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Sample records for early myelofibrosis causing

  1. Twin troubles--rickets causing myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kamien, Benjamin; Harris, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Myelofibrosis is an uncommon condition that causes anaemia, failure to thrive and massive splenomegaly. This case report describes migrant Sudanese twins who developed myelofibrosis secondary to severe rickets from a combination of poor diet, inadequate sun exposure, and a breastfeeding mother who wore hijab and was also vitamin D deficient.

  2. Myelofibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... spleen Easy bruising Easy bleeding Excessive sweating during sleep (night sweats) Fever Bone pain When to see a doctor Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs and symptoms that worry you. Causes Myelofibrosis occurs when blood stem cells develop a ...

  3. Autoimmune myelofibrosis. A steroid-responsive cause of bone marrow fibrosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Paquette, R L; Meshkinpour, A; Rosen, P J

    1994-05-01

    Autoimmune myelofibrosis is an uncommon disorder in which patients present with anemia and thrombocytopenia in conjunction with limited clinical manifestations of autoimmune disease or an exacerbation of previously established SLE. The presence of leukoerythroblastosis in a patient with SLE may suggest the presence of myelofibrosis. Conversely, the absence of splenomegaly in a patient with presumed idiopathic myelofibrosis may suggest an autoimmune etiology. Patients with autoimmune myelofibrosis universally have a positive ANA test and frequently have either elevated anti-DNA titers or a positive LE cell preparation. Because physical manifestations of autoimmune disease may not be evident at presentation, all patients found to have myelofibrosis should have an ANA test. Peripheral blood cytopenias in autoimmune myelofibrosis frequently respond to glucocorticoids but regression of bone marrow fibrosis may be incomplete. Hematologic response to treatment parallels that of the associated autoimmune disease.

  4. Neutropenia caused by hairy cell leukemia in a patient with myelofibrosis secondary to polycythemia vera: a case report.

    PubMed

    Habberstad, Andreas Hanssønn; Tran, Hoa Thi Tuyet; Randen, Ulla; Spetalen, Signe; Dybedal, Ingunn; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Dahm, Anders Erik Astrup

    2018-04-24

    Polycythemia vera is a myeloproliferative disease that sometimes evolves to myelofibrosis, causing splenomegaly and neutropenia. In this case report, we describe a patient with polycythemia vera and unexplained neutropenia who later turned out to also have hairy cell leukemia. A middle-aged Caucasian man with polycythemia vera presented to our hospital with chronic mouth ulcers. Later he developed leukopenia and pancytopenia. Bone marrow biopsies showed fibrosis. Further morphological analyses of bone marrow and blood smears revealed probable transformation into acute myeloid leukemia. However, there were also cells indicating hairy cell leukemia. Morphological and immunohistochemical analyses later confirmed the presence of hairy cell leukemia in biopsies that had been present for 3 years. Treatment with cladribine temporarily reversed the patient's neutropenia. Hairy cell leukemia may mimic development to myelofibrosis in patients with polycythemia vera.

  5. Primary Myelofibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are described below. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms sometimes become acute leukemia , in which too many abnormal white blood ... higher. Patients also have an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia or primary myelofibrosis . Symptoms of polycythemia ...

  6. A 7-Gene Signature Depicts the Biochemical Profile of Early Prefibrotic Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Skov, Vibe; Burton, Mark; Thomassen, Mads; Stauffer Larsen, Thomas; Riley, Caroline H.; Brinch Madelung, Ann; Kjær, Lasse; Bondo, Henrik; Stamp, Inger; Ehinger, Mats; Dahl-Sørensen, Rasmus; Brochmann, Nana; Nielsen, Karsten; Thiele, Jürgen; Jensen, Morten K.; Weis Bjerrum, Ole; Kruse, Torben A.; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of patients classified as essential thrombocythemia (ET) actually have early primary prefibrotic myelofibrosis (prePMF), which implies an inferior prognosis as compared to patients being diagnosed with so-called genuine or true ET. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 classification, bone marrow histology is a major component in the distinction between these disease entities. However, the differential diagnosis between them may be challenging and several studies have not been able to distinguish between them. Most lately, it has been argued that simple blood tests, including the leukocyte count and plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) may be useful tools to separate genuine ET from prePMF, the latter disease entity more often being featured by anemia, leukocytosis and elevated LDH. Whole blood gene expression profiling was performed in 17 and 9 patients diagnosed with ET and PMF, respectively. Using elevated LDH obtained at the time of diagnosis as a marker of prePMF, a 7-gene signature was identified which correctly predicted the prePMF group with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 89%. The 7 genes included MPO, CEACAM8, CRISP3, MS4A3, CEACAM6, HEMGN, and MMP8, which are genes known to be involved in inflammation, cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation. Evaluation of bone marrow biopsies and the 7-gene signature showed a concordance rate of 71%, 79%, 62%, and 38%. Our 7-gene signature may be a useful tool to differentiate between genuine ET and prePMF but needs to be validated in a larger cohort of “ET” patients. PMID:27579896

  7. Thrombosis in essential thrombocytemia and early/prefibrotic primary myelofibrosis: the role of the WHO histological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rupoli, Serena; Goteri, Gaia; Picardi, Paola; Micucci, Giorgia; Canafoglia, Lucia; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Federici, Irene; Giantomassi, Federica; Da Lio, Lidia; Zizzi, Antonio; Honorati, Elisa; Leoni, Pietro

    2015-04-16

    Vascular events represent the most frequent complications of thrombocytemias. We aimed to evaluate their risk in the WHO histologic categories of Essential Thrombocytemia (ET) and early Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF). From our clinical database of 283 thrombocytemic patients, we selected those with available bone marrow histology performed before any treatment, at or within 1 year from diagnosis, and reclassified the 131 cases as true ET or early PMF, with or without fibrosis, according to the WHO histological criteria. Vaso-occlusive events at diagnosis and in the follow-up were compared in the WHO-groups. Histologic review reclassified 61 cases as ET and 72 cases as early PMF (26 prefibrotic and 42 with grade 1 or 2 fibrosis). Compared to ET, early PMF showed a significant higher rate of thrombosis both in the past history (22% vs 8%) and at diagnosis (15.2% vs 1.6%), and an increased leukocyte count (8389 vs 7500/mmc). Venous thromboses (mainly atypical) were relatively more common in PMF than in ET. Patients with prefibrotic PMF, although younger, showed a significant higher 15-year risk of developing thrombosis (48% vs 16% in fibrotic PMF and 17% in ET). At multivariate analysis, age and WHO histology were both independent risk-factors for thrombosis during follow-up; patients >60 yr-old or with prefibrotic PMF showed a significantly higher risk at 20 years than patients <60 yr-old with ET or fibrotic PMF (47% vs 4%, p = 0.005). Our study support the importance of WHO histologic categories in the thrombotic risk stratification of patients with thrombocytemias. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2020211863144412 .

  8. Simultaneous presence of two hematological malignancies: chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myelofibrosis in a patient.

    PubMed

    Palta, Anshu; Garg, Shailja; Chauhan, Sandeep; Varma, Neelam

    2011-03-01

    Coexistence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with myelofibrosis is a rare association with only isolated case reports in the literature. We report an unusual case of CLL in which the cause of anemia was coexistent myelofibrosis. In a case of CLL presenting with refractory anemia, besides common causes like autoimmune hemolytic anemia and marrow infiltration, other causes like myelofibrosis should be searched for.

  9. Management of Myelofibrosis-Related Cytopenias.

    PubMed

    Bose, Prithviraj; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2018-05-23

    Cytopenias, particularly anemia, are frequently encountered in patients with myelofibrosis. Management of cytopenias in myelofibrosis can be very challenging because current therapeutic interventions are only of modest efficacy and ruxolitinib, the only approved drug for myelofibrosis, is myelosuppressive. Yet, dose optimization of ruxolitinib is important for its survival benefit in patients with advanced disease. We sought to summarize the data on treatments for cytopenias available at present and review promising agents in development and emerging strategies. The activin receptor ligand traps hold considerable promise for the treatment of anemia and could represent an attractive combination strategy with ruxolitinib. Low-dose thalidomide, which could offset both anemia and thrombocytopenia caused by ruxolitinib, represents another potential partner for ruxolitinib. The anti-fibrotic agent PRM-151 produced sustained improvements in cytopenias in some patients, and further data on this drug are eagerly awaited. Finally, several preclinical leads with translational potential are worthy of clinical investigation as strategies to halt/reverse bone marrow fibrosis and thereby improve cytopenias. Cytopenias remain a significant hurdle in myelofibrosis management, but several novel investigational agents hold considerable promise for the future.

  10. How we treat myelofibrosis after failure of JAK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, Animesh; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2018-06-04

    The introduction of JAK inhibitors, leading to regulatory approval of ruxolitinib, represents a major therapeutic advance in myelofibrosis. Most patients experience reduction in splenomegaly and improved quality of life from symptom improvement. It is a paradox however that, despite inhibition of signaling downstream of disease-related driver mutations, JAK inhibitor treatment is not associated with consistent molecular or pathologic responses in myelofibrosis. Furthermore, there are important limitations to JAK inhibitor therapy including development of dose-limiting cytopenias and/or non-hematological toxicities such as neuropathy or opportunistic infections. Over half the patients discontinue treatment within three years of starting treatment. While data are sparse, clinical outcome after JAK inhibitor 'failure' is likely poor; consequently, it is important to understand patterns of failure to select appropriate salvage treatment(s). An algorithmic approach, particularly one that incorporates cytogenetics/molecular data, is most helpful in selecting stem cell transplant candidates. Treatment of transplant-ineligible patients relies on a problem-based approach that includes use of investigational drugs, or consideration of splenectomy or radiotherapy. Data from early-phase ruxolitinib combination studies, despite promising pre-clinical data, has not shown clear benefit over monotherapy thus far. Development of effective treatment strategies for myelofibrosis patients failing JAK inhibitors remains a major unmet need. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  11. Myelofibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... into all of your blood cells. Your blood is made of: Red blood cells (which carry oxygen to your tissues) White blood cells (which fight infection) Platelets (which help your blood clot) When the bone marrow is scarred, it cannot make enough blood cells. Anemia , ...

  12. Splanchnic vein thrombosis as a first manifestation of Primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed

    Campos-Cabrera, Gregorio; Campos-Cabrera, Virginia; Campos-Cabrera, Salvador; Campos-Villagómez, José-Luis; Romero-González, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms are chronic disorders of clonal hematopoietic stem cells, characterized by an overproduction of functional granulocytes, red blood cells and / or platelets, and one of the major complications is the occurrence of venous and arterial thrombotic problems caused by increased platelet aggregation and thrombin generation. In this study 11 cases of primary myelofibrosis (PM) were evaluated and 2 debuted with splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT); so after seeing the results of this study and of world literature, it is suggested that in patients with SVT, diagnostic methods for PM like the JAK2V617F mutation should be included. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  13. Recombinant interferon-α in myelofibrosis reduces bone marrow fibrosis, improves its morphology and is associated with clinical response.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Marco; Silver, Richard T; Barel, Ariella; Orazi, Attilio

    2015-10-01

    Recombinant interferon-α represents a well-established therapeutic option for the treatment of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. Recent studies also suggest a role for recombinant interferon-α in the treatment of 'early stage' primary myelofibrosis, but few studies have reported the bone marrow changes after clinically successful interferon therapy. The aim of the present study is to detail the histological responses to recombinant interferon-α in primary myelofibrosis and post-polycythemia vera/post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis and to correlate these with clinical findings. We retrospectively studied 12 patients with primary myelofibrosis or post-polycythemia vera/post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis, who had been treated with recombinant interferon-α. Six patients had received other prior cytoreductive therapies. Bone marrow biopsy was assessed for the following histological parameters: (i) cellularity; (ii) myeloid-to-erythroid ratio; (iii) megakaryocyte tight clusters; (iv) megakaryocyte and naked nuclei density; (v) megakaryocytic atypia; (vi) fibrosis; and (vii) the percentage of blasts. Clinical and laboratory data were included: (i) constitutional symptoms; (ii) splenomegaly, if present; and (iii) complete cell blood count. The clinical response to therapy was evaluated using the International Working Group for Myelofibrosis Research and Treatment/European LeukemiaNet response criteria. The Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) score was calculated before and after recombinant interferon-α administration. Successful interferon therapy for myelofibrosis was associated with a significant reduction of marrow fibrosis, cellularity, megakaryocyte density and naked nuclei density. The presence of JAK2(V617F) mutation correlated with improved DIPSS score. JAK2(V617F)-negative cases showed worsening of such score or evolution to acute myeloid leukemia. Cytogenetic analysis documented a normal karyotype in all

  14. β-Arrestin2 mediates progression of murine primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rein, Lindsay Am; Wisler, James W; Kim, Jihee; Theriot, Barbara; Huang, LiYin; Price, Trevor; Yang, Haeyoon; Chen, Minyong; Chen, Wei; Sipkins, Dorothy; Fedoriw, Yuri; Walker, Julia Kl; Premont, Richard T; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2017-12-21

    Primary myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with significant morbidity and mortality, for which effective therapies are lacking. β-Arrestins are multifunctional adaptor proteins involved in developmental signaling pathways. One isoform, β-arrestin2 (βarr2), has been implicated in initiation and progression of chronic myeloid leukemia, another myeloproliferative neoplasm closely related to primary myelofibrosis. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between βarr2 and primary myelofibrosis. In a murine model of MPLW515L-mutant primary myelofibrosis, mice transplanted with donor βarr2-knockout (βarr2-/-) hematopoietic stem cells infected with MPL-mutant retrovirus did not develop myelofibrosis, whereas controls uniformly succumbed to disease. Although transplanted βarr2-/- cells homed properly to marrow, they did not repopulate long-term due to increased apoptosis and decreased self-renewal of βarr2-/- cells. In order to assess the effect of acute loss of βarr2 in established primary myelofibrosis in vivo, we utilized a tamoxifen-induced Cre-conditional βarr2-knockout mouse. Mice that received Cre (+) donor cells and developed myelofibrosis had significantly improved survival compared with controls. These data indicate that lack of antiapoptotic βarr2 mediates marrow failure of murine hematopoietic stem cells overexpressing MPLW515L. They also indicate that βarr2 is necessary for progression of primary myelofibrosis, suggesting that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target in this disease.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: primary myelofibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from gene mutations that occur in early blood-forming cells after conception. These alterations are called somatic ... Free article on PubMed Central Klampfl T, Gisslinger H, Harutyunyan AS, Nivarthi H, Rumi E, Milosevic JD, ...

  16. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…

  17. Sexism and Early Parenting: Cause and Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusick, Theresa

    1987-01-01

    Sexism and sex role stereotyping exacerbate teen pregnancy rates in several ways. This article attempts to synthesize relevant research and uses existing research to detail the specific ways sexism abets early parenting. Several recommendations for addressing teen pregnancy issues are made. (IAH)

  18. β-Arrestin2 mediates progression of murine primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rein, Lindsay A.M.; Wisler, James W.; Kim, Jihee; Theriot, Barbara; Huang, LiYin; Price, Trevor; Yang, Haeyoon; Chen, Wei; Sipkins, Dorothy; Fedoriw, Yuri; Walker, Julia K.L.; Premont, Richard T.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with significant morbidity and mortality, for which effective therapies are lacking. β-Arrestins are multifunctional adaptor proteins involved in developmental signaling pathways. One isoform, β-arrestin2 (βarr2), has been implicated in initiation and progression of chronic myeloid leukemia, another myeloproliferative neoplasm closely related to primary myelofibrosis. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between βarr2 and primary myelofibrosis. In a murine model of MPLW515L-mutant primary myelofibrosis, mice transplanted with donor βarr2-knockout (βarr2–/–) hematopoietic stem cells infected with MPL-mutant retrovirus did not develop myelofibrosis, whereas controls uniformly succumbed to disease. Although transplanted βarr2–/– cells homed properly to marrow, they did not repopulate long-term due to increased apoptosis and decreased self-renewal of βarr2–/– cells. In order to assess the effect of acute loss of βarr2 in established primary myelofibrosis in vivo, we utilized a tamoxifen-induced Cre-conditional βarr2-knockout mouse. Mice that received Cre (+) donor cells and developed myelofibrosis had significantly improved survival compared with controls. These data indicate that lack of antiapoptotic βarr2 mediates marrow failure of murine hematopoietic stem cells overexpressing MPLW515L. They also indicate that βarr2 is necessary for progression of primary myelofibrosis, suggesting that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:29263312

  19. Busulfan, Fludarabine, Donor Stem Cell Transplant, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Multiple Myeloma or Myelofibrosis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-31

    Anemia; ASXL1 Gene Mutation; EZH2 Gene Mutation; IDH1 Gene Mutation; IDH2 Gene Mutation; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma; Secondary Myelofibrosis; Thrombocytopenia

  20. Pharmacoeconomics of ruxolitinib therapy in patients with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Björn; Andreozzi, Valeska; Almeida, João; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Overall survival (OS) and other important clinical trial end-points seem increasingly more elusive in supporting rapid and efficient incorporation of innovative cancer drugs in clinical practice. This study proposes a clinical trial based pharmacoeconomic framework to assess the therapeutic and economic value of ruxolitinib in patients with intermediate-2 or high-risk myelofibrosis. Individual patient level 144 week follow-up data from the COMFORT-II trial was used to account for the crossover effect on overall survival. Lifetime treatment benefits and costs were estimated considering detailed patterns of both ruxolitinib dose adjustments and blood transfusion needs. The authors estimate a 3.3 years increment in life expectancy (HR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.17-0.55; p-value <0.001) and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €40,000 per life year gained with the use of ruxolitinib. This study also demonstrates how valuable information from clinical trials can be used to support informed decisions about the early incorporation of innovative drugs.

  1. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myelofibrosis: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Angela G; Maziarz, Richard T

    2013-03-01

    A succinct yet comprehensive review of the biology of myeloproliferative neoplasms and therapeutic options with a focus on rational decision making for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The introduction of Janus kinase inhibitors for myelofibrosis have ushered in a new era for treatment of constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly in myelofibrosis, but the effect of these agents on the natural history of the disease has yet to be clearly defined. Reduced intensity transplants have emerged as the preferred option with recent evidence suggesting fludarabine and melphalan as the optimal conditioning regimen. Myelofibrosis is a rare hematologic malignancy with limited curative therapeutic options. Significant advances in our understanding of disease pathogenesis have led to new targets and new therapeutic options are forthcoming. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is at present the only treatment with curative intent; however, the selection of patients who are likely to be best served by this procedure is difficult. As myelofibrosis is an extremely rare disease, randomized clinical trials specifically investigating the role of transplantation in myelofibrosis are unlikely to occur, thus current decision making processes are best guided by retrospective analyses from registry databases and single institution experiences.

  2. Efficacy of ALK5 inhibition in myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wanke; Ho, Wanting Tina; Han, Ying; Murdun, Cem; Mailloux, Adam W.; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Xuefeng; Budhathoki, Anjali; Pradhan, Kith; Rapaport, Franck; Wang, Huaquan; Shao, Zonghong; Ren, Xiubao; Steidl, Ulrich; Levine, Ross L.; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe; Verma, Amit; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K.

    2017-01-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is a bone marrow disorder characterized by clonal myeloproliferation, aberrant cytokine production, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and bone marrow fibrosis. Although somatic mutations in JAK2, MPL, and CALR have been identified in the pathogenesis of these diseases, inhibitors of the Jak2 pathway have not demonstrated efficacy in ameliorating MF in patients. TGF-β family members are profibrotic cytokines and we observed significant TGF-β1 isoform overexpression in a large cohort of primary MF patient samples. Significant overexpression of TGF-β1 was also observed in murine clonal MPLW515L megakaryocytic cells. TGF-β1 stimulated the deposition of excessive collagen by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) by activating the TGF-β receptor I kinase (ALK5)/Smad3 pathway. MSCs derived from MPLW515L mice demonstrated sustained overproduction of both collagen I and collagen III, effects that were abrogated by ALK5 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, use of galunisertib, a clinically active ALK5 inhibitor, significantly improved MF in both MPLW515L and JAK2V617F mouse models. These data demonstrate the role of malignant hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)/TGF-β/MSC axis in the pathogenesis of MF, and provide a preclinical rationale for ALK5 blockade as a therapeutic strategy in MF. PMID:28405618

  3. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Idiopathic Myelofibrosis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-12

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Meningeal Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Primary Myelofibrosis; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Hairy Cell Leukemia

  4. Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Marie; Comio, Emilie; Gay, Valerie; Baroudi, Noureddine; Meyer, Pascal; Chuniaud-Louche, Christine; Hacini, Maya; Pica, Gian Matteo

    2016-05-07

    Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A is a rare association. To the best of our knowledge only one case of myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A has been previously described. A 66-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with myelofibrosis evolving in acute myeloid leukemia was referred to us for postoperative bleeding. Hemostatic studies showed prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased factor VIII coagulation, and a high factor VIII inhibitor titer; these findings led to a diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A for which he was treated with methylprednisolone and recombinant activated factor VII on admission. Due to a lack of response he was subsequently treated with rituximab combined with activated prothrombin complex concentrates. Furthermore, he received azacytidine to treat the underlying hematological malignancies. Immunosuppressive rituximab therapy resolved acquired hemophilia A with marked efficacy. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, effective hemostatic therapy, and timely treatment for underlying disease are important in the management of acquired hemophilia A secondary to hematological malignancy.

  5. Expanding the SHOC2 mutation associated phenotype of Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair: structural brain anomalies and myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gripp, Karen W; Zand, Dina J; Demmer, Laurie; Anderson, Carol E; Dobyns, William B; Zackai, Elaine H; Denenberg, Elizabeth; Jenny, Kim; Stabley, Deborah L; Sol-Church, Katia

    2013-10-01

    Noonan syndrome is a heterogenous rasopathy typically presenting with short stature, characteristic facial features, cardiac abnormalities including pulmonic valve stenosis, ASD and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cryptorchidism, ectodermal abnormalities, and learning differences. The phenotype is variable, and limited genotype phenotype correlation exists with SOS1 mutations often associated with normal cognition and stature, RAF1 mutations entailing a high HCM risk, and certain PTPN11 mutations predisposing to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The recently identified SHOC2 mutation (p.Ser2Gly) causes Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair. We report five patients with this mutation. All had skin hyperpigmentation, sparse light colored hair, increased fine wrinkles, ligamentous laxity, developmental delay, and 4/4 had a structural cardiac anomaly. Hypotonia and macrocephaly occurred in 4/5 (80%); 3/5 (60%) had polyhydramnios, increased birth weight or required use of a feeding tube. Distinctive brain abnormalities included relative megalencephaly and enlarged subarachnoid spaces suggestive of benign external hydrocephalus, and a relatively small posterior fossa as indicated by a vertical tentorium. The combination of a large brain with a small posterior fossa likely resulted in the high rate of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia (3/4; 75%). Periventricular nodular heterotopia was seen in one patient with a thick and dysplastic corpus callosum. We report on the first hematologic neoplasm, myelofibrosis, in a 2-year-old patient with SHOC2 mutation. Myelofibrosis is exceedingly rare in children and young adults. The absence of a somatic JAK2 mutation, seen in the majority of patients with myelofibrosis, is noteworthy as it suggests that germline or somatic SHOC2 mutations are causally involved in myelofibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The role of transforming growth factor-beta in PEG-rHuMGDF-induced reversible myelofibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, M; Ide, Y; Imai, A; Toriyama, M; Aoki, T; Harada, K; Izumi, H; Uzumaki, H; Kusaka, M; Tokiwa, T

    1997-12-01

    Pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF) injected at a suprapharmacologic dose (100 microg/kg) daily for 5 d in normal rats caused marked increases in marrow megakaryocytes and platelet counts at 6-8 d followed by gradual decreases to control levels at 10-20 d. Interestingly, in addition to the expected thrombopoiesis, PEG-rHuMGDF was associated with myelofibrosis with a predominance of reticulin fibres at day 10 followed by complete normalization by day 20. At 6-8 d, the levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in the extracellular fluid of the marrow, the platelet poor plasma, and the platelet extract were increased 23-, 7- and 2-fold, respectively. The elevated levels of TGF-beta1 were gradually reduced to baseline levels at 13-20 d in accordance with the normalization of myelofibrosis and thrombopoiesis. An ultrastructural analysis showed that large fragments of megakaryocytes were deposited in the marrow parenchyma of PEG-rHuMGDF-treated rats at day 6. PEG-rHuMGDF administration at pharmacologic doses (1 and 10 microg/kg) did not induce the deposition of reticulin fibres in the marrow. These findings suggest that TGF-beta1 leaked from megakaryocytes is involved in the development of the PEG-rHuMGDF-induced myelofibrosis and that this is a reversible process related to the regulation of the excess production of platelets.

  7. Biallelic TBCD Mutations Cause Early-Onset Neurodegenerative Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Noriko; Fukai, Ryoko; Ohba, Chihiro; Chihara, Takahiro; Miura, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Imagawa, Eri; Shiina, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Okuno-Yuguchi, Jiu; Fueki, Noboru; Ogiso, Yoshifumi; Suzumura, Hiroshi; Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Imataka, George; Leong, Huey Yin; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Kramer, Uri; Miyatake, Satoko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo; Kaneko, Naofumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Tamura, Tomohiko; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-10-06

    We describe four families with affected siblings showing unique clinical features: early-onset (before 1 year of age) progressive diffuse brain atrophy with regression, postnatal microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, muscle weakness/atrophy, and respiratory failure. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified biallelic TBCD mutations in eight affected individuals from the four families. TBCD encodes TBCD (tubulin folding co-factor D), which is one of five tubulin-specific chaperones playing a pivotal role in microtubule assembly in all cells. A total of seven mutations were found: five missense mutations, one nonsense, and one splice site mutation resulting in a frameshift. In vitro cell experiments revealed the impaired binding between most mutant TBCD proteins and ARL2, TBCE, and β-tubulin. The in vivo experiments using olfactory projection neurons in Drosophila melanogaster indicated that the TBCD mutations caused loss of function. The wide range of clinical severity seen in this neurodegenerative encephalopathy may result from the residual function of mutant TBCD proteins. Furthermore, the autopsied brain from one deceased individual showed characteristic neurodegenerative findings: cactus and somatic sprout formations in the residual Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, which are also seen in some diseases associated with mitochondrial impairment. Defects of microtubule formation caused by TBCD mutations may underlie the pathomechanism of this neurodegenerative encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Causes of Early Childhood Deaths in Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Amal K.; Gurley, Emily S.; Naheed, Aliya; Saha, Samir K.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Arifeen, Shams El; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Kenah, Eben; Luby, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Data on causes of early childhood death from low-income urban areas are limited. The nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 estimates 65 children died per 1,000 live births. We investigated rates and causes of under-five deaths in an urban community near two large pediatric hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh and evaluated the impact of different recall periods. We conducted a survey in 2006 for 6971 households and a follow up survey in 2007 among eligible remaining households or replacement households. The initial survey collected information for all children under five years old who died in the previous year; the follow up survey on child deaths in the preceding five years. We compared mortality rates based on 1-year recall to the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year. The initial survey identified 58 deaths among children <5 years in the preceding year. The follow up survey identified a mean 53 deaths per year in the preceding five years (SD±7.3). Under-five mortality rate was 34 and neonatal mortality was 15 per thousand live births during 2006–2007. The leading cause of under-five death was respiratory infections (22%). The mortality rates among children under 4 years old for the two time periods (most recent 1-year recall and the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year) were similar (36 versus 32). The child mortality in urban Dhaka was substantially lower than the national rate. Mortality rates were not affected by recall periods between 1 and 5 years. PMID:19997507

  9. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: an underrecognized cause of early cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, George; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A

    2006-04-11

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a monogenic disorder that affects about 1 in 500 people, with a higher prevalence in certain subpopulations such as people of Quebecois, Christian Lebanese and Dutch South Afrikaner extraction. HeFH is characterized by cholesterol deposits affecting the corneas, eyelids and extensor tendons; elevated plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; and accelerated vascular disease, especially coronary artery disease (CAD). Although HeFH is genetically heterogeneous, it is most often caused by heterozygous mutations in the LDLR gene encoding the LDL receptor. We describe a man who was diagnosed with HeFH after he had a myocardial infarction at 33 years of age. By DNA sequence analysis, he was found to have a heterozygous splicing mutation in his LDLR gene. This discovery expanded the growing mutational spectrum in patients with HeFH in Ontario. Given that HeFH is a treatable cause of early vascular disease, it is important that this condition be recognized, diagnosed and treated in affected patients; but as yet, there is no consensus on the best approach. Diagnostic criteria based on family history and clinical presentation have been proposed for patients with suspected HeFH. Biochemical or molecular screening might be considered to detect new cases of HeFH in populations with a relatively high HeFH prevalence and a relatively small number of possible causative mutations. So far, however, the most cost-effective and efficient systematic strategy to detect previously undiagnosed cases of HeFH is still cascade testing: clinical and biochemical screening of close relatives of the proband patient diagnosed with HeFH. Pharmacologic treatment of HeFH is cost-effective.

  10. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: an underrecognized cause of early cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, George; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a monogenic disorder that affects about 1 in 500 people, with a higher prevalence in certain subpopulations such as people of Quebecois, Christian Lebanese and Dutch South Afrikaner extraction. HeFH is characterized by cholesterol deposits affecting the corneas, eyelids and extensor tendons; elevated plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; and accelerated vascular disease, especially coronary artery disease (CAD). Although HeFH is genetically heterogeneous, it is most often caused by heterozygous mutations in the LDLR gene encoding the LDL receptor. We describe a man who was diagnosed with HeFH after he had a myocardial infarction at 33 years of age. By DNA sequence analysis, he was found to have a heterozygous splicing mutation in his LDLR gene. This discovery expanded the growing mutational spectrum in patients with HeFH in Ontario. Given that HeFH is a treatable cause of early vascular disease, it is important that this condition be recognized, diagnosed and treated in affected patients; but as yet, there is no consensus on the best approach. Diagnostic criteria based on family history and clinical presentation have been proposed for patients with suspected HeFH. Biochemical or molecular screening might be considered to detect new cases of HeFH in populations with a relatively high HeFH prevalence and a relatively small number of possible causative mutations. So far, however, the most cost-effective and efficient systematic strategy to detect previously undiagnosed cases of HeFH is still cascade testing: clinical and biochemical screening of close relatives of the proband patient diagnosed with HeFH. Pharmacologic treatment of HeFH is cost-effective. PMID:16606962

  11. Tetraspanin CD9 participates in dysmegakaryopoiesis and stromal interactions in primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Desterke, Christophe; Martinaud, Christophe; Guerton, Bernadette; Pieri, Lisa; Bogani, Costanza; Clay, Denis; Torossian, Frederic; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Hasselbach, Hans C; Gisslinger, Heinz; Demory, Jean-Loup; Dupriez, Brigitte; Boucheix, Claude; Rubinstein, Eric; Amsellem, Sophie; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Le Bousse-Kerdilès, Marie-Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Primary myelofibrosis is characterized by clonal myeloproliferation, dysmegakaryopoiesis, extramedullary hematopoiesis associated with myelofibrosis and altered stroma in the bone marrow and spleen. The expression of CD9, a tetraspanin known to participate in megakaryopoiesis, platelet formation, cell migration and interaction with stroma, is deregulated in patients with primary myelofibrosis and is correlated with stage of myelofibrosis. We investigated whether CD9 participates in the dysmegakaryopoiesis observed in patients and whether it is involved in the altered interplay between megakaryocytes and stromal cells. We found that CD9 expression was modulated during megakaryocyte differentiation in primary myelofibrosis and that cell surface CD9 engagement by antibody ligation improved the dysmegakaryopoiesis by restoring the balance of MAPK and PI3K signaling. When co-cultured on bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells from patients, megakaryocytes from patients with primary myelofibrosis displayed modified behaviors in terms of adhesion, cell survival and proliferation as compared to megakaryocytes from healthy donors. These modifications were reversed after antibody ligation of cell surface CD9, suggesting the participation of CD9 in the abnormal interplay between primary myelofibrosis megakaryocytes and stroma. Furthermore, silencing of CD9 reduced CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression in primary myelofibrosis megakaryocytes as well as their CXCL12-dependent migration. Collectively, our results indicate that CD9 plays a role in the dysmegakaryopoiesis that occurs in primary myelofibrosis and affects interactions between megakaryocytes and bone marrow stromal cells. These results strengthen the "bad seed in bad soil" hypothesis that we have previously proposed, in which alterations of reciprocal interactions between hematopoietic and stromal cells participate in the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. The role of the extracellular matrix in primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, O; Ng, S K; Chitalia, S; Balduini, A; Matsuura, S; Ravid, K

    2017-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm that arises from clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and leads to progressive bone marrow (BM) fibrosis. While cellular mutations involved in the development of PMF have been heavily investigated, noteworthy is the important role the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays in the progression of BM fibrosis. This review surveys ECM proteins contributors of PMF, and highlights how better understanding of the control of the ECM within the BM niche may lead to combined therapeutic options in PMF. PMID:28157219

  13. [Myelofibrosis in a benzene-exposed cleaning worker].

    PubMed

    Bausà, Roser; Navarro, Lydia; Cortès-Franch, Imma

    Long-term exposure to benzene has been associated with several blood malignancies, including aplastic anemia, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and different leukemias. We present a case of primary myelofibrosis in a 59-year-old woman who worked as a cleaner at a car dealership and automobile mechanic shop. For 25 years, she used gasoline as a degreaser and solvent to clean engine parts, floors and work desks on a daily basis. She was referred by her primary care provider to the Occupational Health Unit of Barcelona to assess whether her illness was work-related. Review of her job history and working conditions revealed chronic exposure to benzene in the absence of adequate preventive measures. An association between benzene exposure and myeloproliferative disease was established, suspicious for an occupational disease. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  14. Early death in active professional athletes: Trends and causes.

    PubMed

    Lemez, S; Wattie, N; Baker, J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to examine mortality trends and causes of death among professional athletes from the four major sports in North America who died during their playing careers. 205 deceased athletes who were registered as active when they died from the National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) were examined. Results were compared with the Canadian and U.S. general population. The leading causes of death in players reflected the leading causes of death in the Canadian and U.S. general population (i.e., car accidents). Descriptively, NFL and NBA players had a higher likelihood of dying in a car accident (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.91-3.36) compared with NHL and MLB players. In addition, NFL and NBA players had a significantly higher likelihood of dying from a cardiac-related illness (OR 4.44, 95% CI: 1.59-12.43). Mortality trends were disproportionate to team size. Overall, death in active athletes is low. Out of 53 400 athletes who have historically played in the four leagues, only 205 died while active (0.38%). Future examinations into the trends and causes of mortality in elite athlete populations will create a better understanding of health-related risks in elite sport. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cytogenetics, JAK2 and MPL mutations in polycythemia vera, primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Leonardo Caires; Ribeiro, Juliana Corrêa da Costa; Silva, Neusa Pereira; Cerutti, Janete; da Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Chauffaille, Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    Background The detection of molecular and cytogenetic alterations is important for the diagnosis, prognosis and classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Objectives The aim of this study was to detect the following mutations: JAK2 V617F, JAK2 exon 12 and MPL W515K/L, besides chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, molecular and cytogenetic alterations were correlated with the leukocyte and platelet counts, hemoglobin levels and age in all patients and with the degree of fibrosis in primary myelofibrosis cases. Methods Twenty cases of polycythemia vera, 17 of essential thrombocythemia and 21 of primary myelofibrosis were selected in the Hematology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) between February 2008 and December 2009. The JAK2 V617F, JAK2 exon 12 mutations, MPL W515K and MPL W515L mutations were investigated by real-time PCR and direct sequencing. G-band karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Results Chromosomal abnormalities were observed only in polycythemia vera (11.8%) and primary myelofibrosis cases (17.6%), without correlation to clinical data. Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The JAK2 V617F mutation was observed in polycythemia vera (90%), primary myelofibrosis (42.8%) and essential thrombocythemia (47%). Patients with JAK2 V617F-negative polycythemia vera had lower platelet and leukocyte counts compared to V617F-positive polycythemia vera (p-value = 0.0001 and p-value = 0.023, respectively). JAK2 V617F-positive and MPL W515L-positive primary myelofibrosis cases had a higher degree of fibrosis than V617F-negative cases (p-value = 0.022). JAK2 exon 12 mutations were not detected in polycythemia vera patients. The MPL W515L mutation was observed in one case of primary myelofibrosis and in one of essential thrombocythemia. The MPL W515K mutation was not found in patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary

  16. Cytogenetics, JAK2 and MPL mutations in polycythemia vera, primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Leonardo Caires; Ribeiro, Juliana Corrêa da Costa; Silva, Neusa Pereira; Cerutti, Janete; da Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Chauffaille, Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    The detection of molecular and cytogenetic alterations is important for the diagnosis, prognosis and classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETECT THE FOLLOWING MUTATIONS: JAK2 V617F, JAK2 exon 12 and MPL W515K/L, besides chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, molecular and cytogenetic alterations were correlated with the leukocyte and platelet counts, hemoglobin levels and age in all patients and with the degree of fibrosis in primary myelofibrosis cases. Twenty cases of polycythemia vera, 17 of essential thrombocythemia and 21 of primary myelofibrosis were selected in the Hematology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) between February 2008 and December 2009. The JAK2 V617F, JAK2 exon 12 mutations, MPL W515K and MPL W515L mutations were investigated by real-time PCR and direct sequencing. G-band karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed only in polycythemia vera (11.8%) and primary myelofibrosis cases (17.6%), without correlation to clinical data. Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The JAK2 V617F mutation was observed in polycythemia vera (90%), primary myelofibrosis (42.8%) and essential thrombocythemia (47%). Patients with JAK2 V617F-negative polycythemia vera had lower platelet and leukocyte counts compared to V617F-positive polycythemia vera (p-value = 0.0001 and p-value = 0.023, respectively). JAK2 V617F-positive and MPL W515L-positive primary myelofibrosis cases had a higher degree of fibrosis than V617F-negative cases (p-value = 0.022). JAK2 exon 12 mutations were not detected in polycythemia vera patients. The MPL W515L mutation was observed in one case of primary myelofibrosis and in one of essential thrombocythemia. The MPL W515K mutation was not found in patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis. The MPL W515L

  17. Causes and Timing of Unplanned Early Readmission After Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Blake E S; Youngerman, Brett E; Goldstein, Hannah; Kabat, Daniel H; Appelboom, Geoffrey; Gold, William E; Connolly, Edward Sander

    2016-09-01

    Reducing the rate of 30-day hospital readmission has become a priority in healthcare quality improvement policy, with a focus on better characterizing the reasons for unplanned readmission. In neurosurgery, however, peer-reviewed analyses describing the patterns of readmission have been limited in their number and generalizability. To determine the incidence, timing, and causes of 30-day readmission after neurosurgical procedures. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study from 2009 to 2012 using the Statewide Planning And Research Cooperative System, which collects patient-level details for all admissions and discharges within New York. We identified patients readmitted within 30 days of initial discharge. The rate of, reasons for, and time to readmission were determined overall and within 4 subgroups: craniotomies, cranial surgery without craniotomy, spine, and neuroendovascular procedures. There were 163 743 index admissions, of whom 14 791 (9.03%) were readmitted. The most common reasons for unplanned readmission were infection (29.52%) and medical complications (19.22%). Median time to readmission was 11 days, with hemorrhagic strokes and seizures occurring earlier, and medical complications and infections occurring later. Readmission rates were highest among patients undergoing cerebrospinal fluid shunt revision and malignant tumor resection (15.57%-22.60%). Spinal decompressions, however, accounted for the largest volume of readmissions (33.13%). Many readmissions may be preventable and occur at predictable time intervals. The causes and timing of readmission vary significantly across neurosurgical subgroups. Future studies should focus on detecting specific complications in select cohorts at predefined time points, which may allow for interventions to lower costs and reduce patient morbidity. CSF, cerebrospinal fluidIQR, interquartile rangeSPARCS, Statewide Planning And Research Cooperative System.

  18. Which patients with myelofibrosis should receive ruxolitinib therapy? ELN-SIE evidence-based recommendations.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, M; Barosi, G; Cervantes, F; Birgegård, G; Griesshammer, M; Harrison, C; Hehlmann, R; Kiladjian, J-J; Kröger, N; McMullin, M F; Passamonti, F; Vannucchi, A; Barbui, T

    2017-04-01

    Ruxolitinib is an oral Janus-activated kinase 1 (JAK1)/JAK2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with myelofibrosis based on the results of two randomized clinical trials. However, discordant indications were provided by regulatory agencies and scientific societies for selecting the most appropriate candidates to this drug. The European LeukemiaNet and the Italian Society of Hematology shared the aim of building evidence-based recommendations for the use of ruxolitinib according to the GRADE methodology. Eighteen patient-intervention-comparator-outcome profiles were listed, each of them comparing ruxolitinib to other therapies with the aim of improving one of the three clinical outcomes: (a) splenomegaly, (b) disease-related symptoms, and (c) survival. Ruxolitinib was strongly recommended for improving symptomatic or severe (>15 cm below the costal margin) splenomegaly in patients with an International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS)/dynamic IPSS risk intermediate 2 or high. Ruxolitinib was also strongly recommended for improving systemic symptoms in patients with an MPN10 score >44, refractory severe itching, unintended weight loss not attributable to other causes or unexplained fever. Because of weak evidence, the panel does not recommend ruxolitinib therapy for improving survival. Also, the recommendations given above do not necessarily apply to patients who are candidates for allogeneic stem cell transplant.

  19. Multiple esophageal variceal ruptures with massive ascites due to myelofibrosis-induced portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tokai, Koichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Yamada, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    A 75-year old man had been diagnosed at 42 years of age as having polycythemia vera and had been monitored at another hospital. Progression of anemia had been recognized at about age 70, and the patient was thus referred to our center in 2008 where secondary myelofibrosis was diagnosed based on bone marrow biopsy findings. Hematemesis due to rupture of esophageal varices occurred in January and February of 2011. The bleeding was stopped by endoscopic variceal ligation. Furthermore, in March of the same year, hematemesis recurred and the patient was transported to our center. He was in irreversible hemorrhagic shock and died. The autopsy showed severe bone marrow fibrosis with mainly argyrophilic fibers, an observation consistent with myelofibrosis. The liver weighed 1856 g the spleen 1572 g, indicating marked hepatosplenomegaly. The liver and spleen both showed extramedullary hemopoiesis. Myelofibrosis is often complicated by portal hypertension and is occasionally associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to esophageal varices. A patient diagnosed as having myelofibrosis needs to be screened for esophageal/gastric varices. Myelofibrosis has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully decide the therapeutic strategy in consideration of the patient’s concomitant conditions, treatment invasiveness and quality of life. PMID:22851873

  20. Clinical, histopathologic, and genetic features of pediatric primary myelofibrosis--an entity different from adults.

    PubMed

    DeLario, Melissa R; Sheehan, Andrea M; Ataya, Ramona; Bertuch, Alison A; Vega, Carlos; Webb, C Renee; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Venkateswaran, Lakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Primary myelofibrosis is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by cytopenias, leukoerythroblastosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, hepatosplenomegaly and bone marrow fibrosis. Primary myelofibrosis is a rare disorder in adults; children are even less commonly affected by this entity, with the largest pediatric case series reporting on three patients. Most literature suggests spontaneous resolution of myelofibrosis without long term complications in the majority of affected children. We describe the clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics and outcomes of nineteen children with primary myelofibrosis treated in our center from 1984 to 2011. Most patients had cytopenia significant enough to require supportive therapy. No child developed malignant transformation and only five of the 19 children (26%) had spontaneous resolution of disease. Sequence analyses for JAK2V617F and MPLW515L mutations were performed on bone marrow samples from 17 and six patients, respectively, and the results were negative. In conclusion, analysis of this large series of pediatric patients with primary myelofibrosis demonstrates distinct clinical, hematologic, bone marrow, and molecular features from adult patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Practical management of patients with myelofibrosis receiving ruxolitinib.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Claire; Mesa, Ruben; Ross, David; Mead, Adam; Keohane, Clodagh; Gotlib, Jason; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2013-10-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, progressive anemia and extramedullary hematopoiesis, primarily manifested as splenomegaly. Patients also experience debilitating constitutional symptoms, including sequelae of splenomegaly, night sweats and fatigue. Ruxolitinib (INC424, INCB18424, Jakafi, Jakavi), a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, was approved in November 2011 by the US FDA for the treatment of intermediate- or high-risk MF, and more recently in Europe and Canada for the treatment of MF-related splenomegaly or symptoms. These approvals were based on data from two randomized Phase III studies: COMFORT-I randomized against placebo, and COMFORT-II randomized against best available therapy. In these studies, ruxolitinib rapidly improved multiple disease manifestations of MF, reducing splenomegaly and improving quality of life of patients and potentially prolonging survival. However, as with other chemotherapies, ruxolitinib therapy is associated with some adverse events, such as anemia and thrombocytopenia. The aims of this article are to provide a brief overview of ruxolitinib therapy, to discuss some common adverse events associated with ruxolitinib therapy and to provide clinical management recommendations to maximize patients' benefit from ruxolitinib.

  2. Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis terminating in extramedullary anaplastic plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Ling; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Kessler, Craig; Hartmann, Dan-Paul; Azumi, Norio; Ozdemirli, Metin

    2006-02-01

    Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMPD) with progressive fibrosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Similar to other CMPDs, the stem cell in CIMF has the potential to differentiate into myeloid or lymphoid lineages, and thus CIMF can culminate in acute leukemia of myeloid or, rarely, lymphoid lineage. We describe an unusual case of CIMF terminating in extramedullary anaplastic plasmacytoma. The patient was a 61-year-old male with an 11-year history of CIMF. His course was complicated by rapidly growing abdominal and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy revealed a diffuse undifferentiated infiltrate in the background of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Flow cytometric and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated plasma cell-related antigens (CD138, CD38, cytoplasmic kappa light chain), epithelial membrane antigen and CD43 in the tumor cells. The myeloid, B-cell or T-cell markers were negative. A clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement was identified by polymerase chain reaction. The plasma cell origin was further confirmed by electron microscopic examination, which revealed stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Monoclonal gammopathy may occur in CIMF, and rare cases of simultaneous plasma cell myeloma and CIMF have been reported in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CIMF terminating in extramedullary anaplastic plasmacytoma.

  3. Fatal Disseminated Tuberculosis during Treatment with Ruxolitinib Plus Prednisolone in a Patient with Primary Myelofibrosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Kiyasu, Junichi; Tsuda, Mariko; Ikeda, Motohiko; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Yufu, Yuji

    2018-05-01

    A 73-year-old man with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) was being treated with hydroxyurea, which was changed to ruxolitinib treatment because of worsening constitutional symptoms. Although ruxolitinib rapidly induced relief, he developed a high-grade fever. A comprehensive fever work-up found no apparent cause of the fever, except for PMF. Therefore, we increased the dose of ruxolitinib and added prednisolone, which was gradually withdrawn with resolution of the fever. However, the patient subsequently developed disseminated tuberculosis and died eight months after initiation of ruxolitinib. Our case highlights the importance of assessing and monitoring the immune status of patients receiving ruxolitinib.

  4. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  5. Myelofibrosis associated with prominent periosteal bone apposition. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Yu, J S; Greenway, G; Resnick, D

    1994-01-01

    Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by splenomegaly and bone marrow replacement by fibrous tissue. The predominant radiographic feature is osteosclerosis; however, in rare instances, periosteal bone apposition or periostitis is apparent in the metaphysis of the distal femura and proximal tibiae. It has been suggested that periostitis, when associated with fever and bone pain, is indicative of more aggressive disease. We report this unusual radiographic finding and its similar appearance to hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in two patients with myelofibrosis. In our patients, the presence of periosteal bone apposition did not correlate with increased disease aggressiveness.

  6. Regenerative nodular hyperplasia, portal vein thrombosis and primary myelofibrosis: an unusual triple association.

    PubMed

    Sández Montagut, Víctor Manuel; Giráldez Gallego, Álvaro; Ontanilla Clavijo, Guilermo

    2018-03-01

    We report a case of a regenerative nodular hyperplasia with a portal vein cavernomatosis with a subsequent progression to symptomatic, occlusive thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein. A thorough investigation resulted in a final diagnosis of primary myelofibrosis associated with the V617F mutation in the JAK2 gene.

  7. PEG-rHuMGDF ameliorates thrombocytopenia in carboplatin-treated rats without inducing myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ide, Y; Harada, K; Imai, A; Yanagida, M

    1999-08-01

    We examined the effects of pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF) on carboplatin-induced thrombocytopenia in rats. The focus was on whether myelofibrosis is associated with the PEG-rHuMGDF treatment in this chemotherapy model. After a single injection of carboplatin, rats received subcutaneous PEG-rHuMGDF at pharmacologic doses (1,3, or 30 micrograms/kg) or a vehicle daily for 7 days. PEG-rHuMGDF at more than 3 micrograms/kg ameliorated the thrombocytopenia at day 10. Histologically, no myelofibrosis was detected in the rats treated with PEG-rHuMGDF or vehicle. Subsequently, PEG-rHuMGDF at a suprapharmacologic dose (100 micrograms/kg) was subcutaneously administered to normal and to carboplatin-treated rats daily for 7 days. Histological analysis revealed that the treatment with PEG-rHuMGDF induced myelofibrosis in the normal rats but not in the carboplatin-treated rats. Additionally, the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) levels in the extracellular fluid and the whole extract of the bone marrow were increased to a much lesser degree in the carboplatin-treated rats compared to the normal rats. These findings suggest that PEG-rHuMGDF is effective for carboplatin-induced thrombocytopenia. Proper control of platelet counts and TGF-beta 1 levels is essential so that myelofibrosis is not induced in clinical use.

  8. Impact of Molecular Genetics on Outcome in Myelofibrosis Patients after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Nicolaus; Panagiota, Victoria; Badbaran, Anita; Zabelina, Tatjana; Triviai, Ioanna; Araujo Cruz, Michelle Maria; Shahswar, Rabia; Ayuk, Francis; Gehlhaar, Marten; Wolschke, Christine; Bollin, Robin; Walter, Carolin; Dugas, Martin; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Lehmann, Ulrich; Koenecke, Christian; Chaturvedi, Anuhar; Alchalby, Haefaa; Stadler, Michael; Eder, Matthias; Christopeit, Max; Göhring, Gudrun; Koenigsmann, Michael; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Ganser, Arnold; Stocking, Carol; Fehse, Boris; Thol, Felicitas; Heuser, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Molecular genetics may influence outcome for patients with myelofibrosis. To determine the impact of molecular genetics on outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, we screened 169 patients with primary myelofibrosis (n = 110), post-essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera myelofibrosis (n = 46), and myelofibrosis in transformation (n = 13) for mutations in 16 frequently mutated genes. The most frequent mutation was JAK2V617F (n = 101), followed by ASXL1 (n = 49), calreticulin (n = 34), SRSF2 (n = 16), TET2 (n = 10), U2AF1 (n = 11), EZH2 (n = 7), MPL (n = 6), IDH2 (n = 5), IDH1 (n = 4), and CBL (n = 1). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year was 21% and of relapse at 5 years 25%. The 5-year rates progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were and 56%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis CALR mutation was an independent factor for lower NRM (HR, .415; P = .05), improved PFS (HR, .393; P = .01), and OS (HR, .448; P = .03). ASXL1 and IDH2 mutations were independent risk factors for lower PFS (HR, 1.53 [P = .008], and HR, 5.451 [P = .002], respectively), whereas no impact was observed for "triple negative" patients. Molecular genetics, especially CALR, IDH2, and ASXL1 mutations, may thus be useful to predict outcome independently from known clinical risk factors after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelofibrosis. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Deletion of Ku80 causes early aging independent of chronic inflammation and Rag-1-induced DSBs.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Valerie B; Vogel, Hannes; Hasty, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of premature aging are often defective for DNA repair. Ku80-mutant mice are disabled for nonhomologous end joining; a pathway that repairs both spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and induced DNA DSBs generated by the action of a complex composed of Rag-1 and Rag-2 (Rag). Rag is essential for inducing DSBs important for assembling V(D)J segments of antigen receptor genes that are required for lymphocyte development. Thus, deletion of either Rag-1 or Ku80 causes severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) leading to chronic inflammation. In addition, Rag-1 induces breaks at non-B DNA structures. Previously we reported Ku80-mutant mice undergo premature aging, yet we do not know the root cause of this phenotype. Early aging may be caused by either defective repair of spontaneous DNA damage, defective repair of Rag-1-induced breaks or chronic inflammation caused by scid. To address this issue, we analyzed aging in control and Ku80-mutant mice deleted for Rag-1 such that both cohorts are scid and suffer from chronic inflammation. We make two observations: (1) chronic inflammation does not cause premature aging in these mice and (2) Ku80-mutant mice exhibit early aging independent of Rag-1. Therefore, this study supports defective repair of spontaneous DNA damage as the root cause of early aging in Ku80-mutant mice.

  10. Chronological shifts and changing causes of death after radiotherapy for early-stage oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Rina; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Harata, Naoki; Yuasa-Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Hayashi, Keiji

    2014-02-01

    Following recent improvements in the curability of oral cancer, chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after treatment have been observed. We conducted a review of the post-treatment causes of death following radiotherapy for oral cancers. The medical records of 966 patients with early-stage (stage I and II) oral cancer treated at our institute between 1980 and 2001 were reviewed, and the chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after radiotherapy were assessed. Of the 966 patients enrolled in this study, 365 have died to date. Two hundred and eleven patients died of their primary malignancy; 193 of these deaths occurred within 5 years of treatment for the primary oral cancer. The second most frequent cause of death was second primary cancer (n = 90). Twenty-three patients with head and neck cancers and 18 patients with esophageal cancers died within 10 years of radiotherapy, and six patients with lung cancers died after more than 10 years. Within the first 5 years following treatment, the major cause of death was the primary oral cancer. After 5-10 years, a second primary cancer, such as head and neck cancer or esophageal cancer, became the leading cause of death. Over a 10-year period, the proportion of deaths from a second primary cancer in the lung was significant. We have demonstrated that there are chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death following treatment for early-stage oral cancer.

  11. Fluoride Exposure in Early Life as the Possible Root Cause of Disease In Later Life.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tetsuo; Rawls, H Ralph

    2018-05-15

    Fluoride, one of the most celebrated ingredients for the prevention of dental caries in the 20th century, has also been controversial for its use in dentifrices and other applications. In the current review, we have concentrated primarily on early-life exposure to fluoride and how it may affect the various organs. The most recent controversial aspects of fluoride are related to toxicity of the developing brain and how it may possibly result in the decrease of intelligence quotient (IQ), autism, and calcification of the pineal gland. In addition, it has been reported to have possible effects on bone and thyroid glands. If nutritional stress is applied during a critical period of growth and development, the organ(s) and/or body will never recover once they pass through the critical period. For example, if animals are force-fed during experiments, they will simply get fat but never reach the normal size. Although early-life fluoride exposure causing fluorosis is well reported in the literature, the dental profession considers it primarily as an esthetic rather than a serious systemic problem. In the current review, we wanted to raise the possibility of future disease as a result of early-life exposure to fluoride. It is not currently known how fluoride will become a cause of future disease. Studies of other nutritional factors have shown that the effects of early nutritional stress are a cause of disease in later life.

