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Sample records for early neural crest

  1. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  2. Incremental evolution of the neural crest, neural crest cells and neural crest-derived skeletal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian K; Gillis, J Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Urochordates (ascidians) have recently supplanted cephalochordates (amphioxus) as the extant sister taxon of vertebrates. Given that urochordates possess migratory cells that have been classified as ‘neural crest-like’– and that cephalochordates lack such cells – this phylogenetic hypothesis may have significant implications with respect to the origin of the neural crest and neural crest-derived skeletal tissues in vertebrates. We present an overview of the genes and gene regulatory network associated with specification of the neural crest in vertebrates. We then use these molecular data – alongside cell behaviour, cell fate and embryonic context – to assess putative antecedents (latent homologues) of the neural crest or neural crest cells in ascidians and cephalochordates. Ascidian migratory mesenchymal cells – non-pigment-forming trunk lateral line cells and pigment-forming ‘neural crest-like cells’ (NCLC) – are unlikely latent neural crest cell homologues. Rather, Snail-expressing cells at the neural plate of border of urochordates and cephalochordates likely represent the extent of neural crest elaboration in non-vertebrate chordates. We also review evidence for the evolutionary origin of two neural crest-derived skeletal tissues – cartilage and dentine. Dentine is a bona fide vertebrate novelty, and dentine-secreting odontoblasts represent a cell type that is exclusively derived from the neural crest. Cartilage, on the other hand, likely has a much deeper origin within the Metazoa. The mesodermally derived cellular cartilages of some protostome invertebrates are much more similar to vertebrate cartilage than is the acellular ‘cartilage-like’ tissue in cephalochordate pharyngeal arches. Cartilage, therefore, is not a vertebrate novelty, and a well-developed chondrogenic program was most likely co-opted from mesoderm to the neural crest along the vertebrate stem. We conclude that the neural crest is a vertebrate novelty, but that neural

  3. Modelling collective cell migration of neural crest

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Mayor, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell migration has emerged in the recent decade as an important phenomenon in cell and developmental biology and can be defined as the coordinated and cooperative movement of groups of cells. Most studies concentrate on tightly connected epithelial tissues, even though collective migration does not require a constant physical contact. Movement of mesenchymal cells is more independent, making their emergent collective behaviour less intuitive and therefore lending importance to computational modelling. Here we focus on such modelling efforts that aim to understand the collective migration of neural crest cells, a mesenchymal embryonic population that migrates large distances as a group during early vertebrate development. By comparing different models of neural crest migration, we emphasize the similarity and complementary nature of these approaches and suggest a future direction for the field. The principles derived from neural crest modelling could aid understanding the collective migration of other mesenchymal cell types. PMID:27085004

  4. Modelling collective cell migration of neural crest.

    PubMed

    Szabó, András; Mayor, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Collective cell migration has emerged in the recent decade as an important phenomenon in cell and developmental biology and can be defined as the coordinated and cooperative movement of groups of cells. Most studies concentrate on tightly connected epithelial tissues, even though collective migration does not require a constant physical contact. Movement of mesenchymal cells is more independent, making their emergent collective behaviour less intuitive and therefore lending importance to computational modelling. Here we focus on such modelling efforts that aim to understand the collective migration of neural crest cells, a mesenchymal embryonic population that migrates large distances as a group during early vertebrate development. By comparing different models of neural crest migration, we emphasize the similarity and complementary nature of these approaches and suggest a future direction for the field. The principles derived from neural crest modelling could aid understanding the collective migration of other mesenchymal cell types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural crest cells: from developmental biology to clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Noisa, Parinya; Raivio, Taneli

    2014-09-01

    Neural crest cells are multipotent cells, which are specified in embryonic ectoderm in the border of neural plate and epiderm during early development by interconnection of extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic factors. Neural crest cells are capable of differentiating into various somatic cell types, including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, and peripheral nervous cells, which supports their promise for cell therapy. In this work, we provide a comprehensive review of wide aspects of neural crest cells from their developmental biology to applicability in medical research. We provide a simplified model of neural crest cell development and highlight the key external stimuli and intrinsic regulators that determine the neural crest cell fate. Defects of neural crest cell development leading to several human disorders are also mentioned, with the emphasis of using human induced pluripotent stem cells to model neurocristopathic syndromes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Recycling signals in the neural crest.

    PubMed

    Taneyhill, Lisa A; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    Vertebrate neural crest cells are multipotent and differentiate into structures that include cartilage and the bones of the face, as well as much of the peripheral nervous system. Understanding how different model vertebrates utilize signaling pathways reiteratively during various stages of neural crest formation and differentiation lends insight into human disorders associated with the neural crest.

  7. The development of the neural crest in the human

    PubMed Central

    O’Rahilly, Ronan; Müller, Fabiola

    2007-01-01

    The first systematic account of the neural crest in the human has been prepared after an investigation of 185 serially sectioned staged embryos, aided by graphic reconstructions. As many as fourteen named topographical subdivisions of the crest were identified and eight of them give origin to ganglia (Table 2). Significant findings in the human include the following. (1) An indication of mesencephalic neural crest is discernible already at stage 9, and trigeminal, facial, and postotic components can be detected at stage 10. (2) Crest was not observed at the level of diencephalon 2. Although pre-otic crest from the neural folds is at first continuous (stage 10), crest-free zones are soon observable (stage 11) in Rh.1, 3, and 5. (3) Emigration of cranial neural crest from the neural folds at the neurosomatic junction begins before closure of the rostral neuropore, and later crest cells do not accumulate above the neural tube. (4) The trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagal ganglia, which develop from crest that emigrates before the neural folds have fused, continue to receive contributions from the roof plate of the neural tube after fusion of the folds. (5) The nasal crest and the terminalis-vomeronasal complex are the last components of the cranial crest to appear (at stage 13) and they persist longer. (6) The optic, mesencephalic, isthmic, accessory, and hypoglossal crest do not form ganglia. Cervical ganglion 1 is separated early from the neural crest and is not a Froriep ganglion. (7) The cranial ganglia derived from neural crest show a specific relationship to individual neuromeres, and rhombomeres are better landmarks than the otic primordium, which descends during stages 9–14. (8) Epipharyngeal placodes of the pharyngeal arches contribute to cranial ganglia, although that of arch 1 is not typical. (9) The neural crest from rhombomeres 6 and 7 that migrates to pharyngeal arch 3 and from there rostrad to the truncus arteriosus at stage 12 is identified

  8. The Neural Crest in Cardiac Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Keyte, Anna; Hutson, Mary Redmond

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the function of neural crest as they relate to cardiovascular defects. The cardiac neural crest cells are a subpopulation of cranial neural crest discovered nearly 30 years ago by ablation of premigratory neural crest. The cardiac neural crest cells are necessary for normal cardiovascular development. We begin with a description of the crest cells in normal development, including their function in remodeling the pharyngeal arch arteries, outflow tract septation, valvulogenesis, and development of the cardiac conduction system. The cells are also responsible for modulating signaling in the caudal pharynx, including the second heart field. Many of the molecular pathways that are known to influence specification, migration, patterning and final targeting of the cardiac neural crest cells are reviewed. The cardiac neural crest cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various human cardiocraniofacial syndromes such as DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial, CHARGE, Fetal Alcohol, Alagille, LEOPARD, and Noonan syndromes, as well as Retinoic Acid Embryopathy. The loss of neural crest cells or their dysfunction may not always directly cause abnormal cardiovascular development, but are involved secondarily because crest cells represent a major component in the complex tissue interactions in the head, pharynx and outflow tract. Thus many of the human syndromes linking defects in the heart, face and brain can be better understood when considered within the context of a single cardiocraniofacial developmental module with the neural crest being a key cell type that interconnects the regions. PMID:22595346

  9. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  10. Neural crest contribution to the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher B; Baldwin, H Scott

    2006-01-01

    Normal cardiovascular development requires complex remodeling of the outflow tract and pharyngeal arch arteries to create the separate pulmonic and systemic circulations. During remodeling, the outflow tract is septated to form the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The initially symmetrical pharyngeal arch arteries are remodeled to form the aortic arch, subclavian and carotid arteries. Remodeling is mediated by a population of neural crest cells arising between the mid-otic placode and somite four called the cardiac neural crest. Cardiac neural crest cells form smooth muscle and pericytes in the great arteries, and the neurons of cardiac innervation. In addition to the physical contribution of smooth muscle to the cardiovascular system, cardiac neural crest cells also provide signals required for the maintenance and differentiation of the other cell layers in the pharyngeal apparatus. Reciprocal signaling between the cardiac neural crest cells and cardiogenic mesoderm of the secondary heart field is required for elaboration of the conotruncus and disruption in this signaling results in primary myocardial dysfunction. Cardiovascular defects attributed to the cardiac neural crest cells may reflect either cell autonomous defects in the neural crest or defects in signaling between the neural crest and adjacent cell layers.

  11. Diabetes and apoptosis: neural crest cells and neural tube.

    PubMed

    Chappell, James H; Wang, Xiao Dan; Loeken, Mary R

    2009-12-01

    Birth defects resulting from diabetic pregnancy are associated with apoptosis of a critical mass of progenitor cells early during the formation of the affected organ(s). Insufficient expression of genes that regulate viability of the progenitor cells is responsible for the apoptosis. In particular, maternal diabetes inhibits expression of a gene, Pax3, that encodes a transcription factor which is expressed in neural crest and neuroepithelial cells. As a result of insufficient Pax3, cardiac neural crest and neuroepithelial cells undergo apoptosis by a process dependent on the p53 tumor suppressor protein. This, then provides a cellular explanation for the cardiac outflow tract and neural tube and defects induced by diabetic pregnancy.

  12. Diabetes and apoptosis: neural crest cells and neural tube

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, James H.; Dan Wang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Birth defects resulting from diabetic pregnancy are associated with apoptosis of a critical mass of progenitor cells early during the formation of the affected organ(s). Insufficient expression of genes that regulate viability of the progenitor cells is responsible for the apoptosis. In particular, maternal diabetes inhibits expression of a gene, Pax3, that encodes a transcription factor which is expressed in neural crest and neuroepithelial cells. As a result of insufficient Pax3, cardiac neural crest and neuroepithelial cells undergo apoptosis by a process dependent on the p53 tumor suppressor protein. This, then provides a cellular explanation for the cardiac outflow tract and neural tube and defects induced by diabetic pregnancy. PMID:19333760

  13. An early role for sonic hedgehog from foregut endoderm in jaw development: ensuring neural crest cell survival.

    PubMed

    Brito, José M; Teillet, Marie-Aimée; Le Douarin, Nicole M

    2006-08-01

    We have investigated the role of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the development of facial structures by depriving chicken embryos of the most anterior sources of this morphogen, including the prechordal plate and the anterior ventral endoderm of the foregut, before the onset of neural crest cell (NCC) migration to the first branchial arch (BA1). The entire forehead, including the foregut endoderm, was removed at 5- to 10-somite stage (ss), which led to the absence of the lower jaw when the operation was performed before 7-ss. If the embryos were deprived of their forehead at 8- to 10-ss, they were later on endowed with a lower beak. In embryos that were operated on early, the NCCs migrated normally to BA1 but were subjected to massive apoptosis a few hours later. Cell death did not occur when forehead excision was performed at a later stage. In this case, onward expression of Shh in the ventral foregut endoderm extended caudally over the excision limit, and we hypothesized that absence of Shh production by the endoderm in embryos that were operated on early could be responsible for the NCC apoptosis and the failure of BA1 development. We thus provided exogenous Shh to the embryos that were operated on before 7-ss. In this case, the development of the lower jaw was rescued. Therefore, Shh derived from the ventral foregut endoderm ensures the survival of NCCs at a critical stage of BA1 development.

  14. Robo signaling regulates the production of cranial neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Tan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Münsterberg, Andrea; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-12-01

    Slit/Robo signaling plays an important role in the guidance of developing neurons in developing embryos. However, it remains obscure whether and how Slit/Robo signaling is involved in the production of cranial neural crest cells. In this study, we examined Robo1 deficient mice to reveal developmental defects of mouse cranial frontal and parietal bones, which are derivatives of cranial neural crest cells. Therefore, we determined the production of HNK1 + cranial neural crest cells in early chick embryo development after knock-down (KD) of Robo1 expression. Detection of markers for pre-migratory and migratory neural crest cells, PAX7 and AP-2α, showed that production of both was affected by Robo1 KD. In addition, we found that the transcription factor slug is responsible for the aberrant delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells induced by Robo1 KD, which also led to elevated expression of E- and N-Cadherin. N-Cadherin expression was enhanced when blocking FGF signaling with dominant-negative FGFR1 in half of the neural tube. Taken together, we show that Slit/Robo signaling influences the delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells, which is required for cranial bone development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Requirement for Foxd3 in Maintenance of Neural Crest Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lu; Mundell, Nathan A.; Frist, Audrey Y.; Wang, Qiaohong; Labosky, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Understanding the molecular mechanisms of stem cell maintenance is critical for the ultimate goal of manipulating stem cells for treatment of disease. Foxd3 is required early in mouse embryogenesis; Foxd3−/− embryos fail around the time of implantation, cells of the inner cell mass cannot be maintained in vitro, and blastocyst-derived stem cell lines cannot be established. Here, we report that Foxd3 is required for maintenance of the multipotent mammalian neural crest. Using tissue specific deletion of Foxd3 in the neural crest, we show that Foxd3flox/−; Wnt1-Cre mice die perinatally with a catastrophic loss of neural crest-derived structures. Cranial neural crest tissues are either missing or severely reduced in size, the peripheral nervous system consists of reduced dorsal root ganglia and cranial nerves, and the entire gastrointestinal tract is devoid of neural crest derivatives. These results demonstrate a global role for this transcriptional repressor in all aspects of neural crest maintenance along the anterior-posterior axis, and establish an unprecedented molecular link between multiple divergent progenitor lineages of the mammalian embryo. PMID:18367558

  16. The Neural Border: Induction, Specification and Maturation of the territory that generates Neural Crest cells.

    PubMed

    Pla, Patrick; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2018-05-28

    The neural crest is induced at the edge between the neural plate and the nonneural ectoderm, in an area called the neural (plate) border, during gastrulation and neurulation. In recent years, many studies have explored how this domain is patterned, and how the neural crest is induced within this territory, that also participates to the prospective dorsal neural tube, the dorsalmost nonneural ectoderm, as well as placode derivatives in the anterior area. This review highlights the tissue interactions, the cell-cell signaling and the molecular mechanisms involved in this dynamic spatiotemporal patterning, resulting in the induction of the premigratory neural crest. Collectively, these studies allow building a complex neural border and early neural crest gene regulatory network, mostly composed by transcriptional regulations but also, more recently, including novel signaling interactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Zebrafish narrowminded suggests a genetic link between formation of neural crest and primary sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bruk Artinger, Kristin; Chitnis, Ajay B.; Mercola, Mark; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In the developing vertebrate nervous system, both neural crest and sensory neurons form at the boundary between non-neural ectoderm and the neural plate. From an in situ hybridization based expression analysis screen, we have identified a novel zebrafish mutation, narrowminded (nrd), which reduces the number of early neural crest cells and eliminates Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons. Mosaic analysis has shown that the mutation acts cell autonomously suggesting that nrd is involved in either the reception or interpretation of signals at the lateral neural plate boundary. Characterization of the mutant phenotype indicates that nrd is required for a primary wave of neural crest cell formation during which progenitors generate both RB sensory neurons and neural crest cells. Moreover, the early deficit in neural crest cells in nrd homozygotes is compensated later in development. Thus, we propose that a later wave can compensate for the loss of early neural crest cells but, interestingly, not the RB sensory neurons. We discuss the implications of these findings for the possibility that RB sensory neurons and neural crest cells share a common evolutionary origin. PMID:10457007

  18. Cardiovascular Development and the Colonizing Cardiac Neural Crest Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Paige; Olaopa, Michael; Firulli, Anthony B.; Conway, Simon J.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well established that transgenic manipulation of mammalian neural crest-related gene expression and microsurgical removal of premigratory chicken and Xenopus embryonic cardiac neural crest progenitors results in a wide spectrum of both structural and functional congenital heart defects, the actual functional mechanism of the cardiac neural crest cells within the heart is poorly understood. Neural crest cell migration and appropriate colonization of the pharyngeal arches and outflow tract septum is thought to be highly dependent on genes that regulate cell-autonomous polarized movement (i.e., gap junctions, cadherins, and noncanonical Wnt1 pathway regulators). Once the migratory cardiac neural crest subpopulation finally reaches the heart, they have traditionally been thought to participate in septation of the common outflow tract into separate aortic and pulmonary arteries. However, several studies have suggested these colonizing neural crest cells may also play additional unexpected roles during cardiovascular development and may even contribute to a crest-derived stem cell population. Studies in both mice and chick suggest they can also enter the heart from the venous inflow as well as the usual arterial outflow region, and may contribute to the adult semilunar and atrioventricular valves as well as part of the cardiac conduction system. Furthermore, although they are not usually thought to give rise to the cardiomyocyte lineage, neural crest cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) can contribute to the myocardium and may have different functions in a species-dependent context. Intriguingly, both ablation of chick and Xenopus premigratory neural crest cells, and a transgenic deletion of mouse neural crest cell migration or disruption of the normal mammalian neural crest gene expression profiles, disrupts ventral myocardial function and/or cardiomyocyte proliferation. Combined, this suggests that either the cardiac neural crest secrete factor/s that

  19. Amphioxus and lamprey AP-2 genes: implications for neural crest evolution and migration patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type present in the most basal vertebrates, but not in cephalochordates. We have studied differences in regulation of the neural crest marker AP-2 across two evolutionary transitions: invertebrate to vertebrate, and agnathan to gnathostome. Isolation and comparison of amphioxus, lamprey and axolotl AP-2 reveals its extensive expansion in the vertebrate dorsal neural tube and pharyngeal arches, implying co-option of AP-2 genes by neural crest cells early in vertebrate evolution. Expression in non-neural ectoderm is a conserved feature in amphioxus and vertebrates, suggesting an ancient role for AP-2 genes in this tissue. There is also common expression in subsets of ventrolateral neurons in the anterior neural tube, consistent with a primitive role in brain development. Comparison of AP-2 expression in axolotl and lamprey suggests an elaboration of cranial neural crest patterning in gnathostomes. However, migration of AP-2-expressing neural crest cells medial to the pharyngeal arch mesoderm appears to be a primitive feature retained in all vertebrates. Because AP-2 has essential roles in cranial neural crest differentiation and proliferation, the co-option of AP-2 by neural crest cells in the vertebrate lineage was a potentially crucial event in vertebrate evolution.

  20. The neural crest migrating into the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Marianne E.; Simões-Costa, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    From the initial discovery of the neural crest over 150 years ago to the seminal studies of Le Douarin and colleagues in the latter part of the 20th century, understanding of the neural crest has moved from the descriptive to the experimental. Now, in the 21st century, neural crest research has migrated into the genomic age. Here we reflect upon the major advances in neural crest biology and the open questions that will continue to make research on this incredible vertebrate cell type an important subject in developmental biology for the century to come. PMID:26970616

  1. Animal models for studying neural crest development: is the mouse different?

    PubMed

    Barriga, Elias H; Trainor, Paul A; Bronner, Marianne; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type and has been well studied in a number of model systems. Zebrafish, Xenopus and chick embryos largely show consistent requirements for specific genes in early steps of neural crest development. By contrast, knockouts of homologous genes in the mouse often do not exhibit comparable early neural crest phenotypes. In this Spotlight article, we discuss these species-specific differences, suggest possible explanations for the divergent phenotypes in mouse and urge the community to consider these issues and the need for further research in complementary systems. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Neural crest apoptosis and the establishment of craniofacial pattern: an honorable death.

    PubMed

    Graham, A; Koentges, G; Lumsden, A

    1996-01-01

    During development of the vertebrate head neural crest cells emigrate from the hindbrain and populate the branchial arches, giving rise to distinct skeletal elements and muscle connective tissues in each arch. The production of neural crest from the hindbrain is discontinuous and crest cells destined for different arches, carrying different positional cues, are separated by regions of apoptosis centered on rhombomeres (r) 3 and r5. This cell death program is under the interactive control of the neighboring hindbrain segments. Both r3 and r5 produce large numbers of crest cells when freed from their flanking rhombomere, but when conjoined with their neighbor the cell death program is restored. Two key components of this program are Bmp 4 and msx-2, both of which are expressed in the apoptotic foci of r3 and r5 and which are also regulated by neighbor interactions. Importantly, the addition of recombinant Bmp 4 to isolated cultures of r3 and r5 induces the expression of Bmp 4 and msx-2 and restores the cell death program. This early neural crest segregation is maintained during development and it has profound effects upon the final craniofacial pattern. Even though crest cells from different axial origins will contribute to compound skeletal elements, these distinct populations do not intermingle. Furthermore head muscle connective tissues are exclusively anchored to skeletal domains arising from neural crest from the same axial level. Thus the discontinuous production of neural crest sculpts the crest into nonmixing streams and consequently ensures the fidelity of patterning.

  3. Atg7-Mediated Autophagy Is Involved in the Neural Crest Cell Generation in Chick Embryo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Chen, En-Ni; Liang, Chang; Liang, Jianxin; Gao, Lin-Rui; Chuai, Manli; Münsterberg, Andrea; Bao, Yongping; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2018-04-01

    Autophagy plays a very important role in numerous physiological and pathological events. However, it still remains unclear whether Atg7-induced autophagy is involved in the regulation of neural crest cell production. In this study, we found the co-location of Atg7 and Pax7 + neural crest cells in early chick embryo development. Upregulation of Atg7 with unilateral transfection of full-length Atg7 increased Pax7 + and HNK-1 + cephalic and trunk neural crest cell numbers compared to either Control-GFP transfection or opposite neural tubes, suggesting that Atg7 over-expression in neural tubes could enhance the production of neural crest cells. BMP4 in situ hybridization and p-Smad1/5/8 immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that upregulation of Atg7 in neural tubes suppressed the BMP4/Smad signaling, which is considered to promote the delamination of neural crest cells. Interestingly, upregulation of Atg7 in neural tubes could significantly accelerate cell progression into the S phase, implying that Atg7 modulates cell cycle progression. However, β-catenin expression was not significantly altered. Finally, we demonstrated that upregulation of the Atg7 gene could activate autophagy as did Atg8. We have also observed that similar phenotypes, such as more HNK-1 + neural crest cells in the unilateral Atg8 transfection side of neural tubes, and the transfection with full-length Atg8-GFP certainly promote the numbers of BrdU + neural crest cells in comparison to the GFP control. Taken together, we reveal that Atg7-induced autophagy is involved in regulating the production of neural crest cells in early chick embryos through the modification of the cell cycle.

  4. Beta-Actin Is Required for Proper Mouse Neural Crest Ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Tondeleir, Davina; Noelanders, Rivka; Bakkali, Karima; Ampe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The mouse genome consists of six functional actin genes of which the expression patterns are temporally and spatially regulated during development and in the adult organism. Deletion of beta-actin in mouse is lethal during embryonic development, although there is compensatory expression of other actin isoforms. This suggests different isoform specific functions and, more in particular, an important function for beta-actin during early mammalian development. We here report a role for beta-actin during neural crest ontogeny. Although beta-actin null neural crest cells show expression of neural crest markers, less cells delaminate and their migration arrests shortly after. These phenotypes were associated with elevated apoptosis levels in neural crest cells, whereas proliferation levels were unchanged. Specifically the pre-migratory neural crest cells displayed higher levels of apoptosis, suggesting increased apoptosis in the neural tube accounts for the decreased amount of migrating neural crest cells seen in the beta-actin null embryos. These cells additionally displayed a lack of membrane bound N-cadherin and dramatic decrease in cadherin-11 expression which was more pronounced in the pre-migratory neural crest population, potentially indicating linkage between the cadherin-11 expression and apoptosis. By inhibiting ROCK ex vivo, the knockout neural crest cells regained migratory capacity and cadherin-11 expression was upregulated. We conclude that the presence of beta-actin is vital for survival, specifically of pre-migratory neural crest cells, their proper emigration from the neural tube and their subsequent migration. Furthermore, the absence of beta-actin affects cadherin-11 and N-cadherin function, which could partly be alleviated by ROCK inhibition, situating the Rho-ROCK signaling in a feedback loop with cadherin-11. PMID:24409333

  5. AKT signaling displays multifaceted functions in neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Sittewelle, Méghane; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2018-05-31

    AKT signaling is an essential intracellular pathway controlling cell homeostasis, cell proliferation and survival, as well as cell migration and differentiation in adults. Alterations impacting the AKT pathway are involved in many pathological conditions in human disease. Similarly, during development, multiple transmembrane molecules, such as FGF receptors, PDGF receptors or integrins, activate AKT to control embryonic cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and also cell fate decisions. While many studies in mouse embryos have clearly implicated AKT signaling in the differentiation of several neural crest derivatives, information on AKT functions during the earliest steps of neural crest development had remained relatively scarce until recently. However, recent studies on known and novel regulators of AKT signaling demonstrate that this pathway plays critical roles throughout the development of neural crest progenitors. Non-mammalian models such as fish and frog embryos have been instrumental to our understanding of AKT functions in neural crest development, both in neural crest progenitors and in the neighboring tissues. This review combines current knowledge acquired from all these different vertebrate animal models to describe the various roles of AKT signaling related to neural crest development in vivo. We first describe the importance of AKT signaling in patterning the tissues involved in neural crest induction, namely the dorsal mesoderm and the ectoderm. We then focus on AKT signaling functions in neural crest migration and differentiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Elk3 is essential for the progression from progenitor to definitive neural crest cell

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Crystal D.; Phillips, Jacquelyn L.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2013-01-01

    Elk3/Net/Sap2 (here referred to as Elk3) is an Ets ternary complex transcriptional repressor known for its involvement in angiogenesis during embryonic development. Although Elk3 is expressed in various tissues, additional roles for the protein outside of vasculature development have yet to be reported. Here, we characterize the early spatiotemporal expression pattern of Elk3 in the avian embryo using whole mount in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR and examine the effects of its loss of function on neural crest development. At early stages, Elk3 is expressed in the head folds, head mesenchyme, intersomitic vessels, and migratory cranial neural crest (NC) cells. Loss of the Elk3 protein results in the retention of Pax7+ precursors in the dorsal neural tube that fail to upregulate neural crest specifier genes, FoxD3, Sox10 and Snail2, resulting in embryos with severe migration defects. The results putatively place Elk3 downstream of neural plate border genes, but upstream of neural crest specifier genes in the neural crest gene regulatory network (NC-GRN), suggesting that it is critical for the progression from progenitor to definitive neural crest cell. PMID:23266330

  7. The origin and evolution of the neural crest

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, Philip C. J.; Graham, Anthony; Kelsh, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Many of the features that distinguish the vertebrates from other chordates are derived from the neural crest, and it has long been argued that the emergence of this multipotent embryonic population was a key innovation underpinning vertebrate evolution. More recently, however, a number of studies have suggested that the evolution of the neural crest was less sudden than previously believed. This has exposed the fact that neural crest, as evidenced by its repertoire of derivative cell types, has evolved through vertebrate evolution. In this light, attempts to derive a typological definition of neural crest, in terms of molecular signatures or networks, are unfounded. We propose a less restrictive, embryological definition of this cell type that facilitates, rather than precludes, investigating the evolution of neural crest. While the evolutionary origin of neural crest has attracted much attention, its subsequent evolution has received almost no attention and yet it is more readily open to experimental investigation and has greater relevance to understanding vertebrate evolution. Finally, we provide a brief outline of how the evolutionary emergence of neural crest potentiality may have proceeded, and how it may be investigated. PMID:18478530

  8. Insights into neural crest development and evolution from genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simões-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest is an excellent model system for the study of cell type diversification during embryonic development due to its multipotency, motility, and ability to form a broad array of derivatives ranging from neurons and glia, to cartilage, bone, and melanocytes. As a uniquely vertebrate cell population, it also offers important clues regarding vertebrate origins. In the past 30 yr, introduction of recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the dissection of the genetic program controlling neural crest development and has provided important insights into gene regulatory mechanisms underlying cell migration and differentiation. More recently, new genomic approaches have provided a platform and tools that are changing the depth and breadth of our understanding of neural crest development at a “systems” level. Such advances provide an insightful view of the regulatory landscape of neural crest cells and offer a new perspective on developmental as well as stem cell and cancer biology. PMID:23817048

  9. Anosmin-1 is essential for neural crest and cranial placodes formation in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Bae, Chang-Joon; Hong, Chang-Soo; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-15

    During embryogenesis vertebrates develop a complex craniofacial skeleton associated with sensory organs. These structures are primarily derived from two embryonic cell populations the neural crest and cranial placodes, respectively. Neural crest cells and cranial placodes are specified through the integrated action of several families of signaling molecules, and the subsequent activation of a complex network of transcription factors. Here we describe the expression and function of Anosmin-1 (Anos1), an extracellular matrix protein, during neural crest and cranial placodes development in Xenopus laevis. Anos1 was identified as a target of Pax3 and Zic1, two transcription factors necessary and sufficient to generate neural crest and cranial placodes. Anos1 is expressed in cranial neural crest progenitors at early neurula stage and in cranial placode derivatives later in development. We show that Anos1 function is required for neural crest and sensory organs development in Xenopus, consistent with the defects observed in Kallmann syndrome patients carrying a mutation in ANOS1. These findings indicate that anos1 has a conserved function in the development of craniofacial structures, and indicate that anos1-depleted Xenopus embryos represent a useful model to analyze the pathogenesis of Kallmann syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. 5-Mehtyltetrahydrofolate rescues alcohol-induced neural crest cell migration abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Li, Jiejing; Chen, Chunjiang; Gong, Manzi; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Youxue; Chen, Jie; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2014-09-16

    Alcohol is detrimental to early development. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) due to maternal alcohol abuse results in a series of developmental abnormalities including cranial facial dysmorphology, ocular anomalies, congenital heart defects, microcephaly and intellectual disabilities. Previous studies have been shown that ethanol exposure causes neural crest (NC) apoptosis and perturbation of neural crest migration. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this report we investigated the fetal effect of alcohol on the process of neural crest development in the Xenopus leavis. Pre-gastrulation exposure of 2-4% alcohol induces apoptosis in Xenopus embryo whereas 1% alcohol specifically impairs neural crest migration without observing discernible apoptosis. Additionally, 1% alcohol treatment considerably increased the phenotype of small head (43.4% ± 4.4%, total embryo n = 234), and 1.5% and 2.0% dramatically augment the deformation to 81.2% ± 6.5% (n = 205) and 91.6% ± 3.0% (n = 235), respectively (P < 0.05). Significant accumulation of Homocysteine was caused by alcohol treatment in embryos and 5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate restores neural crest migration and alleviates homocysteine accumulation, resulting in inhibition of the alcohol-induced neurocristopathies. Our study demonstrates that prenatal alcohol exposure causes neural crest cell migration abnormality and 5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate could be beneficial for treating FASD.

