillance mechanism to eliminate metabolically severely-damaged cells and functions as a 'fail-safe' mechanism for normal development in Xenopus embryos.

  1. Blastomere biopsy influences epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development, which impacts neural development and function in resulting mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yibo; Lv, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Dong, Guoying; Yu, Yang; Cui, Yiqiang; Tong, Man; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Zuomin; Zhu, Hui; Zhou, Qi; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-05-01

    Blastomere biopsy is used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis; however, the long-term implications on the offspring are poorly characterized. We previously reported a high risk of memory defects in adult biopsied mice. Here, we assessed nervous function of aged biopsied mice and further investigated the mechanism of neural impairment after biopsy. We found that aged biopsied mice had poorer spatial learning ability, increased neuron degeneration, and altered expression of proteins involved in neural degeneration or dysfunction in the brain compared to aged control mice. Furthermore, the MeDIP assay indicated a genome-wide low methylation in the brains of adult biopsied mice when compared to the controls, and most of the genes containing differentially methylated loci in promoter regions were associated with neural disorders. When we further compared the genomic DNA methylation profiles of 7.5-days postconception (dpc) embryos between the biopsy and control group, we found the whole genome low methylation in the biopsied group, suggesting that blastomere biopsy was an obstacle to de novo methylation during early embryo development. Further analysis on mRNA profiles of 4.5-dpc embryos indicated that reduced expression of de novo methylation genes in biopsied embryos may impact de novo methylation. In conclusion, we demonstrate an abnormal neural development and function in mice generated after blastomere biopsy. The impaired epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development may be the latent mechanism contributing to the impairment of the nervous system in the biopsied mice, which results in a hypomethylation status in their brains.

  2. Mechanisms Underlying Adaptation of Respiratory Network Activity to Modulatory Stimuli in the Mouse Embryo.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Marc; De Sa, Rafaël; Cardoit, Laura; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Breathing is a rhythmic behavior that requires organized contractions of respiratory effector muscles. This behavior must adapt to constantly changing conditions in order to ensure homeostasis, proper body oxygenation, and CO2/pH regulation. Respiratory rhythmogenesis is controlled by neural networks located in the brainstem. One area considered to be essential for generating the inspiratory phase of the respiratory rhythm is the preBötzinger complex (preBötC). Rhythmogenesis emerges from this network through the interplay between the activation of intrinsic cellular properties (pacemaker properties) and intercellular synaptic connections. Respiratory activity continuously changes under the impact of numerous modulatory substances depending on organismal needs and environmental conditions. The preBötC network has been shown to become active during the last third of gestation. But only little is known regarding the modulation of inspiratory rhythmicity at embryonic stages and even less on a possible role of pacemaker neurons in this functional flexibility during the prenatal period. By combining electrophysiology and calcium imaging performed on embryonic brainstem slice preparations, we provide evidence showing that embryonic inspiratory pacemaker neurons are already intrinsically sensitive to neuromodulation and external conditions (i.e., temperature) affecting respiratory network activity, suggesting a potential role of pacemaker neurons in mediating rhythm adaptation to modulatory stimuli in the embryo.

  3. Mechanisms Underlying Adaptation of Respiratory Network Activity to Modulatory Stimuli in the Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Marc; De Sa, Rafaël; Cardoit, Laura; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Breathing is a rhythmic behavior that requires organized contractions of respiratory effector muscles. This behavior must adapt to constantly changing conditions in order to ensure homeostasis, proper body oxygenation, and CO2/pH regulation. Respiratory rhythmogenesis is controlled by neural networks located in the brainstem. One area considered to be essential for generating the inspiratory phase of the respiratory rhythm is the preBötzinger complex (preBötC). Rhythmogenesis emerges from this network through the interplay between the activation of intrinsic cellular properties (pacemaker properties) and intercellular synaptic connections. Respiratory activity continuously changes under the impact of numerous modulatory substances depending on organismal needs and environmental conditions. The preBötC network has been shown to become active during the last third of gestation. But only little is known regarding the modulation of inspiratory rhythmicity at embryonic stages and even less on a possible role of pacemaker neurons in this functional flexibility during the prenatal period. By combining electrophysiology and calcium imaging performed on embryonic brainstem slice preparations, we provide evidence showing that embryonic inspiratory pacemaker neurons are already intrinsically sensitive to neuromodulation and external conditions (i.e., temperature) affecting respiratory network activity, suggesting a potential role of pacemaker neurons in mediating rhythm adaptation to modulatory stimuli in the embryo. PMID:27239348

  4. A Novel Use of Three-dimensional High-frequency Ultrasonography for Early Pregnancy Characterization in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Peavey, Mary C; Reynolds, Corey L; Szwarc, Maria M; Gibbons, William E; Valdes, Cecilia T; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P

    2017-10-24

    High-frequency ultrasonography (HFUS) is a common method to non-invasively monitor the real-time development of the human fetus in utero. The mouse is routinely used as an in vivo model to study embryo implantation and pregnancy progression. Unfortunately, such murine studies require pregnancy interruption to enable follow-up phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of HFUS imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their individual developmental progression in utero. Combining HFUS imaging with 3-D reconstruction and modeling, we were able to accurately quantify embryo implantation site number as well as monitor developmental progression in pregnant C57BL6J/129S mice from 5.5 days post coitus (d.p.c.) through to 9.5 d.p.c. with the use of a transducer. Measurements included: number, location, and volume of implantation sites as well as inter-implantation site spacing; embryo viability was assessed by cardiac activity monitoring. In the immediate post-implantation period (5.5 to 8.5 d.p.c.), 3-D reconstruction of the gravid uterus in both mesh and solid overlay format enabled visual representation of the developing pregnancies within each uterine horn. As genetically engineered mice continue to be used to characterize female reproductive phenotypes derived from uterine dysfunction, this method offers a new approach to detect, quantify, and characterize early implantation events in vivo. This novel use of 3-D HFUS imaging demonstrates the ability to successfully detect, visualize, and characterize embryo-implantation sites during early murine pregnancy in a non-invasive manner. The technology offers a significant improvement over current methods, which rely on the interruption of pregnancies for gross tissue and histopathologic characterization. Here we use a video and text format to describe how to successfully perform ultrasounds of early murine pregnancy to

  5. Rho-associated protein kinase regulates subcellular localisation of Angiomotin and Hippo-signalling during preimplantation mouse embryo development.

    PubMed

    Mihajlović, Aleksandar I; Bruce, Alexander W

    2016-09-01

    The differential activity of the Hippo-signalling pathway between the outer- and inner-cell populations of the developing preimplantation mouse embryo directs appropriate formation of trophectoderm and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages. Such distinct signalling activity is under control of intracellular polarization, whereby Hippo-signalling is either supressed in polarized outer cells or activated in apolar inner cells. The central role of apical-basolateral polarization to such differential Hippo-signalling regulation prompted us to reinvestigate the role of potential upstream molecular regulators affecting apical-basolateral polarity. This study reports that the chemical inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (Rock) is associated with failure to form morphologically distinct blastocysts, indicative of compromised trophectoderm differentiation, and defects in the localization of both apical and basolateral polarity factors associated with malformation of tight junctions. Moreover, Rock-inhibition mediates mislocalization of the Hippo-signalling activator Angiomotin (Amot), to the basolateral regions of outer cells and is concomitant with aberrant activation of the pathway. The Rock-inhibition phenotype is mediated by Amot, as RNAi-based Amot knockdown totally rescues the normal suppression of Hippo-signalling in outer cells. In conclusion, Rock, via regulating appropriate apical-basolateral polarization in outer cells, regulates the appropriate activity of the Hippo-signalling pathway, by ensuring correct subcellular localization of Amot protein in outer cells. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigallocatechin gallate promotes the development of mouse 2-cell embryos in vitro by regulating mitochondrial activity and expression of genes related to p53 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiyu; Lv, Junjie; Zhang, Yanqin; Jiang, Yufei; Chu, Chenfeng; Wang, Shie

    2014-11-01

    Preliminary studies have found that the epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) at proper concentration could promote development of pre-implantation mouse embryos in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been well understood. In this study, we collected 1-cell embryos from Kunming (KM) mice, cultured them in M16 medium or M16 medium supplemented with 10 μg/mL EGCG and investigated the effects of EGCG on mitochondrial activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of 2-cell embryos. Furthermore, we explored expression differences of genes related to p53 signalling pathway in 2-cell embryos using a PCR array. The results showed that ROS level and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly lower in embryos cultured in the EGCG group than in the M16 group (p < 0.05), while the adenosine triphosphate content was slightly lower than in the M16 group (p > 0.05). PCR array test results showed that 18 genes were differentially expressed, among which eight genes involving cell growth, cell cycle regulation and mRNA transcription were up-regulated and 10 genes involving apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair were down-regulated in the EGCG groups. It is concluded that EGCG could promote the development of 1-cell embryos in vitro possibly due to its ability to scavenge ROS and regulate mitochondrial activity. In addition, EGCG could influence expression of genes related to p53 signalling pathway in 2-cell embryos and promote cell cycle progression. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  7. Ectodermal Wnt6 is an early negative regulator of limb chondrogenesis in the chicken embryo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pattern formation of the limb skeleton is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling centers located in the ectodermal sheath and mesenchymal core of the limb anlagen, which results, in the forelimb, in the coordinate array of humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals and digits. Much less understood is why skeletal elements form only in the central mesenchyme of the limb, whereas muscle anlagen develop in the peripheral mesenchyme ensheathing the chondrogenic center. Classical studies have suggested a role of the limb ectoderm as a negative regulator of limb chondrogenesis. Results In this paper, we investigated the molecular nature of the inhibitory influence of the ectoderm on limb chondrogenesis in the avian embryo in vivo. We show that ectoderm ablation in the early limb bud leads to increased and ectopic expression of early chondrogenic marker genes like Sox9 and Collagen II, indicating that the limb ectoderm inhibits limb chondrogenesis at an early stage of the chondrogenic cascade. To investigate the molecular nature of the inhibitory influence of the ectoderm, we ectopically expressed Wnt6, which is presently the only known Wnt expressed throughout the avian limb ectoderm, and found that Wnt6 overexpression leads to reduced expression of the early chondrogenic marker genes Sox9 and Collagen II. Conclusion Our results suggest that the inhibitory influence of the ectoderm on limb chondrogenesis acts on an early stage of chondrogenesis upsteam of Sox9 and Collagen II. We identify Wnt6 as a candidate mediator of ectodermal chondrogenic inhibition in vivo. We propose a model of Wnt-mediated centripetal patterning of the limb by the surface ectoderm. PMID:20334703

  8. γ-BUTYROBETAINE AS A SPECIFIC ANTAGONIST FOR CARNITINE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARLY CHICK EMBRYO

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Toshio; Fraenkel, G.

    1957-01-01

    The effect of γ-butyrobetaine alone and with the addition of carnitine on the development of the early excised chick embryo has been studied. γ-Butyrobetaine in appropriate amounts exerts an inhibitory effect which can be relieved or annulled by the inclusion of appropriate amounts of carnitine. This has been interpreted as a metabolite-antimetabolite relationship, in which the normal metabolite, carnitine, is antagonized by the structurally closely related γ-butyrobetaine, and is regarded as evidence of an important role of carnitine in the metabolism of the developing chick embryo. PMID:13475691

  9. Nodal Cilia Dynamics and the Specification of the Left/Right Axis in Early Vertebrate Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Buceta, Javier; Ibañes, Marta; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego; Okada, Yasushi; Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Izpisúa-Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Nodal cilia dynamics is a key factor for left/right axis determination in mouse embryos through the induction of a leftward fluid flow. So far it has not been clearly established how such dynamics is able to induce the asymmetric leftward flow within the node. Herein we propose that an asymmetric two-phase nonplanar beating cilia dynamics that involves the bending of the ciliar axoneme is responsible for the leftward fluid flow. We support our proposal with a host of hydrodynamic arguments, in silico experiments and in vivo video microscopy data in wild-type embryos and inv mutants. Our phenomenological modeling approach underscores how the asymmetry and speed of the flow depends on different relevant parameters. In addition, we discuss how the combination of internal and external mechanisms might cause the two-phase beating cilia dynamics. PMID:16040754

  10. Contraction and stress-dependent growth shape the forebrain of the early chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Kara E; Okamoto, Ruth J; Bayly, Philip V; Taber, Larry A

    2017-01-01

    During early vertebrate development, local constrictions, or sulci, form to divide the forebrain into the diencephalon, telencephalon, and optic vesicles. These partitions are maintained and exaggerated as the brain tube inflates, grows, and bends. Combining quantitative experiments on chick embryos with computational modeling, we investigated the biophysical mechanisms that drive these changes in brain shape. Chemical perturbations of contractility indicated that actomyosin contraction plays a major role in the creation of initial constrictions (Hamburger-Hamilton stages HH11-12), and fluorescent staining revealed that F-actin is circumferentially aligned at all constrictions. A finite element model based on these findings shows that the observed shape changes are consistent with circumferential contraction in these regions. To explain why sulci continue to deepen as the forebrain expands (HH12-20), we speculate that growth depends on wall stress. This idea was examined by including stress-dependent growth in a model with cerebrospinal fluid pressure and bending (cephalic flexure). The results given by the model agree with observed morphological changes that occur in the brain tube under normal and reduced eCSF pressure, quantitative measurements of relative sulcal depth versus time, and previously published patterns of cell proliferation. Taken together, our results support a biphasic mechanism for forebrain morphogenesis consisting of differential contractility (early) and stress-dependent growth (late). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection against BALB/c strain cells in mouse chimaeras

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pin-Chi; MacKay, Gillian E.; Flockhart, Jean H.; Keighren, Margaret A.; Kopakaki, Anna

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been shown previously that BALB/c strain embryos tend to contribute poorly to mouse aggregation chimaeras. In the present study we showed that BALB/c cells were not preferentially allocated to any extraembryonic lineages of mouse aggregation chimaeras, but their contribution decreased during the early postimplantation period and they were significantly depleted by E8.5. The development of BALB/c strain preimplantation embryos lagged behind embryos from some other strains and the contribution that BALB/c and other embryos made to chimaeras correlated with their developmental stage at E2.5. This relationship suggests that the poor contribution of BALB/c embryos to aggregation chimaeras is at least partly a consequence of generalised selection related to slow or delayed preimplantation development. The suitability of BALB/c embryos for maximising the ES cell contribution to mouse ES cell chimaeras is also discussed. PMID:29330350

  12. Adrenocorticotropic hormone affects nonapoptotic cell death of undifferentiated germ cells in the fetal mouse testis: in vivo study by exo utero transplantation of corticotropic tumor cells into embryos.