  12. Ruxolitinib for the treatment of myelofibrosis: a NICE single technology appraisal.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ros; Rose, Micah; Neilson, Aileen Rae; Stirk, Lisa; Rodriguez-Lopez, Rocio; Bowen, David; Craig, Dawn; Woolacott, Nerys

    2013-10-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of ruxolitinib (Novartis) to submit clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence for ruxolitinib within its licensed indication (the treatment of disease-related splenomegaly or symptoms in adult patients with myelofibrosis), according to the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics at the University of York were commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a description of the company submission, the ERG review and the resulting NICE guidance TA289 issued in June 2013. The ERG critically reviewed the evidence presented in the manufacturer's submission and identified areas requiring clarification, for which the manufacturer provided additional evidence. The main clinical effectiveness data were derived from two phase III, multicentre, randomised controlled trials (RCTs): Controlled myelofibrosis study with oral JAK inhibitor treatment (COMFORT)-II compared ruxolitinib with best available therapy (BAT), and COMFORT-I compared ruxolitinib with placebo. These RCTs demonstrated that ruxolitinib confers significant benefits in terms of spleen size reduction and improvement in symptom burden. In the COMFORT-II trial, a reduction in spleen volume of ≥35 % was achieved in 28 % of ruxolitinib-treated patients compared with 0 % of patients in the BAT group (p < 0.001) at 48 weeks, and there was a mean change in spleen volume of -30.1 versus +7.3 % (p < 0.001). Ruxolitinib also provided significant improvements in myelofibrosis-associated symptoms and health-related quality-of-life compared with BAT and placebo. The ERG concluded that ruxolitinib appears to reduce splenomegaly and its associated symptoms, but that there was considerable uncertainty surrounding the manufacturer's cost-effectiveness estimates due to limitations in the manufacturer's model. The

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Ruxolitinib in the Treatment of Patients with Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Cecilia Arana; Tam, Constantine S.; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    The JAK 1 and JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib has approved indications in myelofibrosis, a BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with progressive bone marrow fibrosis and shortened survival. In Phase III clinical studies, ruxolitinib provided rapid and durable improvement of myelofibrosis-related splenomegaly and symptoms irrespective of mutation status, and was associated with a survival advantage compared with placebo or best available therapy. Because of dose-dependent cytopenias, blood count monitoring and dose titration are important to optimize therapy. Specific precautions apply to the treatment of patients with or at risk of serious infections. Discontinuation of ruxolitinib generally leads to symptom return within 1 week. Ruxolitinib also is approved for treatment of patients with polycythemia vera who have had an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea. PMID:25757677

  14. High Frequency of Copy-Neutral Loss of Heterozygosity in Patients with Myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rego de Paula Junior, Milton; Nonino, Alexandre; Minuncio Nascimento, Juliana; Bonadio, Raphael S; Pic-Taylor, Aline; de Oliveira, Silviene F; Wellerson Pereira, Rinaldo; do Couto Mascarenhas, Cintia; Forte Mazzeu, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Myelofibrosis is the rarest and most severe type of Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms. Although mutually exclusive driver mutations in JAK2, MPL, or CALR that activate JAK-STAT pathway have been related to the pathogenesis of the disease, chromosome abnormalities have also been associated with the phenotype and prognosis of the disease. Here, we report the use of a chromosomal microarray platform consisting of both oligo and SNP probes to improve the detection of chromosome abnormalities in patients with myelofibrosis. Sixteen patients with myelofibrosis were tested, and the results were compared to karyotype analysis. Driver mutations in JAK2, MPL, or CALR were investigated by PCR and MLPA. Conventional cytogenetics revealed chromosome abnormalities in 3 out of 16 cases (18.7%), while chromosomal microarray analysis detected copy-number variations (CNV) or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) alterations in 11 out of 16 (68.7%) patients. These included 43 CN-LOH, 14 deletions, 1 trisomy, and 1 duplication. Ten patients showed multiple chromosomal abnormalities, varying from 2 to 13 CNVs or CN-LOHs. Mutational status for JAK2, CALR, and MPL by MLPA revealed a total of 3/16 (18.7%) patients positive for the JAK2 V617F mutation, 9 with CALR deletion or insertion and 1 positive for MPL mutation. Considering that most of the CNVs identified were smaller than the karyotype resolution and the high frequency of CN-LOHs in our study, we propose that chromosomal microarray platforms that combine oligos and SNP should be used as a first-tier genetic test in patients with myelofibrosis. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gene NOG is involved in myeloproliferative disease associated with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Joris; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Geffroy, Sandrine; Desterke, Christophe; Grardel, Nathalie; Plantier, Isabelle; Selleslag, Dominik; Demory, Jean-Loup; Laï, Jean-Luc; Leleu, Xavier; Le Bousse-Kerdiles, Caroline; Vandenberghe, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In a case with secondary myelofibrosis occurring after essential thrombocythemia, cytogenetic analysis revealed an isolated translocation t(X;17)(q27;q22) in all cells. We found that a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) encompassing the breakpoint on chromosome 17 long arm contained only one gene, NOG. We therefore investigated the occurrence of this rare breakpoint in myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). We identified three more patients with a 17q abnormality in MPDs: myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM); chronic myeloid leukemia positive for t(9;22)(q34;q11) with additional t(4;17)(p15;q22) at diagnosis; and myelofibrosis complicating polycythemia vera. All three cases exhibited a split of BACs containing NOG. The protein encoded by NOG, noggin, acts as an antagonist to bone morphogenetic secreted protein 2 and 4 (BMP2 and BMP4). A comparative analysis of gene expression on Agilent 22K oligonucleotide microarrays in purified CD34+ cells from the blood of MMM patients showed significant downregulation of BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2, and BMP8; upregulation of BMP3 and BMP10; and a trend to lower expression of NOG. Thus, given that expression and release of BMPs are important in the induction of osteosclerosis and angiogenic activity, the observed BMP deregulations could be triggered by potential NOG genetic alterations in the four cases here described, and may contribute to the myelofibrotic process characterized by bone marrow stromal reaction including collagen fibrosis, osteosclerosis, and angiogenesis.

  16. Acute myelofibrosis and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an elderly patient with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Maria M; Kidd, Laura; Quesada, Jorge; Nguyen, Nghia; Chen, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm involving the bone marrow with organ damage and/or a monoclonal protein (M-spike in the serum and/or urine). This neoplasm typically affects adults over the age of 50. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a hematological disorder involving at least 20% lymphoblasts in the bone marrow of the B-cell lineage. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia most commonly affects young children with 75% of cases occurring in children less than 6 years old. This case report describes a patient diagnosed with MM in 2000 who achieved a complete remission in 2006 after chemotherapy. Four years later, the patient presented with sudden pancytopenia. A bone marrow biopsy was obtained revealing a B lymphoblastic leukemia in an extensively fibrotic marrow without evidence of MM. A diagnosis of ALL with myelofibrosis is rare in the adult population, acute myelofibrosis (AMF) is more commonly associated with myeloproliferative disorders, and the development of acute leukemia in myeloma is rare. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of MM, ALL, and myelofibrosis in one patient has never been reported.

  17. The Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form (MFSAF): An Evidence-based Brief Inventory to Measure Quality of Life and Symptomatic Response to Treatment in Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Ruben A.; Schwager, Susan; Radia, Deepti; Cheville, Andrea; Hussein, Kebede; Niblack, Joyce; Pardanani, Animesh D.; Steensma, David P.; Litzow, Mark R.; Rivera, Candido E.; Camoriano, John; Verstovsek, Srdan; Sloan, Jeffrey; Harrison, Claire; Kantarjian, Hagop; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) in patients with myelofibrosis (MF) is severely compromised by severe constitutional symptoms (i.e. fatigue, night sweats, fever, weight loss), pruritus, and symptoms from frequently massive hepatosplenomegaly. Given that no current instrument of patient reported outcomes (PRO) exists that covers the unique spectrum of symptomatology seen in MF patients, we sought to develop a new PRO instrument for MF patients for use in therapeutic clinical trials. Utilizing data from an international internet based survey of 458 patients with MF we created a 20 item instrument (MFSAF: Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form) which measures the symptoms reported by >10% of MF patients, and includes a measure of QoL. We subsequently validated the MFSAF in a prospective trial of MF patients involving patient and provider feedback, as well as comparison to other validated instruments used in cancer patients. The MFSAF results were highly correlated with other instruments, judged comprehensive and understandable by patients, and should be considered for evaluation of MF symptoms in therapeutic trials. PMID:19250674

  18. Exome Sequencing Frequently Reveals the Cause of Early-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vivante, Asaf; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    The primary causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children differ from those of adult onset CKD. In the United States the most common diagnostic groups of CKD that manifests before 25 years of age are: i) congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) (49.1%), ii) steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) (10.4%), iii) chronic glomerulonephritis (8.1%), and iv) renal cystic ciliopathies (5.3 %), encompassing >70% of CKD together. Recent findings suggest that early-onset CKD is caused by mutations in any one of over 200 different monogenic genes. High-throughput sequencing has very recently rendered identification of causative mutations in this high number of genes feasible. Molecular genetic diagnostics in early onset-CKD (before the age of 25 years) will, i) provide patients and families with a molecular genetic diagnosis, ii) generate new insights into diseases mechanisms, iii) allow etiology-based classification of patient cohorts for clinical studies and, iv) may have consequences for personalized treatment and prevention of CKD. In this review, we will discuss the implications of next-generation sequencing for clinical genetic diagnostics and discovery of novel genes in early-onset CKD. We also delineate the resulting opportunities for deciphering disease mechanisms and therapeutic implications. PMID:26750453

  19. Concurrent MPL515 and JAK2V617F mutations in myelofibrosis: chronology of clonal emergence and changes in mutant allele burden over time.

    PubMed

    Lasho, Terra L; Pardanani, Animesh; McClure, Rebecca F; Mesa, Ruben A; Levine, Ross L; Gilliland, D Gary; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2006-12-01

    MPLW515L/K and JAK2V617F can co-exist in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM). The chronology of clonal emergence was studied in three such cases using serially stored bone marrow. At diagnosis, a major MPL515 mutant clone was accompanied by a minor JAK2V617F clone in all three instances. At 25 time points over a period of 4-8 years, allele burden fluctuated but remained high for MPLW515L/K and low for JAK2V617F. We conclude that MPLW515L/K and JAK2V617F are both early events in MMM and allele burden, rather than the mere presence of these mutations, might be relevant to phenotypic variation in myeloproliferative disorders.

  20. Early phase drugs and biologicals clinical trials on worldwide leading causes of death: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    To describe the global effort targeting the major causes of mortality in terms of "open" early phase clinical trials with drugs and biologicals. Sixteen of the 20 leading causes of death were chosen; 9 of these were also amongst the top 10 causes of death in low-income countries. Studies were identified from the ClinicalTrials.gov database and included phase 1 and/or 2 "interventional" "open" trials, i.e. those recruiting or about to start recruitment. Trials were considered in terms of sponsorship [industry, universities and other organisations (UNO), and US federal agencies (NIH included)], genders and age groups included, and whether they were conducted with drugs and/or biologicals. The search was performed in March 2010. A total of 2,298 (824 phase 1; 1,474 phase 2) trials were retrieved. Of these, 67% were on trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (25%); diabetes mellitus (15%); colon and rectum cancers (14%); and HIV/AIDS (12%). In contrast, only 4% were trials on diarrhoeal disease, nephrosis and nephritis, liver cirrhosis, and prematurity and low birth weight. UNO were the first source of funding. Fifty-two percent of phase 1 non-cancer trials were on healthy volunteers. Twenty-nine percent of all trials were co-funded. There were 4.6 times as many drug trials as those with biologicals. Only 7% were conducted with a combination of drugs and biologicals, the majority (78%) on cancers. Discrimination in terms of gender or age group was not observed. Four of the 16 diseases considered represented 2/3 of early phase trials. Cancers were a top priority for all sponsors. Increasing attention should be given to conditions with current and projected global high mortality rates that had few "open" early phase trials.

  1. Death by unnatural causes during childhood and early adulthood in offspring of psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Webb, Roger T; Pickles, Andrew R; Appleby, Louis; Mortensen, Preben B; Abel, Kathryn M

    2007-03-01

    Offspring of psychiatric inpatients are at higher risk of death from all causes, but their cause-specific risks have not been quantified. To investigate cause-specific deaths at 1 to 25 years in offspring of parents previously admitted as psychiatric inpatients. Population-based cohort study. The entire Danish population. All singleton births (N = 1.38 million) from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 1997, with follow-up to January 1, 1999. Linkage to the national psychiatric register identified all previous parental admissions. Deaths from all natural causes and all unnatural causes, specifically, accidents, homicides, suicides, and undetermined causes. The highest observed relative risk (RR) was for homicide in young and older children with affected mothers or fathers. Homicides were between 5 and 10 times more likely to occur in this group, according to child's age and whether the mother or father had been admitted. There was previous parental admission in approximately one third of all child homicides. We found no evidence of increased risk of homicide in exposed young adults, but this group had a 2-fold to 3-fold higher risk of suicide. In almost one fourth of the suicides, there was a history of parental admission. Young adults with 2 previously admitted parents were 6 times more likely to kill themselves than were their peers in the general population. Relative risk of suicide or open-verdict deaths by poisoning were higher than for such deaths occurring by other means. Almost 99% of children studied survived to their mid-20s. However, they were more vulnerable to death from unnatural causes, notably, homicide during childhood and suicide in early adulthood. Further research is needed to establish how parental psychopathology contributes to increased risk of premature death in these offspring.

  2. A case with atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis-related hypothyroidism causing multisystem involvement in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, Erdal; Savaş-Erdeve, Şenay; Keskin, Melikşah; Doğan, Vehbi; Çetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    The most common reason of acquired hypothyroidism is autoimmune (Hashimoto) thyroiditis. Autoimmune thyroiditis can be atrophic or goitrogenic. Atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (ATT) related acquired hypothyroidism causes interruption of growth, obesity, and bone age retardation in early ages while goitrogenic thyroiditis has a higher incidence rate and mostly presents with diffuse goiter. We discuss the effects of hypothyroidism on various systems through a case found to have pericardial effusion during the echocardiography performed after cardiac murmur was detected and later diagnosed with ATT related hypothyroidism.

  3. Early diagnostics of temporomandibular joint structural elements injures caused by traumatic mandibular bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Pohranychna, Kh R; Stasyshyn, A R; Matolych, U D

    2017-06-30

    A rapidly increasing number of mandibular condylar fractures and some complications related to injuries of temporomandibular elements make this study important. Intra-articular disorders lead to secondary pathological findings such as osteoarthritis, deforming osteoarthrosis, and temporomandibular joint ankylosis that limits mouth opening, mastication, swallowing, breathing, and decreased/lost working capacity or disability. Early diagnosis of intra-articular disorders can prevent from long-lasting functional complications caused by temporomandibular joint injuries. This study was performed for the purpose of early detection and investigation of organic pathological changes in the cartilaginous and osseous tissues of the temporomandibular joint caused by traumatic fractures of the mandibular condyle. Twenty patients underwent a general clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and immune-enzyme testing for biochemical markers of connective tissue injury (pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline) in urine. Disk dislocation, deformation, adhesion, perforation or squeeze, tension or disruption of ligaments, and injury of articular surfaces are among complications of mandibular fractures that can be revealed on MRI. As regards biochemical findings, we revealed a sharp rise in the levels of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline before treatment and a lack of stabilization within 21 days of treatment.

  4. Birth asphyxia: a major cause of early neonatal mortality in a Tanzanian rural hospital.

    PubMed

    Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey

    2012-05-01

    Early neonatal mortality within the first 24 hours contributes substantially to overall neonatal mortality rates. The definition of birth asphyxia (BA) is imprecise, and reliable cause-specific mortality data are limited; thus the estimated proportion of BA-related deaths globally remains questionable. The objective was to determine the presumed causes of neonatal death within the first 24 hours in a rural hospital in Northern Tanzania. This is a prospective descriptive observational study conducted in the delivery room and adjacent neonatal area. Research assistants were trained to observe and record events related to labor, neonatal resuscitation, and 24-hour postnatal course. BA was defined as failure to initiate spontaneous respirations and/or 5-minute Apgar score <7, prematurity as gestational age <36 weeks, and low birth weight (LBW) as birth weight <3rd centile for gestational age. Data were analyzed with χ(2) and Student's t tests. Over 1 year, 4720 infants were born and evaluated. Of these, 256 were admitted to the neonatal area. Forty-nine infants died secondary to BA (61%), prematurity (18%), LBW (8%), infection (2%), congenital abnormalities (8%), and unclear reason (2%). The 5-minute Apgar score was ≥7 in 50% of the infants who died secondary to BA. Most cases of early neonatal mortality were related to BA, and prematurity and LBW are additional important considerations. Reducing perinatal mortality requires a multifaceted approach with attention to issues related to BA, potential complications of prematurity, and LBW. The 5-minute Apgar score is a poor surrogate of BA.

  5. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q. W.; Lais, S.; Gentner, C.; Braun, O.

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  6. [Early diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndrome caused by landslides:a report of 20 cases].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Bo; Peng, Zi-Lai; Liu, Xu-Bang; Chen, Lian

    2012-01-01

    To summarize early diagnosis and treatment methods of 20 patients with compartment syndrome caused by landslides during coal mine accidents in order to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndrome and reduce disability. From September 2006 to April 2010,20 patients with compartment syndrome were treated with the methods of early decompression, systemic support. All the patients were male with an average age of 42 years (ranged, 23 to 54). All the patients with high tension limb swelling, pain, referred pain passive positive; 5 extremities feeling diminish or disappear and the distal blood vessel beat were normal or weakened or disappeared; myoglobinuria, hyperkalemia, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine increased in 5 cases and oliguria in occurred 1 case. The function of affected limbs was observed according to disability ratings. Three cases complicated with infection of affected limb and 6 cases occurred with renal function insufficiency. Total recovery was in 16 cases, basically recovery in 3, amputation in 1 case. All patients were followed up for 6-15 months with an average of 12 months. The ability to work according to national standard identification--Employee work-related injuries and occupational disability rating classification (GB/T16180-2006) to assess, grade 5 was in 1 case, grade 8 in 2 cases, grade 10 in 1 case, no grade in 16 cases. Arteriopalmus of dorsalis pedis weaken and vanished can not be regard as an evidence in early diagnosis of compartment syndrome. Early diagnosis and decompression, systemic support and treatment is the key in reducing disability.

  7. Increasing cyanosis early after cavopulmonary connection caused by abnormal systemic venous channels.

    PubMed

    Gatzoulis, M A; Shinebourne, E A; Redington, A N; Rigby, M L; Ho, S Y; Shore, D F

    1995-02-01

    To show that abnormal systemic venous channels in patients who undergo cavopulmonary anastomoses can become manifest and haemodynamically important only after surgery despite detailed preoperative investigation. Descriptive study of patients fulfilling the above criteria selected from hospital records over the past three years. A tertiary referral centre. Of the three cases identified, two were isomeric, one with left atrial isomerism and hemiazygos continuation of the inferior vena cava who underwent bilateral bidirectional Glenn anastomoses and one with right isomerism who underwent total cavopulmonary anastomosis. Case 3 had absent left atrioventricular connection with a hypoplastic left lung and underwent a classic right Glenn procedure. All three cases presented with progressive cyanosis in the early postoperative period. Postoperative angiography in case 1 showed a remnant of a left inferior vena cava draining to the atrium to have become grossly dilated causing cyanosis, which resolved after redirection of this vessel and of the hepatic veins into the right pulmonary artery with an intra-atrial baffle. Cyanosis in case 2 was caused by intra-hepatic shunting to a hepatic vein draining to the left of the intra-atrial baffle. The diagnosis was made at necropsy, being overlooked on postoperative angiography. Repeat angiography in case 3 showed progressive dilatation of a small left superior vena cava to coronary sinus. Test occlusion with a view to embolisation revealed hitherto an undemonstrated hemiazygos continuation of inferior caval to brachiocephalic vein. The patient underwent surgical ligation of these two venous channels. Despite appropriate investigation some "abnormal" venous pathways manifest themselves, dilate, and become haemodynamically important only after surgical cavopulmonary anastomoses. In the presence of early postoperative cyanosis "new" systemic venous collateral channels should be considered as a possible cause, which may require

  8. Climate Cycling on Early Mars Caused by the Carbonate-Silicate Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Batalha, N. E.; Haqq-Misra, J. D.; Kopparapu, R.

    2016-12-01

    For decades, scientists have tried to explain the evidence for fluvial activity on early Mars, but a consensus has yet to emerge regarding the mechanism for producing it. One hypothesis suggests early Mars was warmed by a thick greenhouse atmosphere [1]. Another suggests early Mars was generally cold but was warmed occasionally by impacts or by episodes of enhanced volcanism [2,3], with warming possibly extended by cirrus clouds [4]. These latter hypotheses struggle to produce the amounts of rainfall needed to form the martian valleys, but are consistent with inferred low rates of weathering compared to Earth. We suggest that both schools of thought are partly correct. Mars experienced dramatic climate cycles with extended periods of glaciation punctuated by warm periods lasting up to 10 Myr [5]. Cycles of repeated glaciation and deglaciation occurred because stellar insolation was low, and because CO2 outgassing could not keep pace with CO2 consumption by silicate weathering followed by deposition of carbonates. In order to deglaciate early Mars, substantial outgassing of molecular hydrogen from Mars' reduced crust and mantle was also required, as our own climate model is unable to do this without adding some greenhouse warming from H2 [6,7]. Our hypothesis can be tested by future Mars exploration that better establishes the time scale for valley formation. References: [1] Pollack JB, Kasting JF, Richardson SM, Poliakoff K. 1987. Icarus 71: 203-24 [2] Halevy I, Head JW. 2014. Nature Geoscience 7: 865-8 [3] Segura TL, Toon OB, Colaprete A, Zahnle K. 2002. Science 298: 1977-80 [4] Urata RA, Toon OB. 2013. Icarus 226: 229-50 [5] Batalha NE, Kopparapu RK, Haqq-Misra JD, Kasting JF. submitted. Climate cycling on early Mars caused by the carbonate-silicate cycle. EPSL [6] Ramirez RM, Kopparapu R, Zugger ME, Robinson TD, Freedman R, Kasting JF. 2014. Nature Geosci 7: 59-63 [7] Batalha N, Domagal-Goldman SD, Ramirez R, Kasting JF. 2015. Icarus 258: 337-49

  9. Ferrokinetic study of splenic erythropoiesis: Relationships among clinical diagnosis, myelofibrosis, splenomegaly, and extramedullary erythropoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Beguin, Y.; Fillet, G.; Bury, J.

    1989-10-01

    Splenic erythropoiesis was demonstrated by surface counting of {sup 59}Fe in 129 of 1,350 ferrokinetic studies performed over a 15 year period. These 129 studies were carried out in 108 patients, including 40 with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), 24 with agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM), 18 with polycythemia vera (PV), six with a myelodysplastic syndrome, five with acute leukemia, three with prostate or breast carcinoma, two each with aplastic anemia or Hodgkin's disease, and one each with idiopathic thrombocythemia, multiple myeloma, chronic renal failure, or treated hypopituitarism. Splenomegaly was present in 83% of the studies and hepatomegaly in 72%. Grade II-IIImore » myelofibrosis was demonstrated in 62% of the cases. Hepatic erythropoiesis was present in 77% of the studies (only 38% in PV), and marrow erythropoiesis was undetectable in 33%. Total erythropoiesis was about twice normal (range 0.2 to 8 times normal) but was ineffective to varying degrees in 86% of the studies. Relationships between organomegaly, myelofibrosis, and extramedullary erythropoiesis, as well as differences among clinical disorders, are discussed. Differences observed between CML in chronic or blastic phase suggested that the erythroid cell line was involved in the proliferative process. It is concluded that splenic erythropoiesis (1) is encountered in a variety of clinical conditions; (2) is not necessarily associated with splenomegaly or myelofibrosis, even in the myeloproliferative disorders; (3) is part of a predominantly extramedullary (in the liver as well as in the spleen), expanded, and largely inefficient total erythropoiesis; and (4) can be evaluated in a semiquantitative manner by surface counting.« less

  10. Causes of mortality in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, Graciane; de Souza Santos, Francisco; Borelli, Wyllians Vendramini; Pisani, Leonardo; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; da Costa, Jaderson Costa

    2018-06-12

    Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy syndrome (EIEE), also known as Ohtahara syndrome, is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy syndrome defined by clinical features and electroencephalographic findings. Epileptic disorders with refractory seizures beginning in the neonatal period and/or early infancy have a potential risk of premature mortality, including sudden death. We aimed to identify the causes of death in EIEE and conducted a literature survey of fatal outcomes. We performed a literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science for data from inception until September 2017. The terms "death sudden," "unexplained death," "SUDEP," "lethal," and "fatal" and the medical subject heading terms "epileptic encephalopathy," "mortality," "death," "sudden infant death syndrome," and "human" were used in the search strategy. The EIEE case report studies reporting mortality were included. The search yielded 1360 articles. After screening for titles and abstracts and removing duplicate entries, full texts of 15 articles were reviewed. After reading full texts, 11 articles met the inclusion criteria (9 articles in English and 2 in Japanese, dated from 1976 to 2015). The review comprised 38 unique cases of EIEE, 17 of which had death as an outcome. In all cases, the suppression-burst pattern on electroencephalographies (EEGs) was common. Most cases (55%) involved male infants. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age at onset of seizure was 19.6 ± 33 days. The mean (SD) age at death was 12.9 ± 14.1 months. Most infants (58.8%) survived less than one year. The cause of death was described only in eight (47%) patients; the cause was pneumonia/respiratory illness or sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The results show EIEE as a severe disease associated with a premature mortality, evidenced by a very young age at death. Increasing interest in the detection of new molecular bases of EIEE is leading us to a better understanding of this severe

  11. Sustained Erythroid Response in a Patient with Myelofibrosis Receiving Concomitant Treatment with Ruxolitinib and Deferasirox.

    PubMed

    Piro, Eugenio; Lentini, Maria; Levato, Luciano; Russo, Antonio; Molica, Stefano

    2018-04-25

    Iron overload (IOL) due to transfusion-dependent anemia is a serious adverse effect in patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Recent studies have shown that the oral iron chelator deferasirox may prevent multiple organ damage due to IOL in MF. However, it is not clear whether deferasirox may contribute to revert transfusion-dependent anemia. Here, we present a patient with transfusion-dependent intermediate-2 MF according to the International Prognostic Scoring System treated with ruxolitinib in combination with deferasirox. In addition to a reduced serum ferritin level, the patient required less blood transfusions, ultimately resulting in long-lasting transfusion-free survival. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Aggressive B-cell lymphomas in patients with myelofibrosis receiving JAK1/2 inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Porpaczy, Edit; Tripolt, Sabrina; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea; Gisslinger, Bettina; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Casanova-Hevia, Emilio; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Decker, Thomas; Fajmann, Sabine; Fux, Daniela A; Greiner, Georg; Gueltekin, Sinan; Heller, Gerwin; Herkner, Harald; Hoermann, Gregor; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Kolbe, Thomas; Kornauth, Christoph; Krauth, Maria-Theresa; Kralovics, Robert; Muellauer, Leonhard; Mueller, Mathias; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Putz, Eva Maria; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Schmetterer, Klaus; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Skrabs, Cathrin; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staber, Philipp Bernhard; Strobl, Birgit; Valent, Peter; Jaeger, Ulrich; Gisslinger, Heinz; Sexl, Veronika

    2018-06-14

    Inhibition of Janus-kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) is a mainstay to treat myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Sporadic observations reported the co-incidence of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas during treatment of MPN with JAK1/2 inhibitors. We assessed 626 MPN patients including 69 with myelofibrosis receiving JAK1/2 inhibitors for lymphoma development. B-cell lymphomas evolved in 4/69 patients (5.8%) upon JAK1/2 inhibition compared to 2/557 (0.36%) with conventional treatment (16-fold increased risk). A similar 15-fold increase was observed in an independent cohort of 929 MPN patients. Considering primary myelofibrosis only (N=216), 3 lymphomas were observed in 31 inhibitor-treated patients (9.7%) versus 1/185 controls (0.54%). Lymphomas were of aggressive B-cell type, extra-nodal or leukemic with high MYC expression in the absence of JAK2 V617F or other MPN-associated mutations. Median time from initiation of inhibitor therapy to lymphoma diagnosis was 25 months. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were already detected in the bone marrow during myelofibrosis in 16.3% of patients. Lymphomas occurring during JAK1/2 inhibitor treatment were preceded by a pre-existing B-cell clone in all 3 patients tested. Sequencing verified clonal identity in 2 patients. The effects of JAK1/2 inhibition were mirrored in Stat1 -/- mice: 16/24 mice developed a spontaneous myeloid hyperplasia with the concomitant presence of aberrant B-cells. Transplantations of bone marrow from diseased mice unmasked the outgrowth of a malignant B-cell clone evolving into aggressive B-cell leukemia-lymphoma. We conclude that JAK/STAT1 pathway inhibition in myelofibrosis is associated with an elevated frequency of aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Detection of a pre-existing B-cell clone may identify individuals at risk. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  13. Autoimmune myelofibrosis with pancytopenia as a presenting manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus responsive to mycophenolate mofetil.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, P; Chowdhary, V R; Davis, M D; Makol, A

    2016-04-01

    Hematological abnormalities, such as anemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia, secondary to peripheral destruction, are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, cytopenias from autoimmune myelofibrosis (AIMF) are extremely uncommon in SLE, with less than 40 reported cases in the literature. We report the case of a 33-year-old female who presented with bullous skin lesions and pancytopenia as the presenting manifestation of what was ultimately diagnosed as SLE with AIMF. She responded well to glucocorticoids and mycophenolate mofetil. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. CDKL5 mutations cause infantile spasms, early onset seizures, and severe mental retardation in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Archer, H L; Evans, J; Edwards, S; Colley, J; Newbury‐Ecob, R; O'Callaghan, F; Huyton, M; O'Regan, M; Tolmie, J; Sampson, J; Clarke, A; Osborne, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of mutations in CDKL5 in both male and female patients with infantile spasms or early onset epilepsy of unknown cause, and to consider whether the breadth of the reported phenotype would be extended by studying a different patient group. Methods Two groups of patients were investigated for CDKL5 mutations. Group 1 comprised 73 patients (57 female, 16 male) referred to Cardiff for CDKL5 analysis, of whom 49 (42 female, 7 male) had epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life. Group 2 comprised 26 patients (11 female, 15 male) with infantile spasms previously recruited to a clinical trial, the UK Infantile Spasms Study. Where a likely pathogenic mutation was identified, further clinical data were reviewed. Results Seven likely pathogenic mutations were found among female patients from group 1 with epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life, accounting for seven of the 42 in this group (17%). No mutations other than the already published mutation were found in female patients from group 2, or in any male patient from either study group. All patients with mutations had early signs of developmental delay and most had made little developmental progress. Further clinical information was available for six patients: autistic features and tactile hypersensitivity were common but only one had suggestive Rett‐like features. All had a severe epileptic seizure disorder, all but one of whom had myoclonic jerks. The EEG showed focal or generalised changes and in those with infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia. Slow frequencies were seen frequently with a frontal or fronto‐temporal predominance and high amplitudes. Conclusions The spectrum of the epileptic seizure disorder, and associated EEG changes, in those with CDKL5 mutations is broader than previously reported. CDKL5 mutations are a significant cause of infantile spasms and early epileptic seizures in female patients, and of a later intractable seizure disorder

  15. Biochemical defects of mutant nudel alleles causing early developmental arrest or dorsalization of the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    LeMosy, E K; Leclerc, C L; Hashimoto, C

    2000-01-01

    The nudel gene of Drosophila is maternally required both for structural integrity of the egg and for dorsoventral patterning of the embryo. It encodes a structurally modular protein that is secreted by ovarian follicle cells. Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the Nudel protein is also functionally modular, with a serine protease domain that is specifically required for ventral development. Here we describe biochemical and immunolocalization studies that provide insight into the molecular basis for the distinct phenotypes produced by nudel mutations and for the interactions between these alleles. Mutations causing loss of embryonic dorsoventral polarity result in a failure to activate the protease domain of Nudel. Our analyses support previous findings that catalytic activity of the protease domain is required for dorsoventral patterning and that the Nudel protease is auto-activated and reveal an important role for a region adjacent to the protease domain in Nudel protease function. Mutations causing egg fragility and early embryonic arrest result in a significant decrease in extracellular Nudel protein, due to defects in post-translational processing, stability, or secretion. On the basis of these and other studies of serine proteases, we suggest potential mechanisms for the complementary and antagonistic interactions between the nudel alleles. PMID:10628985

  16. Early-onset lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Tiphanie P.; Forbes, Lisa; Ma, Chi A.; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Niemela, Julie E.; Lyons, Jonathan J.; Engelhardt, Karin R.; Zhang, Yu; Topcagic, Nermina; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Matthews, Helen; Verbsky, James W.; Dasu, Trivikram; Vargas-Hernandez, Alexander; Varghese, Nidhy; McClain, Kenneth L.; Karam, Lina B.; Nahmod, Karen; Makedonas, George; Mace, Emily M.; Sorte, Hanne S.; Perminow, Gøri; Rao, V. Koneti; O’Connell, Michael P.; Price, Susan; Su, Helen C.; Butrick, Morgan; McElwee, Joshua; Hughes, Jason D.; Willet, Joseph; Swan, David; Xu, Yaobo; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Slowik, Voytek; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Ciaccio, Christina E.; Saunders, Carol J.; Septer, Seth; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; White, Andrew J.; Cant, Andrew J.; Hambleton, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Germline loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cause immunodeficiency, whereas somatic gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 are associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemic, myelodysplastic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Recently, germline mutations in STAT3 have also been associated with autoimmune disease. Here, we report on 13 individuals from 10 families with lymphoproliferation and early-onset solid-organ autoimmunity associated with 9 different germline heterozygous mutations in STAT3. Patients exhibited a variety of clinical features, with most having lymphadenopathy, autoimmune cytopenias, multiorgan autoimmunity (lung, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and/or endocrine dysfunction), infections, and short stature. Functional analyses demonstrate that these mutations confer a gain-of-function in STAT3 leading to secondary defects in STAT5 and STAT1 phosphorylation and the regulatory T-cell compartment. Treatment targeting a cytokine pathway that signals through STAT3 led to clinical improvement in 1 patient, suggesting a potential therapeutic option for such patients. These results suggest that there is a broad range of autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations, and that hematologic autoimmunity is a major component of this newly described disorder. Some patients for this study were enrolled in a trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:25359994

  17. Cytogenetic abnormalities and their prognostic significance in idiopathic myelofibrosis: a study of 106 cases.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J T; Snowden, J A; Spearing, R L; Fitzgerald, P M; Jones, N; Watmore, A; Potter, A

    1997-07-01

    The prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities was determined in 106 patients with well-characterized idiopathic myelofibrosis who were successfully karyotyped at diagnosis. 35% of the cases exhibited a clonal abnormality (37/106), whereas 65% (69/106) had a normal karyotype. Three characteristic defects, namely del(13q) (nine cases), del(20q) (eight cases) and partial trisomy 1q (seven cases), were present in 64.8% (24/37) of patients with clonal abnormalities. Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank analysis demonstrated an abnormal karyotype to be an adverse prognostic variable (P<0.001). Of the eight additional clinical and haematological parameters recorded at diagnosis, age (P<0.01), anaemia (haemoglobin < or = 10 g/dl: P<0.001), platelet (< or = 100 x 10(9)/l, P<0.0001) and leucocyte count (> 10.3 x 10(9)/l; P=0.06) were also associated with a shorter survival. In contrast, sex, spleen and liver size, and percentage blast cells were not found to be significant. Multivariate analysis, using Cox's regression, revealed karyotype, haemoglobin concentration, platelet and leucocyte counts to retain their unfavourable prognostic significance. A simple and useful schema for predicting survival in idiopathic myelofibrosis has been produced by combining age, haemoglobin concentration and karyotype with median survival times varying from 180 months (good-risk group) to 16 months (poor-risk group).

  18. Predictive factors for anemia response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Boluda, Juan-Carlos; Correa, Juan-Gonzalo; García-Delgado, Regina; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Fox, María-Laura; García-Gutiérrez, Valentín; Pérez-Encinas, Manuel; Ferrer-Marín, Francisca; Mata-Vázquez, María-Isabel; Raya, José-María; Estrada, Natalia; García, Silvia; Kerguelen, Ana; Durán, María-Antonia; Albors, Manuel; Cervantes, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are commonly used to treat the anemia of myelofibrosis (MF), but information on the predictors of response is limited. Results of ESA therapy were analyzed in 163 MF patients with severe anemia, most of whom had inadequate erythropoietin (EPO) levels (<125 U/L) at treatment start. According to the revised criteria of the International Working Group for Myelofibrosis Treatment and Research, anemia response was achieved in 86 patients (53%). Median response duration was 19.3 months. In multivariate analysis, baseline factors associated with a higher response rate were female sex (P=.007), leukocyte count ≥10×10 9 /L (P=.033), and serum ferritin <200 ng/mL (P=.002). Patients with 2 or 3 of the above features had a significantly higher response rate than the remainder (73% vs 28%, respectively; P<.001). Over the 373 patient-years of follow-up on ESA treatment, nine patients developed thrombotic complications (six arterial, three venous), accounting for 2.41 events per 100 patient-years. Survival time from ESA start was longer in anemia responders than in non-responders (P=.011). Besides the already established predictive value of EPO levels, these data can help to identify which MF patients are more likely to benefit from ESA treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mesenchymal Cell Reprogramming in Experimental MPLW515L Mouse Model of Myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Yue, Lanzhu; Wei, Max; Ren, Xiubao; Shao, Zonghong; Zhang, Ling; Levine, Ross L; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K

    2017-01-01

    Myelofibrosis is an indicator of poor prognosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), but the precise mechanism(s) contributing to extracellular matrix remodeling and collagen deposition in the bone marrow (BM) niche remains unanswered. In this study, we isolated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from mice transplanted with wild-type thrombopoietin receptor (MPLWT) and MPLW515L retroviral-transduced bone marrow. Using MSCs derived from MPLW515-transplant recipients, excessive collagen deposition was maintained in the absence of the virus and neoplastic hematopoietic cells suggested that the MSCs were reprogrammed in vivo. TGFβ production by malignant megakaryocytes plays a definitive role promoting myelofibrosis in MPNs. However, TGFβ was equally expressed by MSCs derived from MPLWT and MPLW515L expressing mice and the addition of neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody only partially reduced collagen secretion in vitro. Interestingly, profibrotic MSCs displayed increased levels of pSmad3 and pSTAT3 suggesting that inflammatory mediators cooperating with the TGFβ-receptor signaling may maintain the aberrant phenotype ex vivo. FGFb is a known suppressor of TGFβ signaling. Reduced collagen deposition by FGFb-treated MSCs derived from MPLW515L mice suggests that the activating pathway is vulnerable to this suppressive mediator. Therefore, our findings have implications for the future investigation of therapies to reverse fibrosis in MPNs.

  20. Mesenchymal Cell Reprogramming in Experimental MPLW515L Mouse Model of Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Max; Ren, Xiubao; Shao, Zonghong; Zhang, Ling; Levine, Ross L.; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K.

    2017-01-01

    Myelofibrosis is an indicator of poor prognosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), but the precise mechanism(s) contributing to extracellular matrix remodeling and collagen deposition in the bone marrow (BM) niche remains unanswered. In this study, we isolated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from mice transplanted with wild-type thrombopoietin receptor (MPLWT) and MPLW515L retroviral-transduced bone marrow. Using MSCs derived from MPLW515-transplant recipients, excessive collagen deposition was maintained in the absence of the virus and neoplastic hematopoietic cells suggested that the MSCs were reprogrammed in vivo. TGFβ production by malignant megakaryocytes plays a definitive role promoting myelofibrosis in MPNs. However, TGFβ was equally expressed by MSCs derived from MPLWT and MPLW515L expressing mice and the addition of neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody only partially reduced collagen secretion in vitro. Interestingly, profibrotic MSCs displayed increased levels of pSmad3 and pSTAT3 suggesting that inflammatory mediators cooperating with the TGFβ-receptor signaling may maintain the aberrant phenotype ex vivo. FGFb is a known suppressor of TGFβ signaling. Reduced collagen deposition by FGFb-treated MSCs derived from MPLW515L mice suggests that the activating pathway is vulnerable to this suppressive mediator. Therefore, our findings have implications for the future investigation of therapies to reverse fibrosis in MPNs. PMID:28135282

  1. Phase II Evaluation of IPI-926, an Oral Hedgehog Inhibitor, in Patients with Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Koji; Gotlib, Jason R.; Mesa, Ruben A.; Newberry, Kate J.; Ravandi, Farhad; Cortes, Jorge E.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    The clinical safety and efficacy of IPI-926 was evaluated in 14 patients with myelofibrosis in a phase II study. Patients received 160-mg IPI-926 orally in continuous 28-day cycles. The median treatment duration was 5.1 months, and all patients had discontinued treatment by 7.5 months. Nine patients discontinued due to lack of response as determined by the treating physician, two after developing acute leukemia and one due to disease progression/loss of response. Twelve patients had slight reductions in spleen size (less than 50% from baseline), but symptoms did not improve consistently. One patient achieved transfusion independence lasting 5 months. Reductions in GLI1 mRNA and protein levels, JAK2V617F allele burden, degree of fibrosis, or cytokine levels were observed in some patients, but were not significant when evaluated for the cohort. Low-grade gastrointestinal/liver abnormalities were the most common toxicities. The results did not support continued evaluation of IPI-926 as a monotherapy in myelofibrosis. PMID:25641433

  2. Inability of immunomorphometric assessment of angiogenesis to distinguish primary versus secondary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant; Pati, Hara Prasad; Mishra, Pravas Chandra; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Ruchika; Sharma, Alok; Jacob, Tony George

    2011-08-01

    To explore the utility of bone marrow (BM) angiogenesis in differentiating primary myelofibrosis (PMF) from secondary myelofibrosis (MF). CD34 immunostaining was performed on BM biopsies from 21 PMFs, 23 non-PMF myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) with associated MF, 20 secondary MF samples, and 10 nonfibrotic controls. Microvessel density (MVD) and microvessel surface area (MSA), along with blood and BM findings were compared between the groups. The post-MPN MF cases included chronic myeloid leukemia-MF and polycythemia vera-MF. Etiologies of secondary MF were metastatic carcinomas, non-MPN hematologic malignancies, tuberculosis, autoimmune MF, and osteopetrosis. Megakaryocytic clustering was the most frequent and intrasinusoidal hematopoiesis the most specific feature of PMF. Higher reticulin grade, collagenization, and osteomyelosclerosis were commoner in PMF. MVD and MSA were significantly increased in fibrotic marrows regardless of etiology. Although mean MVD as well as MSA were highest in PMF, extensive overlaps among groups and marked heterogeneity in the secondary MF group rendered them of limited utility in the differential diagnosis. Enhanced angiogenesis is not entirely specific for PMF. Overlaps with secondary MF limits its differential diagnostic utility. Pathogenetically, our findings suggest that enhanced angiogenesis is a secondary paraneoplastic stromal response shared by various unrelated conditions.

  3. A local complement response by RPE causes early-stage macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Godino, Rosario; Garland, Donita L.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited and age-related macular degenerations (AMDs) are important causes of vision loss. An early hallmark of these disorders is the formation of sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) basal deposits. A role for the complement system in MDs was suggested by genetic association studies, but direct functional connections between alterations in the complement system and the pathogenesis of MD remain to be defined. We used primary RPE cells from a mouse model of inherited MD due to a p.R345W mutation in EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) to investigate the role of the RPE in early MD pathogenesis. Efemp1R345W RPE cells recapitulate the basal deposit formation observed in vivo by producing sub-RPE deposits in vitro. The deposits share features with basal deposits, and their formation was mediated by EFEMP1R345W or complement component 3a (C3a), but not by complement component 5a (C5a). Increased activation of complement appears to occur in response to an abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM), generated by the mutant EFEMP1R345W protein and reduced ECM turnover due to inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 2 by EFEMP1R345W and C3a. Increased production of C3a also stimulated the release of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1B, which appear to have a role in deposit formation, albeit downstream of C3a. These studies provide the first direct indication that complement components produced locally by the RPE are involved in the formation of basal deposits. Furthermore, these results suggest that C3a generated by RPE is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of EFEMP1-associated MD as well as AMD. PMID:26199322

  4. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels as a cause of early post-renal transplantation hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Han, S Y; Hwang, E A; Park, S B; Kim, H C; Kim, H T

    2012-04-01

    Hypophosphatemia is a common complication after renal transplantation. Hyperparathyroidism has long been thought to be the cause, but hypophosphatemia can persist after high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels normalize. Furthermore, calcitriol levels remain inappropriately low after transplantation, suggesting that mechanisms other than PTH contribute. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) induces phosphaturia, inhibits calcitriol synthesis, and accumulates in chronic kidney disease. We performed prospective study to investigate if FGF-23 early after renal transplantation contributes to hypophosphatemia. We measured FGF-23 levels before and at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after transplantation in 20 renal transplant recipients. Serum creatinine, calcium (Ca), phosphate (Pi), intact PTH (PTH), and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)VitD) were measured at the same time. FGF-23 levels decreased by 97% at 4 weeks after renal transplantation (PRT) (7,471 ± 11,746 vs 225 ± 295 pg/mL; P < .05) but were still above normal. PTH and Pi levels also decreased significantly after renal transplantation, and Ca and 1,25(OH)(2)VitD slightly increased. PRT hypophosphatemia of <2.5 mg/dL developed in 15 (75%) and 12 (60%) patients at 4 weeks and 12 weeks respectively. Compared with nonhypophosphatemic patients, the levels of FGF-23 of hypophosphatemic patients were higher (303 ± 311 vs 10 ± 6.9 pg/mL; P = .02) at 4 weeks PRT. FGF-23 levels were inversely correlated with Pi (r(2) = 0.406; P = .011); PTH was not independently associated with Pi (r(2) = 0.132; P = .151). FGF-23 levels decrease dramatically after renal transplantation. During the early PRT period, Pi rapidly decreased, suggesting that FGF-23 is cleared by the kidney, but residual FGF-23 may contribute to the PRT hypophosphatemia. FGF-23, but not PTH levels, was independently associated with PRT hypophosphatemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A multinational, open-label, phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in Asian patients with myelofibrosis: Japanese subset analysis.

    PubMed

    Oritani, Kenji; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Saito, Shigeki; Ohishi, Kohshi; Handa, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Katsuto; Gopalakrishna, Prashanth; Amagasaki, Taro; Ito, Kazuo; Akashi, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    Ruxolitinib is a potent Janus kinase (JAK) 1/JAK2 inhibitor that has demonstrated rapid and durable improvements in splenomegaly and symptoms and a survival benefit in 2 phase 3 trials in patients with myelofibrosis. Ruxolitinib was well tolerated and effectively reduced splenomegaly and symptom burden in Asian patients with myelofibrosis in the Asian multinational, phase 2 Study A2202. We present a subset analysis of Japanese patients (n = 30) in Study A2202. At data cutoff, 22 patients were ongoing; 8 discontinued, mainly due to adverse events (n = 4). At week 24, 33 % of patients achieved ≥35 % reduction from baseline in spleen volume; 56.0 % achieved ≥50 % reduction from baseline in total symptom score, as measured by the 7-day Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form v2.0. The most common adverse events were anemia (63 %), thrombocytopenia (40 %), nasopharyngitis (37 %), decreased platelet counts (30 %), and diarrhea (30 %). Dose reductions or interruptions due to hemoglobin decreases were more frequent in Japanese patients; no loss of efficacy and no discontinuations due to hematologic abnormalities were observed. Ruxolitinib was well tolerated in Japanese patients and provided substantial reductions in splenomegaly and myelofibrosis-related symptoms similar to those observed in the overall Asian population and phase 3 COMFORT studies.

  6. Exposure to Zearalenone During Early Pregnancy Causes Estrogenic Multitoxic Effects in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kunishige, Kohji; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2017-03-01

    Although zearalenone (ZEN; Sigma Chemicals, St Louis, Missouri) is a well-known mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, the toxic effects of ZEN during pregnancy are unknown. This study compared the effects of daily subcutaneous injections of ZEN (2, 4, or 8 mg/kg) with those of 17β-estradiol (E2; [Sigma Chemicals] 0.8, 1.6, or 3.2 μg/kg) in mice. Injections were administered on gestational days (GDs) 1 to 5, the period including implantation which is sensitive to hormonal balance. The effects of ZEN or E2 were evaluated by comparing the number of live fetuses, their weight, and absorbed conceptuses on GD 18, with those in vehicle-treated controls. In addition, implantation, embryos in the oviducts and those in uteri without implantation sites were investigated on GD 5. In mice treated with the highest dose of ZEN or E2, decidual responses and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured on GDs 5 and 6, respectively, and delayed implantation was investigated on GDs 9 and 14. The results showed that treatment with ZEN, in a manner similar to that seen for E2, led to obstruction of essential processes for establishing and maintaining pregnancy, such as embryo migration from oviducts to uteri, the decidual response, and activation of luteal function. Zearalenone also induced delayed implantation and loss of conceptuses and at low doses caused a retarded growth of the fetuses after normal implantation. It was therefore concluded that ZEN causes multiple estrogenic toxic actions when administered during early pregnancy in mice.

  7. Extracellular truncated tau causes early presynaptic dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Florenzano, Fulvio; Veronica, Corsetti; Ciasca, Gabriele; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pittaluga, Anna; Olivero, Gunedalina; Feligioni, Marco; Iannuzzi, Filomena; Latina, Valentina; Maria Sciacca, Michele Francesco; Sinopoli, Alessandro; Milardi, Danilo; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Marco, De Spirito; Papi, Massimiliano; Atlante, Anna; Bobba, Antonella; Borreca, Antonella; Calissano, Pietro; Amadoro, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    The largest part of tau secreted from AD nerve terminals and released in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is C-terminally truncated, soluble and unaggregated supporting potential extracellular role(s) of NH2 -derived fragments of protein on synaptic dysfunction underlying neurodegenerative tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we show that sub-toxic doses of extracellular-applied human NH2 tau 26-44 (aka NH 2 htau) -which is the minimal active moiety of neurotoxic 20-22kDa peptide accumulating in vivo at AD synapses and secreted into parenchyma- acutely provokes presynaptic deficit in K+ -evoked glutamate release on hippocampal synaptosomes along with alteration in local Ca2+ dynamics. Neuritic dystrophy, microtubules breakdown, deregulation in presynaptic proteins and loss of mitochondria located at nerve endings are detected in hippocampal cultures only after prolonged exposure to NH 2 htau. The specificity of these biological effects is supported by the lack of any significant change, either on neuronal activity or on cellular integrity, shown by administration of its reverse sequence counterpart which behaves as an inactive control, likely due to a poor conformational flexibility which makes it unable to dynamically perturb biomembrane-like environments. Our results demonstrate that one of the AD-relevant, soluble and secreted N-terminally truncated tau forms can early contribute to pathology outside of neurons causing alterations in synaptic activity at presynaptic level, independently of overt neurodegeneration. PMID:29029390

  8. De novo mutations in HCN1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Nava, Caroline; Dalle, Carine; Rastetter, Agnès; Striano, Pasquale; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Nabbout, Rima; Cancès, Claude; Ville, Dorothée; Brilstra, Eva H; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Raffo, Emmanuel; Bouteiller, Delphine; Marie, Yannick; Trouillard, Oriane; Robbiano, Angela; Keren, Boris; Agher, Dahbia; Roze, Emmanuel; Lesage, Suzanne; Nicolas, Aude; Brice, Alexis; Baulac, Michel; Vogt, Cornelia; El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Suls, Arvid; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Gormley, Padhraig; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; De Jonghe, Peter; Helbig, Ingo; Baulac, Stéphanie; Zara, Federico; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Haaf, Thomas; LeGuern, Eric; Depienne, Christel

    2014-06-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels contribute to cationic Ih current in neurons and regulate the excitability of neuronal networks. Studies in rat models have shown that the Hcn1 gene has a key role in epilepsy, but clinical evidence implicating HCN1 mutations in human epilepsy is lacking. We carried out exome sequencing for parent-offspring trios with fever-sensitive, intractable epileptic encephalopathy, leading to the discovery of two de novo missense HCN1 mutations. Screening of follow-up cohorts comprising 157 cases in total identified 4 additional amino acid substitutions. Patch-clamp recordings of Ih currents in cells expressing wild-type or mutant human HCN1 channels showed that the mutations had striking but divergent effects on homomeric channels. Individuals with mutations had clinical features resembling those of Dravet syndrome with progression toward atypical absences, intellectual disability and autistic traits. These findings provide clear evidence that de novo HCN1 point mutations cause a recognizable early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in humans.

  9. Validation of the content of the prevention protocol for early sepsis caused by Streptococcus agalactiaein newborns

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fabiana Alves; Vidal, Cláudia Fernanda de Lacerda; de Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to validate the content of the prevention protocol for early sepsis caused by Streptococcus agalactiaein newborns. Method: a transversal, descriptive and methodological study, with a quantitative approach. The sample was composed of 15 judges, 8 obstetricians and 7 pediatricians. The validation occurred through the assessment of the content of the protocol by the judges that received the instrument for data collection - checklist - which contained 7 items that represent the requisites to be met by the protocol. The validation of the content was achieved by applying the Content Validity Index. Result: in the judging process, all the items that represented requirements considered by the protocol obtained concordance within the established level (Content Validity Index > 0.75). Of 7 items, 6 have obtained full concordance (Content Validity Index 1.0) and the feasibility item obtained a Content Validity Index of 0.93. The global assessment of the instruments obtained a Content Validity Index of 0.99. Conclusion: the validation of content that was done was an efficient tool for the adjustment of the protocol, according to the judgment of experienced professionals, which demonstrates the importance of conducting a previous validation of the instruments. It is expected that this study will serve as an incentive for the adoption of universal tracking by other institutions through validated protocols. PMID:26444165

  10. On the Causes and Dynamics of the Early Twentieth Century North American Pluvial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century North American pluvial (1905-1917) was one of the most extreme wet periods of the last five hundred years and directly led to overly generous water allotments in the water-limited American West. Here we examine the causes and dynamics of the pluvial event using a combination of observation-based data sets and general circulation model (GCM) experiments. The character of the moisture surpluses during the pluvial differed by region, alternately driven by increased precipitation (the Southwest), low evaporation from cool temperatures (the Central Plains), or a combination of the two (the Pacific Northwest). Cool temperature anomalies covered much of the west and persisted through most months, part of a globally extensive period of cooler land and sea surface temperatures (SST). Circulation during boreal winter favored increased moisture import and precipitation in the southwest, while other regions and seasons were characterized by near normal or reduced precipitation. Anomalies in the mean circulation, precipitation, and SST fields are partially consistent with the relatively weak El Nino forcing during the pluvial, and also reflect the impact of positive departures in the Arctic Oscillation that occurred in ten of the thirteen pluvial winters. Differences between the reanalysis dataset, an independent statistical drought model, and GCM simulations highlight some of the remaining uncertainties in understanding the full extent of SST forcing of North American hydroclimatic variability.

  11. [IDENTIFICATION OF CAUSES OF EARLY PREGNANCY LOSSES ACCORDING TO HYSTOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Gotsiridze, K; Kintraia, N; Pailodze, M; Gogia, T; Tsaava, F

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the early spontaneous abortions has been conducted (486 cases). Histomorphologic analysis of the curettage material contents erveledinvolutive-regressive developmental chsnges in 108 (22,28%) cases, in 370 cases (77.78%) pathologic changes, like inflammatory changes of deciduas and chorionic villis in 302 cases (80.2%), pathologic prematurity of chorionic vili in 48 cases (12.6%), hydatidiform mole in 28 cases (7.4%). As most cases of pregnancy loss has been reported at 7-9 weeks /172 cases/, we compared histomorphologic data revealed at 7-8 (71 cases) weeks to 5-6 (135 cases) and 10-12 weeks of gestation. Morphologic research data confimed, that at 7-8 weeks compared to 5-6 weeks leading reason ofpregnancy loss was inflammatory changes (OR-1,584), what can be cause of 110 pregnancy losses at 1000 pregnant women (AR-0.11). Data comparing7-9 weeks to 10-12 weeks pregnancy losses, confirm the priority of pathologic immaturity (OR-1,279) and hydatidiform mole (OR-1,557) and could be the risk of 100 cases of pregnancy termination at 1000 pregnant women (AR-0.10).Existing results are of great importance for the preconceptional preparation of women.

  12. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-02-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) involves cartilage changes as well as modifications of subchondral bone and synovial tissues. Strontium ranelate (SR), an anti-osteoporosis compound, which is currently in phase III clinical trial for treatment of OA. Evidences suggest that SR preferably deposited in osteophyte, other than in subchondral bone in early phase of OA. This phenomenon raises concern about its utility for OA treatment as a disease-modifying drug. To evaluate the effect of SR on cartilage, subchondral bone mass and subchondral trabecular bone structure in medial meniscectomized (MNX) guinea pigs. Thirty-six 3-month-old male Dunkin Hartley albino guinea pigs received either sham or medial meniscectomy operations. One week after the procedure, meniscectomized animals began 12 weeks of SR (625 mg/kg, daily) treatment by oral gavage for MNX + SR group, or normal saline for MNX + V group. All animals were euthanized 12 weeks later, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone micro-architecture was analyzed. Both OARSI scores (P = 0.523 for marcoscopic scores, P = 0.297 for histological scores) and Cartilage thickness (P = 0.335) in MNX + SR group were comparable to MNX + V group. However, osteophyte sizes were larger in MNX + SR group (P = 0.014), and collapsed osteophytes in MNX + SR group (7 by 12) were significantly more than in MNX + V group (1 by 12) (P = 0.027), while immunohistochemistry indicates catabolic changes in osteophyte/plateau junction. Micro-CT analysis showed bone mineral density (BMD) (P = 0.001), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (P = 0.008), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (P = 0.020), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (P = 0.012) and structure model index (SMI) (P = 0.005) levels to be significantly higher in the MNX + SR group than in the MNX + V group. SR (625 mg/kg/day) did not protect cartilage from degeneration in MNX guinea pigs but subchondral bone was significantly enhanced. In early

  13. Pulmonary outcome of esophageal atresia patients and its potential causes in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, René; Stock, Philippe; Rothe, Karin; Degenhardt, Petra

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the pulmonary long term outcome of patients with repaired esophageal atresia and to further examine causes and correlations that might have led to this outcome. Twenty-seven of 62 possible patients (43%) aged 5-20years, with repaired esophageal atresia were recruited. Body plethysmography and spirometry were performed to evaluate lung function, and the Bruce protocol treadmill exercise test to assess physical fitness. Results were correlated to conditions such as interpouch distance, gastroesophageal reflux or duration of post-operative mechanical ventilation. Seventeen participants (63%) showed abnormal lung function at rest or after exercise. Restrictive ventilatory defects (solely restrictive or combined) were found in 11 participants (41%), and obstructive ventilatory defects (solely obstructive or combined) in 13 subjects (48%). Twenty-two participants (81%) performed the Bruce protocol treadmill exercise test to standard. The treadmill exercise results were expressed in z-score and revealed to be significantly below the standard population mean (z-score=-1.40). Moreover, significant correlations between restrictive ventilatory defects and the interpouch distance; duration of post-operative ventilation; gastroesophageal reflux disease; plus recurrent aspiration pneumonia during infancy; were described. It was shown that esophageal atresia and associated early complications have significant impact on pulmonary long term outcomes such as abnormal lung function and, in particular restrictive ventilatory defects. Long-running and regular follow-ups of patients with congenital esophageal atresia are necessary in order to detect and react to the development and progression of associated complications such as ventilation disorders or gastroesophageal reflux disease. Prognosis study, Level II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low ambient temperature during early postnatal development fails to cause a permanent induction of brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chabowska-Kita, Agnieszka; Trabczynska, Anna; Korytko, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Monika M.; Kozak, Leslie P.