  11. Requirement for Foxd3 in the maintenance of neural crest progenitors.

    PubMed

    Teng, Lu; Mundell, Nathan A; Frist, Audrey Y; Wang, Qiaohong; Labosky, Patricia A

    2008-05-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of stem cell maintenance is crucial for the ultimate goal of manipulating stem cells for the treatment of disease. Foxd3 is required early in mouse embryogenesis; Foxd3(-/-) embryos fail around the time of implantation, cells of the inner cell mass cannot be maintained in vitro, and blastocyst-derived stem cell lines cannot be established. Here, we report that Foxd3 is required for maintenance of the multipotent mammalian neural crest. Using tissue-specific deletion of Foxd3 in the neural crest, we show that Foxd3(flox/-); Wnt1-Cre mice die perinatally with a catastrophic loss of neural crest-derived structures. Cranial neural crest tissues are either missing or severely reduced in size, the peripheral nervous system consists of reduced dorsal root ganglia and cranial nerves, and the entire gastrointestinal tract is devoid of neural crest derivatives. These results demonstrate a global role for this transcriptional repressor in all aspects of neural crest maintenance along the anterior-posterior axis, and establish an unprecedented molecular link between multiple divergent progenitor lineages of the mammalian embryo.

  12. Role of FGF and noggin in neural crest induction.

    PubMed

    Mayor, R; Guerrero, N; Martínez, C

    1997-09-01

    A study of the molecules noggin and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and its receptor in the induction of the prospective neural crest in Xenopus laevis embryos has been carried out, using the expression of the gene Xslu as a marker for the neural crest. We show that when a truncated FGF receptor (XFD) was expressed ectopically in order to block FGF signaling Xslu expression was inhibited. The effect of XFD on Xslu was specific and could be reversed by the coinjection of the wild-type FGF receptor (FGFR). Inhibition of Xslu expression by XFD is not a consequence of neural plate inhibition, as was shown by analyzing Xsox-2 expression. When ectoderm expressing XFD was transplanted into the prospective neural fold region of embryos Xslu induction was inhibited. The neural crest can also be induced by an interaction between neural plate and epidermis. As this induction is suppressed by the presence of XFD in the neural plate and not in the epidermis, it suggests that the neural crest is induced by FGF from the epidermis. However, treatment of neural plate with FGF was not able to induce Xslug expression, showing that in addition to FGF other non-FGF factors are also required. Previously we have suggested that the ectopic ventral expression of Xslu produced by overexpression of noggin mRNA resulted from an interaction of noggin with a ventral signal. Overexpression of XFD inhibits this effect, suggesting that FGF could be one component involved in this ventral signaling. Overexpression of FGFR produced a remarkable increase in the expression of Xslu in the posterior neural folds and around the blastopore. Injections in different blastomeres of the embryo suggest that the target cells of this effect are the ventral cells. Finally, we proposed a model in which the induction of the neural crests at the border of the neural plate requires functional FGF signaling, which possibly interacts with a neural inducer such as noggin.

  13. Regulation of Msx genes by a Bmp gradient is essential for neural crest specification.

    PubMed

    Tribulo, Celeste; Aybar, Manuel J; Nguyen, Vu H; Mullins, Mary C; Mayor, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    There is evidence in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos that the neural crest/neural folds are specified at the border of the neural plate by a precise threshold concentration of a Bmp gradient. In order to understand the molecular mechanism by which a gradient of Bmp is able to specify the neural crest, we analyzed how the expression of Bmp targets, the Msx genes, is regulated and the role that Msx genes has in neural crest specification. As Msx genes are directly downstream of Bmp, we analyzed Msx gene expression after experimental modification in the level of Bmp activity by grafting a bead soaked with noggin into Xenopus embryos, by expressing in the ectoderm a dominant-negative Bmp4 or Bmp receptor in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos, and also through Bmp pathway component mutants in the zebrafish. All the results show that a reduction in the level of Bmp activity leads to an increase in the expression of Msx genes in the neural plate border. Interestingly, by reaching different levels of Bmp activity in animal cap ectoderm, we show that a specific concentration of Bmp induces msx1 expression to a level similar to that required to induce neural crest. Our results indicate that an intermediate level of Bmp activity specifies the expression of Msx genes in the neural fold region. In addition, we have analyzed the role that msx1 plays on neural crest specification. As msx1 has a role in dorsoventral pattering, we have carried out conditional gain- and loss-of-function experiments using different msx1 constructs fused to a glucocorticoid receptor element to avoid an early effect of this factor. We show that msx1 expression is able to induce all other early neural crest markers tested (snail, slug, foxd3) at the time of neural crest specification. Furthermore, the expression of a dominant negative of Msx genes leads to the inhibition of all the neural crest markers analyzed. It has been previously shown that snail is one of the earliest genes acting in the neural crest

  14. Reprogramming multipotent tumor cells with the embryonic neural crest microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer C.; Teddy, Jessica M.; Postovit, Lynne-Marie; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Seftor, Richard E.B.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.; Kulesa, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The embryonic microenvironment is an important source of signals that program multipotent cells to adopt a particular fate and migratory path, yet its potential to reprogram and restrict multipotent tumor cell fate and invasion is unrealized. Aggressive tumor cells share many characteristics with multipotent, invasive embryonic progenitors, contributing to the paradigm of tumour cell plasticity. In the vertebrate embryo, multiple cell types originate from a highly invasive cell population called the neural crest. The neural crest and the embryonic microenvironments they migrate through represent an excellent model system to study cell diversification during embryogenesis and phenotype determination. Recent exciting studies of tumor cells transplanted into various embryo models, including the neural crest rich chick microenvironment, have revealed the potential to control and revert the metastatic phenotype, suggesting further work may help to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention derived from a convergence of tumorigenic and embryonic signals. In this mini-review, we summarize markers that are common to the neural crest and highly aggressive human melanoma cells. We highlight advances in our understanding of tumor cell behaviors and plasticity studied within the chick neural crest rich microenvironment. In so doing, we honor the tremendous contributions of Professor Elizabeth D. Hay towards this important interface of developmental and cancer biology. PMID:18629870

  15. An intermediate level of BMP signaling directly specifies cranial neural crest progenitor cells in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Jennifer A; Hashiguchi, Megumi; Nguyen, Vu H; Mullins, Mary C

    2011-01-01

    The specification of the neural crest progenitor cell (NCPC) population in the early vertebrate embryo requires an elaborate network of signaling pathways, one of which is the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway. Based on alterations in neural crest gene expression in zebrafish BMP pathway component mutants, we previously proposed a model in which the gastrula BMP morphogen gradient establishes an intermediate level of BMP activity establishing the future NCPC domain. Here, we tested this model and show that an intermediate level of BMP signaling acts directly to specify the NCPC. We quantified the effects of reducing BMP signaling on the number of neural crest cells and show that neural crest cells are significantly increased when BMP signaling is reduced and that this increase is not due to an increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, when BMP signaling is eliminated, NCPC fail to be specified. We modulated BMP signaling levels in BMP pathway mutants with expanded or no NCPCs to demonstrate that an intermediate level of BMP signaling specifies the NCPC. We further investigated the ability of Smad5 to act in a graded fashion by injecting smad5 antisense morpholinos and show that increasing doses first expand the NCPCs and then cause a loss of NCPCs, consistent with Smad5 acting directly in neural crest progenitor specification. Using Western blot analysis, we show that P-Smad5 levels are dose-dependently reduced in smad5 morphants, consistent with an intermediate level of BMP signaling acting through Smad5 to specify the neural crest progenitors. Finally, we performed chimeric analysis to demonstrate for the first time that BMP signal reception is required directly by NCPCs for their specification. Together these results add substantial evidence to a model in which graded BMP signaling acts as a morphogen to pattern the ectoderm, with an intermediate level acting in neural crest specification.

  16. Emergence and migration of trunk neural crest cells in a snake, the California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The neural crest is a group of multipotent cells that emerges after an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition from the dorsal neural tube early during development. These cells then migrate throughout the embryo, giving rise to a wide variety derivatives including the peripheral nervous system, craniofacial skeleton, pigment cells, and endocrine organs. While much is known about neural crest cells in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish, relatively little is known about their development in non-avian reptiles like snakes and lizards. Results In this study, we show for the first time ever trunk neural crest migration in a snake by labeling it with DiI and immunofluorescence. As in birds and mammals, we find that early migrating trunk neural crest cells use both a ventromedial pathway and an inter-somitic pathway in the snake. However, unlike birds and mammals, we also observed large numbers of late migrating neural crest cells utilizing the inter-somitic pathway in snake. Conclusions We found that while trunk neural crest migration in snakes is very similar to that of other amniotes, the inter-somitic pathway is used more extensively by late-migrating trunk neural crest cells in snake. PMID:20482793

  17. Emergence and migration of trunk neural crest cells in a snake, the California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae).

    PubMed

    Reyes, Michelle; Zandberg, Katrina; Desmawati, Iska; de Bellard, Maria E

    2010-05-18

    The neural crest is a group of multipotent cells that emerges after an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition from the dorsal neural tube early during development. These cells then migrate throughout the embryo, giving rise to a wide variety derivatives including the peripheral nervous system, craniofacial skeleton, pigment cells, and endocrine organs. While much is known about neural crest cells in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish, relatively little is known about their development in non-avian reptiles like snakes and lizards. In this study, we show for the first time ever trunk neural crest migration in a snake by labeling it with DiI and immunofluorescence. As in birds and mammals, we find that early migrating trunk neural crest cells use both a ventromedial pathway and an inter-somitic pathway in the snake. However, unlike birds and mammals, we also observed large numbers of late migrating neural crest cells utilizing the inter-somitic pathway in snake. We found that while trunk neural crest migration in snakes is very similar to that of other amniotes, the inter-somitic pathway is used more extensively by late-migrating trunk neural crest cells in snake.

  18. Id expression in amphioxus and lamprey highlights the role of gene cooption during neural crest evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulemans, Daniel; McCauley, David; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Neural crest cells are unique to vertebrates and generate many of the adult structures that differentiate them from their closest invertebrate relatives, the cephalochordates. Id genes are robust markers of neural crest cells at all stages of development. We compared Id gene expression in amphioxus and lamprey to ask if cephalochordates deploy Id genes at the neural plate border and dorsal neural tube in a manner similar to vertebrates. Furthermore, we examined whether Id expression in these cells is a basal vertebrate trait or a derived feature of gnathostomes. We found that while expression of Id genes in the mesoderm and endoderm is conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates, expression in the lateral neural plate border and dorsal neural tube is a vertebrate novelty. Furthermore, expression of lamprey Id implies that recruitment of Id genes to these cells occurred very early in the vertebrate lineage. Based on expression in amphioxus we postulate that Id cooption conferred sensory cell progenitor-like properties upon the lateral neurectoderm, and pharyngeal mesoderm-like properties upon cranial neural crest. Amphioxus Id expression is also consistent with homology between the anterior neurectoderm of amphioxus and the presumptive placodal ectoderm of vertebrates. These observations support the idea that neural crest evolution was driven in large part by cooption of multipurpose transcriptional regulators from other tissues and cell types.

  19. Establishing neural crest identity: a gene regulatory recipe

    PubMed Central

    Simões-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2015-01-01

    The neural crest is a stem/progenitor cell population that contributes to a wide variety of derivatives, including sensory and autonomic ganglia, cartilage and bone of the face and pigment cells of the skin. Unique to vertebrate embryos, it has served as an excellent model system for the study of cell behavior and identity owing to its multipotency, motility and ability to form a broad array of cell types. Neural crest development is thought to be controlled by a suite of transcriptional and epigenetic inputs arranged hierarchically in a gene regulatory network. Here, we examine neural crest development from a gene regulatory perspective and discuss how the underlying genetic circuitry results in the features that define this unique cell population. PMID:25564621

  20. Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for murine neural crest proliferation, pharyngeal arch development, and craniofacial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Milstone, Zachary J; Lawson, Grace; Trivedi, Chinmay M

    2017-12-01

    Craniofacial anomalies involve defective pharyngeal arch development and neural crest function. Copy number variation at 1p35, containing histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1), or 6q21-22, containing Hdac2, are implicated in patients with craniofacial defects, suggesting an important role in guiding neural crest development. However, the roles of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within neural crest cells remain unknown. The neural crest and its derivatives express both Hdac1 and Hdac2 during early murine development. Ablation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within murine neural crest progenitor cells cause severe hemorrhage, atrophic pharyngeal arches, defective head morphogenesis, and complete embryonic lethality. Embryos lacking Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the neural crest exhibit decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in both the neural tube and the first pharyngeal arch. Mechanistically, loss of Hdac1 and Hdac2 upregulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors Cdkn1a, Cdkn1b, Cdkn1c, Cdkn2b, Cdkn2c, and Tp53 within the first pharyngeal arch. Our results show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 function redundantly within the neural crest to regulate proliferation and the development of the pharyngeal arches by means of repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Developmental Dynamics 246:1015-1026, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Expression of cardiac neural crest and heart genes isolated by modified differential display.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Brad J; Groebner, Nathan J; Frasier, Allison J; Lohr, Jamie L

    2003-08-01

    The invasion of the cardiac neural crest (CNC) into the outflow tract (OFT) and subsequent outflow tract septation are critical events during vertebrate heart development. We have performed four modified differential display screens in the chick embryo to identify genes that may be involved in CNC, OFT, secondary heart field, and heart development. The screens included differential display of RNA isolated from three different axial segments containing premigratory cranial neural crest cells; of RNA from distal outflow tract, proximal outflow tract, and atrioventricular tissue of embryonic chick hearts; and of RNA isolated from left and right cranial tissues, including the early heart fields. These screens have resulted in the identification of the five cDNA clones presented here, which are expressed in the cardiac neural crest, outflow tract and developing heart in patterns that are unique in heart development.

  2. Utility of Phox2b immunohistochemical stain in neural crest tumours and non-neural crest tumours in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mikako; Matsuno, Ryosuke; Tran, Henry; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated the utility of Phox2b in paediatric tumours. Previously, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was the most widely utilised sympathoadrenal marker specific for neural crest tumours with neuronal/neuroendocrine differentiation. However, its sensitivity is insufficient. Recently Phox2b has emerged as another specific marker for this entity. Phox2b immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 159 paediatric tumours, including (group 1) 65 neural crest tumours with neuronal differentiation [peripheral neuroblastic tumours (pNT)]: 15 neuroblastoma undifferentiated (NB-UD), 10 NB poorly differentiated (NB-PD), 10 NB differentiating (NB-D), 10 ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed (GNBi), 10 GNB nodular (GNBn) and 10 ganglioneuroma (GN); (group 2) 23 neural crest tumours with neuroendocrine differentiation [pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PG)]; (group 3) 27 other neural crest tumours including one composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma; and (group 4) 44 non-neural crest tumours. TH IHC was performed on groups 1, 2 and 3. Phox2b was expressed diffusely in pNT (n = 65 of 65), strongly in NB-UD and NB-PD and with less intensity in NB-D, GNB and GN. Diffuse TH was seen in all NB-PD, NB-D, GNB and GN, but nine of 15 NB-UD and a nodule in GNBn did not express TH (n = 55 of 65). PCC/PG expressed diffuse Phox2b (n = 23 of 23) and diffuse TH, except for one tumour (n = 22 of 23). In composite rhabdomyosarcoma, TH was expressed only in neuroblastic cells and Phox2b was diffusely positive in neuroblastic cells and focally in rhabdomyosarcoma. All other tumours were negative for Phox2b (n = none of 44). Phox2b was a specific and sensitive marker for pNT and PCC/PG, especially useful for identifying NB-UD often lacking TH. Our study also presented a composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma of neural crest origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-MET signaling in neural crest-derived melanocyte development.

    PubMed

    Kos, L; Aronzon, A; Takayama, H; Maina, F; Ponzetto, C; Merlino, G; Pavan, W

    1999-02-01

    The mechanisms governing development of neural crest-derived melanocytes, and how alterations in these pathways lead to hypopigmentation disorders, are not completely understood. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) signaling through the tyrosine-kinase receptor, MET, is capable of promoting the proliferation, increasing the motility, and maintaining high tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis of melanocytes in vitro. In addition, transgenic mice that ubiquitously overexpress HGF/SF demonstrate hyperpigmentation in the skin and leptomenigenes and develop melanomas. To investigate whether HGF/ SF-MET signaling is involved in the development of neural crest-derived melanocytes, transgenic embryos, ubiquitously overexpressing HGF/SF, were analyzed. In HGF/SF transgenic embryos, the distribution of melanoblasts along the characteristic migratory pathway was not affected. However, additional ectopically localized melanoblasts were also observed in the dorsal root ganglia and neural tube, as early as 11.5 days post coitus (p.c.). We utilized an in vitro neural crest culture assay to further explore the role of HGF/SF-MET signaling in neural crest development. HGF/SF added to neural crest cultures increased melanoblast number, permitted differentiation into pigmented melanocytes, promoted melanoblast survival, and could replace mast-cell growth factor/Steel factor (MGF) in explant cultures. To examine whether HGF/SF-MET signaling is required for the proper development of melanocytes, embryos with a targeted Met null mutation (Met-/-) were analysed. In Met-/- embryos, melanoblast number and location were not overtly affected up to 14 days p.c. These results demonstrate that HGF/SF-MET signaling influences, but is not required for, the initial development of neural crest-derived melanocytes in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Neural Crest Origins of the Neck and Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Ahlberg, Per E.; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Iannarelli, Palma; Dennehy, Ulla; Richardson, William D.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Koentges, Georgy

    2005-01-01

    Summary The neck and shoulder region of vertebrates has undergone a complex evolutionary history. In order to identify its underlying mechanisms we map the destinations of embryonic neural crest and mesodermal stem cells using novel Cre-recombinase mediated transgenesis. The single-cell resolution of this genetic labelling reveals cryptic cell boundaries traversing seemingly homogeneous skeleton of neck and shoulders. Within this complex assembly of bones and muscles we discern a precise code of connectivity that mesenchymal stem cells of neural crest and mesodermal origin both obey as they form muscle scaffolds. Neural crest anchors the head onto the anterior lining of the shoulder girdle, while a Hox gene controlled mesoderm links trunk muscles to the posterior neck and shoulder skeleton. The skeleton that we identify as neural crest is specifically affected in human Klippel-Feil syndrome, Sprengel’s deformity and Arnold-Chiari I/II malformation, providing first insights into their likely aetiology. We identify genes involved in the cellular modularity of neck and shoulder skeleton and propose a new methodology for determining skeletal homologies that is based on muscle attachments. This has allowed us to trace the whereabouts of the cleithrum, the major shoulder bone of extinct land vertebrate ancestors which appears to survive as the scapular spine in living mammals. PMID:16034409

  5. MYCN induces neuroblastoma in primary neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Olsen, R R; Otero, J H; García-López, J; Wallace, K; Finkelstein, D; Rehg, J E; Yin, Z; Wang, Y-D; Freeman, K W

    2017-08-31

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is an embryonal cancer of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which causes 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. High-risk NBL is characterized by N-Myc amplification and segmental chromosomal gains and losses. Owing to limited disease models, the etiology of NBL is largely unknown, including both the cell of origin and the majority of oncogenic drivers. We have established a novel system for studying NBL based on the transformation of neural crest cells (NCCs), the progenitor cells of the SNS, isolated from mouse embryonic day 9.5 trunk neural tube explants. Based on pathology and gene expression analysis, we report the first successful transformation of wild-type NCCs into NBL by enforced expression of N-Myc, to generate phenotypically and molecularly accurate tumors that closely model human MYCN-amplified NBL. Using comparative genomic hybridization, we found that NCC-derived NBL tumors acquired copy number gains and losses that are syntenic to those observed in human MYCN-amplified NBL including 17q gain, 2p gain and loss of 1p36. When p53-compromised NCCs were transformed with N-Myc, we generated primitive neuroectodermal tumors with divergent differentiation including osteosarcoma. These subcutaneous tumors were metastatic to regional lymph nodes, liver and lung. Our novel experimental approach accurately models human NBL and establishes a new system with potential to study early stages of NBL oncogenesis, to functionally assess NBL oncogenic drivers and to characterize NBL metastasis.

  6. MYCN induces neuroblastoma in primary neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, R R; Otero, J H; García-López, J; Wallace, K; Finkelstein, D; Rehg, J E; Yin, Z; Wang, Y-D; Freeman, K W

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is an embryonal cancer of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which causes 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. High-risk NBL is characterized by N-Myc amplification and segmental chromosomal gains and losses. Owing to limited disease models, the etiology of NBL is largely unknown, including both the cell of origin and the majority of oncogenic drivers. We have established a novel system for studying NBL based on the transformation of neural crest cells (NCCs), the progenitor cells of the SNS, isolated from mouse embryonic day 9.5 trunk neural tube explants. Based on pathology and gene expression analysis, we report the first successful transformation of wild-type NCCs into NBL by enforced expression of N-Myc, to generate phenotypically and molecularly accurate tumors that closely model human MYCN-amplified NBL. Using comparative genomic hybridization, we found that NCC-derived NBL tumors acquired copy number gains and losses that are syntenic to those observed in human MYCN-amplified NBL including 17q gain, 2p gain and loss of 1p36. When p53-compromised NCCs were transformed with N-Myc, we generated primitive neuroectodermal tumors with divergent differentiation including osteosarcoma. These subcutaneous tumors were metastatic to regional lymph nodes, liver and lung. Our novel experimental approach accurately models human NBL and establishes a new system with potential to study early stages of NBL oncogenesis, to functionally assess NBL oncogenic drivers and to characterize NBL metastasis. PMID:28459463

  7. An amphioxus winged helix/forkhead gene, AmphiFoxD: insights into vertebrate neural crest evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Nicholas D.; Holland, Linda Z.