    PubMed

    Nimura, Masayuki; Udagawa, Jun; Otani, Hiroki

    2008-06-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has been suggested to have possible roles in the fetal testes, one of the organs that express its specific receptors, melanocortin type 2 and 5 receptors (MC2R and MC5R), during the fetal period. We investigated the effect of ACTH on the cells in the testis cord of the fetal mouse testis by inducing ACTH-secreting AtT20 tumor cells in mouse fetuses. We first identified that mouse testicular germ cells at embryonic day (E) 16.5 and E18.5 spermatogonia were entirely CDH1 (E-cadherin)-positive by immunohistochemistry. We next performed AtT20-cell transplantation into the mouse fetus at E12.5, and analyzed ACTH effects on the development of fetal male mouse germ cells that express MC2R and MC5R at E16.5 and E18.5. The spermatogonia in the testis of AtT20-implanted embryos exhibited morphological changes, including pyknotic nuclei and swollen cytoplasm. In the AtT20-implanted embryos, the number of spermatogonia per unit area of the testis cord was significantly lower, but there were more pyknotic spermatogonia than in the controls. Single-stranded DNA-positive (apoptotic) and histone H3-positive (mitotic) spermatogonia were rarely observed and their numbers did not significantly differ in the two groups. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)-positive Sertoli cells, another cell type that constitutes the fetal testis cord but does not express MC2R or MC5R, showed no apparent morphological changes compared with controls, nor were their numbers in the two groups significantly different between the two groups. These results suggest that ACTH, via MC2R and/or MC5R, may be involved in the nonapoptotic cell death of fetal mouse spermatogonia that is observed during the normal perinatal period.

  13. Super cool X-1000 and Super cool Z-1000, two ice blockers, and their effect on vitrification/warming of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Badrzadeh, H; Najmabadi, S; Paymani, R; Macaso, T; Azadbadi, Z; Ahmady, A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the survival and blastocyst formation rates of mouse embryos after vitrification/thaw process with different ice blocker media. We used X-1000 and Z-1000 separately and mixed using V-Kim, a closed vitrification system. Mouse embryos were vitrified using ethylene glycol based medium supplemented with Super cool X-1000 and/or Super cool Z-1000. Survival rates for the control, Super cool X-1000, Super cool Z-1000, and Super cool X-1000/Z-1000 groups were 74%, 72%, 68%, and 85% respectively, with no significant difference among experimental and control groups; however, a significantly higher survival rate was noticed in the Super cool X-1000/Z-1000 group when compared with the Super cool Z-1000 group. Blastocyst formation rates for the control, Super cool X-1000, Super cool Z-1000, and Super cool X-1000/Z-1000 groups were 71%, 66%, 65%, and 72% respectively. There was no significant difference in this rate among control and experimental groups. In a closed vitrification system, addition of ice blocker Super cool X-1000 to the vitrification solution containing Super cool Z-1000 may improve the embryo survival rate. We recommend combined ice blocker usage to optimize the vitrification outcome. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Germ layer differentiation during early hindgut and cloaca formation in rabbit and pig embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Romia; Schwartz, Peter; Rath, Detlef; Viebahn, Christoph; Männer, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Relative to recent advances in understanding molecular requirements for endoderm differentiation, the dynamics of germ layer morphology and the topographical distribution of molecular factors involved in endoderm formation at the caudal pole of the embryonic disc are still poorly defined. To discover common principles of mammalian germ layer development, pig and rabbit embryos at late gastrulation and early neurulation stages were analysed as species with a human-like embryonic disc morphology, using correlative light and electron microscopy. Close intercellular contact but no direct structural evidence of endoderm formation such as mesenchymal–epithelial transition between posterior primitive streak mesoderm and the emerging posterior endoderm were found. However, a two-step process closely related to posterior germ layer differentiation emerged for the formation of the cloacal membrane: (i) a continuous mesoderm layer and numerous patches of electron-dense flocculent extracellular matrix mark the prospective region of cloacal membrane formation; and (ii) mesoderm cells and all extracellular matrix including the basement membrane are lost locally and close intercellular contact between the endoderm and ectoderm is established. The latter process involves single cells at first and then gradually spreads to form a longitudinally oriented seam-like cloacal membrane. These gradual changes were found from gastrulation to early somite stages in the pig, whereas they were found from early somite to mid-somite stages in the rabbit; in both species cloacal membrane formation is complete prior to secondary neurulation. The results highlight the structural requirements for endoderm formation during development of the hindgut and suggest new mechanisms for the pathogenesis of common urogenital and anorectal malformations. PMID:20874819

  15. Expression of the cytokeratin endo A gene during early mouse embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Duprey, P; Morello, D; Vasseur, M; Babinet, C; Condamine, H; Brûlet, P; Jacob, F

    1985-01-01

    Expression of cytokeratin endo A has been analyzed during mouse blastocyst formation and embryonal carcinoma cell differentiation. To study the regulation of endo A expression, nuclease S1 mapping experiments have been performed on RNA extracted from two-cell to 7.5-day embryos. Low levels of endo A mRNA begin to be detectable in eight-cell embryos. The amount of this mRNA increases at the blastocyst stage, suggesting that endo A expression is regulated at the mRNA level during blastocyst formation. At this stage, in situ hybridization studies show that endo A mRNA is present in the trophectoderm but not in the inner cell mass. In 7.5-day embryos, endo A mRNAs are also detectable in the endoderm layer and in the amnion. Images PMID:2417224

  16. Synovial joint formation requires local Ext1 expression and heparan sulfate production in developing mouse embryo limbs and spine.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Christina; Yasuda, Tadashi; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) regulate a number of major developmental processes, but their roles in synovial joint formation remain unknown. Here we created conditional mouse embryo mutants lacking Ext1 in developing joints by mating Ext1(f/f) and Gdf5-Cre mice. Ext1 encodes a subunit of the Ext1/Ext2 Golgi-associated protein complex responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. The proximal limb joints did form in the Gdf5-Cre;Ext1(f/f) mutants, but contained an uneven articulating superficial zone that expressed very low lubricin levels. The underlying cartilaginous epiphysis was deranged as well and displayed random patterns of cell proliferation and matrillin-1 and collagen IIA expression, indicative of an aberrant phenotypic definition of the epiphysis itself. Digit joints were even more affected, lacked a distinct mesenchymal interzone and were often fused likely as a result of local abnormal BMP and hedgehog activity and signaling. Interestingly, overall growth and lengthening of long bones were also delayed in the mutants. To test whether Ext1 function is needed for joint formation at other sites, we examined the spine. Indeed, entire intervertebral discs, normally composed by nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, were often missing in Gdf5-Cre;Ext1(f/f) mice. When disc remnants were present, they displayed aberrant organization and defective joint marker expression. Similar intervertebral joint defects and fusions occurred in Col2-Cre;β-catenin(f/f) mutants. The study provides novel evidence that local Ext1 expression and HS production are needed to maintain the phenotype and function of joint-forming cells and coordinate local signaling by BMP, hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. The data indicate also that defects in joint formation reverberate on, and delay, overall long bone growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemokine scavenger D6 is expressed by trophoblasts and aids the survival of mouse embryos transferred into allogeneic recipients.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Judith; Freeman, Dilys J; Menzies, Fiona; Forrow, Steve; Nelson, Scott M; Young, Anne; Sharkey, Andrew; Moffett, Ashley; Graham, Gerard J; Greer, Ian A; Rot, Antal; Nibbs, Robert J B

    2010-03-15

    Proinflammatory CC chemokines are thought to drive recruitment of maternal leukocytes into gestational tissues and regulate extravillous trophoblast migration. The atypical chemokine receptor D6 binds many of these chemokines and is highly expressed by the human placenta. D6 is thought to act as a chemokine scavenger because, when ectopically expressed in cell lines in vitro, it efficiently internalizes proinflammatory CC chemokines and targets them for destruction in the absence of detectable chemokine-induced signaling. Moreover, D6 suppresses inflammation in many mouse tissues, and notably, D6-deficient fetuses in D6-deficient female mice show increased susceptibility to inflammation-driven resorption. In this paper, we report strong anti-D6 immunoreactivity, with specific intracellular distribution patterns, in trophoblast-derived cells in human placenta, decidua, and gestational membranes throughout pregnancy and in trophoblast disease states of hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. We show, for the first time, that endogenous D6 in a human choriocarcinoma-derived cell line can mediate progressive chemokine scavenging and that the D6 ligand CCL2 can specifically associate with human syncytiotrophoblasts in term placenta in situ. Moreover, despite strong chemokine production by gestational tissues, levels of D6-binding chemokines in maternal plasma decrease during pregnancy, even in women with pre-eclampsia, a disease associated with increased maternal inflammation. In mice, D6 is not required for syngeneic or semiallogeneic fetal survival in unchallenged mice, but interestingly, it does suppress fetal resorption after embryo transfer into fully allogeneic recipients. These data support the view that trophoblast D6 scavenges maternal chemokines at the fetomaternal interface and that, in some circumstances, this can help to ensure fetal survival.

  18. Differential Expression of Metallothionein Isoforms in Terrestrial Snail Embryos Reflects Early Life Stage Adaptation to Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; de Vaufleury, Annette; Niederwanger, Michael; Capelli, Nicolas; Scheifler, Renaud; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of three metallothionein (MT) isoform genes (CdMT, CuMT and Cd/CuMT), already known from adults, in the Early Life Stage (ELS) of Cantareus aspersus. This was accomplished by detection of the MT isoform-specific transcription adopting Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR of the three MT genes. Freshly laid eggs were kept for 24 hours under control conditions or exposed to three cadmium (Cd) solutions of increasing concentration (5, 10, and 15 mg Cd/L). The transcription of the three MT isoform genes was detected via PCR in 1, 6 and 12-day-old control or Cd-exposed embryos. Moreover, the transcription of this isoform genes during development was followed by qRT-PCR in 6 and 12-day-old embryos. Our results showed that the CdMT and Cd/CuMT genes, but not the CuMT gene, are expressed in embryos at the first day of development. The transcription of the 3 MT genes in control embryos increased with development time, suggesting that the capacities of metal regulation and detoxification may have gradually increased throughout embryogenesis. However in control embryos, the most highly expressed MT gene was that of the Cd/CuMT isoform, whose transcription levels greatly exceeded those of the other two MT genes. This contrasts with the minor significance of this gene in adult snails and suggests that in embryos, this isoform may play a comparatively more important role in metal physiology compared to adult individuals. This function in adult snails appears not to be related to Cd detoxification. Instead, snail embryos responded to Cd exposure by over-expression of the CdMT gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the expression of the Cd/CuMT gene remained unaffected. Moreover, our study demonstrates the ability of snail embryos to respond very early to Cd exposure by up-regulation of the CdMT gene. PMID:25706953

  19. Comparison of different tissue clearing methods and 3D imaging techniques for visualization of GFP-expressing mouse embryos and embryonic hearts.

    PubMed

    Kolesová, Hana; Čapek, Martin; Radochová, Barbora; Janáček, Jiří; Sedmera, David

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to find an optimal tissue clearing protocol for whole-mount imaging of embryonic and adult hearts and whole embryos of transgenic mice that would preserve green fluorescent protein GFP fluorescence and permit comparison of different currently available 3D imaging modalities. We tested various published organic solvent- or water-based clearing protocols intended to preserve GFP fluorescence in central nervous system: tetrahydrofuran dehydration and dibenzylether protocol (DBE), SCALE, CLARITY, and CUBIC and evaluated their ability to render hearts and whole embryos transparent. DBE clearing protocol did not preserve GFP fluorescence; in addition, DBE caused considerable tissue-shrinking artifacts compared to the gold standard BABB protocol. The CLARITY method considerably improved tissue transparency at later stages, but also decreased GFP fluorescence intensity. The SCALE clearing resulted in sufficient tissue transparency up to ED12.5; at later stages the useful depth of imaging was limited by tissue light scattering. The best method for the cardiac specimens proved to be the CUBIC protocol, which preserved GFP fluorescence well, and cleared the specimens sufficiently even at the adult stages. In addition, CUBIC decolorized the blood and myocardium by removing tissue iron. Good 3D renderings of whole fetal hearts and embryos were obtained with optical projection tomography and selective plane illumination microscopy, although at resolutions lower than with a confocal microscope. Comparison of five tissue clearing protocols and three imaging methods for study of GFP mouse embryos and hearts shows that the optimal method depends on stage and level of detail required.

  20. Identification of a paternal developmental effect on the cytoplasm of one-cell-stage mouse embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Renard, J P; Babinet, C

    1986-01-01

    Matings of female DDK mice with males of the BALB/c strain are sterile, whereas reciprocal crosses are normally fertile. We used nuclear transplantation between the hybrid eggs of these two strains to investigate the basis of this effect. We demonstrate that the observed sterility results from early embryonic mortality, that the mortality is due to a modification of the egg cytoplasm, and that the modification is mediated by the male pronucleus. Once established, this modification may affect female pronuclei of unrelated genotype such as C57BL/6. These results support the notion that a product derived from the male genome acts at the pronuclear stage and can affect later stages of embryonic development. Images PMID:3462735

  1. Biochemical defects of mutant nudel alleles causing early developmental arrest or dorsalization of the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    LeMosy, E K; Leclerc, C L; Hashimoto, C

    2000-01-01

    The nudel gene of Drosophila is maternally required both for structural integrity of the egg and for dorsoventral patterning of the embryo. It encodes a structurally modular protein that is secreted by ovarian follicle cells. Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the Nudel protein is also functionally modular, with a serine protease domain that is specifically required for ventral development. Here we describe biochemical and immunolocalization studies that provide insight into the molecular basis for the distinct phenotypes produced by nudel mutations and for the interactions between these alleles. Mutations causing loss of embryonic dorsoventral polarity result in a failure to activate the protease domain of Nudel. Our analyses support previous findings that catalytic activity of the protease domain is required for dorsoventral patterning and that the Nudel protease is auto-activated and reveal an important role for a region adjacent to the protease domain in Nudel protease function. Mutations causing egg fragility and early embryonic arrest result in a significant decrease in extracellular Nudel protein, due to defects in post-translational processing, stability, or secretion. On the basis of these and other studies of serine proteases, we suggest potential mechanisms for the complementary and antagonistic interactions between the nudel alleles. PMID:10628985

  2. Proteomic analysis of early-stage embryos: implications for egg quality in hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios).