    2015-01-01

    The brown adipocyte phenotype (BAP) in white adipose tissue (WAT) is transiently induced in adult mammals in response to reduced ambient temperature. Since it is unknown whether a cold challenge can permanently induce brown adipocytes (BAs), we reared C57BL/6J (B6) and AxB8/PgJ (AxB8) mice at 17 or 29°C from birth to weaning, to assess the BAP in young and adult mice. Energy balance measurements showed that 17°C reduced fat mass in the preweaning mice by increasing energy expenditure and suppressed diet-induced obesity in adults. Microarray analysis of global gene expression of inguinal fat (ING) from 10-day-old (D) mice indicates that expression at 17°C vs. 29°C was not different. Between 10 and 21 days of age, the BAP was induced coincident with morphologic remodeling of ING and marked changes in expression of neural development genes (e.g., Akap 12 and Ngfr). Analyses of Ucp1 mRNA and protein showed that 17°C transiently increased the BAP in ING from 21D mice; however, BAs were unexpectedly present in mice reared at 29°C. The involution of the BAP in WAT occurred after weaning in mice reared at 23°C. Therefore, the capacity to stimulate thermogenically competent BAs in WAT is set by a temperature-independent, genetically controlled program between birth and weaning.—Chabowska-Kita, A., Trabczynska, A., Korytko, A., Kaczmarek, M. M., Kozak, L. P. Low ambient temperature during early postnatal development fails to cause a permanent induction of brown adipocytes. PMID:25896784

  15. Ironing out the details of iron overload in myelofibrosis: Lessons from myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Carreau, Nicole; Tremblay, Douglas; Savona, Michael; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Mascarenhas, John

    2016-09-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders associated with cytopenias and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion dependence. Iron overload (IO) as a consequence of RBC transfusion dependence and its effect on outcomes in MF has not been formally studied. However, IO is a demonstrated poor prognostic feature in patients with MDS and congenital or acquired chronic anemias. Evidence that iron chelation therapy (ICT) reduces the deleterious effects of IO in MDS has led to speculation of benefit in MF. However, data supporting the use of ICT in MF is lacking. Neither disease has clear consensus guidelines for the use of ICT. Moreover, JAK-STAT inhibition, the cornerstone of MF treatment, often contributes to anemia and transfusional requirements. This manuscript reviews known and potential implications of IO in MF and highlights the need for prospective clinical investigations of ICT with consideration in the setting of JAK2 inhibitor therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for all-cause, overdose and early deaths after release from prison in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Blatchford, Patrick J; Lindsay, Rebecca G; Stern, Marc F

    2011-08-01

    High mortality rates after release from prison have been well-documented, particularly from overdose. However, little is known about the risk factors for death after release from prison. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the demographic and incarceration-related risk factors for all-cause, overdose and early mortality after release from prison. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of inmates released from a state prison system from 1999 through 2003. The cohort included 30,237 who had a total of 38,809 releases from prison. Potential risk factors included gender, race/ethnicity, age, length of incarceration, and community supervision. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine risk factors for all-cause, overdose and early (within 30 days of release) death after release from prison. Age over 50 was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.67 for each decade increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23, 3.20) but not for overdose deaths or early deaths. Latinos were at decreased risk of death compared to Whites only for all-cause mortality (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42, 0.87). Increasing years of incarceration were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91, 0.99) and overdose deaths (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68, 0.95), but not early deaths. Gender and type of release were not significantly associated with all-cause, overdose or early deaths. Age, ethnicity and length of incarceration were associated with mortality after release from prison. Interventions to reduce mortality among former inmates are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Calreticulin mutants in mice induce an MPL-dependent thrombocytosis with frequent progression to myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Marty, Caroline; Pecquet, Christian; Nivarthi, Harini; El-Khoury, Mira; Chachoua, Ilyas; Tulliez, Micheline; Villeval, Jean-Luc; Raslova, Hana; Kralovics, Robert; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Plo, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William

    2016-03-10

    Frameshift mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene are seen in about 30% of essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis patients. To address the contribution of the CALR mutants to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, we engrafted lethally irradiated recipient mice with bone marrow cells transduced with retroviruses expressing these mutants. In contrast to wild-type CALR, CALRdel52 (type I) and, to a lesser extent, CALRins5 (type II) induced thrombocytosis due to a megakaryocyte (MK) hyperplasia. Disease was transplantable into secondary recipients. After 6 months, CALRdel52-, in contrast to rare CALRins5-, transduced mice developed a myelofibrosis associated with a splenomegaly and a marked osteosclerosis. Monitoring of virus-transduced populations indicated that CALRdel52 leads to expansion at earlier stages of hematopoiesis than CALRins5. However, both mutants still specifically amplified the MK lineage and platelet production. Moreover, a mutant deleted of the entire exon 9 (CALRdelex9) did not induce a disease, suggesting that the oncogenic property of CALR mutants was related to the new C-terminus peptide. To understand how the CALR mutants target the MK lineage, we used a cell-line model and demonstrated that the CALR mutants, but not CALRdelex9, specifically activate the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor (MPL) to induce constitutive activation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5/3/1. We confirmed in c-mpl- and tpo-deficient mice that expression of Mpl, but not of Tpo, was essential for the CALR mutants to induce thrombocytosis in vivo, although Tpo contributes to disease penetrance. Thus, CALR mutants are sufficient to induce thrombocytosis through MPL activation. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Causes of death among full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths in the Region of Southern Denmark.

    PubMed

    Basu, Millie Nguyen; Johnsen, Iben Birgit Gade; Wehberg, Sonja; Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg; Barington, Torben; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2018-02-23

    We examined the causes of death amongst full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. Our cohort includes women in the Region of Southern Denmark, who gave birth at full term to a stillborn infant or a neonate who died within the first 7 days from 2010 through 2014. Demographic, biometric and clinical variables were analyzed to assess the causes of death using two classification systems: causes of death and associated conditions (CODAC) and a Danish system based on initial causes of fetal death (INCODE). A total of 95 maternal-infant cases were included. Using the CODAC and INCODE classification systems, we found that the causes of death were unknown in 59/95 (62.1%). The second most common cause of death in CODAC was congenital anomalies in 10/95 (10.5%), similar to INCODE with fetal, genetic, structural and karyotypic anomalies in 11/95 (11.6%). The majority of the mothers were healthy, primiparous, non-smokers, aged 20-34 years and with a normal body mass index (BMI). Based on an unselected cohort from an entire region in Denmark, the cause of stillbirth and early neonatal deaths among full term infants remained unknown for the vast majority.

  19. [Early alcohol initiation and increased adult alcohol consumption: cause or indicator?].

    PubMed

    Geels, L M; Vink, J M; van Beek, J H D A; Willemsen, G; Bartels, M; Boomsma, D I

    2013-01-01

    Early alcohol initiation is strongly associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse/dependence in adulthood. The mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. To examine whether there is a causal link between early alcohol initiation and later alcohol consumption. Survey data were collected from twin pairs (age range 18-80) included in the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). A discordant twin design was used to examine the origin of the link between early alcohol initiation and adult alcohol consumption. Within monozygotic pairs (82-143 pairs), twins who started drinking early were compared to their brother/sister who started drinking later, on frequency of alcohol use, weekly alcohol consumption, number of alcohol intoxications, excessive drinking, alcohol abuse/-dependence, and hazardous drinking. By drawing comparisons within monozygotic pairs, we were able to control for the effects of genes/shared environment. Additional analyses examined the effects of age, sex, and in-/exclusion of lifelong abstainers. Within monozygotic twin pairs, the twin who had started drinking early did not differ significantly from his/her brother/sister with respect to future alcohol consumption. Results were independent of age, sex, and in-/exclusion of lifelong abstainers. Early alcohol initiation did not have significant causal effects on subsequent alcohol consumption in adulthood and may be an indicator of a predisposition for alcohol consumption. Campaigns aimed at raising the minimum age for alcohol initiation will possibly have only a limited effect on adult alcohol consumption.

  20. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Ramírez, Gabriela P.; Balbuena, María Sol; Farina, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions, and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe (AL). Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees' physiology, behavior, and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits. PMID:23986708

  1. Cyclophosphamide and Busulfan Followed by Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Myelofibrosis, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-01

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Isolated Del(5q); Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Myelofibrosis; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  2. Early Postnatal Manganese Exposure Causes Lasting Impairment of Selective and Focused Attention and Arousal Regulation in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Stephane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R

    2017-02-01

    Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1-21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230-237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258.

  3. Early Postnatal Manganese Exposure Causes Lasting Impairment of Selective and Focused Attention and Arousal Regulation in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. Objectives: To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Methods: Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1–21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Results: Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. Conclusions: This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230–237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258 PMID:27384154

  4. An accurate, simple prognostic model consisting of age, JAK2, CALR, and MPL mutation status for patients with primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rozovski, Uri; Verstovsek, Srdan; Manshouri, Taghi; Dembitz, Vilma; Bozinovic, Ksenija; Newberry, Kate; Zhang, Ying; Bove, Joseph E; Pierce, Sherry; Kantarjian, Hagop; Estrov, Zeev

    2017-01-01

    In most patients with primary myelofibrosis, one of three mutually exclusive somatic mutations is detected. In approximately 60% of patients, the Janus kinase 2 gene is mutated, in 20%, the calreticulin gene is mutated, and in 5%, the myeloproliferative leukemia virus gene is mutated. Although patients with mutated calreticulin or myeloproliferative leukemia genes have a favorable outcome, and those with none of these mutations have an unfavorable outcome, prognostication based on mutation status is challenging due to the heterogeneous survival of patients with mutated Janus kinase 2. To develop a prognostic model based on mutation status, we screened primary myelofibrosis patients seen at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA, between 2000 and 2013 for the presence of Janus kinase 2, calreticulin, and myeloproliferative leukemia mutations. Of 344 primary myelofibrosis patients, Janus kinase 2 V617F was detected in 226 (66%), calreticulin mutation in 43 (12%), and myeloproliferative leukemia mutation in 16 (5%); 59 patients (17%) were triple-negatives. A 50% cut-off dichotomized Janus kinase 2-mutated patients into those with high Janus kinase 2 V617F allele burden and favorable survival and those with low Janus kinase 2 V617F allele burden and unfavorable survival. Patients with a favorable mutation status (high Janus kinase 2 V617F allele burden/myeloproliferative leukemia/calreticulin mutation) and aged 65 years or under had a median survival of 126 months. Patients with one risk factor (low Janus kinase 2 V617F allele burden/triple-negative or age >65 years) had an intermediate survival duration, and patients aged over 65 years with an adverse mutation status (low Janus kinase 2 V617F allele burden or triple-negative) had a median survival of only 35 months. Our simple and easily applied age- and mutation status-based scoring system accurately predicted the survival of patients with primary myelofibrosis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  5. F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Appearance of Extramedullary Hematopoesis in a Case of Primary Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    A 44-year-old female with known primary myelofibrosis presented with shortness of breath. High Resolution Computed Tomography thorax revealed large heterogeneously enhancing extraparenchymal soft tissue density mass involving bilateral lung fields. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed mildly FDG avid soft tissue density mass with specks of calcification involving bilateral lung fields, liver, and spleen. Subsequent histopathologic evaluation from the right lung mass was suggestive of extramedullary hematopoesis. PMID:28533647

  6. A clinical-molecular prognostic model to predict survival in patients with post polycythemia vera and post essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, F; Giorgino, T; Mora, B; Guglielmelli, P; Rumi, E; Maffioli, M; Rambaldi, A; Caramella, M; Komrokji, R; Gotlib, J; Kiladjian, J J; Cervantes, F; Devos, T; Palandri, F; De Stefano, V; Ruggeri, M; Silver, R T; Benevolo, G; Albano, F; Caramazza, D; Merli, M; Pietra, D; Casalone, R; Rotunno, G; Barbui, T; Cazzola, M; Vannucchi, A M

    2017-12-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are myeloproliferative neoplasms with variable risk of evolution into post-PV and post-ET myelofibrosis, from now on referred to as secondary myelofibrosis (SMF). No specific tools have been defined for risk stratification in SMF. To develop a prognostic model for predicting survival, we studied 685 JAK2, CALR, and MPL annotated patients with SMF. Median survival of the whole cohort was 9.3 years (95% CI: 8-not reached-NR-). Through penalized Cox regressions we identified negative predictors of survival and according to beta risk coefficients we assigned 2 points to hemoglobin level <11 g/dl, to circulating blasts ⩾3%, and to CALR-unmutated genotype, 1 point to platelet count <150 × 10 9 /l and to constitutional symptoms, and 0.15 points to any year of age. Myelofibrosis Secondary to PV and ET-Prognostic Model (MYSEC-PM) allocated SMF patients into four risk categories with different survival (P<0.0001): low (median survival NR; 133 patients), intermediate-1 (9.3 years, 95% CI: 8.1-NR; 245 patients), intermediate-2 (4.4 years, 95% CI: 3.2-7.9; 126 patients), and high risk (2 years, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9; 75 patients). Finally, we found that the MYSEC-PM represents the most appropriate tool for SMF decision-making to be used in clinical and trial settings.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Cercospora arachidicola, Cause of Early Leaf Spot in Peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum, causal agents of early and late leaf spot, respectively, are important fungal pathogens of peanut. Leaf spot disease is a major contributor to the economic losses experienced by peanut farmers and the industry. Though peanut germplasms with so...

  8. Early-life exposure to combustion-derived particulate matter causes pulmonary immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Jordy; You, Dahui; Thevenot, Paul; Lee, Greg I.; Shrestha, Bishwas; Lomnicki, Slawo; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of combustion-derived particulate matter (CDPM) are a risk factor for the development of lung diseases such as asthma. Studies have shown that CDPM exacerbates asthma, inducing acute lung dysfunction and inflammation; however, the impact of CDPM exposure on early immunological responses to allergens remains unclear. To determine the effects of early-life CDPM exposure on allergic asthma development in infants, we exposed infant mice to CDPM and then induced a mouse model of asthma using house dust mite (HDM) allergen. Mice exposed to CDPM+HDM failed to develop a typical asthma phenotype including airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2-inflammation, Muc5ac expression, eosinophilia, and HDM-specific Ig compared to HDM-exposed mice. Although HDM-specific IgE was attenuated, total IgE was two-fold higher in CDPM+HDM mice compared to HDM-mice. We further demonstrate that CDPM exposure during early life induced an immunosuppressive environment in the lung, concurrent with increases in tolerogenic dendritic cells and Tregs, resulting in suppression of Th2 responses. Despite having early immunosuppression, these mice develop severe allergic inflammation when challenged with allergen as adults. These findings demonstrate a mechanism whereby CDPM exposure modulates adaptive immunity, inducing specific-antigen tolerance while amplifying total IgE, and leading to a predisposition to develop asthma upon rechallenge later in life. PMID:24172848

  9. Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Planche, Vincent; Panatier, Aude; Hiba, Bassem; Ducourneau, Eva-Gunnel; Raffard, Gerard; Dubourdieu, Nadège; Maitre, Marlène; Lesté-Lasserre, Thierry; Brochet, Bruno; Dousset, Vincent; Desmedt, Aline; Oliet, Stéphane H; Tourdias, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Small Molecule Inhibitor G6 Significantly Reduces Bone Marrow Fibrosis and the Mutant Burden in a Mouse Model of Jak2-Mediated Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kirabo, Annet; Park, Sung O.; Wamsley, Heather L.; Gali, Meghanath; Baskin, Rebekah; Reinhard, Mary K.; Zhao, Zhizhuang J.; Bisht, Kirpal S.; Keserű, György M.; Cogle, Christopher R.; Sayeski, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, and myelofibrosis, are disorders characterized by abnormal hematopoiesis. Among these myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelofibrosis has the most unfavorable prognosis. Furthermore, currently available therapies for myelofibrosis have little to no efficacy in the bone marrow and hence, are palliative. We recently developed a Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) small molecule inhibitor called G6 and found that it exhibits marked efficacy in a xenograft model of Jak2-V617F–mediated hyperplasia and a transgenic mouse model of Jak2-V617F–mediated polycythemia vera/essential thrombocytosis. However, its efficacy in Jak2-mediated myelofibrosis has not previously been examined. Here, we hypothesized that G6 would be efficacious in Jak2-V617F–mediated myelofibrosis. To test this, mice expressing the human Jak2-V617F cDNA under the control of the vav promoter were administered G6 or vehicle control solution, and efficacy was determined by measuring parameters within the peripheral blood, liver, spleen, and bone marrow. We found that G6 significantly reduced extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and splenomegaly. In the bone marrow, G6 significantly reduced pathogenic Jak/STAT signaling by 53%, megakaryocytic hyperplasia by 70%, and the Jak2 mutant burden by 68%. Furthermore, G6 significantly improved the myeloid to erythroid ratio and significantly reversed the myelofibrosis. Collectively, these results indicate that G6 is efficacious in Jak2-V617F–mediated myelofibrosis, and given its bone marrow efficacy, it may alter the natural history of this disease. PMID:22796437

  11. A Review of Ruxolitinib for the Treatment of Myelofibrosis: A Critique of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ros; Hodgson, Robert; Biswas, Mousumi; Harden, Melissa; Woolacott, Nerys

    2017-02-01

    As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's (NICE) Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process, ruxolitinib was assessed to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of its use in the treatment of disease-related splenomegaly or symptoms in adults with myelofibrosis. Ruxolitinib had previously been assessed as part of the STA process and was not recommended in NICE guidance issued in June 2013 (TA289). A review of TA289 was commissioned following the availability of new longer-term survival data; a price discount patient access scheme (PAS) was also introduced. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) and Centre for Health Economics (CHE) Technology Appraisal Group at the University of York was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a summary of the manufacturer or sponsor of the technology's (referred to as the company) submission, the ERG review and the resulting NICE guidance issued in March 2016. The main clinical effectiveness data were derived from two good-quality multicentre randomised controlled trials (RCTs): COMFORT-II compared ruxolitinib with best available therapy (BAT) and COMFORT-I compared ruxolitinib with placebo. Both RCTs demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in splenomegaly and its associated symptoms in intermediate-2 and high-risk myelofibrosis patients. Overall survival was statistically significantly improved with ruxolitinib compared with BAT at 3.5 years of follow-up in the COMFORT-II trial (hazard ratio 0.58, 95 % CI 0.36-0.93). Grade 3-4 adverse events were more frequent in the ruxolitinib group than in the BAT group; 42 % compared with 25 %. Evidence relating to patients with lower-risk disease or low platelet counts (50-100 × 10 9 /L) was less robust. The company's economic model was well-presented and had an appropriate model structure. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated to be around £45,000 per

  12. On the causes of early life experience effects: evaluating the role of mom.

    PubMed

    Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S

    2014-04-01

    Early life experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early spinal cord and brainstem involvement in infantile Leigh syndrome possibly caused by a novel variant.

    PubMed

    Tenney, Jeffrey R; Prada, Carlos E; Hopkin, Robert J; Hallinan, Barbara E

    2013-12-01

    Leigh syndrome, due to a dysfunction of mitochondrial energy metabolism, is a genetically heterogeneous and progressive neurologic disorder that usually occurs in infancy and childhood. Its clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings can be variable, especially early in the course of the disease. This report presents a patient with infantile Leigh syndrome who had atypical radiologic findings on serial neuroimaging studies with early and severe involvement of the cervical spinal cord and brainstem and injury to the thalami and basal ganglia occurring only late in the clinical course. Postmortem microscopic examination supported this timing of injury within the central nervous system. In addition, mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing showed a novel homoplasmic variant that could be responsible for this unique lethal form of Leigh syndrome.

  14. Symptomatic hypoglycemia causing brain injury in a term breast fed newborn following early discharge.

    PubMed

    Marwah, Ashish; Gathwala, Geeta

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral metabolism and functioning depends upon an adequate blood glucose supply which provides for majority of the brain's energy requirement. Studies from the past have shown that neonatal hypoglycemia is associated with acute and long term neurological sequelae. Early discharge without adequately established breast feeding may lead to feeding problems, post discharge hypoglycemia and its associated neurological complications. The authors describe one such case of an exclusively breast fed term newborn who presented on day 3 with symptomatic hypoglycemia and associated neurological injury.

  15. Can mutation-mediated effects occurring early in development cause long-term seizure susceptibility in genetic generalized epilepsies?

    PubMed

    Reid, Christopher Alan; Rollo, Ben; Petrou, Steven; Berkovic, Samuel F

    2018-05-01

    Epilepsy has a strong genetic component, with an ever-increasing number of disease-causing genes being discovered. Most epilepsy-causing mutations are germ line and thus present from conception. These mutations are therefore well positioned to have a deleterious impact during early development. Here we review studies that investigate the role of genetic lesions within the early developmental window, specifically focusing on genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). Literature on the potential pathogenic role of sub-mesoscopic structural changes in GGE is also reviewed. Evidence from rodent models of genetic epilepsy support the idea that functional and structural changes can occur in early development, leading to altered seizure susceptibility into adulthood. Both animal and human studies suggest that sub-mesoscopic structural changes occur in GGE. The existence of sub-mesoscopic structural changes prior to seizure onset may act as biomarkers of excitability in genetic epilepsies. We also propose that presymptomatic treatment may be essential for limiting the long-term consequences of disease-causing mutations in genetic epilepsies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Carprofen for perioperative analgesia causes early anastomotic leakage in the rat ileum.

    PubMed

    van der Vijver, Rozemarijn J; van Laarhoven, Cees J H M; Lomme, Roger M L M; Hendriks, Thijs

    2012-12-27

    There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic healing in the rat ileum. In 159 male Wistar rats an anastomosis was constructed in the ileum. In experiment 1 eighty-four rats were divided over control and experimental groups, which received daily buprenorphine or carprofen, respectively, as an analgesic and were killed on day 1, 2 or 3 after surgery. In experiment 2 three groups of 15 rats received carprofen either immediately after surgery or with a delay of 1 or 2 days. Animals were killed after 3 days of carprofen administration. In experiment 3 three groups of 10 rats received different doses (full, half or quarter) of carprofen from surgery. In significant contrast to buprenorphine, which never did so, carprofen induced frequent signs of anastomotic leakage, which were already present at day 1. If first administration was delayed for 48 hours, the leakage rate was significantly reduced (from 80 to 20%; p = 0.0028). Throughout the study, the anastomotic bursting pressure was lowest in animals who displayed signs of anastomotic leakage. Loss of anastomotic integrity did not coincide with reduced levels of hydroxyproline or increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Carprofen interferes with wound healing in the rat ileum at a very early stage. Although the mechanisms responsible remain to be fully elucidated, one should be aware of the potential of NSAIDs to interfere with the early phase of wound repair.

  17. Epidemiology of myelofibrosis, essential thrombocythemia, and polycythemia vera in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Moulard, Odile; Mehta, Jyotsna; Fryzek, Jon; Olivares, Robert; Iqbal, Usman; Mesa, Ruben A

    2014-04-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and polycythemia vera (PV) are BCR ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Published epidemiology data are scarce, and multiple sources are needed to assess the disease burden. We assembled the most recent information available on the incidence and prevalence of myelofibrosis (MF), ET, and PV by conducting a structured and exhaustive literature review of the published peer-reviewed literature in EMBASE and by reviewing online documentation from disease registries and relevant health registries in European countries. The search was restricted to human studies written in English or French and published between January 1, 2000, and December 6, 2012. Eleven articles identified from EMBASE, three online hematology or oncology registries, and two Web-based databases or reports were used to summarize epidemiological estimates for MF, PV, and ET. The incidence rate of MF ranged from 0.1 per 100,000 per year to 1 per 100,000 per year. Among the various registries, the incidence of PV ranged from 0.4 per 100,000 per year to 2.8 per 100,000 per year, while the literature estimated the range of PV incidence to be 0.68 per 100,000 to 2.6 per 100,000 per year. The estimated incidence of ET was between 0.38 per 100,000 per year and 1.7 per 100,000 per year. While a few studies reported on the MPNs' prevalences, it is difficult to compare them as various types of prevalence were calculated (point prevalence vs. period prevalence) and standardization was made according to different populations (e.g., the world population and the European population). There is a wide variation in both prevalence and incidence estimates observed across European data sources. Carefully designed studies, with standardized definitions of MPNs and complete ascertainment of patients including both primary and secondary MFs, should be conducted so that estimates of the population aimed to receive novel treatments for these neoplasms are

  18. Carprofen for perioperative analgesia causes early anastomotic leakage in the rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic healing in the rat ileum. Results In 159 male Wistar rats an anastomosis was constructed in the ileum. In experiment 1 eighty-four rats were divided over control and experimental groups, which received daily buprenorphine or carprofen, respectively, as an analgesic and were killed on day 1, 2 or 3 after surgery. In experiment 2 three groups of 15 rats received carprofen either immediately after surgery or with a delay of 1 or 2 days. Animals were killed after 3 days of carprofen administration. In experiment 3 three groups of 10 rats received different doses (full, half or quarter) of carprofen from surgery. In significant contrast to buprenorphine, which never did so, carprofen induced frequent signs of anastomotic leakage, which were already present at day 1. If first administration was delayed for 48 hours, the leakage rate was significantly reduced (from 80 to 20%; p = 0.0028). Throughout the study, the anastomotic bursting pressure was lowest in animals who displayed signs of anastomotic leakage. Loss of anastomotic integrity did not coincide with reduced levels of hydroxyproline or increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Conclusions Carprofen interferes with wound healing in the rat ileum at a very early stage. Although the mechanisms responsible remain to be fully elucidated, one should be aware of the potential of NSAIDs to interfere with the early phase of wound repair. PMID:23270317

  19. Early ionic and membrane potential changes caused by the pesticide rotenone in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Bonsi, P; Calabresi, P; De Persis, C; Papa, M; Centonze, D; Bernardi, G; Pisani, A

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism impairment has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. In the present work, we combined electrophysiological recordings and microfluorometric measurements from cholinergic interneurons obtained from a rat neostriatal slice preparation. Acute application of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone produced an early membrane hyperpolarization coupled to a fall in input resistance, followed by a late depolarizing response. Current-voltage relationship showed a reversal potential of -80 +/- 3 mV, suggesting the involvement of a potassium (K+) current. Simultaneous measurement of intracellular sodium [Na+]i or calcium [Ca2+]i concentrations revealed a striking correlation between [Na+]i elevation and the early membrane hyperpolarization, whereas a significant [Ca2+]i rise matched the depolarizing phase. Interestingly, ion and membrane potential changes were mimicked by ouabain, inhibitor of the Na+-K+ATPase, and were insensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX) or to a combination of glutamate receptor antagonists. The rotenone effects were partially reduced by blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, glibenclamide and tolbutamide, and largely attenuated by a low Na+-containing solution. Morphological analysis of the rotenone effects on striatal slices showed a significant decrease in the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactive cells. These results suggest that rotenone rapidly disrupts the ATP content, leading to a decreased Na+-K+ATPase function and, therefore, to [Na+]i overload. In turn, the hyperpolarizing response might be generated both by the opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels and by Na+-activated K+ conductances. The increase in [Ca2+]i occurs lately and does not seem to influence the early events.

  20. [Incidence and causes of early end in awake surgery for language mapping not directly related to eloquence].

    PubMed

    Villalba, Gloria; Pacreu, Susana; Fernández-Candil, Juan Luis; León, Alba; Serrano, Laura; Conesa, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and causes that may lead to an early end (unfinished cortical/subcortical mapping) of awake surgery for language mapping are little known. A study was conducted on 41 patients with brain glioma located in the language area that had awake surgery under conscious sedation. Surgery was ended early in 6 patients. The causes were: tonic-clonic seizure (1), lack of cooperation due to fatigue/sleep (4), whether or not word articulation was involved, a decreased level of consciousness for ammonia encephalopathy that required endotracheal intubation (1). There are causes that could be expected and in some cases avoided. Tumour size, preoperative aphasia, valproate treatment, and type of anaesthesia used are variables to consider to avoid failure in awake surgery for language mapping. With these results, the following measures are proposed: l) If the tumour is large, perform surgery in two times to avoid fatigue, 2) if patient has a preoperative aphasia, do not use sedation during surgery to ensure that sleepiness does not cause worse word articulation, 3) if the patient is on valproate treatment, it is necessary to rule out the pre-operative symptoms that are not due to ammonia encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole exome sequencing frequently detects a monogenic cause in early onset nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis.

    PubMed

    Daga, Ankana; Majmundar, Amar J; Braun, Daniela A; Gee, Heon Yung; Lawson, Jennifer A; Shril, Shirlee; Jobst-Schwan, Tilman; Vivante, Asaf; Schapiro, David; Tan, Weizhen; Warejko, Jillian K; Widmeier, Eugen; Nelson, Caleb P; Fathy, Hanan M; Gucev, Zoran; Soliman, Neveen A; Hashmi, Seema; Halbritter, Jan; Halty, Margarita; Kari, Jameela A; El-Desoky, Sherif; Ferguson, Michael A; Somers, Michael J G; Traum, Avram Z; Stein, Deborah R; Daouk, Ghaleb H; Rodig, Nancy M; Katz, Avi; Hanna, Christian; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Sayer, John A; Wassner, Ari J; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P; Milosevic, Danko; Tasic, Velibor; Baum, Michelle A; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis continues to rise. Previously, we showed that a monogenic cause could be detected in 11.4% of individuals with adult-onset nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis and in 16.7-20.8% of individuals with onset before 18 years of age, using gene panel sequencing of 30 genes known to cause nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis. To overcome the limitations of panel sequencing, we utilized whole exome sequencing in 51 families, who presented before age 25 years with at least one renal stone or with a renal ultrasound finding of nephrocalcinosis to identify the underlying molecular genetic cause of disease. In 15 of 51 families, we detected a monogenic causative mutation by whole exome sequencing. A mutation in seven recessive genes (AGXT, ATP6V1B1, CLDN16, CLDN19, GRHPR, SLC3A1, SLC12A1), in one dominant gene (SLC9A3R1), and in one gene (SLC34A1) with both recessive and dominant inheritance was detected. Seven of the 19 different mutations were not previously described as disease-causing. In one family, a causative mutation in one of 117 genes that may represent phenocopies of nephrolithiasis-causing genes was detected. In nine of 15 families, the genetic diagnosis may have specific implications for stone management and prevention. Several factors that correlated with the higher detection rate in our cohort were younger age at onset of nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis, presence of multiple affected members in a family, and presence of consanguinity. Thus, we established whole exome sequencing as an efficient approach toward a molecular genetic diagnosis in individuals with nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis who manifest before age 25 years. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Hakan; Dülgergil, Çoruh T.; Dalli, Mehmet; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. ECC can begin early in life, progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Its consequences can affect the immediate and long-term quality of life of the child's family and can have significant social and economic consequences beyond the immediate family as well. ECC can be a particularly virulent form of caries, beginning soon after dental eruption, developing on smooth surfaces, progressing rapidly, and having a lasting detrimental impact on the dentition. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both the primary and permanent dentitions. The relationship between breastfeeding and ECC is likely to be complex and confounded by many biological variables, such as mutans streptococci, enamel hypoplasia, intake of sugars, as well as social variables, such as parental education and socioeconomic status, which may affect oral health. Unlike other infectious diseases, tooth decay is not self-limiting. Decayed teeth require professional treatment to remove infection and restore tooth function. In this review, we give detailed information about ECC, from its diagnosis to management. PMID:23633832

  3. Ear2 deletion causes early memory and learning deficits in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Markus P; Hammerschmidt, Thea; Martinez, Ana; Terwel, Dick; Eichele, Gregor; Witten, Anika; Figura, Stefanie; Stoll, Monika; Schwartz, Stephanie; Pape, Hans-Christian; Schultze, Joachim L; Weinshenker, David; Heneka, Michael T; Urban, Inga

    2014-06-25

    To assess the consequences of locus ceruleus (LC) degeneration and subsequent noradrenaline (NA) deficiency in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) were crossed with Ear2(-/-) mice that have a severe loss of LC neurons projecting to the hippocampus and neocortex. Testing spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation revealed an impairment in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice, whereas APP/PS1 or Ear2(-/-) mice showed only minor changes. These deficits were associated with distinct synaptic changes including reduced expression of the NMDA 2A subunit and increased levels of NMDA receptor 2B in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. Acute pharmacological replacement of NA by L-threo-DOPS partially restored phosphorylation of β-CaMKII and spatial memory performance in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. These changes were not accompanied by altered APP processing or amyloid β peptide (Aβ) deposition. Thus, early LC degeneration and subsequent NA reduction may contribute to cognitive deficits via CaMKII and NMDA receptor dysfunction independent of Aβ and suggests that NA supplementation could be beneficial in treating AD. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348845-10$15.00/0.

  4. Tactile stimulation partially prevents neurodevelopmental changes in visual tract caused by early iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Gibb, Robbin; Kolb, Bryan; Bray, Douglas; Lachat, Joao-Jose

    2017-02-15

    Iron deficiency has a critical impact on maturational mechanisms of the brain and the damage related to neuroanatomical parameters is not satisfactorily reversed after iron replacement. However, emerging evidence suggest that enriched early experience may offer great therapeutic efficacy in cases of nutritional disorders postnatally, since the brain is remarkably responsive to its interaction with the environment. Given the fact that tactile stimulation (TS) treatment has been previously shown to be an effective therapeutic approach and with potential application to humans, here we ask whether exposure to TS treatment, from postnatal day (P) 1 to P32 for 3min/day, could also be employed to prevent neuroanatomical changes in the optic nerve of rats maintained on an iron-deficient diet during brain development. We found that iron deficiency changed astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber, and myelinated fiber density, however, TS reversed the iron-deficiency-induced alteration in oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber and myelinated fiber density, but failed to reverse astrocyte density. Our results suggest that early iron deficiency may act by disrupting the timing of key steps in visual system development thereby modifying the normal progression of optic nerve maturation. However, optic nerve development is sensitive to enriching experiences, and in the current study we show that this sensitivity can be used to prevent damage from postnatal iron deficiency during the critical period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Malrotation with transverse colon volvulus in early pregnancy: a rare cause for acute intestinal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Digvijoy; Parameshwaran, Rajesh; Dani, Tushar; Shetty, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a relatively uncommon cause of large bowel obstruction, accounting for 10% of colonic obstructions. Volvulus of the transverse colon is quite rare, accounting for only 4–11% of all reported cases. We report an unusual case of documented volvulus of the transverse colon in a pregnant woman with intestinal malrotation and concomitant acute intestinal obstruction by congenital bands and adhesions. PMID:23964051

  6. [Health as utopia. Grounds and causes of lack of demand for early diagnostic measures (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Buser, K; Oeter, K

    1981-11-27

    The quite obvious neglect of prophylactic measures cannot be attributed to a single cause only. Ground are rather to be found both in the psychic disposition and in the social stratum of the population as well as in the nature of the prophylaxis available. A synopsis leads to the conclusion that effective prevention requires not only changing the attitude of the patient or the population but also that of the supplier of the health promoting services.

  7. Managing side effects of JAK inhibitors for myelofibrosis in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Iram; McLornan, Donal; Harrison, Claire N

    2017-07-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, abnormalities in peripheral counts, extramedullary hematopoiesis, splenomegaly and an increased risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukaemia. The disease course is often heterogeneous and management can range from observation alone through to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. As of 2017, the only approved medication for MF remains the JAK Inhibitor (JAKi), ruxolitinib (Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Basel, Switzerland; Incyte, Wilmington, Detroit, USA) although several others have reached advanced stages of clinical trials. Areas covered: In this review, we focus on the management of both common and uncommon side effects arising from the use of currently approved and clinical trial JAKi. Most of the discussion concerns ruxolitinib although we also cover both pacritinib (CTI BioPharma) and momelotinib (Gilead Sciences, Foster City, California) which have been in recent large, multinational phase III trials. The various approaches to management of JAKi-related side effects are discussed - with particular emphasis to anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and infection risk. Expert commentary: JAK inhibitors are effective in many individuals with MF and have revolutionized the current treatment paradigm. The side effect profile, in the most, is predictable and manageable with high degrees of clinical surveillance and dose modifications.

  8. Protein kinase Cɛ inhibition restores megakaryocytic differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors from primary myelofibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Masselli, E; Carubbi, C; Gobbi, G; Mirandola, P; Galli, D; Martini, S; Bonomini, S; Crugnola, M; Craviotto, L; Aversa, F; Vitale, M

    2015-11-01

    Among the three classic Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is the most severe in terms of disease biology, survival and quality of life. Abnormalities in the process of differentiation of PMF megakaryocytes (MKs) are a hallmark of the disease. Nevertheless, the molecular events that lead to aberrant megakaryocytopoiesis have yet to be clarified. Protein kinase Cɛ (PKCɛ) is a novel serine/threonine kinase that is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, promoting aggressive phenotype, invasiveness and drug resistance. Our previous findings on the role of PKCɛ in normal (erythroid and megakaryocytic commitment) and malignant (acute myeloid leukemia) hematopoiesis prompted us to investigate whether it could be involved in the pathogenesis of PMF MK-impaired differentiation. We demonstrate that PMF megakaryocytic cultures express higher levels of PKCɛ than healthy donors, which correlate with higher disease burden but not with JAK2V617F mutation. Inhibition of PKCɛ function (by a negative regulator of PKCɛ translocation) or translation (by target small hairpin RNA) leads to reduction in PMF cell growth, restoration of PMF MK differentiation and inhibition of PKCɛ-related anti-apoptotic signaling (Bcl-xL). Our data suggest that targeting PKCɛ directly affects the PMF neoplastic clone and represent a proof-of-concept for PKCɛ inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in PMF.

  9. Ruxolitinib for the management of myelofibrosis: Results of an international physician survey.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Martin H; Koren-Michowitz, Maya; Lavi, Noa; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Mesa, Ruben; Harrison, Claire N

    2017-10-01

    Ruxolitinib is established as treatment for symptomatic myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN)-associated myelofibrosis. The strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and dose modification rules that applied to the COMFORTI and II studies that led to the licensing of ruxolitinib are not always applicable to routine clinical practice. Thus physicians now face decisions regarding ruxolitinib use that were not addressed in these pivotal trials. We performed an online survey of hematologists practicing in Europe, Israel, the United Kingdom and the United States. Demographic details regarding the physicians and their practice as relates to MPNs were collected. Management decisions pertaining to the use of ruxolitinib were obtained regarding 10 clinical scenarios relating to anemia, thrombocytopenia, frailty, infection and lack or loss of response to ruxolitnib in MF patients. 140 physicians responded to the survey. There were marked differences regarding their decisions for ruxolitinib administration in MF patients with or developing anemia or thrombocytopenia. Similarly there was little consensus regarding management of patients refractory or losing a response to ruxolitinib. There were differences between "MPN-focused" and "non-MPN-focused" physicians in certain areas. Physician practices regarding management of MF patients experiencing ruxolitinib-related toxicities or in whom response to the drug is lost was variable. This was true of "MPN-focused" and "non-MPN-focused" physicians in certain cases. Physician education and experience in using ruxolitinib may improve patient management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment and management of myelofibrosis in the era of JAK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Keohane, Clodagh; Radia, Deepti H; Harrison, Claire N

    2013-01-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) can present as a primary disorder or evolve from polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET) to post-PV MF or post-ET MF, respectively. MF is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, leukoerythroblastosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and a collection of debilitating symptoms. Until recently, the therapeutic options for patients with MF consisted of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT), the use of cytoreductive agents (ie, hydroxyurea), splenectomy and splenic irradiation for treatment of splenomegaly, and management of anemia with transfusions, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), androgens, and immunomodulatory agents. However, with increased understanding of the pathogenesis of MF resulting from dysregulated Janus kinase (JAK) signaling, new targeted JAK inhibitor therapies, such as ruxolitinib, are now available. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical features of MF, discuss the use and future of JAK inhibitors, reassess when and how to use conventional MF treatments in the context of JAK inhibitors, and provide a perspective on the future of MF treatment. PMID:23990704

  11. Treatment and management of myelofibrosis in the era of JAK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Clodagh; Radia, Deepti H; Harrison, Claire N

    2013-01-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) can present as a primary disorder or evolve from polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET) to post-PV MF or post-ET MF, respectively. MF is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, leukoerythroblastosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and a collection of debilitating symptoms. Until recently, the therapeutic options for patients with MF consisted of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT), the use of cytoreductive agents (ie, hydroxyurea), splenectomy and splenic irradiation for treatment of splenomegaly, and management of anemia with transfusions, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), androgens, and immunomodulatory agents. However, with increased understanding of the pathogenesis of MF resulting from dysregulated Janus kinase (JAK) signaling, new targeted JAK inhibitor therapies, such as ruxolitinib, are now available. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical features of MF, discuss the use and future of JAK inhibitors, reassess when and how to use conventional MF treatments in the context of JAK inhibitors, and provide a perspective on the future of MF treatment.

  12. Integrative analysis of copy number and gene expression data suggests novel pathogenetic mechanisms in primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Salati, Simona; Zini, Roberta; Nuzzo, Simona; Guglielmelli, Paola; Pennucci, Valentina; Prudente, Zelia; Ruberti, Samantha; Rontauroli, Sebastiano; Norfo, Ruggiero; Bianchi, Elisa; Bogani, Costanza; Rotunno, Giada; Fanelli, Tiziana; Mannarelli, Carmela; Rosti, Vittorio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Pietra, Daniela; Ferrari, Sergio; Barosi, Giovanni; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario; Bicciato, Silvio; Tagliafico, Enrico; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Manfredini, Rossella

    2016-04-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN) characterized by megakaryocyte hyperplasia, progressive bone marrow fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis and transformation to Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). A number of phenotypic driver (JAK2, CALR, MPL) and additional subclonal mutations have been described in PMF, pointing to a complex genomic landscape. To discover novel genomic lesions that can contribute to disease phenotype and/or development, gene expression and copy number signals were integrated and several genomic abnormalities leading to a concordant alteration in gene expression levels were identified. In particular, copy number gain in the polyamine oxidase (PAOX) gene locus was accompanied by a coordinated transcriptional up-regulation in PMF patients. PAOX inhibition resulted in rapid cell death of PMF progenitor cells, while sparing normal cells, suggesting that PAOX inhibition could represent a therapeutic strategy to selectively target PMF cells without affecting normal hematopoietic cells' survival. Moreover, copy number loss in the chromatin modifier HMGXB4 gene correlates with a concomitant transcriptional down-regulation in PMF patients. Interestingly, silencing of HMGXB4 induces megakaryocyte differentiation, while inhibiting erythroid development, in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. These results highlight a previously un-reported, yet potentially interesting role of HMGXB4 in the hematopoietic system and suggest that genomic and transcriptional imbalances of HMGXB4 could contribute to the aberrant expansion of the megakaryocytic lineage that characterizes PMF patients. © 2015 UICC.

  13. Clinical effect of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR, or MPL in primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Guglielmelli, Paola; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Casetti, Ilaria; Colomer, Dolors; Pieri, Lisa; Pratcorona, Marta; Rotunno, Giada; Sant’Antonio, Emanuela; Bellini, Marta; Cavalloni, Chiara; Mannarelli, Carmela; Milanesi, Chiara; Boveri, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Astori, Cesare; Rosti, Vittorio; Cervantes, Francisco; Barosi, Giovanni; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the impact of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR, (calreticulin gene) or MPL on clinical course, leukemic transformation, and survival of patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Of the 617 subjects studied, 399 (64.7%) carried JAK2 (V617F), 140 (22.7%) had a CALR exon 9 indel, 25 (4.0%) carried an MPL (W515) mutation, and 53 (8.6%) had nonmutated JAK2, CALR, and MPL (so-called triple-negative PMF). Patients with CALR mutation had a lower risk of developing anemia, thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis compared with other subtypes. They also had a lower risk of thrombosis compared with patients carrying JAK2 (V617F). At the opposite, triple-negative patients had higher incidence of leukemic transformation compared with either CALR-mutant or JAK2-mutant patients. Median overall survival was 17.7 years in CALR-mutant, 9.2 years in JAK2-mutant, 9.1 years in MPL-mutant, and 3.2 years in triple-negative patients. In multivariate analysis corrected for age, CALR-mutant patients had better overall survival than either JAK2-mutant or triple-negative patients. The impact of genetic lesions on survival was independent of current prognostic scoring systems. These observations indicate that driver mutations define distinct disease entities within PMF. Accounting for them is not only relevant to clinical decision-making, but should also be considered in designing clinical trials. PMID:24986690

  14. Mutant calreticulin knockin mice develop thrombocytosis and myelofibrosis without a stem cell self-renewal advantage.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Prins, Daniel; Park, Hyun Jung; Grinfeld, Jacob; Gonzalez-Arias, Carlos; Loughran, Stephen; Dovey, Oliver M; Klampfl, Thorsten; Bennett, Cavan; Hamilton, Tina L; Pask, Dean C; Sneade, Rachel; Williams, Matthew; Aungier, Juliet; Ghevaert, Cedric; Vassiliou, George S; Kent, David G; Green, Anthony R

    2018-02-08

    Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calreticulin (CALR) are detected in approximately 40% of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Multiple different mutations have been reported, but all result in a +1-bp frameshift and generate a novel protein C terminus. In this study, we generated a conditional mouse knockin model of the most common CALR mutation, a 52-bp deletion. The mutant novel human C-terminal sequence is integrated into the otherwise intact mouse CALR gene and results in mutant CALR expression under the control of the endogenous mouse locus. CALR del/+ mice develop a transplantable ET-like disease with marked thrombocytosis, which is associated with increased and morphologically abnormal megakaryocytes and increased numbers of phenotypically defined hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Homozygous CALR del/del mice developed extreme thrombocytosis accompanied by features of MF, including leukocytosis, reduced hematocrit, splenomegaly, and increased bone marrow reticulin. CALR del/+ HSCs were more proliferative in vitro, but neither CALR del/+ nor CALR del/del displayed a competitive transplantation advantage in primary or secondary recipient mice. These results demonstrate the consequences of heterozygous and homozygous CALR mutations and provide a powerful model for dissecting the pathogenesis of CALR-mutant ET and PMF. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Kinase-dead ATM protein causes genomic instability and early embryonic lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Yunyue; Jiang, Wenxia; Liu, Xiangyu; Dubois, Richard L; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Ludwig, Thomas; Bakkenist, Christopher J; Zha, Shan

    2012-08-06

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) kinase orchestrates deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage responses by phosphorylating numerous substrates implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint activation. A-T patients and mouse models that express no ATM protein undergo normal embryonic development but exhibit pleiotropic DNA repair defects. In this paper, we report that mice carrying homozygous kinase-dead mutations in Atm (Atm(KD/KD)) died during early embryonic development. Atm(KD/-) cells exhibited proliferation defects and genomic instability, especially chromatid breaks, at levels higher than Atm(-/-) cells. Despite this increased genomic instability, Atm(KD/-) lymphocytes progressed through variable, diversity, and joining recombination and immunoglobulin class switch recombination, two events requiring nonhomologous end joining, at levels comparable to Atm(-/-) lymphocytes. Together, these results reveal an essential function of ATM during embryogenesis and an important function of catalytically inactive ATM protein in DNA repair.

  16. Apolipoprotein E4 causes early olfactory network abnormalities and short-term olfactory memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Peng, Katherine Y; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Wilson, Donald A

    2017-02-20

    While apolipoprotein (Apo) E4 is linked to increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is growing evidence that it plays a role in functional brain irregularities that are independent of AD pathology. However, ApoE4-driven functional differences within olfactory processing regions have yet to be examined. Utilizing knock-in mice humanized to ApoE4 versus the more common ApoE3, we examined a simple olfactory perceptual memory that relies on the transfer of information from the olfactory bulb (OB) to the piriform cortex (PCX), the primary cortical region involved in higher order olfaction. In addition, we have recorded in vivo resting and odor-evoked local field potentials (LPF) from both brain regions and measured corresponding odor response magnitudes in anesthetized young (6-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ApoE mice. Young ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited a behavioral olfactory deficit coinciding with hyperactive odor-evoked response magnitudes within the OB that were not observed in older ApoE4 mice. Meanwhile, middle-aged ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited heightened response magnitudes in the PCX without a corresponding olfactory deficit, suggesting a shift with aging in ApoE4-driven effects from OB to PCX. Interestingly, the increased ApoE4-specific response in the PCX at middle-age was primarily due to a dampening of baseline spontaneous activity rather than an increase in evoked response power. Our findings indicate that early ApoE4-driven olfactory memory impairments and OB network abnormalities may be a precursor to later network dysfunction in the PCX, a region that not only is targeted early in AD, but may be selectively vulnerable to ApoE4 genotype. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced fiber tracking in early acquired brain injury causing cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, F; Holmström, L; Eliasson, A-C; Flodmark, O; Forssberg, H; Tournier, J-D; Vollmer, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and fiber tractography can be used to investigate alterations in white matter tracts in patients with early acquired brain lesions and cerebral palsy. Most existing studies have used diffusion tensor tractography, which is limited in areas of complex fiber structures or pathologic processes. We explored a combined normalization and probabilistic fiber-tracking method for more realistic fiber tractography in this patient group. This cross-sectional study included 17 children with unilateral cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing controls. DWI data were collected at 1.5T (45 directions, b=1000 s/mm(2)). Regions of interest were defined on a study-specific fractional anisotropy template and mapped onto subjects for fiber tracking. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex was performed by using constrained spherical deconvolution. Tracts were qualitatively assessed, and DTI parameters were extracted close to and distant from lesions and compared between groups. The corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex were realistically reconstructed in both groups. Structural changes to tracts were seen in the cerebral palsy group and included splits, dislocations, compaction of the tracts, or failure to delineate the tract and were associated with underlying pathology seen on conventional MR imaging. Comparisons of DTI parameters indicated primary and secondary neurodegeneration along the corticospinal tract. Corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex showed dissimilarities in both structural changes and DTI parameters. Our proposed method offers a sensitive means to explore alterations in WM tracts to further understand pathophysiologic changes following early acquired brain injury. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Two novel mutations in thymidine kinase-2 cause early onset fatal encephalomyopathy and severe mtDNA depletion.

    PubMed

    Lesko, Nicole; Naess, Karin; Wibom, Rolf; Solaroli, Nicola; Nennesmo, Inger; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Karlsson, Anna; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2010-03-01

    Deficiency of thymidine kinase-2 (TK2) has been described in children with early onset fatal skeletal myopathy. TK2 is a mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside kinase required for the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine and deoxythymidine and hence is vital for the maintenance of a balanced mitochondrial dNTP pool in post-mitotic tissues. We describe a patient with two novel TK2 mutations, which caused disease onset shortly after birth and death at the age of three months. One mutation (219insCG) generated an early stop codon, thus preventing the synthesis of a functional protein. The second mutation (R130W) resulted in an amino acid substitution, which caused a severe reduction (<3%) of TK2 enzyme activity. These two novel TK2 mutations cause an extremely severe phenotype with overwhelming central nervous system symptoms not commonly seen in patients with TK2-deficiency. We conclude that the severe clinical presentation in this patient was due to a virtual lack of mitochondrial TK2 activity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Guarani, Virginia; Jardel, Claude; Chrétien, Dominique; Lombès, Anne; Bénit, Paule; Labasse, Clémence; Lacène, Emmanuelle; Bourillon, Agnès; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Dorboz, Imen; Gilleron, Mylène; Goetzman, Eric S; Gaignard, Pauline; Slama, Abdelhamid; Elmaleh-Bergès, Monique; Romero, Norma B; Rustin, Pierre; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Paulo, Joao A; Harper, J Wade; Schiff, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we identified QIL1 as a subunit of mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex and demonstrated a role for QIL1 in MICOS assembly, mitochondrial respiration, and cristae formation critical for mitochondrial architecture (Guarani et al., 2015). Here, we identify QIL1 null alleles in two siblings displaying multiple clinical symptoms of early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease, including defects in respiratory chain function in patient muscle. QIL1 absence in patients’ fibroblasts was associated with MICOS disassembly, abnormal cristae, mild cytochrome c oxidase defect, and sensitivity to glucose withdrawal. QIL1 expression rescued cristae defects, and promoted re-accumulation of MICOS subunits to facilitate MICOS assembly. MICOS assembly and cristae morphology were not efficiently rescued by over-expression of other MICOS subunits in patient fibroblasts. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence of altered MICOS assembly linked with a human mitochondrial disease and confirm a central role for QIL1 in stable MICOS complex formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17163.001 PMID:27623147

  20. Little Evidence That Time in Child Care Causes Externalizing Problems During Early Childhood in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric; Lekhal, Ratib; Toppelberg, Claudio O.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between maternal reports of hours in child care and children’s externalizing problems at 18 and 36 months of age were examined in a population-based Norwegian sample (n = 75,271). Within a sociopolitical context of homogenously high-quality child care, there was little evidence that high quantity of care causes externalizing problems. Using conventional approaches to handling selection bias and listwise deletion for substantial attrition in this sample, more hours in care predicted higher problem levels, yet with small effect sizes. The finding, however, was not robust to using multiple imputation for missing values. Moreover, when sibling and individual fixed-effects models for handling selection bias were used, no relation between hours and problems was evident. PMID:23311645

  1. Ethanol and High Cholesterol Diet Causes Severe Steatohepatitis and Early Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; Gooz, Monika; Schnellmann, Rick G.; Lemasters, John J.; Zhong, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Because ethanol consumption is commonly associated with a high cholesterol diet, we examined whether combined consumption of ethanol and high cholesterol increases liver injury and fibrosis. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed diets containing: 1) 35% of calories from corn oil (CTR), 2) CTR plus 0.5% (w/v) cholesterol (Chol), 3) CTR plus ethanol (27% of calories) (EtOH), or 4) EtOH+Chol for 3 months. Results In mice fed Chol or EtOH alone, ALT increased to ~160 U/L, moderate hepatic steatosis occurred, and leukocyte infiltration, necrosis, and apoptosis increased modestly, but no observable fibrosis developed. By contrast in mice fed EtOH+Chol, ALT increased to ~270 U/L, steatosis was more extensive and mostly macrovesicular, and expression of proinflammatory molecules (HMGB-1, TLR4, TNFα, ICAM-1) and leukocyte infiltration increased substantially. Necrosis and apoptosis also increased. Trichrome staining and second harmonic generation microscopy revealed hepatic fibrosis. Fibrosis was mostly sinusoidal and/or perivenular, but in some mice bridging fibrosis occurred. Expression of smooth muscle α-actin and TGF-β1 increased slightly by Chol, moderately by EtOH, and markedly by EtOH+Chol. TGF-β pseudoreceptor BAMBI increased slightly by Chol, remained unchanged by EtOH and decreased by EtOH+Chol. MicroRNA-33a, which enhances TGF-β fibrotic effects, and phospho-Smad2/3, the down-stream signal of TGF-β, also increased more greatly by EtOH+Chol than Chol or EtOH. Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 were decreased only by EtOH+Chol. Conclusion High dietary cholesterol and chronic ethanol consumption synergistically increase liver injury, inflammation, and profibrotic responses and suppress antifibrotic responses, leading to severe steatohepatitis and early fibrosis in mice. PMID:27676640

  2. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection: a recognized cause of early-onset prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-12-28

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 178 patients were included, among whom 162 had non-mycobacterial PJI and 16 had mycobacterial PJI. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) (11) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) (5) were the causative pathogens of mycobacterial PJI. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Infection within 90 days of arthroplasty was significantly associated with RGM infection (OR 21.86; 95% CI 4.25-112.30; p < .001). Implant removal was associated with improved favorable outcomes at 6 months (OR 5.96; 95% CI 1.88-18.88; p < .01) and 12 months (OR 3.96; 95% CI 1.15-13.71; p = .03) after the infection. RGM were the major pathogens of early onset PJI after THA and TKA. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes.

  3. Prenatal and early-life diesel exhaust exposure causes autism-like behavioral changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Cole, Toby B; Costa, Lucio G

    2018-04-20

    Escalating prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in recent decades has triggered increasing efforts in understanding roles played by environmental risk factors as a way to address this widespread public health concern. Several epidemiological studies show associations between developmental exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased ASD risk. In rodent models, a limited number of studies have shown that developmental exposure to ambient ultrafine particulates or diesel exhaust (DE) can result in behavioral phenotypes consistent with mild ASD. We performed a series of experiments to determine whether developmental DE exposure induces ASD-related behaviors in mice. C57Bl/6J mice were exposed from embryonic day 0 to postnatal day 21 to 250-300 μg/m 3 DE or filtered air (FA) as control. Mice exposed developmentally to DE exhibited deficits in all three of the hallmark categories of ASD behavior: reduced social interaction in the reciprocal interaction and social preference tests, increased repetitive behavior in the T-maze and marble-burying test, and reduced or altered communication as assessed by measuring isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations and responses to social odors. These findings demonstrate that exposure to traffic-related air pollution, in particular that associated with diesel-fuel combustion, can cause ASD-related behavioral changes in mice, and raise concern about air pollution as a contributor to the onset of ASD in humans.