    2002-01-01

    During amphioxus development, the neural plate is bordered by cells expressing many genes with homologs involved in vertebrate neural crest induction. However, these amphioxus cells evidently lack additional genetic programs for the cell delaminations, migrations, and differentiations characterizing definitive vertebrate neural crest. We characterize an amphioxus winged helix/forkhead gene (AmphiFoxD) closely related to vertebrate FoxD genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the AmphiFoxD is basal to vertebrate FoxD1, FoxD2, FoxD3, FoxD4, and FoxD5. One of these vertebrate genes (FoxD3) consistently marks neural crest during development. Early in amphioxus development, AmphiFoxD is expressed medially in the anterior neural plate as well as in axial (notochordal) and paraxial mesoderm; later, the gene is expressed in the somites, notochord, cerebral vesicle (diencephalon), and hindgut endoderm. However, there is never any expression in cells bordering the neural plate. We speculate that an AmphiFoxD homolog in the common ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates was involved in histogenic processes in the mesoderm (evagination and delamination of the somites and notochord); then, in the early vertebrates, descendant paralogs of this gene began functioning in the presumptive neural crest bordering the neural plate to help make possible the delaminations and cell migrations that characterize definitive vertebrate neural crest. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The hypoxia factor Hif-1α controls neural crest chemotaxis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Barriga, Elias H.; Maxwell, Patrick H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important mechanisms that promotes metastasis is the stabilization of Hif-1 (hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1). We decided to test whether Hif-1α also was required for early embryonic development. We focused our attention on the development of the neural crest, a highly migratory embryonic cell population whose behavior has been likened to cancer metastasis. Inhibition of Hif-1α by antisense morpholinos in Xenopus laevis or zebrafish embryos led to complete inhibition of neural crest migration. We show that Hif-1α controls the expression of Twist, which in turn represses E-cadherin during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of neural crest cells. Thus, Hif-1α allows cells to initiate migration by promoting the release of cell–cell adhesions. Additionally, Hif-1α controls chemotaxis toward the chemokine SDF-1 by regulating expression of its receptor Cxcr4. Our results point to Hif-1α as a novel and key regulator that integrates EMT and chemotaxis during migration of neural crest cells. PMID:23712262

  9. New genes in the evolution of the neural crest differentiation program

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Development of the vertebrate head depends on the multipotency and migratory behavior of neural crest derivatives. This cell population is considered a vertebrate innovation and, accordingly, chordate ancestors lacked neural crest counterparts. The identification of neural crest specification genes expressed in the neural plate of basal chordates, in addition to the discovery of pigmented migratory cells in ascidians, has challenged this hypothesis. These new findings revive the debate on what is new and what is ancient in the genetic program that controls neural crest formation. Results To determine the origin of neural crest genes, we analyzed Phenotype Ontology annotations to select genes that control the development of this tissue. Using a sequential blast pipeline, we phylogenetically classified these genes, as well as those associated with other tissues, in order to define tissue-specific profiles of gene emergence. Of neural crest genes, 9% are vertebrate innovations. Our comparative analyses show that, among different tissues, the neural crest exhibits a particularly high rate of gene emergence during vertebrate evolution. A remarkable proportion of the new neural crest genes encode soluble ligands that control neural crest precursor specification into each cell lineage, including pigmented, neural, glial, and skeletal derivatives. Conclusion We propose that the evolution of the neural crest is linked not only to the recruitment of ancestral regulatory genes but also to the emergence of signaling peptides that control the increasingly complex lineage diversification of this plastic cell population. PMID:17352807

  10. Neural crest specification and migration independently require NSD3-related lysine methyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Jacques-Fricke, Bridget T.; Gammill, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Neural crest precursors express genes that cause them to become migratory, multipotent cells, distinguishing them from adjacent stationary neural progenitors in the neurepithelium. Histone methylation spatiotemporally regulates neural crest gene expression; however, the protein methyltransferases active in neural crest precursors are unknown. Moreover, the regulation of methylation during the dynamic process of neural crest migration is unclear. Here we show that the lysine methyltransferase NSD3 is abundantly and specifically expressed in premigratory and migratory neural crest cells. NSD3 expression commences before up-regulation of neural crest genes, and NSD3 is necessary for expression of the neural plate border gene Msx1, as well as the key neural crest transcription factors Sox10, Snail2, Sox9, and FoxD3, but not gene expression generally. Nevertheless, only Sox10 histone H3 lysine 36 dimethylation requires NSD3, revealing unexpected complexity in NSD3-dependent neural crest gene regulation. In addition, by temporally limiting expression of a dominant negative to migratory stages, we identify a novel, direct requirement for NSD3-related methyltransferase activity in neural crest migration. These results identify NSD3 as the first protein methyltransferase essential for neural crest gene expression during specification and show that NSD3-related methyltransferase activity independently regulates migration. PMID:25318671

  11. Cochleovestibular nerve development is integrated with migratory neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, Lisa L.; Butler Tjaden, Naomi E.; Barlow, Amanda J.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The cochleovestibular (CV) nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain, is the nerve that enables the senses of hearing and balance. The aim of this study was to document the morphological development of the mouse CV nerve with respect to the two embryonic cells types that produce it, specifically, the otic vesicle-derived progenitors that give rise to neurons, and the neural crest cell (NCC) progenitors that give rise to glia. Otic tissues of mouse embryos carrying NCC lineage reporter transgenes were whole mount immunostained to identify neurons and NCC. Serial optical sections were collected by confocal microscopy and were compiled to render the three dimensional (3D) structure of the developing CV nerve. Spatial organization of the NCC and developing neurons suggest that neuronal and glial populations of the CV nerve develop in tandem from early stages of nerve formation. NCC form a sheath surrounding the CV ganglia and central axons. NCC are also closely associated with neurites projecting peripherally during formation of the vestibular and cochlear nerves. Physical ablation of NCC in chick embryos demonstrates that survival or regeneration of even a few individual NCC from ectopic positions in the hindbrain results in central projection of axons precisely following ectopic pathways made by regenerating NCC. PMID:24252775

  12. Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Neural-crest Derived Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Mo; Yang, Guodong; Xiang, Lusai; He, Ling; Hei, Thomas K; Chotkowski, Gregory; Tarnow, Dennis P; Finkel, Myron; Ding, Lei; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2016-12-21

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the endosteum of mesoderm-derived appendicular bones have been extensively studied. Neural crest-derived bones differ from appendicular bones in developmental origin, mode of bone formation and pathological bone resorption. Whether neural crest-derived bones harbor HSCs is elusive. Here, we discovered HSC-like cells in postnatal murine mandible, and benchmarked them with donor-matched, mesoderm-derived femur/tibia HSCs, including clonogenic assay and long-term culture. Mandibular CD34 negative, LSK cells proliferated similarly to appendicular HSCs, and differentiated into all hematopoietic lineages. Mandibular HSCs showed a consistent deficiency in lymphoid differentiation, including significantly fewer CD229 + fractions, PreProB, ProB, PreB and B220 + slgM cells. Remarkably, mandibular HSCs reconstituted irradiated hematopoietic bone marrow in vivo, just as appendicular HSCs. Genomic profiling of osteoblasts from mandibular and femur/tibia bone marrow revealed deficiencies in several HSC niche regulators among mandibular osteoblasts including Cxcl12. Neural crest derived bone harbors HSCs that function similarly to appendicular HSCs but are deficient in the lymphoid lineage. Thus, lymphoid deficiency of mandibular HSCs may be accounted by putative niche regulating genes. HSCs in craniofacial bones have functional implications in homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, immune functions, tumor metastasis and infections such as osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  13. Neuroblastoma pathogenesis: deregulation of embryonic neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Tomolonis, Julie A; Agarwal, Saurabh; Shohet, Jason M

    2018-05-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive pediatric cancer that originates from neural crest tissues of the sympathetic nervous system. NB is highly heterogeneous both from a clinical and a molecular perspective. Clinically, this cancer represents a wide range of phenotypes ranging from spontaneous regression of 4S disease to unremitting treatment-refractory progression and death of high-risk metastatic disease. At a cellular level, the heterogeneous behavior of NB likely arises from an arrest and deregulation of normal neural crest development. In the present review, we summarize our current knowledge of neural crest development as it relates to pathways promoting 'stemness' and how deregulation may contribute to the development of tumor-initiating CSCs. There is an emerging consensus that such tumor subpopulations contribute to the evolution of drug resistance, metastasis and relapse in other equally aggressive malignancies. As relapsed, refractory disease remains the primary cause of death for neuroblastoma, the identification and targeting of CSCs or other primary drivers of tumor progression remains a critical, clinically significant goal for neuroblastoma. We will critically review recent and past evidence in the literature supporting the concept of CSCs as drivers of neuroblastoma pathogenesis.

  14. Krox20 defines a subpopulation of cardiac neural crest cells contributing to arterial valves and bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Odelin, Gaëlle; Faure, Emilie; Coulpier, Fanny; Di Bonito, Maria; Bajolle, Fanny; Studer, Michèle; Avierinos, Jean-François; Charnay, Patrick; Topilko, Piotr; Zaffran, Stéphane

    2018-01-03

    Although cardiac neural crest cells are required at early stages of arterial valve development, their contribution during valvular leaflet maturation remains poorly understood. Here, we show in mouse that neural crest cells from pre-otic and post-otic regions make distinct contributions to the arterial valve leaflets. Genetic fate-mapping analysis of Krox20-expressing neural crest cells shows a large contribution to the borders and the interleaflet triangles of the arterial valves. Loss of Krox20 function results in hyperplastic aortic valve and partially penetrant bicuspid aortic valve formation. Similar defects are observed in neural crest Krox20 -deficient embryos. Genetic lineage tracing in Krox20 -/- mutant mice shows that endothelial-derived cells are normal, whereas neural crest-derived cells are abnormally increased in number and misplaced in the valve leaflets. In contrast, genetic ablation of Krox20 -expressing cells is not sufficient to cause an aortic valve defect, suggesting that adjacent cells can compensate this depletion. Our findings demonstrate a crucial role for Krox20 in arterial valve development and reveal that an excess of neural crest cells may be associated with bicuspid aortic valve. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations.

    PubMed

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Chéraud, Yvonnick; Sharpe, Paul; Fontaine-Pérus, Josiane

    2003-05-27

    Teeth were lost in birds 70-80 million years ago. Current thinking holds that it is the avian cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme that has lost odontogenic capacity, whereas the oral epithelium retains the signaling properties required to induce odontogenesis. To investigate the odontogenic capacity of ectomesenchyme, we have used neural tube transplantations from mice to chick embryos to replace the chick neural crest cell populations with mouse neural crest cells. The mouse/chick chimeras obtained show evidence of tooth formation showing that avian oral epithelium is able to induce a nonavian developmental program in mouse neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells.

  16. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Connecting Teratogen-Induced Congenital Heart Defects to Neural Crest Cells and Their Effect on Cardiac Function

    PubMed Central

    Karunamuni, Ganga H.; Ma, Pei; Gu, Shi; Rollins, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    Neural crest cells play many key roles in embryonic development, as demonstrated by the abnormalities that result from their specific absence or dysfunction. Unfortunately, these key cells are particularly sensitive to abnormalities in various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as genetic deletions or ethanol-exposure that lead to morbidity and mortality for organisms. This review discusses the role identified for a segment of neural crest is in regulating the morphogenesis of the heart and associated great vessels. The paradox is that their derivatives constitute a small proportion of cells to the cardiovascular system. Findings supporting that these cells impact early cardiac function raises the interesting possibility that they indirectly control cardiovascular development at least partially through regulating function. Making connections between insults to the neural crest, cardiac function, and morphogenesis is more approachable with technological advances. Expanding our understanding of early functional consequences could be useful in improving diagnosis and testing therapies. PMID:25220155

  18. [The Evolutionary Origin of Placodes and Neural Crest Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The long-term goal of this NASA-supported research is to understand the evolutionary origin of placodes and neural crest cells, with particular reference to evolution of the inner ear, and their evolutionary and developmental relationships. The cephalochordcate amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates is used as a stand-in for the ancestral vertebrate. The research, which has supported one graduate student, Jr-Kai Yu, has resulted in ten publications by the Holland laboratory in peer-reviewed journals.

  19. WNT/β-catenin signaling mediates human neural crest induction via a pre-neural border intermediate.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alan W; Murdoch, Barbara; Salem, Ahmed F; Prasad, Maneeshi S; Gomez, Gustavo A; García-Castro, Martín I

    2016-02-01

    Neural crest (NC) cells arise early in vertebrate development, migrate extensively and contribute to a diverse array of ectodermal and mesenchymal derivatives. Previous models of NC formation suggested derivation from neuralized ectoderm, via meso-ectodermal, or neural-non-neural ectoderm interactions. Recent studies using bird and amphibian embryos suggest an earlier origin of NC, independent of neural and mesodermal tissues. Here, we set out to generate a model in which to decipher signaling and tissue interactions involved in human NC induction. Our novel human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-based model yields high proportions of multipotent NC cells (expressing SOX10, PAX7 and TFAP2A) in 5 days. We demonstrate a crucial role for WNT/β-catenin signaling in launching NC development, while blocking placodal and surface ectoderm fates. We provide evidence of the delicate temporal effects of BMP and FGF signaling, and find that NC development is separable from neural and/or mesodermal contributions. We further substantiate the notion of a neural-independent origin of NC through PAX6 expression and knockdown studies. Finally, we identify a novel pre-neural border state characterized by early WNT/β-catenin signaling targets that displays distinct responses to BMP and FGF signaling from the traditional neural border genes. In summary, our work provides a fast and efficient protocol for human NC differentiation under signaling constraints similar to those identified in vivo in model organisms, and strengthens a framework for neural crest ontogeny that is separable from neural and mesodermal fates. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, N. R.; Gazguez, E.; Bidault, L.; Guilbert, T.; Vias, C.; Vian, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Muller, L.; Germain, S.; Bondurand, N.; Dufour, S.; Fleury, V.

    2016-02-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development.

  1. Sip1 mediates an E-cadherin-to-N-cadherin switch during cranial neural crest EMT

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Crystal D.; Saxena, Ankur

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest, an embryonic stem cell population, initially resides within the dorsal neural tube but subsequently undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to commence migration. Although neural crest and cancer EMTs are morphologically similar, little is known regarding conservation of their underlying molecular mechanisms. We report that Sip1, which is involved in cancer EMT, plays a critical role in promoting the neural crest cell transition to a mesenchymal state. Sip1 transcripts are expressed in premigratory/migrating crest cells. After Sip1 loss, the neural crest specifier gene FoxD3 was abnormally retained in the dorsal neuroepithelium, whereas Sox10, which is normally required for emigration, was diminished. Subsequently, clumps of adherent neural crest cells remained adjacent to the neural tube and aberrantly expressed E-cadherin while lacking N-cadherin. These findings demonstrate two distinct phases of neural crest EMT, detachment and mesenchymalization, with the latter involving a novel requirement for Sip1 in regulation of cadherin expression during completion of neural crest EMT. PMID:24297751

  2. A novel ciliopathic skull defect arising from excess neural crest.

    PubMed

    Tabler, Jacqueline M; Rice, Christopher P; Liu, Karen J; Wallingford, John B

    2016-09-01

    The skull is essential for protecting the brain from damage, and birth defects involving disorganization of skull bones are common. However, the developmental trajectories and molecular etiologies by which many craniofacial phenotypes arise remain poorly understood. Here, we report a novel skull defect in ciliopathic Fuz mutant mice in which only a single bone pair encases the forebrain, instead of the usual paired frontal and parietal bones. Through genetic lineage analysis, we show that this defect stems from a massive expansion of the neural crest-derived frontal bone. This expansion occurs at the expense of the mesodermally-derived parietal bones, which are either severely reduced or absent. A similar, though less severe, phenotype was observed in Gli3 mutant mice, consistent with a role for Gli3 in cilia-mediated signaling. Excess crest has also been shown to drive defective palate morphogenesis in ciliopathic mice, and that defect is ameliorated by reduction of Fgf8 gene dosage. Strikingly, skull defects in Fuz mutant mice are also rescued by loss of one allele of fgf8, suggesting a potential route to therapy. In sum, this work is significant for revealing a novel skull defect with a previously un-described developmental etiology and for suggesting a common developmental origin for skull and palate defects in ciliopathies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Slits Affect the Timely Migration of Neural Crest Cells via Robo Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Giovannone, Dion; Reyes, Michelle; Reyes, Rachel; Correa, Lisa; Martinez, Darwin; Ra, Hannah; Gomez, Gustavo; Kaiser, Josh; Ma, Le; Stein, Mary-Pat; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Neural crest cells emerge by delamination from the dorsal neural tube and give rise to various components of the peripheral nervous system in vertebrate embryos. These cells change from non-motile into highly motile cells migrating to distant areas before further differentiation. Mechanisms controlling delamination and subsequent migration of neural crest cells are not fully understood. Slit2, a chemorepellant for axonal guidance that repels and stimulates motility of trunk neural crest cells away from the gut has recently been suggested to be a tumor suppressor molecule. The goal of this study was to further investigate the role of Slit2 in trunk neural crest cell migration by constitutive expression in neural crest cells. Results We found that Slit gain-of-function significantly impaired neural crest cell migration while Slit loss-of-function favored migration. In addition, we observed that the distribution of key cytoskeletal markers was disrupted in both gain and loss of function instances. Conclusions These findings suggest that Slit molecules might be involved in the processes that allow neural crest cells to begin migration and transitioning to a mesenchymal type. PMID:22689303

  4. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  5. ADAM13 Induces Cranial Neural Crest by Cleaving Class B Ephrins and Regulating Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuo; Xu, Guofeng; Bridges, Lance C.; Williams, Phoebe; White, Judith M.; DeSimone, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The cranial neural crest (CNC) are multipotent embryonic cells that contribute to craniofacial structures and other cells and tissues of the vertebrate head. During embryogenesis, CNC is induced at the neural plate boundary through the interplay of several major signaling pathways. Here we report that the metalloproteinase activity of ADAM13 is required for early induction of CNC in Xenopus. In both cultured cells and X. tropicalis embryos, membrane-bound Ephrins (Efns) B1 and B2 were identified as substrates for ADAM13. ADAM13 upregulates canonical Wnt signaling and early expression of the transcription factor snail2, whereas EfnB1 inhibits the canonical Wnt pathway and snail2 expression. We propose that by cleaving class B Efns, ADAM13 promotes canonical Wnt signaling and early CNC induction. PMID:20708595

  6. Characterization of the Trunk Neural Crest in the bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum

    PubMed Central

    Juarez, Marilyn; Reyes, Michelle; Coleman, Tiffany; Rotenstein, Lisa; Sao, Sothy; Martinez, Darwin; Jones, Matthew; Mackelprang, Rachel; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest is a population of mesenchymal cells that after migrating from the neural tube give rise to a structures and cell-types: jaw, part of the peripheral ganglia and melanocytes. Although much is known about neural crest development in jawed vertebrates, a clear picture of trunk neural crest development for elasmobranchs is yet to be developed. Here we present a detailed study of trunk neural crest development in the bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum. Vital labeling with DiI and in situ hybridization using cloned Sox8 and Sox9 probes demonstrated that trunk neural crest cells follow a pattern similar to the migratory paths already described in zebrafish and amphibians. We found shark trunk neural crest along the rostral side of the somites, the ventromedial pathway, branchial arches, gut, sensory ganglia and nerves. Interestingly, Chiloscyllium punctatum Sox8 and Sox9 sequences aligned with vertebrate SoxE genes, but appeared to be more ancient than the corresponding vertebrate paralogs. The expression of these two SoxE genes in trunk neural crest cells, especially Sox9, matched the Sox10 migratory patterns observed in teleosts. Interestingly, we observed DiI cells and Sox9 labeling along the lateral line, suggesting that in C. punctatum, glial cells in the lateral line are likely of neural crest origin. Though this has been observed in other vertebrates, we are the first to show that the pattern is present in cartilaginous fishes. These findings demonstrate that trunk neural crest cell development in Chiloscyllium punctatum follows the same highly conserved migratory pattern observed in jawed vertebrates PMID:23640803

  7. Should I stay or should I go? Cadherin function and regulation in the neural crest

    PubMed Central

    Taneyhill, Lisa A.; Schiffmacher, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Our increasing comprehension of neural crest cell development has reciprocally advanced our understanding of cadherin expression, regulation, and function. As a transient population of multipotent stem cells that significantly contribute to the vertebrate body plan, neural crest cells undergo a variety of transformative processes and exhibit many cellular behaviors, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), motility, collective cell migration, and differentiation. Multiple studies have elucidated regulatory and mechanistic details of specific cadherins during neural crest cell development in a highly contextual manner. Collectively, these results reveal that gradual changes within neural crest cells are accompanied by often times subtle, yet important, alterations in cadherin expression and function. The primary focus of this review is to coalesce recent data on cadherins in neural crest cells, from their specification to their emergence as motile cells soon after EMT, and to highlight the complexities of cadherin expression beyond our current perceptions, including the hypothesis that the neural crest EMT is a transition involving a predominantly singular cadherin switch. Further advancements in genetic approaches and molecular techniques will provide greater opportunities to integrate data from various model systems in order to distinguish unique or overlapping functions of cadherins expressed at any point throughout the ontogeny of the neural crest. PMID:28253541

  8. Analysis of neural crest cells from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease patients demonstrates disease-relevant molecular signature.

    PubMed

    Kitani-Morii, Fukiko; Imamura, Keiko; Kondo, Takayuki; Ohara, Ryo; Enami, Takako; Shibukawa, Ran; Yamamoto, Takuya; Sekiguchi, Kazuya; Toguchida, Junya; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Inoue, Haruhisa

    2017-09-06

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuropathy. The majority of CMT is demyelinating type (demyelinating CMT) caused by Schwann cell involvement. Although a large number of genes responsible for demyelinating CMT have been found, the common molecular target of the pathophysiology caused by these different genes in demyelinating CMT is still unknown. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from healthy controls and patients with demyelinating CMT caused by duplication in peripheral myelin protein 22 kDa (PMP22) or point mutations in myelin protein zero (MPZ) or early growth response 2 (EGR2). iPSCs were differentiated into neural crest cells, progenitors of Schwann cells, followed by purification using the neural crest cell markers p75 and human natural killer-1. To identify a disease-relevant molecular signature at the early stage of demyelinating CMT, we conducted global gene expression analysis of iPSC-derived neural crest cells and found that a glutathione-mediated detoxification pathway was one of the related pathways in demyelinating CMT. mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase theta 2 (GSTT2), encoding an important enzyme for glutathione-mediated detoxification, and production of reactive oxygen species were increased in demyelinating CMT. Our study suggested that patient-iPSC-derived neural crest cells could be a cellular model for investigating genetically heterogeneous disease CMT and might provide a therapeutic target for the disease.

  9. The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and culture of neural crest cells from embryonic murine neural tube.

    PubMed

    Pfaltzgraff, Elise R; Mundell, Nathan A; Labosky, Patricia A

    2012-06-02

    The embryonic neural crest (NC) is a multipotent progenitor population that originates at the dorsal aspect of the neural tube, undergoes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrates throughout the embryo, giving rise to diverse cell types. NC also has the unique ability to influence the differentiation and maturation of target organs. When explanted in vitro, NC progenitors undergo self-renewal, migrate and differentiate into a variety of tissue types including neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells, cartilage and bone. NC multipotency was first described from explants of the avian neural tube. In vitro isolation of NC cells facilitates the study of NC dynamics including proliferation, migration, and multipotency. Further work in the avian and rat systems demonstrated that explanted NC cells retain their NC potential when transplanted back into the embryo. Because these inherent cellular properties are preserved in explanted NC progenitors, the neural tube explant assay provides an attractive option for studying the NC in vitro. To attain a better understanding of the mammalian NC, many methods have been employed to isolate NC populations. NC-derived progenitors can be cultured from post-migratory locations in both the embryo and adult to study the dynamics of post-migratory NC progenitors, however isolation of NC progenitors as they emigrate from the neural tube provides optimal preservation of NC cell potential and migratory properties. Some protocols employ fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate a NC population enriched for particular progenitors. However, when starting with early stage embryos, cell numbers adequate for analyses are difficult to obtain with FACS, complicating the isolation of early NC populations from individual embryos. Here, we describe an approach that does not rely on FACS and results in an approximately 96% pure NC population based on a Wnt1-Cre activated lineage reporter. The method presented here is adapted from

  11. Isolation and Culture of Neural Crest Cells from Embryonic Murine Neural Tube

    PubMed Central

    Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.; Mundell, Nathan A.; Labosky, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic neural crest (NC) is a multipotent progenitor population that originates at the dorsal aspect of the neural tube, undergoes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrates throughout the embryo, giving rise to diverse cell types 1-3. NC also has the unique ability to influence the differentiation and maturation of target organs4-6. When explanted in vitro, NC progenitors undergo self-renewal, migrate and differentiate into a variety of tissue types including neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells, cartilage and bone. NC multipotency was first described from explants of the avian neural tube7-9. In vitro isolation of NC cells facilitates the study of NC dynamics including proliferation, migration, and multipotency. Further work in the avian and rat systems demonstrated that explanted NC cells retain their NC potential when transplanted back into the embryo10-13. Because these inherent cellular properties are preserved in explanted NC progenitors, the neural tube explant assay provides an attractive option for studying the NC in vitro. To attain a better understanding of the mammalian NC, many methods have been employed to isolate NC populations. NC-derived progenitors can be cultured from post-migratory locations in both the embryo and adult to study the dynamics of post-migratory NC progenitors11,14-20, however isolation of NC progenitors as they emigrate from the neural tube provides optimal preservation of NC cell potential and migratory properties13,21,22. Some protocols employ fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate a NC population enriched for particular progenitors11,13,14,17. However, when starting with early stage embryos, cell numbers adequate for analyses are difficult to obtain with FACS, complicating the isolation of early NC populations from individual embryos. Here, we describe an approach that does not rely on FACS and results in an approximately 96% pure NC population based on a Wnt1-Cre activated lineage reporter

  12. Neural crest does not contribute to the neck and shoulder in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Epperlein, Hans-Henning; Khattak, Shahryar; Knapp, Dunja; Tanaka, Elly M; Malashichev, Yegor B

    2012-01-01

    A major step during the evolution of tetrapods was their transition from water to land. This process involved the reduction or complete loss of the dermal bones that made up connections to the skull and a concomitant enlargement of the endochondral shoulder girdle. In the mouse the latter is derived from three separate embryonic sources: lateral plate mesoderm, somites, and neural crest. The neural crest was suggested to sustain the muscle attachments. How this complex composition of the endochondral shoulder girdle arose during evolution and whether it is shared by all tetrapods is unknown. Salamanders that lack dermal bone within their shoulder girdle were of special interest for a possible contribution of the neural crest to the endochondral elements and muscle attachment sites, and we therefore studied them in this context. We grafted neural crest from GFP+ fluorescent transgenic axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) donor embryos into white (d/d) axolotl hosts and followed the presence of neural crest cells within the cartilage of the shoulder girdle and the connective tissue of muscle attachment sites of the neck-shoulder region. Strikingly, neural crest cells did not contribute to any part of the endochondral shoulder girdle or to the connective tissue at muscle attachment sites in axolotl. Our results in axolotl suggest that neural crest does not serve a general function in vertebrate shoulder muscle attachment sites as predicted by the "muscle scaffold theory," and that it is not necessary to maintain connectivity of the endochondral shoulder girdle to the skull. Our data support the possibility that the contribution of the neural crest to the endochondral shoulder girdle, which is observed in the mouse, arose de novo in mammals as a developmental basis for their skeletal synapomorphies. This further supports the hypothesis of an increased neural crest diversification during vertebrate evolution.

  13. Neural Crest Does Not Contribute to the Neck and Shoulder in the Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum)

    PubMed Central

    Epperlein, Hans-Henning; Khattak, Shahryar; Knapp, Dunja; Tanaka, Elly M.; Malashichev, Yegor B.