    PubMed

    Kohn, Yair Y; Symonds, Jane E; Kleffmann, Torsten; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Lokman, P Mark

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop biomarkers that may help predict the egg quality of captive hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios) and provide potential avenues for its manipulation, the present study (1) sequenced the proteome of early-stage embryos using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification analysis, and (2) aimed to establish the predictive value of the abundance of identified proteins with regard to egg quality through regression analysis. Egg quality was determined for eight different egg batches by blastomere symmetry scores. In total, 121 proteins were identified and assigned to one of nine major groups according to their function/pathway. A mixed-effects model analysis revealed a decrease in relative protein abundance that correlated with (decreasing) egg quality in one major group (heat-shock proteins). No differences were found in the other protein groups. Linear regression analysis, performed for each identified protein separately, revealed seven proteins that showed a significant decrease in relative abundance with reduced blastomere symmetry: two correlates that have been named in other studies (vitellogenin, heat-shock protein-70) and a further five new candidate proteins (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, elongation factor-2, GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran, iduronate 2-sulfatase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase). Notwithstanding issues associated with multiple statistical testing, we conclude that these proteins, and especially iduronate 2-sulfatase and the generic heat-shock protein group, could serve as biomarkers of egg quality in hapuku.

  3. RBP-Jκ-Dependent Notch Signaling Is Dispensable for Mouse Early Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Souilhol, Céline; Cormier, Sarah; Tanigaki, Kenji; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling system which has been shown to be essential in cell fate specification and in numerous aspects of embryonic development in all metazoans thus far studied. We recently demonstrated that several components of the Notch signaling pathway, including the four Notch receptors and their five ligands known in mammals, are expressed in mouse oocytes, in mouse preimplantation embryos, or both. This suggested a possible implication of the Notch pathway in the first cell fate specification of the dividing mouse embryo, which results in the formation of the blastocyst. To address this issue directly, we generated zygotes in which both the maternal and the zygotic expression of Rbpsuh, a key element of the core Notch signaling pathway, were abrogated. We find that such zygotes give rise to blastocysts which implant and develop normally. Nevertheless, after gastrulation, these embryos die around midgestation, similarly to Rbpsuh-null mutants. This demonstrates that the RBP-Jκ-dependent pathway, otherwise called the canonical Notch pathway, is dispensable for blastocyst morphogenesis and the establishment of the three germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These results are discussed in the light of recent observations which have challenged this conclusion. PMID:16782866

  4. RBP-Jkappa-dependent notch signaling is dispensable for mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Souilhol, Céline; Cormier, Sarah; Tanigaki, Kenji; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2006-07-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling system which has been shown to be essential in cell fate specification and in numerous aspects of embryonic development in all metazoans thus far studied. We recently demonstrated that several components of the Notch signaling pathway, including the four Notch receptors and their five ligands known in mammals, are expressed in mouse oocytes, in mouse preimplantation embryos, or both. This suggested a possible implication of the Notch pathway in the first cell fate specification of the dividing mouse embryo, which results in the formation of the blastocyst. To address this issue directly, we generated zygotes in which both the maternal and the zygotic expression of Rbpsuh, a key element of the core Notch signaling pathway, were abrogated. We find that such zygotes give rise to blastocysts which implant and develop normally. Nevertheless, after gastrulation, these embryos die around midgestation, similarly to Rbpsuh-null mutants. This demonstrates that the RBP-Jkappa-dependent pathway, otherwise called the canonical Notch pathway, is dispensable for blastocyst morphogenesis and the establishment of the three germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These results are discussed in the light of recent observations which have challenged this conclusion.

  5. μCT of ex-vivo stained mouse hearts and embryos enables a precise match between 3D virtual histology, classical histology and immunochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Emanuel; Martin, Sabine; Lazzarini, Marcio; Tromba, Giuliana; Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine; Pinkert-Leetsch, Diana; Katschinski, Dörthe M.; Alves, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos. Our x-ray based virtual histology approach is not limited to SRμCT as it does not require monochromatic and/or coherent x-ray sources and even more importantly can be combined with conventional histological procedures. Furthermore, it permits volumetric measurements as we show for the assessment of the plaque volumes in the aortic valve region of mice from an ApoE-/- mouse model. Subsequent, Masson-Goldner trichrome staining of paraffin sections of PTA stained samples revealed intact collagen and muscle fibres and positive staining of CD31 on endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry illustrates that our approach does not prevent immunochemistry analysis. The feasibility to scan hearts already embedded in paraffin ensured a 100% correlation between virtual cut sections of the CT data sets and histological heart sections of the same sample and may allow in future guiding the cutting process to specific regions of interest. In summary, since our CT based virtual histology approach is a powerful tool for the 3D depiction of morphological alterations in hearts and embryos in high resolution and can be combined with classical histological analysis it may be used in preclinical research to unravel structural alterations of various heart diseases. PMID:28178293

  6. WNT4 is a key regulator of normal postnatal uterine development and progesterone signaling during embryo implantation and decidualization in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Heather L.; Dai, Daisy; Lee, Kevin Y.; Rubel, Cory A.; Roop, Dennis; Boerboom, Derek; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Lydon, John P.; Bagchi, Indrani C.; Bagchi, Milan K.; DeMayo, Francesco J.

    2011-01-01

    WNT4, a member of the Wnt family of ligands, is critical for the development of the female reproductive tract. Analysis of Wnt4 expression in the adult uterus during pregnancy indicates that it may play a role in the regulation of endometrial stromal cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, which is required to support the developing embryo. To investigate the role of Wnt4 in adult uterine physiology, conditional ablation of Wnt4 using the PRcre mouse model was accomplished. Ablation of Wnt4 rendered female mice subfertile due to a defect in embryo implantation and subsequent defects in endometrial stromal cell survival, differentiation, and responsiveness to progesterone signaling. In addition to altered stromal cell function, the uteri of PRcre/+Wnt4f/f (Wnt4d/d) mice displayed altered epithelial differentiation characterized by a reduction in the number of uterine glands and the emergence of a p63-positive basal cell layer beneath the columnar luminal epithelial cells. The altered epithelial cell phenotype was further escalated by chronic estrogen treatment, which caused squamous cell metaplasia of the uterine epithelium in the Wnt4d/d mice. Thus, WNT4 is a critical regulator not only of proper postnatal uterine development, but also embryo implantation and decidualization.—Franco, H. L., Dai, D., Lee, K. Y., Rubel, C. S., Roop, D., Boerboom, D., Jeong, J.-W., Lydon, J.-P., Bagchi, I. C., Bagchi, M. K., DeMayo, F. J. WNT4 is a key regulator of normal postnatal uterine development and progesterone signaling during embryo implantation and decidualization in the mouse. PMID:21163860

  7. Evaluation of reference genes in mouse preimplantation embryos for gene expression studies using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Kang, Min-Hee; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Seo, Han Geuk; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-09-25

    Real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most sensitive, and valuable technique for rare mRNA detection. However, the expression profiles of reference genes under different experimental conditions, such as different mouse strains, developmental stage, and culture conditions have been poorly studied. mRNA stability of the actb, gapdh, sdha, ablim, ywhaz, sptbn, h2afz, tgfb1, 18 s and wrnip genes was analyzed. Using the NormFinder program, the most stable genes are as follows: h2afz for the B6D2F-1 and C57BL/6 strains; sptbn for ICR; h2afz for KOSOM and CZB cultures of B6D2F-1 and C57BL/6 strain-derived embryos; wrnip for M16 culture of B6D2F-1 and C57BL/6 strain-derived embryos; ywhaz, tgfb1, 18 s, 18 s, ywhaz, and h2afz for zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, molular, and blastocyst embryonic stages cultured in KSOM medium, respectively; h2afz, wrnip, wrnip, h2afz, ywhaz, and ablim for zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, molular, and blastocyst stage embryos cultured in CZB medium, respectively; 18 s, h2afz, h2afz, actb, h2afz, and wrnip for zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, molular, and blastocyst stage embryos cultured in M16 medium, respectively. These results demonstrated that candidate reference genes for normalization of target gene expression using RT-qPCR should be selected according to mouse strains, developmental stage, and culture conditions.

  8. Dysfunction in gap junction intercellular communication induces aberrant behavior of the inner cell mass and frequent collapses of expanded blastocysts in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Kazue; Kumagai, Jin; Sato, Emiko; Shirasawa, Hiromitsu; Shimoda, Yuki; Makino, Kenichi; Sato, Wataru; Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Omori, Yasufumi; Terada, Yukihiro

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of gap junctions (GJs) in embryological differentiation, and observed the morphological behavior of the inner cell mass (ICM) by time-lapse movie observation (TLM) with gap junction inhibitors (GJis). ICR mouse embryos were exposed to two types of GJis in CZB medium: oleamide (0 to 50 μM) and 1-heptanol (0 to 10 mM). We compared the rate of blastocyst formation at embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5) with E5.5. We also observed and evaluated the times from the second cleavage to each embryonic developing stage by TLM. We investigated embryonic distribution of DNA, Nanog protein, and Connexin 43 protein with immunofluorescent staining. In the comparison of E4.5 with E5.5, inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) delayed embryonic blastocyst formation. The times from the second cleavage to blastocyst formation were significantly extended in the GJi-treated embryos (control vs with oleamide, 2224 ± 179 min vs 2354 ± 278 min, p = 0.013). Morphological differences were traced in control versus GJi-treated embryos until the hatching stage. Oleamide induced frequent severe collapses of expanded blastocysts (77.4 % versus 26.3 %, p = 0.0001) and aberrant ICM divisions connected to sticky strands (74.3 % versus 5.3 %, p = 0.0001). Immunofluorescent staining indicated Nanog-positive cells were distributed in each divided ICM. GJIC plays an important role in blastocyst formation, collapses of expanded blastocysts, and the ICM construction in mouse embryos.

  9. Endometrium as an early sensor of in vitro embryo manipulation technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Attia, Nadéra; Sandra, Olivier; Aubert, Julie; Degrelle, Séverine; Everts, Robin E.; Giraud-Delville, Corinne; Heyman, Yvan; Galio, Laurent; Hue, Isabelle; Yang, Xiangzhong; Tian, X. Cindy; Lewin, Harris A.; Renard, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Implantation is crucial for placental development that will subsequently impact fetal growth and pregnancy success with consequences on postnatal health. We postulated that the pattern of genes expressed by the endometrium when the embryo becomes attached to the mother uterus could account for the final outcome of a pregnancy. As a model, we used the bovine species where the embryo becomes progressively and permanently attached to the endometrium from day 20 of gestation onwards. At that stage, we compared the endometrial genes profiles in the presence of an in vivo fertilized embryo (AI) with the endometrial patterns obtained in the presence of nuclear transfer (SCNT) or in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF), both displaying lower and different potentials for term development. Our data provide evidence that the endometrium can be considered as a biological sensor able to fine-tune its physiology in response to the presence of embryos whose development will become altered much later after the implantation process. Compared with AI, numerous biological functions and several canonical pathways with a major impact on metabolism and immune function were found to be significantly altered in the endometrium of SCNT pregnancies at implantation, whereas the differences were less pronounced with IVF embryos. Determining the limits of the endometrial plasticity at the onset of implantation should bring new insights on the contribution of the maternal environment to the development of an embryo and the success of pregnancy. PMID:19297625

  10. No significant regulation of bicoid mRNA by Pumilio or Nanos in the early Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Tammy H; Nomie, Krystle J; Wharton, Robin P

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) is a founding member of the conserved Puf domain class of RNA-binding translational regulators. Pum binds with high specificity, contacting eight nucleotides, one with each of the repeats in its RNA-binding domain. In general, Pum is thought to block translation in collaboration with Nanos (Nos), which exhibits no binding specificity in isolation but is recruited jointly to regulatory sequences containing a Pum binding site in the 3'-UTRs of target mRNAs. Unlike Pum, which is ubiquitous in the early embryo, Nos is tightly restricted to the posterior, ensuring that repression of its best-characterized target, maternal hunchback (hb) mRNA, takes place exclusively in the posterior. An exceptional case of Nos-independent regulation by Pum has been described-repression of maternal bicoid (bcd) mRNA at the anterior pole of the early embryo, dependent on both Pum and conserved Pum binding sites in the 3'-UTR of the mRNA. We have re-investigated regulation of bcd in the early embryo; our experiments reveal no evidence of a role for Pum or its conserved binding sites in regulation of the perdurance of bcd mRNA or protein. Instead, we find that Pum and Nos control the accumulation of bcd mRNA in testes.