  4. Early Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis as a Cause of Renal Allograft Primary Nonfunction

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Emma J.; Thomson, Peter C.; Kipgen, David; Clancy, Marc; Daly, Conal

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the commonest causes of glomerular disease and if left untreated will often progress to established renal failure. In many cases the best treatment option is renal transplantation; however primary FSGS may rapidly recur in renal allografts and may contribute to delayed graft function. We present a case of primary nonfunction in a renal allograft due to biopsy-proven FSGS. Case Report. A 32-year-old man presented with serum albumin of 22 g/L, proteinuria quantified at 12 g/L, and marked peripheral oedema. Renal biopsy demonstrated tip-variant FSGS. Despite treatment, the patient developed progressive renal dysfunction and was commenced on haemodialysis. Cadaveric renal transplantation was undertaken; however this was complicated by primary nonfunction. Renal biopsies failed to demonstrate evidence of acute rejection but did demonstrate clear evidence of FSGS. The patient was treated to no avail. Discussion. Primary renal allograft nonfunction following transplantation is often due to acute kidney injury or acute rejection. Recurrent FSGS is recognised as a phenomenon that drives allograft dysfunction but is not traditionally associated with primary nonfunction. This case highlights FSGS as a potentially aggressive process that, once active in the allograft, may prove refractory to targeted treatment. Preemptive therapies in patients deemed to be at high risk of recurrent disease may be appropriate and should be considered. PMID:23781382

  5. Indirect and non-medical economic burden, quality-of-life, and disabilities of the myelofibrosis disease in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Emmanuel; Besses, Carles; Boque, Concepcion; Velez, Patricia; Kerguelen, Ana; Cervantes, Francisco; Ferrer-Marin, Francisca; Perez-Encinas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Juan Diego; Calzada, Reyes; Hernandez-Boluda, Juan Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Myelofibrosis is a non-frequent chronic myeloproliferative Philadelphia-negative chromosome neoplasm. It is a heavy incapacitating orphan disease and associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this context, indirect and non-medical costs are expected to be high. The main objective of this project is to estimate the economic burden of this disease in Spain. Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of myelofibrosis for at least 1 year participated in a questionnaire in three Spanish centers. The study consisted of analyzing in various aspects the cost and impact of the disease; indeed, daily life time limitations with a need of informal care, symtomatology. Additionally, information concerning the clinical management of the disease was collected through a focus group of eight experts. The mean age was 65 years. 15 of 33 patients were at their productive stage. Six had difficulties at work and eight have received informal care. Bone and muscular pain were the main symptoms of patients (72%). The estimated global indirect and non-medical costs of the disease were 86,315€ per patient (20% working and 80% informal care), which reached 104,153€ at productive stage patients (45%) and 168,459€ for more symptomatic patients. The economic burden of indirect and non-medical costs of myelofibrosis are important (15,142€/annual) as a result, and should be considered in economic evaluation, as well as in preventive plans for patients and caregivers, despite the fact that studies with larger numbers of patients should be done.

  6. Expression of CALR mutants causes mpl-dependent thrombocytosis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lim, K-H; Chang, Y-C; Chiang, Y-H; Lin, H-C; Chang, C-Y; Lin, C-S; Huang, L; Wang, W-T; Gon-Shen Chen, C; Chou, W-C; Kuo, Y-Y

    2016-10-07

    CALR mutations are identified in about 30% of JAK2/MPL-unmutated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis. Although the molecular pathogenesis of CALR mutations leading to MPNs has been studied using in vitro cell lines models, how mutant CALR may affect developmental hematopoiesis remains unknown. Here we took advantage of the zebrafish model to examine the effects of mutant CALR on early hematopoiesis and model human CALR-mutated MPNs. We identified three zebrafish genes orthologous to human CALR, referred to as calr, calr3a and calr3b. The expression of CALR-del52 and CALR-ins5 mutants caused an increase in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells followed by thrombocytosis without affecting normal angiogenesis. The expression of CALR mutants also perturbed early developmental hematopoiesis in zebrafish. Importantly, morpholino knockdown of mpl but not epor or csf3r could significantly attenuate the effects of mutant CALR. Furthermore, the expression of mutant CALR caused jak-stat signaling activation in zebrafish that could be blocked by JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib and fedratinib). These findings showed that mutant CALR activates jak-stat signaling through an mpl-dependent mechanism to mediate pathogenic thrombopoiesis in zebrafish, and illustrated that the signaling machinery related to mutant CALR tumorigenesis are conserved between human and zebrafish.

  7. Causes and prognostic factors for early death in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with single-agent arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinxiao; Wang, Shuye; Zhang, Yingmei; Fan, Dachuan; Li, Haitao; Yang, Yiju; Ge, Fei; Hou, Wenyi; Fu, Jinyue; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Hongli; Sun, Jiayue; Yang, Kunpeng; Zhou, Jin; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-12-01

    Early death (ED) is one of the most critical issues involved in the current care of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Factors identified as independent predictors of ED varied among published studies. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence, causes, and prognostic factors of ED in a series of 216 patients with newly diagnosed APL who received arsenic trioxide (ATO) as induction therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of clinical factors with overall ED, hemorrhagic ED, death within 7 days, and death within 8-30 days. In total, 35 EDs (16.2%) occurred that were caused by hemorrhage, differentiation syndrome (DS), infection, and other causes, in order of prevalence. The independent prognostic factors for overall ED and death within 8-30 days were the same and included serum creatinine level, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score, sex, and fibrinogen level. The risk factors for hemorrhagic ED and death within 7 days were similar and included serum creatinine level, ECOG score, and white blood cell count, while hemorrhagic ED was also associated with D-dimer. Our findings revealed a high rate of ED, and the causes of ED were similar to those among patients who received ATRA-based therapy. Increased creatinine level was the most powerful predictor, and an ECOG score greater than 2 was another strong prognostic factor for all four types of ED.

  8. Early Events in Retinal Degeneration Caused by Rhodopsin Mutation or Pigment Epithelium Malfunction: Differences and Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierdomenico, Johnny; García-Ayuso, Diego; Pinilla, Isabel; Cuenca, Nicolás; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Villegas-Pérez, María P.

    2017-01-01

    To study the course of photoreceptor cell death and macro and microglial reactivity in two rat models of retinal degeneration with different etiologies. Retinas from P23H-1 (rhodopsin mutation) and Royal College of Surgeon (RCS, pigment epithelium malfunction) rats and age-matched control animals (Sprague-Dawley and Pievald Viro Glaxo, respectively) were cross-sectioned at different postnatal ages (from P10 to P60) and rhodopsin, L/M- and S-opsin, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were immunodetected. Photoreceptor nuclei rows and microglial cells in the different retinal layers were quantified. Photoreceptor degeneration starts earlier and progresses quicker in P23H-1 than in RCS rats. In both models, microglial cell activation occurs simultaneously with the initiation of photoreceptor death while GFAP over-expression starts later. As degeneration progresses, the numbers of microglial cells increase in the retina, but decreasing in the inner retina and increasing in the outer retina, more markedly in RCS rats. Interestingly, and in contrast with healthy animals, microglial cells reach the outer nuclei and outer segment layers. The higher number of microglial cells in dystrophic retinas cannot be fully accounted by intraretinal migration and PCNA immunodetection revealed microglial proliferation in both models but more importantly in RCS rats. The etiology of retinal degeneration determines the initiation and pattern of photoreceptor cell death and simultaneously there is microglial activation and migration, while the macroglial response is delayed. The actions of microglial cells in the degeneration cannot be explained only in the basis of photoreceptor death because they participate more actively in the RCS model. Thus, the retinal degeneration caused by pigment epithelium malfunction is more inflammatory and would probably respond better to interventions

  9. Annual Research Review: Attachment disorders in early childhood – clinical presentation, causes, correlates and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Though noted in the clinical literature for more than 50 years, attachment disorders have been studied systematically only recently. In part because of the ubiquity of attachments in humans, determining when aberrant behavior is best explained as an attachment disorder as opposed to insecure attachment has led to some confusion. In this selective review, we consider the literature on reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder and describe an emerging consensus about a number of issues, while also noting some areas of controversy and others where we lack clear answers. We include a brief history of the classification of the disorders, as well as measurement issues. We describe their clinical presentation, causes and vulnerability factors, and clinical correlates, including the relation of disorders to secure and insecure attachment classifications. We also review what little is known and what more we need to learn about interventions. Methods We conducted a literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases, using search terms “reactive attachment disorder,” “attachment disorder,” “indiscriminate behavior,” “indiscriminate friendliness,” “indiscriminate socially disinhibited reactive attachment disorder,” “disinhibited social engagement disorder,” and “disinhibited social behavior.” We also contacted investigators who have published on these topics. Findings A growing literature has assessed behaviors in children who have experienced various types of adverse caregiving environments reflecting signs of putative attachment disorders, though fewer studies have investigated categorically defined attachment disorders. The evidence for two separate disorders is considerable, with reactive attachment disorder indicating children who lack attachments despite the developmental capacity to form them, and disinhibited social engagement disorder indicating children who lack

  10. Autoimmune myelofibrosis accompanied by Sjögren's syndrome in a 47, XXX/46, XX mosaic woman.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a patient with autoimmune myelofibrosis accompanied by Sjögren's syndrome (SS). A 36-year-old woman was admitted due to petechiae, purpura, gingival bleeding, dyspnea on exertion, and a lack of concentration. She had pancytopenia and was diagnosed with SS. A bone marrow study showed hypercellular marrow with reticulin fibrosis. Lymphocytic infiltrates and aggregates composed of a mixture of T and B cells in the marrow were also observed. A chromosomal analysis of the marrow cells showed 47, XXX and an analysis of peripheral lymphocytes revealed 47, XXX/46, XX mosaic results. The patient's cytopenia resolved following treatment with oral prednisolone.

  11. Texture Segregation Causes Early Figure Enhancement and Later Ground Suppression in Areas V1 and V4 of Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Poort, Jasper; Self, Matthew W; van Vugt, Bram; Malkki, Hemi; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-10-01

    Segregation of images into figures and background is fundamental for visual perception. Cortical neurons respond more strongly to figural image elements than to background elements, but the mechanisms of figure-ground modulation (FGM) are only partially understood. It is unclear whether FGM in early and mid-level visual cortex is caused by an enhanced response to the figure, a suppressed response to the background, or both.We studied neuronal activity in areas V1 and V4 in monkeys performing a texture segregation task. We compared texture-defined figures with homogeneous textures and found an early enhancement of the figure representation, and a later suppression of the background. Across neurons, the strength of figure enhancement was independent of the strength of background suppression.We also examined activity in the different V1 layers. Both figure enhancement and ground suppression were strongest in superficial and deep layers and weaker in layer 4. The current-source density profiles suggested that figure enhancement was caused by stronger synaptic inputs in feedback-recipient layers 1, 2, and 5 and ground suppression by weaker inputs in these layers, suggesting an important role for feedback connections from higher level areas. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms for figure-ground organization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Texture Segregation Causes Early Figure Enhancement and Later Ground Suppression in Areas V1 and V4 of Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Poort, Jasper; Self, Matthew W.; van Vugt, Bram; Malkki, Hemi; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2016-01-01

    Segregation of images into figures and background is fundamental for visual perception. Cortical neurons respond more strongly to figural image elements than to background elements, but the mechanisms of figure–ground modulation (FGM) are only partially understood. It is unclear whether FGM in early and mid-level visual cortex is caused by an enhanced response to the figure, a suppressed response to the background, or both. We studied neuronal activity in areas V1 and V4 in monkeys performing a texture segregation task. We compared texture-defined figures with homogeneous textures and found an early enhancement of the figure representation, and a later suppression of the background. Across neurons, the strength of figure enhancement was independent of the strength of background suppression. We also examined activity in the different V1 layers. Both figure enhancement and ground suppression were strongest in superficial and deep layers and weaker in layer 4. The current–source density profiles suggested that figure enhancement was caused by stronger synaptic inputs in feedback-recipient layers 1, 2, and 5 and ground suppression by weaker inputs in these layers, suggesting an important role for feedback connections from higher level areas. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms for figure–ground organization. PMID:27522074

  13. Early-Onset Severe Encephalopathy with Epilepsy: The BRAT1 Gene Should Be Added to the List of Causes.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Laura A; Wolf, Nicole I; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Stam, Cornelie J; Weiss, Janneke M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Kevelam, Sietske H; Bugiani, Mariana; van de Kamp, Jiddeke M; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2015-12-01

    A variety of pathologies can underlie early-onset severe encephalopathy with epilepsy. To aid the diagnostic process in such patients we present an overview of causes, including the rapidly expanding list of genes involved. When no explanation is found, whole-exome sequencing (WES) can be used in an attempt to identify gene defects in patients suspected to suffer from a genetic form. We describe three siblings, born to consanguineous parents, with a lethal severe epileptic encephalopathy with early-infantile onset, including their magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography and, in one case, neuropathological findings. Using WES a homozygous frameshift mutation in the BRAT1 gene, c.638dup p.(Val214Glyfs*189), was identified. We present our cases in the context of all published cases with mutations in the BRAT1 gene and conclude that BRAT1 should be added to the growing list of genes related to early-onset severe encephalopathy with epilepsy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Clinical effect of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR, or MPL in primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Guglielmelli, Paola; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Casetti, Ilaria; Colomer, Dolors; Pieri, Lisa; Pratcorona, Marta; Rotunno, Giada; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Bellini, Marta; Cavalloni, Chiara; Mannarelli, Carmela; Milanesi, Chiara; Boveri, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Astori, Cesare; Rosti, Vittorio; Cervantes, Francisco; Barosi, Giovanni; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Cazzola, Mario

    2014-08-14

    We studied the impact of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR, (calreticulin gene) or MPL on clinical course, leukemic transformation, and survival of patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Of the 617 subjects studied, 399 (64.7%) carried JAK2 (V617F), 140 (22.7%) had a CALR exon 9 indel, 25 (4.0%) carried an MPL (W515) mutation, and 53 (8.6%) had nonmutated JAK2, CALR, and MPL (so-called triple-negative PMF). Patients with CALR mutation had a lower risk of developing anemia, thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis compared with other subtypes. They also had a lower risk of thrombosis compared with patients carrying JAK2 (V617F). At the opposite, triple-negative patients had higher incidence of leukemic transformation compared with either CALR-mutant or JAK2-mutant patients. Median overall survival was 17.7 years in CALR-mutant, 9.2 years in JAK2-mutant, 9.1 years in MPL-mutant, and 3.2 years in triple-negative patients. In multivariate analysis corrected for age, CALR-mutant patients had better overall survival than either JAK2-mutant or triple-negative patients. The impact of genetic lesions on survival was independent of current prognostic scoring systems. These observations indicate that driver mutations define distinct disease entities within PMF. Accounting for them is not only relevant to clinical decision-making, but should also be considered in designing clinical trials. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Primary myelofibrosis with or without mutant MPL: comparison of survival and clinical features involving 603 patients.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, A; Guglielmelli, P; Lasho, T L; Pancrazzi, A; Finke, C M; Vannucchi, A M; Tefferi, A

    2011-12-01

    MPL and JAK2V617F mutation analysis was performed in 603 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) seen at the Mayo Clinic, USA (n=329) or University of Florence, Italy (n=274). Mutant MPL was detected in 49 (8.1%) patients and JAK2V617F in 350 (58%); 4 patients showed both mutations. MPLW515L/K was the commonest mutation; 2 patients showed novel mutations (L513ins and Q516-P518insAAAA). The US and Italy patient cohorts were separately analyzed for comparison of survival and clinical features between MPL-mutated, JAK2-mutated and JAK2/MPL-unmutated cases. JAK2/MPL-unmutated patients were significantly younger than their JAK2-mutated counterparts, in both patient cohorts (P<0.01). In the Florence only cohort, the presence of mutant MPL was associated with older age (P<0.01) and constitutional symptoms (P=0.04) and JAK2V617F with higher hemoglobin (P<0.01) and leukocyte (P=0.03) count; neither patient cohort showed significant associations with platelet count, hemoglobin <10 g/dl, abnormal/unfavorable karyotype, spleen size or prognostic score distribution. To date, 240 deaths and 79 leukemic transformations have been documented among all 603 study patients. Multivariable analysis disclosed no significant difference in overall or leukemia-free survival between the three molecular subgroups. We conclude that the presence of mutant MPL has narrow and inconsistent phenotypic effect in PMF and does not influence overall or leukemia-free survival.

  16. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62−CCR2− (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  17. Overexpression of FKBP51 in idiopathic myelofibrosis regulates the growth factor independence of megakaryocyte progenitors.

    PubMed

    Giraudier, Stéphane; Chagraoui, Hédia; Komura, Emiko; Barnache, Stéphane; Blanchet, Benoit; LeCouedic, Jean Pierre; Smith, David F; Larbret, Frédéric; Taksin, Anne-Laure; Moreau-Gachelin, Françoise; Casadevall, Nicole; Tulliez, Michel; Hulin, Anne; Debili, Najet; Vainchenker, William

    2002-10-15

    Idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by megakaryocyte hyperplasia and bone marrow fibrosis. Biologically, an autonomous megakaryocyte growth and differentiation is noticed, which contributes to the megakaryocyte accumulation. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this spontaneous growth, we searched for genes differentially expressed between normal megakaryocytes requiring cytokines to grow and IMF spontaneously proliferating megakaryocytes. Using a differential display technique, we found that the immunophilin FKBP51 was 2 to 8 times overexpressed in megakaryocytes derived from patients' CD34(+) cells in comparison to normal megakaryocytes. Overexpression was moderate and confirmed in 8 of 10 patients, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of FKBP51 in a UT-7/Mpl cell line and in normal CD34(+) cells induced a resistance to apoptosis mediated by cytokine deprivation with no effect on proliferation. FKBP51 interacts with both calcineurin and heat shock protein (HSP)70/HSP90. However, a mutant FKBP51 deleted in the HSP70/HSP90 binding site kept the antiapoptotic effect, suggesting that the calcineurin pathway was responsible for the FKBP51 effect. Overexpression of FKBP51 in UT-7/Mpl cells induced a marked inhibition of calcineurin activity. Pharmacologic inhibition of calcineurin by cyclosporin A mimicked the effect of FKBP51. The data support the conclusion that FKBP51 inhibits apoptosis through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. In conclusion, FKBP51 is overexpressed in IMF megakaryocytes and this overexpression could be, in part, responsible for the megakaryocytic accumulation observed in this disorder by regulating their apoptotic program.

  18. A founder mutation in presenilin 1 causing early-onset Alzheimer disease in unrelated Caribbean Hispanic families.

    PubMed

    Athan, E S; Williamson, J; Ciappa, A; Santana, V; Romas, S N; Lee, J H; Rondon, H; Lantigua, R A; Medrano, M; Torres, M; Arawaka, S; Rogaeva, E; Song, Y Q; Sato, C; Kawarai, T; Fafel, K C; Boss, M A; Seltzer, W K; Stern, Y; St George-Hyslop, P; Tycko, B; Mayeux, R

    2001-11-14

    Genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease (AD) have not been comprehensively examined in Caribbean Hispanics, a population in the United States in whom the frequency of AD is higher compared with non-Hispanic whites. To identify variant alleles in genes related to familial early-onset AD among Caribbean Hispanics. Family-based case series conducted in 1998-2001 at an AD research center in New York, NY, and clinics in the Dominican Republic. Among 206 Caribbean Hispanic families with 2 or more living members with AD who were identified, 19 (9.2%) had at least 1 individual with onset of AD before the age of 55 years. The entire coding region of the presenilin 1 gene and exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid precursor protein gene were sequenced in probands from the 19 families and their living relatives. A G-to-C nucleotide change resulting in a glycine-alanine amino acid substitution at codon 206 (Gly206Ala) in exon 7 of presenilin 1 was observed in 23 individuals from 8 (42%) of the 19 families. A Caribbean Hispanic individual with the Gly206Ala mutation and early-onset familial disease was also found by sequencing the corresponding genes of 319 unrelated individuals in New York City. The Gly206Ala mutation was not found in public genetic databases but was reported in 5 individuals from 4 Hispanic families with AD referred for genetic testing. None of the members of these families were related to one another, yet all carriers of the Gly206Ala mutation tested shared a variant allele at 2 nearby microsatellite polymorphisms, indicating a common ancestor. No mutations were found in the amyloid precursor protein gene. The Gly206Ala mutation was found in 8 of 19 unrelated Caribbean Hispanic families with early-onset familial AD. This genetic change may be a prevalent cause of early-onset familial AD in the Caribbean Hispanic population.

  19. Difference in causes and prognostic factors of early death between cohorts with de novo and relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongli; Zhao, Yanqiu; Zhang, Yingmei; Hou, Jinxiao; Yang, Huiyuan; Cao, Fenglin; Yang, Yiju; Hou, Wenyi; Sun, Jiayue; Jin, Bo; Fu, Jinyue; Li, Haitao; Wang, Ping; Ge, Fei; Zhou, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Early death (ED) remains the most critical issue in the current care of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Very limited data are available regarding ED in patients with relapsed APL. In this retrospective study, 285 de novo and 79 relapsed patients were included. All patients received single-agent arsenic trioxide as induction therapy. The differences in baseline clinical features, incidence, causes, and prognostic factors of ED were compared between the two patient cohorts. The relapse cohort exhibited a better overall condition than the de novo cohort upon hospital admission. The ED rate in the relapsed patients (24.1%) was somewhat higher than that in the de novo patients (17.9%), although the difference was not significant (P = 0.219). For both cohorts, hemorrhage was the main cause of ED, followed by differentiation syndrome, infection, and other causes. Increased serum creatinine level, older age, male sex, white blood cell (WBC) count > 10 × 10 9 /L, and fibrinogen < 1 g/L were independently risk factors for ED in the de novo patients, whereas WBC count > 10 × 10 9 /L, elevated serum uric acid level, and D-dimer > 4 mg/L were independent risk factors for ED in the relapsed patients. These data furnish clinically relevant information that might be useful for designing more appropriate risk-adapted treatment protocols aimed at reducing ED rate in patients with relapsed APL.

  20. Clinical utility of routine MPL exon 10 analysis in the diagnosis of essential thrombocythaemia and primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Elaine M; Bench, Anthony J; Goday-Fernández, Andrea; Anand, Shubha; Vaghela, Krishna J; Beer, Phillip; Scott, Mike A; Bareford, David; Green, Anthony R; Huntly, Brian; Erber, Wendy N

    2010-04-01

    Approximately 50% of essential thrombocythaemia and primary myelo-fibrosis patients do not have a JAK2 V617F mutation. Up to 5% of these are reported to have a MPL exon 10 mutation but testing for MPL is not routine as there are multiple mutation types. The ability to routinely assess both JAK2 and MPL mutations would be beneficial in the differential diagnosis of unexplained thrombocytosis or myelofibrosis. We developed and applied a high resolution melt (HRM) assay, capable of detecting all known MPL mutations in a single analysis, for the detection of MPL exon 10 mutations. We assessed 175 ET and PMF patients, including 67 that were JAK2 V617F-negative by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 19/175 (11%) patients had a MPL exon 10 mutation, of whom 16 were JAK2 V617F-negative (16/67; 24%). MPL mutation types were W515L (11), W515K (4), W515R (2) and W515A (1). One patient had both W515L and S505N MPL mutations and these were present in the same haemopoietic colonies. Real time PCR for JAK2 V617F analysis and HRM for MPL exon 10 status identified one or more clonal marker in 71% of patients. This combined genetic approach increases the sensitivity of meeting the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for these myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  1. Transfusion Independency and Histological Remission in a Patient with Advanced Primary Myelofibrosis Receiving Iron-Chelation Therapy with Deferasirox.

    PubMed

    Groepper, Stefanie; Schlue, Jerome; Haferlach, Claudia; Giagounidis, Aristoteles

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload is a common problem in patients with primary myelofibrosis and anemia due to transfusion dependency. This results in organ damage and toxic effects on hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. At present, iron chelation therapy is not recommended in patients with myeloproliferative syndromes. We describe a very interesting development in a patient with primary myelofibrosis receiving iron chelation. Transfusion independency and a nearly complete histological remission of the underlying disease occurred within a few weeks of therapy. In addition, a change in molecular genetic findings was observed. Initially a JAK2 and a U2AF1 mutation were detected in the core biopsy. During and after therapy the U2AF1 mutation progressed, whereas the JAK2 mutation could no longer be verified. The improvement in hematopoiesis might results from reduction of oxidative stress on hematopoietic progenitor cells or other unclear deferasirox-mediated effects, whereas the reason for the change in molecular genetic findings is unclear. It appears that deferasirox might have a modulating effect on JAK2-kinase mutations. However, further investigation of selective molecular suppression properties of deferasirox are warranted. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. Biallelic Mutations in TBCD, Encoding the Tubulin Folding Cofactor D, Perturb Microtubule Dynamics and Cause Early-Onset Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Flex, Elisabetta; Niceta, Marcello; Cecchetti, Serena; Thiffault, Isabelle; Au, Margaret G; Capuano, Alessandro; Piermarini, Emanuela; Ivanova, Anna A; Francis, Joshua W; Chillemi, Giovanni; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Carpentieri, Giovanna; Haaxma, Charlotte A; Ciolfi, Andrea; Pizzi, Simone; Douglas, Ganka V; Levine, Kara; Sferra, Antonella; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Pfundt, Rolph R; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Farrow, Emily; Baas, Frank; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Graham, John M; Saunders, Carol J; Bertini, Enrico; Kahn, Richard A; Koolen, David A; Tartaglia, Marco

    2016-10-06

    Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal elements coordinating and supporting a variety of neuronal processes, including cell division, migration, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. Mutations in genes encoding tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins are known to cause neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence suggests that altered microtubule dynamics may also underlie or contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegeneration. We report that biallelic mutations in TBCD, encoding one of the five co-chaperones required for assembly and disassembly of the αβ-tubulin heterodimer, the structural unit of microtubules, cause a disease with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative features characterized by early-onset cortical atrophy, secondary hypomyelination, microcephaly, thin corpus callosum, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, optic atrophy, and spastic quadriplegia. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted long-range and/or local structural perturbations associated with the disease-causing mutations. Biochemical analyses documented variably reduced levels of TBCD, indicating relative instability of mutant proteins, and defective β-tubulin binding in a subset of the tested mutants. Reduced or defective TBCD function resulted in decreased soluble α/β-tubulin levels and accelerated microtubule polymerization in fibroblasts from affected subjects, demonstrating an overall shift toward a more rapidly growing and stable microtubule population. These cells displayed an aberrant mitotic spindle with disorganized, tangle-shaped microtubules and reduced aster formation, which however did not alter appreciably the rate of cell proliferation. Our findings establish that defective TBCD function underlies a recognizable encephalopathy and drives accelerated microtubule polymerization and enhanced microtubule stability, underscoring an additional cause of altered microtubule dynamics with

  3. Causes of Early-Age Thermal Cracking of Concrete Foundation Slabs and their Reinforcement to Control the Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilčík, Juraj; Sonnenschein, Róbert; Gažovičová, Natália

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on the causes and consequences of early-age cracking of mass concrete foundation slabs due to restrained volume changes. Considering the importance of water leaking through cracks in terms of the serviceability, durability and environmental impact of watertight concrete structures, emphasis is placed on the effect of temperature loads on foundation slabs. Foundation slabs are usually restrained to some degree externally or internally. To evaluate the effect of external restraints on foundation slabs, friction and interaction models are introduced. The reinforcement of concrete cannot prevent the initiation of cracking, but when cracking has occurred, it may act to reduce the spacing and width of cracks. According to EN 1992-1-1, results of calculating crack widths with local variations included in National Annexes (NAs) vary considerably. A comparison of the required reinforcement areas according to different NAs is presented.

  4. A novel presenilin 1 mutation (Ala275Val) as cause of early-onset familial Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Luedecke, Daniel; Becktepe, Jos S; Lehmbeck, Jan T; Finckh, Ulrich; Yamamoto, Raina; Jahn, Holger; Boelmans, Kai

    2014-04-30

    Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene (PSEN1) are associated with familial Alzheimer disease (FAD). Here, we report on a 50-year-old patient presenting with progressive deterioration of his short-term memory and a family history of early-onset dementia. Diagnostic workup included a neuropsychological examination, structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers including total tau, phosphorylated tau, and Aβ42 levels, as well as sequencing relevant fragments of the genes PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP. Additionally, we were able to obtain archival paraffin-embedded cerebellar tissue from the patient's father for cosegregation analysis. Clinical, neuropsychological and MR imaging data were indicative of early-onset Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, CSF biomarkers showed a typical pattern for Alzheimer disease. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous nucleotide transition (c.824C>T) in exon 8 of PSEN1, leading to an amino acid change from alanine to valine at codon 275 (Ala275Val). The same mutation was found in an archival brain specimen of the patient's demented father, but not in a blood sample of the non-demented mother. This mutation alters a conserved residue in the large hydrophilic loop of PS1, suggesting pathogenic relevance. Cosegregegation analysis and the structural as well as the presumed functional role of the mutated and highly conserved residue suggest FAD causing characteristics of the novel PSEN1 mutation Ala275Val. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inability to have children caused by recurrent HELLP syndrome in early pregnancies - implications for a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawelec, Małgorzata; Karmowski, Andrzej; Karmowski, Mikołaj; Krzemieniewska, Joanna; Kulczycka, Aleksandra; Gabryś, Marian Stanisław; Koryś, Jerzy; Gworys, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    This review is inspired by a case of two pregnancies of the same patient complicated by HELLP syndrome, which suggests that there is a predisposition for the occurrence of preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome in early pregnancy. HELLP syndrome, uncommon below the 20th week and rarer still in two consecutive pregnancies, appeared in two pregnancies of the same woman. The aim of our work is to try to understand the cause of heterogeneity of HELLP syndrome and help find a way of prolonging such pregnancies. Recurrent HELLP syndrome in early pregnancy is a form of severe, fulminant preeclampsia. The preceding symptom is a surge in blood pressure. The hypertension becomes resistant to antihypertensive drugs, which indicates that preexisting hypertension is later accompanied by other factors contributing to the rise in blood pressure. Different effects of high dosage of corticosteroids on liver and platelets show that there are different factors responsible for liver damage and for thrombocytopenia. It seems that the symptoms have various origins, so the therapy with one drug only is not sufficiently effective. Nicotine analogues or a plant extract (from rootstock of Eriosema kraussianum) used by South African traditional healers for erectile dysfunction seem to give a chance of prolonging pregnancy and, consequently, having children.

  6. Loss-of-function mutations in TNFAIP3 leading to A20 haploinsufficiency cause an early-onset autoinflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Hongying; Schwartz, Daniella M; Stoffels, Monique; Park, Yong Hwan; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Demirkaya, Erkan; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tsai, Wanxia Li; Lyons, Jonathan J; Yu, Xiaomin; Ouyang, Claudia; Chen, Celeste; Chin, David T; Zaal, Kristien; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; P Hanson, Eric; Yu, Zhen; Mullikin, James C; Hasni, Sarfaraz A; Wertz, Ingrid E; Ombrello, Amanda K; Stone, Deborah L; Hoffmann, Patrycja; Jones, Anne; Barham, Beverly K; Leavis, Helen L; van Royen-Kerkof, Annet; Sibley, Cailin; Batu, Ezgi D; Gül, Ahmet; Siegel, Richard M; Boehm, Manfred; Milner, Joshua D; Ozen, Seza; Gadina, Massimo; Chae, JaeJin; Laxer, Ronald M; Kastner, Daniel L; Aksentijevich, Ivona

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoinflammatory diseases are driven by abnormal activation of innate immunity. Herein we describe a new disease caused by high-penetrance heterozygous germline mutations in TNFAIP3, which encodes the NF-κB regulatory protein A20, in six unrelated families with early-onset systemic inflammation. The disorder resembles Behçet's disease, which is typically considered a polygenic disorder with onset in early adulthood. A20 is a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Mutant, truncated A20 proteins are likely to act through haploinsufficiency because they do not exert a dominant-negative effect in overexpression experiments. Patient-derived cells show increased degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit together with increased expression of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory cytokines. A20 restricts NF-κB signals via its deubiquitinase activity. In cells expressing mutant A20 protein, there is defective removal of Lys63-linked ubiquitin from TRAF6, NEMO and RIP1 after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF). NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory cytokines are potential therapeutic targets for the patients with this disease.

  7. Review shows that early foetal alcohol exposure may cause adverse effects even when the mother consumes low levels.

    PubMed

    Sarman, Ihsan

    2018-06-01

    Studies are increasingly focusing on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on child health. The aim of this review was to provide paediatricians with new insights to help them communicate key messages about avoiding alcohol during pregnancy. Inspired by the 7th International Conference on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, which focused on integrating research, policy and practice, we studied English language papers published since 2010 on how early PAE triggered epigenetic mechanisms that had an impact on the development of some chronic diseases. We also report the findings of a human study using three-dimensional photography of the face to explore associations between PAE and craniofacial phenotyping. Animal models with different alcohol exposure patterns show that early PAE may lead to long-term chronic effects, due to developmental programming for some adult diseases in cardiovascular, metabolic and renal systems. The study with three-dimensional photographing is very promising in helping paediatricians to understand how even small amounts of PAE can affect craniofacial phenotyping. Even low levels of PAE can cause adverse foetal effects and not just in the brain. It is not currently possible to determine a safe period and level when alcohol consumption would not affect the foetus. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Loss-of-function mutations in TNFAIP3 leading to A20 haploinsufficiency cause an early onset autoinflammatory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Hongying; Schwartz, Daniella M.; Stoffels, Monique; Park, Yong Hwan; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Demirkaya, Erkan; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tsai, Wanxia Li; Lyons, Jonathan J.; Yu, Xiaomin; Ouyang, Claudia; Chen, Celeste; Chin, David T.; Zaal, Kristien; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Hanson, Eric P.; Yu, Zhen; Mullikin, James C.; Hasni, Sarfaraz A.; Wertz, Ingrid; Ombrello, Amanda K.; Stone, Deborah L.; Hoffmann, Patrycja; Jones, Anne; Barham, Beverly K.; Leavis, Helen L.; van Royen-Kerkof, Annet; Sibley, Cailin; Batu, Ezgi D.; Gül, Ahmet; Siegel, Richard M.; Boehm, Manfred; Milner, Joshua D.; Ozen, Seza; Gadina, Massimo; Chae, JaeJin; Laxer, Ronald M.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Aksentijevich, Ivona

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoinflammatory diseases are driven by abnormal activation of innate immunity1. Herein we describe a new syndrome caused by high penetrance heterozygous germline mutations in the NFκB regulatory protein TNFAIP3 (A20) in six unrelated families with early onset systemic inflammation. The syndrome resembles Behçet’s disease (BD), which is typically considered a polygenic disorder with onset in early adulthood2. A20 is a potent inhibitor of the NFκB signaling pathway3. TNFAIP3 mutant truncated proteins are likely to act by haploinsufficiency since they do not exert a dominant-negative effect in overexpression experiments. Patients’ cells show increased degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of NFκB p65, and increased expression of NFκB-mediated proinflammatory cytokines. A20 restricts NFκB signals via deubiquitinating (DUB) activity. In cells expressing the mutant A20 protein, there is defective removal of K63-linked ubiquitin from TRAF6, NEMO, and RIP1 after TNF stimulation. NFκB-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines are potential therapeutic targets for these patients. PMID:26642243

  9. De Novo Mutations in SLC25A24 Cause a Disorder Characterized by Early Aging, Bone Dysplasia, Characteristic Face, and Early Demise.

    PubMed

    Writzl, Karin; Maver, Ales; Kovačič, Lidija; Martinez-Valero, Paula; Contreras, Laura; Satrustegui, Jorgina; Castori, Marco; Faivre, Laurence; Lapunzina, Pablo; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Radović, Slobodanka; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Peterlin, Borut; Del Arco, Araceli; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2017-11-02

    A series of simplex cases have been reported under various diagnoses sharing early aging, especially evident in congenitally decreased subcutaneous fat tissue and sparse hair, bone dysplasia of the skull and fingers, a distinctive facial gestalt, and prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. For historical reasons, we suggest naming the entity Fontaine syndrome. Exome sequencing of four unrelated affected individuals showed that all carried the de novo missense variant c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) or c.650G>A (p.Arg217His) in SLC25A24, a solute carrier 25 family member coding for calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein (SCaMC-1, also known as SLC25A24). SLC25A24 allows an electro-neutral and reversible exchange of ATP-Mg and phosphate between the cytosol and mitochondria, which is required for maintaining optimal adenine nucleotide levels in the mitochondrial matrix. Molecular dynamic simulation studies predict that p.Arg217Cys and p.Arg217His narrow the substrate cavity of the protein and disrupt transporter dynamics. SLC25A24-mutant fibroblasts and cells expressing p.Arg217Cys or p.Arg217His variants showed altered mitochondrial morphology, a decreased proliferation rate, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased ATP-linked mitochondrial oxygen consumption. The results suggest that the SLC25A24 mutations lead to impaired mitochondrial ATP synthesis and cause hyperpolarization and increased proton leak in association with an impaired energy metabolism. Our findings identify SLC25A24 mutations affecting codon 217 as the underlying genetic cause of human progeroid Fontaine syndrome. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overexpression of the base excision repair NTHL1 glycosylase causes genomic instability and early cellular hallmarks of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Limpose, Kristin L; Trego, Kelly S; Li, Zhentian; Leung, Sara W; Sarker, Altaf H; Shah, Jason A; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Werner, Erica M; Dynan, William S; Cooper, Priscilla K; Corbett, Anita H; Doetsch, Paul W

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Base excision repair (BER), which is initiated by DNA N-glycosylase proteins, is the frontline for repairing potentially mutagenic DNA base damage. The NTHL1 glycosylase, which excises DNA base damage caused by reactive oxygen species, is thought to be a tumor suppressor. However, in addition to NTHL1 loss-of-function mutations, our analysis of cancer genomic datasets reveals that NTHL1 frequently undergoes amplification or upregulation in some cancers. Whether NTHL1 overexpression could contribute to cancer phenotypes has not yet been explored. To address the functional consequences of NTHL1 overexpression, we employed transient overexpression. Both NTHL1 and a catalytically-dead NTHL1 (CATmut) induce DNA damage and genomic instability in non-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) when overexpressed. Strikingly, overexpression of either NTHL1 or CATmut causes replication stress signaling and a decrease in homologous recombination (HR). HBEC cells that overexpress NTHL1 or CATmut acquire the ability to grow in soft agar and exhibit loss of contact inhibition, suggesting that a mechanism independent of NTHL1 catalytic activity contributes to acquisition of cancer-related cellular phenotypes. We provide evidence that NTHL1 interacts with the multifunctional DNA repair protein XPG suggesting that interference with HR is a possible mechanism that contributes to acquisition of early cellular hallmarks of cancer. PMID:29522130

  11. Early onset hearing loss in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets caused by loss of function mutation in ENPP1.

    PubMed

    Steichen-Gersdorf, Elisabeth; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Strom, Tim Matthias; Shaw, Nicholas J

    2015-07-01

    Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets 2 (ARHR2) is a rare form of renal tubular phosphate wasting disorder. Loss of function mutations of the ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/pyrophosphodiesterase 1 gene (ENPP1) causes a wide spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from lethal generalized arterial calcification of infancy to hypophosphatemic rickets with hypertension. Hearing loss was not previously thought to be one of the features of the disease entities and was merely regarded as a complication rather than a part of the disease. We report two children who presented in mid to late childhood with progressive varus deformity of their legs due to hypophosphatemic rickets caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene. Both children had evidence of progressive hearing loss requiring the use of hearing aids. This report of two unrelated infants with compound heterozygous mutations in ENPP1 and previously published cases confirms that mild to moderate hearing loss is frequently associated with ARHR2. Early onset conductive hearing loss may further distinguish the autosomal recessive ENPP1 related type from other types of hypophosphatemia.

  12. Hmga2 promotes the development of myelofibrosis in Jak2V617F knockin mice by enhancing TGF-β1 and Cxcl12 pathways.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Avik; Hutchison, Robert E; Mohi, Golam

    2017-08-17

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is a devastating blood disorder. The JAK2V617F mutation has been detected in ∼50% cases of MF. Elevated expression of high-mobility group AT hook 2 (HMGA2) has also been frequently observed in patients with MF. Interestingly, upregulation of HMGA2 expression has been found in association with the JAK2V617F mutation in significant cases of MF. However, the contribution of HMGA2 in the pathogenesis of MF remains elusive. To determine the effects of concurrent expression of HMGA2 and JAK2V617F mutation in hematopoiesis, we transduced bone marrow cells from Jak2 V617F knockin mice with lentivirus expressing Hmga2 and performed bone marrow transplantation. Expression of Hmga2 enhanced megakaryopoiesis, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis, and accelerated the development of MF in mice expressing Jak2 V617F Mechanistically, the data show that expression of Hmga2 enhances the activation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and Cxcl12 pathways in mice expressing Jak2 V617F In addition, expression of Hmga2 causes upregulation of Fzd2, Ifi27l2a, and TGF-β receptor 2. Forced expression of Cxcl12, Fzd2, or Ifi27l2a increases megakaryocytic differentiation and proliferation in the bone marrow of Jak2 V617F mice, whereas TGF-β1 or Cxcl12 stimulation induces collagen deposition in the bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that expression of Hmga2 cooperates with Jak2 V617F in the pathogenesis of MF. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. [Prognostic value of JAK2, MPL and CALR mutations in Chinese patients with primary myelofibrosis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Z F; Li, B; Liu, J Q; Li, Y; Ai, X F; Zhang, P H; Qin, T J; Zhang, Y; Wang, J Y; Xu, J Q; Zhang, H L; Fang, L W; Pan, L J; Hu, N B; Qu, S Q; Xiao, Z J

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of JAK2, MPL and CALR mutations in Chinese patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Four hundred and two Chinese patients with PMF were retrospectively analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method, the Log-rank test, the likelihood ratio test and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to evaluate the prognostic scoring system. This cohort of patients included 209 males and 193 females with a median age of 55 years (range: 15- 89). JAK2V617F mutations were detected in 189 subjects (47.0% ), MPLW515 mutations in 13 (3.2%) and CALR mutations in 81 (20.1%) [There were 30 (37.0%) type-1, 48 (59.3%) type-2 and 3 (3.7%) less common CALR mutations], respectively. 119 subjects (29.6%) had no detectable mutation in JAK2, MPL or CALR. Univariate analysis indicated that patients with CALR type-2 mutations or no detectable mutations had inferior survival compared to those with JAK2, MPL or CALR type- 1 or other less common CALR mutations (the median survival was 74vs 168 months, respectively [HR 2.990 (95% CI 1.935-4.619),P<0.001]. Therefore, patients were categorized into the high-risk with CALR type- 2 mutations or no detectable driver mutations and the low- risk without aforementioned mutations status. The DIPSS-Chinese molecular prognostic model was proposed by adopting mutation categories and DIPSS-Chinese risk group. The median survival of patients classified in low risk (132 subjects, 32.8% ), intermediate- 1 risk (143 subjects, 35.6%), intermediate- 2 risk (106 subjects, 26.4%) and high risk (21 subjects, 5.2%) were not reached, 156 (95% CI 117- 194), 60 (95% CI 28- 91) and 22 (95% CI 10- 33) months, respectively, and there was a statistically significant difference in overall survival among the four risk groups (P<0.001). There was significantly higher predictive power for survival according to the DIPSS-Chinese molecular prognostic model compared with the DIPSS-Chinese model (P=0.005, -2 log-likelihood ratios of 855.6 and 869

  14. MPLW515L Is a Novel Somatic Activating Mutation in Myelofibrosis with Myeloid Metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pikman, Yana; Lee, Benjamin H; Mercher, Thomas; McDowell, Elizabeth; Ebert, Benjamin L; Gozo, Maricel; Cuker, Adam; Wernig, Gerlinde; Moore, Sandra; Galinsky, Ilene; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Clark, Jennifer J; Lee, Stephanie J; Golub, Todd R; Wadleigh, Martha; Gilliland, D. Gary; Levine, Ross L

    2006-01-01

    Background The JAK2V617F allele has recently been identified in patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF). Subsequent analysis has shown that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is an important pathogenetic event in these patients, and that enzymatic inhibition of JAK2V617F may be of therapeutic benefit in this context. However, a significant proportion of patients with ET or MF are JAK2V617F-negative. We hypothesized that activation of the JAK-STAT pathway might also occur as a consequence of activating mutations in certain hematopoietic-specific cytokine receptors, including the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), or the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (GCSFR). Methods and Findings DNA sequence analysis of the exons encoding the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of EPOR, MPL, and GCSFR, and comparison with germline DNA derived from buccal swabs, identified a somatic activating mutation in the transmembrane domain of MPL (W515L) in 9% (4/45) of JAKV617F-negative MF. Expression of MPLW515L in 32D, UT7, or Ba/F3 cells conferred cytokine-independent growth and thrombopoietin hypersensitivity, and resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, and ERK. Furthermore, a small molecule JAK kinase inhibitor inhibited MPLW515L-mediated proliferation and JAK-STAT signaling in vitro. In a murine bone marrow transplant assay, expression of MPLW515L, but not wild-type MPL, resulted in a fully penetrant myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked thrombocytosis (Plt count 1.9–4.0 × 10 12/L), marked splenomegaly due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, and increased reticulin fibrosis. Conclusions Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via MPLW515L is an important pathogenetic event in patients with JAK2V617F-negative MF. The bone marrow transplant model of MPLW515L-mediated myeloproliferative

  15. MPLW515L is a novel somatic activating mutation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Pikman, Yana; Lee, Benjamin H; Mercher, Thomas; McDowell, Elizabeth; Ebert, Benjamin L; Gozo, Maricel; Cuker, Adam; Wernig, Gerlinde; Moore, Sandra; Galinsky, Ilene; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Clark, Jennifer J; Lee, Stephanie J; Golub, Todd R; Wadleigh, Martha; Gilliland, D Gary; Levine, Ross L

    2006-07-01

    The JAK2V617F allele has recently been identified in patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF). Subsequent analysis has shown that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is an important pathogenetic event in these patients, and that enzymatic inhibition of JAK2V617F may be of therapeutic benefit in this context. However, a significant proportion of patients with ET or MF are JAK2V617F-negative. We hypothesized that activation of the JAK-STAT pathway might also occur as a consequence of activating mutations in certain hematopoietic-specific cytokine receptors, including the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), or the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (GCSFR). DNA sequence analysis of the exons encoding the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of EPOR, MPL, and GCSFR, and comparison with germline DNA derived from buccal swabs, identified a somatic activating mutation in the transmembrane domain of MPL (W515L) in 9% (4/45) of JAKV617F-negative MF. Expression of MPLW515L in 32D, UT7, or Ba/F3 cells conferred cytokine-independent growth and thrombopoietin hypersensitivity, and resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, and ERK. Furthermore, a small molecule JAK kinase inhibitor inhibited MPLW515L-mediated proliferation and JAK-STAT signaling in vitro. In a murine bone marrow transplant assay, expression of MPLW515L, but not wild-type MPL, resulted in a fully penetrant myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked thrombocytosis (Plt count 1.9-4.0 x 10(12)/L), marked splenomegaly due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, and increased reticulin fibrosis. Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via MPLW515L is an important pathogenetic event in patients with JAK2V617F-negative MF. The bone marrow transplant model of MPLW515L-mediated myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) exhibits certain features of human MF

  16. Different immunophenotypical apoptotic profiles characterise megakaryocytes of essential thrombocythaemia and primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Florena, A M; Tripodo, C; Di Bernardo, A; Iannitto, E; Guarnotta, C; Porcasi, R; Ingrao, S; Abbadessa, V; Franco, V

    2009-04-01

    Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) share some clinical and pathological features, but show different biological behaviour and prognosis. The latest contributions to understanding the nature of these disorders have focused on bone marrow microenvironment remodelling and proliferative stress, recognising megakaryocytes (MKCs) as "key-cells". The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptotic profile of ET and PMF MKCs in order to further characterise the biology of these disorders. Bone marrow biopsy samples from 30 patients with ET, and 30 patients with PMF, were immunophenotypically studied for the expression of pro-apoptotic (Fas, Fas-L, Bax, Bad) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase)) molecules and the "executioner" molecule caspase-3. The fraction of MKCs undergoing apoptosis was assessed by deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling. Only the mitochondrial pathway seemed to be involved in MKC apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-XL was predominantly found in ET MKCs (50.5% of ET MKCs versus 35% of PMF MKCs; p = 0.036), while pro-apoptotic molecules Bax and Bad showed a prevalent expression in PMF MKCs (30.5% of ET MKCs versus 55% of PMF MKCs; 41% of ET MKCs versus 52% of PMF MKCs; p = 0.001 and p = 0.068, respectively). A significant fraction of PMF MKCs were committed to apoptosis according to caspase-3 expression and TUNEL, while only few ET cells were committed to apoptosis. hTERT was significantly more expressed in PMF (32% of ET MKCs versus 46% of PMF MKCs; p = 0.022), in agreement with the proliferative nature of this disease. It was found that ET and PMF MKCs, which barely differ in terms of morphology and aggregation, are characterised by markedly different apoptotic profiles. The rather high apoptotic fraction of PMF was able to support the fibrotic nature of this process, while the anti-apoptotic profile of ET cells fits well with their "steady

  17. Exome sequencing identifies titin mutations causing hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) in families of diverse ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Toro, Camilo; Olivé, Montse; Dalakas, Marinos C; Sivakumar, Kumaraswami; Bilbao, Juan M; Tyndel, Felix; Vidal, Noemí; Farrero, Eva; Sambuughin, Nyamkhishig; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2013-03-20

    Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) was described in several North European families and recently linked to a titin gene (TTN) mutation. We independently studied HMERF-like diseases with the purpose to identify the cause, refine diagnostic criteria, and estimate the frequency of this disease among myopathy patients of various ethnic origins. Whole exome sequencing analysis was carried out in a large U.S. family that included seven members suffering from skeletal muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Subsequent mutation screening was performed in further 45 unrelated probands with similar phenotypes. Studies included muscle strength evaluation, nerve conduction studies and concentric needle EMG, respiratory function test, cardiologic examination, and muscle biopsy. A novel TTN p.Gly30150Asp mutation was identified in the highly conserved A-band of titin that co-segregated with the disease in the U.S. family. Screening of 45 probands initially diagnosed as myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) but excluded based on molecular screening for the known MFM genes led to the identification of a previously reported TTN p.Cys30071Arg mutation in one patient. This same mutation was also identified in a patient with suspected HMERF. The p.Gly30150Asp and p.Cys30071Arg mutations are localized to a side chain of fibronectin type III element A150 of the 10th C-zone super-repeat of titin. Missense mutations in TTN are the cause of HMERF in families of diverse origins. A comparison of phenotypic features of HMERF caused by the three known TTN mutations in various populations allowed to emphasize distinct clinical/pathological features that can serve as the basis for diagnosis. The newly identified p.Gly30150Asp and the p.Cys30071Arg mutation are localized to a side chain of fibronectin type III element A150 of the 10th C-zone super-repeat of titin.

  18. Early life ethanol exposure causes long-lasting disturbances in rat mesenchymal stem cells via epigenetic modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Leu, Yu-Wei; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Chien-Min

    Highlights: • Ethanol exposure alters proliferation and differentiation of MSCs. • Ethanol exposure suppresses osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs. • H3K27me3-associated genes/pathways are affected in ethanol-exposed MSCs. • Expression of lineage-specific genes is dysregulated in ethanol-exposed MSCs. - Abstract: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect due to maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main somatic stem cells in adults and may contribute to tissue homeostasis and repair in adulthood, we investigated whether early life ethanol exposure affects MSCs and contributes to the propensity for disease onset in later life. Using a rodentmore » model of FAS, we found that ethanol exposure (5.25 g/kg/day) from postnatal days 4 to 9 in rat pups (mimic of human third trimester) caused long-term anomalies in bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed animals were prone to neural induction but resistant to osteogenic and adipogenic inductions compared to their age-matched controls. The altered differentiation may contribute to the severe trabecular bone loss seen in ethanol-exposed animals at 3 months of age as well as overt growth retardation. Expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, aP2, and PPARγ were substantially inhibited, but BDNF was up-regulated in MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed 3 month-old animals. Several signaling pathways were distorted in ethanol-exposed MSCs via altered trimethylation at histone 3 lysine 27. These results demonstrate that early life ethanol exposure can have long-term impacts in rat MSCs by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.« less

  19. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  20. The Amelioration of Myelofibrosis with Thrombocytopenia by a JAK1/2 Inhibitor, Ruxolitinib, in a Post-polycythemia Vera Myelofibrosis Patient with a JAK2 Exon 12 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Ueda, Koki; Sano, Takahiro; Ogawa, Kazuei; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Yuko; Morishita, Soji; Komatsu, Norio; Ohto, Hitoshi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2017-01-01

    Less than 5% of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) show JAK2 exon 12 mutations. Although PV patients with JAK2 exon 12 mutations are known to develop post-PV myelofibrosis (MF) as well as PV with JAK2V617F, the role of JAK inhibitors in post-PV MF patients with JAK2 exon 12 mutations remains unknown. We describe how treatment with a JAK1/2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, led to the rapid amelioration of marrow fibrosis, erythrocytosis and thrombocytopenia in a 77-year-old man with post-PV MF who carried a JAK2 exon 12 mutation (JAK2H538QK539L). This case suggests that ruxolitinib is a treatment option for post-PV MF in patients with thrombocytopenia or JAK2 exon 12 mutations.

  1. A novel MC4R deletion coexisting with FTO and MC1R gene variants, causes severe early onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, Vassos; Shammas, Christos; Phelan, Marie M; Fanis, Pavlos; Pantelidou, Maria; Skordis, Nicos; Mantzoros, Christos; Phylactou, Leonidas A; Toumba, Meropi

    2016-07-01

    Heterozygous mutations on the melanocortin-4-receptor gene (MC4R) are the most frequent cause of monogenic obesity. We describe a novel MC4R deletion in a girl with severe early onset obesity, tall stature, pale skin and red hair. Clinical and hormonal parameters were evaluated in a girl born full-term by non-consanguineous parents. Her body mass index (BMI) at presentation (3 years) was 30 kg/m 2 (z-score: +4.5SDS). By the age of 5.2 years, she exhibited extreme linear growth acceleration and developed hyperinsulinemia. Direct sequencing of the MC4R, MC1Rand for the knownFTOsingle nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609was performed for the patient and her family. A novel heterozygous MC4R p.Met215del (c.643_645delATG) deletion was identified in the patient, her father and her brother, both of whom exhibited a milder phenotype. 3D structural dynamic simulation studies investigated the conformational changes induced by the p.Met215del. The patient and her mother were also found to be carriers of the obesity risk associated FTOrs9939609SNP. Finally, the identification of the known p.Arg160Trp MC1Rvariant in the patient accounts for the red hair and pale skin phenotypic features. The p.Met215del causes global conformational and functional changes as it is localized at the alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of the beta-barrel. This novel mutation produces a severe overgrowth phenotype that is apparent as from infancy and is progressive in childhood. The additional negative effect of environmental and unhealthy lifestyle habits as well as a possible co-interaction of FTOrs9939609 SNP may worsen the phenotype.

  2. Reinforcement of the Brain's Rich-Club Architecture Following Early Neurodevelopmental Disruption Caused by Very Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Karolis, Vyacheslav R.; Froudist-Walsh, Sean; Brittain, Philip J.; Kroll, Jasmin; Ball, Gareth; Edwards, A. David; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Williams, Steven C.; Murray, Robin M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The second half of pregnancy is a crucial period for the development of structural brain connectivity, and an abrupt interruption of the typical processes of development during this phase caused by the very preterm birth (<33 weeks of gestation) is likely to result in long-lasting consequences. We used structural and diffusion imaging data to reconstruct the brain structural connectome in very preterm-born adults. We assessed its rich-club organization and modularity as 2 characteristics reflecting the capacity to support global and local information exchange, respectively. Our results suggest that the establishment of global connectivity patterns is prioritized over peripheral connectivity following early neurodevelopmental disruption. The very preterm brain exhibited a stronger rich-club architecture than the control brain, despite possessing a relative paucity of white matter resources. Using a simulated lesion approach, we also investigated whether putative structural reorganization takes place in the very preterm brain in order to compensate for its anatomical constraints. We found that connections between the basal ganglia and (pre-) motor regions, as well as connections between subcortical regions, assumed an altered role in the structural connectivity of the very preterm brain, and that such alterations had functional implications for information flow, rule learning, and verbal IQ. PMID:26742566

  3. Ruxolitinib: long-term management of patients with myelofibrosis and future directions in the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, A; Odenike, O; Verstovsek, S

    2014-12-01

    Considerable clinical experience regarding the long-term efficacy and safety of ruxolitinib has been gathered since the drug was approved in the USA for patients with intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis (MF) in November 2011. Findings from the pivotal phase 3 COMFORT studies showed that ruxolitinib-associated reductions in MF-related splenomegaly and symptom burden occur rapidly and in the majority of patients. Two- and 3-year follow-up data further suggest that the benefits of ruxolitinib are durable and associated with a survival advantage compared with conventional therapies. However, careful management of treatment-related thrombocytopenia and anemia with dose modifications and supportive care is critical to allow chronic therapy. Based on preliminary evidence, ruxolitinib also allows spleen size and symptom reduction before allogeneic stem cell transplantation without negative effect on engraftment or outcomes. In recent studies, ruxolitinib provided effective management of hematologic parameters and symptoms in patients with polycythemia vera refractory to or intolerant of hydroxyurea.

  4. Clinical course and outcome of essential thrombocythemia and prefibrotic myelofibrosis according to the revised WHO 2016 diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, Elisa; Boveri, Emanuela; Bellini, Marta; Pietra, Daniela; Ferretti, Virginia V.; Sant’Antonio, Emanuela; Cavalloni, Chiara; Casetti, Ilaria C.; Roncoroni, Elisa; Ciboddo, Michele; Benvenuti, Pietro; Landini, Benedetta; Fugazza, Elena; Troletti, Daniela; Astori, Cesare; Cazzola, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The recently revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms recognizes prefibrotic myelofibrosis (prePMF) as a distinct entity, characterized by well-defined histopathologic features together with minor clinical criteria (leukocytes, anemia, increased LDH, splenomegaly). The aim of the study was to examine the clinical relevance of distinguishing prePMF from essential thrombocythemia (ET). We identified in our database all patients affected with ET, prePMF and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) diagnosed according to 2008 WHO criteria with a bone marrow fibrosis grade 0-1 at diagnosis and one DNA sample to define the mutational status. The bone marrow morphology of all 404 identified patients was reviewed by an expert pathologist and patients were reclassified according to the 2016 WHO criteria. After reclassification, our cohort included 269 ET, 109 prePMF, and 26 myeloproliferative neoplasm unclassificable. In comparison with ET, patients with prePMF had higher leukocyte count, lower hemoglobin level, higher platelet count, higher LDH values, and higher number of circulating CD34-positive cells; they showed more frequently splenomegaly (all P values < ·001). CALR mutations were more frequent in prePMF than in ET (35·8% vs 17·8%, P < ·001). PrePMF patients had shorter overall survival (P < ·001) and a trend to a higher incidence of leukemic evolution (P ·067) compared to ET patients, while they did not differ in terms of thrombotic and bleeding complications. In conclusion, ET and prePMF diagnosed according to 2016 WHO criteria are two entities with a different clinical phenotype at diagnosis and a different clinical outcome. PMID:29254200

  5. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2015-01-01

    There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain following sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N=479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N=2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence. PMID:25862212

  6. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?