    2012-01-01

    Background A major step during the evolution of tetrapods was their transition from water to land. This process involved the reduction or complete loss of the dermal bones that made up connections to the skull and a concomitant enlargement of the endochondral shoulder girdle. In the mouse the latter is derived from three separate embryonic sources: lateral plate mesoderm, somites, and neural crest. The neural crest was suggested to sustain the muscle attachments. How this complex composition of the endochondral shoulder girdle arose during evolution and whether it is shared by all tetrapods is unknown. Salamanders that lack dermal bone within their shoulder girdle were of special interest for a possible contribution of the neural crest to the endochondral elements and muscle attachment sites, and we therefore studied them in this context. Results We grafted neural crest from GFP+ fluorescent transgenic axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) donor embryos into white (d/d) axolotl hosts and followed the presence of neural crest cells within the cartilage of the shoulder girdle and the connective tissue of muscle attachment sites of the neck-shoulder region. Strikingly, neural crest cells did not contribute to any part of the endochondral shoulder girdle or to the connective tissue at muscle attachment sites in axolotl. Conclusions Our results in axolotl suggest that neural crest does not serve a general function in vertebrate shoulder muscle attachment sites as predicted by the “muscle scaffold theory,” and that it is not necessary to maintain connectivity of the endochondral shoulder girdle to the skull. Our data support the possibility that the contribution of the neural crest to the endochondral shoulder girdle, which is observed in the mouse, arose de novo in mammals as a developmental basis for their skeletal synapomorphies. This further supports the hypothesis of an increased neural crest diversification during vertebrate evolution. PMID:23300623

  14. Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Miller; Miller, Matthew L.; McHenry, Lauren K.; Zheng, Tina; Zhen, Qiqi; Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin; Conklin, Bruce R.; Bronner, Marianne E.; Weiss, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) are stem cells that generate different lineages, including neuroendocrine, melanocytic, cartilage, and bone. The differentiation potential of NCC varies according to the level from which cells emerge along the neural tube. For example, only anterior “cranial” NCC form craniofacial bone, whereas solely posterior “trunk” NCC contribute to sympathoadrenal cells. Importantly, the isolation of human fetal NCC carries ethical and scientific challenges, as NCC induction typically occur before pregnancy is detectable. As a result, current knowledge of NCC biology derives primarily from non-human organisms. Important differences between human and non-human NCC, such as expression of HNK1 in human but not mouse NCC, suggest a need to study human NCC directly. Here, we demonstrate that current protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (PSC) to NCC are biased toward cranial NCC. Addition of retinoic acid drove trunk-related markers and HOX genes characteristic of a posterior identity. Subsequent treatment with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) enhanced differentiation to sympathoadrenal cells. Our approach provides methodology for detailed studies of human NCC, and clarifies roles for retinoids and BMPs in the differentiation of human PSC to trunk NCC and to sympathoadrenal lineages. PMID:26812940

  15. The neural crest, a multifaceted structure of the vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Elisabeth; Le Douarin, Nicole M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, several features of the cells originating from the lateral borders of the primitive neural anlagen, the neural crest (NC) are considered. Among them, their multipotentiality, which together with their migratory properties, leads them to colonize the developing body and to participate in the development of many tissues and organs. The in vitro analysis of the developmental capacities of single NC cells (NCC) showed that they present several analogies with the hematopoietic cells whose differentiation involves the activity of stem cells endowed with different arrays of developmental potentialities. The permanence of such NC stem cells in the adult organism raises the problem of their role at that stage of life. The NC has appeared during evolution in the vertebrate phylum and is absent in their Protocordates ancestors. The major role of the NCC in the development of the vertebrate head points to a critical role for this structure in the remarkable diversification and radiation of this group of animals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Progenitors of the protochordate ocellus as an evolutionary origin of the neural crest

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest represents a highly multipotent population of embryonic stem cells found only in vertebrate embryos. Acquisition of the neural crest during the evolution of vertebrates was a great advantage, providing Chordata animals with the first cellular cartilage, bone, dentition, advanced nervous system and other innovations. Today not much is known about the evolutionary origin of neural crest cells. Here we propose a novel scenario in which the neural crest originates from neuroectodermal progenitors of the pigmented ocelli in Amphioxus-like animals. We suggest that because of changes in photoreception needs, these multipotent progenitors of photoreceptors gained the ability to migrate outside of the central nervous system and subsequently started to give rise to neural, glial and pigmented progeny at the periphery. PMID:23575111

  17. A chemical screen in zebrafish embryonic cells establishes that Akt activation is required for neural crest development

    PubMed Central

    Ciarlo, Christie; Kaufman, Charles K; Kinikoglu, Beste; Michael, Jonathan; Yang, Song; D′Amato, Christopher; Blokzijl-Franke, Sasja; den Hertog, Jeroen; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Zhou, Yi; Liao, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The neural crest is a dynamic progenitor cell population that arises at the border of neural and non-neural ectoderm. The inductive roles of FGF, Wnt, and BMP at the neural plate border are well established, but the signals required for subsequent neural crest development remain poorly characterized. Here, we conducted a screen in primary zebrafish embryo cultures for chemicals that disrupt neural crest development, as read out by crestin:EGFP expression. We found that the natural product caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) disrupts neural crest gene expression, migration, and melanocytic differentiation by reducing Sox10 activity. CAPE inhibits FGF-stimulated PI3K/Akt signaling, and neural crest defects in CAPE-treated embryos are suppressed by constitutively active Akt1. Inhibition of Akt activity by constitutively active PTEN similarly decreases crestin expression and Sox10 activity. Our study has identified Akt as a novel intracellular pathway required for neural crest differentiation. PMID:28832322

  18. Germ layers, the neural crest and emergent organization in development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian K

    2018-04-10

    Discovered in chick embryos by Wilhelm His in 1868 and named the neural crest by Arthur Milnes Marshall in 1879, the neural crest cells that arise from the neural folds have since been shown to differentiate into almost two dozen vertebrate cell types and to have played major roles in the evolution of such vertebrate features as bone, jaws, teeth, visceral (pharyngeal) arches, and sense organs. I discuss the discovery that ectodermal neural crest gave rise to mesenchyme and the controversy generated by that finding; the germ layer theory maintained that only mesoderm could give rise to mesenchyme. A second topic of discussion is germ layers (including the neural crest) as emergent levels of organization in animal development and evolution that facilitated major developmental and evolutionary change. The third topic is gene networks, gene co-option, and the evolution of gene-signaling pathways as key to developmental and evolutionary transitions associated with the origin and evolution of the neural crest and neural crest cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A potential inhibitory function of draxin in regulating mouse trunk neural crest migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sanbing; Su, Yuhong; Gao, Jinbao; Zhang, Chenbing; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein that plays important roles in the formation of three commissures in the central nervous system and dorsal interneuron 3 (dI3) in the chick spinal cord. In the present study, we report the expression pattern of mouse draxin in the embryonic mouse trunk spinal cord. In the presence of draxin, the longest net migration length of a migrating mouse trunk neural crest cell was significantly reduced. In addition, the relative number of apolar neural crest cells increased as the draxin treatment time increased. Draxin caused actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in the migrating trunk neural crest cells. Our data suggest that draxin may regulate mouse trunk neural crest cell migration by the rearrangement of cell actin cytoskeleton and by reducing the polarization activity of these cells subsequently.

  20. Influence and timing of arrival of murine neural crest on pancreatic beta cell development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Plank, Jennifer L; Mundell, Nathan A; Frist, Audrey Y; LeGrone, Alison W; Kim, Thomas; Musser, Melissa A; Walter, Teagan J; Labosky, Patricia A

    2011-01-15

    Interactions between cells from the ectoderm and mesoderm influence development of the endodermally-derived pancreas. While much is known about how mesoderm regulates pancreatic development, relatively little is understood about how and when the ectodermally-derived neural crest regulates pancreatic development and specifically, beta cell maturation. A previous study demonstrated that signals from the neural crest regulate beta cell proliferation and ultimately, beta cell mass. Here, we expand on that work to describe timing of neural crest arrival at the developing pancreatic bud and extend our knowledge of the non-cell autonomous role for neural crest derivatives in the process of beta cell maturation. We demonstrated that murine neural crest entered the pancreatic mesenchyme between the 26 and 27 somite stages (approximately 10.0 dpc) and became intermingled with pancreatic progenitors as the epithelium branched into the surrounding mesenchyme. Using a neural crest-specific deletion of the Forkhead transcription factor Foxd3, we ablated neural crest cells that migrate to the pancreatic primordium. Consistent with previous data, in the absence of Foxd3, and therefore the absence of neural crest cells, proliferation of insulin-expressing cells and insulin-positive area are increased. Analysis of endocrine cell gene expression in the absence of neural crest demonstrated that, although the number of insulin-expressing cells was increased, beta cell maturation was significantly impaired. Decreased MafA and Pdx1 expression illustrated the defect in beta cell maturation; we discovered that without neural crest, there was a reduction in the percentage of insulin-positive cells that co-expressed Glut2 and Pdx1 compared to controls. In addition, transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed decreased numbers of characteristic insulin granules and the presence of abnormal granules in insulin-expressing cells from mutant embryos. Together, these data demonstrate that

  1. A molecular atlas of the developing ectoderm defines neural, neural crest, placode, and nonneural progenitor identity in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Plouhinec, Jean-Louis; Medina-Ruiz, Sofía; Borday, Caroline; Bernard, Elsa; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Eisen, Michael B; Harland, Richard M; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2017-10-01

    During vertebrate neurulation, the embryonic ectoderm is patterned into lineage progenitors for neural plate, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. Here, we use Xenopus laevis embryos to analyze the spatial and temporal transcriptome of distinct ectodermal domains in the course of neurulation, during the establishment of cell lineages. In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections. Principal component analysis on the transcriptomes of these ectoderm fragments primarily identifies embryonic axes and temporal dynamics. This provides a genetic code to define positional information of any ectoderm sample along the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes directly from its transcriptome. In parallel, we use nonnegative matrix factorization to predict enhanced gene expression maps onto early and mid-neurula embryos, and specific signatures for each ectoderm area. The clustering of spatial and temporal datasets allowed detection of multiple biologically relevant groups (e.g., Wnt signaling, neural crest development, sensory placode specification, ciliogenesis, germ layer specification). We provide an interactive network interface, EctoMap, for exploring synexpression relationships among genes expressed in the neurula, and suggest several strategies to use this comprehensive dataset to address questions in developmental biology as well as stem cell or cancer research.

  2. A molecular atlas of the developing ectoderm defines neural, neural crest, placode, and nonneural progenitor identity in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Borday, Caroline; Bernard, Elsa; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Eisen, Michael B.; Harland, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    During vertebrate neurulation, the embryonic ectoderm is patterned into lineage progenitors for neural plate, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. Here, we use Xenopus laevis embryos to analyze the spatial and temporal transcriptome of distinct ectodermal domains in the course of neurulation, during the establishment of cell lineages. In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections. Principal component analysis on the transcriptomes of these ectoderm fragments primarily identifies embryonic axes and temporal dynamics. This provides a genetic code to define positional information of any ectoderm sample along the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes directly from its transcriptome. In parallel, we use nonnegative matrix factorization to predict enhanced gene expression maps onto early and mid-neurula embryos, and specific signatures for each ectoderm area. The clustering of spatial and temporal datasets allowed detection of multiple biologically relevant groups (e.g., Wnt signaling, neural crest development, sensory placode specification, ciliogenesis, germ layer specification). We provide an interactive network interface, EctoMap, for exploring synexpression relationships among genes expressed in the neurula, and suggest several strategies to use this comprehensive dataset to address questions in developmental biology as well as stem cell or cancer research. PMID:29049289

  3. DAN (NBL1) promotes collective neural crest migration by restraining uncontrolled invasion.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Rebecca; Bailey, Caleb M; Schumacher, Linus J; Teddy, Jessica M; Morrison, Jason A; Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer C; Wolfe, Lauren A; Gogol, Madeline M; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K; Kulesa, Paul M

    2017-10-02

    Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we test the function of differential screening-selected gene aberrant in neuroblastoma (DAN), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist we detected by analysis of the chick cranial mesoderm. Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. Addition of DAN reduces the speed of migrating cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. Computer model simulations support the hypothesis that DAN restrains cell migration by regulating cell speed. Collectively, our results identify DAN as a novel factor that inhibits uncontrolled neural crest and metastatic melanoma invasion and promotes collective migration in a manner consistent with the inhibition of BMP signaling. © 2017 McLennan et al.

  4. DAN (NBL1) promotes collective neural crest migration by restraining uncontrolled invasion

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Rebecca; Bailey, Caleb M.; Schumacher, Linus J.; Teddy, Jessica M.; Morrison, Jason A.; Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer C.; Wolfe, Lauren A.; Gogol, Madeline M.; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, Philip K.

    2017-01-01

    Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we test the function of differential screening-selected gene aberrant in neuroblastoma (DAN), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist we detected by analysis of the chick cranial mesoderm. Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. Addition of DAN reduces the speed of migrating cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. Computer model simulations support the hypothesis that DAN restrains cell migration by regulating cell speed. Collectively, our results identify DAN as a novel factor that inhibits uncontrolled neural crest and metastatic melanoma invasion and promotes collective migration in a manner consistent with the inhibition of BMP signaling. PMID:28811280

  5. AmphiPax3/7, an amphioxus paired box gene: insights into chordate myogenesis, neurogenesis, and the possible evolutionary precursor of definitive vertebrate neural crest.

    PubMed

    Holland, L Z; Schubert, M; Kozmik, Z; Holland, N D

    1999-01-01

    Amphioxus probably has only a single gene (AmphiPax3/7) in the Pax3/7 subfamily. Like its vertebrate homologs (Pax3 and Pax7), amphioxus AmphiPax3/7 is probably involved in specifying the axial musculature and muscularized notochord. During nervous system development, AmphiPax3/7 is first expressed in bilateral anteroposterior stripes along the edges of the neural plate. This early neural expression may be comparable to the transcription of Pax3 and Pax7 in some of the anterior neural crest cells of vertebrates. Previous studies by others and ourselves have demonstrated that several genes homologous to genetic markers for vertebrate neural crest are expressed along the neural plate-epidermis boundary in embryos of tunicates and amphioxus. Taken together, the early neural expression patterns of AmphiPax3/7 and other neural crest markers of amphioxus and tunicates suggest that cell populations that eventually gave rise to definitive vertebrate neural crest may have been present in ancestral invertebrate chordates. During later neurogenesis in amphioxus, AmphiPax3/7, like its vertebrate homologs, is expressed dorsally and dorsolaterally in the neural tube and may be involved in dorsoventral patterning. However, unlike its vertebrate homologs, AmphiPax3/7 is expressed only at the anterior end of the central nervous system instead of along much of the neuraxis; this amphioxus pattern may represent the loss of a primitive chordate character.

  6. High glucose environment inhibits cranial neural crest survival by activating excessive autophagy in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chuai, Manli; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    High glucose levels induced by maternal diabetes could lead to defects in neural crest development during embryogenesis, but the cellular mechanism is still not understood. In this study, we observed a defect in chick cranial skeleton, especially parietal bone development in the presence of high glucose levels, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). In early chick embryo, we found that inducing high glucose levels could inhibit the development of CNCC, however, cell proliferation was not significantly involved. Nevertheless, apoptotic CNCC increased in the presence of high levels of glucose. In addition, the expression of apoptosis and autophagy relevant genes were elevated by high glucose treatment. Next, the application of beads soaked in either an autophagy stimulator (Tunicamycin) or inhibitor (Hydroxychloroquine) functionally proved that autophagy was involved in regulating the production of CNCC in the presence of high glucose levels. Our observations suggest that the ERK pathway, rather than the mTOR pathway, most likely participates in mediating the autophagy induced by high glucose. Taken together, our observations indicated that exposure to high levels of glucose could inhibit the survival of CNCC by affecting cell apoptosis, which might result from the dysregulation of the autophagic process. PMID:26671447

  7. Zebrafish zic2 controls formation of periocular neural crest and choroid fissure morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sedykh, Irina; Yoon, Baul; Roberson, Laura; Moskvin, Oleg; Dewey, Colin N; Grinblat, Yevgenya

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate retina develops in close proximity to the forebrain and neural crest-derived cartilages of the face and jaw. Coloboma, a congenital eye malformation, is associated with aberrant forebrain development (holoprosencephaly) and with craniofacial defects (frontonasal dysplasia) in humans, suggesting a critical role for cross-lineage interactions during retinal morphogenesis. ZIC2, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is linked to human holoprosencephaly. We have previously used morpholino assays to show zebrafish zic2 functions in the developing forebrain, retina and craniofacial cartilage. We now report that zebrafish with genetic lesions in zebrafish zic2 orthologs, zic2a and zic2b, develop with retinal coloboma and craniofacial anomalies. We demonstrate a requirement for zic2 in restricting pax2a expression and show evidence that zic2 function limits Hh signaling. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis identified an early requirement for zic2 in periocular neural crest as an activator of alx1, a transcription factor with essential roles in craniofacial and ocular morphogenesis in human and zebrafish. Collectively, these data establish zic2 mutant zebrafish as a powerful new genetic model for in-depth dissection of cell interactions and genetic controls during craniofacial complex development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adult Palatum as a Novel Source of Neural Crest-Related Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Darius; Zander, Christin; Heidbreder, Meike; Kasperek, Yvonne; Noll, Thomas; Seitz, Oliver; Saldamli, Belma; Sudhoff, Holger; Sader, Robert; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Somatic neural and neural crest stem cells are promising sources for cellular therapy of several neurodegenerative diseases. However, because of practical considerations such as inadequate accessibility of the source material, the application of neural crest stem cells is strictly limited. The secondary palate is a highly regenerative and heavily innervated tissue, which develops embryonically under direct contribution of neural crest cells. Here, we describe for the first time the presence of nestin-positive neural crest-related stem cells within Meissner corpuscles and Merkel cell-neurite complexes located in the hard palate of adult Wistar rats. After isolation, palatal neural crest-related stem cells (pNC-SCs) were cultivated in the presence of epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor under serum-free conditions, resulting in large amounts of neurospheres. We used immunocytochemical techniques and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression profile of pNC-SCs. In addition to the expression of neural crest stem cell markers such as Nestin, Sox2, and p75, we detected the expression of Klf4, Oct4, and c-Myc. pNC-SCs differentiated efficiently into neuronal and glial cells. Finally, we investigated the potential expression of stemness markers within the human palate. We identified expression of stem cell markers nestin and CD133 and the transcription factors needed for reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent cells: Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, and c-Myc. These data show that cells isolated from palatal rugae form neurospheres, are highly plastic, and express neural crest stem cell markers. In addition, pNC-SCs may have the ability to differentiate into functional neurons and glial cells, serving as a starting point for therapeutic studies. Stem Cells 2009;27:1899–1910 PMID:19544446

  9. Role of the extracellular matrix during neural crest cell migration.

    PubMed

    Perris, R; Perissinotto, D

    2000-07-01

    Once specified to become neural crest (NC), cells occupying the dorsal portion of the neural tube disrupt their cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts, acquire motile properties, and embark upon an extensive migration through the embryo to reach their ultimate phenotype-specific sites. The understanding of how this movement is regulated is still rather fragmentary due to the complexity of the cellular and molecular interactions involved. An additional intricate aspect of the regulation of NC cell movement is that the timings, modes and patterns of NC cell migration are intimately associated with the concomitant phenotypic diversification that cells undergo during their migratory phase and the fact that these changes modulate the way that moving cells interact with their microenvironment. To date, two interplaying mechanisms appear central for the guidance of the migrating NC cells through the embryo: one involves secreted signalling molecules acting through their cognate protein kinase/phosphatase-type receptors and the other is contributed by the multivalent interactions of the cells with their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). The latter ones seem fundamental in light of the central morphogenetic role played by the intracellular signals transduced through the cytoskeleton upon integrin ligation, and the convergence of these signalling cascades with those triggered by cadherins, survival/growth factor receptors, gap junctional communications, and stretch-activated calcium channels. The elucidation of the importance of the ECM during NC cell movement is presently favoured by the augmenting knowledge about the macromolecular structure of the specific ECM assembled during NC development and the functional assaying of its individual constituents via molecular and genetic manipulations. Collectively, these data propose that NC cell migration may be governed by time- and space-dependent alterations in the expression of inhibitory ECM components; the relative ratio

  10. Hypoxia promotes production of neural crest cells in the embryonic head.

    PubMed

    Scully, Deirdre; Keane, Eleanor; Batt, Emily; Karunakaran, Priyadarssini; Higgins, Debra F; Itasaki, Nobue

    2016-05-15

    Hypoxia is encountered in either pathological or physiological conditions, the latter of which is seen in amniote embryos prior to the commencement of a functional blood circulation. During the hypoxic stage, a large number of neural crest cells arise from the head neural tube by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As EMT-like cancer dissemination can be promoted by hypoxia, we investigated whether hypoxia contributes to embryonic EMT. Using chick embryos, we show that the hypoxic cellular response, mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, is required to produce a sufficient number of neural crest cells. Among the genes that are involved in neural crest cell development, some genes are more sensitive to hypoxia than others, demonstrating that the effect of hypoxia is gene specific. Once blood circulation becomes fully functional, the embryonic head no longer produces neural crest cells in vivo, despite the capability to do so in a hypoxia-mimicking condition in vitro, suggesting that the oxygen supply helps to stop emigration of neural crest cells in the head. These results highlight the importance of hypoxia in normal embryonic development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Evolution of neural crest and placodes: amphioxus as a model for the ancestral vertebrate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. Z.; Holland, N. D.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies of protochordates (ascidian tunicates and amphioxus) have given insights into possible ancestors of 2 of the characteristic features of the vertebrate head: neural crest and placodes. The neural crest probably evolved from cells on either side of the neural plate-epidermis boundary in a protochordate ancestral to the vertebrates. In amphioxus, homologues of several vertebrate neural crest marker genes (BMP2/4, Pax3/7, Msx, Dll and Snail) are expressed at the edges of the neural plate and/or adjacent nonneural ectoderm. Some of these markers are also similarly expressed in tunicates. In protochordates, however, these cells, unlike vertebrate neural crest, neither migrate as individuals through embryonic tissues nor differentiate into a wide spectrum of cell types. Therefore, while the protochordate ancestor of the vertebrates probably had the beginnings of a genetic programme for neural crest formation, this programme was augmented in the earliest vertebrates to attain definitive neural crest. Clear homologues of vertebrate placodes are lacking in protochordates. However, both amphioxus and tunicates have ectodermal sensory cells. In tunicates these are all primary neurons, sending axons to the central nervous system, while in amphioxus, the ectodermal sensory cells include both primary neurons and secondary neurons lacking axons. Comparisons of developmental gene expression suggest that the anterior ectoderm in amphioxus may be homologous to the vertebrate olfactory placode, the only vertebrate placode with primary, not secondary, neurons. Similarly, biochemical, morphological and gene expression data suggest that amphioxus and tunicates also have homologues of the adenohypophysis, one of the few vertebrate structures derived from nonneurogenic placodes. In contrast, the origin of the other vertebrate placodes is very uncertain.

  12. Retinoic acid temporally orchestrates colonization of the gut by vagal neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Rosa A; Hong, Stephanie S; Bronner, Marianne E

    2018-01-01

    The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest cells that migrate as chains into and along the primitive gut, subsequently differentiating into enteric neurons and glia. Little is known about the mechanisms governing neural crest migration en route to and along the gut in vivo. Here, we report that Retinoic Acid (RA) temporally controls zebrafish enteric neural crest cell chain migration. In vivo imaging reveals that RA loss severely compromises the integrity and migration of the chain of neural crest cells during the window of time window when they are moving along the foregut. After loss of RA, enteric progenitors accumulate in the foregut and differentiate into enteric neurons, but subsequently undergo apoptosis resulting in a striking neuronal deficit. Moreover, ectopic expression of the transcription factor meis3 and/or the receptor ret, partially rescues enteric neuron colonization after RA attenuation. Collectively, our findings suggest that retinoic acid plays a critical temporal role in promoting enteric neural crest chain migration and neuronal survival upstream of Meis3 and RET in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mesodermal expression of integrin α5β1 regulates neural crest development and cardiovascular morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dong; Wang, Xia; Mittal, Ashok; Dhiman, Sonam; Hou, Shuan-Yu; Degenhardt, Karl; Astrof, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Integrin α5-null embryos die in mid-gestation from severe defects in cardiovascular morphogenesis, which stem from defective development of the neural crest, heart and vasculature. To investigate the role of integrin α5β1 in cardiovascular development, we used the Mesp1Cre knock-in strain of mice to ablate integrin α5 in the anterior mesoderm, which gives rise to all of the cardiac and many of the vascular and muscle lineages in the anterior portion of the embryo. Surprisingly, we found that mutant embryos displayed numerous defects related to the abnormal development of the neural crest such as cleft palate, ventricular septal defect, abnormal development of hypoglossal nerves, and defective remodeling of the aortic arch arteries. We found that defects in arch artery remodeling stem from the role of mesodermal integrin α5β1 in neural crest proliferation and differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells, while proliferation of pharyngeal mesoderm and differentiation of mesodermal derivatives into vascular smooth muscle cells was not defective. Taken together our studies demonstrate a requisite role for mesodermal integrin α5β1 in signaling between the mesoderm and the neural crest, thereby regulating neural crest-dependent morphogenesis of essential embryonic structures. PMID:25242040

  14. Penetration and differentiation of cephalic neural crest-derived cells in the developing mouse telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Emiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Saga, Yumiko; Osumi, Noriko

    2012-12-01

    Neural crest (NC) cells originate from the neural folds and migrate into the various embryonic regions where they differentiate into multiple cell types. A population of cephalic neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) penetrates back into the developing forebrain to differentiate into microvascular pericytes, but little is known about when and how cephalic NCDCs invade the telencephalon and differentiate into pericytes. Using a transgenic mouse line in which NCDCs are genetically labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), we observed that NCDCs started to invade the telencephalon together with endothelial cells from embryonic day (E) 9.5. A majority of NCDCs located in the telencephalon expressed pericyte markers, that is, PDGFRβ and NG2, and differentiated into pericytes around E11.5. Surprisingly, many of the NC-derived pericytes express p75, an undifferentiated NCDC marker at E11.5, as well as NCDCs in the mesenchyme. At the same time, a minor population of NCDCs that located separately from blood vessels in the telencephalon were NG2-negative and some of these NCDCs also expressed p75. Proliferation and differentiation of pericytes appeared to occur in a specific mesenchymal region where blood vessels penetrated into the telencephalon. These results indicate that (i) NCDCs penetrate back into the telencephalon in parallel with angiogenesis, (ii) many NC-derived pericytes may be still in pre-mature states even though after differentiation into pericytes in the early developing stages, (iii) a small minority of NCDCs may retain undifferentiated states in the developing telencephalon, and (iv) a majority of NCDCs proliferate and differentiate into pericytes in the mesenchyme around the telencephalon. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  15. Williams Syndrome Transcription Factor is critical for neural crest cell function in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Chris; Yazgan, Oya; Kuo, Hui-Ching; Malakar, Sreepurna; Thomas, Trevor; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Harbour, Billy; Henry, Jonathan J.; Krebs, Jocelyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Williams Syndrome Transcription Factor (WSTF) is one of ~25 haplodeficient genes in patients with the complex developmental disorder Williams Syndrome (WS). WS results in visual/spatial processing defects, cognitive impairment, unique behavioral phenotypes, characteristic “elfin” facial features, low muscle tone and heart defects. WSTF exists in several chromatin remodeling complexes and has roles in transcription, replication, and repair. Chromatin remodeling is essential during embryogenesis, but WSTF’s role in vertebrate development is poorly characterized. To investigate the developmental role of WSTF, we knocked down WSTF in Xenopus laevis embryos using a morpholino that targets WSTF mRNA. BMP4 shows markedly increased and spatially aberrant expression in WSTF-deficient embryos, while SHH, MRF4, PAX2, EPHA4 and SOX2 expression are severely reduced, coupled with defects in a number of developing embryonic structures and organs. WSTF-deficient embryos display defects in anterior neural development. Induction of the neural crest, measured by expression of the neural crest-specific genes SNAIL and SLUG, is unaffected by WSTF depletion. However, at subsequent stages WSTF knockdown results in a severe defect in neural crest migration and/or maintenance. Consistent with a maintenance defect, WSTF knockdowns display a specific pattern of increased apoptosis at the tailbud stage in regions corresponding to the path of cranial neural crest migration. Our work is the first to describe a role for WSTF in proper neural crest function, and suggests that neural crest defects resulting from WSTF haploinsufficiency may be a major contributor to the pathoembryology of WS. PMID:22691402