  11. Dynamic Properties of Electrotonic Coupling between Cells of Early Xenopus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    DiCaprio, R. A.; French, A. S.; Sanders, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Frequency response functions were measured between the cells of Xenopus laevis embryos during the first two cleavage stages. Linear systems theory was then used to produce electronic models which account for the electrical behavior of the systems. Coupling between the cells may be explained by models which have simple resistive elements joining each cell to its neighbors. The vitelline, or fertilization, membrane which surrounds the embryos has no detectable resistance to the passage of electric current. The electrical properties of the four-cell embryo can only be explained by the existence of individual junctions linking each pair of cells. This arrangement suggests that electrotonic coupling is important in the development of the embryos, at least until the four-cell stage. ImagesFIGURE 5FIGURE 14FIGURE 15 PMID:19431351

  12. Mechanical factors direct mouse aortic remodelling during early maturation

    PubMed Central

    Le, Victoria P.; Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Kim, Jungsil; Staiculescu, Marius C.; Ficker, Shawn W.; Sheth, Saahil C.; Bhayani, Siddharth A.; Mecham, Robert P.; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous diseases have been linked to genetic mutations that lead to reduced amounts or disorganization of arterial elastic fibres. Previous work has shown that mice with reduced amounts of elastin (Eln+/−) are able to live a normal lifespan through cardiovascular adaptations, including changes in haemodynamic stresses, arterial geometry and arterial wall mechanics. It is not known if the timeline and presence of these adaptations are consistent in other mouse models of elastic fibre disease, such as those caused by the absence of fibulin-5 expression (Fbln5−/−). Adult Fbln5−/− mice have disorganized elastic fibres, decreased arterial compliance and high blood pressure. We examined mechanical behaviour of the aorta in Fbln5−/− mice through early maturation when the elastic fibres are being assembled. We found that the physiologic circumferential stretch, stress and modulus of Fbln5−/− aorta are maintained near wild-type levels. Constitutive modelling suggests that elastin contributions to the total stress are decreased, whereas collagen contributions are increased. Understanding how collagen fibre structure and mechanics compensate for defective elastic fibres to meet the mechanical requirements of the maturing aorta may help to better understand arterial remodelling in human elastinopathies. PMID:25652465

  13. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini; Georgiades, Pantelis, E-mail: pgeor@ucy.ac.cy

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledgemore » about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7

  14. The effect of repeated light-dark shifts on uterine receptivity and early gestation in mice undergoing embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Cathy A; O'Brien, Louise M; Bergin, Ingrid L; Saunders, Thomas L

    2018-04-01

    Female shift workers are at increased risk for negative reproductive outcomes, and animal evidence suggests that manipulation of the light-dark cycle is detrimental to early gestation in female mice. Specifically, failure of implantation may be responsible for these findings. The objective of this study was to better delineate which reproductive processes are vulnerable to detrimental effects of maternal circadian disturbance. We exposed mice undergoing embryo transfer to repetitive phase advances of the photoperiod. Embryos were derived from donor sperm and eggs from mice living in normal light-dark conditions to isolate the effects of photoperiod disruption on uterine receptivity and early gestation. Twenty-eight mice receiving embryo transfer underwent an experimental light-dark condition (advance of lights on and lights off by 6 hours every 4 days). Twenty-eight mice remained in a normal light-dark condition. Animals lived in their assigned light-dark condition beginning 2 weeks prior to embryo transfer and ending the day of uterine necropsy (post-coitus day 14.5). Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test demonstrated no significant differences between control and experimental light-dark conditions in pups (Z=0.10, p=.92), resorptions (Z=0.20, p=.84), or implantations (Z=-0.34, p=.73). Pup and placental weights were similar between groups. In this investigation, uterine receptivity and maintenance of early gestation were preserved despite recurrent phase advances in photoperiod. This finding, in the context of the current literature, suggests that the negative effects of circadian disruption are mediated by reproductive processes upstream of implantation.

  15. Improvement of porcine cloning efficiency by trichostain A through early-stage induction of embryo apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qianqian; Zhu, Kongju; Liu, Zhiguo; Song, Zhenwei; Huang, Yuankai; Zhao, Haijing; Chen, Yaosheng; He, Zuyong; Mo, Delin; Cong, Peiqing

    2013-03-15

    Trichostain A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, improved developmental competence of SCNT embryos in many species, apparently by improved epigenetic reprogramming. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of TSA-induced apoptosis in cloned porcine embryos. At various developmental stages, a comet assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining were used to detect apoptosis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess expression of genes related to apoptosis and pluripotency. In this study, TSA significantly induced apoptosis (in a dose-dependent manner) at the one-, two-, and four-cell stages. However, in blastocyst stage embryos, TSA decreased the apoptotic index (P < 0.05). Expression levels of Caspase 3 were higher in TSA-treated versus control embryos at the two-cell stage (not statistically significant). The expression ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene to proapoptotic Bax gene, an indicator of antiapoptotic potential, was higher in TSA-treated groups at the one-, two-, and four-cell and blastocyst stages. Furthermore, expression levels of pluripotency-related genes, namely, Oct4 and Nanog, were elevated at the morula stage (P < 0.05) in TSA treatment groups. We concluded that inducing apoptosis might be a mechanism by which TSA promotes development of reconstructed embryos. At the initial stage of apoptosis induction, abnormal cells were removed, thereby enhancing proliferation of healthy cells and improving embryo quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of high-salt exposure on cardiovascular development in the early chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-Fan; Jin, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Zhao, Shu-Zhu; Chen, You-Peng; Chuai, Manli; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we show that high-salt exposure dramatically increases chick mortality during embryo development. As embryonic mortality at early stages mainly results from defects in cardiovascular development, we focused on heart formation and angiogenesis. We found that high-salt exposure enhanced the risk of abnormal heart tube looping and blood congestion in the heart chamber. In the presence of high salt, both ventricular cell proliferation and apoptosis increased. The high osmolarity induced by high salt in the ventricular cardiomyocytes resulted in incomplete differentiation, which might be due to reduced expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA4. Blood vessel density and diameter were suppressed by exposure to high salt in both the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and chorioallantoic membrane models. In addition, high-salt-induced suppression of angiogenesis occurred even at the vasculogenesis stage, as blood island formation was also inhibited by high-salt exposure. At the same time, cell proliferation was repressed and cell apoptosis was enhanced by high-salt exposure in YSM tissue. Moreover, the reduction in expression of HIF2 and FGF2 genes might cause high-salt-suppressed angiogenesis. Interestingly, we show that high-salt exposure causes excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart and YSM tissues, which could be partially rescued through the addition of antioxidants. In total, our study suggests that excess generation of ROS might play an important role in high-salt-induced defects in heart and angiogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The immunologic and antioxidant effects of L-phenylalanine on the uterine implantation of mice embryos during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yulan; Bai, Yongping; Liu, Guanhui; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing; Yang, Hongliang

    2014-10-01

    L-phenylalanine (L-PHE) is a synthetic precursor of catecholamines. Because it cannot be synthesised by an organism, it must be absorbed from the environment. Despite the wide use of L-PHE, whether L-PHE has a negative impact on embryo implantation and development is poorly understood. This study attempted to determine the roles of L-PHE in embryo implantation and development and in the immune response and antioxidant status of the uterus in early pregnancy mice injected intraperitoneally with 320 mg/kg L-PHE. The embryo number of treated mice decreased by 57.6%, and the size of their embryos was reduced by 2.8% (P⟩0.05) along the long diameter and 11.9% (P⟨0.05) along the short diameter at E9 compared with control mice. In addition, L-PHE significantly suppressed B lymphocyte proliferation. L-PHE increased IL-2 secretion but decreased the IL-4 concentration, thereby up-regulating the ratio of IL-2/IL-4 to 1.37-8.45. An analysis of the oxidant and antioxidant status showed that, compared with the control mice, the level of superoxide dismutase activity decreased by 21.54-39.94% and the glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by 15.27-18.96% among the L-PHE-treated mice at E1-E9. However, the malonaldehyde content increased by 14.29%-90.11% among the L-PHE-treated mice. Therefore, L-PHE impaired embryo implantation by disrupting cytokine-based immunity and oxidative stress in the uterus.

  18. Early life sensory ability-ventilatory responses of thornback ray embryos (Raja clavata) to predator-type electric fields.

    PubMed

    Ball, Rachel Emma; Oliver, Matthew Kenneth; Gill, Andrew Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Predator avoidance is fundamental for survival and it can be particularly challenging for prey animals if physical movement away from a predatory threat is restricted. Many sharks and rays begin life within an egg capsule that is attached to the sea bed. The vulnerability of this sedentary life stage is exacerbated in skates (Rajidae) as the compulsory ventilatory activity of embryos makes them conspicuous to potential predators. Embryos can reduce this risk by mediating ventilatory activity if they detect the presence of a predator using an acute electrosense. To determine how early in embryonic life predator elicited behavioral responses can occur, the reactions of three different age groups (1/3 developed, 2/3 developed, and near hatching) of embryonic thornback rays Raja clavata were tested using predator-type electric field stimuli. Egg capsules were exposed to continuous or intermittent stimuli in order to assess varying predator-type encounter scenarios on the ventilatory behavior of different developmental stages. All embryos reacted with a "freeze response" following initial electric field (E-field) exposure, ceasing ventilatory behavior in response to predator presence, demonstrating electroreceptive functionality for the first time at the earliest possible stage in ontogeny. This ability coincided with the onset of egg ventilatory behavior and may represent an effective means to enhance survival. A continuous application of stimuli over time revealed that embryos can adapt their behavior and resume normal activity, whereas when presented intermittently, the E-field resulted in a significant reduction in overall ventilatory activity across all ages. Recovery from stimuli was significantly quicker in older embryos, potentially indicative of the trade-off between avoiding predation and adequate respiration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 721-729, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing for loss-of-function in the early chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Shashank; Piacentino, Michael L; Vieceli, Felipe M; Bronner, Marianne E

    2017-12-01

    The advent of CRISPR/Cas9 has made genome editing possible in virtually any organism, including those not previously amenable to genetic manipulations. Here, we present an optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 for application to early avian embryos with improved efficiency via a three-fold strategy. First, we employed Cas9 protein flanked with two nuclear localization signal sequences for improved nuclear localization. Second, we used a modified guide RNA (gRNA) scaffold that obviates premature termination of transcription and unstable Cas9-gRNA interactions. Third, we used a chick-specific U6 promoter that yields 4-fold higher gRNA expression than the previously utilized human U6. For rapid screening of gRNAs for in vivo applications, we also generated a chicken fibroblast cell line that constitutively expresses Cas9. As proof of principle, we performed electroporation-based loss-of-function studies in the early chick embryo to knock out Pax7 and Sox10, key transcription factors with known functions in neural crest development. The results show that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion causes loss of their respective proteins and transcripts, as well as predicted downstream targets. Taken together, the results reveal the utility of this optimized CRISPR/Cas9 method for targeted gene knockout in chicken embryos in a manner that is reproducible, robust and specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pregnancy rates for embryos transferred from early postpartum beef cows into recipients with normal estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Schrick, F N; Inskeep, E K; Butcher, R L

    1993-09-01

    Survival rate of embryos from first ovulations of postpartum cows with SHORT (6.9 +/- 0.3 days; n = 35) or NORMAL (17.1 +/- 0.3 days; n = 42) luteal phases and quality of the embryos on Day 6 were compared. At 19 to 23 days postpartum, cows were allotted to receive a norgestomet implant for 9 days (normal luteal phase) or to serve as untreated controls (short luteal phase). Calves were weaned 7 days after initiation of treatment to induce behavioral estrus in cows for mating. In 25 cows, growth of the ovulatory follicle was monitored by ultrasonography. On Day 6 after estrus, embryos were recovered nonsurgically, and live embryos were transferred into recipient cows exhibiting normal estrous cycles. The medium used to flush the embryos from the uterus of each donor cow was assayed for prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). Days from calf removal to estrus and size of ovulatory follicles at ovulation (4.1 +/- 0.3 days and 16.7 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively) did not differ between NORMAL and SHORT cows. Interval from detection of the ovulatory follicle to ovulation was longer in NORMAL (10 +/- 0.7 days) than in SHORT cows (8 +/- 0.6 days; p < 0.05). Rates of recovery of an embryo or ovum (64%), rates of fertilization (65%), and quality or stage of development of Day 6 embryos did not differ between SHORT and NORMAL cows. Overall pregnancy rate from recovered oocytes was 13% for SHORT and 32% for NORMAL cows (p = 0.06); survival of fertilized oocytes was 23% for SHORT and 47% for NORMAL cows (p = 0.08).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The Potential Role of As-sumo-1 in the Embryonic Diapause Process and Early Embryo Development of Artemia sinica

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Bing; Yao, Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    During embryonic development of Artemia sinica, environmental stresses induce the embryo diapause phenomenon, required to resist apoptosis and regulate cell cycle activity. The small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO), a reversible post-translational protein modifier, plays an important role in embryo development. SUMO regulates multiple cellular processes, including development and other biological processes. The molecular mechanism of diapause, diapause termination and the role of As-sumo-1 in this processes and in early embryo development of Artemia sinica still remains unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the sumo-1 homolog, sumo ligase homolog, caspase-1 homolog and cyclin B homolog from Artemia sinica were cloned. The mRNA expression patterns of As-sumo-1, sumo ligase, caspase-1, cyclin B and the location of As-sumo-1 were investigated. SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E proteins were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo of A. sinica. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to verify the function of sumo-1 in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-sumo-1 was 476 bp, encoding a 92 amino acid protein. The As-caspases-1 cDNA was 966 bp, encoding a 245 amino-acid protein. The As-sumo ligase cDNA was 1556 bp encoding, a 343 amino acid protein, and the cyclin B cDNA was 739 bp, encoding a 133 amino acid protein. The expressions of As-sumo-1, As-caspase-1 and As-cyclin B were highest at the 10 h stage of embryonic development, and As-sumo ligase showed its highest expression at 0 h. The expression of As-SUMO-1 showed no tissue or organ specificity. Western blotting showed high expression of As-SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E at the 10 h stage. The siRNA caused abnormal development of the embryo, with increased malformation and mortality. As-SUMO-1 is a crucial regulation and modification protein resumption of embryonic diapause and early embryo development of A. sinica. PMID:24404204

  2. The Application of a Chemical Determination of N-Homocysteinylation Levels in Developing Mouse Embryos: Implication for Folate Responsive Birth Defects