    PubMed

    Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene R; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2015-10-01

    There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain despite sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N = 479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N = 2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence.

  7. Loss of desmoplakin isoform I causes early onset cardiomyopathy and heart failure in a Naxos‐like syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Uzumcu, A; Norgett, E E; Dindar, A; Uyguner, O; Nisli, K; Kayserili, H; Sahin, S E; Dupont, E; Severs, N J; Leigh, I M; Yuksel‐Apak, M; Kelsell, D P; Wollnik, B

    2006-01-01

    Background Desmosomes are cellular junctions important for intercellular adhesion and anchoring the intermediate filament (IF) cytoskeleton to the cell membrane. Desmoplakin (DSP) is the most abundant desmosomal protein with 2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Methods We describe a patient with a recessively inherited arrhythmogenic dilated cardiomyopathy with left and right ventricular involvement, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, and woolly hair. The patient showed a severe heart phenotype with an early onset and rapid progression to heart failure at 4 years of age. Results A homozygous nonsense mutation, R1267X, was found in exon 23 of the desmoplakin gene, which results in an isoform specific truncation of the larger DSPI isoform. The loss of most of the DSPI specific rod domain and C‐terminal area was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. We further showed that the truncated DSPI transcript is unstable, leading to a loss of DSPI. DSPI is reported to be an obligate constituent of desmosomes and the only isoform present in cardiac tissue. To address this, we reviewed the expression of DSP isoforms in the heart. Our data suggest that DSPI is the major cardiac isoform but we also show that specific compartments of the heart have detectable DSPII expression. Conclusions This is the first description of a phenotype caused by a mutation affecting only one DSP isoform. Our findings emphasise the importance of desmoplakin and desmosomes in epidermal and cardiac function and additionally highlight the possibility that the different isoforms of desmoplakin may have distinct functional properties within the desmosome. PMID:16467215

  8. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Causes Lifelong Molecular Reprogramming of the Hypothalamus and Premature Reproductive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Zama, Aparna M.; Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Gestational exposure to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor methoxychlor (MXC) disrupts the female reproductive system at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels in adulthood. The current study addressed whether perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors reprograms expression of a suite of genes expressed in the hypothalamus that control reproductive function and related these molecular changes to premature reproductive aging. Fischer rats were exposed daily for 12 consecutive days to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), estradiol benzoate (EB) (1 mg/kg), and MXC (low dose, 20 μg/kg or high dose, 100 mg/kg), beginning on embryonic d 19 through postnatal d 7. The perinatally exposed females were aged to 16–17 months and monitored for reproductive senescence. After euthanasia, hypothalamic regions [preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus] were dissected for real-time PCR of gene expression or pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation of the Esr1 gene. Using a 48-gene PCR platform, two genes (Kiss1 and Esr1) were significantly different in the POA of endocrine-disrupting chemical-exposed rats compared with vehicle-exposed rats after Bonferroni correction. Fifteen POA genes were up-regulated by at least 50% in EB or high-dose MXC compared with vehicle. To understand the epigenetic basis of the increased Esr1 gene expression, we performed bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of the Esr1 promoter. EB-treated rats had significantly higher percentage of methylation at three CpG sites in the Esr1 promoter compared with control rats. Together with these molecular effects, perinatal MXC and EB altered estrous cyclicity and advanced reproductive senescence. Thus, early life exposure to endocrine disruptors has lifelong effects on neuroendocrine gene expression and DNA methylation, together with causing the advancement of reproductive senescence. PMID:22016562

  9. Correction of anemia in a transfusion-dependent patient with primary myelofibrosis receiving iron chelation therapy with deferasirox (Exjade®, ICL670)

    PubMed Central

    Di Tucci, Anna Angela; Murru, Roberta; Alberti, Daniele; Rabault, Bertrand; Deplano, Simona; Angelucci, Emanuele

    2007-01-01

    Transfusional iron overload in patients with chronic anemias can result in multiple organ failure. Experience in the management of iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes is limited, as many do not receive chelation therapy due to short-life expectancy and the difficulties associated with the administration of the current reference standard chelator, deferoxamine. There have, however, been some reports of reduced transfusion requirement associated with chelation therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and myelofibrosis. Here, we discuss a patient with primary myelofibrosis and related transfusion-dependent anemia who received chelation therapy with the once-daily oral iron chelator, deferasirox. In addition to the reduced iron levels, the patient demonstrated an unexpected reduction in blood transfusion requirement, ultimately resulting in long-lasting transfusion-free survival. PMID:17391307

  10. [Deformation of the tricuspid annulus by pericardial adhesions: a rare cause of early tricuspid regurgitation after mitral valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Tapia, M; Latrémouille, C; Chabert, J P; Fabiani, J N

    1995-12-01

    The authors report the case of major tricuspid regurgitation occurring early after mitral valve replacement. The mechanism was demonstrated at reoperation: the heart was deformed by a posterior pericardial effusion and cardiodiaphragmatic pericardial adhesions.

  11. Rare congenital chromosomal aberration dic(X;Y)(p22.33;p11.32) in a patient with primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pavlistova, Lenka; Izakova, Silvia; Zemanova, Zuzana; Bartuskova, Lucie; Langova, Martina; Malikova, Pavlina; Michalova, Kyra

    2016-01-01

    Constitutional translocations between sex chromosomes are rather rare in humans with breakpoints at Xp11 and Yq11 as the most frequent. Breakpoints on the short arm of the Y chromosome form one subgroup of t(X;Y), giving rise to a derived chromosome with the centromeres of both the X and Y chromosomes, dic(X;Y). Here, we report a rare congenital chromosomal aberration, 46,X,dic(X;Y)(p22.33;p11.32)[20]/45,X[10], in an adult male. Primary myelofibrosis, a malignant haematological disease, was diagnosed in a 63-year-old man following liver transplantation after hepatocellular carcinoma. By the analysis of the bone marrow sample, the karyotype 46,X,dic(X;Y)(p22.33;p11.32) was detected in all the mitoses analysed and verified with multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH). A cytogenetic examination of stimulated peripheral blood cells revealed the constitutional karyotype 46,X,dic(X;Y)(p22.33;p11.32)[20]/45,X[10]. The cell line 45,X was confirmed with FISH in 35 % of interphase nuclei. The SRY locus was present on the dicentric chromosome. A CGH/SNP array (Illumina) revealed a gain of 153,7 Mbp of the X chromosome and a 803-kbp microdeletion (including the SHOX gene), which were also confirmed with FISH. SHOX encodes a transcriptional factor that regulates the growth of the long bones. The deletion of the SHOX gene together with the Madelung deformity of the forearm and the short stature of the proband led to a diagnosis of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD). The gain of almost the whole X chromosome (153,7 Mbp) was considered a variant of Klinefelter syndrome (KS). The levels of gonadotropins and testosterone were consistent with gonadal dysfunction. A malformation of the right external ear was detected. We have reported a structural aberration of the sex chromosomes, dic(X;Y)(p22.33;p11.32). The related genomic imbalance is associated with two known hereditary syndromes, LWD and a KS variant, identified in our proband at an advanced age. Because the

  12. Alterations in Sociability and Functional Brain Connectivity Caused by Early-Life Seizures is Reversed by Bumetanide

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gregory L.; Tian, Chengju; Hernan, Amanda E.; Flynn, Sean; Camp, Devon; Barry, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-described association between infantile epilepsy and pervasive cognitive and behavioral deficits, including a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders. Despite the robustness of the relationship between early-life seizures and the development of autism, the pathophysiological mechanism by which this occurs has not been explored. As a result of increasing evidence that autism is a disorder of brain connectivity we hypothesized that early-life seizures would interrupt normal brain connectivity during brain maturation and result in an autistic phenotype. Normal rat pups underwent recurrent flurothyl-induced seizures from postnatal (P) day 5-14 and then tested, along with controls, for developmental alterations of development brain oscillatory activity from P18-25. Specifically we wished to understand how normal changes in rhythmicity in and between brain regions change as a function of age and if this rhythmicity is altered or interrupted by early life seizures. In rat pups with early-life seizures, field recordings from dorsal and ventral hippocampus and prefrontal cortex demonstrated marked increase in coherence as well as a decrease in voltage correlation at all bandwidths compared to controls while there were minimal differences in total power and relative power spectral densities. Rats with early-life seizures had resulting impairment in the sociability and social novelty tests but demonstrated no evidence of increased activity or generalized anxiety as measured in the open field. In addition, rats with early-life seizures had lower seizure thresholds than controls, indicating long-standing alterations in the excitatory/inhibition balance. Bumetanide, a pharmacological agent that blocks the activity of NKCC1 and induces a significant shift of ECl toward more hyperpolarized values, administration at the time of the seizures precluded the subsequent abnormalities in coherence and voltage correlation and resulted in normal sociability and seizure

  13. Different expression patterns of LGALS1 and LGALS3 in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Moura, L G; Tognon, R; Nunes, N S; Rodrigues, L Cataldi; Ferreira, A F; Kashima, S; Covas, D T; Santana, M; Souto, E X; Perobelli, L; Simões, B P; Dias-Baruffi, M; Castro, F A

    2016-10-01

    Despite all the knowledge, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) pathophysiology remain unclear. Authors have shown galectin-1 (Gal-1) and 3 playing roles in tumour angiogenesis and fibrosis, which were correlated with poor prognosis in patients with MPN. In the present study LGALS1 and LGALS3 were differently expressed between polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) diseases. Increased LGALS3 expression was associated with a negative JAK2 V617F status mutation in leucocytes from PMF but not in patients with ET without this mutation. However, a positive Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F cell line established from patients with ET (SET-2 cells) when treated with JAK inhibitor presented high levels of LGALS3. Additionally, high LGALS1 expression was found in CD34(+) cells but not in leucocytes from patients with PMF, in absence of JAK2 V617F mutation, and also in SET-2 cells treated with JAK inhibitor. Thus, our findings indicate that differential expression of LGALS1 and/or LGALS3 in patients with MPN is linked with JAK2 V617F status mutation in these diseases and state of cell differentiation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Clonal evolution revealed by whole genome sequencing in a case of primary myelofibrosis transformed to secondary acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Engle, E K; Fisher, D A C; Miller, C A; McLellan, M D; Fulton, R S; Moore, D M; Wilson, R K; Ley, T J; Oh, S T

    2015-04-01

    Clonal architecture in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is poorly understood. Here we report genomic analyses of a patient with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) transformed to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on PMF and sAML diagnosis samples, with skin included as a germline surrogate. Deep sequencing validation was performed on the WGS samples and an additional sample obtained during sAML remission/relapsed PMF. Clustering analysis of 649 validated somatic single-nucleotide variants revealed four distinct clonal groups, each including putative driver mutations. The first group (including JAK2 and U2AF1), representing the founding clone, included mutations with high frequency at all three disease stages. The second clonal group (including MYB) was present only in PMF, suggesting the presence of a clone that was dispensable for transformation. The third group (including ASXL1) contained mutations with low frequency in PMF and high frequency in subsequent samples, indicating evolution of the dominant clone with disease progression. The fourth clonal group (including IDH1 and RUNX1) was acquired at sAML transformation and was predominantly absent at sAML remission/relapsed PMF. Taken together, these findings illustrate the complex clonal dynamics associated with disease evolution in MPNs and sAML.

  15. Essential thrombocythemia in young individuals: frequency and risk factors for vascular events and evolution to myelofibrosis in 126 patients.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Larrán, A; Cervantes, F; Bellosillo, B; Giralt, M; Juliá, A; Hernández-Boluda, J C; Bosch, A; Hernández-Nieto, L; Clapés, V; Burgaleta, C; Salvador, C; Arellano-Rodrigo, E; Colomer, D; Besses, C

    2007-06-01

    The frequency of vascular events and evolution to myelofibrosis (MF) in young individuals with essential thrombocythemia (ET) is not well known. The incidence and predisposing factors to such complications was studied in 126 subjects diagnosed with ET at a median age of 31 years (range: 5-40). Overall survival and probability of survival free of thrombosis, bleeding and MF were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the presence of the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation correlated with the appearance of such complications. The JAK2 mutation (present in 43% of patients) was associated with higher hemoglobin (Hb) (P<0.001) and lower platelets at diagnosis. With a median follow-up of 10 years (range: 4-25), 31 thrombotic events were registered (incidence rate: 2.2 thromboses/100 patients/year). When compared with the general population, young ET patients showed a significant increase in stroke (odds ratio 50, 95% CI: 21.5-115) and venous thromboses (odds ratio 5.3, 95% CI: 3.9-10.6). Thrombosis-free survival was 84% at 10 years, with tobacco use being associated with higher risk of thrombosis. Actuarial freedom from evolution to MF was 97% at 10 years. In conclusion, young ET patients have thrombotic events, especially stroke and venous thrombosis, more frequently than generally considered, whereas they rarely transform to MF.

  16. Interphase FISH screening for the LCR-mediated common rearrangement of isochromosome 17q in primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bien-Willner, Gabriel A; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R; Northup, Jill K; Velagaleti, Gopalrao V N

    2005-08-01

    Non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between low-copy repeats (LCRs) has been implicated recently in somatic rearrangements including isochromosome i(17q), which is associated with hematologic malignancies as well as solid tumors. In hematological malignancies, the most common i(17q) breakpoint results from LCR-mediated NAHR, which creates a dicentric chromosome, idic(17)(p11.2). We report an elderly patient who presented with primary myelofibrosis (MF) with myeloid metaplasia (MMM), associated with idic(17)(p11.2) as the sole chromosomal abnormality, making this the first idic(17)(p11.2) myeloproliferative case reported in which the breakpoints are mapped to the breakpoint cluster region in proximal 17p. The rearrangement breakpoint maps to the previously defined LCR cluster, further suggesting that the genomic architecture of proximal 17p may be responsible for the formation of the majority of i(17q) cases. We describe our development of a rapid screening test using interphase FISH to detect idic(17)(p11.2), discuss the potential prognostic value of this molecular diagnostic test, and examine the relevance of LCR-mediated NAHR to common rearrangements in neoplasms. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Early postnatal exposure to isoflurane causes cognitive deficits and disrupts development of newborn hippocampal neurons via activation of the mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sanghee; Kwak, Minhye; Gray, Christy D.; Xu, Michael; Choi, Jun H.; Junn, Sue; Kim, Jieun; Xu, Jing; Schaefer, Michele; Johns, Roger A.; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Mintz, C. David

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure. Using an in vivo mouse model we demonstrate abnormal development of dendrite arbors and dendritic spines in newly generated dentate gyrus granule cell neurons of the hippocampus after a clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia exposure conducted at an early postnatal age. Furthermore, we find that isoflurane causes a sustained increase in activity in the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway, and that inhibition of this pathway with rapamycin not only reverses the observed changes in neuronal development, but also substantially improves performance on behavioral tasks of spatial learning and memory that are impaired by isoflurane exposure. We conclude that isoflurane disrupts the development of hippocampal neurons generated in the early postnatal period by activating a well-defined neurodevelopmental disease pathway and that this phenotype can be reversed by pharmacologic inhibition. PMID:28683067

  18. [Analysis of the incidence and causes of repeated surgical interventions in patients with early complications electrotherapy - 1 center experience from the period 2012-2015].

    PubMed

    Piątek, Łukasz; Polewczyk, Anna; Kurzawski, Jacek; Zachura, Małgorzata; Kaczmarczyk, Małgorzata; Janion, Marianna

    Due to increasing number of patients treated by cardiac implantable electronic devices we observe increasing number of complications after these procedures We analysed causes of early surgical revision of implantable devices connected with 1673 procedures of implantation (871 procedures) or exchange (802 procedures) of pacing systems (PM), cardioverter-difibrillators (ICD) and resynchronisation systems (CRT) in one local centre of electrotherapy in years 2012 to 2015. We characterised risk factors and its influence on encountered complications. In analysed period 72 reinterventions after implantations or exchanges of PM/ICD/CRT were performed. Main causes of early complications were: lead malfunction (2.5%), including the dislodgement of the leads in 1.9%, pocket hematoma (1.4%) and other abnormalities of the pocket (0.4 %), including pocket infections in 0.2%. The most important risk factors of early complications were often implantations of the leads with passive fixation and anticoagulation therapy in perioperative period. The knowledge of the early complications after implantations and exchanges of PM/ICD/CRT should improve the safety of procedures through more often used of the leads with active fixation and properly preparation of the patients requering the antithrombic therapy.

  19. Rare causes of early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism with cognitive impairment: a de novo PSEN-1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Carecchio, Miryam; Picillo, Marina; Valletta, Lorella; Elia, Antonio E; Haack, Tobias B; Cozzolino, Autilia; Vitale, Annalisa; Garavaglia, Barbara; Iuso, Arcangela; Bagella, Caterina F; Pappatà, Sabina; Barone, Paolo; Prokisch, Holger; Romito, Luigi; Tiranti, Valeria

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in PSEN1 are responsible for familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) inherited as autosomal dominant trait, but also de novo mutations have been rarely reported in sporadic early-onset dementia cases. Parkinsonism in FAD has been mainly described in advanced disease stages. We characterized a patient presenting with early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism later complicated by dementia and myoclonus. Brain MRI showed signs of iron accumulation in the basal ganglia mimicking neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) as well as fronto-temporal atrophy. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel PSEN1 mutation and segregation within the family demonstrated the mutation arose de novo.We suggest considering PSEN1 mutations in cases of dystonia-parkinsonism with positive DAT-Scan, later complicated by progressive cognitive decline and cortical myoclonus even without a dominant family history.

  20. Early Disseminated Lyme Disease Causing False-Positive Serology for Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, Adriana J; Marques, Adriana R

    2017-07-15

    False-positive serology for Lyme disease was reported in patients with acute infectious mononucleosis. Here we describe 2 patients with early disseminated Lyme disease who were misdiagnosed with infectious mononucleosis based on false-positive tests for primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Growing rod erosion through the lamina causing spinal cord compression in an 8-year-old girl with early-onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Fahad H; Waly, Feras; Nooh, Anas; Ouellet, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Early-onset scoliosis often occurs by the age of 5 years and is attributed to many structural abnormalities. Syndromic early-onset scoliosis is considered one of the most aggressive types of early-onset scoliosis. Treatment starts with serial casting and bracing, but eventually most of these patients undergo growth-sparing procedures, such as a single growing rod, dual growing rods, or a vertical expandable titanium prosthetic rib. This case report aimed to describe an unusual complication of erosion of a growing rod through the lamina that caused spinal cord compression in an 8-year-old girl with early-onset scoliosis. This is a case report. A retrospective chart review was used to describe the clinical course and radiographic findings of this case after rod erosion into the spinal canal. The patient underwent successful revision surgery removing the rod without neurologic complications. Patients with syndromic early-onset scoliosis are more prone to progressive curves and severe rotational deformity. We believe that the severe kyphotic deformity in addition to the dysplastic nature of the deformity in this population may predispose them to this unusual complication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. IQCB1 and PDE6B Mutations Cause Similar Early Onset Retinal Degenerations in Two Closely Related Terrier Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Mezey, Jason G.; Schweitzer, Peter A.; Boyko, Adam R.; Gao, Chuan; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Jordan, Julie Ann; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify the causative mutations in two early-onset canine retinal degenerations, crd1 and crd2, segregating in the American Staffordshire terrier and the Pit Bull Terrier breeds, respectively. Methods. Retinal morphology of crd1- and crd2-affected dogs was evaluated by light microscopy. DNA was extracted from affected and related unaffected controls. Association analysis was undertaken using the Illumina Canine SNP array and PLINK (crd1 study), or the Affymetrix Version 2 Canine array, the “MAGIC” genotype algorithm, and Fisher's Exact test for association (crd2 study). Positional candidate genes were evaluated for each disease. Results. Structural photoreceptor abnormalities were observed in crd1-affected dogs as young as 11-weeks old. Rod and cone inner segment (IS) and outer segments (OS) were abnormal in size, shape, and number. In crd2-affected dogs, rod and cone IS and OS were abnormal as early as 3 weeks of age, progressing with age to severe loss of the OS, and thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) by 12 weeks of age. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified association at the telomeric end of CFA3 in crd1-affected dogs and on CFA33 in crd2-affected dogs. Candidate gene evaluation identified a three bases deletion in exon 21 of PDE6B in crd1-affected dogs, and a cytosine insertion in exon 10 of IQCB1 in crd2-affected dogs. Conclusions. Identification of the mutations responsible for these two early-onset retinal degenerations provides new large animal models for comparative disease studies and evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches for the homologous human diseases. PMID:24045995

  3. Chemotherapy causes cancer! A case report of therapy related acute myeloid leukaemia in early stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aidan, J Cole; Priddee, Nicole R; McAleer, James J

    2013-05-01

    Use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the adjuvant setting has improved survival for many patients with malignancy. Unfortunately multimodality treatment can come at a price, in particular therapy-related malignancies. This has importance in that patients must be made aware of this potential detriment from therapy and doctors must consider this diagnosis in those patients who are cancer survivors and presenting with health problems. We present a case report and brief overview of the literature regarding chemotherapy-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) following therapy for early stage breast cancer.

  4. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances.

  5. Major influence of a 'smoke and mirrors' effect caused by wave reflection on early diastolic coronary arterial wave intensity.

    PubMed

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Penny, Daniel J; Smolich, Joseph J

    2018-03-15

    Coronary wave intensity analysis (WIA) is an emerging technique for assessing upstream and downstream influences on myocardial perfusion. It is thought that a dominant backward decompression wave (BDW dia ) is generated by a distal suction effect, while early-diastolic forward decompression (FDW dia ) and compression (FCW dia ) waves originate in the aorta. We show that wave reflection also makes a substantial contribution to FDW dia , FCW dia and BDW dia , as quantified by a novel method. In 18 sheep, wave reflection accounted for ∼70% of BDW dia , whereas distal suction dominated in a computer model representing a hypertensive human. Non-linear addition/subtraction of mechanistically distinct waves (e.g. wave reflection and distal suction) obfuscates the true contribution of upstream and downstream forces on measured waves (the 'smoke and mirrors' effect). The mechanisms underlying coronary WIA are more complex than previously thought and the impact of wave reflection should be considered when interpreting clinical and experimental data. Coronary arterial wave intensity analysis (WIA) is thought to provide clear insight into upstream and downstream forces on coronary flow, with a large early-diastolic surge in coronary flow accompanied by a prominent backward decompression wave (BDW dia ), as well as a forward decompression wave (FDW dia ) and forward compression wave (FCW dia ). The BDW dia is believed to arise from distal suction due to release of extravascular compression by relaxing myocardium, while FDW dia and FCW dia are thought to be transmitted from the aorta into the coronary arteries. Based on an established multi-scale computational model and high-fidelity measurements from the proximal circumflex artery (Cx) of 18 anaesthetized sheep, we present evidence that wave reflection has a major impact on each of these three waves, with a non-linear addition/subtraction of reflected waves obscuring the true influence of upstream and downstream forces

  6. ‘Elderly years cause a Total dispaire of Conception’: Old Age, Sex and Infertility in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Toulalan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the history of old age has been studied in much greater detail in recent years, the subject of sexuality in old age remains relatively under-explored. This article examines early modern ideas about old bodies and sex in relation to fertility, to argue that because old bodies were understood as either infertile (post-menopausal women) or sub-fertile (old men) they were therefore characterised as unsuitable, undesirable and inappropriate sexual partners. Perceptions of old bodies, their sexual abilities, desirability and behaviour were remarkably consistent from the sixteenth through to the eighteenth century. The ridiculing of old men and women's sexual behaviour that permeated contemporary culture in stories, ballads and jokes, alongside medical literature that characterised old bodies as sexually unappetising as well as unreproductive, carried the message that sexual activity was not for the old, and in large part because they were infertile. PMID:28751815

  7. A novel germline POLE mutation causes an early onset cancer prone syndrome mimicking constitutional mismatch repair deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Katharina; Beilken, Andreas; Nustede, Rainer; Ripperger, Tim; Lamottke, Britta; Ure, Benno; Steinmann, Diana; Reineke-Plaass, Tanja; Lehmann, Ulrich; Zschocke, Johannes; Valle, Laura; Fauth, Christine; Kratz, Christian P

    2017-01-01

    In a 14-year-old boy with polyposis and rectosigmoid carcinoma, we identified a novel POLE germline mutation, p.(Val411Leu), previously found as recurrent somatic mutation in 'ultramutated' sporadic cancers. This is the youngest reported cancer patient with polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis indicating that POLE mutation p.(Val411Leu) may confer a more severe phenotype than previously reported POLE and POLD1 germline mutations. The patient had multiple café-au-lait macules and a pilomatricoma mimicking the clinical phenotype of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency. We hypothesize that these skin features may be common to different types of constitutional DNA repair defects associated with polyposis and early-onset cancer.

  8. Neonatal stroke causes poor midline motor behaviors and poor fine and gross motor skills during early infancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D; Heathcock, Jill C

    2013-03-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD) were assessed from 2 to 7 months of age. The following variables were analyzed: percentage of time in midline and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III). Infants with neonatal stroke demonstrated poor performance in midline behaviors and fine and gross motor scores on the BSID-III. These results suggest that infants with NS have poor midline behaviors and motor skill development early in infancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emily M.; Yoshida, Miya C.; Candelario, Tara Lynne T.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  10. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Emily M; Yoshida, Miya C; Candelario, Tara Lynne T; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2015-03-15

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders.

  11. Study of a fetal brain affected by a severe form of tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, a rare cause of early parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Tristán-Noguero, Alba; Díez, Héctor; Jou, Cristina; Pineda, Mercè; Ormazábal, Aida; Sánchez, Aurora; Artuch, Rafael; Garcia-Cazorla, Àngels

    2016-06-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is an inborn error of dopamine synthesis. Two clinical phenotypes have been described. The THD "B" phenotype produces a severe encephalopathy of early-onset with sub-optimal L-Dopa response, whereas the "A" phenotype has a better L-Dopa response and outcome. The objective of the study is to describe the expression of key synaptic proteins and neurodevelopmental markers in a fetal brain of THD "B" phenotype. The brain of a 16-week-old miscarried human fetus was dissected in different brain areas and frozen until the analysis. TH gene study revealed the p.R328W/p.T399M mutations, the same mutations that produced a B phenotype in her sister. After protein extraction, western blot analyses were performed to assess protein expression. The results were compared to an age-matched control. We observed a decreased expression in TH and in other dopaminergic proteins, such as VMAT 1 and 2 and dopamine receptors, especially D2DR. GABAergic and glutamatergic proteins such as GABA VT, NMDAR1 and calbindin were also altered. Developmental markers for synapses, axons and dendrites were decreased whereas markers of neuronal volume were preserved. Although this is an isolated case, this brain sample is unique and corresponds to the first reported study of a THD brain. It provides interesting information about the influence of dopamine as a regulator of other neurotransmitter systems, brain development and movement disorders with origin at the embryological state. This study could also contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of THD at early fetal stages.

  12. The zerovalent iron nanoparticle causes higher developmental toxicity than its oxidation products in early life stages of medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Wu, Wan-Lin; Wu, Kevin Chia-Wen

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI)-mediated oxidation reaction is increasingly being used for enhanced treatment of water or wastewater processes; however, the fate and eco-toxicological effects of nZVI in the surface aquifer remain unclear. We investigated bioaccumulation and lethal-to-sublethal toxic effects on early life development of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) with 7-day exposure to 25-200 mg/L of well-characterized solutions containing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized nZVI (CMC-nZVI), nanoscale iron oxide (nFe3O4) or ferrous ion [Fe(II)aq]. The CMC-nZVI solution had the greatest acute mortality and developmental toxic effects in embryos, with lesser and the least effects with Fe(II)aq and nFe3O4. The toxicity of CMC-nZVI was ascribed to its high reactivity in the oxygenic solution, which led to a combination of hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Fe(II)aq. nFe3O4 (50-100 mg/L) was more bioavailable to embryos and bioaccmulative in hatchlings than suspended CMC-nZVI. The antioxidant balance was differentially altered by induced intracellular ROS in hatchlings with all 3 iron species. We revealed causal toxic effects of nZVI and its oxidized products in early life stages of medaka fish using different organizational levels of biomarker assays. The toxicity results implicate a potential eco-toxicological impact of nZVI on the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intra- and Trans-Generational Costs of Reduced Female Body Size Caused by Food Limitation Early in Life in Mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons. Conclusions/Significance Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism – females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males – and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size. PMID:24265745

  14. Correction of the Abnormal Trafficking of Primary Myelofibrosis CD34+ Cells by Treatment with Chromatin Modifying Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wei; Ishii, Takefumi; Sozer, Selcuk; Wang, Jiapeng; Xu, Mingjiang; Hoffman, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The abnormal trafficking of CD34+ cells is a unique characteristic of primary myelofibrosis (PMF). We have further studied the behavior of PMF CD34+ cells by examining their homing to the marrow and the spleens of NOD/SCID mice. Following the infusion of PMF and normal G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) CD34+ cells into NOD/SCID mice, reduced numbers of PMF CD34+ cells and CFU-GM as compared to mPB were detected in the marrow of these mice while similar numbers of PMF and mPB CD34+ cells and CFU-GM homed to their spleens. The abnormal homing of PMF CD34+ cells was associated with reduced expression of CXCR4, but was not related to the presence of JAK2V617F. The sequential treatment of PMF CD34+ cell with the chromatin modifying agents, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azaD) and trichostatin A (TSA) but not treatment with small molecule inhibitors of JAK2 resulted in the generation of increased numbers of CD34+CXCR4+ cells which was accompanied by enhanced homing of PMF CD34+ cells to the marrow but not the spleens of NOD/SCID mice. Following 5azaD/TSA treatment JAK2V617F negative PMF hematopoietic progenitor cells preferentially homed to the marrow but not the spleens of recipient mice. Our data suggest that PMF CD34+ cells are characterized by a reduced ability to home to the marrow but not the spleens of NOD/SCID mice and that this homing defect can be corrected by sequential treatment with chromatin modifying agents. PMID:19752087

  15. Loss of Ezh2 synergizes with JAK2-V617F in initiating myeloproliferative neoplasms and promoting myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nienhold, Ronny; Zmajkovic, Jakub; Hao-Shen, Hui; Geier, Florian; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Feenstra, Jelena D. Milosevic

    2016-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients frequently show co-occurrence of JAK2-V617F and mutations in epigenetic regulator genes, including EZH2. In this study, we show that JAK2-V617F and loss of Ezh2 in hematopoietic cells contribute synergistically to the development of MPN. The MPN phenotype induced by JAK2-V617F was accentuated in JAK2-V617F;Ezh2−/− mice, resulting in very high platelet and neutrophil counts, more advanced myelofibrosis, and reduced survival. These mice also displayed expansion of the stem cell and progenitor cell compartments and a shift of differentiation toward megakaryopoiesis at the expense of erythropoiesis. Single cell limiting dilution transplantation with bone marrow from JAK2-V617F;Ezh2+/− mice showed increased reconstitution and MPN disease initiation potential compared with JAK2-V617F alone. RNA sequencing in Ezh2-deficient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and megakaryocytic erythroid progenitors identified highly up-regulated genes, including Lin28b and Hmga2, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)–quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of their promoters revealed decreased H3K27me3 deposition. Forced expression of Hmga2 resulted in increased chimerism and platelet counts in recipients of retrovirally transduced HSCs. JAK2-V617F–expressing mice treated with an Ezh2 inhibitor showed higher platelet counts than vehicle controls. Our data support the proposed tumor suppressor function of EZH2 in patients with MPN and call for caution when considering using Ezh2 inhibitors in MPN. PMID:27401344

  16. A data-driven network model of primary myelofibrosis: transcriptional and post-transcriptional alterations in CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Calura, E; Pizzini, S; Bisognin, A; Coppe, A; Sales, G; Gaffo, E; Fanelli, T; Mannarelli, C; Zini, R; Norfo, R; Pennucci, V; Manfredini, R; Romualdi, C; Guglielmelli, P; Vannucchi, A M; Bortoluzzi, S

    2016-06-24

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are relevant in the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis (PMF) but our understanding is limited to specific target genes and the overall systemic scenario islacking. By both knowledge-based and ab initio approaches for comparative analysis of CD34+ cells of PMF patients and healthy controls, we identified the deregulated pathways involving miRNAs and genes and new transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory circuits in PMF cells. These converge in a unique and integrated cellular process, in which the role of specific miRNAs is to wire, co-regulate and allow a fine crosstalk between the involved processes. The PMF pathway includes Akt signaling, linked to Rho GTPases, CDC42, PLD2, PTEN crosstalk with the hypoxia response and Calcium-linked cellular processes connected to cyclic AMP signaling. Nested on the depicted transcriptional scenario, predicted circuits are reported, opening new hypotheses. Links between miRNAs (miR-106a-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-19b-3p and let-7d-5p) and key transcription factors (MYCN, ATF, CEBPA, REL, IRF and FOXJ2) and their common target genes tantalizingly suggest new path to approach the disease. The study provides a global overview of transcriptional and post-transcriptional deregulations in PMF, and, unifying consolidated and predicted data, could be helpful to identify new combinatorial therapeutic strategy. Interactive PMF network model: http://compgen.bio.unipd.it/pmf-net/.

  17. High absolute basophil count is a powerful independent predictor of inferior overall survival in patients with primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lucijanic, Marko; Livun, Ana; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Pejsa, Vlatko; Jaksic, Ozren; Cicic, David; Lucijanic, Jelena; Romic, Zeljko; Orehovec, Biserka; Aralica, Gorana; Miletic, Marko; Kusec, Rajko

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of absolute basophil count (ABC) in patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). We retrospectively investigated 58 patients with PMF treated in our institution in the period from 2006 to 2017. ABC was obtained in addition to other hematological and clinical parameters. Patients were separated into high and low ABC groups using the Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. ABC was higher in PMF patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Patients with high ABC had higher white blood cells (P < 0.001), higher red cell distribution width (P = 0.035), higher lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001), more frequently had circulatory blasts (P < 0.001), constitutional symptoms (P = 0.030) and massive splenomegaly (P = 0.014). ABC was also positively correlated with absolute monocyte count (AMC) (P < 0.001) and other components of differential blood count. There was no difference in ABC regarding driver mutations or degree of bone marrow fibrosis. Univariately, high ABC was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 4.79, P < 0.001). This effect remained statistically significant (HR 4.27, P = 0.009) in a multivariate Cox regression model adjusted for age, gender, Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (HR 2.6, P = 0.001) and AMC (HR 8.45, P = 0.002). High ABC reflects higher disease activity and stronger proliferative potential of disease. ABC and AMC independently predict survival and therefore seem to reflect different underlying pathophysiologic processes. Hence, both have a potential for improvement of current prognostic scores. Basophils represent a part of malignant clone in PMF and are associated with unfavorable disease features and poor prognosis which is independent of currently established prognostic scoring system and monocytosis.

  18. A defect in early myogenesis causes Otitis media in two mouse models of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Linden, Jennifer F.; Baldini, Antonio; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2015-01-01

    Otitis media (OM), the inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common disease and cause for surgery in infants worldwide. Chronic Otitis media with effusion (OME) often leads to conductive hearing loss and is a common feature of a number of craniofacial syndromes, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). OM is more common in children because the more horizontal position of the Eustachian tube (ET) in infants limits or delays clearance of middle ear effusions. Some mouse models with OM have shown alterations in the morphology and angle of the ET. Here, we present a novel mechanism in which OM is caused not by a defect in the ET itself but in the muscles that control its function. Our results show that in two mouse models of 22q11.2DS (Df1/+ and Tbx1+/−) presenting with bi- or unilateral OME, the fourth pharyngeal arch-derived levator veli palatini muscles were hypoplastic, which was associated with an earlier altered pattern of MyoD expression. Importantly, in mice with unilateral OME, the side with the inflammation was associated with significantly smaller muscles than the contralateral unaffected ear. Functional tests examining ET patency confirmed a reduced clearing ability in the heterozygous mice. Our findings are also of clinical relevance as targeting hypoplastic muscles might present a novel preventative measure for reducing the high rates of OM in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:25452432

  19. Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. Objective We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology. Methods Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 and 0 μg PM/m3) by inhalation over 6 months. Results DE exposure resulted in elevated levels of TNFα at high concentrations in all regions tested, with the exception of the cerebellum. The midbrain region was the most sensitive, where exposures as low as 100 μg PM/m3 significantly increased brain TNFα levels. However, this sensitivity to DE was not conferred to all markers of neuroinflammation, as the midbrain showed no increase in IL-6 expression at any concentration tested, an increase in IL-1β at only high concentrations, and a decrease in MIP-1α expression, supporting that compensatory mechanisms may occur with subchronic exposure. Aβ42 levels were the highest in the frontal lobe of mice exposed to 992 μg PM/m3 and tau [pS199] levels were elevated at the higher DE concentrations (992 and 311 μg PM/m3) in both the temporal lobe and frontal lobe, indicating that proteins linked to preclinical Alzheimer's disease were affected. α Synuclein levels were elevated in the midbrain in response to the 992 μg PM/m3 exposure, supporting that air pollution may be associated with early Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Conclusions Together, the data support that the midbrain may be more sensitive to the neuroinflammatory effects of subchronic air pollution exposure. However, the DE-induced elevation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases was limited to only the higher exposures, suggesting that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation may precede preclinical markers of

  20. Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Shannon; Surace, Michael J; McDonald, Jacob; Block, Michelle L

    2011-08-24

    Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology. Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 and 0 μg PM/m³) by inhalation over 6 months. DE exposure resulted in elevated levels of TNFα at high concentrations in all regions tested, with the exception of the cerebellum. The midbrain region was the most sensitive, where exposures as low as 100 μg PM/m³ significantly increased brain TNFα levels. However, this sensitivity to DE was not conferred to all markers of neuroinflammation, as the midbrain showed no increase in IL-6 expression at any concentration tested, an increase in IL-1β at only high concentrations, and a decrease in MIP-1α expression, supporting that compensatory mechanisms may occur with subchronic exposure. Aβ42 levels were the highest in the frontal lobe of mice exposed to 992 μg PM/m³ and tau [pS199] levels were elevated at the higher DE concentrations (992 and 311 μg PM/m³) in both the temporal lobe and frontal lobe, indicating that proteins linked to preclinical Alzheimer's disease were affected. α Synuclein levels were elevated in the midbrain in response to the 992 μg PM/m³ exposure, supporting that air pollution may be associated with early Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Together, the data support that the midbrain may be more sensitive to the neuroinflammatory effects of subchronic air pollution exposure. However, the DE-induced elevation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases was limited to only the higher exposures, suggesting that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation may precede preclinical markers of neurodegenerative disease in the midbrain.

  1. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intrapartum antibiotics and early onset neonatal sepsis caused by group B Streptococcus and by other organisms in Australia. Australasian Study Group for Neonatal Infections.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, D; Royle, J A

    1999-06-01

    Early onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection, the major neonatal infection in industrialized countries, can be prevented by intrapartum antibiotics, but population studies are lacking. This study aimed to determine the incidence of early onset infections caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS) and other organisms in Australia and to assess intrapartum antibiotic use. Longitudinal, prospective surveillance of neonatal infections in Australian neonatal units from 1991 to 1997. Early onset infection defined as clinical sepsis in first 48 h after birth, with positive cultures of blood or cerebrospinal fluid or positive urine GBS antigen detection. The incidence of EOGBS sepsis fell from 2.0 per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval, 1.4, 2.5) in 1991 to 1993, to 1.3 (1.2, 1.4) in 1993 to 1995, to 0.5 (0.4, 0.7) in 1995 to 1997 (P < 0.0001). The incidence in Aboriginal babies was 5.2 (1.8, 8.6) in 1991 to 1993, 5.1 (3.0, 7.2) in 1993 to 1995 and 1.8 (1.1, 2.5) in 1995 to 1997 (P < 0.05). The incidence of early onset infections caused by organisms other than GBS also fell, from 1.2 per 1000 live births (0.8, 1.7) in 1991 to 1993, to 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) in 1993 to 1995 and 0.5 (0.3, 0.7) in 1995 to 1997 (P < 0.0001). In 1991, 3 of 9 study hospitals had a formal policy on intrapartum antibiotic use, whereas in 1997 all 11 hospitals had a formal policy (P=0.002). A steady fall in EOGBS infections in Australia from 1991 to 1997 has been associated with increasing use of intrapartum antibiotics. Increased antibiotic use is probably causal in the fall in GBS, because the incidence of early onset infections caused by other organisms has also fallen.

  3. Placental Hypoxia During Early Pregnancy Causes Maternal Hypertension and Placental Insufficiency in the Hypoxic Guinea Pig Model1

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Loren P.; Pence, Laramie; Pinkas, Gerald; Song, Hong; Telugu, Bhanu P.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic placental hypoxia is one of the root causes of placental insufficiencies that result in pre-eclampsia and maternal hypertension. Chronic hypoxia causes disruption of trophoblast (TB) development, invasion into maternal decidua, and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. The pregnant guinea pig shares several characteristics with humans such as hemomonochorial placenta, villous subplacenta, deep TB invasion, and remodeling of maternal arteries, and is an ideal animal model to study placental development. We hypothesized that chronic placental hypoxia of the pregnant guinea pig inhibits TB invasion and alters spiral artery remodeling. Time-mated pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to either normoxia (NMX) or three levels of hypoxia (HPX: 16%, 12%, or 10.5% O2) from 20 day gestation until midterm (39–40 days) or term (60–65 days). At term, HPX (10.5% O2) increased maternal arterial blood pressure (HPX 57.9 ± 2.3 vs. NMX 40.4 ± 2.3, P < 0.001), decreased fetal weight by 16.1% (P < 0.05), and increased both absolute and relative placenta weights by 10.1% and 31.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). At midterm, there was a significant increase in TB proliferation in HPX placentas as confirmed by increased PCNA and KRT7 staining and elevated ESX1 (TB marker) gene expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, quantitative image analysis revealed decreased invasion of maternal blood vessels by TB cells. In summary, this animal model of placental HPX identifies several aspects of abnormal placental development, including increased TB proliferation and decreased migration and invasion of TBs into the spiral arteries, the consequences of which are associated with maternal hypertension and fetal growth restriction. PMID:27806942

  4. Placental Hypoxia During Early Pregnancy Causes Maternal Hypertension and Placental Insufficiency in the Hypoxic Guinea Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Loren P; Pence, Laramie; Pinkas, Gerald; Song, Hong; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-12-01

    Chronic placental hypoxia is one of the root causes of placental insufficiencies that result in pre-eclampsia and maternal hypertension. Chronic hypoxia causes disruption of trophoblast (TB) development, invasion into maternal decidua, and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. The pregnant guinea pig shares several characteristics with humans such as hemomonochorial placenta, villous subplacenta, deep TB invasion, and remodeling of maternal arteries, and is an ideal animal model to study placental development. We hypothesized that chronic placental hypoxia of the pregnant guinea pig inhibits TB invasion and alters spiral artery remodeling. Time-mated pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to either normoxia (NMX) or three levels of hypoxia (HPX: 16%, 12%, or 10.5% O 2 ) from 20 day gestation until midterm (39-40 days) or term (60-65 days). At term, HPX (10.5% O 2 ) increased maternal arterial blood pressure (HPX 57.9 ± 2.3 vs. NMX 40.4 ± 2.3, P < 0.001), decreased fetal weight by 16.1% (P < 0.05), and increased both absolute and relative placenta weights by 10.1% and 31.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). At midterm, there was a significant increase in TB proliferation in HPX placentas as confirmed by increased PCNA and KRT7 staining and elevated ESX1 (TB marker) gene expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, quantitative image analysis revealed decreased invasion of maternal blood vessels by TB cells. In summary, this animal model of placental HPX identifies several aspects of abnormal placental development, including increased TB proliferation and decreased migration and invasion of TBs into the spiral arteries, the consequences of which are associated with maternal hypertension and fetal growth restriction. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Amylase, lipase, and volume of drainage fluid in gastrectomy for the early detection of complications caused by pancreatic leakage.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ki Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Shin, Yeon Myung; Choi, Kyung Hyun; Hwang, Hyun Yong

    2011-12-01

    Pancreatic leakage is a serious complication of gastrectomy due to stomach cancer. Therefore, we analyzed amylase and lipase concentrations in blood and drainage fluid, and evaluated the volume of drainage fluid to discern their usefulness as markers for the early detection of serious pancreatic leakage requiring reoperation after gastrectomy. From January 2001 to December 2007, we retrospectively analyzed data from 24,072 patient samples. We divided patients into two groups; 1) complications with pancreatic leakage (CG), and 2) no complications associated with pancreatic leakage (NCG). Values of amylase and lipase in the blood and drainage fluid, volume of the drainage fluid, and relationships among the volumes, amylase values, and lipase values in the drainage fluid were evaluated, respectively in the two groups. The mean amylase values of CG were significantly higher than those of NCG in blood and drainage fluid (P < 0.05). For lipase, statistically significant differences were observed in drainage fluid (P < 0.05). The mean volume (standard deviation) of the drained fluid through the tube between CG (n = 22) and NCG (n = 236) on postoperative day 1 were 368.41 (266.25) and 299.26 (300.28), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.298). There was a correlation between the amylase and lipase values in the drainage fluid (r = 0.812, P = 0.000). Among postoperative amylase and lipase values in blood and drainage fluid, and the volume of drainage fluid, the amylase in drainage fluid was better differentiated between CG and NCG than other markers. The volume of the drainage fluid did not differ significantly between groups.

  6. Homozygous EEF1A2 mutation causes dilated cardiomyopathy, failure to thrive, global developmental delay, epilepsy and early death.

    PubMed

    Cao, Siqi; Smith, Laura L; Padilla-Lopez, Sergio R; Guida, Brandon S; Blume, Elizabeth; Shi, Jiahai; Morton, Sarah U; Brownstein, Catherine A; Beggs, Alan H; Kruer, Michael C; Agrawal, Pankaj B

    2017-09-15

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (EEF1A), is encoded by two distinct isoforms, EEF1A1 and EEF1A2; whereas EEF1A1 is expressed almost ubiquitously, EEF1A2 expression is limited such that it is only detectable in skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spinal cord. Currently, the role of EEF1A2 in normal cardiac development and function is unclear. There have been several reports linking de novo dominant EEF1A2 mutations to neurological issues in humans. We report a pair of siblings carrying a homozygous missense mutation p.P333L in EEF1A2 who exhibited global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dilated cardiomyopathy and epilepsy, ultimately leading to death in early childhood. A third sibling also died of a similar presentation, but DNA was unavailable to confirm the mutation. Functional genomic analysis was performed in S. cerevisiae and zebrafish. In S. cerevisiae, there was no evidence for a dominant-negative effect. Previously identified putative de novo mutations failed to complement yeast strains lacking the EEF1A ortholog showing a major growth defect. In contrast, the introduction of the mutation seen in our family led to a milder growth defect. To evaluate its function in zebrafish, we knocked down eef1a2 expression using translation blocking and splice-site interfering morpholinos. EEF1A2-deficient zebrafish had skeletal muscle weakness, cardiac failure and small heads. Human EEF1A2 wild-type mRNA successfully rescued the morphant phenotype, but mutant RNA did not. Overall, EEF1A2 appears to be critical for normal heart function in humans, and its deficiency results in clinical abnormalities in neurologic function as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle defects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Lack of the alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 causes tremors, seizures, and early postnatal death in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xinmin; Dumas, Theodore; Tang, Lamont; Brennan, Thomas; Reeder, Thadd; Thomas, Winston; Klein, Robert D; Flores, Judith; O'Hara, Bruce F; Heller, H Craig; Franken, Paul

    2005-08-09

    The Na(+)-independent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 (Asc-1) is exclusively expressed in neuronal structures throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Asc-1 transports small neutral amino acids with high affinity especially for D-serine and glycine (K(i): 8-12 microM), two endogenous glutamate co-agonists that activate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors through interacting with the strychnine-insensitive glycine binding-site. By regulating D-serine (and possibly glycine) levels in the synaptic cleft, Asc-1 may play an important role in controlling neuronal excitability. We generated asc-1 gene knockout (asc-1(-/-)) mice to test this hypothesis. Behavioral phenotyping combined with electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings revealed that asc-1(-/-) mice developed tremors, ataxia, and seizures that resulted in early postnatal death. Both tremors and seizures were reduced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Extracellular recordings from asc-1(-/-) brain slices indicated that the spontaneous seizure activity did not originate in the hippocampus, although, in this region, a relative increase in evoked synaptic responses was observed under nominal Mg(2+)-free conditions. Taken together with the known neurochemistry and neuronal distribution of the Asc-1 transporter, these results indicate that the mechanism underlying the behavioral hyperexcitability in mutant mice is likely due to overactivation of NMDA receptors, presumably resulting from elevated extracellular D-serine. Our study provides the first evidence to support the notion that Asc-1 transporter plays a critical role in regulating neuronal excitability, and indicate that the transporter is vital for normal CNS function and essential to postnatal survival of mice.

  8. TopBP1 deficiency causes an early embryonic lethality and induces cellular senescence in primary cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon; Ko, Eun; Lee, Kyung Yong; Ko, Min Ji; Park, Seo Young; Kang, Jeeheon; Jeon, Chang Hwan; Lee, Ho; Hwang, Deog Su

    2011-02-18

    TopBP1 plays important roles in chromosome replication, DNA damage response, and other cellular regulatory functions in vertebrates. Although the roles of TopBP1 have been studied mostly in cancer cell lines, its physiological function remains unclear in mice and untransformed cells. We generated conditional knock-out mice in which exons 5 and 6 of the TopBP1 gene are flanked by loxP sequences. Although TopBP1-deficient embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, no homozygous mutant embryos were recovered at E8.5 or beyond, and completely resorbed embryos were frequent at E7.5, indicating that mutant embryos tend to die at the peri-implantation stage. This finding indicated that TopBP1 is essential for cell proliferation during early embryogenesis. Ablation of TopBP1 in TopBP1(flox/flox) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and 3T3 cells using Cre recombinase-expressing retrovirus arrests cell cycle progression at the G(1), S, and G(2)/M phases. The TopBP1-ablated mouse cells exhibit phosphorylation of H2AX and Chk2, indicating that the cells contain DNA breaks. The TopBP1-ablated mouse cells enter cellular senescence. Although RNA interference-mediated knockdown of TopBP1 induced cellular senescence in human primary cells, it induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, TopBP1 deficiency in untransformed mouse and human primary cells induces cellular senescence rather than apoptosis. These results indicate that TopBP1 is essential for cell proliferation and maintenance of chromosomal integrity.

  9. Early exposure of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians) to high CO₂ causes a decrease in larval shell growth.

    PubMed

    White, Meredith M; McCorkle, Daniel C; Mullineaux, Lauren S; Cohen, Anne L

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification, characterized by elevated pCO₂ and the associated decreases in seawater pH and calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω), has a variable impact on the growth and survival of marine invertebrates. Larval stages are thought to be particularly vulnerable to environmental stressors, and negative impacts of ocean acidification have been seen on fertilization as well as on embryonic, larval, and juvenile development and growth of bivalve molluscs. We investigated the effects of high CO₂ exposure (resulting in pH = 7.39, Ω(ar) = 0.74) on the larvae of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians from 12 h to 7 d old, including a switch from high CO₂ to ambient CO₂ conditions (pH = 7.93, Ω(ar) = 2.26) after 3 d, to assess the possibility of persistent effects of early exposure. The survival of larvae in the high CO₂ treatment was consistently lower than the survival of larvae in ambient conditions, and was already significantly lower at 1 d. Likewise, the shell length of larvae in the high CO₂ treatment was significantly smaller than larvae in the ambient conditions throughout the experiment and by 7 d, was reduced by 11.5%. This study also demonstrates that the size effects of short-term exposure to high CO₂ are still detectable after 7 d of larval development; the shells of larvae exposed to high CO₂ for the first 3 d of development and subsequently exposed to ambientCO₂ were not significantly different in size at 3 and 7 d than the shells of larvae exposed to high CO₂ throughout the experiment.

  10. BK potassium channels facilitate high-frequency firing and cause early spike frequency adaptation in rat CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ning; Vervaeke, Koen; Storm, Johan F

    2007-01-01

    Neuronal potassium (K+) channels are usually regarded as largely inhibitory, i.e. reducing excitability. Here we show that BK-type calcium-activated K+ channels enhance high-frequency firing and cause early spike frequency adaptation in neurons. By combining slice electrophysiology and computational modelling, we investigated functions of BK channels in regulation of high-frequency firing in rat CA1 pyramidal cells. Blockade of BK channels by iberiotoxin (IbTX) selectively reduced the initial discharge frequency in response to strong depolarizing current injections, thus reducing the early spike frequency adaptation. IbTX also blocked the fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP), slowed spike rise and decay, and elevated the spike threshold. Simulations with a computational model of a CA1 pyramidal cell confirmed that the BK channel-mediated rapid spike repolarization and fAHP limits activation of slower K+ channels (in particular the delayed rectifier potassium current (IDR)) and Na+ channel inactivation, whereas M-, sAHP- or SK-channels seem not to be important for the early facilitating effect. Since the BK current rapidly inactivates, its facilitating effect diminishes during the initial discharge, thus producing early spike frequency adaptation by an unconventional mechanism. This mechanism is highly frequency dependent. Thus, IbTX had virtually no effect at spike frequencies < 40 Hz. Furthermore, extracellular field recordings demonstrated (and model simulations supported) that BK channels contribute importantly to high-frequency burst firing in response to excitatory synaptic input to distal dendrites. These results strongly support the idea that BK channels play an important role for early high-frequency, rapidly adapting firing in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, thus promoting the type of bursting that is characteristic of these cells in vivo, during behaviour. PMID:17303637

  11. The VLF fingerprint of elves: Step-like and long-recovery early VLF perturbations caused by powerful ±CG lightning EM pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldoupis, Christos; Cohen, Morris; Arnone, Enrico; Cotts, Benjamin; Dietrich, Stefano

    2013-08-01

    Subionospheric VLF recordings are investigated in relation with intense cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data. Lightning impacts the lower ionosphere via heating and ionization changes which produce VLF signal perturbations known as early VLF events. Typically, early events recover in about 100 s, but a small subclass does not recover for many minutes, known as long-recovery early events (LORE). In this study, we identify LORE as a distinct category of early VLF events, whose signature may occur either on its own or alongside the short-lived typical early VLF event. Since LORE onsets coincide with powerful lightning strokes of either polarity (±), we infer that they are due to long-lasting ionization changes in the uppermost D region ionosphere caused by electromagnetic pulses emitted by strong ± CG lightning peak currents of typically > 250 kA, which are also known to generate elves. The LORE perturbations are detected when the discharge is located within ~250 km from the great circle path of a VLF transmitter-receiver link. The probability of occurrence increases with stroke intensity and approaches unity for discharges with peak currents ≥ ~300 kA. LOREs are nighttime phenomena that occur preferentially, at least in the present regional data set, during winter when strong ± CG discharges are more frequent and intense. The evidence suggests LORE as a distinct signature representing the VLF fingerprint of elves, a fact which, although was predicted by theory, it escaped identification in the long-going VLF research of lightning effects in the lower ionosphere.

  12. [Effect of post-traumatic disorders of the victims and causes of traffic accidents in the early stages of treatment].

    PubMed

    Scigała, Dawid Konrad; Ziołek, Jakub; Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    Poland is a country in which every year there is a lot of motor vehicle accidents, number of victims is one of the highest in European union. Helping patients after motor vehicle accidents should base on cooperation of doctors and psychologists because holistic approach to patient enables rapid and effective rehabilitation. To show connection between physical damage cause in motor vehicle accident with mental trauma, which increase on process of full recovery. There were 31 victims who were involved in motor vehicle accidents not more than one month ago. In the second group there were people who was never involved in motor vehicle accident. The procedure consisted on filling demographic questionnaire, state traite anxety inventory and aqute stress disorder questionnare. In the second part of the research was to accomplish the emotional Stroop task, which based on selecting the name of the color of a word, which was on the screen. There were two types of the words: negative related to motor vehicle accident and neutral. Participants from the research group had higher level of anxiety than participants from control group and they had significantly longer reaction time in particular on words associated to accident, which could be the signal of problems with cognitive processes because of the anxiety. Furthermore participants with head injuries and upper limbs (whitout dominant limb) have had longer reaction times in Stroop test than participants with leg injuries, it indicating on higher level of anxiety and feeling of insecurity. It should be noted that looking on a character an range of a injuries, role that participant attend in accident (victims have more emotional disturbance), because it could determinate rate of recovery and the way communication with the patient.

  13. Functional analysis of potassium channels in Kv7.2 G271V mutant causing early onset familial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juanjuan; Li, Yuan; Hui, Zhiyan; Cao, Min; Shi, Ruiming; Zhang, Wei; Geng, Limeng; Zhou, Xihui

    2015-08-07

    Kv7 (KCNQ) channels underlying a class of voltage-gated K+ current are best known for regulating neuronal excitability. The first glycine (G) residue in the pore helix of Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) subunit is highly conserved among different classes of Kv7 channel family. A missense mutation causing the replacement of the corresponding G residues with a valine (p.G271V) in Kv7.2 was found in a large, four-generation pedigree. Here, we set out to examine the molecular pathomechanism of G271V mutants using patch clamp technology combined with biochemical and immunocytochemical techniques in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The expression of Kv7.2 protein had the same intensity for both wild type (WT) and G271V. In transfected HEK cells, G271V mutants induced large depolarizing shifts of the conductance-voltage relationships and marked slowing of current activation kinetics compared to WT. In addition, G271V mutants abolished currents in homomeric channels, and resulted in about 50% reduction of current in Kv7.2/G271V/Kv7.3 heteromultimeric condition, indicating a more severe functional defect. To test for G271V mutant channel expression in surface membrane, we performed fluorescence confocal microscopy imaging, which revealed no differences between the mutant and WT, suggesting that G271V channels fail to open in response to depolarization even though they are present in the membrane. Furthermore, pharmacologic intervention experiments revealed that upon specific incubation of transfected HEK 293 cells expressing G271V heteromultimeric channels in presence of Kv7 channel enhancer retigabine (ezogabine), the potassium currents increased significantly, suggesting the potential of retigabine as gene-specific therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjuvant Hypofractionated Versus Conventional Whole Breast Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Long-Term Hospital-Related Morbidity From Cardiac Causes

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Elisa K.; Woods, Ryan; McBride, Mary L.