  16. Biphasic influence of Miz1 on neural crest development by regulating cell survival and apical adhesion complex formation in the developing neural tube

    PubMed Central

    Kerosuo, Laura; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Myc interacting zinc finger protein-1 (Miz1) is a transcription factor known to regulate cell cycle– and cell adhesion–related genes in cancer. Here we show that Miz1 also plays a critical role in neural crest development. In the chick, Miz1 is expressed throughout the neural plate and closing neural tube. Its morpholino-mediated knockdown affects neural crest precursor survival, leading to reduction of neural plate border and neural crest specifier genes Msx-1, Pax7, FoxD3, and Sox10. Of interest, Miz1 loss also causes marked reduction of adhesion molecules (N-cadherin, cadherin6B, and α1-catenin) with a concomitant increase of E-cadherin in the neural folds, likely leading to delayed and decreased neural crest emigration. Conversely, Miz1 overexpression results in up-regulation of cadherin6B and FoxD3 expression in the neural folds/neural tube, leading to premature neural crest emigration and increased number of migratory crest cells. Although Miz1 loss effects cell survival and proliferation throughout the neural plate, the neural progenitor marker Sox2 was unaffected, suggesting a neural crest–selective effect. The results suggest that Miz1 is important not only for survival of neural crest precursors, but also for maintenance of integrity of the neural folds and tube, via correct formation of the apical adhesion complex therein. PMID:24307680

  17. Apoptosis in neural crest cells by functional loss of APC tumor suppressor gene

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Sato, Tomoyuki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Ito, Masaki; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Katsuki, Motoya; Yamauchi, Yasutaka; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Katamine, Shigeru; Noda, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    Apc is a gene associated with familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) and its inactivation is a critical step in colorectal tumor formation. The protein product, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), acts to down-regulate intracellular levels of β-catenin, a key signal transducer in the Wnt signaling. Conditional targeting of Apc in the neural crest of mice caused massive apoptosis of cephalic and cardiac neural crest cells at about 11.5 days post coitum, resulting in craniofacial and cardiac anomalies at birth. Notably, the apoptotic cells localized in the regions where β-catenin had accumulated. In contrast to its role in colorectal epithelial cells, inactivation of APC leads to dysregulation of β-catenin/Wnt signaling with resultant apoptosis in certain tissues including neural crest cells. PMID:11756652

  18. Meis2 is essential for cranial and cardiac neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Machon, Ondrej; Masek, Jan; Machonova, Olga; Krauss, Stefan; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2015-11-06

    TALE-class homeodomain transcription factors Meis and Pbx play important roles in formation of the embryonic brain, eye, heart, cartilage or hematopoiesis. Loss-of-function studies of Pbx1, 2 and 3 and Meis1 documented specific functions in embryogenesis, however, functional studies of Meis2 in mouse are still missing. We have generated a conditional allele of Meis2 in mice and shown that systemic inactivation of the Meis2 gene results in lethality by the embryonic day 14 that is accompanied with hemorrhaging. We show that neural crest cells express Meis2 and Meis2-defficient embryos display defects in tissues that are derived from the neural crest, such as an abnormal heart outflow tract with the persistent truncus arteriosus and abnormal cranial nerves. The importance of Meis2 for neural crest cells is further confirmed by means of conditional inactivation of Meis2 using crest-specific AP2α-IRES-Cre mouse. Conditional mutants display perturbed development of the craniofacial skeleton with severe anomalies in cranial bones and cartilages, heart and cranial nerve abnormalities. Meis2-null mice are embryonic lethal. Our results reveal a critical role of Meis2 during cranial and cardiac neural crest cells development in mouse.

  19. Znf703, a novel target of Pax3 and Zic1, regulates hindbrain and neural crest development in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Soo; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    The transcription factors Pax3 and Zic1 are critical to specify the neural plate border and to promote neural crest formation. In a microarray screen designed to identify genes regulated by Pax3 and Zic1 in Xenopus we isolated Znf703/Nlz1 a transcriptional repressor member of the NET (NocA/Nlz, Elbow, and TLP-1) protein family. At early neurula stage znf703 is expressed in the dorsal ectoderm, spanning the neural plate and neural plate border, with an anterior boundary of expression corresponding to rhombomeres 3 and 4 (r3/r4) in the prospective hindbrain. As a bonafide target of Pax3 and Zic1, znf703 is activated by neural plate border inducing signals, and its expression depends on Pax3 and Zic1 function in the embryo. Znf703 morpholino-mediated knockdown expanded several posterior hindbrain genes, while Znf703 overexpression completely obliterated the expression of these segmental genes, signifying that the transcriptional repressor activity of Znf703 is critical to pattern the hindbrain. Furthermore, snai2 and sox10 expression was severely impaired upon manipulation of Znf703 expression levels in the embryo suggesting that Znf703 participates in neural crest formation downstream of Pax3 and Zic1 in Xenopus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Neural crest stem cell multipotency requires Foxd3 to maintain neural potential and repress mesenchymal fates.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Nathan A; Labosky, Patricia A

    2011-02-01

    Neural crest (NC) progenitors generate a wide array of cell types, yet molecules controlling NC multipotency and self-renewal and factors mediating cell-intrinsic distinctions between multipotent versus fate-restricted progenitors are poorly understood. Our earlier work demonstrated that Foxd3 is required for maintenance of NC progenitors in the embryo. Here, we show that Foxd3 mediates a fate restriction choice for multipotent NC progenitors with loss of Foxd3 biasing NC toward a mesenchymal fate. Neural derivatives of NC were lost in Foxd3 mutant mouse embryos, whereas abnormally fated NC-derived vascular smooth muscle cells were ectopically located in the aorta. Cranial NC defects were associated with precocious differentiation towards osteoblast and chondrocyte cell fates, and individual mutant NC from different anteroposterior regions underwent fate changes, losing neural and increasing myofibroblast potential. Our results demonstrate that neural potential can be separated from NC multipotency by the action of a single gene, and establish novel parallels between NC and other progenitor populations that depend on this functionally conserved stem cell protein to regulate self-renewal and multipotency.

  1. Characterization of Pax3 and Sox10 transgenic Xenopus laevis embryos as tools to study neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Alkobtawi, Mansour; Ray, Heather; Barriga, Elias H; Moreno, Mauricio; Kerney, Ryan; Monsoro-Burq, Anne-Helene; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre; Mayor, Roberto

    2018-03-06

    The neural crest is a multipotent population of cells that originates a variety of cell types. Many animal models are used to study neural crest induction, migration and differentiation, with amphibians and birds being the most widely used systems. A major technological advance to study neural crest development in mouse, chick and zebrafish has been the generation of transgenic animals in which neural crest specific enhancers/promoters drive the expression of either fluorescent proteins for use as lineage tracers, or modified genes for use in functional studies. Unfortunately, no such transgenic animals currently exist for the amphibians Xenopus laevis and tropicalis, key model systems for studying neural crest development. Here we describe the generation and characterization of two transgenic Xenopus laevis lines, Pax3-GFP and Sox10-GFP, in which GFP is expressed in the pre-migratory and migratory neural crest, respectively. We show that Pax3-GFP could be a powerful tool to study neural crest induction, whereas Sox10-GFP could be used in the study of neural crest migration in living embryos. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Wise promotes coalescence of cells of neural crest and placode origins in the trigeminal region during head development.

    PubMed

    Shigetani, Yasuyo; Howard, Sara; Guidato, Sonia; Furushima, Kenryo; Abe, Takaya; Itasaki, Nobue

    2008-07-15

    While most cranial ganglia contain neurons of either neural crest or placodal origin, neurons of the trigeminal ganglion derive from both populations. The Wnt signaling pathway is known to be required for the development of neural crest cells and for trigeminal ganglion formation, however, migrating neural crest cells do not express any known Wnt ligands. Here we demonstrate that Wise, a Wnt modulator expressed in the surface ectoderm overlying the trigeminal ganglion, play a role in promoting the assembly of placodal and neural crest cells. When overexpressed in chick, Wise causes delamination of ectodermal cells and attracts migrating neural crest cells. Overexpression of Wise is thus sufficient to ectopically induce ganglion-like structures consisting of both origins. The function of Wise is likely synergized with Wnt6, expressed in an overlapping manner with Wise in the surface ectoderm. Electroporation of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides against Wise and Wnt6 causes decrease in the contact of neural crest cells with the delaminated placode-derived cells. In addition, targeted deletion of Wise in mouse causes phenotypes that can be explained by a decrease in the contribution of neural crest cells to the ophthalmic lobe of the trigeminal ganglion. These data suggest that Wise is able to function cell non-autonomously on neural crest cells and promote trigeminal ganglion formation.

  3. Postotic and preotic cranial neural crest cells differently contribute to thyroid development.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiro; Asai, Rieko; Maruyama, Kazuaki; Kurihara, Yukiko; Nakanishi, Toshio; Kurihara, Hiroki; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid development and formation vary among species, but in most species the thyroid morphogenesis consists of five stages: specification, budding, descent, bilobation and folliculogenesis. The detailed mechanisms of these stages have not been fully clarified. During early development, the cranial neural crest (CNC) contributes to the thyroid gland. The removal of the postotic CNC (corresponding to rhombomeres 6, 7 and 8, also known as the cardiac neural crest) results in abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, thymus, parathyroid glands, and thyroid gland. To investigate the influence of the CNC on thyroid bilobation process, we divided the CNC into two regions, the postotic CNC and the preotic CNC (from the mesencephalon to rhombomere 5) regions and examined. We found that preotic CNC-ablated embryos had a unilateral thyroid lobe, and confirmed the presence of a single lobe or the absence of lobes in postotic CNC-ablated chick embryos. The thyroid anlage in each region-ablated embryos was of a normal size at the descent stage, but at a later stage, the thyroid in preotic CNC-ablated embryos was of a normal size, conflicting with a previous report in which the thyroid was reduced in size in the postotic CNC-ablated embryos. The postotic CNC cells differentiated into connective tissues of the thyroid in quail-to-chick chimeras. In contrast, the preotic CNC cells did not differentiate into connective tissues of the thyroid. We found that preotic CNC cells encompassed the thyroid anlage from the specification stage to the descent stage. Finally, we found that endothelin-1 and endothelin type A receptor-knockout mice and bosentan (endothelin receptor antagonist)-treated chick embryos showed bilobation anomalies that included single-lobe formation. Therefore, not only the postotic CNC, but also the preotic CNC plays an important role in thyroid morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diprosopia revisited in light of the recognized role of neural crest cells in facial development.

    PubMed

    Carles, D; Weichhold, W; Alberti, E M; Léger, F; Pigeau, F; Horovitz, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the theory of embryogenesis of the face with human diprosopia. This peculiar form of conjoined twinning is of great interest because 1) only the facial structures are duplicated and 2) almost all cases have a rather monomorphic pattern. The hypothesis is that an initial duplication of the notochord leads to two neural plates and subsequently duplicated neural crests. In those conditions, derivatives of the neural crests will be partially or totally duplicated; therefore, in diprosopia, the duplicated facial structures would be considered to be neural crest derivatives. If these structures are identical to those that are experimentally demonstrated to be neural crest derivatives in animals, these findings are an argument to apply this theory of facial embryogenesis in man. Serial horizontal sections of the face of two diprosopic fetuses (11 and 21 weeks gestation) were studied macro- and microscopically to determine the external and internal structures that are duplicated. Complete postmortem examination was performed in search for additional malformations. The face of both fetuses showed a very similar morphologic pattern with duplication of ocular, nasal, and buccal structures. The nasal fossae and the anterior part of the tongue were also duplicated, albeit the posterior part and the pharyngolaryngeal structures were unique. Additional facial clefts were present in both fetuses. Extrafacial anomalies were represented by a craniorachischisis, two fused vertebral columns and, in the older fetus, by a complex cardiac malformation morphologically identical to malformations induced by removal or grafting of additional cardiac neural crest cells in animals. These pathological findings could identify the facial structures that are neural crest derivatives in man. They are similar to those experimentally demonstrated to be neural crest derivatives in animals. In this respect, diprosopia could be considered as the end of a spectrum

  5. Cre-driver lines used for genetic fate mapping of neural crest cells in the mouse: An overview.

    PubMed

    Debbache, Julien; Parfejevs, Vadims; Sommer, Lukas

    2018-04-19

    The neural crest is one of the embryonic structures with the broadest developmental potential in vertebrates. Morphologically, neural crest cells emerge during neurulation in the dorsal folds of the neural tube before undergoing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), delaminating from the neural tube, and migrating to multiple sites in the growing embryo. Neural crest cells generate cell types as diverse as peripheral neurons and glia, melanocytes, and so-called mesectodermal derivatives that include craniofacial bone and cartilage and smooth muscle cells in cardiovascular structures. In mice, the fate of neural crest cells has been determined mainly by means of transgenesis and genome editing technologies. The most frequently used method relies on the Cre-loxP system, in which expression of Cre-recombinase in neural crest cells or their derivatives genetically enables the expression of a Cre-reporter allele, thus permanently marking neural crest-derived cells. Here, we provide an overview of the Cre-driver lines used in the field and discuss to what extent these lines allow precise neural crest stage and lineage-specific fate mapping. © 2018 The Authors Genesis: The Journal of Genetics and Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Actin capping protein CAPZB regulates cell morphology, differentiation, and neural crest migration in craniofacial morphogenesis†

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Kusumika; Ishii, Kana; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Kammin, Tammy; Atkin, Joan F.; Hickey, Scott E.; Xi, Qiongchao J.; Zepeda, Cinthya J.; Gusella, James F.; Talkowski, Michael E.; Morton, Cynthia C.; Maas, Richard L.; Liao, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    CAPZB is an actin-capping protein that caps the growing end of F-actin and modulates the cytoskeleton and tethers actin filaments to the Z-line of the sarcomere in muscles. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on a subject with micrognathia, cleft palate and hypotonia that harbored a de novo, balanced chromosomal translocation that disrupts the CAPZB gene. The function of capzb was analyzed in the zebrafish model. capzb−/− mutants exhibit both craniofacial and muscle defects that recapitulate the phenotypes observed in the human subject. Loss of capzb affects cell morphology, differentiation and neural crest migration. Differentiation of both myogenic stem cells and neural crest cells requires capzb. During palate morphogenesis, defective cranial neural crest cell migration in capzb−/− mutants results in loss of the median cell population, creating a cleft phenotype. capzb is also required for trunk neural crest migration, as evident from melanophores disorganization in capzb−/− mutants. In addition, capzb over-expression results in embryonic lethality. Therefore, proper capzb dosage is important during embryogenesis, and regulates both cell behavior and tissue morphogenesis. PMID:26758871

  7. OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCES CELL DEATH IN CD-1 MOUSE CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCES CELL DEATH IN CD-1 MOUSE CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO. J.B. Smith, K.K. Sulik, E.S. Hunter III. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.
    The induction of craniofacial defects by ethanol exposure is mediated in part by...

  8. Functional neurons and melanocytes induced from immortal lines of postnatal neural crest-like stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Easty, David J.; Lawrence, Mark A.; Sánchez, Daniel P.; Negulyaev, Yuri A.; Patel, Ricken H.; Anand, Praveen; Korchev, Yuri E.; Bennett, Dorothy C.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells, that is, cells that can both reproduce themselves and differentiate into functional cell types, attract much interest as potential aids to healing and disease therapy. Embryonic neural crest is pluripotent and generates the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and some connective tissues. Neural-crest-related stem cells have been reported previously in postnatal skin: committed melanocytic stem cells in the hair follicle, and pluripotent cell types from the hair follicle and papilla that can produce various sets of lineages. Here we describe novel pluripotent neural crest-like stem cells from neonatal mouse epidermis, with different potencies, isolated as 3 independent immortal lines. Using alternative regulatory factors, they could be converted to large numbers of either Schwann precursor cells, pigmented melanocytes, chondrocytes, or functional sensory neurons showing voltage-gated sodium channels. Some of the neurons displayed abundant active TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors. Such functional neurons have previously been obtained in culture only with difficulty, by explantation. The system was also used to generate comparative gene expression data for the stem cells, melanocytes, and melanoblasts that sufficiently explain the lack of pigment in melanoblasts and provide a rationale for some genes expressed apparently ectopically in melanomas, such as ephrin receptors.—Sviderskaya, E. V., Easty, D. J., Lawrence, M. A., Sánchez, D. P., Negulyaev, Y. A., Patel, R. H., Anand, P., Korchev, Y. E., Bennett, D. C. Functional neurons and melanocytes induced from immortal lines of postnatal neural crest-like stem cells. PMID:19447881

  9. HALOACETIC ACIDS AND KINASE INHIBITORS PERTURB MOUSE NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUNTER, E.S.1, J. SMITH2, J. ANDREWS1. 1 Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park and 2 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Haloacetic acids and kinase inhibitors perturb mouse neural crest cells in vi...

  10. Informatic selection of a neural crest-melanocyte cDNA set for microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, S. K.; Chen, Y.; Gooden, G.; Ryan, J. F.; Birznieks, G.; Hilliard, M.; Baxevanis, A. D.; Bittner, M.; Meltzer, P.; Trent, J.; Pavan, W.

    1999-01-01

    With cDNA microarrays, it is now possible to compare the expression of many genes simultaneously. To maximize the likelihood of finding genes whose expression is altered under the experimental conditions, it would be advantageous to be able to select clones for tissue-appropriate cDNA sets. We have taken advantage of the extensive sequence information in the dbEST expressed sequence tag (EST) database to identify a neural crest-derived melanocyte cDNA set for microarray analysis. Analysis of characterized genes with dbEST identified one library that contained ESTs representing 21 neural crest-expressed genes (library 198). The distribution of the ESTs corresponding to these genes was biased toward being derived from library 198. This is in contrast to the EST distribution profile for a set of control genes, characterized to be more ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues (P < 1 × 10−9). From library 198, a subset of 852 clustered ESTs were selected that have a library distribution profile similar to that of the 21 neural crest-expressed genes. Microarray analysis demonstrated the majority of the neural crest-selected 852 ESTs (Mel1 array) were differentially expressed in melanoma cell lines compared with a non-neural crest kidney epithelial cell line (P < 1 × 10−8). This was not observed with an array of 1,238 ESTs that was selected without library origin bias (P = 0.204). This study presents an approach for selecting tissue-appropriate cDNAs that can be used to examine the expression profiles of developmental processes and diseases. PMID:10430933

  11. Role of cranial neural crest cells in visceral arch muscle positioning and morphogenesis in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Rolf; Cerny, Robert; Falck, Pierre; Olsson, Lennart

    2004-10-01

    The role of cranial neural crest cells in the formation of visceral arch musculature was investigated in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine, perchlorate) labeling and green fluorescent protein (GFP) mRNA injections combined with unilateral transplantations of neural folds showed that neural crest cells contribute to the connective tissues but not the myofibers of developing visceral arch muscles in the mandibular, hyoid, and branchial arches. Extirpations of individual cranial neural crest streams demonstrated that neural crest cells are necessary for correct morphogenesis of visceral arch muscles. These do, however, initially develop in their proper positions also in the absence of cranial neural crest. Visceral arch muscles forming in the absence of neural crest cells start to differentiate at their origins but fail to extend toward their insertions and may have a frayed appearance. Our data indicate that visceral arch muscle positioning is controlled by factors that do not have a neural crest origin. We suggest that the cranial neural crest-derived connective tissues provide directional guidance important for the proper extension of the cranial muscles and the subsequent attachment to the insertion on the correct cartilage. In a comparative context, our data from the Mexican axolotl support the view that the cranial neural crest plays a fundamental role in the development of not only the skeleton of the vertebrate head but also in the morphogenesis of the cranial muscles and that this might be a primitive feature of cranial development in vertebrates. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Matthew J.; Schimmang, Thomas; Lewandoski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3-BMP signaling axis is

  13. White spotting phenotype induced by targeted REST disruption during neural crest specification to a melanocyte cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hitomi; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2015-05-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) emerge from the dorsal region of the neural tube of vertebrate embryos and have the pluripotency to differentiate into both neuronal and non-neuronal lineages including melanocytes. Rest, also known as NRSF (neuro-restrictive silencer factor), is a regulator of neuronal development and function and suggested to be involved in the lineage specification of NCCs. However, further investigations of Rest gene functions in vivo have been hampered by the fact that Rest null mice show early embryonic lethality. To investigate the function of Rest in NCC development, we recently established NCC-specific Rest conditional knockout (CKO) mice and observed their neonatal death. Here, we have established viable heterozygous NCC-specific Rest CKO mice to analyze the function of Rest in an NCC-derived melanocyte cell lineage and found that the white spotting phenotype was associated with the reduction in the number of melanoblasts in the embryonic skin. The Rest deletion induced after the specification to melanocytes did not reduce the number of melanoblasts; therefore, the expression of REST during the early neural crest specification stage was necessary for the normal development of melanoblasts to cover all of the skin. © 2015 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Neural Crest-Derived Mesenchymal Cells Require Wnt Signaling for Their Development and Drive Invagination of the Telencephalic Midline

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Youngshik; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S.; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic neural crest cells contribute to the development of the craniofacial mesenchyme, forebrain meninges and perivascular cells. In this study, we investigated the function of ß-catenin signaling in neural crest cells abutting the dorsal forebrain during development. In the absence of ß-catenin signaling, neural crest cells failed to expand in the interhemispheric region and produced ectopic smooth muscle cells instead of generating dermal and calvarial mesenchyme. In contrast, constitutive expression of stabilized ß-catenin in neural crest cells increased the number of mesenchymal lineage precursors suggesting that ß-catenin signaling is necessary for the expansion of neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, the loss of neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) leads to failure of telencephalic midline invagination and causes ventricular system defects. This study shows that ß-catenin signaling is required for the switch of neural crest cells to MSCs and mediates the expansion of MSCs to drive the formation of mesenchymal structures of the head. Furthermore, loss of these structures causes striking defects in forebrain morphogenesis. PMID:24516524

  15. miR-21 promotes the differentiation of hair follicle-derived neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yuxin; Zhang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xuejuan; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Baixiang; Fu, Li; A, Lan; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicle-derived neural crest stem cells can be induced to differentiate into Schwann cells in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism during cell differentiation remains poorly understood. This study isolated neural crest stem cells from human hair follicles and induced them to differentiate into Schwann cells. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that microRNA (miR)-21 expression was gradually increased during the differentiation of neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells. After transfection with the miR-21 agonist (agomir-21), the differentiation capacity of neural crest stem cells was enhanced. By contrast, after transfection with the miR-21 antagonist (antagomir-21), the differentiation capacity was attenuated. Further study results showed that SOX-2 was an effective target of miR-21. Without compromising SOX2 mRNA expression, miR-21 can down-regulate SOX protein expression by binding to the 3′-UTR of miR-21 mRNA. Knocking out the SOX2 gene from the neural crest stem cells significantly reversed the antagomir-21 inhibition of neural crest stem cells differentiating into Schwann cells. The results suggest that miR-21 expression was increased during the differentiation of neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells and miR-21 promoted the differentiation through down-regulating SOX protein expression by binding to the 3′-UTR of SOX2 mRNA. PMID:25206896

  16. New views on the neural crest epithelial-mesenchymal transition and neuroepithelial interkinetic nuclear migration

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    By developing a technique for imaging the avian neural crest epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we have discovered cellular behaviors that challenge current thinking on this important developmental event, including the probability that complete disassembly of the adherens junctions may not control whether or not a neural epithelial cell undergoes an EMT. Further, neural crest cells can adopt multiple modes of cell motility in order to emigrate from the neuroepithelium. We also gained insights into interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). For example, the movement of the nucleus from the basal to apical domain may not require microtubule motors nor an intact nuclear envelope, and the nucleus does not always need to reach the apical surface in order for cytokinesis to occur. These studies illustrate the value of live-cell imaging to elucidate cellular processes. PMID:20195454

  17. Neural crest-specific deletion of Ldb1 leads to cleft secondary palate with impaired palatal shelf elevation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background LIM domain binding protein 1 (LDB1) is a transcriptional co-factor, which interacts with multiple transcription factors and other proteins containing LIM domains. Complete inactivation of Ldb1 in mice resulted in early embryonic lethality with severe patterning defects during gastrulation. Tissue-specific deletions using a conditional knockout allele revealed additional roles of Ldb1 in the development of the central nervous system, hematopoietic system, and limbs. The goal of the current study was to determine the importance of Ldb1 function during craniofacial development in mouse embryos. Results We generated tissue-specific Ldb1 mutants using Wnt1-Cre, which causes deletion of a floxed allele in the neural crest; neural crest-derived cells contribute to most of the mesenchyme of the developing face. All examined Wnt1-Cre;Ldb1 fl/- mutants suffered from cleft secondary palate. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to investigate how Ldb1 regulated palate development. First, we examined the expression of Ldb1 during normal development, and found that Ldb1 was expressed broadly in the palatal mesenchyme during early stages of palate development. Second, we compared the morphology of the developing palate in control and Ldb1 mutant embryos using sections. We found that the mutant palatal shelves had abnormally blunt appearance, and failed to elevate above the tongue at the posterior domain. An in vitro head culture experiment indicated that the elevation defect was not due to interference by the tongue. Finally, in the Ldb1 mutant palatal shelves, cell proliferation was abnormal in the anterior, and the expression of Wnt5a, Pax9 and Osr2, which regulate palatal shelf elevation, was also altered. Conclusions The function of Ldb1 in the neural crest-derived palatal mesenchyme is essential for normal morphogenesis of the secondary palate. PMID:24433583

  18. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from “local epithelium”, in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin. PMID:22659543