    PubMed Central

    Fathe, Kristin; Person, Maria D.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels have long been associated with various disease states, including cardiovascular disease and birth defects, including neural tube defects (NTDs). One hypothesis regarding the strong correlation between these various disorders and high levels of homocysteine is that a reactive form of this small molecule can attach to mammalian proteins in a phenomenon known as homocysteinylation. These posttranslational modifications may become antigenic, or may even directly disrupt certain protein function. It remains to be determined whether dietary influences that can cause globally increased levels of circulating homocysteine confer negative effects maternally, or may otherwise negatively and materially impact the metabolic balance in developing embryos. Herein we present the application of a chemical method of determination of N-homocysteinylation to a set of neural tube closure stage mouse embryos and their mothers. We explore the uses of this newly-described technique to investigate levels of maternal and embryonic N-homocysteinylation using dietary manipulations of onecarbon metabolism with two known folate responsive neural tube defect mouse models. The data presented reveals that although diet appeared to have significant effects on the maternal metabolic status, those effects did not directly correlate to the embryonic folate or N-homocysteinylation status. Our studies indicate that maternal diet and embryonic genotype most significantly affected the embryonic developmental outcome. PMID:25620692

  3. The effects of levetiracetam on neural tube development in the early stage of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Guvenc, Yahya; Dalgic, Ali; Billur, Deniz; Karaoglu, Derya; Aydin, Sevim; Daglioglu, Ergun; Ozdol, Cagatay; Nacar, Osman Arikan; Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Belen, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a new generation antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, on the neural tube development in a chick embryo model that corresponds to the first month of vertebral development in mammals. Forty-five Atabey® breed fertilized chicken eggs with no specific pathogens were randomly divided into 5 groups. All of the eggs were incubated at 37.8±2°C and 60±5 % relative humidity in an incubator. Group A was control group. The other eggs were applied physiological saline and drugs at a volume of 10 μL by the in ovo method at the 28th hour of the incubation period. Group B was given distilled water; Group C, physiological saline; Group D, Levetiracetam (L8668) at a dose equivalent to the treatment dose for humans (10 mg/ kg), and Group E, Levetiracetam (L8668) at a dose of 10 times the treatment dose. The embryos in all of the groups were removed from the shells at the 48th hour and morphologically and histologically evaluated. Of the 45 embryos incubated, neural tubes of 41 were closed and the embryos displayed normal development. Levetiracetam, at a dose equivalent to human treatment dose and 10 times the treatment dose, was shown not to cause neural tube defects in chick embryos.

  4. Gene function in early mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sene, Kagnew Hailesellasse; Porter, Christopher J; Palidwor, Gareth; Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Muro, Enrique M; Campbell, Pearl A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the genes that drive embryonic stem cell differentiation. However, such knowledge is necessary if we are to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells. To uncover the genetic determinants of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation, we have generated and analyzed 11-point time-series of DNA microarray data for three biologically equivalent but genetically distinct mESC lines (R1, J1, and V6.5) undergoing undirected differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs) over a period of two weeks. Results We identified the initial 12 hour period as reflecting the early stages of mESC differentiation and studied probe sets showing consistent changes of gene expression in that period. Gene function analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes related to regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing, and down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes showing the largest expression changes were more likely to have originated in metazoans. The probe sets with the most consistent gene changes in the three cell lines represented 24 down-regulated and 12 up-regulated genes, all with closely related human homologues. Whereas some of these genes are known to be involved in embryonic developmental processes (e.g. Klf4, Otx2, Smn1, Socs3, Tagln, Tdgf1), our analysis points to others (such as transcription factor Phf21a, extracellular matrix related Lama1 and Cyr61, or endoplasmic reticulum related Sc4mol and Scd2) that have not been previously related to mESC function. The majority of identified functions were related to transcriptional regulation, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeleton. Genes involved in other cellular functions important in ESC differentiation such as chromatin remodeling and transmembrane receptors were not observed in this set. Conclusion Our analysis profiles for the first time gene expression at a very early stage of mESC differentiation, and

  5. Maternal hCG concentrations in early IVF pregnancies: associations with number of cells in the Day 2 embryo and oocytes retrieved.

    PubMed

    Tanbo, T G; Eskild, A

    2015-12-01

    Do number of cells in the transferred cleavage stage embryo and number of oocytes retrieved for IVF influence maternal hCG concentrations in early pregnancies? Compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo, transfer of a 4-cell embryo results in higher hCG concentrations on Day 12 after transfer, and more than 20 oocytes retrieved were associated with low hCG concentrations. Maternal hCG concentration in very early pregnancy varies considerably among women, but is likely to be an indicator of time since implantation of the embryo into the endometrium, in addition to number and function of trophoblast cells. We followed 1047 pregnancies after IVF/ICSI from oocyte retrieval until Day 12 after embryo transfer. Women were recruited in Norway during the years 2005-2013. Successful pregnancies after transfer of one single embryo that had been cultured for 2 days were included. Maternal hCG was quantified on Day 12 after embryo transfer by chemiluminescence immunoassay, which measures intact hCG and the free β-hCG chain. Information on a successful pregnancy, defined as birth after >16 weeks, was obtained by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Transfer of a 4-cell embryo resulted in higher maternal hCG concentrations compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo (134.8 versus 87.8 IU/l, P < 0.05). A high number of oocytes retrieved (>20) was associated with low hCG concentrations (P < 0.05). The factors studied explain a limited part of the total variation of hCG concentrations in early pregnancy. Although embryo transfer was performed at the same time after fertilization, we do not know the exact time of implantation. A further limitation to our study is that the number of pregnancies after transfer of a 2-cell embryo was small (27 cases). Number of cells in the transferred embryo and number of oocytes retrieved may influence the conditions and timing for embryo implantation in different ways and thereby influence maternal hCG concentrations. Such knowledge may be

  6. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Guo, Wenjie; Li, Wenjuan; Cheng, Meng; Hu, Ying; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation. PMID:27872858

  7. Laminin and integrin expression in the ventral ectodermal ridge of the mouse embryo: implications for regulation of BMP signalling.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Escobar, Beatriz; De Felipe, Beatriz; Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose Antonio; Sasaki, Takako; Copp, Andrew J; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia

    2012-11-01

    The ventral ectodermal ridge (VER) is an important signalling centre in the mouse tail-bud following completion of gastrulation. BMP regulation is essential for VER function, but how these signals are transmitted between adjacent tissues is unclear. We investigated the idea that extracellular matrix components might be involved, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation to detect all known α, β, and γ laminin chains and their mRNAs in the early tail bud. We identified an apparently novel laminin variant, comprising α5, β3 and γ2 chains, as a major component of the VER basement membrane at E9.5. Strikingly, only the mRNAs for these chains were co-expressed in VER cells, suggesting that lamin532 may be the sole basement membrane laminin at this stage. Since α6 integrin was also expressed in VER cells, this raises the possibility of cell-matrix interactions regulating BMP signalling at this site of caudal morphogenesis. Laminin532 could interact with α6-containing integrin to direct differentiation of the specialised VER cells from surface ectoderm. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Laminin and integrin expression in the ventral ectodermal ridge of the mouse embryo: implications for regulation of BMP signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Escobar, Beatriz; de Felipe, Beatriz; Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose Antonio; Sasaki, Takako; Copp, Andrew J.; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background The ventral ectodermal ridge (VER) is an important signalling centre in the mouse tail-bud following completion of gastrulation. BMP regulation is essential for VER function, but how these signals are transmitted between adjacent tissues is unclear. Results We investigated the idea that extracellular matrix components might be involved, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation to detect all known α, β and γ laminin chains and their mRNAs in the early tail bud. We identified an apparently novel laminin variant, comprising α5, β3 and γ2 chains, as a major component of the VER basement membrane at E9.5. Strikingly, only the mRNAs for these chains were co-expressed in VER cells, suggesting that lamin532 may be the sole basement membrane laminin at this stage. Since α6 integrin was also expressed in VER cells, this raises the possibility of cell-matrix interactions regulating BMP signalling at this site of caudal morphogenesis. Conclusions Laminin532 could interact with α6-containing integrin to direct differentiation of the specialised VER cells from surface ectoderm. PMID:22911573

  9. Comparative gene expression analysis of Dtg, a novel target gene of Dpp signaling pathway in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo.

    PubMed

    Hodar, Christian; Zuñiga, Alejandro; Pulgar, Rodrigo; Travisany, Dante; Chacon, Carlos; Pino, Michael; Maass, Alejandro; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2014-02-10

    In the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo, Dpp, a secreted molecule that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of growth factors, activates a set of downstream genes to subdivide the dorsal region into amnioserosa and dorsal epidermis. Here, we examined the expression pattern and transcriptional regulation of Dtg, a new target gene of Dpp signaling pathway that is required for proper amnioserosa differentiation. We showed that the expression of Dtg was controlled by Dpp and characterized a 524-bp enhancer that mediated expression in the dorsal midline, as well as, in the differentiated amnioserosa in transgenic reporter embryos. This enhancer contained a highly conserved region of 48-bp in which bioinformatic predictions and in vitro assays identified three Mad binding motifs. Mutational analysis revealed that these three motifs were necessary for proper expression of a reporter gene in transgenic embryos, suggesting that short and highly conserved genomic sequences may be indicative of functional regulatory regions in D. melanogaster genes. Dtg orthologs were not detected in basal lineages of Dipterans, which unlike D. melanogaster develop two extra-embryonic membranes, amnion and serosa, nevertheless Dtg orthologs were identified in the transcriptome of Musca domestica, in which dorsal ectoderm patterning leads to the formation of a single extra-embryonic membrane. These results suggest that Dtg was recruited as a new component of the network that controls dorsal ectoderm patterning in the lineage leading to higher Cyclorrhaphan flies, such as D. melanogaster and M. domestica. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High FSH decreases the developmental potential of mouse oocytes and resulting fertilized embryos, but does not influence offspring physiology and behavior in vitro or in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Cui H; Yan, Jie; Yan, Ying L; Rong, Li; Liu, Ping; Feng, Huai-Liang; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-05-01

    Do different concentrations of FSH in the assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedure in vitro or in vivo affect the developmental competence of oocytes, the embryos and the offspring conceived from these embryos? Improper FSH treatment (200 IU/l in vitro, 10 IU/ml in vivo and 200 IU/ml in vivo) impairs the development competence of oocyte and embryo, but does not influence offspring physiology and behavior. Exogenous FSH has been widely used in the field of ART. However, the effects of different concentrations of FSH on the developmental competence of oocytes, embryos and the offspring conceived from these embryos, are still unknown. In a prospective study, a total of 45 mice at 8-10 weeks of age were primed in vivo with different dosages of FSH (9 mice in the 10 IU/ml, 10 mice in the 50 IU/ml, 10 mice in the 100 IU/ml and 16 mice in the 200 IU/ml groups). Fresh MII oocytes were retrieved from ovaries: this was designated as in vivo group. Thirty six mice at 8-10 weeks of age were sacrificed by cervical dislocation to obtain ovaries without FSH treatment (9 mice in the 0 IU/l, 9 mice in the 50 IU/l, 8 mice in the 100 IU/l and 10 mice in the 200 IU/l groups), and then the immature oocytes were collected from these ovaries and cultured in vitro matured medium supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 200 IU/l FSH: this was designated as in vitro group. Spindle assembly of matured MII oocytes was stained via an immunofluorescence method and the oocytes ratio of normal spindle was analyzed. The developmental competence of the resulting fertilized embryos in the pre- and post-implantation stages was examined in in vitro and in vivo groups. Furthermore, physiological index, including reproductive potential and body weight, of the offspring was investigated by mating experiments and behavior index, including learning, memory, probing and intelligence, was tested by Morris water maze in in vitro and in vivo groups. In the in vitro groups, the oocyte maturation competence

  11. Reduced heart rate and cardiac output differentially affect angiogenesis, growth, and development in early chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Branum, Sylvia R; Yamada-Fisher, Miho; Burggren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    An increase in both vascular circumferential tension and shear stress in the developing vasculature of the chicken embryo has been hypothesized to stimulate angiogenesis in the developing peripheral circulation chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). To test this hypothesis, angiogenesis in the CAM, development, and growth were measured in the early chicken embryo, following acute and chronic topical application of the purely bradycardic drug ZD7288. At hour 56, ZD7288 reduced heart rate (f(H)) by ~30% but had no significant effect on stroke volume (~0.19 ± 0.2 μL), collectively resulting in a significant fall in cardiac output (CO) from ~27 ± 3 to 18 ± 2 μL min(-1). Mean f(H) at 72 h of development was similarly significantly lowered by acute ZD7288 treatment (250 μM) to 128 ± 0.3 beats min(-1), compared with 174.5 ± 0.3 and 174.7 ± 0.8 beats min(-1) in control and Pannett-Compton (P-C) saline-treated embryos, respectively. Chronic dosing with ZD7288-and the attendant decreases in f(H) and CO-did not change eye diameter or cervical flexion (key indicators of development rate) at 120 h but significantly reduced overall growth (wet and dry body mass decreased by 20%). CAM vessel density index (reflecting angiogenesis) measured 200-400 μm from the umbilical stalk was not altered, but ZD7288 reduced vessel numbers-and therefore vessel density-by 13%-16% more distally (500-600 μm from umbilical stalk) in the CAM. In the ZD7288-treated embryos, a decrease in vessel length was found within the second branch order (~300-400 μm from the umbilical stock), while a decrease in vessel diameter was found closer to the umbilical stock, beginning in the first branch order (~200-300 μm). Paradoxically, chronic application of P-C saline also reduced peripheral CAM vessel density index at 500 and 600 μm by 13% and 7%, respectively, likely from washout of local angiogenic factors. In summary, decreased f(H) with reduced CO did not slow development rate but reduced embryonic

  12. Size-dependent regulation of dorsal-ventral patterning in the early Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Mayra; Nahmad, Marcos; Reeves, Gregory T.; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2013-01-01

    How natural variation in embryo size affects patterning of the Drosophila embryo dorsal-ventral (DV) axis is not known. Here we examined quantitatively the relationship between nuclear distribution of the Dorsal transcription factor, boundary positions for several target genes, and DV axis length. Data were obtained from embryos of a wild-type background as well as from mutant lines inbred to size select embryos of smaller or larger sizes. Our data show that the width of the nuclear Dorsal gradient correlates with DV axis length. In turn, for some genes expressed along the DV axis, the boundary positions correlate closely with nuclear Dorsal levels and with DV axis length; while the expression pattern of others is relatively constant and independent of the width of the Dorsal gradient. In particular, the patterns of snail (sna) and ventral nervous-system defective (vnd) correlate with nuclear Dorsal levels and exhibit scaling to DV length; while the pattern of intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind) remains relatively constant with respect to changes in Dorsal and DV length. However, in mutants that exhibit an abnormal expansion of the Dorsal gradient which fails to scale to DV length, only sna follows the Dorsal distribution and exhibits overexpansion; in contrast, vnd and ind do not overexpand suggesting some additional mechanism acts to refine the dorsal boundaries of these two genes. Thus, our results argue against the idea that the Dorsal gradient works as a global system of relative coordinates along the DV axis and suggest that individual targets respond to changes in embryo size in a gene-specific manner. PMID:23800450

  13. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1 may control miR-30d levels in endometrial exosomes affecting early embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, N; Moreno, I; Herrero, M; González, M; Simón, C; Vilella, F

    2018-05-29

    as a model of hEECs in silencing experiments due to the low survival rates of primary hEECs after transfection. The data show that hnRNPC1 may be involved in the internalization of miR-30d inside Exosomes. The decreased rates of embryo adhesion in endometrial epithelial-like cells transiently silenced with sihnRNPC1evidence that hnRNPC1 could be an important player in the maternal-embryo communication established in the early stages of implantation. This work was supported by the Miguel Servet Program Type I of Instituto de Salud Carlos III [CP13/00038]; FIS project [PI14/00545] to FV; the 'Atracció de Talent' Program from VLC-CAMPUS [UV-INV-PREDOC14-178329 to NB]; a Torres-Quevedo grant (PTQ-13-06133) by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness to IM; and MINECO/FEDER Grant [SAF2015-67154-R] to CS. The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.