    Purpose: The risk of cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (HF-WBI) compared with conventional whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (CF-WBI) in women with left-sided breast cancer remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increase in hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women ≤80 years of age with early-stage breast cancer were treated with postoperative radiation therapy to the breast or chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor, and treatment factors. Hospital administrative records identified baseline cardiacmore » risk factors and other comorbidities. Factors between radiation therapy groups were balanced using a propensity-score model. The first event of a hospital admission for cardiac causes after radiation therapy was determined from hospitalization records. Ten- and 15-year cumulative hospital-related cardiac morbidity after radiation therapy was estimated for left- and right-sided cases using a competing risk approach. Results: The median follow-up was 13.2 years. For left-sided cases, 485 women were treated with CF-WBI, and 2221 women were treated with HF-WBI. Mastectomy was more common in the HF-WBI group, whereas boost was more common in the CF-WBI group. The CF-WBI group had a higher prevalence of diabetes. The 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes (95% confidence interval) was not different between the 2 radiation therapy regimens after propensity-score adjustment: 21% (19-22) with HF-WBI and 21% (17-25) with CF-WBI (P=.93). For right-sided cases, the 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes was also similar between the radiation therapy groups (P=.76). Conclusions: There is no difference in morbidity leading to hospitalization from cardiac causes among women with left-sided early

  15. Lipid Peroxidation Is an Early Symptom Triggered by Aluminum, But Not the Primary Cause of Elongation Inhibition in Pea Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2001-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) roots were treated with aluminum in a calcium solution, and lipid peroxidation was investigated histochemically and biochemically, as well as other events caused by aluminum exposure. Histochemical stainings were observed to distribute similarly on the entire surface of the root apex for three events (aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and callose production), but the loss of plasma membrane integrity (detected by Evans blue uptake) was localized exclusively at the periphery of the cracks on the surface of root apex. The enhancement of four events (aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, callose production, and root elongation inhibition) displayed similar aluminum dose dependencies and occurred by 4 h. The loss of membrane integrity, however, was enhanced at lower aluminum concentrations and after longer aluminum exposure (8 h). The addition of butylated hydroxyanisole (a lipophilic antioxidant) during aluminum treatment completely prevented lipid peroxidation and callose production by 40%, but did not prevent or slow the other events. Thus lipid peroxidation is a relatively early symptom induced by the accumulation of aluminum and appears to cause, in part, callose production, but not the root elongation inhibition; by comparison, the loss of plasma membrane integrity is a relatively late symptom caused by cracks in the root due to the inhibition of root elongation. PMID:11154329

  16. Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients: The EPOCH Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Parshuram, Christopher S; Dryden-Palmer, Karen; Farrell, Catherine; Gottesman, Ronald; Gray, Martin; Hutchison, James S; Helfaer, Mark; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Joffe, Ari R; Lacroix, Jacques; Moga, Michael Alice; Nadkarni, Vinay; Ninis, Nelly; Parkin, Patricia C; Wensley, David; Willan, Andrew R; Tomlinson, George A

    2018-03-13

    There is limited evidence that the use of severity of illness scores in pediatric patients can facilitate timely admission to the intensive care unit or improve patient outcomes. To determine the effect of the Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System (BedsidePEWS) on all-cause hospital mortality and late admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), cardiac arrest, and ICU resource use. A multicenter cluster randomized trial of 21 hospitals located in 7 countries (Belgium, Canada, England, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, and the Netherlands) that provided inpatient pediatric care for infants (gestational age ≥37 weeks) to teenagers (aged ≤18 years). Participating hospitals had continuous physician staffing and subspecialized pediatric services. Patient enrollment began on February 28, 2011, and ended on June 21, 2015. Follow-up ended on July 19, 2015. The BedsidePEWS intervention (10 hospitals) was compared with usual care (no severity of illness score; 11 hospitals). The primary outcome was all-cause hospital mortality. The secondary outcome was a significant clinical deterioration event, which was defined as a composite outcome reflecting late ICU admission. Regression analyses accounted for hospital-level clustering and baseline rates. Among 144 539 patient discharges at 21 randomized hospitals, there were 559 443 patient-days and 144 539 patients (100%) completed the trial. All-cause hospital mortality was 1.93 per 1000 patient discharges at hospitals with BedsidePEWS and 1.56 per 1000 patient discharges at hospitals with usual care (adjusted between-group rate difference, 0.01 [95% CI, -0.80 to 0.81 per 1000 patient discharges]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.61 to 1.69]; P = .96). Significant clinical deterioration events occurred during 0.50 per 1000 patient-days at hospitals with BedsidePEWS vs 0.84 per 1000 patient-days at hospitals with usual care (adjusted between-group rate difference, -0.34 [95% CI, -0.73 to 0.05 per 1000 patient

  17. "It is caused of the womans part or of the mans part": the role of gender in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunction in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Philip Barrough wrote in 1590 that barrenness 'is caused of the womans part or of the mans part'. By the eighteenth century, however, barrenness was perceived as a female disorder distinguished from male impotence. Few historians have addressed the uncertainty surrounding early modern definitions of infertility, choosing instead to adopt set terms that fit comfortably with modern ideas. This article will highlight the difficulties surrounding the gender distinction of the terms 'barrenness' and 'impotence' during this period. Moreover, the discussion will examine the role of gender in diagnosing these disorders to sufferers. The article will argue that ideas of gender were more central to diagnosis of poor sexual health than to effectual treatment. Although it appears that barrenness and impotence were treated with separate remedies, many treatments were described as effectual for both sexes. Additionally, the ingredients used in such recipes were often sexual stimulants explained without reference to gender.

  18. Novel SNP array analysis and exome sequencing detect a homozygous exon 7 deletion of MEGF10 causing early onset myopathy, areflexia, respiratory distress and dysphagia (EMARDD)

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, Tyler Mark; Markello, Thomas; Accardi, John; Wolfe, Lynne; Adams, David; Sincan, Murat; Tarazi, Noor M.; Fajardo, Karin Fuentes; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Bajraktari, Ilda; Meilleur, Katy G.; Donkervoort, Sandra; Jain, Mina; Hu, Ying; Lehky, Tanya J.; Cruz, Pedro; Mullikin, James C.; Bonnemann, Carsten; Gahl, William A.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Tifft, Cynthia J.

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset myopathy, areflexia, respiratory distress and dysphagia (EMARDD) is a myopathic disorder associated with mutations in MEGF10. By novel analysis of SNP array hybridization and exome sequence coverage, we diagnosed a 10-year old girl with EMARDD following identification of a novel homozygous deletion of exon 7 in MEGF10. In contrast to previously reported EMARDD patients, her weakness was more prominent proximally than distally, and involved her legs more than her arms. MRI of her pelvis and thighs showed muscle atrophy and fatty replacement. Ultrasound of several muscle groups revealed dense homogenous increases in echogenicity. Cloning and sequencing of the deletion breakpoint identified features suggesting the mutation arose by fork stalling and template switching. These findings constitute the first genomic deletion causing EMARDD, expand the clinical phenotype, and provide new insight into the pattern and histology of its muscular pathology. PMID:23453856

  19. Short-Term Responses of Ground Beetles to Forest Changes Caused by Early Stages of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)-Induced Ash Mortality.

    PubMed

    Perry, Kayla I; Herms, Daniel A

    2016-04-22

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an invasive wood-boring beetle native to Asia, has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction into North America, resulting in widespread formation of canopy gaps and accumulations of coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests. The objective was to quantify effects of canopy gaps and CWD caused by early stages of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality, and their interaction on ground beetle assemblages. The impact of canopy gaps and CWD varied, as gaps affected beetle assemblages in 2011, while effects of CWD were only observed in 2012. Gaps decreased beetle activity-abundance, and marginally decreased richness, driving changes in species composition, but evenness and diversity were unaffected. Effects of the CWD treatment alone were minimal, but CWD interacted with the canopy treatment, resulting in an increase in activity-abundance of ground beetles in canopy gaps without CWD, and a marginal increase in species richness in canopy gaps with CWD. Although there were some initial changes in species composition, these were ephemeral, suggesting that ground beetle assemblages may be resilient to disturbance caused by emerald ash borer. This study contributes to our understanding of the cascading ecological impacts of biological invasions on forest ecosystems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Novel mutations in DNAJB6 gene cause a very severe early-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1D disease.

    PubMed

    Palmio, Johanna; Jonson, Per Harald; Evilä, Anni; Auranen, Mari; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Sarkozy, Anna; Kiuru-Enari, Sari; Sandell, Satu; Pihko, Helena; Hackman, Peter; Udd, Bjarne

    2015-11-01

    DNAJB6 is the causative gene for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1D (LGMD1D). Four different coding missense mutations, p.F89I, p.F93I, p.F93L, and p.P96R, have been reported in families from Europe, North America and Asia. The previously known mutations cause mainly adult-onset proximal muscle weakness with moderate progression and without respiratory involvement. A Finnish family and a British patient have been studied extensively due to a severe muscular dystrophy. The patients had childhood-onset LGMD, loss of ambulation in early adulthood and respiratory involvement; one patient died of respiratory failure aged 32. Two novel mutations, c.271T > A (p.F91I) and c.271T > C (p.F91L), in DNAJB6 were identified by whole exome sequencing as a cause of this severe form of LGMD1D. The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The anti-aggregation effect of the mutant DNAJB6 was investigated in a filter-trap based system using transient transfection of mammalian cell lines and polyQ-huntingtin as a model for an aggregation-prone protein. Both novel mutant proteins show a significant loss of ability to prevent aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving knowledge and behaviours related to the cause, transmission and prevention of Tuberculosis and early case detection: a descriptive study of community led Tuberculosis program in Flores, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Christa; Barclay, Lesley; Passey, Megan; Wilson, Shawn

    2016-08-08

    The community's awareness of Tuberculosis (TB) and delays in health care seeking remain important issues in Indonesia despite the extensive efforts of community-based TB programs delivered by a non-government organisation (NGO). This study explored the knowledge and behaviours in relation to TB and early diagnosis before and after an asset-based intervention designed to improve these issues. Six villages in Flores, Indonesia were purposively selected to participate in this study. Three villages served as intervention villages and the other three villages provided a comparison group. Data collection included interviews, group discussions, observations, field notes and audit of records. In total, 50 participants across six villages were interviewed and three group discussions were conducted in the intervention villages supplemented by 1 - 5 h of observation during monthly visits. Overall, participants in all villages had limited knowledge regarding the cause and transmission of TB before the intervention. The delay in health seeking behaviour was mainly influenced by ignorance of TB symptoms. Health care providers also contributed to delayed diagnosis by ignoring the symptoms of TB suspects at the first visit and failing to examine TB suspects with sputum tests. Stigmatisation of TB patients by the community was reported, although this did not seem to be common. Early case detection was less than 50 % in four of the six villages before the asset-based intervention. Knowledge of TB improved after the intervention in the intervention villages alongside improved education activities. Early case detection also increased in the intervention villages following this intervention. The behaviour changes related to prevention of TB were also obvious in the intervention villages but not the comparison group. This small project demonstrated that an asset-based intervention can result in positive changes in community's knowledge and behaviour in relation to TB and early case

  2. Pacritinib versus best available therapy for the treatment of myelofibrosis irrespective of baseline cytopenias (PERSIST-1): an international, randomised, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Ruben A; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Mead, Adam; Egyed, Miklos; Szoke, Anita; Suvorov, Aleksandr; Jakucs, Janos; Perkins, Andrew; Prasad, Ritam; Mayer, Jiri; Demeter, Judit; Ganly, Peter; Singer, Jack W; Zhou, Huafeng; Dean, James P; Te Boekhorst, Peter A; Nangalia, Jyoti; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Harrison, Claire N

    2017-05-01

    Available therapies for myelofibrosis can exacerbate cytopenias and are not indicated for patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Pacritinib, which inhibits both JAK2 and FLT3, induced spleen responses with limited myelosuppression in phase 1/2 trials. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of pacritinib versus best available therapy in patients with myelofibrosis irrespective of baseline cytopenias. This international, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial (PERSIST-1) was done at 67 sites in 12 countries. Patients with higher-risk myelofibrosis (with no exclusions for baseline anaemia or thrombocytopenia) were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive oral pacritinib 400 mg once daily or best available therapy (BAT) excluding JAK2 inhibitors until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Randomisation was stratified by risk category, platelet count, and region. Treatment assignments were known to investigators, site personnel, patients, clinical monitors, and pharmacovigilance personnel. The primary endpoint was spleen volume reduction (SVR) of 35% or more from baseline to week 24 in the intention-to-treat population as assessed by blinded, centrally reviewed MRI or CT. We did safety analyses in all randomised patients who received either treatment. Here we present the final data. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01773187. Between Jan 8, 2013, and Aug 1, 2014, 327 patients were randomly assigned to pacritinib (n=220) or BAT (n=107). Median follow-up was 23·2 months (IQR 14·8-28·7). At week 24, the primary endpoint of SVR of 35% or more was achieved by 42 (19%) patients in the pacritinib group versus five (5%) patients in the BAT group (p=0·0003). 90 patients in the BAT group crossed over to receive pacritinib at a median of 6·3 months (IQR 5·8-6·7). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events through week 24 were anaemia (n=37 [17%]), thrombocytopenia (n=26 [12%]), and diarrhoea (n=11 [5%]) in the pacritinib group, and anaemia (n

  3. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp; Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved bymore » separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.« less

  4. Mutations in RAB39B cause X-linked intellectual disability and early-onset Parkinson disease with α-synuclein pathology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gabrielle R; Sim, Joe C H; McLean, Catriona; Giannandrea, Maila; Galea, Charles A; Riseley, Jessica R; Stephenson, Sarah E M; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Haas, Stefan A; Pope, Kate; Hogan, Kirk J; Gregg, Ronald G; Bromhead, Catherine J; Wargowski, David S; Lawrence, Christopher H; James, Paul A; Churchyard, Andrew; Gao, Yujing; Phelan, Dean G; Gillies, Greta; Salce, Nicholas; Stanford, Lynn; Marsh, Ashley P L; Mignogna, Maria L; Hayflick, Susan J; Leventer, Richard J; Delatycki, Martin B; Mellick, George D; Kalscheuer, Vera M; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Bahlo, Melanie; Amor, David J; Lockhart, Paul J

    2014-12-04

    Advances in understanding the etiology of Parkinson disease have been driven by the identification of causative mutations in families. Genetic analysis of an Australian family with three males displaying clinical features of early-onset parkinsonism and intellectual disability identified a ∼45 kb deletion resulting in the complete loss of RAB39B. We subsequently identified a missense mutation (c.503C>A [p.Thr168Lys]) in RAB39B in an unrelated Wisconsin kindred affected by a similar clinical phenotype. In silico and in vitro studies demonstrated that the mutation destabilized the protein, consistent with loss of function. In vitro small-hairpin-RNA-mediated knockdown of Rab39b resulted in a reduction in the density of α-synuclein immunoreactive puncta in dendritic processes of cultured neurons. In addition, in multiple cell models, we demonstrated that knockdown of Rab39b was associated with reduced steady-state levels of α-synuclein. Post mortem studies demonstrated that loss of RAB39B resulted in pathologically confirmed Parkinson disease. There was extensive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra and widespread classic Lewy body pathology. Additional pathological features included cortical Lewy bodies, brain iron accumulation, tau immunoreactivity, and axonal spheroids. Overall, we have shown that loss-of-function mutations in RAB39B cause intellectual disability and pathologically confirmed early-onset Parkinson disease. The loss of RAB39B results in dysregulation of α-synuclein homeostasis and a spectrum of neuropathological features that implicate RAB39B in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by a reduced sensitivity of Kv7.2 potassium channels to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Ambrosino, Paolo; Mosca, Ilaria; De Maria, Michela; Moretto, Edoardo; Miceli, Francesco; Alaimo, Alessandro; Iraci, Nunzio; Manocchio, Laura; Medoro, Alessandro; Passafaro, Maria; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 subunits underlie the M-current, a neuronal K+ current characterized by an absolute functional requirement for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Kv7.2 gene mutations cause early-onset neonatal seizures with heterogeneous clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting benign familial neonatal seizures to severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (Kv7.2-EE). In this study, the biochemical and functional consequences prompted by a recurrent variant (R325G) found independently in four individuals with severe forms of neonatal-onset EE have been investigated. Upon heterologous expression, homomeric Kv7.2 R325G channels were non-functional, despite biotin-capture in Western blots revealed normal plasma membrane subunit expression. Mutant subunits exerted dominant-negative effects when incorporated into heteromeric channels with Kv7.2 and/or Kv7.3 subunits. Increasing cellular PIP2 levels by co-expression of type 1γ PI(4)P5-kinase (PIP5K) partially recovered homomeric Kv7.2 R325G channel function. Currents carried by heteromeric channels incorporating Kv7.2 R325G subunits were more readily inhibited than wild-type channels upon activation of a voltage-sensitive phosphatase (VSP), and recovered more slowly upon VSP switch-off. These results reveal for the first time that a mutation-induced decrease in current sensitivity to PIP2 is the primary molecular defect responsible for Kv7.2-EE in individuals carrying the R325G variant, further expanding the range of pathogenetic mechanisms exploitable for personalized treatment of Kv7.2-related epilepsies. PMID:27905566

  6. Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by a reduced sensitivity of Kv7.2 potassium channels to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Ambrosino, Paolo; Mosca, Ilaria; De Maria, Michela; Moretto, Edoardo; Miceli, Francesco; Alaimo, Alessandro; Iraci, Nunzio; Manocchio, Laura; Medoro, Alessandro; Passafaro, Maria; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 subunits underlie the M-current, a neuronal K + current characterized by an absolute functional requirement for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ). Kv7.2 gene mutations cause early-onset neonatal seizures with heterogeneous clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting benign familial neonatal seizures to severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (Kv7.2-EE). In this study, the biochemical and functional consequences prompted by a recurrent variant (R325G) found independently in four individuals with severe forms of neonatal-onset EE have been investigated. Upon heterologous expression, homomeric Kv7.2 R325G channels were non-functional, despite biotin-capture in Western blots revealed normal plasma membrane subunit expression. Mutant subunits exerted dominant-negative effects when incorporated into heteromeric channels with Kv7.2 and/or Kv7.3 subunits. Increasing cellular PIP 2 levels by co-expression of type 1γ PI(4)P5-kinase (PIP5K) partially recovered homomeric Kv7.2 R325G channel function. Currents carried by heteromeric channels incorporating Kv7.2 R325G subunits were more readily inhibited than wild-type channels upon activation of a voltage-sensitive phosphatase (VSP), and recovered more slowly upon VSP switch-off. These results reveal for the first time that a mutation-induced decrease in current sensitivity to PIP 2 is the primary molecular defect responsible for Kv7.2-EE in individuals carrying the R325G variant, further expanding the range of pathogenetic mechanisms exploitable for personalized treatment of Kv7.2-related epilepsies.

  7. Exome sequencing reveals a novel Moroccan founder mutation in SLC19A3 as a new cause of early-childhood fatal Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gerards, Mike; Kamps, Rick; van Oevelen, Jo; Boesten, Iris; Jongen, Eveline; de Koning, Bart; Scholte, Hans R; de Angst, Isabel; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Sefiani, Abdelaziz; Ratbi, Ilham; Coppieters, Wouter; Karim, Latifa; de Coo, René; van den Bosch, Bianca; Smeets, Hubert

    2013-03-01

    Leigh syndrome is an early onset, often fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Until now, mutations in more than 35 genes have been reported to cause Leigh syndrome, indicating an extreme genetic heterogeneity for this disorder, but still only explaining part of the cases. The possibility of whole exome sequencing enables not only mutation detection in known candidate genes, but also the identification of new genes associated with Leigh syndrome in small families and isolated cases. Exome sequencing was combined with homozygosity mapping to identify the genetic defect in a Moroccan family with fatal Leigh syndrome in early childhood and specific magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in the brain. We detected a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.20C>A; p.Ser7Ter) in the thiamine transporter SLC19A3. In vivo overexpression of wild-type SLC19A3 showed an increased thiamine uptake, whereas overexpression of mutant SLC19A3 did not, confirming that the mutation results in an absent or non-functional protein. Seventeen additional patients with Leigh syndrome were screened for mutations in SLC19A3 using conventional Sanger sequencing. Two unrelated patients, both from Moroccan origin and one from consanguineous parents, were homozygous for the same p.Ser7Ter mutation. One of these patients showed the same MRI abnormalities as the patients from the first family. Strikingly, patients receiving thiamine had an improved life-expectancy. One patient in the third family deteriorated upon interruption of the thiamine treatment and recovered after reinitiating. Although unrelated, all patients came from the province Al Hoceima in Northern Morocco. Based on the recombination events the mutation was estimated to have occurred 1250-1750 years ago. Our data shows that SLC19A3 is a new candidate for mutation screening in patients with Leigh syndrome, who might benefit from high doses of thiamine and/or biotin. Especially

  8. Heterozygous truncation mutations of the SMC1A gene cause a severe early onset epilepsy with cluster seizures in females: Detailed phenotyping of 10 new cases.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Joseph D; Joss, Shelagh; Metcalfe, Kay A; Somarathi, Suresh; Cruden, Jamie; Devlin, Anita M; Donaldson, Alan; DiDonato, Nataliya; Fitzpatrick, David; Kaiser, Frank J; Lampe, Anne K; Lees, Melissa M; McLellan, Ailsa; Montgomery, Tara; Mundada, Vivek; Nairn, Lesley; Sarkar, Ajoy; Schallner, Jens; Pozojevic, Jelena; Parenti, Ilaria; Tan, Jeen; Turnpenny, Peter; Whitehouse, William P; Zuberi, Sameer M

    2017-04-01

    The phenotype of seizure clustering with febrile illnesses in infancy/early childhood is well recognized. To date the only genetic epilepsy consistently associated with this phenotype is PCDH19, an X-linked disorder restricted to females, and males with mosaicism. The SMC1A gene, which encodes a structural component of the cohesin complex is also located on the X chromosome. Missense variants and small in-frame deletions of SMC1A cause approximately 5% of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS). Recently, protein truncating mutations in SMC1A have been reported in five females, all of whom have been affected by a drug-resistant epilepsy, and severe developmental impairment. Our objective was to further delineate the phenotype of SMC1A truncation. Female cases with de novo truncation mutations in SMC1A were identified from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study (n = 8), from postmortem testing of an affected twin (n = 1), and from clinical testing with an epilepsy gene panel (n = 1). Detailed information on the phenotype in each case was obtained. Ten cases with heterozygous de novo mutations in the SMC1A gene are presented. All 10 mutations identified are predicted to result in premature truncation of the SMC1A protein. All cases are female, and none had a clinical diagnosis of CdLS. They presented with onset of epileptic seizures between <4 weeks and 28 months of age. In the majority of cases, a marked preponderance for seizures to occur in clusters was noted. Seizure clusters were associated with developmental regression. Moderate or severe developmental impairment was apparent in all cases. Truncation mutations in SMC1A cause a severe epilepsy phenotype with cluster seizures in females. These mutations are likely to be nonviable in males. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Early Fungicidal Activity as a Candidate Surrogate Endpoint for All-Cause Mortality in Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M; Powers, John H; Follmann, Dean; Wang, Jing; Sullivan, Brigit; Williamson, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality. In clinical trials evaluating treatments for CM, biomarkers of early fungicidal activity (EFA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been proposed as candidate surrogate endpoints for all- cause mortality (ACM). However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the group-level or trial-level evidence for EFA as a candidate surrogate endpoint for ACM. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials in treatment of CM to evaluate available evidence for EFA measured as culture negativity at 2 weeks/10 weeks and slope of EFA as candidate surrogate endpoints for ACM. We performed sensitivity analysis on superiority trials and high quality trials as determined by Cochrane measures of trial bias. Twenty-seven trials including 2854 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean ACM was 15.8% at 2 weeks and 27.0% at 10 weeks with no overall significant difference between test and control groups. There was a statistically significant group-level correlation between average EFA and ACM at 10 weeks but not at 2 weeks. There was also no statistically significant group-level correlation between CFU culture negativity at 2weeks/10weeks or average EFA slope at 10 weeks. A statistically significant trial-level correlation was identified between EFA slope and ACM at 2 weeks, but is likely misleading, as there was no treatment effect on ACM. Mortality remains high in short time periods in CM clinical trials. Using published data and Institute of Medicine criteria, evidence for use of EFA as a surrogate endpoint for ACM is insufficient and could provide misleading results from clinical trials. ACM should be used as a primary endpoint evaluating treatments for cryptococcal meningitis.

  10. Very Early Presentation of Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction Causing Portal Hypertension in an Infant: Uncertainties in the Management and Therapeutic Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Peña Aldea, Andrés; Ramírez González, Ana; Meseguer Carrascosa, Adela; Calabuig Bayo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction, although rare in children, is a significant cause of portal hypertension (PHT) leading to life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding in the pediatric age group. PHT may also lead to other complications such as hyperesplenism, cholangyopathy, ascites, and even hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension that may require organ transplantation. Herein we report the case of an asymptomatic 11-month-old infant wherein a hepatomegaly and cavernous transformation of the portal vein was detected by liver ultrasound. Neither signs of thrombosis in arteriovenous system, nor affectation of biliary tract were identified in the magnetic resonance imaging study. A significant enlargement of the caudate lobe of the liver was reported. No risk factors were detected. The differential diagnosis performed was extensive. Inherited thrombophilia and storage disorders were especially considered. Liver biopsy was normal. Upper gastrointestinal esophagogastroduodenoscopy detected two small varicose cords on the distal third of the esophagus. Finding a cavernous transformation of the portal vein with evidence of collateral circulation in such an early age is a challenging condition for professionals, since PHT may lead to severe complications during childhood and can compromise growth and development. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of PHT in adults have been published. However, follow-up and treatment of pediatric patients have not yet been standardized. Moreover, management of PHT in infants faces particular difficulties such as technical restrictions that could hinder their treatment. PMID:27504083

  11. The Physiology and Proteomics of Drought Tolerance in Maize: Early Stomatal Closure as a Cause of Lower Tolerance to Short-Term Dehydration?

    PubMed Central

    Benešová, Monika; Holá, Dana; Fischer, Lukáš; Jedelský, Petr L.; Hnilička, František; Wilhelmová, Naďa; Rothová, Olga; Kočová, Marie; Procházková, Dagmar; Honnerová, Jana; Fridrichová, Lenka; Hniličková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the response of a crop to drought is the first step in the breeding of tolerant genotypes. In our study, two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes with contrasting sensitivity to dehydration were subjected to moderate drought conditions. The subsequent analysis of their physiological parameters revealed a decreased stomatal conductance accompanied by a slighter decrease in the relative water content in the sensitive genotype. In contrast, the tolerant genotype maintained open stomata and active photosynthesis, even under dehydration conditions. Drought-induced changes in the leaf proteome were analyzed by two independent approaches, 2D gel electrophoresis and iTRAQ analysis, which provided compatible but only partially overlapping results. Drought caused the up-regulation of protective and stress-related proteins (mainly chaperones and dehydrins) in both genotypes. The differences in the levels of various detoxification proteins corresponded well with the observed changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The number and levels of up-regulated protective proteins were generally lower in the sensitive genotype, implying a reduced level of proteosynthesis, which was also indicated by specific changes in the components of the translation machinery. Based on these results, we propose that the hypersensitive early stomatal closure in the sensitive genotype leads to the inhibition of photosynthesis and, subsequently, to a less efficient synthesis of the protective/detoxification proteins that are associated with drought tolerance. PMID:22719860

  12. The physiology and proteomics of drought tolerance in maize: early stomatal closure as a cause of lower tolerance to short-term dehydration?

    PubMed

    Benešová, Monika; Holá, Dana; Fischer, Lukáš; Jedelský, Petr L; Hnilička, František; Wilhelmová, Naďa; Rothová, Olga; Kočová, Marie; Procházková, Dagmar; Honnerová, Jana; Fridrichová, Lenka; Hniličková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the response of a crop to drought is the first step in the breeding of tolerant genotypes. In our study, two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes with contrasting sensitivity to dehydration were subjected to moderate drought conditions. The subsequent analysis of their physiological parameters revealed a decreased stomatal conductance accompanied by a slighter decrease in the relative water content in the sensitive genotype. In contrast, the tolerant genotype maintained open stomata and active photosynthesis, even under dehydration conditions. Drought-induced changes in the leaf proteome were analyzed by two independent approaches, 2D gel electrophoresis and iTRAQ analysis, which provided compatible but only partially overlapping results. Drought caused the up-regulation of protective and stress-related proteins (mainly chaperones and dehydrins) in both genotypes. The differences in the levels of various detoxification proteins corresponded well with the observed changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The number and levels of up-regulated protective proteins were generally lower in the sensitive genotype, implying a reduced level of proteosynthesis, which was also indicated by specific changes in the components of the translation machinery. Based on these results, we propose that the hypersensitive early stomatal closure in the sensitive genotype leads to the inhibition of photosynthesis and, subsequently, to a less efficient synthesis of the protective/detoxification proteins that are associated with drought tolerance.

  13. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Abnormal Electron Transport and Excessive Oxidative Stress Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Placental Tissues of Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongwei; Jin, Xiaohan; Cai, Wei; Zhou, Maobin; Shao, Ping; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Rong; Cao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Yu, Fang; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Shuang; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Ning; Chen, Xu; Li, Yuming

    2018-04-20

    Early-onset preeclampsia (EOS-PE) refers to preeclampsia that occurred before 34 gestation weeks. This study is conducted to explore the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of EOS-PE using proteomic strategy. To identify altering expressed mitochondrial proteins between severe EOS-PE and healthy pregnancies, enrichment of mitochondria coupled with iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic method is performed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot are performed to detect the alteration of changing expression proteins, and confirmed the accuracy of proteomic results. A total of 1372 proteins were quantified and 132 altering expressed proteins were screened, including 86 downregulated expression proteins and 46 upregulated expression proteins (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that differentially expressed proteins participated in numerous biological processes, including oxidation-reduction process, respiratory electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation. Especially, mitochondria-related molecules, PRDX2, PARK7, BNIP3, BCL2, PDHA1, SUCLG1, ACADM, and NDUFV1, are involved in energy-production process in the matrix and membrane of mitochondria. Results of the experiment show that abnormal electron transport, excessive oxidative stress, and mitochondrion disassembly might be the main cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, and is related to the pathogenesis of EOS-PE. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Early stages of Alzheimer's disease are alarming signs in injury deaths caused by traffic accidents in elderly people (≥60 years of age): A neuropathological study.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, Printha; Gorrie, Catherine; Shankar, S K; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T; Amaratunga, Dhammika; Hulathduwa, Sanjayah; Kumara, K Sunil; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Steinbusch, H W M; De Silva, K Ranil D

    2017-01-01

    There is little information available in the literature concerning the contribution of dementia in injury deaths in elderly people (≥60 years). This study was intended to investigate the extent of dementia-related pathologies in the brains of elderly people who died in traffic accidents or by suicide and to compare our findings with age- and sex-matched natural deaths in an elderly population. Autopsy-derived human brain samples from nine injury death victims (5 suicide and 4 traffic accidents) and nine age- and sex-matched natural death victims were screened for neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular pathologies using histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. For the analysis, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 was used. There was a greater likelihood for Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related changes in the elders who succumbed to traffic accidents (1 out of 4) compared to age- and sex-matched suicides (0 out of 5) or natural deaths (0 out of 9) as assessed by the National Institute on Aging - Alzheimer's Association guidelines. Actual burden of both neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and (SPs) was comparatively higher in the brains of traffic accidents, and the mean NFT counts were significantly higher in the region of entorhinal cortex ( P < 0.05). However, associations obtained for other dementia-related pathologies were not statistically important. Our findings suggest that early Alzheimer stages may be a contributing factor to injury deaths caused by traffic accidents in elderly people whereas suicidal brain neuropathologies resembled natural deaths.

  15. Maternal separation and early stress cause long-lasting effects on dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and alters dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Romano-López, Antonio; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; García, Fabio García; Regalado-Santiago, Citlalli; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    A considerable amount experimental studies have shown that maternal separation (MS) is associated with adult offspring abnormal behavior and cognition disorder. Accordingly, this experimental procedure has been proposed as a predictor for alcohol and drug dependence based on the neurodevelopmental soon after birth. Endocannabinoid system (eCBs) has been implicated in reward processes, including drug abuse and dependence. MS and associated stress causes changes in the eCBs that seem to facilitate alcohol consumption. In this study, we seek to evaluate potential morphological changes in neurons of the frontal cortex (FCx) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in the expression of receptors and enzymes of the endocannabinoid and dopamine systems and in second messengers, such as Akt, in adult rats subjected to MS and early stress (MS + ES; 2 × 180 min daily) vs. nonseparated rats (NMS). Results showed that MS + ES induces higher D2R expression and lower D3R, FAAH, and MAGL expression compared with NMS rats. Alterations in total dendritic length were also detected and were characterized by increases in the NAcc while there were decreases in the FCx. We believe MS + ES-induced changes in the dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and in the neuronal microstructure might be contributing to alcohol seeking behavior and, potential vulnerability to other drugs in rats. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 819-831, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Leaving Education Early: Putting Vocational Education and Training Centre Stage. Volume I: Investigating Causes and Extent. Cedefop Research Paper. No 57

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Cedefop study examines the contribution that vocational education and training (VET) can make to reducing early leaving from education and training (ELET). Published in two volumes, this first looks at quantitative data to understand better the extent of early leaving from VET (ELVET). It analyses mechanisms for monitoring early leaving (at…

  17. Early stages of Alzheimer's disease are alarming signs in injury deaths caused by traffic accidents in elderly people (≥60 years of age): A neuropathological study

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, Printha; Gorrie, Catherine; Shankar, S. K.; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T.; Amaratunga, Dhammika; Hulathduwa, Sanjayah; Kumara, K. Sunil; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Steinbusch, H. W. M.; De Silva, K. Ranil D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is little information available in the literature concerning the contribution of dementia in injury deaths in elderly people (≥60 years). Aim: This study was intended to investigate the extent of dementia-related pathologies in the brains of elderly people who died in traffic accidents or by suicide and to compare our findings with age- and sex-matched natural deaths in an elderly population. Materials and Methods: Autopsy-derived human brain samples from nine injury death victims (5 suicide and 4 traffic accidents) and nine age- and sex-matched natural death victims were screened for neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular pathologies using histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. For the analysis, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 was used. Results: There was a greater likelihood for Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related changes in the elders who succumbed to traffic accidents (1 out of 4) compared to age- and sex-matched suicides (0 out of 5) or natural deaths (0 out of 9) as assessed by the National Institute on Aging – Alzheimer's Association guidelines. Actual burden of both neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and (SPs) was comparatively higher in the brains of traffic accidents, and the mean NFT counts were significantly higher in the region of entorhinal cortex (P < 0.05). However, associations obtained for other dementia-related pathologies were not statistically important. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that early Alzheimer stages may be a contributing factor to injury deaths caused by traffic accidents in elderly people whereas suicidal brain neuropathologies resembled natural deaths. PMID:29497190

  18. RanBP9 overexpression down-regulates phospho-cofilin, causes early synaptic deficits and impaired learning, and accelerates accumulation of amyloid plaques in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Wang, Hongjie; Minond, Dmitriy; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Xu, Shaohua; Lakshmana, Madepalli K

    2014-01-01

    Loss of synaptic proteins and functional synapses in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as transgenic mouse models expressing amyloid-β protein precursor is now well established. However, the earliest age at which such loss of synapses occurs, and whether known markers of AD progression accelerate functional deficits is completely unknown. We previously showed that RanBP9 overexpression leads to enhanced amyloid plaque burden in a mouse model of AD. In this study, we found significant reductions in the levels of synaptophysin and spinophilin, compared with wild-type controls, in both the cortex and the hippocampus of 5- and 6-month old but not 3- or 4-month old APΔE9/RanBP9 triple transgenic mice, and not in APΔE9 double transgenic mice, nor in RanBP9 single transgenic mice. Interestingly, amyloid plaque burden was also increased in the APΔE9/RanBP9 mice at 5-6 months. Consistent with these results, we found significant deficits in learning and memory in the APΔE9/RanBP9 mice at 5 and 6 month. These data suggest that increased amyloid plaques and accelerated learning and memory deficits and loss of synaptic proteins induced by RanBP9 are correlated. Most importantly, APΔE9/RanBP9 mice also showed significantly reduced levels of the phosphorylated form of cofilin in the hippocampus. Taken together these data suggest that RanBP9 overexpression down-regulates cofilin, causes early synaptic deficits and impaired learning, and accelerates accumulation of amyloid plaques in the mouse brain.

  19. JAK2 V617F, MPL W515L and JAK2 Exon 12 Mutations in Chinese Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Lu, Mi-Ze; Jiang, Yuan-Qiang; Yang, Guo-Hua; Zhuang, Yun; Sun, Hong-Li; Shen, Yun-Feng

    2012-03-01

    JAK2 V617F, MPL W515L and JAK2 exon 12 mutations are novel acquired mutations that induce constitutive cytokine-independent activation of the JAK-STAT pathway in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). The discovery of these mutations provides novel mechanism for activation of signal transduction in hematopoietic malignancies. This research was to investigate their prevalence in Chinese patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). We introduced allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) combined with sequence analysis to simultaneously screen JAK2 V617F, MPL W515L and JAK2 exon 12 mutations in 30 patients with PMF. Fifteen PMF patients (50.0%) carried JAK2 V617F mutation, and only two JAK2 V617F-negative patients (6.7%) harbored MPL W515L mutation. None had JAK2 exon 12 mutations. Furthermore, these three mutations were not detected in 50 healthy controls. MPL W515L and JAK2 V617F mutations existed in PMF patients but JAK2 exon 12 mutations not. JAK2 V617F and MPL W515L and mutations might contribute to the primary molecular pathogenesis in patients with PMF.

  20. Results of a phase 2 study of pacritinib (SB1518), a JAK2/JAK2(V617F) inhibitor, in patients with myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, John F.; Roberts, Andrew W.; Wadleigh, Martha; To, L. Bik; Scherber, Robyn; Turba, Elyce; Dorr, Andrew; Zhu, Joy; Wang, Lixia; Granston, Tanya; Campbell, Mary S.; Mesa, Ruben A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacritinib (SB1518) is a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), JAK2(V617F), and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 inhibitor that does not inhibit JAK1. It demonstrated a favorable safety profile with promising efficacy in phase 1 studies in patients with primary and secondary myelofibrosis (MF). This multicenter phase 2 study further characterized the safety and efficacy of pacritinib in the treatment of patients with MF. Eligible patients had clinical splenomegaly poorly controlled with standard therapies or were newly diagnosed with intermediate- or high-risk Lille score. Patients with any degree of cytopenia were eligible. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. At entry, 40% had hemoglobin <10 g/dL and 43% had platelets <100 000× 109/L. Up to week 24, 8 of 26 evaluable patients (31%) achieved a ≥35% decrease in spleen volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging and 14 of 33 (42%) attained a ≥50% reduction in spleen size by physical examination. Median MF symptom improvement was ≥50% for all symptoms except fatigue. Grade 1 or 2 diarrhea (69%) and nausea (49%) were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events. The study drug was discontinued in 9 patients (26%) due to adverse events (4 severe). Pacritinib is an active agent in patients with MF, offering a potential treatment option for patients with preexisting anemia and thrombocytopenia. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00745550. PMID:25762180

  1. Screening and monitoring of MPL W515L mutation with real-time PCR in patients with myelofibrosis undergoing allogeneic-SCT.

    PubMed

    Alchalby, H; Badbaran, A; Bock, O; Fehse, B; Bacher, U; Zander, A R; Kröger, N

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) after allogeneic (allo)-SCT for myelofibrosis (MF) allows recognizing the depth of remission and thus guides application of appropriate therapeutic interventions. MPL W515L/K mutations, which are detected in 5-10% of JAK2V617F-negative patients, may be useful for this purpose. Using a highly sensitive quantitative PCR method, we tested 90 patients with MF who underwent allo-SCT for the presence of MPL W515L/K mutations. Two patients with primary MF were found to harbor MPLW515L while no patient was positive for MPLW515K mutation. Both patients were JAK2V617F negative and cleared the mutation rapidly after allo-SCT and remained negative for a median follow-up of 19 months. The results of molecular monitoring correlated well with other remission parameters such as normalization of peripheral blood counts and morphology and complete donor chimerism. We conclude that MPLW515L can be cleared after allo-SCT and hence may be used as an MRD marker in a proportion of JAK2V617F-negative MF patients.

  2. miRNA-mRNA integrative analysis in primary myelofibrosis CD34+ cells: role of miR-155/JARID2 axis in abnormal megakaryopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Norfo, Ruggiero; Zini, Roberta; Pennucci, Valentina; Bianchi, Elisa; Salati, Simona; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bogani, Costanza; Fanelli, Tiziana; Mannarelli, Carmela; Rosti, Vittorio; Pietra, Daniela; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Bisognin, Andrea; Ruberti, Samantha; Rontauroli, Sebastiano; Sacchi, Giorgia; Prudente, Zelia; Barosi, Giovanni; Cazzola, Mario; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Ferrari, Sergio; Tagliafico, Enrico; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.

    2014-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by megakaryocyte (MK) hyperplasia, bone marrow fibrosis, and abnormal stem cell trafficking. PMF may be associated with somatic mutations in JAK2, MPL, or CALR. Previous studies have shown that abnormal MKs play a central role in the pathophysiology of PMF. In this work, we studied both gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in CD34+ cells from PMF patients. We identified several biomarkers and putative molecular targets such as FGR, LCN2, and OLFM4. By means of miRNA-gene expression integrative analysis, we found different regulatory networks involved in the dysregulation of transcriptional control and chromatin remodeling. In particular, we identified a network gathering several miRNAs with oncogenic potential (eg, miR-155-5p) and targeted genes whose abnormal function has been previously associated with myeloid neoplasms, including JARID2, NR4A3, CDC42, and HMGB3. Because the validation of miRNA-target interactions unveiled JARID2/miR-155-5p as the strongest relationship in the network, we studied the function of this axis in normal and PMF CD34+ cells. We showed that JARID2 downregulation mediated by miR-155-5p overexpression leads to increased in vitro formation of CD41+ MK precursors. These findings suggest that overexpression of miR-155-5p and the resulting downregulation of JARID2 may contribute to MK hyperplasia in PMF. PMID:25097177

  3. Early Improvement in Marrow Fibrosis Following Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Bone Marrow Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shuichiro; Tsumanuma, Riko; Aizawa, Keiko; Osakabe, Mitsumasa; Maeda, Kunihiko; Omoto, Ejiro

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis for myelodysplastic syndrome with bone marrow fibrosis (MDS-F) is worse than the prognosis of MDS without fibrosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy; however, the indications and the procedures involved in HSCT remain unclear. We herein describe a 69-year-old Japanese man with MDS-F who received haploidentical HSCT and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. Although the first HSCT resulted in secondary graft failure, the second HSCT using PTCy led to successful engraftment after early improvement in fibrosis. Since the incidence of graft failure is high in myelofibrosis patients, a secondary HSCT using PTCy may be successful if employed. PMID:27853082

  4. A recurrent KCNQ2 pore mutation causing early onset epileptic encephalopathy has a moderate effect on M current but alters subcellular localization of Kv7 channels.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Affef; Devaux, Jérôme J; Molinari, Florence; Alcaraz, Gisèle; Michon, François-Xavier; Sutera-Sardo, Julie; Becq, Hélène; Lacoste, Caroline; Altuzarra, Cécilia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Mignot, Cyril; Doummar, Diane; Isidor, Bertrand; Guyen, Sylvie N; Colin, Estelle; De La Vaissière, Sabine; Haye, Damien; Trauffler, Adeline; Badens, Catherine; Prieur, Fabienne; Lesca, Gaetan; Villard, Laurent; Milh, Mathieu; Aniksztejn, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the KCNQ2 gene encoding the voltage-dependent potassium M channel Kv7.2 subunit cause either benign epilepsy or early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE). It has been proposed that the disease severity rests on the inhibitory impact of mutations on M current density. Here, we have analyzed the phenotype of 7 patients carrying the p.A294V mutation located on the S6 segment of the Kv7.2 pore domain (Kv7.2(A294V)). We investigated the functional and subcellular consequences of this mutation and compared it to another mutation (Kv7.2(A294G)) associated with a benign epilepsy and affecting the same residue. We report that all the patients carrying the p.A294V mutation presented the clinical and EEG characteristics of EOEE. In CHO cells, the total expression of Kv7.2(A294V) alone, assessed by western blotting, was only 20% compared to wild-type. No measurable current was recorded in CHO cells expressing Kv7.2(A294V) channel alone. Although the total Kv7.2(A294V) expression was rescued to wild-type levels in cells co-expressing the Kv7.3 subunit, the global current density was still reduced by 83% compared to wild-type heteromeric channel. In a configuration mimicking the patients' heterozygous genotype i.e., Kv7.2(A294V)/Kv7.2/Kv7.3, the global current density was reduced by 30%. In contrast to Kv7.2(A294V), the current density of homomeric Kv7.2(A294G) was not significantly changed compared to wild-type Kv7.2. However, the current density of Kv7.2(A294G)/Kv7.2/Kv7.3 and Kv7.2(A294G)/Kv7.3 channels were reduced by 30% and 50% respectively, compared to wild-type Kv7.2/Kv7.3. In neurons, the p.A294V mutation induced a mislocalization of heteromeric mutant channels to the somato-dendritic compartment, while the p.A294G mutation did not affect the localization of the heteromeric channels to the axon initial segment. We conclude that this position is a hotspot of mutation that can give rise to a severe or a benign epilepsy. The p.A294V mutation does not exert a

  5. Black Contributions to the Early History of Western Medicine: Lack of Recognition as a Cause of Black Under-Representation in US Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    During several millenia, blacks in ancient Egypt made numerous contributions to medicine and were acknowledged as the inventors of the art of medicine. They produced the earliest physicians, medical knowledge, and medical literature. They contributed to the development of medicine in ancient Greece. Ancient writers, including Herodotus, Isocrates, and Diodorus, affirm this. Modern presentations of ancient medicine, however, deprive blacks of the knowledge of their early contributions to medicine by ignoring or subtly misrepresenting the black identity of the ancient Egyptians. Blacks are currently under-represented in US medical schools. It is proposed that the recognition of the contributions of blacks to the early history of Western medicine would inspire black students to study medicine. PMID:423296

  6. The Effect of Early Intervention and Rehabilitation in the Expression of Aquaporin-4; and Ultrastructure Changes on Rat's Offspring's Damaged Brain Caused by Intrauterine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Kumar; Xiangying, Kong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of early intervention and rehabilitation in the expression of aquaporin-4 and ultrastructure changes on cerebral palsy pups model induced by intrauterine infection. Methods 20 pregnant Wistar rats were consecutively injected with lipopolysaccharide intraperitoneally. 60 Pups born from lipopolysaccharide group were randomly divided into intervention group (n=30) and non-intervention group (n=30); intervention group further divided into early intervention and rehabilitation group (n=10), acupuncture group (n=10) and consolidate group (n=10). Another 5 pregnant rats were injected with normal saline intraperitoneally; 30 pups born from the normal saline group were taken as control group. The intervention group received early intervention, rehabilitation and acupuncture treatment. The motor functions of all pups were assessed via suspension test and modified BBB locomotor score. Aquaporin-4 expression in brain tissue was studied through immunohistochemical and western-blot analysis. Ultrastructure changes in damaged brain and control group were studied electron-microscopically. Results The scores of suspension test and modified BBB locomotor test were significantly higher in the control group than the intervention and non intervention group (p<0.01); higher in the intervention group than the non-intervention group (p<0.01). The expression of Aquaporin-4 was lower in intervention and non intervention group than in the control group (p<0.01); also lower in non-intervention group than the intervention group (p<0.01). Marked changes were observed in ultrastructure of cortex and hippocampus CAI in brain damaged group. Conclusion Early intervention and rehabilitation training can improve the motor function in offspring with brain injury and reduce the expression of aquaporin-4 in damaged brain. PMID:26279808

  7. A pooled analysis of overall survival in COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II, 2 randomized phase III trials of ruxolitinib for the treatment of myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Gotlib, Jason; Cervantes, Francisco; Mesa, Ruben A; Sarlis, Nicholas J; Peng, Wei; Sandor, Victor; Gopalakrishna, Prashanth; Hmissi, Abdel; Stalbovskaya, Viktoriya; Gupta, Vikas; Harrison, Claire; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-09-01

    Ruxolitinib, a potent Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor, resulted in rapid and durable improvements in splenomegaly and disease-related symptoms in the 2 phase III COMFORT studies. In addition, ruxolitinib was associated with prolonged survival compared with placebo (COMFORT-I) and best available therapy (COMFORT-II). We present a pooled analysis of overall survival in the COMFORT studies using an intent-to-treat analysis and an analysis correcting for crossover in the control arms. Overall, 301 patients received ruxolitinib (COMFORT-I, n=155; COMFORT-II, n=146) and 227 patients received placebo (n=154) or best available therapy (n=73). After a median three years of follow up, intent-to-treat analysis showed that patients who received ruxolitinib had prolonged survival compared with patients who received placebo or best available therapy [hazard ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.46-0.90; P=0.01]; the crossover-corrected hazard ratio was 0.29 (95%CI: 0.13-0.63). Both patients with intermediate-2- or high-risk disease showed prolonged survival, and patients with high-risk disease in the ruxolitinib group had survival similar to that of patients with intermediate-2-risk disease in the control group. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at week 144 was 78% in the ruxolitinib arm, 61% in the intent-to-treat control arm, and 31% in the crossover-adjusted control arm. While larger spleen size at baseline was prognostic for shortened survival, reductions in spleen size with ruxolitinib treatment correlated with longer survival. These findings are consistent with previous reports and support that ruxolitinib offers a survival benefit for patients with myelofibrosis compared with conventional therapies. (clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: COMFORT-I, NCT00952289; COMFORT-II, NCT00934544). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. Life for patients with myelofibrosis: the physical, emotional and financial impact, collected using narrative medicine-Results from the Italian 'Back to Life' project.

    PubMed

    Palandri, Francesca; Benevolo, Giulia; Iurlo, Alessandra; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Carella, Angelo M; Paoli, Chiara; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Cilloni, Daniela; Andriani, Alessandro; Guarini, Attilio; Turri, Diamante; Elli, Elena Maria; Falcone, Antonietta; Anaclerico, Barbara; Musto, Pellegrino; Di Renzo, Nicola; Tiribelli, Mario; Zambello, Renato; Spinosa, Caterina; Ricco, Alessandra; Raucci, Letizia; Martino, Bruno; Annunziata, Mario; Pascale, Silvia; Liberati, Anna Marina; La Nasa, Giorgio; Maffioli, Margherita; Breccia, Massimo; Pugliese, Novella; Betti, Silvia; Giglio, Gianfranco; Cappuccio, Antonietta; Reale, Luigi

    2018-06-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterised by an aggressive clinical course, with disabling symptoms and reduced survival. Patients experience a severely impaired quality of life and their families face the upheaval of daily routines and high disease-related financial costs. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of Italian patients and their caregivers about living with MF and the burden of illness associated with MF. A quali-quantitative questionnaire and a prompted written narrative survey were administered to patients affected by primary or post-essential thrombocythemia/post-polycythaemia vera MF and their primary caregiver in 35 Italian haematological centres. In total, 287 questionnaires were returned by patients and 98 by caregivers, with 215 and 62, respectively, including the narrative. At the time of diagnosis, the most commonly expressed emotional states of patients were fear, distress and anger, confirming the difficulty of this phase. A high level of emotional distress was also reported by caregivers. Along the pathway of care, the ability to cope with the disease differed according to the quality of care received. The mean cost to each patient attributable to MF was estimated as €12,466 per year, with an estimated average annual cost of loss of income of €7774 per patient and €4692 per caregiver. Better understanding of the personal life of MF patients and their families could improve the relationships between health workers and patients, resulting in better focused healthcare pathways and more effective financial support to maintain patients in their social roles.

  9. Increased risks of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis among 24 577 first-degree relatives of 11 039 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Lynn R.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Helgadottir, Elin A.; Samuelsson, Jan; Björkholm, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Previous small studies have reported familial clustering of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myelofibrosis (MF). We identified 6217 PV, 2838 ET, 1172 MF, and 812 MPN unclassifiable (NOS) patients diagnosed in Sweden, 43 550 controls, and first-degree relatives of cases (n = 24 577) and controls (n = 99 542). Using a marginal survival model, we calculated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals as measures of familial aggregation. Relatives of MPN patients had significantly increased risks of PV (RR = 5.7; 3.5-9.1), ET (RR = 7.4; 3.7-14.8), and MPN NOS (RR = 7.5; 2.7-20.8). Analyses stratified by type of first-degree relative revealed consistently higher risks for siblings, compatible with a model of recessive genetic inheritance, which can be confirmed only by identifying the susceptibility gene(s). Mean age at MPN diagnosis was not different (P = .20) for affected relatives of cases (57.5 years) versus controls (60.6 years), and risk of MPN by age was not different for parents versus offspring of MPN cases (P = .10), providing no support for anticipation. Relatives of MPN patients had a borderline increased risk of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML; RR = 1.9; 0.9-3.8; P = .09). Our findings of 5- to 7-fold elevated risk of MPNs among first-degree relatives of MPN patients support the hypothesis that common, strong, shared susceptibility genes predispose to PV, ET, MF, and possibly CML. PMID:18451307

  10. Early Mortality and Primary Causes of Death in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. Methods The study population comprised all mothers of live-born children in Western Australia from 1983–2005. We accessed state-wide databases which enabled us to link socio-demographic details, birth dates, diagnoses of intellectual disability or ASD in the children and dates and causes of death for all mothers who had died prior to 2011. Using Cox Regression with death by any cause and death by each of the three primary causes as the event of interest, we calculated hazard ratios for death for mothers of children intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. Results and Discussion During the study period, mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD had more than twice the risk of death. Mothers of children with intellectual disability were 40% more likely to die of cancer; 150% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease and nearly 200% more likely to die from misadventure than other mothers. Due to small numbers, only hazard ratios for cancer were calculated for mothers of children with ASD. These mothers were about 50% more likely to die from cancer than other mothers. Possible causes and implications of our results are discussed. Conclusion Similar studies, pooling data from registries elsewhere, would improve our understanding of factors increasing the mortality of mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD. This would allow the implementation of informed services and interventions to improve these mothers' longevity. PMID:25535971

  11. Mineralogy and Geochemical Evidence of the Late Early Miocene Aridification Intensification in Xining Basin Caused By the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Xiao, G.; Wu, H.; Hao, Q.; Guo, Z.

    2014-12-01

    A typical inland aridification is present in Central Asia, global cooling, the retreat of Para-Tethys Sea and Tibetan Plateau uplift have been thought to be the main driving forces of the climate change in interior Asia during Cenozoic. However, only few terrestrial climate records from the Asian inland were extended to the late Oligocene-early Miocene, it is still unclear the evolution of aridification before the middle Miocene and which of these driving forces plays the key role. Here, a sedimentary, mineralogy and geochemical proxies record of the early Miocene sedimentary sequence (ca. 22.1 to 16.7 Ma) from Xining Basin was present in this paper, which locates in the northeastern side of Tibetan Plateau. Mineralogical and geochemical parameters show obvious two stages climate change. During ~ 22.1-19 Ma (Unit I), the enrichment of I/S (irregular mixed-layers of illite and smectite) content, high values of a*/L* and much stronger chemical weathering degree reveal a warm and humid climate condition. During 19-16.7 Ma (Unit II), the increase of chlorite and dolomite contents, the upward decrease of a*/L* and much weaker chemical weathering than Unit I suggest evidently increased aridity since ca. 19 Ma. Comprehensive comparisons among records from the central western China demonstrate that the aridification since ca. 19 Ma is widespread in northeastern of Tibetan Plateau. The early Miocene episodic uplift of the north and northeastern Tibetan Plateau, especially, the uplift of Laji Shan at ~22 Ma, possibly have played a key role in the aridification of the Xining Basin.

  12. Overexpression of two PsnAP1 genes from Populus simonii × P. nigra causes early flowering in transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tangchun; Li, Shuang; Zang, Lina; Dai, Lijuan; Yang, Chuanping; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, AP1 is a floral meristem identity gene and plays an important role in floral organ development. In this study, PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra), which are the orthologs of AP1 in Arabidopsis, by sequence analysis. Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 exhibited high expression level in early inflorescence development of poplar. Subcellular localization showed the PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 proteins are localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in tobacco under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter significantly enhanced early flowering. These transgenic plants also showed much earlier stem initiation and higher rates of photosynthesis than did wild-type tobacco. qRT-PCR analysis further indicated that overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 resulted in up-regulation of genes related to flowering, such as NtMADS4, NtMADS5 and NtMADS11. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in Arabidopsis also induced early flowering, but did not complement the ap1-10 floral morphology to any noticeable extent. This study indicates that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 play a role in floral transition of poplar.