  20. Induction of the neural crest state: Control of stem cell attributes by gene regulatory, post-transcriptional and epigenetic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Maneeshi S.; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; LaBonne, Carole

    2012-01-01

    Neural crest cells are a population of multipotent stem cell-like progenitors that arise at the neural plate border in vertebrates, migrate extensively, and give rise to diverse derivatives such as melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia. The neural crest gene regulatory network (NC-GRN) includes a number of key factors that are used reiteratively to control multiple steps in the development of neural crest cells, including the acquisition of stem cell attributes. It is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms that control the distinct functions of such reiteratively used factors in different cellular contexts. The context-dependent control of neural crest specification is achieved through combinatorial interaction with other factors, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications, and the epigenetic status and chromatin state of target genes. Here we review the current understanding of the NC-GRN, including the role of the neural crest specifiers, their links to the control of “stemness,” and their dynamic context-dependent regulation during the formation of neural crest progenitors. PMID:22583479

  1. Cadherin-6B is proteolytically processed during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions of the cranial neural crest

    PubMed Central

    Schiffmacher, Andrew T.; Padmanabhan, Rangarajan; Jhingory, Sharon; Taneyhill, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly coordinated process underlying both development and disease. Premigratory neural crest cells undergo EMT, migrate away from the neural tube, and differentiate into diverse cell types during vertebrate embryogenesis. Adherens junction disassembly within premigratory neural crest cells is one component of EMT and, in chick cranial neural crest cells, involves cadherin-6B (Cad6B) down-regulation. Whereas Cad6B transcription is repressed by Snail2, the rapid loss of Cad6B protein during EMT is suggestive of posttranslational mechanisms that promote Cad6B turnover. For the first time in vivo, we demonstrate Cad6B proteolysis during neural crest cell EMT, which generates a Cad6B N-terminal fragment (NTF) and two C-terminal fragments (CTF1/2). Coexpression of relevant proteases with Cad6B in vitro shows that a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) ADAM10 and ADAM19, together with γ-secretase, cleave Cad6B to produce the NTF and CTFs previously observed in vivo. Of importance, both ADAMs and γ-secretase are expressed in the appropriate spatiotemporal pattern in vivo to proteolytically process Cad6B. Overexpression or depletion of either ADAM within premigratory neural crest cells prematurely reduces or maintains Cad6B, respectively. Collectively these results suggest a dual mechanism for Cad6B proteolysis involving two ADAMs, along with γ-secretase, during cranial neural crest cell EMT. PMID:24196837

  2. Epigenetic Marks Define the Lineage and Differentiation Potential of Two Distinct Neural Crest-Derived Intermediate Odontogenic Progenitor Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gopinathan, Gokul; Kolokythas, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, play an active role in the differentiation and lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, epigenetic states and differentiation profiles of two odontogenic neural crest-derived intermediate progenitor populations were compared: dental pulp (DP) and dental follicle (DF). ChIP on chip assays revealed substantial H3K27me3-mediated repression of odontoblast lineage genes DSPP and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) in DF cells, but not in DP cells. Mineralization inductive conditions caused steep increases of mineralization and patterning gene expression levels in DP cells when compared to DF cells. In contrast, mineralization induction resulted in a highly dynamic histone modification response in DF cells, while there was only a subdued effect in DP cells. Both DF and DP progenitors featured H3K4me3-active marks on the promoters of early mineralization genes RUNX2, MSX2, and DLX5, while OSX, IBSP, and BGLAP promoters were enriched for H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. Compared to DF cells, DP cells expressed higher levels of three pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2. Finally, gene ontology comparison of bivalent marks unique for DP and DF cells highlighted cell–cell attachment genes in DP cells and neurogenesis genes in DF cells. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the DF intermediate odontogenic neural crest lineage is distinguished from its DP counterpart by epigenetic repression of DSPP and DMP1 genes and through dynamic histone enrichment responses to mineralization induction. Findings presented here highlight the crucial role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the terminal differentiation of odontogenic neural crest lineages. PMID:23379639

  3. Cranial neural crest recycle surface integrins in a substratum-dependent manner to promote rapid motility.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Lauren R; Condic, Maureen L

    2004-11-08

    Cell migration is essential for proper development of numerous structures derived from embryonic neural crest cells (NCCs). Although the migratory pathways of NCCs have been determined, the molecular mechanisms regulating NCC motility remain unclear. NCC migration is integrin dependent, and recent work has shown that surface expression levels of particular integrin alpha subunits are important determinants of NCC motility in vitro. Here, we provide evidence that rapid cranial NCC motility on laminin requires integrin recycling. NCCs showed both ligand- and receptor-specific integrin regulation in vitro. On laminin, NCCs accumulated internalized laminin but not fibronectin receptors over 20 min, whereas on fibronectin neither type of receptor accumulated internally beyond 2 min. Internalized laminin receptors colocalized with receptor recycling vesicles and were subsequently recycled back to the cell surface. Blocking receptor recycling with bafilomycin A inhibited NCC motility on laminin, indicating that substratum-dependent integrin recycling is essential for rapid cranial neural crest migration.

  4. The role of Foxi family transcription factors in otic placode and neural crest cell development

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, Renée K.; Birol, Onur; Groves, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian outer, middle and inner ears have different embryonic origins and evolved at different times in the vertebrate lineage. The outer ear is derived from first and second branchial arch ectoderm and mesoderm, the middle ear ossicles are derived from neural crest mesenchymal cells that invade the first and second branchial arches, whereas the inner ear and its associated vestibule-acoustic (VIIIth) ganglion are derived from the otic placode. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the development of these structures and describe the contributions of members of a Forkhead transcription factor family, the Foxi family to their formation. Foxi transcription factors are critical for formation of the otic placode, survival of the branchial arch neural crest, and developmental remodeling of the branchial arch ectoderm. PMID:25662269

  5. SNW1 Is a Critical Regulator of Spatial BMP Activity, Neural Plate Border Formation, and Neural Crest Specification in Vertebrate Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mary Y.; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Howell, Michael; Hill, Caroline S.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) gradients provide positional information to direct cell fate specification, such as patterning of the vertebrate ectoderm into neural, neural crest, and epidermal tissues, with precise borders segregating these domains. However, little is known about how BMP activity is regulated spatially and temporally during vertebrate development to contribute to embryonic patterning, and more specifically to neural crest formation. Through a large-scale in vivo functional screen in Xenopus for neural crest fate, we identified an essential regulator of BMP activity, SNW1. SNW1 is a nuclear protein known to regulate gene expression. Using antisense morpholinos to deplete SNW1 protein in both Xenopus and zebrafish embryos, we demonstrate that dorsally expressed SNW1 is required for neural crest specification, and this is independent of mesoderm formation and gastrulation morphogenetic movements. By exploiting a combination of immunostaining for phosphorylated Smad1 in Xenopus embryos and a BMP-dependent reporter transgenic zebrafish line, we show that SNW1 regulates a specific domain of BMP activity in the dorsal ectoderm at the neural plate border at post-gastrula stages. We use double in situ hybridizations and immunofluorescence to show how this domain of BMP activity is spatially positioned relative to the neural crest domain and that of SNW1 expression. Further in vivo and in vitro assays using cell culture and tissue explants allow us to conclude that SNW1 acts upstream of the BMP receptors. Finally, we show that the requirement of SNW1 for neural crest specification is through its ability to regulate BMP activity, as we demonstrate that targeted overexpression of BMP to the neural plate border is sufficient to restore neural crest formation in Xenopus SNW1 morphants. We conclude that through its ability to regulate a specific domain of BMP activity in the vertebrate embryo, SNW1 is a critical regulator of neural plate border formation and

  6. Zebrafish msxB, msxC and msxE function together to refine the neural-nonneural border and regulate cranial placodes and neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bryan T; Kwon, Hye-Joo; Melton, Colt; Houghtaling, Paul; Fritz, Andreas; Riley, Bruce B

    2006-06-15

    The zebrafish muscle segment homeobox genes msxB, msxC and msxE are expressed in partially overlapping domains in the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm. We examined the roles of these msx genes in early development. Disrupting individual msx genes causes modest variable defects, whereas disrupting all three produces a reproducible severe phenotype, suggesting functional redundancy. Neural crest differentiation is blocked at an early stage. Preplacodal development begins normally, but placodes arising from the msx expression domain later show elevated apoptosis and are reduced in size. Cell proliferation is normal in these tissues. Unexpectedly, Msx-deficient embryos become ventralized by late gastrulation whereas misexpression of msxB dorsalizes the embryo. These effects appear to involve Distal-less (Dlx) protein activity, as loss of dlx3b and dlx4b suppresses ventralization in Msx-depleted embryos. At the same time, Msx-depletion restores normal preplacodal gene expression to dlx3b-dlx4b mutants. These data suggest that mutual antagonism between Msx and Dlx proteins achieves a balance of function required for normal preplacodal differentiation and placement of the neural-nonneural border.

  7. Cell Motility and Invasiveness of Neurofibromin-Deficient Neural Crest Cells and Malignant Triton Tumor Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    derived cells, we isolated first branchial arch mesenchymal populations, as well as trigeminal ganglion non-neuronal cells, from mouse embryos and measured...demonstrate that loss of neurofibromin affects the invasiveness of neural crest-derived (trigeminal ganglion) and cranial mesenchymal ( branchial arch) cell...trigeminal and branchial arch cells between El0 and El 2 indicates that the roles of neurofibromin in controlling motility may become increasingly

  8. NGF reprograms metastatic melanoma to a bipotent glial-melanocyte neural crest-like precursor

    PubMed Central

    Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer C.; Romine, Morgan H.; Morrison, Jason A.; Bailey, Caleb M.; Welch, Danny R.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Melanoma pathogenesis from normal neural crest-derived melanocytes is often fatal due to aggressive cell invasion throughout the body. The identification of signals that reprogram de-differentiated, metastatic melanoma cells to a less aggressive and stable phenotype would provide a novel strategy to limit disease progression. In this study, we identify and test the function of developmental signals within the chick embryonic neural crest microenvironment to reprogram and sustain the transition of human metastatic melanoma to a neural crest cell-like phenotype. Results reveal that co-culture of the highly aggressive and metastatic human melanoma cell line C8161 upregulate a marker of melanosome formation (Mart-1) in the presence of embryonic day 3.5 chick trunk dorsal root ganglia. We identify nerve growth factor (NGF) as the signal within this tissue driving Mart-1 re-expression and show that NGF receptors trkA and p75 cooperate to induce Mart-1 re-expression. Furthermore, Mart-1 expressing C8161 cells acquire a gene signature of poorly aggressive C81-61 cells. These data suggest that targeting NGF signaling may yield a novel strategy to reprogram metastatic melanoma toward a benign cell type. PMID:29175861

  9. Functional neurons and melanocytes induced from immortal lines of postnatal neural crest-like stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sviderskaya, Elena V; Easty, David J; Lawrence, Mark A; Sánchez, Daniel P; Negulyaev, Yuri A; Patel, Ricken H; Anand, Praveen; Korchev, Yuri E; Bennett, Dorothy C

    2009-09-01

    Stem cells, that is, cells that can both reproduce themselves and differentiate into functional cell types, attract much interest as potential aids to healing and disease therapy. Embryonic neural crest is pluripotent and generates the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and some connective tissues. Neural-crest-related stem cells have been reported previously in postnatal skin: committed melanocytic stem cells in the hair follicle, and pluripotent cell types from the hair follicle and papilla that can produce various sets of lineages. Here we describe novel pluripotent neural crest-like stem cells from neonatal mouse epidermis, with different potencies, isolated as 3 independent immortal lines. Using alternative regulatory factors, they could be converted to large numbers of either Schwann precursor cells, pigmented melanocytes, chondrocytes, or functional sensory neurons showing voltage-gated sodium channels. Some of the neurons displayed abundant active TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors. Such functional neurons have previously been obtained in culture only with difficulty, by explantation. The system was also used to generate comparative gene expression data for the stem cells, melanocytes, and melanoblasts that sufficiently explain the lack of pigment in melanoblasts and provide a rationale for some genes expressed apparently ectopically in melanomas, such as ephrin receptors.

  10. Hippo signaling is required for Notch-dependent smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest.

    PubMed

    Manderfield, Lauren J; Aghajanian, Haig; Engleka, Kurt A; Lim, Lillian Y; Liu, Feiyan; Jain, Rajan; Li, Li; Olson, Eric N; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2015-09-01

    Notch signaling has well-defined roles in the assembly of arterial walls and in the development of the endothelium and smooth muscle of the vasculature. Hippo signaling regulates cellular growth in many tissues, and contributes to regulation of organ size, in addition to other functions. Here, we show that the Notch and Hippo pathways converge to regulate smooth muscle differentiation of the neural crest, which is crucial for normal development of the aortic arch arteries and cranial vasculature during embryonic development. Neural crest-specific deletion of the Hippo effectors Yap and Taz produces neural crest precursors that migrate normally, but fail to produce vascular smooth muscle, and Notch target genes such as Jagged1 fail to activate normally. We show that Yap is normally recruited to a tissue-specific Jagged1 enhancer by directly interacting with the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). The Yap-NICD complex is recruited to chromatin by the DNA-binding protein Rbp-J in a Tead-independent fashion. Thus, Hippo signaling can modulate Notch signaling outputs, and components of the Hippo and Notch pathways physically interact. Convergence of Hippo and Notch pathways by the mechanisms described here might be relevant for the function of these signaling cascades in many tissues and in diseases such as cancer. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Regenerative effects of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest cells for treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Jones, Iwan; Novikova, Liudmila N; Novikov, Lev N; Renardy, Monika; Ullrich, Andreas; Wiberg, Mikael; Carlsson, Leif; Kingham, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations, and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential component of artificial grafts is biodegradable conduits and transplanted cells that provide trophic support during the regenerative process. Neural crest cells are promising support cell candidates because they are the parent population to many peripheral nervous system lineages. In this study, neural crest cells were differentiated from human embryonic stem cells. The differentiated cells exhibited typical stellate morphology and protein expression signatures that were comparable with native neural crest. Conditioned media harvested from the differentiated cells contained a range of biologically active trophic factors and was able to stimulate in vitro neurite outgrowth. Differentiated neural crest cells were seeded into a biodegradable nerve conduit, and their regeneration potential was assessed in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. A robust regeneration front was observed across the entire width of the conduit seeded with the differentiated neural crest cells. Moreover, the up-regulation of several regeneration-related genes was observed within the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord segments harvested from transplanted animals. Our results demonstrate that the differentiated neural crest cells are biologically active and provide trophic support to stimulate peripheral nerve regeneration. Differentiated neural crest cells are therefore promising supporting cell candidates to aid in peripheral nerve repair. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Distinct Expression of Phenotypic Markers in Placodes- and Neural Crest-Derived Afferent Neurons Innervating the Rat Stomach.

    PubMed

    Trancikova, Alzbeta; Kovacova, Eva; Ru, Fei; Varga, Kristian; Brozmanova, Mariana; Tatar, Milos; Kollarik, Marian

    2018-02-01

    Visceral pain is initiated by activation of primary afferent neurons among which the capsaicin-sensitive (TRPV1-positive) neurons play an important role. The stomach is a common source of visceral pain. Similar to other organs, the stomach receives dual spinal and vagal afferent innervation. Developmentally, spinal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and vagal jugular neurons originate from embryonic neural crest and vagal nodose neurons originate from placodes. In thoracic organs the neural crest- and placodes-derived TRPV1-positive neurons have distinct phenotypes differing in activation profile, neurotrophic regulation and reflex responses. It is unknown to whether such distinction exists in the stomach. We hypothesized that gastric neural crest- and placodes-derived TRPV1-positive neurons express phenotypic markers indicative of placodes and neural crest phenotypes. Gastric DRG and vagal neurons were retrogradely traced by DiI injected into the rat stomach wall. Single-cell RT-PCR was performed on traced gastric neurons. Retrograde tracing demonstrated that vagal gastric neurons locate exclusively into the nodose portion of the rat jugular/petrosal/nodose complex. Gastric DRG TRPV1-positive neurons preferentially expressed markers PPT-A, TrkA and GFRα 3 typical for neural crest-derived TRPV1-positive visceral neurons. In contrast, gastric nodose TRPV1-positive neurons preferentially expressed markers P2X 2 and TrkB typical for placodes-derived TRPV1-positive visceral neurons. Differential expression of neural crest and placodes markers was less pronounced in TRPV1-negative DRG and nodose populations. There are phenotypic distinctions between the neural crest-derived DRG and placodes-derived vagal nodose TRPV1-positive neurons innervating the rat stomach that are similar to those described in thoracic organs.

  13. Regulators of gene expression in Enteric Neural Crest Cells are putative Hirschsprung disease genes.

    PubMed

    Schriemer, Duco; Sribudiani, Yunia; IJpma, Arne; Natarajan, Dipa; MacKenzie, Katherine C; Metzger, Marco; Binder, Ellen; Burns, Alan J; Thapar, Nikhil; Hofstra, Robert M W; Eggen, Bart J L

    2016-08-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is required for peristalsis of the gut and is derived from Enteric Neural Crest Cells (ENCCs). During ENS development, the RET receptor tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in the proliferation and survival of ENCCs, their migration along the developing gut, and differentiation into enteric neurons. Mutations in RET and its ligand GDNF cause Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), a complex genetic disorder in which ENCCs fail to colonize variable lengths of the distal bowel. To identify key regulators of ENCCs and the pathways underlying RET signaling, gene expression profiles of untreated and GDNF-treated ENCCs from E14.5 mouse embryos were generated. ENCCs express genes that are involved in both early and late neuronal development, whereas GDNF treatment induced neuronal maturation. Predicted regulators of gene expression in ENCCs include the known HSCR genes Ret and Sox10, as well as Bdnf, App and Mapk10. The regulatory overlap and functional interactions between these genes were used to construct a regulatory network that is underlying ENS development and connects to known HSCR genes. In addition, the adenosine receptor A2a (Adora2a) and neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 (Npy2r) were identified as possible regulators of terminal neuronal differentiation in GDNF-treated ENCCs. The human orthologue of Npy2r maps to the HSCR susceptibility locus 4q31.3-q32.3, suggesting a role for NPY2R both in ENS development and in HSCR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural Crest Migration and Survival Are Susceptible to Morpholino-Induced Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Cicely A.

    2016-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a stem cell-like embryonic population that is essential for generating and patterning the vertebrate body, including the craniofacial skeleton and peripheral nervous system. Defects in NC development underlie many birth defects and contribute to formation of some of the most malignant cancers in humans, such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. For these reasons, significant research efforts have been expended to identify genes that control NC development, as it is expected to lead to a deeper understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling vertebrate development and identify new treatments for NC-derived diseases and cancers. However, a number of inconsistencies regarding gene function during NC development have emerged from comparative analyses of gene function between mammalian and non-mammalian systems (chick, frog, zebrafish). This poses a significant barrier to identification of single genes and/or redundant pathways to target in NC diseases. Here, we determine whether technical differences, namely morpholino-based approaches used in non-mammalian systems, could contribute to these discrepancies, by examining the extent to which NC phenotypes in fascin1a (fscn1a) morphant embryos are similar to or different from fscn1a null mutants in zebrafish. Analysis of fscn1a morphants showed that they mimicked early NC phenotypes observed in fscn1a null mutants; however, these embryos also displayed NC migration and derivative phenotypes not observed in null mutants, including accumulation of p53-independent cell death. These data demonstrate that morpholinos can cause seemingly specific NC migration and derivative phenotypes, and thus have likely contributed to the inconsistencies surrounding NC gene function between species. We suggest that comparison of genetic mutants between different species is the most rigorous method for identifying conserved genetic mechanisms controlling NC development and is critical to identify new treatments for NC

  15. In vitro differentiation of quail neural crest cells into sensory-like neuroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber-Blum, Maya; Kumar, Sanjiv R.; Riley, Danny A.

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented that demonstrate the ability of quail neural-crest embrionic cells grown as primary culture to differentiate in vitro into sensorylike neuroblasts. After 7-14 days of growth as primary culture, many of the putative sensory neuroblasts displayed substance P (SP)-like immunoreactivity and some exhibited histochemical carbonic anhydrase activity. Double staining experiments showed that the SP-like immunoreactive neuroblasts did not contain detectable levels of tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. The neuronal nature of the cultured sensorylike neuroblasts was further documented by double labeling for antibodies against the 68 kDa neurofilament polypeptide and substance P.

  16. Tcof1/Treacle is required for neural crest cell formation and proliferation deficiencies that cause craniofacial abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Jill; Jones, Natalie C.; Sandell, Lisa L.; Jayasinghe, Sachintha M.; Crane, Jennifer; Rey, Jean-Philippe; Dixon, Michael J.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    Neural crest cells are a migratory cell population that give rise to the majority of the cartilage, bone, connective tissue, and sensory ganglia in the head. Abnormalities in the formation, proliferation, migration, and differentiation phases of the neural crest cell life cycle can lead to craniofacial malformations, which constitute one-third of all congenital birth defects. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by hypoplasia of the facial bones, cleft palate, and middle and external ear defects. Although TCS results from autosomal dominant mutations of the gene TCOF1, the mechanistic origins of the abnormalities observed in this condition are unknown, and the function of Treacle, the protein encoded by TCOF1, remains poorly understood. To investigate the developmental basis of TCS we generated a mouse model through germ-line mutation of Tcof1. Haploinsufficiency of Tcof1 leads to a deficiency in migrating neural crest cells, which results in severe craniofacial malformations. We demonstrate that Tcof1/Treacle is required cell-autonomously for the formation and proliferation of neural crest cells. Tcof1/Treacle regulates proliferation by controlling the production of mature ribosomes. Therefore, Tcof1/Treacle is a unique spatiotemporal regulator of ribosome biogenesis, a deficiency that disrupts neural crest cell formation and proliferation, causing the hypoplasia characteristic of TCS craniofacial anomalies. PMID:16938878

  17. Tcof1/Treacle is required for neural crest cell formation and proliferation deficiencies that cause craniofacial abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jill; Jones, Natalie C; Sandell, Lisa L; Jayasinghe, Sachintha M; Crane, Jennifer; Rey, Jean-Philippe; Dixon, Michael J; Trainor, Paul A

    2006-09-05

    Neural crest cells are a migratory cell population that give rise to the majority of the cartilage, bone, connective tissue, and sensory ganglia in the head. Abnormalities in the formation, proliferation, migration, and differentiation phases of the neural crest cell life cycle can lead to craniofacial malformations, which constitute one-third of all congenital birth defects. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by hypoplasia of the facial bones, cleft palate, and middle and external ear defects. Although TCS results from autosomal dominant mutations of the gene TCOF1, the mechanistic origins of the abnormalities observed in this condition are unknown, and the function of Treacle, the protein encoded by TCOF1, remains poorly understood. To investigate the developmental basis of TCS we generated a mouse model through germ-line mutation of Tcof1. Haploinsufficiency of Tcof1 leads to a deficiency in migrating neural crest cells, which results in severe craniofacial malformations. We demonstrate that Tcof1/Treacle is required cell-autonomously for the formation and proliferation of neural crest cells. Tcof1/Treacle regulates proliferation by controlling the production of mature ribosomes. Therefore, Tcof1/Treacle is a unique spatiotemporal regulator of ribosome biogenesis, a deficiency that disrupts neural crest cell formation and proliferation, causing the hypoplasia characteristic of TCS craniofacial anomalies.

  18. Fgf20b is required for the ectomesenchymal fate establishment of cranial neural crest cells in zebrafish

    SciT

    Yamauchi, Hajime; Goto, Mami; Katayama, Mika

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} The establishment of the ectomesenchymal lineage within the cranial neural crest is of great significance. {yields} Fgf20b knockdown zebrafish embryos showed dysplasticneurocranial and pharyngeal cartilages. {yields} Fgf20b is required for ectomesenchymal fate establishment via the activation of Fgfr1 in zebrafish. -- Abstract: In cranial skeletal development, the establishment of the ectomesenchymal lineage within the cranial neural crest is of great significance. Fgfs are polypeptide growth factors with diverse functions in development and metabolism. Fgf20b knockdown zebrafish embryos showed dysplastic neurocranial and pharyngeal cartilages. Ectomesenchymal cells from cranial neural crest cells were significantly decreased in Fgf20b knockdown embryos, butmore » cranial neural crest cells with a non-ectomesnchymal fate were increased. However, the proliferation and apoptosis of cranial neural crest cells were essentially unchanged. Fgfr1 knockdown embryos also showed dysplastic neurocranial and pharyngeal cartilages. The present findings indicate that Fgf20b is required for ectomesenchymal fate establishment via the activation of Fgfr1 in zebrafish.« less

  19. An experimental study on neural crest migration in Barbus conchonius (Cyprinidae, Teleostei), with special reference to the origin of the enteroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Lamers, C H; Rombout, J W; Timmermans, L P

    1981-04-01

    A neural crest transplantation technique is described for fish. As in other classes of vertebrates, two pathways of neural crest migration can be distinguished: a lateroventral pathway between somites and ectoderm, and a medioventral pathway between somites and neural tube/notochord. In this paper evidence is presented for a neural crest origin of spinal ganglion cells and pigment cells, and indication for such an origin is obtained for sympathetic and enteric ganglion cells and for cells that are probably homologues to adrenomedullary and paraganglion cells in the future kidney area. The destiny of neural crest cells near the developing lateral-line sense organs is discussed. When grafted into the yolk, neural crest cells or neural tube cells appear to differentiate into 'periblast cells'; this suggests a highly activating influence of the yolk. Many neural crest cells are found around the urinary ducts and, when grafted below the notochord, even within the urinary duct epithelium. These neural crest cells do not invade the gut epithelium, even when grafted adjacent to the developing gut. Consequently enteroendocrine cells in fish are not likely to have a trunk- or rhombencephalic neural crest origin. Another possible origin of these cells will be proposed.

  20. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development

    SciT

    Tan, Yu, E-mail: tanyu2048@163.com; Fu, Runqing, E-mail: furunqing@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Jiaqiang, E-mail: liujqmj@163.com

    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of themore » craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. -- Highlights: •We firstly reported that ADAM10 was essentially involved in maxillofacial bone development. •ADAM10 cKO mice present craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. •Impaired osteoblast differentiation,proliferation and apoptosis underlie the bone deformity.« less

  1. Human neural crest cells display molecular and phenotypic hallmarks of stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sophie; Thomas, Marie; Wincker, Patrick; Babarit, Candice; Xu, Puting; Speer, Marcy C.; Munnich, Arnold; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Vekemans, Michel; Etchevers, Heather C.