  14. Effect of early addition of bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) to embryo culture medium on in vitro development and expression of developmentally important genes in bovine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    García, Elina V; Miceli, Dora C; Rizo, Gabriela; Valdecantos, Pablo A; Barrera, Antonio D

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have reported that bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) is differentially expressed in the isthmus of bovine oviducts and it is present in the oviductal fluid. However, the specific action of this factor is unknown. To evaluate whether BMP5 exerts some effect during early bovine embryo development, gene expression of BMP5, BMP receptors, and the effect of exogenous BMP5 on in vitro development and expression of developmentally important genes were assessed. In experiment 1, pools of embryos at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, and blastocyst stages, derived from in vitro fertilization, were collected for analysis of BMP5 and BMP receptors (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. On the basis of previous results, in experiment 2, presumptive zygotes were cultured for the first 48 hours after insemination in CR1aa medium assaying three different treatments: (1) control (CR1aa); (2) vehicle control (CR1aa + 0.04 mM HCl), and (3) BMP5 treatment (CR1aa + 100 ng/mL of BMP5). The cleavage rate was evaluated 48 hours after insemination (Day 2), and then, embryos were transferred to CR1aa + 10% fetal bovine serum. The blastocyst rate was determined on Day 7. In experiment 3, pools of embryos at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, and blastocyst stages, derived from control and BMP5-treated groups, were collected for analysis of ID2 (BMP target gene), OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 (pluripotency genes) mRNA expression. BMP5 transcripts were not detectable in any of the embryonic stages examined, whereas the relative mRNA abundance of the three BMP receptors analyzed was greater in early embryo development stages before maternal-embryonic transition, raising the possibility of a direct effect of exogenous BMPs on the embryo during the first developmental period. Although early addition of 100 ng/mL of BMP5 to the embryo culture medium had no effect on the cleavage rate, a significantly higher proportion of cleaved embryos developed to the

  15. Roles of intracellular ice formation, vitrification of cell water, and recrystallisation of intracellular ice on the survival of mouse embryos and oocytes.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Peter; Paredes, Estefania

    2016-03-01

    Mazur and collaborators began examining the validity of initial views regarding mouse oocyte and embryo vitrification and found that most are partially or fully wrong. First, the relative effects of warming and cooling rates on the survival of mouse oocytes subjected to a vitrification procedure were determined. The high sensitivity to warming rate strongly suggests that the lethality of slow warming is a consequence of either the crystallisation of intracellular glassy water during warming or the recrystallisation during slow warming of small intracellular crystals that had formed during cooling. Warming rates of 107°C min-1 were achieved in 0.1-µL drops of ethylene glycol-acetamide-Ficoll-sucrose (EAFS) solution plus a small amount of India ink on Cryotops warmed using an infrared laser pulse. Under these conditions, survival rates of 90% were obtained even when mouse oocytes were suspended in 0.3× EAFS, a concentration that falls in the range that many cells can tolerate. A second important finding was that the survival of oocytes is more dependent on the osmotic withdrawal of much of the intracellular water before vitrification than it is on the penetration of cryoprotective solutes into the cells. Herein we review the roles of internal ice formation, vitrification and recrystallisation. It remains to be seen how widely these findings will be applicable to other types of cells and tissues from other species.

  16. The effects of ethanol and strontium on growth and development of two-cell arrested mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Mohammad Reza; Shiravi, Abdolhossein; Hojati, Vida

    2012-01-01

    Arresting at a certain stage of development like the two-cell stage could be one of the causes of infertility. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ethanol and strontium on growth and development of mice embryos arrested at the two-cell stage. In this experimental study, female mice were coupled with a male following superovulation. Positive vaginal plug mice were sacrificed 48 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection. Two-cell embryos were transferred to M16 medium and divided to four groups. The first control group was incubated without any exposure to low temperatures. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to 4°C for 24 hours. The second control group was incubated immediately, while the third and fourth groups were exposed to 10 mM strontium for five minutes and 0.1% ethanol for a further five minutes. Growth rate and developmental parameters of embryos were analyzed by one- way ANOVA. The significant difference between the groups was determined by Post Hoc. The data shows that developmental rate is decreased significantly by 4°C exposure. The mean percentage of degenerated embryo was significantly different between groups but the mean cleavage rate was not significantly different. The mean percent of morula, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst formation were significantly different between groups during a 120 hours study post hCG injection. The effect of strontium and ethanol on arrested two-cell embryos had no significant effect on the mean percentage of morula, but ethanol treatment significantly increased the percentage of blastocyst and hatched blastocyst formation compared to strontium.

  17. Pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of a G protein in mouse oocytes, eggs, and preimplantation embryos: Developmental changes and possible functional roles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.; Schultz, R.M.

    1990-06-01

    G proteins, which in many somatic cells serve as mediators of signal transduction, were identified in preimplantation mouse embryos by their capacity to undergo pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Two pertussis toxin (PT) substrates with Mr = 38,000 and 39,000 (alpha 38 and alpha 39) are present in approximately equal amounts. Relative to the amount in freshly isolated germinal vesicle (GV)-intact oocytes, the amount of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 falls during oocyte maturation, rises between the one- and two-cell stages, falls by the eight-cell and morula stages, and increases again by the blastocyst stage. The decrease in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alphamore » 38-39 that occurs during oocyte maturation, however, does not require germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), since inhibiting GVBD with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) does not prevent the decrease in the extent of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. A biologically active phorbol diester (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate), but not an inactive one (4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, 4 alpha-PDD), totally inhibits the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs between the one- and two-cell stage; TPA inhibits cleavage, but not transcriptional activation, which occurs in the two-cell embryo. In contrast, cytochalasin D, genistein, or aphidicolin, each of which inhibits cleavage of one-cell embryos, or alpha-amanitin or H8, each of which inhibits transcriptional activation but not cleavage of one-cell embryos, have little or inhibitory effects on the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39. Results of immunoblotting experiments using an antibody that is highly specific for alpha il-3 reveal the presence of a cross-reactive species of Mr = 38,000 (alpha 38) in the GV-intact oocyte, metaphase II-arrested egg, and one-, two-cell embryos.« less

  18. Development of the embryonic heat shock response and the impact of repeated thermal stress in early stage lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Lindy M; McDougall, Chance S; Stefanovic, Daniel I; Boreham, Douglas R; Somers, Christopher M; Wilson, Joanna Y; Manzon, Richard G

    2017-10-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos were exposed to thermal stress (TS) at different developmental stages to determine when the heat shock response (HSR) can be initiated and if it is altered by exposure to repeated TS. First, embryos were subject to one of three different TS temperatures (6, 9, or 12°C above control) at 4 points in development (21, 38, 60 and 70 days post-fertilisation (dpf)) for 2h followed by a 2h recovery to understand the ontogeny of the HSR. A second experiment explored the effects of repeated TS on the HSR in embryos from 15 to 75 dpf. Embryos were subjected to one of two TS regimes; +6°C TS for 1h every 6 days or +9°C TS for 1h every 6 days. Following a 2h recovery, a subset of embryos was sampled. Our results show that embryos could initiate a HSR via upregulation of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) mRNA at all developmental ages studied, but that this response varied with age and was only observed with a TS of +9 or +12°C. In comparison, when embryos received multiple TS treatments, hsp70 was not induced in response to the 1h TS and 2h recovery, and a downregulation was observed at 39 dpf. Downregulation of hsp47 and hsp90α mRNA was also observed in early age embryos. Collectively, these data suggest that embryos are capable of initiating a HSR at early age and throughout embryogenesis, but that repeated TS can alter the HSR, and may result in either reduced responsiveness or a downregulation of inducible hsps. Our findings warrant further investigation into both the short- and long-term effects of repeated TS on lake whitefish development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overexpression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) in early Xenopus embryos induces cell dissociation and inhibits transition from the blastula to gastrula stage.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Shinga, J; Yasuhiko, Y; Kai, M; Miura, K; Shimogori, T; Kashiwagi, K; Igarashi, K; Shiokawa, K

    1998-07-01

    Xenopus early embryos contain relatively low levels of S-adenosyl-methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and its mRNA. When SAMDC mRNA was injected into Xenopus embryos, it was preserved until the blastula stage and induced a large increase in SAMDC activity. The SAMDC-overexpressed embryos developed normally until the blastula stage but at the early gastrula stage cells which received the mRNA, dissociated autonomously and stopped synthesizing protein. In a hypotonic medium, the dissociated cells, and hence whole embryos, autolyzed. However, in isotonic media dissociated cells did not autolyze, although they did not divide and their DNA and RNA synthesis activity was greatly inhibited. The effects of SAMDC overexpression were abolished by coinjection of ethylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (EGBG), a specific inhibitor of SAMDC. In SAMDC-overexpressed embryos the level of putrescine decreased and that of spermidine increased, though to limited extents, resulting in a considerable decrease in the putrescine/spermidine ratio. However, direct injection of spermidine did not mimic the effect of SAMDC overexpression, and putrescine coinjected with SAMDC mRNA to maintain the normal putrescine/spermidine ratio did not rescue the embryos. Conversely, the level of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) greatly decreased and coinjection of SAM, which restored the level of SAM, rescued the embryos. We concluded that in SAMDC-overexpressed embryos a SAM-deficient state was induced and this caused cell dissociation and inhibition of transition from the blastula to gastrula stage. We suggest that the SAM-deficient embryos obtained in the present study provide a unique system for studying the cellular control mechanism underlying the blastula-gastrula transition.

  20. Early maternal serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) levels and sex-related growth difference of IVF embryos.

    PubMed

    Esh-Broder, Efrat; Oron, Galia; Son, Weon-Young; Holzer, Hananel; Tulandi, Togas

    2015-10-01

    Maternal serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) represents the trophoblastic cell mass and is an indirect measurement of embryo development at early implantation stage. Studies in animals and human embryos detected sex-related growth differences (SRGD) in favour of male embryos during the pre-implantation period. The purpose of our study was to correlate SRGD and maternal serum ß-hCG at 16 days after embryo transfer. We retrospectively analysed all (fresh and frozen) non-donor, single embryo transfers (SET), elective and not elective, that were performed between December 2008 and December 2013. We included ß-hCG values from day 16 after oocyte collection of pregnancies resulting in live birth. Neonatal gender was retrieved from patient files. Male and female embryos were further grouped to cleavage and blastocyst stage transfers. Regression analysis for confounding variables included maternal age, maternal body mass index (BMI), use of micromanipulation (ICSI), embryo quality (grade), assisted hatching, day of transfer and fresh or frozen embryo transfer. Seven hundred eighty-six non-donor SETs resulted in live birth. After including only day 16 serum ß-hCG results, 525 SETs were analysed. Neonatal gender was available for 522 cases. Mean maternal serum ß-hCG levels were similar, 347 ± 191 IU/L in the male newborn group and 371 ± 200 IU/L in the female group. The difference between ß-hCG levels remained insignificant after adjusting for confounding variables. Early maternal ß-hCG levels after embryo transfers did not represent SRGD in our study.

  1. THE K-REGION DIHYDRODIOL OF BENZO[A]PYRENE INDUCES DNA DAMAGE AND MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION IN C3H10T1/2CL8 MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS WITHOUT THE FORMATION OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The K -region dihydrodiol ofbenzo[ a ]pyrene induces DNA damage and morphological cell transformation in C3HlOTY2CL8 mouse embryo cells without the formation of detectable stable covalent DNA adducts

    Benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P) is the most thoroughly studied polycyclic aro...

  2. CELLULAR TOXICITY IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELL CULTURES. 2. A STATISTICAL APPRAISAL OF SENSITIVITY WITH THE RABBIT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE, SYRIAN HAMSTER EMBRYO, BALB 3T3 MOUSE, AND HUMAN NEONATAL FIBROBLAST CELL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chinese hamster ovary, rabbit alveolar macrophage, Syrian Hamster embryo, mouse, and human neonatal fibroblast cells were employed in a statistical evaluation of the relative sensitivity of the cells to toxic substances. The cells were exposed to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 2,4-dimet...