  13. Overexpression of Two PsnAP1 Genes from Populus simonii × P. nigra Causes Early Flowering in Transgenic Tobacco and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tangchun; Li, Shuang; Zang, Lina; Dai, Lijuan; Yang, Chuanping; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, AP1 is a floral meristem identity gene and plays an important role in floral organ development. In this study, PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra), which are the orthologs of AP1 in Arabidopsis, by sequence analysis. Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 exhibited high expression level in early inflorescence development of poplar. Subcellular localization showed the PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 proteins are localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in tobacco under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter significantly enhanced early flowering. These transgenic plants also showed much earlier stem initiation and higher rates of photosynthesis than did wild-type tobacco. qRT-PCR analysis further indicated that overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 resulted in up-regulation of genes related to flowering, such as NtMADS4, NtMADS5 and NtMADS11. Overexpression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 in Arabidopsis also induced early flowering, but did not complement the ap1-10 floral morphology to any noticeable extent. This study indicates that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 play a role in floral transition of poplar. PMID:25360739

  14. Circadian relationships between interleukin (IL)-6 and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones: failure of IL-6 to cause sustained hypercortisolism in patients with early untreated rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Crofford, L J; Kalogeras, K T; Mastorakos, G; Magiakou, M A; Wells, J; Kanik, K S; Gold, P W; Chrousos, G P; Wilder, R L

    1997-04-01

    Systemic symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mediated, at least in part, by elevated levels of circulating interleukin (IL)-6, and this cytokine is also a potent stimulus of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To evaluate the 24-h circadian secretory dynamics of ACTH, cortisol, and IL-6 and their interactions in patients with early untreated RA, we recruited and studied five newly diagnosed, untreated RA patients early in the course of their disease and five age-, gender-, and race-matched control subjects. We collected serial blood samples over 24 h and measured plasma ACTH and cortisol every 30 min and IL-6 every hour. The 24-h collection was followed by administration of ovine CRH (oCRH) and post-oCRH serial blood samples over 2 h. We analyzed the 24-h overall levels of these hormones and their circadian variations and performed time-lagged cross-correlation analyses among them. The untreated RA patients had 24 h time-integrated plasma ACTH, plasma cortisol levels, and urinary free cortisol excretion that were not significantly different from control subjects, in spite of their disease activity. However, an earlier morning surge of plasma ACTH and cortisol in the patients was suggested. Plasma ACTH and cortisol responses to oCRH were similar in RA patients and controls. IL-6 levels were significantly increased in the RA patients compared with control subjects during the early morning hours (P < 0.05). There was pronounced circadian variation of plasma Il-6 levels. In the RA patients, we detected a positive temporal correlation between plasma levels of IL-6 and ACTH/cortisol, with elevated levels of IL-6 before the elevations of ACTH and cortisol by 1 and 2 h, respectively. In the same patients, we detected a negative effect of cortisol upon IL-6 exerted with a delay of 5 h. The data presented here suggest that although endogenous IL-6 may stimulate secretion of ACTH and cortisol, overall activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis remains

  15. Early life exposure to environmental levels of the aromatase inhibitor tributyltin causes masculinisation and irreversible sperm damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    McAllister, Brian G; Kime, David E

    2003-11-19

    To determine whether early life exposure to tributyltin (TBT), an aromatase inhibitor, impaired reproductive function in fish, Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally realistic levels (0.01-100 ng l(-1)) of TBT from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 0 to 70 days post-hatch, and the sex ratio and sperm motility of the adults examined 3-5 months after cessation of exposure. Fish exposed for 70 days to 0.1 ng l(-1) of TBT, a concentration presently below the detection limit in water, showed a male biased population which produced a high incidence of sperm lacking flagella. At 1 ng l(-1), the motility of sperm was significantly lower than that of control fish, while at 10 ng l(-1), all sperm lacked flagella and, at 100 ng l(-1), milt volume had increased. The effect of exposure on sex ratio was similar after exposure from 0 to 70 and 0 to 30 days, but even 100 ng l(-1) gave only 65% males after exposure from 30 to 60 days. Effects on sperm motility and morphology and on milt volume were less pronounced after 30 day than 70 day exposure. Our data suggest that screening for aromatase inhibiting activity and assessment of its risks in early life to human and wildlife fertility needs to be urgently addressed, and that the reproductive toxicity of TBT may presently be underestimated.

  16. Early Detection of Lightning Caused Wildfires and Prediction of Wildfire Behavior through Energy Distribution, Atmospherics, Geophysics, the Sun's Azimuth, and Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesige, C.; Nava, E.

    2016-12-01

    In the midst of a changing climate we have seen extremes in weather events: lightning, wildfires, hurricanes, tornadoes, and earthquakes. All of these ride on an imbalance of magnetic and electrical distribution about the earth including what goes on from the atmospheric and geophysic levels. There is relevance to the important role the sun plays in developing and feeding of the extreme weather events along with the sun's role helping to create a separation of charges on earth furthering climactic extremes. Focusing attention in North America and on how the sun, atmospheric and geophysic winds come together producing lightning events, there are connections between energy distribution in the environment, lightning caused wildfires, and extreme wildfire behavior. Lightning caused wildfires and extreme fire behavior have become enhanced with the changing climate conditions. Even with strong developments in wildfire science, there remains a lack in full understanding of connections that create a lightning caused wildfire event and lack of monitoring advancements in predicting extreme fire behavior. Several connections have been made in our research allowing us to connect multiple facets of the environment in regards to electric and magnetic influences on wildfires. Among them include: irradiance, winds, pressure systems, humidity, and topology. The connections can be made to develop better detection systems of wildfires, establish with more accuracy areas of highest risk for wildfire and extreme wildfire behavior, and prediction of wildfire behavior. A platform found within the environment can also lead to further understanding and monitoring of other extreme weather events in the future.

  17. Early life lead exposure causes gender-specific changes in the DNA methylation profile of DNA extracted from dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arko; Heredia, Nicole; Senut, Marie-Claude; Hess, Matthew; Land, Susan; Qu, Wen; Hollacher, Kurt; Dereski, Mary O; Ruden, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Aims In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that early life lead (Pb) exposure associated DNA methylation (5mC) changes are dependent on the sex of the child and can serve as biomarkers for Pb exposure. Methods In this pilot study, we measured the 5mC profiles of DNA extracted from dried blood spots (DBS) in a cohort of 43 children (25 males and 18 females; ages from 3 months to 5 years) from Detroit. Result & Discussion We found that the effect of Pb-exposure on the 5-mC profiles can be separated into three subtypes: affected methylation loci which are conserved irrespective of the sex of the child (conserved); affected methylation loci unique to males (male-specific); and affected methylation loci unique to females (female-specific). PMID:26077427

  18. Early lens ablation causes dramatic long-term effects on the shape of bones in the craniofacial skeleton of Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Dufton, Megan; Hall, Brian K; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A

    2012-01-01

    The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, exists as two morphs of a single species, a sighted surface morph and a blind cavefish. In addition to eye regression, cavefish have an increased number of taste buds, maxillary teeth and have an altered craniofacial skeleton compared to the sighted morph. We investigated the effect the lens has on the development of the surrounding skeleton, by ablating the lens at different time points during ontogeny. This unique long-term study sheds light on how early embryonic manipulations on the eye can affect the shape of the adult skull more than a year later, and the developmental window during which time these effects occur. The effects of lens ablation were analyzed by whole-mount bone staining, immunohistochemisty and landmark based morphometric analyzes. Our results indicate that lens ablation has the greatest impact on the skeleton when it is ablated at one day post fertilisation (dpf) compared to at four dpf. Morphometric analyzes indicate that there is a statistically significant difference in the shape of the supraorbital bone and suborbital bones four through six. These bones expand into the eye orbit exhibiting plasticity in their shape. Interestingly, the number of caudal teeth on the lower jaw is also affected by lens ablation. In contrast, the shape of the calvariae, the length of the mandible, and the number of mandibular taste buds are unaltered by lens removal. We demonstrate the plasticity of some craniofacial elements and the stability of others in the skull. Furthermore, this study highlights interactions present between sensory systems during early development and sheds light on the cavefish phenotype.

  19. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is

  20. Blast Exposure Causes Early and Persistent Aberrant Phospho- and Cleaved-Tau Expression in a Murine Model of Mild Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Bertrand R.; Meabon, James S.; Martin, Tobin J.; Mourad, Pierre D.; Bennett, Raymond; Kraemer, Brian C.; Cernak, Ibolja; Petrie, Eric C.; Emery, Michael J.; Swenson, Erik R.; Mayer, Cynthia; Mehic, Edin; Peskind, Elaine R.; Cook, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered the ‘signature injury’ of combat veterans that have served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prevalence of mTBI is due in part to the common exposure to high explosive blasts in combat zones. In addition to the threats of blunt impact trauma caused by flying objects and the head itself being propelled against objects, the primary blast overpressure (BOP) generated by high explosives is capable of injuring the brain. Compared to other means of causing TBI, the pathophysiology of mild-to-moderate BOP is less well understood. To study the consequences of BOP exposure in mice, we employed a well-established approach using a compressed gas-driven shock tube that recapitulates battlefield-relevant open-field BOP. We found that 24 hours post-blast a single mild BOP provoked elevation of multiple phosphor- and cleaved-tau species in neurons, as well as elevating manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) levels, a cellular response to oxidative stress. In hippocampus, aberrant tau species persisted for at least 30 days post-exposure, while SOD2 levels returned to sham control levels. These findings suggest that elevated phospho- and cleaved-tau species may be among the initiating pathologic processes induced by mild blast exposure. These findings may have important implications for efforts to prevent blast-induced insults to the brain from progressing into long-term neurodegenerative disease processes. PMID:23948882

  1. Dissolved Massive Metal-rich Globular Clusters Can Cause the Range of UV Upturn Strengths Found among Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul

    2018-04-01

    I discuss a scenario in which the ultraviolet (UV) upturn of giant early-type galaxies (ETGs) is primarily due to helium-rich stellar populations that formed in massive metal-rich globular clusters (GCs), which subsequently dissolved in the strong tidal field in the central regions of the massive host galaxy. These massive GCs are assumed to show UV upturns similar to those observed recently in M87, the central giant elliptical galaxy in the Virgo cluster of galaxies. Data taken from the literature reveal a strong correlation between the strength of the UV upturn and the specific frequency of metal-rich GCs in ETGs. Adopting a Schechter function parameterization of GC mass functions, simulations of long-term dynamical evolution of GC systems show that the observed correlation between UV upturn strength and GC specific frequency can be explained by variations in the characteristic truncation mass {{ \\mathcal M }}{{c}} such that {{ \\mathcal M }}{{c}} increases with ETG luminosity in a way that is consistent with observed GC luminosity functions in ETGs. These findings suggest that the nature of the UV upturn in ETGs and the variation of its strength among ETGs are causally related to that of helium-rich populations in massive GCs, rather than intrinsic properties of field stars in massive galactic spheroids. With this in mind, I predict that future studies will find that [N/Fe] decreases with increasing galactocentric radius in massive ETGs, and that such gradients have the largest amplitudes in ETGs with the strongest UV upturns.

  2. Does oral polio vaccine have non-specific effects on all-cause mortality? Natural experiments within a randomised controlled trial of early measles vaccine.

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, Andreas; Martins, Cesário L; Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2016-12-23

    BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs). If an unplanned intervention with a vaccine (a natural experiment) modifies the estimated effect in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), this suggests NSEs. We used this approach to test NSEs of triple oral polio vaccine (OPV). During an RCT of 2 doses of MV at 4.5 and 9 months versus 1 dose of MV at 9 months of age, we experienced 2 natural experiments with OPV. We assessed whether these OPV experiments modified the effect of 2-dose MV in the MV trial. MV RCT conducted in urban Guinea-Bissau 2003-2009. Natural experiments with OPV due to missing vaccine and the implementation of OPV campaigns. Changes in the mortality rate ratio (MRR) for 2-dose MV versus 1-dose MV. First, the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) overall was 0.70 (0.52 to 0.94), but the MRR was 1.04 (0.53 to 2.04) when OPV at birth (OPV0) was not given, suggesting that early priming with OPV was important for the effect of 2-dose MV. The effect of OPV0 depended on age of administration; the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.45 (0.29 to 0.71) for children receiving OPV0 in the first week of life, but 3.63 (0.87 to 15.2) for those receiving OPV0 after the first month of life (p=0.007, test of no interaction). Second, campaign-OPV may have reduced the difference between the randomisation groups since the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.60 (0.42 to 0.85) for children who had not received campaign-OPV before RCT-enrolment versus 0.72 (0.23 to 2.31) and 1.42 (0.70 to 2.90) for children who had received 1 or 2 doses of campaign-OPV-before-enrolment, respectively. Bissau had no polio infection during this trial, so OPV0 and campaign-OPV may have NSEs since they modified the effect of 2-dose MV in an RCT. Different interventions may interact to a much larger effect than usually assumed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. The Human 343delT HSPB5 Chaperone Associated with Early-onset Skeletal Myopathy Causes Defects in Protein Solubility*

    PubMed Central

    Mitzelfelt, Katie A.; Limphong, Pattraranee; Choi, Melinda J.; Kondrat, Frances D. L.; Lai, Shuping; Kolander, Kurt D.; Kwok, Wai-Meng; Dai, Qiang; Grzybowski, Michael N.; Zhang, Huali; Taylor, Graydon M.; Lui, Qiang; Thao, Mai T.; Hudson, Judith A.; Barresi, Rita; Bushby, Kate; Jungbluth, Heinz; Wraige, Elizabeth; Geurts, Aron M.; Benesch, Justin L. P.; Riedel, Michael; Christians, Elisabeth S.; Minella, Alex C.; Benjamin, Ivor J.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of HSPB5 (also known as CRYAB or αB-crystallin), a bona fide heat shock protein and molecular chaperone encoded by the HSPB5 (crystallin, alpha B) gene, are linked to multisystem disorders featuring variable combinations of cataracts, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal myopathy. This study aimed to investigate the pathological mechanisms involved in an early-onset myofibrillar myopathy manifesting in a child harboring a homozygous recessive mutation in HSPB5, 343delT. To study HSPB5 343delT protein dynamics, we utilize model cell culture systems including induced pluripotent stem cells derived from the 343delT patient (343delT/343delT) along with isogenic, heterozygous, gene-corrected control cells (WT KI/343delT) and BHK21 cells, a cell line lacking endogenous HSPB5 expression. 343delT/343delT and WT KI/343delT-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal myotubes and cardiomyocytes did not express detectable levels of 343delT protein, contributable to the extreme insolubility of the mutant protein. Overexpression of HSPB5 343delT resulted in insoluble mutant protein aggregates and induction of a cellular stress response. Co-expression of 343delT with WT prevented visible aggregation of 343delT and improved its solubility. Additionally, in vitro refolding of 343delT in the presence of WT rescued its solubility. We demonstrate an interaction between WT and 343delT both in vitro and within cells. These data support a loss-of-function model for the myopathy observed in the patient because the insoluble mutant would be unavailable to perform normal functions of HSPB5, although additional gain-of-function effects of the mutant protein cannot be excluded. Additionally, our data highlight the solubilization of 343delT by WT, concordant with the recessive inheritance of the disease and absence of symptoms in carrier individuals. PMID:27226619

  4. The Effect of Early Detection of Occult Brain Metastases in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients on Survival and Cause of Death

    SciTech Connect

    Niwinska, Anna, E-mail: alphaonetau@poczta.onet.p; Tacikowska, Malgorzata; Murawska, Magdalena

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate disease-free survival, survival from the detection of brain metastases, overall survival, and cause of death in patients with occult brain metastases (Group I) vs. patients with symptomatic brain metastases (Group II). Methods and Materials: In 80 HER2-positive breast cancer patients, treated with trastuzumab and cytostatic agents for metastatic disease, magnetic resonance imaging screening of the brain was performed, and in 29 patients (36%) occult brain metastasis was detected (Group I). Whole-brain radiotherapy was delivered to Group I. This first group was compared with 52 patients who had symptomatic brain metastases (Groupmore » II) and was treated the same way, at the same clinic, during the same time period. Results: Median disease-free survival was 17 months in Group I and 19.9 months in Group II (p = 0.58). The median time interval between the dissemination of the disease and the detection of occult or symptomatic brain metastases was 9 and 15 months, respectively (p = 0.11). When the brain metastases were detected, the median survival was 9 and 8.78 months, respectively (p = 0.80). The median overall survival was 53 and 51 months, respectively (p = 0.94). In the group with occult brain metastases (Group I) 16% of patients died because of progression within the brain. In the group with symptomatic brain metastases (Group II) the rate of cerebral death was 48% (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Whole-brain radiotherapy of occult brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer patients with visceral dissemination produces a three-fold decrease in cerebral deaths but does not prolong survival.« less

  5. Total resection of any segment of the lateral meniscus may cause early cartilage degeneration: Evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging using T2 mapping.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koji; Arai, Yuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Kato, Kammei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Fujii, Yuta; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform quantitative evaluation of degeneration of joint cartilage using T2 mapping in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after arthroscopic partial resection of the lateral meniscus.The subjects were 21 patients (23 knees) treated with arthroscopic partial resection of the lateral meniscus. MRI was performed for all knees before surgery and 6 months after surgery to evaluate the center of the lateral condyle of the femur in sagittal images for T2 mapping. Ten regions of interest (ROIs) on the articular cartilage were established at 10-degree intervals, from the point at which the femur shaft crossed the lateral femoral condyle joint to the articular cartilage 90° relative to the femur shaft. Preoperative and postoperative T2 values were evaluated at each ROI. Age, sex, body mass index, femorotibial angle, Tegner score, and amount of meniscal resection were evaluated when the T2 value increased more than 6% at 30°.T2 values at approximately 10 °, 20 °, 30 °, 40 °, 50 °, and 60 ° degrees relative to the anatomical axis of the femur were significantly greater postoperatively (3.1, 3.6, 5.5, 4.4, 5.0, 6.4%, respectively) than preoperatively. A >6% increase at 30° was associated with total resection of any segment of the meniscus.Degeneration of the articular cartilage, as shown by the disorganization of collagen arrays at positions approximately 10 °, 20 °, 30 °, 40 °, 50 °, and 60 ° relative to the anatomical axis of the femur, may start soon after arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy. Total resection of any segment of the lateral meniscus may cause T2 elevation of articular cartilage of lateral femoral condyle.

  6. Predictors of medical student remediation and their underlying causes: early lessons from a curriculum change in the University of Auckland Medical Programme.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Brian; Yielder, Jill; Reid, Papaarangi; Bagg, Warwick

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of remediation in a medical programme and assess the underlying causes and the quality of remediation provided within the context of a recent curriculum change. A mixed methods study incorporating a retrospective cohort analysis of demographic predictors of remediation during 2013 and 2014, combined with thematic qualitative analysis of educator perspectives derived by interview on factors underlying remediation and the quality of that currently provided by the faculty. 17.7% of all students required some form of remedial assistance and 93% of all students offered remediation passed their year of study. Multivariate analysis showed international students (OR 4.59 95% CI 2.62-7.98) and students admitted via the Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme (OR 3.43 2.29-5.15) were significantly more likely to require remediation. Male students were also slightly more likely than their female classmates to require assistance. No effect was observed for rural origin students, completion of a prior degree or completion of clinical placement in a peripheral hospital. Knowledge application and information synthesis were the most frequently identified underlying problems. Most faculty believed remediation was successful, however, flexibility in the programme structure, improved diagnostics and improved access to dedicated teaching staff were cited as areas for improvement. Remediation is required by nearly a fifth of University of Auckland medical students, with MAPAS and international students being particularly vulnerable groups. Remediation is largely successful, however, interventions addressing reasoning and knowledge application may improve its effectiveness.

  7. Prefrontal mRNA expression of long and short isoforms of D2 dopamine receptor: Possible role in delayed learning deficit caused by early life interleukin-1β treatment.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alexander P; Trofimov, Alexander N; Zubareva, Olga E; Lioudyno, Victoria I; Kosheverova, Vera V; Ischenko, Alexander M; Klimenko, Victor M

    2017-08-30

    Long (D2L) and short (D2S) isoform of the D2 dopamine receptor are believed to play different roles in behavioral regulation. However, little is known about differential regulation of these isoforms mRNA expression during the process of learning in physiological and pathological states. In this study, we have investigated the combined effect of training in active avoidance (AA) paradigm and chronic early life treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β (1μg/kg i.p., P15-21) on D2S and D2L dopamine receptor mRNA expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult rats. We have shown differential regulation of D2 short and long mRNA isoform expression in the mPFC. There was no effect of AA-training on D2S mRNA expression, while D2L mRNA was downregulated in AA-trained control (intact and saline-treated) animals, and this effect was not observed in rats treated with IL-1β. D2S mRNA expression level negatively correlated with learning ability within control (saline-treated and intact) groups but not in IL-1β-treated animals. Thus, prefrontal expression of distinct D2 dopamine receptor splice variants is supposed to be implicated in cognitive decline caused by early life immune challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ontong Java volcanism initiated long-term climate warming that caused substantial changes in terrestrial vegetation several tens of thousand years before the onset of OAE1a (Early Aptian, Cretaceous)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Christina E.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Giorgioni, Martino; Garcia, Therese I.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Weissert, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    . percentages indicate a rise in temperatures. Maximum temperatures (suggested by a dominance of Classopollis spp.) were only reached after the most negative inorganic C-isotope values and after the onset of OAE1a. Our study shows that the volcanically-induced increase in pCO2, which ultimately led to OAE1a caused a substantial climate warming that seriously affected terrestrial vegetation. References: Arthur, M.A., 2000, Volcanic contributions to the carbon and sulfur geochemical cycles and global change, in Sigurdsson, H., Houghton, B., McNutt, S.R., Rymer, H., and Stix, J., eds., Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, Academic Press, p. 1045-1056. Channell, J.E.T., Cecca, F., and Erba, E., 1995, Correlations of Hauterivian and Barremian (Early Cretaceous) stage boundaries to polarity chrons: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 134, p. 125-140. Hochuli, P.A., Menegatti, A.P., Weissert, H., Riva, A., Erba, E., and Silva, I.P., 1999, Episodes of high productivity and cooling in the early Aptian Alpine Tethys: Geology, v. 27, p. 657-660. Jahren, A.H., Arens, N.C., Sarmiento, G., Guerrero, J., and Amundson, R., 2001, Terrestrial record of methane hydrate dissociation in the Early Cretaceous: Geology, v. 29, p. 159-162. Méhay, S., Keller, C.E., Bernasconi, S.M., Weissert, H., Erba, E., Bottini, C., and Hochuli, P.A., 2009, A volcanic CO2 pulse triggered the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a and a biocalcification crisis: Geology, v. 37, p. 819-822. Tejada, M.L.G., Suzuki, K., Junichiro, K., Rodolfo, C., J., M.J., Naohiko, O., Tatsuhiko, S., and Yoshiyuki, T., 2009, Ontong Java Plateau eruption as a trigger for the early Aptian oceanic anoxic event: Geology, v. 37, p. 855-858.

  9. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... known pregnancies. What causes early pregnancy loss? About one half of cases of early pregnancy loss are caused by a ... do not show any signs of an infection, one option is to wait and let the ... may take longer in some cases. Another option is to take medication that helps ...

  10. Elevated NT-Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level Is Independently Associated with All-Cause Mortality in HIV-Infected Women in the Early and Recent HAART Eras in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gingo, Matthew R.; Zhang, Yingze; Ghebrehawariat, Kidane B.; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Chu, Yanxia; Yang, Quanwei; Lucht, Lorrie; Hanna, David B.; Lazar, Jason M.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Morris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of right and left heart dysfunction. N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a marker of cardiac ventricular strain and systolic dysfunction, may be associated with all-cause mortality in HIV-infected women. The aim of this study was to determine if elevated levels of NT-proBNP is associated with increased mortality in HIV-infected women. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods and Results We measured NT-proBNP in 936 HIV-infected and 387 age-matched HIV-uninfected women early (10/11/94 to 7/17/97) and 1082 HIV-infected and 448 HIV-uninfected women late (4/1/08 to 10/7/08) in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) periods in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. An NT-proBNP >75th percentile was more likely in HIV-infected persons, but only statistically significant in the late period (27% vs. 21%, unadjusted p = 0.03). In HIV-infected participants, NT-proBNP>75th percentile was independently associated with worse 5-year survival in the early HAART period (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.4, p<0.001) and remained a predictor of mortality in the late HAART period (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.5, p = 0.002) independent of other established risk covariates (age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, hepatitis C serostatus, hypertension, renal function, and hemoglobin). NT-proBNP level was not associated with mortality in HIV-uninfected women. Conclusion NT-proBNP is a novel independent marker of mortality in HIV-infected women both when HAART was first introduced and currently. As NT-proBNP is often associated with both pulmonary hypertension and left ventricular dysfunction, these findings suggest that these conditions may contribute significantly to adverse outcomes in this population, requiring further definition of causes and treatments of elevated NT-proBNP in HIV-infected women. PMID:25811188

  11. Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by gain-of-function mutations in the voltage sensor of Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 potassium channel subunits.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Francesco; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Ambrosino, Paolo; De Maria, Michela; Migliore, Michele; Migliore, Rosanna; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2015-03-04

    Mutations in Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) and Kv7.3 (KCNQ3) genes, encoding for voltage-gated K(+) channel subunits underlying the neuronal M-current, have been associated with a wide spectrum of early-onset epileptic disorders ranging from benign familial neonatal seizures to severe epileptic encephalopathies. The aim of the present work has been to investigate the molecular mechanisms of channel dysfunction caused by voltage-sensing domain mutations in Kv7.2 (R144Q, R201C, and R201H) or Kv7.3 (R230C) recently found in patients with epileptic encephalopathies and/or intellectual disability. Electrophysiological studies in mammalian cells transfected with human Kv7.2 and/or Kv7.3 cDNAs revealed that each of these four mutations stabilized the activated state of the channel, thereby producing gain-of-function effects, which are opposite to the loss-of-function effects produced by previously found mutations. Multistate structural modeling revealed that the R201 residue in Kv7.2, corresponding to R230 in Kv7.3, stabilized the resting and nearby voltage-sensing domain states by forming an intricate network of electrostatic interactions with neighboring negatively charged residues, a result also confirmed by disulfide trapping experiments. Using a realistic model of a feedforward inhibitory microcircuit in the hippocampal CA1 region, an increased excitability of pyramidal neurons was found upon incorporation of the experimentally defined parameters for mutant M-current, suggesting that changes in network interactions rather than in intrinsic cell properties may be responsible for the neuronal hyperexcitability by these gain-of-function mutations. Together, the present results suggest that gain-of-function mutations in Kv7.2/3 currents may cause human epilepsy with a severe clinical course, thus revealing a previously unexplored level of complexity in disease pathogenetic mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353782-12$15.00/0.

  12. Ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories and obesity and potential causes among 29,250 US children: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth and Kindergarten Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Min, Jungwon; Wen, Xiaozhong; Xue, Hong; Wang, Youfa

    2018-06-15

    Study sex- and ethnic-specific childhood BMI growth trajectories of US children, and explore the potential causes of ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories, including household socio-economic status (SES) and parenting practice using nationally representative longitudinal data. BMI trajectory curves between 7 months to 16 years of age were fitted using mixed effect models with fractional polynomial functions using pooled 10-year (1998-2008) longitudinal data collected from 29,254 children from two US nationally representative cohorts-Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth (ECLS-B, 2001) and Kindergarten (ECLS-K, 1998-99). A multivariable regression model was used to examine the effects of SES and parenting factors on ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectory. Hispanic boys (HB) and African-American girls (AAG) continuously had the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity (HB: 52.5%, AAG: 49.1% around age of 11) and mean BMI after adiposity rebound than their counterparts. They had the earliest adiposity rebound (age mean [SD]: HB- 57.9 [7.8]; AAG- 59.0 [7.2] months), steeper BMI growth velocity (HB- 5.7 [1.8]; AAG- 7.0 [1.5] 10 -2  kg/m 2 /month), and highest area under curve (HB- 2724.5 [489.8]; AAG- 2681.2 [426.7] kg/m 2 *month) from adiposity rebound to 16 years of age. The racial/ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories were associated with household SES and family rules for children's regular bedtime (p < 0.05). In the US, ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories and obesity are apparent starting from adiposity rebound around age of five. Some minority groups have unfavorable BMI trajectories. These disparities are partially explained by household SES and parenting factors.

  13. Screening for MPL mutations in essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis: normal Mpl expression and absence of constitutive STAT3 and STAT5 activation in MPLW515L-positive platelets.

    PubMed

    Glembotsky, Ana C; Korin, Laura; Lev, Paola R; Chazarreta, Carlos D; Marta, Rosana F; Molinas, Felisa C; Heller, Paula G

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the frequency of MPL W515L, W515K and S505N mutations in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and to determine whether MPLW515L leads to impaired Mpl expression, constitutive STAT3 and STAT5 activation and enhanced response to thrombopoietin (TPO). Mutation detection was performed by allele-specific PCR and sequencing. Platelet Mpl expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, immunoblotting and real-time RT-PCR. Activation of STAT3 and STAT5 before and after stimulation with increasing concentrations of TPO was studied by immunoblotting. Plasma TPO was measured by ELISA. MPLW515L was detected in 1 of 100 patients with ET and 1 of 11 with PMF. Platelets from the PMF patient showed 100% mutant allele, which was <50% in platelets from the ET patient, who also showed the mutation in granulocytes, monocytes and B cells. Mpl surface and total protein expression were normal, and TPO levels were mildly increased in the MPLW515L-positive ET patient, while MPL transcripts did not differ from controls in both MPLW515L-positive patients. Constitutive STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation was absent and dose response to TPO-induced phosphorylation was not enhanced. The low frequency of MPL mutations in this cohort is in agreement with previous studies. The finding of normal Mpl levels in MPLW515L-positive platelets indicates this mutation does not lead to dysregulated Mpl expression, as frequently shown for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The lack of spontaneous STAT3 and STAT5 activation and the normal response to TPO is unexpected as MPLW515L leads to constitutive receptor activation and hypersensitivity to TPO in experimental models.

  14. Sequential treatment of CD34+ cells from patients with primary myelofibrosis with chromatin-modifying agents eliminate JAK2V617F-positive NOD/SCID marrow repopulating cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wei; Tripodi, Joseph; Lu, Min; Xu, Mingjiang; Najfeld, Vesna; Li, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Because primary myelofibrosis (PMF) originates at the level of the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), we examined the effects of various therapeutic agents on the in vitro and in vivo behavior of PMF CD34+ cells. Treatment of PMF CD34+ cells with chromatin-modifying agents (CMAs) but not hydroxyurea, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitors, or low doses of interferon-α led to the generation of greater numbers of CD34+ chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)4+ cells, which were capable of migrating in response to chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)12 and resulted in a reduction in the proportion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) that were JAK2V617F+. Furthermore, sequential treatment of PMF CD34+ cells but not normal CD34+ cells with decitabine (5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine [5azaD]), followed by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; 5azaD/SAHA), or trichostatin A (5azaD/TSA) resulted in a higher degree of apoptosis. Two to 6 months after the transplantation of CMAs treated JAK2V617F+ PMF CD34+ cells into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)/IL-2Rγnull mice, the percentage of JAK2V617F/JAK2total in human CD45+ marrow cells was dramatically reduced. These findings suggest that both PMF HPCs, short-term and long-term SCID repopulating cells (SRCs), are JAK2V617F+ and that JAK2V617F+ HPCs and SRCs can be eliminated by sequential treatment with CMAs. Sequential treatment with CMAs, therefore, represents a possible effective means of treating PMF at the level of the malignant SRC. PMID:20858855

  15. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  16. [Tropical causes of epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, F J

    Eighty-five percent of all epileptics live in tropical regions. Prenatal risk factors, traumatic brain injuries and different parasitic infestations of the central nervous system (CNS) are the reasons behind the high prevalence of epilepsy. This work reviews the main parasitic infestations causing epilepsy in the tropics. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of focal epilepsy in early adulthood in endemic areas (30-50%). All the phases of cysticerci (viable, transitional and calcified) are associated with epileptic seizures. Anti-cysticercus treatment helps get rid of cysticerci faster and reduces the risk of recurrence of seizures in patients with viable cysts. Symptomatic epilepsy can be the first manifestation of neuroschistosomiasis in patients without any systemic symptoms. The pseudotumoral form can trigger seizures secondary to the presence of granulomas and oedemas in the cerebral cortex. The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum are smaller, reach the CNS more easily and trigger epileptic seizures more frequently. Toxocariasis and sparganosis are other parasitic infestations that can give rise to symptomatic seizures. The risk factors for suffering chronic epilepsy after cerebral malaria are a positive familial history of epilepsy and a history of episodes of fever and cerebral malaria that began with coma or which progressed with multiple, prolonged epileptic seizures. About 20% of patients with cerebral infarction secondary to Chagas disease present late vascular epilepsy as a complication. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prognosis, risk of recurrence and modification of the natural course of seizures associated with tropical parasitic infestations, except for the case of neurocysticercosis.

  17. Relationships Between Quantitative Pulse-Echo Ultrasound Parameters from the Superficial Zone of the Human Articular Cartilage and Changes in Surface Roughness, Collagen Content or Collagen Orientation Caused by Early Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kiyan, Wataru; Ito, Akira; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Mukai, Shogo; Mori, Koji; Arai, Tatsuo; Uchino, Eiichiro; Okuno, Yasushi; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to quantitatively investigate the relationship between amplitude-based pulse-echo ultrasound parameters and early degeneration of the knee articular cartilage. Twenty samples from six human femoral condyles judged as grade 0 or 1 according to International Cartilage Repair Society grading were assessed using a 15-MHz pulsed-ultrasound 3-D scanning system ex vivo. Surface roughness (R q ), average collagen content (A 1 ) and collagen orientation (A 12 ) in the superficial zone of the cartilage were measured via laser microscopy and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy. Multiple regression analysis with a linear mixed-effects model (LMM) revealed that a time-domain reflection coefficient at the cartilage surface (R c ) had a significant coefficient of determination with R q and A 12 (R LMMm 2 =0.79); however, R c did not correlate with A 1 . Concerning the collagen characteristic in the superficial zone, R c was found to be a sensitive indicator reflecting collagen disorganization, not collagen content, for the early degeneration samples. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  19. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Do Allergies Cause ... Las alergias son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But ...

  20. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  1. Detection of CTX-M-15 beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae causing hospital- and community-acquired urinary tract infections as early as 2004, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Manyahi, Joel; Moyo, Sabrina J; Tellevik, Marit Gjerde; Ndugulile, Faustine; Urassa, Willy; Blomberg, Bjørn; Langeland, Nina

    2017-04-17

    The spread of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-Negative pathogens in the community and hospitals represents a major challenge to combat infections. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence and genetic makeup of ESBL-type resistance in bacterial isolates causing community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. A total of 172 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from patients who met criteria of community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. We used E-test ESBL strips to test for ESBL-phenotype and PCR and sequencing for detection of ESBL genes. Overall 23.8% (41/172) of all isolates were ESBL-producers. ESBL-producers were more frequently isolated from hospital-acquired infections (32%, 27/84 than from community-acquired infections (16%, 14/88, p < 0.05). ESBL-producers showed high rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin (85.5%), doxycycline (90.2%), gentamicin (80.5%), nalidixic acid (84.5%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (85.4%). Furthermore, 95% of ESBL-producers were multi-drug resistant compared to 69% of non-ESBL-producers (p < 0.05). The distribution of ESBL genes were as follows: 29/32 (90.6%) bla CTX-M-15 , two bla SHV-12 , and one had both bla CTX-M-15 and bla SHV-12 . Of 29 isolates carrying bla CTX-M-15 , 69% (20/29) and 31% (9/29) were hospital and community, respectively. Bla SHV-12 genotypes were only detected in hospital-acquired infections. bla CTX-M-15 is a predominant gene conferring ESBL-production in Enterobacteriaceae causing both hospital- and community-acquired infections in Tanzania.

  2. Preventing Early Learning Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob, Ed.

    Noting that thousands of young children with the capacity to experience school success do not because they are unprepared for school learning activities, have experienced physical or emotional setbacks that cause them to be at risk for early learning failure, have never experienced limits on their behavior, or have mild sensory or motor deficits,…

  3. Infective Causes of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bonello, M; Michael, B D; Solomon, T

    2015-06-01

    A wide range of infections of the central nervous system are responsible for both acute seizures and epilepsy. The pathogenesis and clinical semiology of the seizure disorders vary widely between the infective pathogens. The exact mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood, but appear, at least in part, to relate to the pathogen; the degree of cortical involvement; delays in treatment; and the host inflammatory response. The treatment of infective causes of seizures involves both symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs and direct treatment of the underlying condition. In many cases, early treatment of the infection may affect the prognosis of the epilepsy syndrome. The greatest burden of acute and long-term infection-related seizures occurs in resource-poor settings, where both clinical and research facilities are often lacking to manage such patients adequately. Nevertheless, education programs may go a long way toward addressing the stigma, leading to improved diagnosis, management, and ultimately to better quality of life. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. What Causes SIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Look Like? How Can Caregivers Create a Safe Sleep Environment? Babies Need Tummy ... exactly what causes SIDS at this time. Scientists and health care providers are working very hard to find the cause or causes ...

  5. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  6. JAK2V617F expression in mice amplifies early hematopoietic cells and gives them a competitive advantage that is hampered by IFNα.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Salma; Lacout, Catherine; Marty, Caroline; Cuingnet, Marie; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Villeval, Jean-Luc

    2013-08-22

    The acquired gain-of-function V617F mutation in the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2(V617F)) is the main mutation involved in BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), but its effect on hematopoietic stem cells as a driver of disease emergence has been questioned. Therefore, we reinvestigated the role of endogenous expression of JAK2(V617F) on early steps of hematopoiesis as well as the effect of interferon-α (IFNα), which may target the JAK2(V617F) clone in humans by using knock-in mice with conditional expression of JAK2(V617F) in hematopoietic cells. These mice develop a MPN mimicking polycythemia vera with large amplification of myeloid mature and precursor cells, displaying erythroid endogenous growth and progressing to myelofibrosis. Interestingly, early hematopoietic compartments [Lin-, LSK, and SLAM (LSK/CD48-/CD150+)] increased with the age. Competitive repopulation assays demonstrated disease appearance and progressive overgrowth of myeloid, Lin-, LSK, and SLAM cells, but not lymphocytes, from a low number of engrafted JAK2(V617F) SLAM cells. Finally, IFNα treatment prevented disease development by specifically inhibiting JAK2(V617F) cells at an early stage of differentiation and eradicating disease-initiating cells. This study shows that JAK2(V617F) in mice amplifies not only late but also early hematopoietic cells, giving them a proliferative advantage through high cell cycling and low apoptosis that may sustain MPN emergence but is lost upon IFNα treatment.

  7. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  8. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Kids / Do Allergies Cause ... confusing, so let's find out more. How Do Allergies Happen? Most of the time, your immune (say: ...

  9. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Teens / Do Allergies Cause ... of asthma are related to allergies. How Do Allergies Make Asthma Worse? Lots of people with asthma ...

  10. What Causes COPD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD What Causes COPD? Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Long- ... and the airways usually is the cause of COPD. In the United States, the most common irritant ...

  11. Causes of Effects and Effects of Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Judea

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual framework and simple mathematical methods of estimating the probability that one event was a necessary cause of another, as interpreted by lawmakers. We show that the fusion of observational and experimental data can yield informative bounds that, under certain circumstances, meet legal criteria of causation.…

  12. Similar causes of various reproductive disorders in early life.

    PubMed

    Svechnikov, Konstantin; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Savchuck, Iuliia; Söder, Olle

    2014-01-01

    During the past few decades, scientific evidence has been accumulated concerning the possible adverse effects of the exposure to environmental chemicals on the well-being of wildlife and human populations. One large and growing group of such compounds of anthropogenic or natural origin is referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), due to their deleterious action on the endocrine system. This concern was first focused on the control of reproductive function particularly in males, but has later been expanded to include all possible endocrine functions. The present review describes the underlying physiology behind the cascade of developmental events that occur during sexual differentiation of males and the specific role of androgen in the masculinization process and proper organogenesis of the external male genitalia. The impact of the genetic background, environmental exposures and lifestyle factors in the etiology of hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are reviewed and the possible role of EDCs in the development of these reproductive disorders is discussed critically. Finally, the possible direct and programming effects of exposures in utero to widely use therapeutic compounds, environmental estrogens and other chemicals on the incidence of reproductive abnormalities and poor semen quality in humans are also highlighted.

  13. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the 19th century, rocket enthusiasts and inventors began to appear in almost every country. Some people thought these early rocket pioneers were geniuses, and others thought they were crazy. Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in Paris, apparently rocketed small animals into space as early as 1806. The payloads were recovered by parachute. As depicted here by artist Larry Toschik, French authorities were not always impressed with rocket research. They halted Ruggieri's plans to launch a small boy using a rocket cluster. (Reproduced from a drawing by Larry Toschik and presented here courtesy of the artist and Motorola Inc.)

  14. Neuroinfections caused by fungi.

    PubMed

    Góralska, Katarzyna; Blaszkowska, Joanna; Dzikowiec, Magdalena

    2018-05-21

    (AmB) (among others, deoxycholate-AmBd and liposomal L-AmB) have relatively limited distribution in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); however, their detectable therapeutic concentrations in the CNS makes them recommended drugs for the treatment of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (AmBd with flucytosine) and CNS candidiasis (L-AmB) and mucormycosis (L-AmB). Voriconazole, a moderately lipophilic molecule with good CNS penetration, is recommended in the first-line therapy of CNS aspergillosis. Other triazoles, such as posaconazole and itraconazole, with negligible concentrations in the CSF are not considered effective drugs for therapy of CNS fungal neuroinfections. In contrast, clinical data have shown that a novel triazole, isavuconazole, achieved considerable efficacy for the treatment of some fungal neuroinfections. Echinocandins with relatively low or undetectable concentrations in the CSF do not play meaningful role in the treatment of FIs-CNS. Although the number of fungal species causing CNS mycosis is increasing, only some possess well-defined treatment standards (e.g., cryptococcal meningitis and CNS aspergillosis). The early diagnosis of fungal infection, accompanied by identification of the etiological factor, is needed to allow the selection of effective therapy in patients with FIs-CNS and limit their high mortality.

  15. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-01-01

    Test firing of a Redstone Missile at Redstone Test Stand in the early 1950's. The Redstone was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the von Braun Team under the management of the U.S. Army. The Redstone was the first major rocket development program in the United States.

  16. Early Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  17. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  18. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  19. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  20. Causes and effects.

    PubMed

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  1. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Darlene Y

    2015-11-01

    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (< 30 years of age) and severe hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Risers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Chistina

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author features Bard High School Early College, the first public school in the country to offer a free, full-time college curriculum--and all the credits that go with it--to high schoolers. In Bard's four-year program, students race through high school requirements in 9th and 10th grades, then take college courses in 11th and…

  3. What Causes Hiccups?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español What Causes Hiccups? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Causes Hiccups? Print en español ¿Cuál es la causa del hipo? "Hic!" You've just hiccuped for what seems like the tenth time since you finished your big dinner. Wonder where these funny noises are coming ...

  4. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained.

  5. Environmental Causes of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2018-02-01

    Environmental factors which cause asthma are those that induce airway inflammation with eosinophils (more common) or neutrophils along with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The most common of these (indeed the most common cause of asthma) are IgE-mediated inhalant allergen exposures. Allergen-induced AHR and inflammation are both associated with the allergen-induced late asthmatic response (LAR). Although allergens were previously recognized only as causes of symptoms and bronchoconstriction in asthmatics, we now appreciate them as causes of the fundamental pathophysiologic features of asthma. Low-molecular-weight chemical sensitizers, causes of occupational asthma, also cause asthma in a manner analogous to allergen. Acute irritant-induced asthma (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome) following a very heavy irritant exposure and chronic irritant-induced asthma following repeated high exposures can also induce persistent or permanent changes (inflammation and AHR) consistent with asthma. Textile dust exposure produces a different form of airway disease (byssinosis) which is less frequently observed currently. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke facilitates the development of asthma in children. Personal smoking and environmental air pollution have an inconsistent and likely generally small effect in causing asthma. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  7. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome. Human Molecular Genetics , Jul 15;14(14), 1935–1946. Retrieved June ... Dragich, J., & Schanen, C. (2003). Rett Syndrome: Clinical-Molecular Correlates. In G. Fisch (Ed.), Genetics and neurobehavioral disorders (pp. 391–418). Totowa, NJ: ...

  8. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  9. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... minerals can further help people with AMD. Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is caused by diabetes. It affects the retina, ... dilated pupils at least once a year. Treatment: Diabetic retinopathy is treated with surgery or laser surgery. With ...

  10. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... epilepsy or mental health problems Common causes of heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding include: 2 , 7 Adolescence ( ... ovulation) Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (bleeding irregular but heavy) Uterine fibroids (benign growths of uterine muscle) Endometrial ...

  11. Inherited and Uncommon Causes of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Majersik, Jennifer Juhl

    2017-02-01

    This article is a practical guide to identifying uncommon causes of stroke and offers guidance for evaluation and management, even when large controlled trials are lacking in these rarer forms of stroke. Fabry disease causes early-onset stroke, particularly of the vertebrobasilar system; enzyme replacement therapy should be considered in affected patients. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis, causes migraines, early-onset lacunar strokes, and dementia. Moyamoya disease can cause either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke; revascularization is recommended in some patients. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy causes both microhemorrhages and macrohemorrhages, resulting in typical stroke symptoms and progressive dementia. Pregnancy raises the risk of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, particularly in women with preeclampsia/eclampsia. Pregnant women are also at risk for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Experts recommend that pregnant women with acute ischemic stroke not be systematically denied the potential benefits of IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Neurologists should become familiar with these uncommon causes of stroke to provide future risk assessment and family counseling and to implement appropriate treatment plans to prevent recurrence.

  12. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  13. Cause of vocal fold scar.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jacqui

    2010-12-01

    The prolonged debilitation, loss of income, and decrement in quality of life caused by vocal fold scar is exacerbated by our inability to successfully treat this difficult problem. As technology focuses on developing innovative treatments, we need to fully appreciate and understand the mechanisms giving rise to glottal scar, on both a macroscopic and microscopic level. This review examines recent literature pertaining to the gross and molecular mechanisms which give rise to vocal fold scar. Mechanisms of vocal fold scar production have been examined in both macroscopic and microscopic detail. Trauma and injury involving any aspect of the lamina propria, particularly the deeper layers, may result in epithelial tethering and scar formation. At the molecular level, early inflammatory cytokines activate and recruit fibroblasts which then drive the fibrotic cascade. Transforming growth factor-β enhances fibrosis and is balanced by tissue matrix metalloproteinases and hepatocyte growth factor activity. Molecular signaling offers novel opportunities to intervene in scar formation. New work investigating the cause of vocal fold scar identifies complex molecular processes leading to fibrosis in the lamina propria. Improved mechanistic understanding offers insight into prevention strategies and possible targets for antifibrotic therapies that may help prevent or treat this debilitating condition.

  14. Neoplastic causes of abnormal puberty.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Susanne; Shelso, John; Wright, Karen; Furman, Wayne

    2014-04-01

    Neoplasm-related precocious puberty (PP) is a rare presenting feature of childhood cancer. Moreover, evaluation of suspected PP in a child is complex, and cancer is often not considered. We characterized the clinicopathologic features of patients presenting with PP at a large pediatric cancer center, reviewed the relevant literature, and developed an algorithm for the diagnostic work-up of these patients. We examined the records of all patients with a neoplasm and concomitant PP treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from January 1975 through October 2011, reviewed the available literature, and analyzed the demographic, clinical, endocrine, and neoplasm-related features. Twenty-four of 13,615 children and adolescents (0.18%) were diagnosed with PP within 60 days of presentation. Primary diagnoses included brain tumor (12), adrenocortical carcinoma (5), hepatoblastoma (4), and others (3). PP was observed 0-48 months before diagnosis of neoplasm; 17 patients had peripheral PP and 7 had central PP. Neoplasm-related PP is rare and takes the form of a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by tumor production of hormones or by alteration of physiologic gonadotropin production. PP can precede diagnosis of malignancy by months or years, and neoplastic causes should be considered early to avoid delayed cancer diagnosis. Treatment of the primary malignancy resolved or diminished PP in surviving patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    This photograph is of the engine for the Redstone rocket. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of its versatility, the Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile.

  16. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The image depicts Redstone missile being erected. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  17. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-05-15

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  18. Lumbar Pseudomeningocele Causing Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Rita G; Brown, Steven W; Goetz, Lance L; Miner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Pseudomeningocele is most commonly the result of a rent in the meninges during spine surgery. Noniatrogenic causes exist but are rare. Pseudomeningoceles may heal spontaneously, but they may also slowly enlarge. They rarely present as a mass within the abdomen. The objective of this study was to present the first case report of hydronephrosis secondary to lumbar pseudomeningocele. Design: Single case report and literature review. Methods: Single case report. Results: This man had undergone extensive lumbar spine surgery for pain and spondylolisthesis. He subsequently developed a pseudomeningocele that caused hydronephrosis of the left kidney. He was treated with surgical intervention and had resolution of his hydronephrosis and his flank and groin pain. He also had improvement of his back pain. Conclusions: This report shows an unusual cause of hydronephrosis—a pseudomeningocele presenting as an abdominal mass that compressed the ureter. PMID:19264055

  19. Vulvovaginitis: causes and management.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, A M; Hart, C A

    1992-01-01

    Over a period of 33 months in a paediatric accident and emergency department, the clinical pattern and possible causes of vulvovaginitis were studied prospectively in 200 girls presenting with genital discharge, irritation, pain, or redness. The major causes were poor hygiene and threadworms. The suspicion of sexual abuse arose in a few girls but no organisms of sexually transmitted disease were found. Urinary symptoms were common but only 20 patients had a significant bacteriuria and 40 had sterile pyuria. Specific skin problems occurred in 28 cases. Simple measures to improve hygiene and treatment of threadworms gave effective relief. Genital irritation caused urinary symptoms with no clinical evidence of infection, and it is advised that antibiotic treatment should await urine culture. Specific skin problems require help from a dermatologist. The possibility of sexual abuse must be considered especially if the vulvovaginitis is persistent or recurrent after adequate treatment. PMID:1580682

  20. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Ever since humans first saw birds soar through the sky, they have wanted to fly. The ancient Greeks and Romans pictured many of their gods with winged feet, and imagined mythological winged animals. According to the legend of Daedalus and Icarus, the father and son escaped prison by attaching wings made of wax and feathers to their bodies. Unfortunately, Icarus flew too near the sun, and the heat caused the wax and feathers to melt. The feathers fell off, and Icarus plummeted to the sea. Daedalus landed safely in Sicily.

  1. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  2. Do We Know What Causes Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be Prevented? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  3. Locked-in syndrome caused by a solitary pontine abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M J; Brenton, D W; Aschenbrener, C A; Van Gilder, J C

    1979-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings in a patient with locked-in syndrome caused by a solitary pontine abscess are reported for the first time. Successful treatment of brainstem abscess rests on early and accurate diagnosis. Images PMID:501372

  4. What Causes Rainbows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2004-01-01

    If one looks at a rain cloud with the Sun behind one's back, the sunlight and water drops may interact just right, revealing the familiar arc of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Many of people have been pleasantly surprised to see a rainbow in the sky, but probably have not considered why they occur. Rainbows are caused by…

  5. Landslides - Cause and effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  6. Teacher Dismissal for Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Brad; Schumacher, Gary; Hammonds, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of events that led to the dismissal of a teacher for cause. A first year high school principal is confronted with teacher behavior that creates a dangerous situation for students. The decision process to determine the appropriate organizational response involves a number of individuals and systems. The…

  7. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  8. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  9. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Legendary characters used the power of mythology to fly through the heavens. About 200 BC, a Greek inventor known as Hero of Alexandria came up with a new invention that depended on the mechanical interaction of heat and water. He invented a rocket-like device called an aeolipile. It used steam for propulsion. Hero mounted a sphere on top of a water kettle. A fire below the kettle turned the water into steam, and the gas traveled through the pipes to the sphere. Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere allowed the gas to escape, and in doing so gave a thrust to the sphere that caused it to rotate.

  10. Xerostomia: causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeanette Y

    2007-12-01

    When reduced salivary flow causes perpetual dry and sticky mucosa or sticky, stringy saliva, it becomes xerostomia-not a disease, but a symptom. Up to 30% of various populations self-report dry mouth (xerostomia) or have proven low salivary flow rates. Saliva is necessary for digestion and dental health, and it may have yet-unidentified immunological roles in humans. Xerostomia can lead to digestive problems, weight loss, and accelerated dental decay. Medications-several hundred of them-can cause or exacerbate xerostomia. Cancer, autoimmune diseases, and bone marrow transplants are associated with xerostomia. Including a dentist on the treatment team is essential for residents with dry mouth. As xerostomia progresses, they should shift focus primarily to prevention, maintenance, oral comfort, and emergency treatment. In all stages, they should keep treatment noninvasive if possible.

  11. Hypothalamic demyelination causing panhypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Douglas, Julia; Burgess, John; Dreyer, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Hypothalamic involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is rare and endocrinopathies involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in patients with demyelinating conditions have rarely been reported. We present two cases of MS/NMOSD with associated hypothalamic-pituitary involvement and subsequent hypopituitarism, including the first report of a patient with hypothalamic demyelination causing panhypopituitarism. Differential diagnoses, including alemtuzumab-related and primary pituitary pathology are discussed. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of anmore » agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.« less

  13. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed

  14. Psychological Manifestations of Early Childhood Adversity in the Context of Chronic Hematologic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Daniel C; Shen, Megan Johnson; Polizzi, Heather; Mascarenhas, John; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Holland, Jimmie; Hoffman, Ronald

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), a group of chronic hematologic malignancies, carry significant physical and psychological symptom burdens that significantly affect patients' quality of life. We sought to identify the relationship between early childhood adversity (ECA) and psychological distress in patients with MPNs, as ECA may compound symptom burden. Patients with MPNs were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire-subscales include abuse/neglect/chaotic home environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (i.e., Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (i.e., Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cutoff thresholds for distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List≥ 4 or ≥ 7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥ 8), and demographic factors. A total of 117 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p < 0.000), anxiety (p < 0.000), and distress (p < 0.000) and problem list variables emotional (p < 0.000), physical (p = 0.004), family (p = 0.01), and spiritual (p = 0.01) by bivariate analysis and only with distress (HADS) (p = 0.038) on multivariate analysis. ECA was associated with meeting cutoff threshold criteria for distress (p = 0.007), anxiety (p = 0.001), and depression (p = 0.02). ECA subscale variables abuse and chaotic home environment were associated with psychological outcomes. ECA was higher based on disease subtypes with greater symptom burden (other > polycythemia vera > myelofibrosis > essential thrombocythemia) (p = 0.047) and taking an antidepressant (p = 0.011). ECA is associated with psychological distress and meets screening criteria for anxiety and depression in patients with MPNs. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories, and further understanding may enhance patient-centered care among patients with MPNs. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of

  15. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  16. Tracing Actual Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-08

    actual values for variables in the SEM ), and an event e with M ,~u |= e, our definition answers the question : Which paths of the causal network G( M ...for each variable and a directed edge from vari- able X to Y if the equation for computing X uses Y . Given an SEM M , a context ~u (that supplies the...caused the event e1? Our definition answers this question as a set of causal slices, where each causal slice is a subgraph of G( M ). All paths in each

  17. Genetic Causes of Rickets

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Sezer; Demir, Korcan; Shi, Yufei

    2017-01-01

    Rickets is a metabolic bone disease that develops as a result of inadequate mineralization of growing bone due to disruption of calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D metabolism. Nutritional rickets remains a significant child health problem in developing countries. In addition, several rare genetic causes of rickets have also been described, which can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of genetic disorders of vitamin D biosynthesis and action, such as vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1B (VDDR1B), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A), and vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2B (VDDR2B). The second group involves genetic disorders of excessive renal phosphate loss (hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets) due to impairment in renal tubular phosphate reabsorption as a result of FGF23-related or FGF23-independent causes. In this review, we focus on clinical, laboratory and genetic characteristics of various types of hereditary rickets as well as differential diagnosis and treatment approaches. PMID:29280738

  18. Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Daria La; Falorni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrinological disorder that may be caused by several physiological and pathological conditions. Several drugs may determine a significant increase in prolactin serum concentration that is frequently associated with symptoms. The so-called typical antipsychotics are frequently responsible for drug-related hyperprolactinemia. Risperidone is one of the atypical neuroleptics most likely to induce hyperprolactinemia, while other atypical drugs are unfrequenlty and only transiently associated with increase of prolactin levels. Women are more sensitive than men to the hyperprolactinemic effect of antipsychotics. Classical and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia may be revert when a gradual antipsychotic drug discontinuation is combined with olanzapine or clozapine initiation. Antidepressant drugs with serotoninergic activity, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) and some tricyclics, can cause hyperprolactinemia. A long list of other compounds may determine an increase in prolactin levels, including prokinetics, opiates, estrogens, anti-androgens, anti-hypertensive drugs, H2-receptor antagonists, anti-convulsivants and cholinomimetics. Finally, hyperprolactinemia has also been documented during conditioning and after autologous blood stem-cell transplantation and during chemotherapy, even though disturbances of prolactin seem to occur less frequently than impairments of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad/thyroid axis after intensive treatment and blood marrow transplantation. PMID:18473017

  19. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  20. Methanol shutdowns cause anxiety

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-10-23

    European methanol players face an anxious few weeks as unscheduled outages combine with planned turnarounds to make an increasingly tight market. Global markets are also described as tightening, with production problems widely reported in North America. Several European producers were in the middle of shutdown periods when problems at Condea`s 400,000-m.t./year unit at Wesseling, Germany reportedly caused production to run at only 50% of capacity. In addition, the methanol plant at the Leuna refinery is said to be operating at only 60% of capacity, and one producer has had to extend a turnaround period. River levels in Germany are alsomore » low, putting pressure on shipments from Rotterdam. {open_quotes}This is a very difficult situation and we`re living hand to mouth,{close_quotes} says one producer. Producer sources report bids from consumers up to DM280/m.t. T2 fob Rotterdam, but they are unable to obtain extra product. Derivatives makers may also face problems: One methyl tert-butyl ether producer predicts prices {open_quotes}may hit the roof{close_quotes} once feedstock sourcing problems hit home.« less

  1. The Climate of Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordsworth, Robin D.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of the early martian climate is one of the major unanswered questions of planetary science. Key challenges remain, but a new wave of orbital and in situ observations and improvements in climate modeling have led to significant advances over the past decade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence now point to an episodically warm surface during the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods 3-4 Ga. The low solar flux received by Mars in its first billion years and inefficiency of plausible greenhouse gases such as CO2 mean that the steady-state early martian climate was likely cold. A denser CO2 atmosphere would have caused adiabatic cooling of the surface and hence migration of water ice to the higher-altitude equatorial and southern regions of the planet. Transient warming caused melting of snow and ice deposits and a temporarily active hydrological cycle, leading to erosion of the valley networks and other fluvial features. Precise details of the warming mechanisms remain unclear, but impacts, volcanism, and orbital forcing all likely played an important role. The lack of evidence for glaciation across much of Mars's ancient terrain suggests the late Noachian surface water inventory was not sufficient to sustain a northern ocean. Though mainly inhospitable on the surface, early Mars may nonetheless have presented significant opportunities for the development of microbial life.