    2008-01-01

    The fields of both developmental and stem cell biology explore how functionally distinct cell types arise from a self-renewing founder population. Multipotent, proliferative human neural crest cells (hNCC) develop toward the end of the first month of pregnancy. It is assumed that most differentiate after migrating throughout the organism, although in animal models neural crest stem cells reportedly persist in postnatal tissues. Molecular pathways leading over time from an invasive mesenchyme to differentiated progeny such as the dorsal root ganglion, the maxillary bone or the adrenal medulla are altered in many congenital diseases. To identify additional components of such pathways, we derived and maintained self-renewing hNCC lines from pharyngulas. We show that, unlike their animal counterparts, hNCC are able to self-renew ex vivo under feeder-free conditions. While cross species comparisons showed extensive overlap between human, mouse and avian NCC transcriptomes, some molecular cascades are only active in the human cells, correlating with phenotypic differences. Furthermore, we found that the global hNCC molecular profile is highly similar to that of pluripotent embryonic stem cells when compared with other stem cell populations or hNCC derivatives. The pluripotency markers NANOG, POU5F1 and SOX2 are also expressed by hNCC, and a small subset of transcripts can unambiguously identify hNCC among other cell types. The hNCC molecular profile is thus both unique and globally characteristic of uncommitted stem cells. PMID:18689800

  2. Embryonic cell-cell adhesion: a key player in collective neural crest migration.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Elias H; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, adult tissue remodeling, wound healing, and cancer cell migration. Cells can migrate as individuals or groups. When cells migrate in groups, cell-cell interactions are crucial in order to promote the coordinated behavior, essential for collective migration. Interestingly, recent evidence has shown that cell-cell interactions are also important for establishing and maintaining the directionality of these migratory events. We focus on neural crest cells, as they possess extraordinary migratory capabilities that allow them to migrate and colonize tissues all over the embryo. Neural crest cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition at the same time than perform directional collective migration. Cell-cell adhesion has been shown to be an important source of planar cell polarity and cell coordination during collective movement. We also review molecular mechanisms underlying cadherin turnover, showing how the modulation and dynamics of cell-cell adhesions are crucial in order to maintain tissue integrity and collective migration in vivo. We conclude that cell-cell adhesion during embryo development cannot be considered as simple passive resistance to force, but rather participates in signaling events that determine important cell behaviors required for cell migration. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu; Fu, Runqing; Liu, Jiaqiang; Wu, Yong; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Ning; Nie, Ping; Cao, Haifeng; Yang, Zhi; Fang, Bing

    2016-07-08

    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of the craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A role for chemokine signaling in neural crest cell migration and craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Eugenia C. Olesnicky; Birkholz, Denise A.; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2009-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique population of multipotent cells that migrate along defined pathways throughout the embryo and give rise to many diverse cell types including pigment cells, craniofacial cartilage and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Aberrant migration of NCCs results in a wide variety of congenital birth defects including craniofacial abnormalities. The chemokine Sdf1 and its receptors, Cxcr4 and Cxcr7, have been identified as key components in the regulation of cell migration in a variety of tissues. Here we describe a novel role for the zebrafish chemokine receptor Cxcr4a in the development and migration of cranial NCCs (CNCCs). We find that loss of Cxcr4a, but not Cxcr7b results in aberrant CNCC migration, defects in the neurocranium, as well as cranial ganglia dismorphogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of either Sdf1b or Cxcr4a causes aberrant CNCC migration and results in ectopic craniofacial cartilages. We propose a model in which Sdf1b signaling from the pharyngeal arch endoderm and optic stalk to Cxcr4a expressing CNCCs is important for both the proper condensation of the CNCCs into pharyngeal arches and the subsequent patterning and morphogenesis of the neural crest derived tissues. PMID:19576198

  5. Physiological Plasticity of Neural-Crest-Derived Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Carotid Body.

    PubMed

    Annese, Valentina; Navarro-Guerrero, Elena; Rodríguez-Prieto, Ismael; Pardal, Ricardo

    2017-04-18

    Adult stem cell plasticity, or the ability of somatic stem cells to cross boundaries and differentiate into unrelated cell types, has been a matter of debate in the last decade. Neural-crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) display a remarkable plasticity during development. Whether adult populations of NCSCs retain this plasticity is largely unknown. Herein, we describe that neural-crest-derived adult carotid body stem cells (CBSCs) are able to undergo endothelial differentiation in addition to their reported role in neurogenesis, contributing to both neurogenic and angiogenic processes taking place in the organ during acclimatization to hypoxia. Moreover, CBSC conversion into vascular cell types is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) dependent and sensitive to hypoxia-released vascular cytokines such as erythropoietin. Our data highlight a remarkable physiological plasticity in an adult population of tissue-specific stem cells and could have impact on the use of these cells for cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenotypic chemical screening using a zebrafish neural crest EMT reporter identifies retinoic acid as an inhibitor of epithelial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Laura; Wang, Jindong; Morrison, Monique A.; Whatcott, Clifford; Soh, Katherine K.; Warner, Steven; Bearss, David; Jette, Cicely A.; Stewart, Rodney A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved morphogenetic program essential for embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer metastasis. In cancer cells, EMT also triggers cellular reprogramming and chemoresistance, which underlie disease relapse and decreased survival. Hence, identifying compounds that block EMT is essential to prevent or eradicate disseminated tumor cells. Here, we establish a whole-animal-based EMT reporter in zebrafish for rapid drug screening, called Tg(snai1b:GFP), which labels epithelial cells undergoing EMT to produce sox10-positive neural crest (NC) cells. Time-lapse and lineage analysis of Tg(snai1b:GFP) embryos reveal that cranial NC cells delaminate from two regions: an early population delaminates adjacent to the neural plate, whereas a later population delaminates from within the dorsal neural tube. Treating Tg(snai1b:GFP) embryos with candidate small-molecule EMT-inhibiting compounds identified TP-0903, a multi-kinase inhibitor that blocked cranial NC cell delamination in both the lateral and medial populations. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis and chemical rescue experiments show that TP-0903 acts through stimulating retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis and RA-dependent transcription. These studies identify TP-0903 as a new therapeutic for activating RA in vivo and raise the possibility that RA-dependent inhibition of EMT contributes to its prior success in eliminating disseminated cancer cells. PMID:26794130

  7. Dynamic and Differential Regulation of Stem Cell Factor FoxD3 in the Neural Crest Is Encrypted in the Genome

    PubMed Central

    Tan-Cabugao, Joanne; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2012-01-01

    The critical stem cell transcription factor FoxD3 is expressed by the premigratory and migrating neural crest, an embryonic stem cell population that forms diverse derivatives. Despite its important role in development and stem cell biology, little is known about what mediates FoxD3 activity in these cells. We have uncovered two FoxD3 enhancers, NC1 and NC2, that drive reporter expression in spatially and temporally distinct manners. Whereas NC1 activity recapitulates initial FoxD3 expression in the cranial neural crest, NC2 activity recapitulates initial FoxD3 expression at vagal/trunk levels while appearing only later in migrating cranial crest. Detailed mutational analysis, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, and morpholino knock-downs reveal that transcription factors Pax7 and Msx1/2 cooperate with the neural crest specifier gene, Ets1, to bind to the cranial NC1 regulatory element. However, at vagal/trunk levels, they function together with the neural plate border gene, Zic1, which directly binds to the NC2 enhancer. These results reveal dynamic and differential regulation of FoxD3 in distinct neural crest subpopulations, suggesting that heterogeneity is encrypted at the regulatory level. Isolation of neural crest enhancers not only allows establishment of direct regulatory connections underlying neural crest formation, but also provides valuable tools for tissue specific manipulation and investigation of neural crest cell identity in amniotes. PMID:23284303

  8. Heparan sulfate deficiency leads to Peters anomaly in mice by disturbing neural crest TGF-β2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Iwao, Keiichiro; Inatani, Masaru; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Ogata-Iwao, Minako; Takihara, Yuji; Irie, Fumitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Okinami, Satoshi; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2009-01-01

    During human embryogenesis, neural crest cells migrate to the anterior chamber of the eye and then differentiate into the inner layers of the cornea, the iridocorneal angle, and the anterior portion of the iris. When proper development does not occur, this causes iridocorneal angle dysgenesis and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, which ultimately results in developmental glaucoma. Here, we show that heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency in mouse neural crest cells causes anterior chamber dysgenesis, including corneal endothelium defects, corneal stroma hypoplasia, and iridocorneal angle dysgenesis. These dysfunctions are phenotypes of the human developmental glaucoma, Peters anomaly. In the neural crest cells of mice embryos, disruption of the gene encoding exostosin 1 (Ext1), which is an indispensable enzyme for HS synthesis, resulted in disturbed TGF-β2 signaling. This led to reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 and downregulated expression of forkhead box C1 (Foxc1) and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (Pitx2), transcription factors that have been identified as the causative genes for developmental glaucoma. Furthermore, impaired interactions between HS and TGF-β2 induced developmental glaucoma, which was manifested as an IOP elevation caused by iridocorneal angle dysgenesis. These findings suggest that HS is necessary for neural crest cells to form the anterior chamber via TGF-β2 signaling. Disturbances of HS synthesis might therefore contribute to the pathology of developmental glaucoma. PMID:19509472

  9. INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO-, AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID.

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO- AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID. JE Andrews, H Nichols, J Schmid 1, and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, 1Research Support Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    ...

  10. Alternative generation of CNS neural stem cells and PNS derivatives from neural crest-derived peripheral stem cells.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marlen; Apostolova, Galina; Widera, Darius; Mittelbronn, Michel; Dechant, Georg; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Rohrer, Hermann

    2015-02-01

    Neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) from the embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be reprogrammed in neurosphere (NS) culture to rNCSCs that produce central nervous system (CNS) progeny, including myelinating oligodendrocytes. Using global gene expression analysis we now demonstrate that rNCSCs completely lose their previous PNS characteristics and acquire the identity of neural stem cells derived from embryonic spinal cord. Reprogramming proceeds rapidly and results in a homogenous population of Olig2-, Sox3-, and Lex-positive CNS stem cells. Low-level expression of pluripotency inducing genes Oct4, Nanog, and Klf4 argues against a transient pluripotent state during reprogramming. The acquisition of CNS properties is prevented in the presence of BMP4 (BMP NCSCs) as shown by marker gene expression and the potential to produce PNS neurons and glia. In addition, genes characteristic for mesenchymal and perivascular progenitors are expressed, which suggests that BMP NCSCs are directed toward a pericyte progenitor/mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate. Adult NCSCs from mouse palate, an easily accessible source of adult NCSCs, display strikingly similar properties. They do not generate cells with CNS characteristics but lose the neural crest markers Sox10 and p75 and produce MSC-like cells. These findings show that embryonic NCSCs acquire a full CNS identity in NS culture. In contrast, MSC-like cells are generated from BMP NCSCs and pNCSCs, which reveals that postmigratory NCSCs are a source for MSC-like cells up to the adult stage. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Neural crest development and craniofacial morphogenesis is coordinated by nitric oxide and histone acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yawei; Grimaldi, Michael; Curtin, Eugene; Dougherty, Max; Kaufman, Charles; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Liao, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are patterned and coalesce to facial prominences that undergo convergence and extension to generate the craniofacial form. We applied a chemical genetics approach to identify pathways that regulate craniofacial development during embryogenesis. Treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor TRIM abrogated first pharyngeal arch structures and induced ectopic ceratobranchial formation. TRIM promoted a progenitor CNC fate and inhibited chondrogenic differentiation, which were mediated through impaired nitric oxide (NO) production without appreciable effect on global protein S-nitrosylation. Instead, TRIM perturbed hox gene patterning and caused histone hypoacetylation. Rescue of TRIM phenotype was achieved with over-expression of histone acetyltransferase kat6a, inhibition of histone deacetylase, and complimentary NO. These studies demonstrate that NO signaling and histone acetylation are coordinated mechanisms that regulate CNC patterning, differentiation and convergence during craniofacial morphogenesis. PMID:24684905

  12. Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre

  13. LKB1 signaling in cephalic neural crest cells is essential for vertebrate head development.

    PubMed

    Creuzet, Sophie E; Viallet, Jean P; Ghawitian, Maya; Torch, Sakina; Thélu, Jacques; Alrajeh, Moussab; Radu, Anca G; Bouvard, Daniel; Costagliola, Floriane; Borgne, Maïlys Le; Buchet-Poyau, Karine; Aznar, Nicolas; Buschlen, Sylvie; Hosoya, Hiroshi; Thibert, Chantal; Billaud, Marc

    2016-10-15

    Head development in vertebrates proceeds through a series of elaborate patterning mechanisms and cell-cell interactions involving cephalic neural crest cells (CNCC). These cells undergo extensive migration along stereotypical paths after their separation from the dorsal margins of the neural tube and they give rise to most of the craniofacial skeleton. Here, we report that the silencing of the LKB1 tumor suppressor affects the delamination of pre-migratory CNCC from the neural primordium as well as their polarization and survival, thus resulting in severe facial and brain defects. We further show that LKB1-mediated effects on the development of CNCC involve the sequential activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the Rho-dependent kinase (ROCK) and the actin-based motor protein myosin II. Collectively, these results establish that the complex morphogenetic processes governing head formation critically depends on the activation of the LKB1 signaling network in CNCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The neural crest lineage as a driver of disease heterogeneity in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Sean P.; Julian, Lisa M.; Stanford, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic disease, best characterized by the formation of proliferative nodules that express smooth muscle and melanocytic antigens within the lung parenchyma, leading to progressive destruction of lung tissue and function. The pathological basis of LAM is associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a multi-system disorder marked by low-grade tumors in the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes, lung and skin, arising from inherited or spontaneous germ-line mutations in either of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. LAM can develop either in a patient with TSC (TSC-LAM) or spontaneously (S-LAM), and it is clear that the majority of LAM lesions of both forms are characterized by an inactivating mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, as in TSC. Despite this genetic commonality, there is considerable heterogeneity in the tumor spectrum of TSC and LAM patients, the basis for which is currently unknown. There is extensive clinical evidence to suggest that the cell of origin for LAM, as well as many of the TSC-associated tumors, is a neural crest cell, a highly migratory cell type with extensive multi-lineage potential. Here we explore the hypothesis that the types of tumors that develop and the tissues that are affected in TSC and LAM are dictated by the developmental timing of TSC gene mutations, which determines the identities of the affected cell types and the size of downstream populations that acquire a mutation. We further discuss the evidence to support a neural crest origin for LAM and TSC tumors, and propose approaches for generating humanized models of TSC and LAM that will allow cell of origin theories to be experimentally tested. Identifying the cell of origin and developing appropriate humanized models is necessary to truly understand LAM and TSC pathology and to establish effective and long-lasting therapeutic approaches for these patients. PMID:25505789

  15. PSA-NCAM-Negative Neural Crest Cells Emerging during Neural Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells Cause Mesodermal Tumors and Unwanted Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongjin R.; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae Souk; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Junwon; Park, Chul-Yong; Ji, Eunhyun; Kim, Han-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Kim, Dae-Sung; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumorigenic potential of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is an important issue in clinical applications. Despite many efforts, PSC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs) have repeatedly induced tumors in animal models even though pluripotent cells were not detected. We found that polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)− cells among the early NPCs caused tumors, whereas PSA-NCAM+ cells were nontumorigenic. Molecular profiling, global gene analysis, and multilineage differentiation of PSA-NCAM− cells confirm that they are multipotent neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) that could differentiate into both ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. Transplantation of PSA-NCAM− cells in a gradient manner mixed with PSA-NCAM+ cells proportionally increased mesodermal tumor formation and unwanted grafts such as PERIPHERIN+ cells or pigmented cells in the rat brain. Therefore, we suggest that NCSCs are a critical target for tumor prevention in hPSC-derived NPCs, and removal of PSA-NCAM− cells eliminates the tumorigenic potential originating from NCSCs after transplantation. PMID:25937368

  16. Stephen L. Gans Distinguished Overseas Lecture. The neural crest in pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Juan A

    2007-06-01

    This review highlights the relevance of the neural crest (NC) as a developmental control mechanism involved in several pediatric surgical conditions and the investigative interest of following some of its known signaling pathways. The participation of the NC in facial clefts, ear defects, branchial fistulae and cysts, heart outflow tract and aortic arch anomalies, pigmentary disorders, abnormal enteric innervation, neural tumors, hemangiomas, and vascular anomalies is briefly reviewed. Then, the literature on clinical and experimental esophageal atresia-tracheoesophageal fistula (EA-TEF) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is reviewed for the presence of associated NC defects. Finally, some of the molecular signaling pathways involved in both conditions (sonic hedgehog, Hox genes, and retinoids) are summarized. The association of facial, cardiovascular, thymic, parathyroid, and C-cell defects together with anomalies of extrinsic and intrinsic esophageal innervation in babies and/or animals with both EA-TEF and CDH strongly supports the hypothesis that NC is involved in the pathogenesis of these malformative clusters. On the other hand, both EA-TEF and CDH are observed in mice mutant for genes involved in the previously mentioned signaling pathways. The investigation of NC-related molecular pathogenic pathways involved in malformative associations like EA-TEF and CDH that are induced by chromosomal anomalies, chemical teratogens, and engineered mutations is a promising way of clarifying why and how some pediatric surgical conditions occur. Pediatric surgeons should be actively involved in these investigations.

  17. What’s bad in cancer is good in the embryo: Importance of EMT in neural crest development

    PubMed Central

    Kerosuo, Laura; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Although the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is famous for its role in cancer metastasis, it also is a normal developmental event in which epithelial cells are converted into migratory mesenchymal cells. A prime example of EMT during development occurs when neural crest (NC) cells emigrate from the neural tube thus providing an excellent model to study the principles of EMT in a nonmalignant environment. NC cells start life as neuroepithelial cells intermixed with precursors of the central nervous system. After EMT, they delaminate and begin migrating, often to distant sites in the embryo. While proliferating and maintaining multipotency and cell survival the transitioning neural crest cells lose apicobasal polarity and the basement membrane is broken down. This review discusses how these events are coordinated and regulated, by series of events involving signaling factors, gene regulatory interactions, as well as epigenetic and post-transcriptional modifications. Even though the series of events involved in NC EMT are well known, the sequence in which these steps take place remains a subject of debate, raising the intriguing possibility that, rather than being a single event, neural crest EMT may involve multiple parallel mechanisms. PMID:22430756

  18. Cadherin Switch during EMT in Neural Crest Cells Leads to Contact Inhibition of Locomotion via Repolarization of Forces

    PubMed Central

    Scarpa, Elena; Szabó, András; Bibonne, Anne; Theveneau, Eric; Parsons, Maddy; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process through which cells move away from each other after cell-cell contact, and it contributes to malignant invasion and developmental migration. Various cell types exhibit CIL, whereas others remain in contact after collision and may form stable junctions. To investigate what determines this differential behavior, we study neural crest cells, a migratory stem cell population whose invasiveness has been likened to cancer metastasis. By comparing pre-migratory and migratory neural crest cells, we show that the switch from E- to N-cadherin during EMT is essential for acquisition of CIL behavior. Loss of E-cadherin leads to repolarization of protrusions, via p120 and Rac1, resulting in a redistribution of forces from intercellular tension to cell-matrix adhesions, which break down the cadherin junction. These data provide insight into the balance of physical forces that contributes to CIL in cells in vivo. PMID:26235046

  19. Vestigial-like 3 is a novel Ets1 interacting partner and regulates trigeminal nerve formation and cranial neural crest migration.

    PubMed

    Simon, Emilie; Thézé, Nadine; Fédou, Sandrine; Thiébaud, Pierre; Faucheux, Corinne

    2017-10-15

    Drosophila Vestigial is the founding member of a protein family containing a highly conserved domain, called Tondu, which mediates their interaction with members of the TEAD family of transcription factors (Scalloped in Drosophila ). In Drosophila , the Vestigial/Scalloped complex controls wing development by regulating the expression of target genes through binding to MCAT sequences. In vertebrates, there are four Vestigial-like genes, the functions of which are still not well understood. Here, we describe the regulation and function of vestigial-like 3 (vgll3) during Xenopus early development. A combination of signals, including FGF8, Wnt8a, Hoxa2, Hoxb2 and retinoic acid, limits vgll3 expression to hindbrain rhombomere 2. We show that vgll3 regulates trigeminal placode and nerve formation and is required for normal neural crest development by affecting their migration and adhesion properties. At the molecular level, vgll3 is a potent activator of pax3 , zic1 , Wnt and FGF , which are important for brain patterning and neural crest cell formation. Vgll3 interacts in the embryo with Tead proteins but unexpectedly with Ets1, with which it is able to stimulate a MCAT driven luciferase reporter gene. Our findings highlight a critical function for vgll3 in vertebrate early development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Vestigial-like 3 is a novel Ets1 interacting partner and regulates trigeminal nerve formation and cranial neural crest migration

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Emilie; Thézé, Nadine; Fédou, Sandrine; Thiébaud, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drosophila Vestigial is the founding member of a protein family containing a highly conserved domain, called Tondu, which mediates their interaction with members of the TEAD family of transcription factors (Scalloped in Drosophila). In Drosophila, the Vestigial/Scalloped complex controls wing development by regulating the expression of target genes through binding to MCAT sequences. In vertebrates, there are four Vestigial-like genes, the functions of which are still not well understood. Here, we describe the regulation and function of vestigial-like 3 (vgll3) during Xenopus early development. A combination of signals, including FGF8, Wnt8a, Hoxa2, Hoxb2 and retinoic acid, limits vgll3 expression to hindbrain rhombomere 2. We show that vgll3 regulates trigeminal placode and nerve formation and is required for normal neural crest development by affecting their migration and adhesion properties. At the molecular level, vgll3 is a potent activator of pax3, zic1, Wnt and FGF, which are important for brain patterning and neural crest cell formation. Vgll3 interacts in the embryo with Tead proteins but unexpectedly with Ets1, with which it is able to stimulate a MCAT driven luciferase reporter gene. Our findings highlight a critical function for vgll3 in vertebrate early development. PMID:28870996

  1. Dissecting CNBP, a zinc-finger protein required for neural crest development, in its structural and functional domains.

    PubMed

    Armas, Pablo; Agüero, Tristán H; Borgognone, Mariana; Aybar, Manuel J; Calcaterra, Nora B

    2008-10-17

    Cellular nucleic-acid-binding protein (CNBP) plays an essential role in forebrain and craniofacial development by controlling cell proliferation and survival to mediate neural crest expansion. CNBP binds to single-stranded nucleic acids and displays nucleic acid chaperone activity in vitro. The CNBP family shows a conserved modular organization of seven Zn knuckles and an arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) box between the first and second Zn knuckles. The participation of these structural motifs in CNBP biochemical activities has still not been addressed. Here, we describe the generation of CNBP mutants that dissect the protein into regions with structurally and functionally distinct properties. Mutagenesis approaches were followed to generate: (i) an amino acid replacement that disrupted the fifth Zn knuckle; (ii) N-terminal deletions that removed the first Zn knuckle and the RGG box, or the RGG box alone; and (iii) a C-terminal deletion that eliminated the three last Zn knuckles. Mutant proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and used to analyze their biochemical features in vitro, or overexpressed in Xenopus laevis embryos to study their function in vivo during neural crest cell development. We found that the Zn knuckles are required, but not individually essential, for CNBP biochemical activities, whereas the RGG box is essential for RNA-protein binding and nucleic acid chaperone activity. Removal of the RGG box allowed CNBP to preserve a weak single-stranded-DNA-binding capability. A mutant mimicking the natural N-terminal proteolytic CNBP form behaved as the RGG-deleted mutant. By gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments in Xenopus embryos, we confirmed the participation of CNBP in neural crest development, and we demonstrated that the CNBP mutants lacking the N-terminal region or the RGG box alone may act as dominant negatives in vivo. Based on these data, we speculate about the existence of a specific proteolytic mechanism for the

  2. Neuropilin-1 interacts with the second branchial arch microenvironment to mediate chick neural crest cell dynamics

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Rebecca; Kulesa, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) require neuropilin signaling to reach and invade the branchial arches. Here, we use an in vivo chick model to investigate whether the neuropilin-1 knockdown phenotype is specific to the second branchial arch (ba2), changes in NCC behaviors and phenotypic consequences, and whether neuropilins work together to facilitate entry into and invasion of ba2. We find that cranial NCCs with reduced neuropilin-1 expression displayed shorter protrusions and decreased cell body and nuclear length-to-width ratios characteristic of a loss in polarity and motility, after specific interaction with ba2. Directed NCC migration was rescued by transplantation of transfected cells into rhombomere 4 of younger hosts. Lastly, reduction of neuropilin-2 expression by shRNA either solely or with reduction of neuropilin-1 expression did not lead to a stronger head phenotype. Thus, NCCs, independent of rhombomere origin, require neuropilin-1, but not neuropilin-2 to maintain polarity and directed migration into ba2. PMID:20503363

  3. Molecular Evolution of the Neural Crest Regulatory Network in Ray-Finned Fish

    PubMed Central

    Kratochwil, Claudius F.; Geissler, Laura; Irisarri, Iker; Meyer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gene regulatory networks (GRN) are central to developmental processes. They are composed of transcription factors and signaling molecules orchestrating gene expression modules that tightly regulate the development of organisms. The neural crest (NC) is a multipotent cell population that is considered a key innovation of vertebrates. Its derivatives contribute to shaping the astounding morphological diversity of jaws, teeth, head skeleton, or pigmentation. Here, we study the molecular evolution of the NC GRN by analyzing patterns of molecular divergence for a total of 36 genes in 16 species of bony fishes. Analyses of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios (dN/dS) support patterns of variable selective pressures among genes deployed at different stages of NC development, consistent with the developmental hourglass model. Model-based clustering techniques of sequence features support the notion of extreme conservation of NC-genes across the entire network. Our data show that most genes are under strong purifying selection that is maintained throughout ray-finned fish evolution. Late NC development genes reveal a pattern of increased constraints in more recent lineages. Additionally, seven of the NC-genes showed signs of relaxation of purifying selection in the famously species-rich lineage of cichlid fishes. This suggests that NC genes might have played a role in the adaptive radiation of cichlids by granting flexibility in the development of NC-derived traits—suggesting an important role for NC network architecture during the diversification in vertebrates. PMID:26475317

  4. Controlled levels of canonical Wnt signaling are required for neural crest migration.

    PubMed

    Maj, Ewa; Künneke, Lutz; Loresch, Elisabeth; Grund, Anita; Melchert, Juliane; Pieler, Tomas; Aspelmeier, Timo; Borchers, Annette

    2016-09-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling plays a dominant role in the development of the neural crest (NC), a highly migratory cell population that generates a vast array of cell types. Canonical Wnt signaling is required for NC induction as well as differentiation, however its role in NC migration remains largely unknown. Analyzing nuclear localization of β-catenin as readout for canonical Wnt activity, we detect nuclear β-catenin in premigratory but not migratory Xenopus NC cells suggesting that canonical Wnt activity has to decrease to basal levels to enable NC migration. To define a possible function of canonical Wnt signaling in Xenopus NC migration, canonical Wnt signaling was modulated at different time points after NC induction. This was accomplished using either chemical modulators affecting β-catenin stability or inducible glucocorticoid fusion constructs of Lef/Tcf transcription factors. In vivo analysis of NC migration by whole mount in situ hybridization demonstrates that ectopic activation of canonical Wnt signaling inhibits cranial NC migration. Further, NC transplantation experiments confirm that this effect is tissue-autonomous. In addition, live-cell imaging in combination with biophysical data analysis of explanted NC cells confirms the in vivo findings and demonstrates that modulation of canonical Wnt signaling affects the ability of NC cells to perform single cell migration. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that canonical Wnt signaling needs to be tightly controlled to enable migration of NC cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadherin-11 Mediates Contact Inhibition of Locomotion during Xenopus Neural Crest Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Sarah F. S.; Mayor, Roberto; Kashef, Jubin