  3. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. The study of early human embryos using interactive 3-dimensional computer reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, J; Aiton, J F; McLachlan, J C; Smart, S D; Whiten, S C

    1997-07-01

    Tracings of serial histological sections from 4 human embryos at different Carnegie stages were used to create 3-dimensional (3D) computer models of the developing heart. The models were constructed using commercially available software developed for graphic design and the production of computer generated virtual reality environments. They are available as interactive objects which can be downloaded via the World Wide Web. This simple method of 3D reconstruction offers significant advantages for understanding important events in morphological sciences.

  5. ONTOGENY OF TRANSCRIPTION PROFILES DURING MOUSE EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using the CD-1 mouse conceptus, we investigated gene expression changes found in vivo from gestational day (GD)8 through GD9 at 6h intervals, and then at 24h intervals through GD11. Data sets were analyzed for patterns in transcriptional expression over a time course as well as t...

  6. Ultrastructural dynamics of human reproduction, from ovulation to fertilization and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Heyn, Rosemarie; Relucenti, Michela; Nottola, Stefania A; Sathananthan, A Henry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the updated, fine structure of human gametes, the human fertilization process, and human embryos, mainly derived from assisted reproductive technology (ART). As clearly shown, the ultrastructure of human reproduction is a peculiar multistep process, which differs in part from that of other mammalian models, having some unique features. Particular attention has been devoted to the (1) sperm ultrastructure, likely "Tygerberg (Kruger) strict morphology criteria"; (2) mature oocyte, in which the MII spindle is barrel shaped, anastral, and lacking centrioles; (3) three-dimensional microarchitecture of the zona pellucida with its unique supramolecular filamentous organization; (4) sperm-egg interactions with the peculiarity of the sperm centrosome that activates the egg and organizes the sperm aster and mitotic spindles of the embryo; and (5) presence of viable cumulus cells whose metabolic activity is closely related to egg and embryo behavior in in vitro as well as in vivo conditions, in a sort of extraovarian "microfollicular unit." Even if the ultrastructural morphodynamic features of human fertilization are well understood, our knowledge about in vivo fertilization is still very limited and the complex sequence of in vivo biological steps involved in human reproduction is only partially reproduced in current ART procedures.

  7. Early somatic embryo induction events in alfalfa callus cultures. [Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bakry, A.A.; Hildebrand, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    High and low regenerating alfalfa Medicago sativa L. cv Regen S full sibs were isolated from a callus culture screen on modified Blaydes medium. The average number of embryos per ovary were thirty and zero for the high and low genotypes respectively after six weeks in culture. Proembryonic cell masses (4-8 celled) were observed after 4-5 days in culture and maximum meristematic activity was at 6-7 days in culture, for the high regenerating genotypes. Well formed globular embryos, both epidermal and subepidermal in origin, were observed after 2 weeks is culture. Samples in culture for 3, 6 and 14 daysmore » from the high and low regenerating genotypes were radiolabeled in vivo with /sup 35/S-methionine and run both on one and two dimension gels. The results will be discussed in relation to differences in proteins between the high and low regenerating genotypes at the stage of maximum meristematic activity (day 6) and differences occurring relative to the appearance of globular stage embryos (day 14) will be presented.« less

  8. Cortical geometry may influence placement of interface between Par protein domains in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Adriana T; Iron, David

    2013-09-21

    During polarization, proteins and other polarity determinants segregate to the opposite ends of the cell (the poles) creating biochemically and dynamically distinct regions. Embryos of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) polarize shortly after fertilization, creating distinct regions of Par protein family members. These regions are maintained through to first cleavage when the embryo divides along the plane specified by the interface between regions, creating daughter cells with different protein content. In wild type single cell embryos the interface between these Par protein regions is reliably positioned at approximately 60% egg length, however, it is not known what mechanisms are responsible for specifying the position of the interface. In this investigation, we use two mathematical models to investigate the movement and positioning of the interface: a biologically based reaction-diffusion model of Par protein dynamics, and the analytically tractable perturbed Allen-Cahn equation. When we numerically simulate the models on a static 2D domain with constant thickness, both models exhibit a persistently moving interface that specifies the boundary between distinct regions. When we modify the simulation domain geometry, movement halts and the interface is stably positioned where the domain thickness increases. Using asymptotic analysis with the perturbed Allen-Cahn equation, we show that interface movement depends explicitly on domain geometry. Using a combination of analytic and numeric techniques, we demonstrate that domain geometry, a historically overlooked aspect of cellular simulations, may play a significant role in spatial protein patterning during polarization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of serum substituents on serum-free Vero cell conditioned culture media manufactured from Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium in mouse embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Seon; Kim, Ju-Hwan; Seo, Young-Seok; Yang, Jung-Bo; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Ki-Hwan

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influences of supplementation of the serum substituents and available period of serum-free Vero cell conditioned media (SF-VCM) manufactured from Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium cultured with Vero cells for in vitro development of mouse preimplantation embryos. A total of 1,099 two-cell embryos collected from imprinting control region mice were cultured in SF-VCM with 10% and 20% human follicular fluid (hFF), serum substitute supplement (SSS), and serum protein substitute (SPS). Development of embryos was observed every 24 hours. Results between different groups were analyzed by chi-square test, and considered statistically significant when P-value was less than 0.05. The rates of embryonic development cultured in SF-VCM supplemented with serum substituents were significantly higher compare with serum-free group (P < 0.05). The rates of embryonic development after 48 hours (morula≤) and 96 hours (blastocyst≤) were significantly higher in 20% SSS and 10% SPS than in 20% hFF supplementation (P < 0.05). And the rates of embryonic development after 96 hours (hatching blastocyst≤) were significantly higher in 10% SPS (94.5%) than in 20% SSS (82.6%) and 20% hFF supplementation (68.5%). The rates of embryonic development according to storage period of the SF-VCM supplemented with 10% SPS showed no significant difference between control, 2 weeks and 4 weeks group. However developmental rate in 6 weeks storage group was significantly lower than other groups. The rate of embryonic development after 96 hours (hatching blastocyst≤) was significantly higher in SF-VCM supplemented with 10% SPS. And storage period of media up to 4 weeks did not affect on embryonic development.

  10. TFIIB Co-Localizes and Interacts with α-Tubulin during Oocyte Meiosis in the Mouse and Depletion of TFIIB Causes Arrest of Subsequent Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi-Yuan; Wei, Zhu-Ying; Li, Xin-Xin; Liang, Hao; Bou, Shorgan; Li, Guang-Peng

    2013-01-01

    TFIIB (transcription factor IIB) is a transcription factor that provides a bridge between promoter-bound TFIID and RNA polymerase II, and it is a target of various transcriptional activator proteins that stimulate the pre-initiation complex assembly. The localization and/or attachment matrix of TFIIB in the cytoplast is not well understood. This study focuses on the function of TFIIB and its interrelationship with α-tubulins in a mouse model. During oocyte maturation TFIIB distributes throughout the entire nucleus of the germinal vesicle (GV). After progression to GV breakdown (GVBD), TFIIB and α-tubulin co-localize and accumulate in the vicinity of the condensed chromosomes. During the MII stage, the TFIIB signals are more concentrated at the equatorial plate and the kinetochores. Colcemid treatment of oocytes disrupts the microtubule (MT) system, although the TFIIB signals are still present with the altered MT state. Injection of oocytes with TFIIB antibodies and siRNAs causes abnormal spindle formation and irregular chromosome alignment. These findings suggest that TFIIB dissociates from the condensed chromatids and then tightly binds to microtubules from GVBD to the MII phase. The assembly and disassembly of TFIIB may very well be associated with and driven by microtubules. TFIIB maintains its contact with the α-tubulins and its co-localization forms a unique distribution pattern. Depletion of Tf2b in oocytes results in a significant decrease in TFIIB expression, although polar body extrusion does not appear to be affected. Knockdown of Tf2b dramatically affects subsequent embryo development with more than 85% of the embryos arrested at the 2-cell stage. These arrested embryos still maintain apparently normal morphology for at least 96h without any obvious degeneration. Analysis of the effects of TFIIB in somatic cells by co-transfection of BiFC plasmids pHA-Tf2b and pFlag-Tuba1α further confirms a direct interaction between TFIIB and α-tubulins. PMID

  11. Influence of early life exposure, host genetics and diet on the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome

    SciTech Connect

    Snijders, Antoine M.; Langley, Sasha A.; Kim, Young-Mo

    Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease1, we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut.We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system2 to discover that early life history impacts themicrobiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism. Quantitative trait analysis identified mouse genetic trait loci (QTL) that impact the abundances of specific microbes. Human orthologues of genes inmore » the mouse QTL are implicated in gastrointestinal cancer. Additionally, genes located in mouse QTL for Lactobacillales abundance are implicated in arthritis, rheumatic disease and diabetes. Furthermore, Lactobacillales abundance was predictive of higher host T-helper cell counts, suggesting an important link between Lactobacillales and host adaptive immunity.« less

  12. Early miscarriage rate in lean polycystic ovary syndrome women after euploid embryo transfer - a matched-pair study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lu; Gu, Fang; Jie, Huying; Ding, Chenhui; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Qiong; Zhou, Canquan

    2017-11-01

    The early miscarriage rate is reported to be higher in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with non-PCOS patients. However, whether PCOS is an independent risk factor for early miscarriage is still controversial; to what extent embryonic aneuploidy accounts for miscarriages of PCOS is still unknown. In this 1:3 matched-pair study, 67 lean PCOS patients and 201 controls matched for age, body mass index (BMI) and embryo scores undergoing a single euploid blastocyst transfer in vitrified-warmed cycles were analysed. Clinical pregnancy, early miscarriage and live birth rates were compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to further evaluate the factors associated with early miscarriage and live birth. Clinical pregnancy rates were 50.7% in PCOS and 55.2% in control groups. Early miscarriage rate was significantly (P = 0.029) increased in the PCOS group compared with controls; non-PCOS patients had a significantly higher live birth rate than PCOS patients, P < 0.001. Further regression analyses showed that PCOS was significantly associated with a higher risk of early miscarriage and decreased chance of live birth. In conclusion, PCOS in women undergoing pre-implantation genetic diagnosis may, independently from BMI and karyotype, increase the risk of miscarriage. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal Argonaute 2 Is Essential for Early Mouse Development at the Maternal-Zygotic Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lykke-Andersen, Karin; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Grabarek, Joanna B.; Das, Partha; Miska, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Activation of zygotic gene expression in the two-cell mouse embryo is associated with destruction of maternally inherited transcripts, an important process for embryogenesis about which little is understood. We asked whether the Argonaute (Ago)/RNA-induced silencing complex, providing the mRNA “slicer” activity in gene silencing, might contribute to this process. Here we show that Ago2, 3, and 4 transcripts are contributed to the embryo maternally. By systematic knockdown of maternal Ago2, 3, and 4, individually and in combination, we find that only Ago2 is required for development beyond the two-cell stage. Knockdown of Ago2 stabilizes one set of maternal mRNAs and reduces zygotic transcripts of another set of genes. Ago2 is localized in mRNA-degradation P-bodies analogous to those that function in RNAi-like mechanisms in other systems. Profiling the expression of microRNAs throughout preimplantation development identified several candidates that could potentially work with Ago2 to mediate degradation of specific mRNAs. However, their low abundance raises the possibility that other endogenous siRNAs may also participate. Together, our results demonstrate that maternal expression of Ago2 is essential for the earliest stages of mouse embryogenesis and are compatible with the notion that degradation of a proportion of maternal messages involves the RNAi-machinery. PMID:18701707

  14. Gene expression analysis in zebrafish embryos: a potential approach to predict effect concentrations in the fish early life stage test.

    PubMed

    Weil, Mirco; Scholz, Stefan; Zimmer, Michaela; Sacher, Frank; Duis, Karen

    2009-09-01

    Based on the hypothesis that analysis of gene expression could be used to predict chronic fish toxicity, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test (DarT), developed as a replacement method for the acute fish test, was expanded to a gene expression D. rerio embryo test (Gene-DarT). The effects of 14 substances on lethal and sublethal endpoints of the DarT and on expression of potential marker genes were investigated: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2, cytochrome P450 1A (cypla), heat shock protein 70, fizzy-related protein 1, the transcription factors v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein g (avian) 1 and NF-E2-p45-related factor, and heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1). After exposure of zebrafish embryos for 48 h, differential gene expression was evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis, and densitometric analysis of the gels. All tested compounds significantly affected the expression of at least one potential marker gene, with cyp1a and hmox1 being most sensitive. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOECs) for gene expression were below concentrations resulting in 10% lethal effects in the DarT. For 10 (3,4- and 3,5-dichloroaniline, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 2,4-dinitrophenol, atrazine, parathion-ethyl, chlorotoluron, genistein, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and cadmium) out of the 14 tested substances, LOEC values derived with the Gene-DarT differ by a factor of less than 10 from LOEC values of fish early life stage tests with zebrafish. For pentachloroaniline and pentachlorobenzene, the Gene-DarT showed a 23- and 153-fold higher sensitivity, respectively, while for lindane, it showed a 13-fold lower sensitivity. For ivermectin, the Gene-DarT was by a factor of more than 1,000 less sensitive than the acute fish test. The results of the present study indicate that gene expression analysis in zebrafish embryos could principally be used to predict effect concentrations in the fish early life stage test.