  2. [Relapse: causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2013-09-01

    Relapse after a first episode of schizophrenia is the recurrence of acute symptoms after a period of partial or complete remission. Due to its variable aspects, there is no operational definition of relapse able to modelise the outcome of schizophrenia and measure how the treatment modifies the disease. Follow-up studies based on proxys such as hospital admission revealed that 7 of 10 patients relapsed after a first episode of schizophrenia. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications on relapse prevention has been widely demonstrated. Recent studies claim for the advantages of atypical over first generation antipsychotic medication. Non-adherence to antipsychotic represents with addictions the main causes of relapse long before some non-consensual factors such as premorbid functioning, duration of untreated psychosis and associated personality disorders. The consequences of relapse are multiple, psychological, biological and social. Pharmaco-clinical studies have demonstrated that the treatment response decreases with each relapse. Relapse, even the first one, will contribute to worsen the outcome of the disease and reduce the capacity in general functionning. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role besides patients and their families. The development of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, access to care and the therapeutic alliance should be promoted. Relapse prevention is a major goal of the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. It is based on adherence to the maintenance treatment, identification of prodromes, family active information and patient therapeutical education. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    PubMed

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  4. Does Intuition Cause Cooperation?

    PubMed Central

    Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized. PMID:24801381

  5. Cancer Cachexia: Cause, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Todd W

    2017-10-01

    Patients with cancer frequently experience unintended weight loss due to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction caused by the malignancy or treatment of the malignancy. However, others may present with weight loss related to other symptoms not clearly associated with identifiable GI dysfunction such as anorexia and early satiety. Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome that is generally characterized by ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss, often accompanied by anorexia, weakness, and fatigue. CC is associated with poor tolerance of antitumor treatments, reduced quality of life (QOL), and negative impact on survival. Symptoms associated with CC are thought to be caused in part by tumor-induced changes in host metabolism that result in systemic inflammation and abnormal neurohormonal responses. Unfortunately, there is no single standard treatment for CC. Nutrition consequences of oncologic treatments should be identified early with nutrition screening and assessment. Pharmacologic agents directed at improving appetite and countering metabolic abnormalities that cause inefficient nutrient utilization are currently the foundation for treating CC. Multiple agents have been investigated for their effects on weight, muscle wasting, and QOL. However, few are commercially available for use. Considerations for choosing the most appropriate treatment include effect on appetite, weight, QOL, risk of adverse effects, and cost and availability of the agent.

  6. Historical review of the causes of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  7. Cell vacuolation caused by Vibrio cholerae hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Arredondo, P; Heuser, J E; Akopyants, N S; Morisaki, J H; Giono-Cerezo, S; Enríquez-Rincón, F; Berg, D E

    2001-03-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (approximately 1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (approximately 16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses.

  8. Historical review of the causes of cancer.

    PubMed

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-02-10

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer.

  9. Early Specialization in Youth Sport: A Biomechanical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Jeffrey M.; Richards, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines, from a biomechanical perspective, three issues related to early specialization: overuse injuries, the developmental aspects, and the performance aspects. It concludes that "there is no evidence that early specialization causes overuse injuries or hinders growth and maturation." At the same time, early specialization has…

  10. [Causes and prevention of occupational cancer].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuaki

    2013-10-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Japan, and is responsible for 30 % of all deaths. Among these deaths, the contributing rate of occupational cancer is only a few percent. However, it is a serious problem for workers exposed to certain carcinogens within the workplace, because they are subjected to high levels of carcinogens throughout their workday. The early adverse health effects exerted by carcinogens are closely related to carcinogenesis. As biomarkers for cancer prevention, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, as an oxidative stress marker, DNA adducts, and cytosine C-5 methylation, as a marker of epigenetic change, may be useful to monitor.

  11. A Rare Cause of Hypothalamic Obesity, Rohhad Syndrome: 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Şiraz, Ülkü Gül; Okdemir, Deniz; Direk, Gül; Akın, Leyla; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Kendırcı, Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2018-03-19

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome is a rare disease that is difficult to diagnosis and distinguish from genetic obesity syndromes. The underlying causes of the disease has not been fully explained. Hypothalamic dysfunction causes endocrine problems, respiratory dysfunction and autonomic alterations. There are around 80 reported patients due to lack of recognition. We present two female patient suspected of ROHHAD due to weight gain since early childhood. The presented symptoms, respiratory and circulatory dysfunction, hypothalamic hypernatremia, hypothalamo-pituitary hormonal disorders such as santral hypothyrodism, hyperprolactinemia and santral early puberty are completely matched the criteria of ROHHAD syndrome. ROHHAD syndrome should be considered in differential diagnosis since it is difficult to distinguish from causes of monogenic obesity. Early identification of the disease reduces morbidity of the syndrome and patients require regular follow-up by a multidisciplinary approach.

  12. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  13. Drugs that may cause impotence

    MedlinePlus

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  14. What Causes a Blighted Ovum?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovum: What causes it? What causes a blighted ovum? What symptoms can I expect? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. A blighted ovum, also called an anembryonic pregnancy or anembryonic gestation, ...

  15. Cutaneous chemical burns: assessment and early management.

    PubMed

    Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Eshini; Perera, Marlon; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-03-01

    Chemical burns are common and may cause significant physical, psychological, social and economic burden. Despite a wide variety of potentially harmful chemicals, important general principals may be drawn in the assessment and initial management of such injuries. Early treatment of chemical burns is crucial and may reduce the period of resulting morbidity. This article reviews the assessment and management of cutaneous chemical burns. Assessment of the patient should be rapid and occur in conjunction with early emergency management. Rapid history and pri-mary and secondary survey may be required to exclude systemic side effects of the injury. Depth of wound assessment is difficult given that necrosis caused by various chemicals can continue despite cessation of exposure. Early management should be conducted with consideration of clinician's safety, and appropriate precautions should be taken. Excluding specific situations and chemical exposure, copious irrigation with water remains the mainstay of early management. Referral to a centre of higher acuity may be required for expert evaluation.

  16. Endocrine causes of calcium disorders.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2012-11-01

    Endocrine diseases that may cause hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia include hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, thyroid disorders, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, and less commonly pheochromocytoma and multiple endocrine neoplasias. The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia may include malignancy (lymphoma, anal sac carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D intoxication, chronic renal disease, hypoadrenocorticism, granulomatous disorders, osteolysis, or spurious causes. Hypocalcemia may be caused by puerperal tetany, pancreatitis, intestinal malabsorption, ethlyene glycol intoxication, acute renal failure, hypopararthyroidism, hypovitaminosis D, hypomagnesemia, and low albumin. This article focuses on the endocrine causes of calcium imbalance and provides diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for identifying the cause of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in veterinary patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596

  18. Injuries to children caused by burning rice husk.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Sherine Subodhini

    2002-02-01

    A case study of injury to the feet of children from Sri Lanka due to burning husk is discussed. The hot husk causes deep burns on the dorsum of the feet and spares the plantar surface. The contractures caused by the burns lead to severe deformity, and are very resistant to treatment. These burn injuries need to be treated early, in specialized centers, to avoid long term complications. Health education of the public plays an important role in the prevention of these injuries.

  19. Investigation on cause of the elevator turbine wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Ouyang, W. P.; Xue, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    Elevator traction turbine is often worn for various reasons, causing serious safety hazard. It is explained the main causes of traction wheel wear in detail in combination with a large number of engineering experience. The effect of turbine wear on the actual operation of the elevator is verified by contrast experiment, which is helpful to identify risks early. It is put forward on some reasonable suggestions for elevator inspection, maintenance and management.

  20. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVearly as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  1. Reframing Early Childhood Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework"…

  2. Cell Vacuolation Caused by Vibrio cholerae Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula; Heuser, John E.; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Morisaki, J. Hiroshi; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Berg, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (∼1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (∼16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses. PMID:11179335

  3. Laboratory stress: what causes it?

    PubMed

    Griffin, P; Klun, C L

    1980-07-01

    One hundred-fifty questionnaires were distributed to gather specific information about the causes of stress in the hospital-employed medical technologist (MT). Sixty-four percent were returned. The results were analyzed using Friedman's two-way analysis of variance by ranks. Although the causes of stress to the medical laboratorian are many and they are affected by variables within the worker, certain items are more significant causes of stress than others. Physicians, stats, the need for accuracy, lack of communication, errors, and overwork are major causes of stress. These are the stressors that must be controlled or modified to reduce stress to the MT employed in a hospital laboratory.

  4. Genetic Causes of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

    PubMed

    Page, Jessica M; Silver, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy loss is one of the most common obstetric complications, affecting over 30% of conceptions. A considerable proportion of losses are due to genetic abnormalities. Indeed, over 50% of early pregnancy losses have been associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Most are due to de novo nondisjunctional events but balanced parental translocations are responsible for a small but important percentage of genetic abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. In the past, assessment of genetic abnormalities was limited to karyotype performed on placental or fetal tissue. However, advances in molecular genetic technology now provide rich genetic information about additional genetic causes of and risk factors for pregnancy loss. In addition, the use of preimplantation genetic testing in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization has the potential to decrease the risk of pregnancy loss from genetic abnormalities. To date, efficacy is uncertain but considerable potential remains. This chapter will review what is known about genetic causes of recurrent pregnancy loss with a focus on novel causes and potential treatments. Remaining knowledge gaps will be highlighted.

  5. Accidents caused by hazardous trees on California forest recreation sites

    Treesearch

    Lee A. Paine

    1966-01-01

    From 1959 to early 1966, tree failures caused an average of more than two injuries or deaths per year on forest recreation sites in California. Annual property damage is estimated at $25,100. Conifers accounted for three of every four accidents reported; pines and true firs were involved in 6 of every 10 incidents involving property damage, and in 9 of every 10...

  6. Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

  7. Suicide Compared to Other Causes of Mortality in Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Dario M.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Meoni, Lucy A.; Young, J. Hunter; Klag, Michael J.; Ford, Daniel E.

    2005-01-01

    Physicians frequently are early adopters of healthy behaviors based on their knowledge and economic resources. The mortality patterns of physicians in the United States, particularly suicide, have not been rigorously described for over a decade. Previous studies have shown lower all-cause mortality among physicians yet reported conflicting results…

  8. Statins: Do They Cause ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    Statins: Do they cause ALS? Do statins cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. ... D. Ingre C, et al. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Clinical Epidemiology. 2015; 7:181. Riva N, et ...

  9. On the Causes of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawid, A. Philip; Faigman, David L.; Fienberg, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Professor Pearl's comment on our original article, Dawid et al. Our focus there on the distinction between the "Effects of Causes" (EoC) and the "Causes of Effects" (CoE) concerned two fundamental problems, one a theoretical challenge in statistics and the other a practical challenge for trial courts. In this…

  10. When Telomerase Causes Telomere Loss.

    PubMed

    Glousker, Galina; Lingner, Joachim

    2018-02-05

    Telomerase counteracts telomere shortening, preventing cellular senescence. Telomerase deficiency causes telomere syndromes because of premature telomere exhaustion in highly proliferative cells. Paradoxically, in a recent issue of Cell, Margalef et al. (2018) demonstrate that telomerase causes telomere loss in cells lacking the RTEL1 helicase, which is defective in Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2012.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-08-31

    This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  12. Deaths: leading causes for 2010.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2013-12-20

    This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source

  13. Deaths: leading causes for 2009.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2012-10-26

    This report presents final 2009 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2009. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2009, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for approximately 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2009 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  14. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2012-01-01

    Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response. PMID:22745628

  15. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2012-01-01

    Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984-1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  16. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma causing cauda equina syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Henry; Jhaveri, Subir; Yee, Albert; Finkelstein, Joel

    2005-11-01

    Case report. To report a case of lumbar hemangioma causing neurogenic claudication and early cauda equina, managed with hemostatic vertebroplasty and posterior decompression. This is the first report to our knowledge of a lumbar hemangioma causing neurogenic claudication and early cauda equina syndrome. Most hemangiomas causing neurologic symptoms occur in thoracic spine and cause spinal cord compression. Vertebroplasty as a method of hemostasis and for providing mechanical stability in this situation has not been discussed previously in the literature. L4 hemangioma was diagnosed in a 64-year-old woman with severe neurogenic claudication and early cauda equina syndrome. Preoperative angiograms showed no embolizable vessels. Posterior decompression was performed followed by bilateral transpedicular vertebroplasty. The patient received postoperative radiation to prevent recurrence. Complete relief of neurogenic claudication and cauda equina with less than 100 mL of blood loss. A lumbar hemangioma of the vertebral body, although rare, can cause neurogenic claudication and cauda equina syndrome. Intraoperative vertebroplasty can be an effective method of hemostasis and provide stability of the vertebra following posterior decompression.

  17. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  18. Generalised weakness in a young patient: a cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-Abad, Daniel; Rivero-Sanz, Elena; Lahoz-Perez, Maria del Carmen; Martinez-Diez, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Muscular weakness in young patients is usually due to mild, self-limiting causes. Nonetheless, it is important to remember other, more serious aetiologies which can cause this clinical picture. Thyrotoxic hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is a rare disease in Europe and the USA, with fatal cardiovascular and respiratory complications. It is characterised by recurrent episodes of generalised muscular weakness, especially in the legs, with an associated hypokalaemia and hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, laboratory tests and an ECG. Early treatment focused on cautious correction blood potassium and non-cardiac selective β-blockers. Additionally, it is imperative to normalise thyroid function to prevent relapses. We present a young, healthy man to the emergency department with episodes of intermittent leg weakness. The history and the ECG findings allowed for the diagnosis of THPP to be reached with early treatment causing remission. PMID:24591389

  19. Deaths: leading causes for 2002.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert N; Smith, Betty L

    2005-03-07

    This report presents final 2002 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 States and the District of Columbia in 2002. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. In 2002, the 10 leading causes of death were (in rank order) Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Alzheimer's disease; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia and accounted for about 79 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2002 were (in rank order) Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birthweight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Respiratory distress of newborn; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia. Important variation in the leading causes of infant death is noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  20. Deaths: leading causes for 2003.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie P; Smith, Betty L

    2007-03-15

    This report presents final 2003 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2003. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. In 2003, the 10 leading causes of death were (in rank order): Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Alzheimer's disease; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia and accounted for about 78 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the ranking are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2003 were (in rank order): Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Respiratory distress of newborn; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Neonatal hemorrhage; and Diseases of the circulatory system. Important variation in the leading causes of infant death is noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  1. Deaths: leading causes for 2004.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2007-11-20

    This report presents final 2004 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2004. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. In 2004, the 10 leading causes of death were (in rank order) Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Diabetes mellitus; Alzheimer's disease; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia and accounted for about 78 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the ranking are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2004 were (in rank order) Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Respiratory distress of newborn; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Neonatal hemorrhage; and Diseases of the circulatory system. Important variation in the leading causes of infant death is noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  2. [Mortality by avoidable causes in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Lurán, Albenia; López, Elizabeth; Pinilla, Consuelo; Sierra, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    The infant-mortality rate in children aged less than five is an indicator of the general state of health of a population and directly reflects the quality of life and the level of socio-economic development of a country. Avoidable mortality was assessed in preschool children as a reflection of Colombia quality of life and socio-economic development. Mortality trends were analyzed in preschool children aged less than five throughout Colombia during a 20-year period from 1985-2004, and focused on mortality causes that were considered avoidable. This was a descriptive, retrospective study; the sources of information were Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística records of deaths and population projections 1985-2004. Mortality rate due to avoidable causes was the statistical indicator. In children aged less than one, the reducible mortality due to "early diagnosis and medical treatment" occupied the first place amongst causes for every year of the study period and accounted for more than 50% of recorded deaths. In children aged 1 to 4, the category "other important reducible causes" was associated with 40% of recorded deaths-deaths due mainly to respiratory diseases. Over the 20-year period, the avoidable mortality rate decreased by 34% in children aged less than one, in children 1-4, it decreased by 23%. Although the infant-mortality rate in preschool children was reduced, the decrease was small, from 80% to 77%. The situation requires more analysis with respect to strategies in public health, particularly concerning preventable diseases of the infancy.

  3. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2015.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. Results-In 2015, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2015 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without

  4. Deaths: leading causes for 2005.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie; Tejada-Vera, Betzaida

    2009-12-23

    This report presents final 2005 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2005. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2005, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Diabetes mellitus; Alzheimer's disease; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia. They accounted for about 77 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2005 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birthweight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Respiratory distress of newborn; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Neonatal hemorrhage; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  5. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2013.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-02-16

    This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as

  6. Deaths: leading causes for 2007.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2011-08-26

    This report presents final 2007 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2007. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2007, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia. They accounted for approximately 76 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2007 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  7. Deaths: leading causes for 2008.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2012-06-06

    This report presents final 2008 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2008. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. in 2008, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for approximately 76 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2008 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  8. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-07-27

    This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission

  9. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Prevotella (Bacteroides) melaninogenicus.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Surabhi; Rose, Fredrick; Frechette, Vincent

    2005-02-01

    A 35-year-old, previously healthy female presented with severe low back pain, fever, and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate 1 week after a routine dental cleaning. Technetium-labeled leukocyte scanning and magnetic resonance imaging scan of the spine were negative for osteomyelitis. The patient underwent biopsy, cultures from which grew Prevotella (Bacteroides) melaninogenicus. Appropriate antibiotic therapy resulted in resolution of symptoms. P. melaninogenicus is a gram-negative anaerobic bacillus that is part of the indigenous oral flora. It may cause dental, sinus, skin, and soft tissue infections. Infection of bone is rare. Only three cases of vertebral osteomyelitis due to P. melaninogenicus have been reported in the literature. The early diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis requires a high index of clinical suspicion and cannot be excluded by negative imaging tests alone. The recovery of this unusual organism highlights the importance of requesting anaerobic cultures of biopsy specimens.

  10. [Toxic shock syndrome caused by pyogenic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Gábor, Zsuzsa; Szekeres, Sándor; Gacs, Mária

    2003-01-12

    Case reports and review of the literature. Severe toxic shock syndrome caused by invasive infection with pyogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus or group A Streptococcus pyogenes, with high mortality rates in cases of the latter, remained one of the most problematic chapters of critical care medicine to date. To give an overview on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, the complex therapeutical approaches of the syndrome and, on the role and mechanisms of action of bacterial superantigens in the pathophysiological processes as well. Literary data, and some illustrative selected cases demonstrate that, the incidence of TSS shows increasing tendency worldwide and, that otherwise healthy, younger people are the most frequently affected. As for prognosis: early diagnosis and treatment with sufficient radicality are of decisive importance.

  11. Early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  12. Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Safi, Hamid; Safi, Sare; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Ahmadieh, Hamid

    2018-04-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes. Vascular abnormalities such as changes in the retinal vessels caliber, architectural indices, and blood flow have been investigated to evaluate the early stages of DR. The results of OCT angiography, retinal vessel oxygen saturation patterns, and elevated levels of circulating blood markers and cytokines have been suggested as early signs of DR. Light-based molecular imaging in rodents has been developed to demonstrate changes in protein expressions in the retinal microvessels as diagnostic biomarkers. Future clinical studies will examine the safety and efficacy of this approach in humans. We summarize all studies related to subclinical DR biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. What causes autism? Exploring the environmental contribution.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J

    2010-04-01

    Autism is a biologically based disorder of brain development. Genetic factors--mutations, deletions, and copy number variants--are clearly implicated in causation of autism. However, they account for only a small fraction of cases, and do not easily explain key clinical and epidemiological features. This suggests that early environmental exposures also contribute. This review explores this hypothesis. Indirect evidence for an environmental contribution to autism comes from studies demonstrating the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead, ethyl alcohol and methyl mercury. But the most powerful proof-of-concept evidence derives from studies specifically linking autism to exposures in early pregnancy - thalidomide, misoprostol, and valproic acid; maternal rubella infection; and the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos. There is no credible evidence that vaccines cause autism. Expanded research is needed into environmental causation of autism. Children today are surrounded by thousands of synthetic chemicals. Two hundred of them are neurotoxic in adult humans, and 1000 more in laboratory models. Yet fewer than 20% of high-volume chemicals have been tested for neurodevelopmental toxicity. I propose a targeted discovery strategy focused on suspect chemicals, which combines expanded toxicological screening, neurobiological research and prospective epidemiological studies.

  14. Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Causes and Spread to Others Recommend on Facebook ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  15. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  16. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause confusion and changes in thinking or reasoning. These changes may be short-term or lasting. ... Mazzotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap ...

  17. Osteomyelitis Caused by Moraxella osloensis

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, Barrett; Clarridge, Jill

    1982-01-01

    Moraxella osloensis osteomyelitis of the femur developed in a paraplegic man. He responded to treatment with oral ampicillin. Disease in humans caused by this unusual clinical isolate is reviewed. PMID:7107844

  18. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? Endometriosis is when tissue is found outside the ...

  19. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  20. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2014.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-06-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2014 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2014," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  1. Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    TI FLE CY N Defense Nuclear Agency Alexandria, VA 22310-3398 SWES% Ot DNA-TR-89-45 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes A. Laupa G. H. Anno...0104 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes PE - 62715H PR - RM 6 AUTHOR(S) TA -RH A. Laupa: G. H. Anno WU - DH026130 7 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...vi 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................... 1I DATA SOURCES ON CHERNOBYL VICTIMS ............... 3 CHERNOBYL

  2. Sprites and Early ionospheric VLF perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldoupis, Christos; Amvrosiadi, Nino; Cotts, Ben; van der Velde, Oscar; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    Past studies have shown a correlation between sprites and early VLF perturbations, but the reported correlation varies widely from ~ 50% to 100%. The present study resolves these large discrepancies by analyzing several case studies of sprite and narrowband VLF observations, in which multiple transmitter-receiver VLF links with great circle paths (GCPs) passing near a sprite-producing thunderstorm were available. In this setup, the multiple links act in a complementary way that makes the detection of early VLF perturbations much more probable compared to a single VLF link that can miss several of them, a fact that was overlooked in past studies. The evidence shows that sprites are accompanied by early VLF perturbations in a one-to-one correspondence. This implies that the sprite generation mechanism may cause also sub-ionospheric conductivity disturbances that produce early VLF events. However, the one-to-one "sprite to early" event relationship, if viewed conversely as "early to sprite", appears not to be always reciprocal. This is because the number of early events detected in some cases was considerably larger than the number of sprites. Since the great majority of the early events not accompanied by sprites was caused by positive cloud to ground (+CG) lightning discharges, it is possible that sprites or sprite halos were concurrently present in these events as well but were missed by the sprite-watch detection system. In order for this option to be resolved we need more studies using highly sensitive optical systems capable of detecting weaker sprites, sprite halos and elves.

  3. Early neuroprotection after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Dell'anna, Antonio M; Scolletta, Sabino; Donadello, Katia; Taccone, Fabio S

    2014-06-01

    Many efforts have been made in the last decades to improve outcome in patients who are successfully resuscitated from sudden cardiac arrest. Despite some advances, postanoxic encephalopathy remains the most common cause of death among those patients and several investigations have focused on early neuroprotection in this setting. Therapeutic hypothermia is the only strategy able to provide effective neuroprotection in clinical practice. Experimental studies showed that therapeutic hypothermia was even more effective when it was started immediately after the ischemic event. In human studies, the use of prehospital hypothermia was able to reduce the time to target temperature but did not result in higher survival rate or neurological recovery in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, when compared with standard in-hospital therapeutic hypothermia. Thus, intra-arrest hypothermia (i.e., initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation) may be a valid alternative to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in this setting; however, more clinical data are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit of such intervention on neurological outcome. Together with cooling, early hemodynamic optimization should be considered to improve cerebral perfusion in cardiac arrest patients and minimize any secondary brain injury. Nevertheless, only scarce data are available on the impact of early hemodynamic optimization on the development of organ dysfunction and neurological recovery in such patients. Some new protective strategies, including inhaled gases (i.e., xenon, argon, nitric oxide) and intravenous drugs (i.e., erythropoietin) are emerging in experimental studies as promising tools to improve neuroprotection, especially when combined with therapeutic hypothermia. Early cooling may contribute to enhance neuroprotection after cardiac arrest. Hemodynamic optimization is mandatory to avoid cerebral hypoperfusion in this setting. The combination of such

  4. Waterford Early Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), which is designed to shift teaching and learning away from remediation and failure to prevention, early achievement, and sustained growth for every student. WERP includes three levels of instruction: emergent, beginning, and fluent readers. It targets pre-K through…

  5. Early College High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  6. Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    In five sections, this paper explores dimensions of early childhood education: schooling generally construed as nonparental instruction in knowledge, values, and skills. Section 1 looks at some of the factors which have contributed to the rapid growth of early childhood education in modern times. Section 2 briefly highlights the contributions of…

  7. Rethinking Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Rethinking Early Childhood Education" is alive with the conviction that teaching young children involves values and vision. This anthology collects inspiring stories about social justice teaching with young children. Included here is outstanding writing from childcare teachers, early-grade public school teachers, scholars, and parents.…

  8. Early Retirement Payoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  9. Rethinking Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) says in its current policy paper that, for high-quality early education to exist outside of tiny islands across the country, the following must be addressed: (1) teacher preparation; (2) ongoing professional learning; and (3) disparity in early education teacher pay. To achieve…

  10. Infrasellar pituitary gangliocytoma causing Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Marie-Eve; Marbaix, Etienne; Do Rego, Jean-Luc; Col, Vincent; Raftopoulos, Christian; Duprez, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Maiter, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Pituitary gangliocytomas are uncommon neuronal tumours that may present with endocrine disorders, the most frequent being acromegaly caused by growth hormone hypersecretion. Cushing's syndrome is very rarely seen with gangliocytomas. We report the unique case of a 62 year-old woman whose clinical picture and endocrine testing clearly demonstrated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed a 12-mm homogeneous, infra- and retrosellar mass first diagnosed as pituitary macroadenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and allowed complete resection of the tumour with sparing of normal anterior pituitary. Very low postoperative serum cortisol and ACTH levels were observed in the early postoperative period and the patient is still in remission 18 months after surgery, thus demonstrating that the resected lesion was entirely responsible for the clinical picture. Histological and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated a benign tumour composed of mature neuronal cells suggestive of a gangliocytoma, expressing both ACTH and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). The tumour was surrounded by a rim of pituitary tissue containing ACTH-producing endocrine cells. Careful analysis of the resected lesion did not reveal any pituitary microadenoma. We search literature for similar cases and retraced only nine cases of gangliocytomas associated with Cushing's syndrome. In most of them, the tumour was combined with either pituitary corticotroph adenoma or hyperplasia. Our case represents a unique case of an infrasellar pituitary gangliocytoma which was able to cause Cushing's syndrome by both direct ACTH production and CRH-induced stimulation of neighbour normal corticotroph cells.

  11. Plague pneumonia disease caused by Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Cleri, D J; Vernaleo, J R; Lombardi, L J; Rabbat, M S; Mathew, A; Marton, R; Reyelt, M C

    1997-03-01

    Plague is a zoonotic infection caused by Yersina pesits, a pleomorphic, gram-negative non-spore-forming coccobacillus that is more accurately classified as a subspecies of Y pseudotuberculosis. Animal reservoirs include rodents, rabbits, and occasionally larger animals. Cats become ill and have spread pneumonic disease to man. Dogs may be a significant sentinel animal as well as a reservoir, although do not usually become ill. Flea bites commonly spread disease to man. Person to person spread has not been a recent feature until the purported outbreak of plague and plague pneumonia in India in 1994. Other factors that increase risk of infection in endemic areas are occupation-veterinarians and assistants, pet ownership, direct animal-reservoir contact especially during the hunting season, living in households with an index case, and, mild winters, cool moist springs, and early summers. Clinical presentations include subclinical plague (positive serology without disease); plague pharyngitis; pestis minor (abortive bubonic plague); bubonic plague; septicemic plague; pneumonic plague; and plague meningitis. Most prominent of plague's differential diagnosis are Reye's syndrome, other causes of lymphadenitis, bacterial pneumonias, tularemia, and acute surgical abdomen. Treatment has reduced mortality from 40-90% to 5-18%. The drug of choice (except for plague meningitis) is streptomycin, with tetracyclines being alternatives. Parenteral cholamphenicol is the treatment of choice for plague meningitis. A tetracycline should be administered as chemoprophylaxis to all contacts over the age of 8 years. Plague vaccine is available, but is only partially protective.

  12. Conditional Deletion of Pten Causes Bronchiolar Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E.; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R.; Loudy, Dave E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (PtenΔ/Δ) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by β-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, β-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles. PMID:17921358

  13. Conditional deletion of Pten causes bronchiolar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R; Loudy, Dave E; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2008-03-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (Pten(Delta/Delta)) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by beta-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, beta-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles.

  14. Stress in Early Childhood: Helping Children and Their Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    This book offers practical and effective strategies for stress management for both early childhood staff and the children in their care. Here, the author uncovers valuable insights into the causes of stress and outlines a range of activities to counteract it. Early childhood practitioners know that theirs is both a stressful and rewarding…

  15. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  16. Infections caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Karoll J; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G; Shea, Yvonne R; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans.

  17. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  18. Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers: Incidence, Causes and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Jacqueline C.; Ashton, Elizabeth; Hardwick, Catherine M.; Rowan, Marnie K.; Chia, Elisa S.; Fairclough, Kyle A.; Menon, Lalitha L.; Scott, Courtney; Mather-McCaw, Georgia; Navarro, Katherine; Geddes, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent nipple pain is one of the most common reasons given by mothers for ceasing exclusive breastfeeding. We aimed to determine the frequency of nipple pain as a reason for consultation, the most common attributed aetiologies, and the effectiveness of the advice and treatment given. Methods: All consultations at the Breast Feeding Centre of Western Australia (WA) were audited over two six-month periods in 2011 (n = 469) and 2014 (n = 708). Attributed cause(s) of nipple pain, microbiology results, treatment(s) advised, and resolution of pain were recorded. Results: Nipple pain was one of the reasons for consultation in 36% of cases. The most common attributed cause of nipple pain was incorrect positioning and attachment, followed by tongue tie, infection, palatal anomaly, flat or inverted nipples, mastitis, and vasospasm. Advice included correction of positioning and attachment, use of a nipple shield, resting the nipples and expressing breastmilk, frenotomy, oral antibiotics, topical treatments, and cold or warm compresses. Pain was resolving or resolved in 57% of cases after 18 days (range 2–110). Conclusion: The multiple attributed causes of nipple pain, possibly as a result of a cascade of events, suggests that effective early lactation management for prevention of nipple pain and early diagnosis and effective treatment are crucial to avoid early weaning. PMID:26426034

  19. [Noroviruses: leading cause of gastroenteritis].

    PubMed

    Delacour, H; Dubrous, P; Koeck, J L

    2010-04-01

    Although noroviruses were the first viral agents to be linked to gastrointestinal disease, they were long considered a secondary cause far behind rotaviruses. Development of molecular-based diagnostic techniques has provided clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of noroviruses that are now recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks but also as an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in both children and adults. Norovirus infection is generally characterized by mild acute vomiting and diarrhea usually lasting for only a few days, but it can lead to more severe and potentially life-threatening symptoms in high-risk groups such as young children, elderly, and immunodeficient persons. It has been demonstrated that they are present in tropical countries. Molecular epidemiological studies have documented the great genetic diversity of noroviruses with regular emergence of variants. Since no vaccine is available, prevention on norovirus infection depends mainly on strict personal and community hygiene measures.

  20. Neurogenic Causes of Detrusor Underactivity

    PubMed Central

    Kadow, Brian T.; Tyagi, Pradeep; Chermansky, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Detrusor underactivity (DU) is a poorly understood dysfunction of the lower urinary tract which arises from multiple etiologies. Symptoms of DU are non-specific, and a pressure-flow urodynamic study is necessary to differentiate DU from other conditions such as overactive bladder (OAB) or bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). The prevalence of DU ranges from 10–48%, and DU is most prevalent in elderly males. The pathophysiology underlying DU can be from both neurogenic and non-neurogenic causes. In this article, we review the neurogenic causes of detrusor underactivity, including diabetic bladder dysfunction, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular accident, traumatic brain injury, and Fowler’s syndrome. As knowledge about the underlying causes of DU advances, there have been several potential therapeutic approaches proposed to help those who suffer from this condition. PMID:26715948

  1. [Underlying causes of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Geijteman, Eric C T; van den Berg, Elze G; van Rooijen, Cleo R; Stam, Frank; Simsek, Suat

    2012-01-01

    In patients with hyperglycaemia plus obesity and cardiovascular disease, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely to be made and this is usually followed by the start of antihyperglycaemic therapy. This pragmatic approach, however, does not always turn out to be the correct one. We describe two patients with occult conditions that had caused or aggravated diabetes mellitus (DM): a 46-year-old man with acromegaly and a 41-year-old woman with Cushing's disease. After neurosurgeries were performed, the requirement for antihyperglycaemic treatment markedly decreased (case 2) or even disappeared (case 1). Physicians treating patients with DM should ask themselves what the cause of the disease could be; the recognition and treatment of that underlying condition may substantially decrease the amount of insulin required and may even cause the disappearance of DM altogether.

  2. Periocular necrotizing fasciitis causing blindness.

    PubMed

    Shield, David R; Servat, Javier; Paul, Sean; Turbin, Roger E; Moreau, Annie; de la Garza, Adam; El Rassi, Edward; Silbert, Jonathan; Lesser, Robert; Levin, Flora

    2013-09-01

    Periocular necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but potentially devastating disease, accompanied by high rates of morbidity and mortality. We report 5 cases of periocular necrotizing fasciitis resulting in severe vision loss, 3 of which required exenteration to contain the disease and only 1 of which recovered vision. Three cases were caused by group A streptococcus; 1, by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; and 1, by Streptococcus anginosus constellatus. Providers should maintain a high clinical suspicion for necrotizing fasciitis and distinguish it from more common forms of cellulitis. As seen in these 5 cases, periocular necrotizing fasciitis may cause severe visual loss more often than previously recognized. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of Streptococcus anginosus constellatus causing necrotizing fasciitis.

  3. Causes of death in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Carter, Karen; Tovu, Viran; Langati, Jeffrey Tila; Buttsworth, Michael; Dingley, Lester; Calo, Andy; Harrison, Griffith; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D; Taylor, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death. Deaths 2001-2007 were coded for cause (ICDv10) for ages 0-59 years from: hospital separations (HS) (n = 636), hospital medical certificates (MC) of death (n = 1,169), and monthly reports from community health facilities (CHF) (n = 1,212). Ill-defined causes were 3 % for hospital deaths and 20 % from CHF. Proportional mortality was calculated by cause (excluding ill-defined) and age group (0-4, 5-14 years), and also by sex for 15-59 years. From total deaths by broad age group and sex from 1999 and 2009 census analyses, community deaths were estimated by deduction of hospital deaths MC. National proportional mortality by cause was estimated by a weighted average of MC and CHF deaths. National estimates indicate main causes of deaths <5 years were: perinatal disorders (45 %) and malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia (27 %). For 15-59 years, main causes of male deaths were: circulatory disease 27 %, neoplasms 13 %, injury 13 %, liver disease 10 %, infection 10 %, diabetes 7 %, and chronic respiratory disease 7 %; and for females: neoplasms 29 %, circulatory disease 15 %, diabetes 10 %, infection 9 %, and maternal deaths 8 %. Infection included tuberculosis, malaria, and viral hepatitis. Liver disease (including hepatitis and cancer) accounted for 18 % of deaths in adult males and 9 % in females. Non-communicable disease (NCD), including circulatory disease, diabetes, neoplasm, and chronic respiratory disease, accounted for 52 % of premature deaths in adult

  4. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  5. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  6. Removing Tenured Faculty for Cause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews 41 cases involving removal of tenured faculty for cause decided since 1982 to clarify the specific requirements institutions must meet to guarantee due process to tenured faculty and to avoid the infringement of constitutional rights of faculty at public institutions. (MLF)

  7. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  8. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Endocarditis caused by Rhodotorula infection.

    PubMed

    Simon, Matthew S; Somersan, Selin; Singh, Harjot K; Hartman, Barry; Wickes, Brian L; Jenkins, Stephen G; Walsh, Thomas J; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-01-01

    Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that is rarely reported to cause endocarditis. We describe a case involving a patient who developed endocarditis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, proven by culture and histopathology. The case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges relevant to Rhodotorula spp.

  10. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  11. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... are visible just under the surface of the skin Spinal stenosis —narrowing in the spine, causing pressure on the nerves and spine, with resulting numbness and pain Lumbar disease Osteoarthritis QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER Does my medical history raise my risk for P.A.D.? Do ...

  12. Selective Mutism: Causes and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultquist, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the diagnostic criteria, causes, assessment, and treatment of selective mutism in school-age children. The most successful treatments have included various forms or combinations of behavior modification, though these may not address the underlying problem. (Author/DB)

  13. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  14. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  15. Endocarditis Caused by Rhodotorula Infection

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Matthew S.; Somersan, Selin; Singh, Harjot K.; Hartman, Barry; Wickes, Brian L.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that is rarely reported to cause endocarditis. We describe a case involving a patient who developed endocarditis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, proven by culture and histopathology. The case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges relevant to Rhodotorula spp. PMID:24197888

  16. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  17. Early treatment of penile fractures: our experience.

    PubMed

    García Gómez, Borja; Romero, Javier; Villacampa, Felipe; Tejido, Angel; Díaz, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    To report our experience in early surgery of penile fractures. We review retrospectively all the cases that underwent surgery at our center from 1989 to 2009, with a total of 24. The cause of the fracture was sexual intercourse in most cases, and in all of them, surgical management was performed according to clinical presentation and physical exploration. In only 7 cases an ultrasound was performed as a complementary test. Early surgery allows prompt resolution of the problem with excellent functional outcomes and little side effects. The prognosis after emergency surgery was excellent in this review.

  18. Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

  19. FDG-PET in early AD diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chew, Jessica; Silverman, Daniel H S

    2013-05-01

    FDG-PET is a valuable tool that will continue to aid in identifying AD in its prodromal and early dementia stages, distinguishing it from other causes of dementia, and tracking progression of the disease. As brain FDG-PET scans and well-trained readers of these scans are becoming more widely available to clinicians who are becoming more informed about the role FDG-PET can play in early AD diagnosis, its use is expected to increase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Causes of unplanned hemodialysis initiation.

    PubMed

    Gomis Couto, A; Teruel Briones, J L; Fernández Lucas, M; Rivera Gorrin, M; Rodríguez Mendiola, N; Jiménez Álvaro, S; Quereda Rodríguez-Navarro, C

    2011-01-01

    Half of patients starting chronic hemodialysis used a transient vascular catheter as a vascular access (unplanned initiation). An objective of the Quality Management Group of the Spanish Society of Nephrology is to achieve that 80% of the patients starting hemodialysis do it with an arteriovenous fistula. We want to review the causes of non-planned hemodialysis nowadays. In 2010, 43 patients had started chronic hemodialysis in the Hospital Ramón y Cajal in Madrid (Spain). Mean age was 61 years, 79% were men, the most frequent cause of chronic renal disease was the diabetes (23%) and Charlson Comorbidity Index was 6.3 ± 2.6. The unplanned hemodialysis occurred in 20 patients (47%), without any differences with the 23 patients who began planned hemodialysis, in none of the clinical or demographic parameters analyzed. The main cause of unplanned hemodialysis was the acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or 4, previously stable, secondary to an unforeseeable intercurrent process (8 patients, 40% of the cases). One patient began after a non-recovery acute renal failure and in other 6 patients, the reason of unplanned hemodialysis initiation was not attributable to the operation Health System (in 3 cases unknown kidney chronic disease and in the other 3 cases it was patient´s responsibility). Only in 5 cases (25%), the cause could be corrigible. Most causes of unplanned hemodialysis does not come from the healthcare organization and therefore not easy to resolve it. Consequently, the objective of the Quality Group will be difficult to be achieved.

  1. [Contact dermatitis caused by nickel].

    PubMed

    Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F; Vilaplana, J; Mascaro, J M

    1987-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain the initial onset in which the population are sensitized to nickel at an early age, above all in females. A study has been made on 200 controls who tolerated metals and on 964 patents who did not tolerate them. The study comprised of patch tests with 8 distinct washers, made of a variety of metals and alloys all containing nickel, and with nickel sulphate to 1% in petrolatum and cobalt salts to 1% in petrolatum. The results, professional and atopic relationship and other considerations are commented.

  2. Earth's early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  3. Supporting Early Learning Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2014-02-03

    House - 06/13/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Early Learning Innovation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2009-10-29

    House - 12/08/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  6. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  7. Early Learning Alignment Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Altmire, Jason [D-PA-4

    2010-09-29

    House - 11/18/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  9. Acoustic pressure reduction at rhythm deviants causes magnetoencephalographic response.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Yuya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Rhythm is an element of music and is important for determining the impression of the music. To investigate the mechanism by which musical rhythmic changes are perceived, magnetoencephalographic responses to rhythm deviants were recorded from 11 healthy volunteers. Auditory stimuli consisting of physically controlled tones were adapted from a song. The auditory stimuli had a steady rhythm, but "early" and "late" deviants were inserted. Only the "early" deviant, which was a tone with a short duration, caused N100m-like prominent transient responses at around the offset of the deviant tone. The latency of the prominent response depended on the descending sound pressure of the deviant tone and was 65 ms after 50% descent. The results suggest that unexpected shortening of tone in a continuous rhythm evokes a transient response and that the response is caused by descending sound pressure of the shortened tone itself, not by the following tones.

  10. Music as therapy in early history.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  12. Colorado Early Childhood Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Planning and Evaluation Unit.

    The Colorado State Board of Education allocated Title IV-V funds in 1975 for a study of the status of early childhood education in Colorado. The purposes of the study were to: (1) gather data relevant to early childhood education on the status of all children from birth through age 5; (2) identify needs of children of this age within the state;…

  13. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  14. Causes of chronic orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Robertson, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of various causes of orthostatic hypotension. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: One hundred patients with moderate to severe orthostatic hypotension. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients had primary autonomic failure, 35% had secondary autonomic failure, and 38% had hypotension without evidence of generalized autonomic degeneration. CONCLUSIONS: In a tertiary referral center, only a minority of patients with severe orthostatic hypotension will have Shy-Drager syndrome or Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome as their primary disease. Occasional patients who initially appear to have Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome ultimately prove to have Shy-Drager syndrome or paraneoplastic autonomic failure. Antidepressant drugs, even in low doses, remain a major overlooked cause of orthostatic hypotension.

  15. Institutional Influence on Behavioural Disorders in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2014-01-01

    Early adolescence a period of transition between childhood and late adolescence, is where one experiences dramatic changes physically, and psychologically. These transitions cause cognitive, emotional, and social changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degrees of disturbance in them. The period of transition…

  16. Meningitis caused by Oerskovia xanthineolytica.

    PubMed

    Kailath, E J; Goldstein, E; Wagner, F H

    1988-03-01

    In summary, we describe a case of central nervous system infection with O. xanthineolytica in which the infecting microbe probably was engrafted on a ventricular shunt. The bacteria caused a smoldering meningitis that did not respond to penicillin and rifampin despite in vitro sensitivity, presumably because of inadequate cerebrospinal fluid penetration of the penicillin and the recognized difficulty of eradicating bacteria from contaminated shunts. Removal of the shunt and continued treatment with penicillin and rifampin resulted in cure.

  17. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia madurae.

    PubMed Central

    Saksun, J. M.; Kane, J.; Schachter, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Actinomycotic mycetoma was diagnosed in a woman from Jamaica living in Ontario. This is the first case reported in Canada in which the infection was caused by Nocardia madurae. Despite oral therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, local excision of newly appearing nodules was required periodically for clinical improvement. Laboratory procedures were modified to aid in identification of pathogenic actinomycetes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:737642

  18. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  19. [Rare causes of childhood leukocoria].

    PubMed

    Diagne, J-P; Sow, A S; Ka, A M; Wane, A M; Ndoye Roth, P A; Ba, E A; De Medeiros, M E; Ndiaye, J M; Diallo, H M; Kane, H; Sow, S; Nguer, M; Sy, E M; Ndiaye, P A

    2017-10-01

    The purpose was to record the causes of leukocoria among children under 10years of age and to determine the proportion of rare causes of leukocoria. This retrospective study was conducted over a period of ten years, from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, in patients under 10years of age who were referred for leukocoria. Leukocoria represented one of the ten reasons for consultation among children under 10years of age. The mean age of our patients was 42.5months. In 76 % of cases, the leukocoria patients were children under 6years of age. Male patients were affected more commonly, with a sex-ratio of 1.5. Patients coming from Dakar and its suburbs represented two thirds of the total. Bilateral involvement represented 53.7 % of the total. Cataracts were responsible for 74.3 % of cases, retinoblastoma 20.58 %, retinal detachment 0.96 %, retinopathy of prematurity 0.96 %, pupillary membrane persistence 0.96 %, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous 0.64 %, endophthalmitis 0.64 %, optic nerve coloboma 0.32 %, iris heterochromia 0.32 % and ametropia 0.32 %. The total percentage of rare causes was 5.12 % in our study, including one case of hyperopia. These etiologies, although rare, do exist. Rare causes of leukocoria require special attention. The discovery of leukocoria necessitates rigorous etiological work-up. Ametropia must be a diagnosis of exclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Mexican Migration: Assessing Root Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    surely broaden our understanding of the causes of Mexico–U.S. migration. One writer, Denise Dresser , does go into great detail about the political...change from a civil-authoritarian to a democratic regime.19 Dresser provides much insight into the working of the political transition in Mexico, but...www.nber.org/papers/w11428 (accessed January 25 2006), 9. 19 Denise Dresser , “Mexico: From PRI Predominance to Divided Democracy,” in Constructing

  1. Inferring causes during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linda; Jaeger, T Florian

    2018-05-01

    One of the central challenges in speech perception is the lack of invariance: talkers differ in how they map words onto the speech signal. Previous work has shown that one mechanism by which listeners overcome this variability is adaptation. However, talkers differ in how they pronounce words for a number of reasons, ranging from more permanent, characteristic factors such as having a foreign accent, to more temporary, incidental factors, such as speaking with a pen in the mouth. One challenge for listeners is that the true cause underlying atypical pronunciations is never directly known, and instead must be inferred from (often causally ambiguous) evidence. In three experiments, we investigate whether these inferences underlie speech perception, and how the speech perception system deals with uncertainty about competing causes for atypical pronunciations. We find that adaptation to atypical pronunciations is affected by whether the atypical pronunciations are seen as characteristic or incidental. Furthermore, we find that listeners are able to maintain information about previous causally ambiguous pronunciations that they experience, and use this previously experienced evidence to drive their adaptation after additional evidence has disambiguated the cause. Our findings revise previous proposals that causally ambiguous evidence is ignored during speech adaptation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella species.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, A M; Scott, I U; Miller, D; Flynn, H W

    2001-11-01

    To report the incidence, clinical presentation, antibiotic sensitivities, and treatment outcomes for endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella species. Consecutive interventional case series. Medical records were reviewed of all patients treated at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between 1991 and 2000 for endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella species. Moraxella species were recovered from 9 patients (10 eyes), or 1.3% (10 of 757) of all culture-proven bacterial endophthalmitis cases; Moraxella catarrhalis was recovered from 7 eyes and Moraxella osloensis from 3. Endophthalmitis was delayed-onset (5 months to 10 years postoperatively) and bleb-associated in 9 eyes and trauma-related in 1. All isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and the aminoglycosides, and they were resistant to vancomycin; resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfa was 11%. Although presenting vision was hand motion or worse in 7 of 10 eyes, all but 3 regained baseline visual acuity (including two eyes in which the post-treatment course was complicated by retinal detachment and one eye with coexistent traumatic injuries). Endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella species is usually delayed-onset and bleb-associated. Although patients usually present with a profound decrease in vision, the organisms are sensitive to most antibiotics and, unlike most series of delayed-onset bleb-associated endophthalmitis, visual outcomes are generally good unless coexistent ocular morbidities exist.

  3. Endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella osloensis.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, Audina M; Scott, Ingrid U; Miller, Darlene; Flynn, Harry W

    2002-04-01

    To report the clinical presentation, antibiotic sensitivities, and treatment outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella osloensis. retrospective review of the medical records of all patients treated for endophthalmitis at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 2000. During the study interval, 757 eyes were treated for endophthalmitis. Moraxella osloensis was isolated from three eyes of two patients (3/757, or 0.39%). In all three eyes, the endophthalmitis was delayed-onset and bleb-associated; Moraxella osloensis was isolated on chocolate agar and 5% sheep's blood agar using a RapNH commercial Kit (by Remel) through an automated system (Vitek). Like most gram-negative organisms, Moraxella was sensitive to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and the aminoglycosides. Although vision at presentation was poor, both patients regained baseline vision after treatment with pars plana vitrectomy and injection of intravitreal antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first report of endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella osloensis. Unlike most series of delayed-onset, bleb-associated endophthalmitis the visual prognosis following treatment for endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella osloensis appears to be generally favorable.

  4. Life expectancy and the value of early detection.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents a model of the benefits and costs of early detection of asymptomatic disease as they vary by age. The benefits of early detection tend toward zero as the risk of death from competing causes increases. Costs per detected case also decline with age, assuming that disease incidence rises with age, but are always strictly positive. On balance, there is always an age limit beyond which the costs associated with early detection outweigh the benefits. Application of the model to prostate cancer screening suggests that early detection above age 70 or so is not cost-effective.

  5. Diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Veeravahu, M

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis has always posed problems because of its rarity and the difficulty of excluding coincidental liver disease caused by a multitude of pathogens. Case reports deal predominantly with jaundiced homosexual men in whom syphilis is discovered later, and the prospective studies of patients with early syphilis disclose only mild biochemical abnormalities in liver function test results. There is no single characteristic feature attributable to early syphilitic hepatitis. Even liver histologic findings are variable. At least in those patients who have jaundice, there is a likelihood of coincidental viral hepatitis. Therefore, the evidence to implicate Treponema pallidum as a liver pathogen in early syphilis is not convincing.

  6. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  7. The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis: Challenges and Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, William F.

    2007-12-01

    Ruddiman (2003) proposed that late Holocene anthropogenic intervention caused CH4 and CO2 increases that kept climate from cooling and that preindustrial pandemics caused CO2 decreases and a small cooling. Every aspect of this early anthropogenic hypothesis has been challenged: the timescale, the issue of stage 11 as a better analog, the ability of human activities to account for the gas anomalies, and the impact of the pandemics. This review finds that the late Holocene gas trends are anomalous in all ice timescales; greenhouse gases decreased during the closest stage 11 insolation analog; disproportionate biomass burning and rice irrigation can explain the methane anomaly; and pandemics explain half of the CO2 decrease since 1000 years ago. Only ˜25% of the CO2 anomaly can, however, be explained by carbon from early deforestation. The remainder must have come from climate system feedbacks, including a Holocene ocean that remained anomalously warm because of anthropogenic intervention.

  8. Early cosmology constrained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, Licia; Bellini, Emilio; Pigozzo, Cassio; Heavens, Alan F.; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-04-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter ΩMR < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < Neff < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is rs = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to rs = 150 ± 5 Mpc.

  9. Early evolution without a tree of life.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F

    2011-06-30

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause.

  10. High early cardiovascular mortality following liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    VanWagner, Lisa B.; Lapin, Brittany; Levitsky, Josh; Wilkins, John T.; Abecassis, Michael M.; Skaro, Anton I.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) contributes to excess long-term mortality after liver transplantation (LT), however little is known about early post-operative CVD mortality in the current era. In addition, there is no model to predict early post-operative CVD mortality across centers. We analyzed adult recipients of primary LT in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database between February 2002 and December 2012 to assess prevalence and predictors of early (30-day) CVD mortality, defined as death from arrhythmia, heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, thromboembolism, and/or stroke. We performed logistic regression with stepwise selection to develop a predictive model of early CVD mortality. Sex and center volume were forced into the final model, which was validated using bootstrapping techniques. Among 54,697 LT recipients, there were 1576 (2.9%) deaths within 30 days. CVD death was the leading cause of 30-day mortality (42.1%), followed by infection (27.9%) and graft failure (12.2%). In multivariate analysis, 9 (6 recipient, 2 donor, 1 operative) significant covariates were identified: age, pre-operative hospitalization, ICU and ventilator status, calculated MELD score, portal vein thrombosis, national organ sharing, donor BMI and cold ischemia time. The model showed moderate discrimination (c-statistic 0.66, 95% CI: 0.63–0.68). We provide the first multicenter prognostic model for the prediction of early post-LT CVD death, the most common cause of early post-LT mortality in the current transplant era. However, evaluation of additional CVD-related variables not collected by the OPTN are needed in order to improve model accuracy and potential clinical utility. PMID:25044256

  11. Endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kestler, M; Muñoz, P; Marín, M; Goenaga, M A; Idígoras Viedma, P; de Alarcón, A; Lepe, J A; Sousa Regueiro, D; Bravo-Ferrer, J M; Pajarón, M; Costas, C; García-López, M V; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Moreno, M; Bouza, E

    2017-10-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by anaerobic bacteria is a rare and poorly characterized disease. Most data reported in the literature are from case reports [1-3]. Therefore, we assessed the situation of anaerobic IE (AIE) in Spain using the database of the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis (GAMES). We performed a prospective study from 2008 to 2016 in 26 Spanish centers. We included 2491 consecutive cases of definite IE (Duke criteria). Anaerobic bacteria caused 22 cases (0.9%) of definite IE. Median age was 66 years (IQR, 56-73), and 19 (86.4%) patients were men. Most patients (14 [63.6%]) had prosthetic valve IE and all episodes were left-sided: aortic valves, 12 (54.5%); and mitral valves, 8 (36.4%). The most common pathogens were Propionibacterium acnes (14 [63.6%]), Lactobacillus spp (3 [13.63%]), and Clostridium spp. (2 [9.0%]), and the infection was mainly odontogenic. Fifteen of the 22 patients (68.2%) underwent cardiac surgery. Mortality was 18.2% during admission and 5.5% after 1 year of follow-up. When patients with AIE were compared with the rest of the cohort, we found that although those with AIE had a similar age and Charlson comorbidity index, they were more likely to have community-acquired IE (86.4% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.01), have undergone cardiac surgery (68.2% vs 48.7% p = 0.06), and have had lower mortality rates during admission (18.2% vs. 27.3%). IE due to anaerobic bacteria is an uncommon disease that affects mainly prosthetic valves and frequently requires surgery. Otherwise, there are no major differences between AIE and IE caused by other microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:28408982

  13. Infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Sarah A.; Wynn, James L.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency among premature infants. Although a large body of research has focused on understanding its pathogenesis, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. Of particular interest is the potential causative role of infectious culprits in the development of NEC. A variety of reports describe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections occurring in association with NEC; however, no organism has emerged as being definitively involved in NEC pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the body of research on infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:25678001

  14. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination.

  15. Hypothesis: does ochratoxin A cause testicular cancer?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary G

    2002-02-01

    Little is known about the etiology of testicular cancer, which is the most common cancer among young men. Epidemiologic data point to a carcinogenic exposure in early life or in utero, but the nature of the exposure is unknown. We hypothesize that the mycotoxin, ochratoxin A, is a cause of testicular cancer. Ochratoxin A is a naturally occurring contaminant of cereals, pigmeat, and other foods and is a known genotoxic carcinogen in animals. The major features of the descriptive epidemiology of testicular cancer (a high incidence in northern Europe, increasing incidence over time, and associations with high socioeconomic status, and with poor semen quality) are all associated with exposure to ochratoxin A. Exposure of animals to ochratoxin A via the diet or via in utero transfer induces adducts in testicular DNA. We hypothesize that consumption of foods contaminated with ochratoxin A during pregnancy and/or childhood induces lesions in testicular DNA and that puberty promotes these lesions to testicular cancer. We tested the ochratoxin A hypothesis using ecologic data on the per-capita consumption of cereals, coffee, and pigmeat, the principal dietary sources of ochratoxin A. Incidence rates for testicular cancer in 20 countries were significantly correlated with the per-capita consumption of coffee and pigmeat (r = 0.49 and 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.01). The ochratoxin A hypothesis offers a coherent explanation for much of the descriptive epidemiology of testicular cancer and suggests new avenues for analytic research.

  16. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Insufficient sleep in adolescents: causes and consequences.