  15. The PR/SET Domain Zinc Finger Protein Prdm4 Regulates Gene Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells but Plays a Nonessential Role in the Developing Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bogani, Debora; Morgan, Marc A. J.; Nelson, Andrew C.; Costello, Ita; McGouran, Joanna F.; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2013-01-01

    Prdm4 is a highly conserved member of the Prdm family of PR/SET domain zinc finger proteins. Many well-studied Prdm family members play critical roles in development and display striking loss-of-function phenotypes. Prdm4 functional contributions have yet to be characterized. Here, we describe its widespread expression in the early embryo and adult tissues. We demonstrate that DNA binding is exclusively mediated by the Prdm4 zinc finger domain, and we characterize its tripartite consensus sequence via SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing) experiments. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Prdm4 regulates key pluripotency and differentiation pathways. Two independent strategies, namely, targeted deletion of the zinc finger domain and generation of a EUCOMM LacZ reporter allele, resulted in functional null alleles. However, homozygous mutant embryos develop normally and adults are healthy and fertile. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that Prdm4 functions redundantly with other transcriptional partners to cooperatively regulate gene expression in the embryo and adult animal. PMID:23918801

  16. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  17. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2004-05-01

    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  18. Conference lecture: influence of stress on estrus, gametes and early embryo development in the sow.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, S; Brandt, Y; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Madej, A

    2008-11-01

    Systems with loose-housed sows have become common. Regrouping, which is commonly done after weaning and may coincide with many important reproductive events, causes stressful situations with elevated blood cortisol concentrations. Depending on group size, approximately 2-7 d are required for a new group of sows to become relatively stable. In a series of studies, the social stress after regrouping was simulated with repeated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) treatments for approximately 48h. Sows were allocated into control and experimental groups, fitted with jugular catheters, and blood samples were collected every 2 or 4h. Follicular development and ovulation were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography every 4h. Simulated stress during pro-estrus prolonged estrus and disturbed the follicular growth and ovulation. Giving ACTH during estrus elevated concentrations of cortisol and progesterone, and changed the intraluminal environment, including exaggerated amounts of mucus in the UTJ and isthmus. Although ACTH had no effect on the time of ovulation (relative to onset of standing estrus), or on embryo development, fewer oocytes/embryos were retrieved from the ACTH group than from the control group (51% vs. 81%, P<0.05), and there was a tendency towards faster embryo transportation to the uterus. Short-term fasting after ovulation had an unfavourable effect on sperm numbers in UTJ/isthmus, cleavage rate of fertilized ova, as well as ova transport through the isthmic part of the oviduct. Treatment with ACTH after ovulation reduced numbers of spermatozoa at the zona pellucida and retarded cleavage rate of fertilized ova. Therefore, the timing of stress seemed to be an important factor regarding effects on reproductive events.

  19. Localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 (TFF3) in epithelial tissues originating from the three germ layers of developing mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Tolušić Levak, Maja; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-20

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are involved in the maintenance of epithelial integrity and epithelial restitution. Mature epithelial tissues originate from different embryonic germ layers. The objective of this research was to explore the presence and localization of TFF3 peptide in mouse embryonic epithelia and to examine if the occurrence of TFF3 peptide is germ layer-dependent. Mouse embryos (14-18 days old) were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed with affinity purified rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody, goat anti-rabbit biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, followed by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. TFF3 peptide was present in the gastric and intestinal mucosa, respiratory mucosa in the upper and lower airways, pancreas, kidney tubules, epidermis, and oral cavity. The presence and localization of TFF3 peptide was associated with the embryonic stage and tissue differentiation. TFF3 peptide distribution specific to the germ layers was not observed. The role of TFF3 peptide in cell migration and differentiation, immune response, and apoptosis might be associated with specific embryonic epithelial cells. TFF3 peptide may also be considered as a marker for mucosal maturation.

  20. Properties of Barley Seed Chitinases and Release of Embryo-Associated Isoforms during Early Stages of Imbibition 1

    PubMed Central

    Swegle, Mark; Kramer, Karl J.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    1992-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds contain at least five proteins with chitinase (CH) activity. Two of these (CH1 and CH2) are found primarily in the aleurone and endosperm tissues, and the other three (CH3, CH4, and CH5) are enriched in the embryo. From the bran fraction, three of these CHs (CH1, CH2, and CH3) were purified to apparent homogeneity. These three CHs have apparent molecular masses of 27, 34, and 35 kilodaltons and isoelectric points of 9.3, 9.2, and 8.7, respectively. CH2 and CH3 have amino terminal sequences resembling a portion of the chitin-binding domain of lectins and other plant defense proteins. CH1 lacks this domain. All three CHs exhibit antifungal activity and inhibit the mycelial growth of some species of trichoderma and Fusarium in vitro. During the early period of imbibition by seeds, two of the embryo-associated CHs are selectively released into the surrounding aqueous medium. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668964

  1. The role of eggshell and underlying vitelline membrane for normal pattern formation in the early C. elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Schierenberg, Einhard; Junkersdorf, Bernd

    1992-12-01

    The embryo of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is surrounded by an inconspicuous inner vitelline membrane and a prominent outer chitinous eggshell proper. We demonstrate that the complete removal of the chitinous eggshell does not interfere with successful development to yield a normal worm. The same result can be obtained when the vitelline membrane is penetrated with laser microbeam irradiation of only the eggshell proper, gently enough to permit its resealing after a while. However, when large holes are made into the eggshell the concomitantly penetrated vitelline membrane does not reseal. While early development is quite normal under these conditions, gastrulation is defective in that gut precursor cells do not migrate in properly, eventually leading to embryonic arrest. This suggests a crucial role for pattern formation of the "micro-environment" around the embryo preserved by the intact vitelline membrane. Removing both eggshell and vitelline membrane results in a string-like arrangement of founder cells and subsequent grossly abnormal cell patterns. Our experiments support the idea that the prominent eggshell proper just functions as a mechanical protection while the thin vitelline membrane directly or indirectly serves as a necessary control element affecting the positions of cells which to begin with are determined by the orientation of the cleavage spindle.

  2. The effects of platelet lysate on maturation, fertilization and embryo development of NMRI mouse oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    PubMed

    Pazoki, Hassan; Eimani, Hussein; Farokhi, Farah; Shahverdi, Abdol-Hossein; Tahaei, Leila Sadat

    2016-04-01

    Improving in vitro maturation could increase the rate of pregnancy from oocytes matured in vitro. Consequently, patients will be prevented from using gonadotropin with its related side effects. In this study, the maturation medium was enriched by platelet lysate (PL), then maturation and subsequent developments were monitored. Oocytes at germinal vesicle stage with cumulus cells (cumulus-oocyte complex) and without cumulus cells (denuded oocytes) were obtained from mature female mice. The maturation medium was enriched by 5 and 10 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) as experimental groups; the control groups' media consisted of 5 and 10 % FBS. After 18 h, the matured oocytes were collected and, after fertilization, subsequent development was monitored. The rates of maturation, fertilization and 2-cell embryo development for the denuded oocyte groups in experimental media 5 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % FBS were significantly higher than those of the control groups ( P < 0.05), while the results for the cumulus-oocyte complex groups were similar between the experimental groups and control groups. The results of this study indicated that platelet lysate could improve the maturation rate in the absence of granulosa cells compared to media with FBS. This extract also had positive effects on fertilization and embryo development.

  3. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which,more » at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the

  4. The roles of ERAS during cell lineage specification of mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Yu, Yang; Ma, Huai-Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Lu, Xukun; Zhai, Yanhua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Wang, Haibin; Li, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Eras encodes a Ras-like GTPase protein that was originally identified as an embryonic stem cell-specific Ras. ERAS has been known to be required for the growth of embryonic stem cells and stimulates somatic cell reprogramming, suggesting its roles on mouse early embryonic development. We now report a dynamic expression pattern of Eras during mouse peri-implantation development: its expression increases at the blastocyst stage, and specifically decreases in E7.5 mesoderm. In accordance with its expression pattern, the increased expression of Eras promotes cell proliferation through controlling AKT activation and the commitment from ground to primed state through ERK activation in mouse embryonic stem cells; and the reduced expression of Eras facilitates primitive streak and mesoderm formation through AKT inhibition during gastrulation. The expression of Eras is finely regulated to match its roles in mouse early embryonic development during which Eras expression is negatively regulated by the β-catenin pathway. Thus, beyond its well-known role on cell proliferation, ERAS may also play important roles in cell lineage specification during mouse early embryonic development. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Adaptive capacity of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to ocean warming and ocean acidification: performance of early embryos.

    PubMed

    Foo, Shawna A; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Poore, Alistair G B; Byrne, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Predicting effects of rapid climate change on populations depends on measuring the effects of climate stressors on performance, and potential for adaptation. Adaptation to stressful climatic conditions requires heritable genetic variance for stress tolerance present in populations. We quantified genetic variation in tolerance of early development of the ecologically important sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to near-future (2100) ocean conditions projected for the southeast Australian global change hot spot. Multiple dam-sire crosses were used to quantify the interactive effects of warming (+2-4 °C) and acidification (-0.3-0.5 pH units) across twenty-seven family lines. Acidification, but not temperature, decreased the percentage of cleavage stage embryos. In contrast, temperature, but not acidification decreased the percentage of gastrulation. Cleavage success in response to both stressors was strongly affected by sire identity. Sire and dam identity significantly affected gastrulation and both interacted with temperature to determine developmental success. Positive genetic correlations for gastrulation indicated that genotypes that did well at lower pH also did well in higher temperatures. Significant genotype (sire) by environment interactions for both stressors at gastrulation indicated the presence of heritable variation in thermal tolerance and the ability of embryos to respond to changing environments. The significant influence of dam may be due to maternal provisioning (maternal genotype or environment) and/or offspring genotype. It appears that early development in this ecologically important sea urchin is not constrained in adapting to the multiple stressors of ocean warming and acidification. The presence of tolerant genotypes indicates the potential to adapt to concurrent warming and acidification, contributing to the resilience of C. rodgersii in a changing ocean.

  6. Adaptive Capacity of the Habitat Modifying Sea Urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to Ocean Warming and Ocean Acidification: Performance of Early Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Shawna A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Poore, Alistair G. B.; Byrne, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Predicting effects of rapid climate change on populations depends on measuring the effects of climate stressors on performance, and potential for adaptation. Adaptation to stressful climatic conditions requires heritable genetic variance for stress tolerance present in populations. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified genetic variation in tolerance of early development of the ecologically important sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to near-future (2100) ocean conditions projected for the southeast Australian global change hot spot. Multiple dam-sire crosses were used to quantify the interactive effects of warming (+2–4°C) and acidification (−0.3−0.5 pH units) across twenty-seven family lines. Acidification, but not temperature, decreased the percentage of cleavage stage embryos. In contrast, temperature, but not acidification decreased the percentage of gastrulation. Cleavage success in response to both stressors was strongly affected by sire identity. Sire and dam identity significantly affected gastrulation and both interacted with temperature to determine developmental success. Positive genetic correlations for gastrulation indicated that genotypes that did well at lower pH also did well in higher temperatures. Conclusions/Significance Significant genotype (sire) by environment interactions for both stressors at gastrulation indicated the presence of heritable variation in thermal tolerance and the ability of embryos to respond to changing environments. The significant influence of dam may be due to maternal provisioning (maternal genotype or environment) and/or offspring genotype. It appears that early development in this ecologically important sea urchin is not constrained in adapting to the multiple stressors of ocean warming and acidification. The presence of tolerant genotypes indicates the potential to adapt to concurrent warming and acidification, contributing to the resilience of C. rodgersii in a changing ocean. PMID

  7. 5Alpha-Reduced Steroids Are Major Metabolites in the Early Equine Embryo Proper and Its Membranes.

    PubMed

    Raeside, James I; Christie, Heather L; Betteridge, Keith J

    2015-09-01

    Steroid production and metabolism by early conceptuses are very important for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in horses. Our earlier work suggested the possible formation of 5alpha-reduced steroids in equine conceptuses. We have now demonstrated the formation of 5alpha-reduced metabolites of androstenedione, testosterone, and progesterone by the embryo and its membranes. A total of 44 conceptuses were collected from 26 mares between 20 and 31 days of pregnancy. Tissues from the embryo proper and from the separated components of the conceptus (bilaminar and trilaminar trophoblast, allantois) were incubated with tritium-labeled substrates. 5Alpha-reduced metabolites (5alpha-dihydro- and 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydro- steroids) as radiolabeled products were identified from a series of chromatographic steps using four solvent systems for high-performance liquid chromatography. Use of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor confirmed the metabolites were indeed 5alpha-reduced steroids. For the embryo, the only products from androstenedione were 5alpha-dihydroandrostenedione and 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydroandrostenedione, with no evidence of more polar metabolites; there was some 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydrotestosterone but no 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone from testosterone, and formation of androstenedione was followed by the production of 5alpha-dihydroandrostenedione and 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydroandrostenedione. The major 5alpha-reduced product from progesterone was 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone, with lesser amounts of 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone. For the membranes, reductions to tetrahydro, 5alpha-reduced steroids were prominent in most instances, but also present were considerable amounts of products more polar than the substrates. The well-recognized activity of some 5alpha-reduced steroids--for example, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in male sexual differentiation--provokes interest in their even earlier appearance, as seen in this study, and suggests a possible role for them in

  8. Aym1, a mouse meiotic gene identified by virtue of its ability to activate early meiotic genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Malcov, Mira; Cesarkas, Karen; Stelzer, Gil; Shalom, Sarah; Dicken, Yosef; Naor, Yaniv; Goldstein, Ronald S; Sagee, Shira; Kassir, Yona; Don, Jeremy

    2004-12-01

    Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that operate during differentiation of mitotically dividing spermatogonia cells into spermatocytes lags way behind what is known about other differentiating systems. Given the evolutionary conservation of the meiotic process, we screened for mouse proteins that could specifically activate early meiotic promoters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells, when fused to the Gal4 activation domain (Gal4AD). Our screen yielded the Aym1 gene that encodes a short peptide of 45 amino acids. We show that a Gal4AD-AYM1 fusion protein activates expression of reporter genes through the promoters of the early meiosis-specific genes IME2 and HOP1, and that this activation is dependent on the DNA-binding protein Ume6. Aym1 is transcribed predominantly in mouse primary spermatocytes and in gonads of female embryos undergoing the corresponding meiotic divisions. Aym1 immunolocalized to nuclei of primary spermatocytes and oocytes and to specific type A spermatogonia cells, suggesting it might play a role in the processes leading to meiotic competence. The potential functional relationship between AYM1 and yeast proteins that regulate expression of early meiotic genes is discussed.

  9. Time-lapse culture with morphokinetic embryo selection improves pregnancy and live birth chances and reduces early pregnancy loss: a meta-analysis.