    2013-01-01

    Collective cell migration is an essential feature both in embryonic development and cancer progression. The molecular mechanisms of these coordinated directional cell movements still need to be elucidated. The migration of cranial neural crest (CNC) cells during embryogenesis is an excellent model for collective cell migration in vivo. These highly motile and multipotent cells migrate directionally on defined routes throughout the embryo. Interestingly, local cell-cell interactions seem to be the key force for directionality. CNC cells can change their migration direction by a repulsive cell response called contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL). Cell protrusions collapse upon homotypic cell-cell contact and internal repolarization leads to formation of new protrusions toward cell-free regions. Wnt/PCP signaling was shown to mediate activation of small RhoGTPase RhoA and inhibition of cell protrusions at the contact side. However, the mechanism how a cell recognizes the contact is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Xenopus cadherin-11 (Xcad-11) mediated cell-cell adhesion is necessary in CIL for directional and collective migration of CNC cells. Reduction of Xcad-11 adhesive function resulted in higher invasiveness of CNC due to loss of CIL. Additionally, transplantation analyses revealed that CNC migratory behaviour in vivo is non-directional and incomplete when Xcad-11 adhesive function is impaired. Blocking Wnt/PCP signaling led to similar results underlining the importance of Xcad-11 in the mechanism of CIL and directional migration of CNC. PMID:24392028

  6. Redistribution of Adhesive Forces through Src/FAK Drives Contact Inhibition of Locomotion in Neural Crest.

    PubMed

    Roycroft, Alice; Szabó, András; Bahm, Isabel; Daly, Liam; Charras, Guillaume; Parsons, Maddy; Mayor, Roberto

    2018-06-04

    Contact inhibition of locomotion is defined as the behavior of cells to cease migrating in their former direction after colliding with another cell. It has been implicated in multiple developmental processes and its absence has been linked to cancer invasion. Cellular forces are thought to govern this process; however, the exact role of traction through cell-matrix adhesions and tension through cell-cell adhesions during contact inhibition of locomotion remains unknown. Here we use neural crest cells to address this and show that cell-matrix adhesions are rapidly disassembled at the contact between two cells upon collision. This disassembly is dependent upon the formation of N-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions and driven by Src and FAK activity. We demonstrate that the loss of cell-matrix adhesions near the contact leads to a buildup of tension across the cell-cell contact, a step that is essential to drive cell-cell separation after collision. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fibulin-1 is required for morphogenesis of neural crest-derived structures

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Marion A.; Kern, Christine B.; Fresco, Victor M.; Wessels, Andy; Thompson, Robert P.; McQuinn, Tim C.; Twal, Waleed O.; Mjaatvedt, Corey H.; Drake, Christopher J.; Argraves, W. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Here we report that mouse embryos homozygous for a gene trap insertion in the fibulin-1 (Fbln1) gene are deficient in Fbln1 and exhibit cardiac ventricular wall thinning and ventricular septal defects with double outlet right ventricle or overriding aorta. Fbln1 nulls also display anomalies of aortic arch arteries, hypoplasia of the thymus and thyroid, underdeveloped skull bones, malformations of cranial nerves and hemorrhagic blood vessels in the head and neck. The spectrum of malformations is consistent with Fbln1 influencing neural crest cell (NCC)-dependent development of these tissues. This is supported by evidence that Fbln1 expression is associated with streams of cranial NCCs migrating adjacent to rhombomeres 2–7 and that Fbln1-deficient embryos display patterning anomalies of NCCs forming cranial nerves IX and X, which derive from rhombomeres 6 and 7. Additionally, Fbln1-deficient embryos show increased apoptosis in areas populated by NCCs derived from rhombomeres 4, 6 and 7. Based on these findings, it is concluded that Fbln1 is required for the directed migration and survival of cranial NCCs contributing to the development of pharyngeal glands, craniofacial skeleton, cranial nerves, aortic arch arteries, cardiac outflow tract and cephalic blood vessels. PMID:18538758

  8. Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?

    PubMed

    Coste, Cécile; Neirinckx, Virginie; Gothot, André; Wislet, Sabine; Rogister, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs). Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system.

  9. PDGF controls contact inhibition of locomotion by regulating N-cadherin during neural crest migration.

    PubMed

    Bahm, Isabel; Barriga, Elias H; Frolov, Antonina; Theveneau, Eric; Frankel, Paul; Mayor, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental property of neural crest (NC) migration is contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL), a process by which cells change their direction of migration upon cell contact. CIL has been proven to be essential for NC migration in amphibians and zebrafish by controlling cell polarity in a cell contact-dependent manner. Cell contact during CIL requires the participation of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, which starts to be expressed by NC cells as a consequence of the switch between E- and N-cadherins during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanism that controls the upregulation of N-cadherin remains unknown. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) and its ligand platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) are co-expressed in migrating cranial NC. Inhibition of PDGF-A/PDGFRα blocks NC migration by inhibiting N-cadherin and, consequently, impairing CIL. Moreover, we identify phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT as a downstream effector of the PDGFRα cellular response during CIL. Our results lead us to propose PDGF-A/PDGFRα signalling as a tissue-autonomous regulator of CIL by controlling N-cadherin upregulation during EMT. Finally, we show that once NC cells have undergone EMT, the same PDGF-A/PDGFRα works as an NC chemoattractant, guiding their directional migration. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Differentiation of neural crest stem cells from nasal mucosa into motor neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bagher, Zohreh; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Alizadeh, Rafieh; Farhadi, Mohammad; Absalan, Moloud; Falah, Masoumeh; Faghihi, Faezeh; Zare-Sadeghi, Arash; Komeili, Ali

    2018-05-25

    Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic approach for repairing neuropathological and neurodegenerative disorders of central nervous system by replacing the degenerated cells with new ones. Among a variety of stem cell candidates to provide these new cells, olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) have attracted a great attention due to their neural crest origin, easy harvest, high proliferation, and autologous transplantation. Since there is no report on differentiation potential of these cells into motor neuron-like cells, we evaluated this potential using Real-time PCR, flowcytometry and immunocytochemistry after the treatment with differentiation cocktail containing retinoic acid and Sonic Hedgehog. Immunocytochemistry staining of the isolated OE-MSCs demonstrated their capability to express nestin and vimentin, as the two markers of primitive neuroectoderm. The motor neuron differentiation of OE-MSCs resulted in changing their morphology into bipolar cells with high expression of motor neuron markers of ChAT, Hb-9 and Islet-1 at the level of mRNA and protein. Consequently, we believe that the OE-MSCs have great potential to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells and can be an ideal stem cell source for the treatment of motor neuron-related disorders of central nervous system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The receptor tyrosine kinase RET regulates hindgut colonization by sacral neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Delalande, Jean-Marie; Barlow, Amanda J; Thomas, Aaron J; Wallace, Adam S; Thapar, Nikhil; Erickson, Carol A; Burns, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is formed from vagal and sacral neural crest cells (NCC). Vagal NCC give rise to most of the ENS along the entire gut, whereas the contribution of sacral NCC is mainly limited to the hindgut. This, and data from heterotopic quail-chick grafting studies, suggests that vagal and sacral NCC have intrinsic differences in their ability to colonize the gut, and/or to respond to signalling cues within the gut environment. To better understand the molecular basis of these differences, we studied the expression of genes known to be essential for ENS formation, in sacral NCC within the chick hindgut. Our results demonstrate that, as in vagal NCC, Sox10, EdnrB, and Ret are expressed in sacral NCC within the gut. Since we did not detect a qualitative difference in expression of these ENS genes we performed DNA microarray analysis of vagal and sacral NCC. Of 11 key ENS genes examined from the total data set, Ret was the only gene identified as being highly differentially expressed, with a fourfold increase in expression in vagal versus sacral NCC. We also found that over-expression of RET in sacral NCC increased their ENS developmental potential such that larger numbers of cells entered the gut earlier in development, thus promoting the fate of sacral NCC towards that of vagal NCC.

  12. Heparan Sulfate Expression in the Neural Crest is Essential for Mouse Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Carbe, Christian; Pickhinke, Ute; Kupich, Sabine; Ohlig, Stefanie; Frye, Maike; Seelige, Ruth; Pallerla, Srinivas R.; Moon, Anne M.; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Zhang, Xin; Grobe, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Impaired heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis in vertebrate development causes complex malformations due to the functional disruption of multiple HS-binding growth factors and morphogens. Here, we report developmental heart defects in mice bearing a targeted disruption of the HS-generating enzyme GlcNAc N-Deacetylase/GlcN N-Sulfotransferase 1 (NDST1), including ventricular septal defects (VSD), persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA), double outlet right ventricle (DORV), and retroesophageal right subclavian artery (RERSC). These defects closely resemble cardiac anomalies observed in mice made deficient in the cardiogenic regulator fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). Consistent with this, we show that HS-dependent FGF8/FGF-receptor2C assembly and FGF8-dependent ERK-phosphorylation are strongly reduced in NDST1−/− embryonic cells and tissues. Moreover, WNT1-Cre/LoxP-mediated conditional targeting of NDST function in neural crest cells (NCCs) revealed that their impaired HS-dependent development contributes strongly to the observed cardiac defects. These findings raise the possibility that defects in HS biosynthesis may contribute to congenital heart defects in humans that represent the most common type of birth defect. PMID:24200809

  13. Fibronectin promotes differentiation of neural crest progenitors endowed with smooth muscle cell potential

    SciT

    Costa-Silva, Bruno; Programa de Pos-graduacao em Neurociencias, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario - Trindade, 88040-900, Florianopolis, S.C.; Coelho da Costa, Meline

    The neural crest (NC) is a model system used to investigate multipotency during vertebrate development. Environmental factors control NC cell fate decisions. Despite the well-known influence of extracellular matrix molecules in NC cell migration, the issue of whether they also influence NC cell differentiation has not been addressed at the single cell level. By analyzing mass and clonal cultures of mouse cephalic and quail trunk NC cells, we show for the first time that fibronectin (FN) promotes differentiation into the smooth muscle cell phenotype without affecting differentiation into glia, neurons, and melanocytes. Time course analysis indicated that the FN-induced effectmore » was not related to massive cell death or proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Finally, by comparing clonal cultures of quail trunk NC cells grown on FN and collagen type IV (CLIV), we found that FN strongly increased both NC cell survival and the proportion of unipotent and oligopotent NC progenitors endowed with smooth muscle potential. In contrast, melanocytic progenitors were prominent in clonogenic NC cells grown on CLIV. Taken together, these results show that FN promotes NC cell differentiation along the smooth muscle lineage, and therefore plays an important role in fate decisions of NC progenitor cells.« less

  14. Fascin1-Dependent Filopodia are Required for Directional Migration of a Subset of Neural Crest Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Elena F.; Howell, Elizabeth D.; Schilling, Thomas F.; Jette, Cicely A.; Stewart, Rodney A.

    2015-01-01

    Directional migration of neural crest (NC) cells is essential for patterning the vertebrate embryo, including the craniofacial skeleton. Extensive filopodial protrusions in NC cells are thought to sense chemo-attractive/repulsive signals that provide directionality. To test this hypothesis, we generated null mutations in zebrafish fascin1a (fscn1a), which encodes an actin-bundling protein required for filopodia formation. Homozygous fscn1a zygotic null mutants have normal NC filopodia due to unexpected stability of maternal Fscn1a protein throughout NC development and into juvenile stages. In contrast, maternal/zygotic fscn1a null mutant embryos (fscn1a MZ) have severe loss of NC filopodia. However, only a subset of NC streams display migration defects, associated with selective loss of craniofacial elements and peripheral neurons. We also show that fscn1a-dependent NC migration functions through cxcr4a/cxcl12b chemokine signaling to ensure the fidelity of directional cell migration. These data show that fscn1a-dependent filopodia are required in a subset of NC cells to promote cell migration and NC derivative formation, and that perdurance of long-lived maternal proteins can mask essential zygotic gene functions during NC development. PMID:25607881

  15. Human bone marrow harbors cells with neural crest-associated characteristics like human adipose and dermis tissues

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Cécile; Neirinckx, Virginie; Sharma, Anil; Agirman, Gulistan; Rogister, Bernard; Foguenne, Jacques; Lallemend, François

    2017-01-01

    Adult neural crest stem-derived cells (NCSC) are of extraordinary high plasticity and promising candidates for use in regenerative medicine. Several locations such as skin, adipose tissue, dental pulp or bone marrow have been described in rodent, as sources of NCSC. However, very little information is available concerning their correspondence in human tissues, and more precisely for human bone marrow. The main objective of this study was therefore to characterize NCSC from adult human bone marrow. In this purpose, we compared human bone marrow stromal cells to human adipose tissue and dermis, already described for containing NCSC. We performed comparative analyses in terms of gene and protein expression as well as functional characterizations. It appeared that human bone marrow, similarly to adipose tissue and dermis, contains NESTIN+ / SOX9+ / TWIST+ / SLUG+ / P75NTR+ / BRN3A+/ MSI1+/ SNAIL1+ cells and were able to differentiate into melanocytes, Schwann cells and neurons. Moreover, when injected into chicken embryos, all those cells were able to migrate and follow endogenous neural crest migration pathways. Altogether, the phenotypic characterization and migration abilities strongly suggest the presence of neural crest-derived cells in human adult bone marrow. PMID:28683107

  16. Dual developmental role of transcriptional regulator Ets1 in Xenopus cardiac neural crest vs. heart mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuyi; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Ets1 is an important transcription factor that is expressed in both the cardiac neural crest (NC) and heart mesoderm of vertebrate embryos. Moreover, Ets1 deletion in humans results in congenital heart abnormalities. To clarify the functional contributions of Ets1 in cardiac NC vs. heart mesoderm, we performed tissue-targeted loss-of-function analysis to compare the relative roles of Ets1 in these two tissues during heart formation using Xenopus embryos as a model system. Methods and results We confirmed by in situ hybridization analysis that Ets1 is expressed in NC and heart mesoderm during embryogenesis. Using a translation-blocking antisense morpholino to knockdown Ets1 protein selectively in the NC, we observed defects in NC delamination from the neural tube, collective cell migration, as well as segregation of NC streams in the cranial and cardiac regions. Many cardiac NC cells failed to reach their destination in the heart, resulting in defective aortic arch artery formation. A different set of defects was noted when Ets1 knockdown was targeted to heart mesoderm. The formation of the primitive heart tube was dramatically delayed and the endocardial tissue appeared depleted. As a result, the conformation of the heart was severely disrupted. In addition, the outflow tract septum was missing, and trabeculae formation in the ventricle was abolished. Conclusion Our study shows that Ets1 is required in both the cardiac NC and heart mesoderm, albeit for different aspects of heart formation. Our results reinforce the suggestion that proper interaction between these tissues is critical for normal heart development. PMID:25691536

  17. An essential role of variant histone H3.3 for ectomesenchyme potential of the cranial neural crest.

    PubMed

    Cox, Samuel G; Kim, Hyunjung; Garnett, Aaron Timothy; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans; An, Woojin; Crump, J Gage

    2012-09-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a vertebrate-specific cell population that exhibits remarkable multipotency. Although derived from the neural plate border (NPB) ectoderm, cranial NC (CNC) cells contribute not only to the peripheral nervous system but also to the ectomesenchymal precursors of the head skeleton. To date, the developmental basis for such broad potential has remained elusive. Here, we show that the replacement histone H3.3 is essential during early CNC development for these cells to generate ectomesenchyme and head pigment precursors. In a forward genetic screen in zebrafish, we identified a dominant D123N mutation in h3f3a, one of five zebrafish variant histone H3.3 genes, that eliminates the CNC-derived head skeleton and a subset of pigment cells yet leaves other CNC derivatives and trunk NC intact. Analyses of nucleosome assembly indicate that mutant D123N H3.3 interferes with H3.3 nucleosomal incorporation by forming aberrant H3 homodimers. Consistent with CNC defects arising from insufficient H3.3 incorporation into chromatin, supplying exogenous wild-type H3.3 rescues head skeletal development in mutants. Surprisingly, embryo-wide expression of dominant mutant H3.3 had little effect on embryonic development outside CNC, indicating an unexpectedly specific sensitivity of CNC to defects in H3.3 incorporation. Whereas previous studies had implicated H3.3 in large-scale histone replacement events that generate totipotency during germ line development, our work has revealed an additional role of H3.3 in the broad potential of the ectoderm-derived CNC, including the ability to make the mesoderm-like ectomesenchymal precursors of the head skeleton.

  18. An Essential Role of Variant Histone H3.3 for Ectomesenchyme Potential of the Cranial Neural Crest

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Samuel G.; Kim, Hyunjung; Garnett, Aaron Timothy; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans; An, Woojin; Crump, J. Gage

    2012-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a vertebrate-specific cell population that exhibits remarkable multipotency. Although derived from the neural plate border (NPB) ectoderm, cranial NC (CNC) cells contribute not only to the peripheral nervous system but also to the ectomesenchymal precursors of the head skeleton. To date, the developmental basis for such broad potential has remained elusive. Here, we show that the replacement histone H3.3 is essential during early CNC development for these cells to generate ectomesenchyme and head pigment precursors. In a forward genetic screen in zebrafish, we identified a dominant D123N mutation in h3f3a, one of five zebrafish variant histone H3.3 genes, that eliminates the CNC–derived head skeleton and a subset of pigment cells yet leaves other CNC derivatives and trunk NC intact. Analyses of nucleosome assembly indicate that mutant D123N H3.3 interferes with H3.3 nucleosomal incorporation by forming aberrant H3 homodimers. Consistent with CNC defects arising from insufficient H3.3 incorporation into chromatin, supplying exogenous wild-type H3.3 rescues head skeletal development in mutants. Surprisingly, embryo-wide expression of dominant mutant H3.3 had little effect on embryonic development outside CNC, indicating an unexpectedly specific sensitivity of CNC to defects in H3.3 incorporation. Whereas previous studies had implicated H3.3 in large-scale histone replacement events that generate totipotency during germ line development, our work has revealed an additional role of H3.3 in the broad potential of the ectoderm-derived CNC, including the ability to make the mesoderm-like ectomesenchymal precursors of the head skeleton. PMID:23028350

  19. Top-Down Inhibition of BMP Signaling Enables Robust Induction of hPSCs Into Neural Crest in Fully Defined, Xeno-free Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hackland, James O S; Frith, Tom J R; Thompson, Oliver; Marin Navarro, Ana; Garcia-Castro, Martin I; Unger, Christian; Andrews, Peter W

    2017-10-10

    Defects in neural crest development have been implicated in many human disorders, but information about human neural crest formation mostly depends on extrapolation from model organisms. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be differentiated into in vitro counterparts of the neural crest, and some of the signals known to induce neural crest formation in vivo are required during this process. However, the protocols in current use tend to produce variable results, and there is no consensus as to the precise signals required for optimal neural crest differentiation. Using a fully defined culture system, we have now found that the efficient differentiation of hPSCs to neural crest depends on precise levels of BMP signaling, which are vulnerable to fluctuations in endogenous BMP production. We present a method that controls for this phenomenon and could be applied to other systems where endogenous signaling can also affect the outcome of differentiation protocols. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. E-cadherin is required for cranial neural crest migration in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaolie; Kratzer, Marie-Claire; Wedlich, Doris; Kashef, Jubin

    2016-03-15

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile and multipotent embryonic cell population, which migrates directionally on defined routes throughout the embryo, contributing to facial structures including cartilage, bone and ganglia. Cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is known to play a crucial role in the directional migration of CNC cells. However, migrating CNC co-express different cadherin subtypes, and their individual roles have yet to be fully explored. In previous studies, the expression of individual cadherin subtypes has been analysed using different methods with varying sensitivities, preventing the direct comparison of expression levels. Here, we provide the first comprehensive and comparative analysis of the expression of six cadherin superfamily members during different phases of CNC cell migration in Xenopus. By applying a quantitative RT-qPCR approach, we can determine the copy number and abundance of each expressed cadherin through different phases of CNC migration. Using this approach, we show for the first time expression of E-cadherin and XB/C-cadherin in CNC cells, adding them as two new members of cadherins co-expressed during CNC migration. Cadherin co-expression during CNC migration in Xenopus, in particular the constant expression of E-cadherin, contradicts the classical epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) model postulating a switch in cadherin expression. Loss-of-function experiments further show that E-cadherin is required for proper CNC cell migration in vivo and also for cell protrusion formation in vitro. Knockdown of E-cadherin is not rescued by co-injection of other classical cadherins, pointing to a specific function of E-cadherin in mediating CNC cell migration. Finally, through reconstitution experiments with different E-cadherin deletion mutants in E-cadherin morphant embryos, we demonstrate that the extracellular domain, but not the cytoplasmic domain, of E-cadherin is sufficient to rescue CNC cell migration in vivo

  1. Concise Review: Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Adult Neural Crest Stem Cells, and Therapy of Neurological Pathologies: A State of Play

    PubMed Central

    Neirinckx, Virginie; Coste, Cécile; Rogister, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells are endowed with in vitro multilineage differentiation abilities and constitute an attractive autologous source of material for cell therapy in neurological disorders. With regard to lately published results, the ability of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) to integrate and differentiate into neurons once inside the central nervous system (CNS) is currently questioned. For this review, we collected exhaustive data on MSC/NCSC neural differentiation in vitro. We then analyzed preclinical cell therapy experiments in different models for neurological diseases and concluded that neural differentiation is probably not the leading property of adult MSCs and NCSCs concerning neurological pathology management. A fine analysis of the molecules that are secreted by MSCs and NCSCs would definitely be of significant interest regarding their important contribution to the clinical and pathological recovery after CNS lesions. PMID:23486833

  2. Live Imaging of Cell Motility and Actin Cytoskeleton of Individual Neurons and Neural Crest Cells in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Erica; Asuri, Namrata; Clay, Matthew; Halloran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The zebrafish is an ideal model for imaging cell behaviors during development in vivo. Zebrafish embryos are externally fertilized and thus easily accessible at all stages of development. Moreover, their optical clarity allows high resolution imaging of cell and molecular dynamics in the natural environment of the intact embryo. We are using a live imaging approach to analyze cell behaviors during neural crest cell migration and the outgrowth and guidance of neuronal axons. Live imaging is particularly useful for understanding mechanisms that regulate cell motility processes. To visualize details of cell motility, such as protrusive activity and molecular dynamics, it is advantageous to label individual cells. In zebrafish, plasmid DNA injection yields a transient mosaic expression pattern and offers distinct benefits over other cell labeling methods. For example, transgenic lines often label entire cell populations and thus may obscure visualization of the fine protrusions (or changes in molecular distribution) in a single cell. In addition, injection of DNA at the one-cell stage is less invasive and more precise than dye injections at later stages. Here we describe a method for labeling individual developing neurons or neural crest cells and imaging their behavior in vivo. We inject plasmid DNA into 1-cell stage embryos, which results in mosaic transgene expression. The vectors contain cell-specific promoters that drive expression of a gene of interest in a subset of sensory neurons or neural crest cells. We provide examples of cells labeled with membrane targeted GFP or with a biosensor probe that allows visualization of F-actin in living cells1. Erica Andersen, Namrata Asuri, and Matthew Clay contributed equally to this work. PMID:20130524

  3. Cadherin-11 regulates protrusive activity in Xenopus cranial neural crest cells upstream of Trio and the small GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Kashef, Jubin; Köhler, Almut; Kuriyama, Sei; Alfandari, Dominique; Mayor, Roberto; Wedlich, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Xenopus Cadherin-11 (Xcad-11) is expressed when cranial neural crest cells (CNC) acquire motility. However, its function in stimulating cell migration is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Xcad-11 initiates filopodia and lamellipodia formation, which is essential for CNC to populate pharyngeal pouches. We identified the cytoplasmic tail of Xcad-11 as both necessary and sufficient for proper CNC migration as long as it was linked to the plasma membrane. Our results showing that guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)-Trio binds to Xcad-11 and can functionally substitute for it like constitutively active forms of RhoA, Rac, and cdc42 unravel a novel cadherin function. PMID:19528317

  4. Cadherin-11 regulates protrusive activity in Xenopus cranial neural crest cells upstream of Trio and the small GTPases.

    PubMed

    Kashef, Jubin; Köhler, Almut; Kuriyama, Sei; Alfandari, Dominique; Mayor, Roberto; Wedlich, Doris

    2009-06-15

    Xenopus Cadherin-11 (Xcad-11) is expressed when cranial neural crest cells (CNC) acquire motility. However, its function in stimulating cell migration is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Xcad-11 initiates filopodia and lamellipodia formation, which is essential for CNC to populate pharyngeal pouches. We identified the cytoplasmic tail of Xcad-11 as both necessary and sufficient for proper CNC migration as long as it was linked to the plasma membrane. Our results showing that guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)-Trio binds to Xcad-11 and can functionally substitute for it like constitutively active forms of RhoA, Rac, and cdc42 unravel a novel cadherin function.

  5. Balancing neural crest cell intrinsic processes with those of the microenvironment in Tcof1 haploinsufficient mice enables complete enteric nervous system formation

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Amanda J.; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) comprises a complex neuronal network that regulates peristalsis of the gut wall and secretions into the lumen. The ENS is formed from a multipotent progenitor cell population called the neural crest, which is derived from the neuroepithelium. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate over incredible distances to colonize the entire length of the gut and during their migration they must survive, proliferate and ultimately differentiate. The absence of an ENS from variable lengths of the colon results in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) or colonic aganglionosis. Mutations in about 12 different genes have been identified in HSCR patients but the complex pattern of inheritance and variable penetrance suggests that additional genes or modifiers must be involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease. We discovered that Tcof1 haploinsufficiency in mice models many of the early features of HSCR. Neuroepithelial apoptosis diminished the size of the neural stem cell pool resulting in reduced NCC numbers and their delayed migration along the gut from E10.5 to E14.5. Surprisingly however, we observe continued and complete colonization of the entire colon throughout E14.5–E18.5, a period in which the gut is considered to be non- or less-permissive to NCC. Thus, we reveal for the first time that reduced NCC progenitor numbers and delayed migration do not unequivocally equate with a predisposition for the pathogenesis of HSCR. In fact, these deficiencies can be overcome by balancing NCC intrinsic processes of proliferation and differentiation with extrinsic influences of the gut microenvironment. PMID:22228097

  6. Balancing neural crest cell intrinsic processes with those of the microenvironment in Tcof1 haploinsufficient mice enables complete enteric nervous system formation.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Amanda J; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J; Trainor, Paul A

    2012-04-15

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) comprises a complex neuronal network that regulates peristalsis of the gut wall and secretions into the lumen. The ENS is formed from a multipotent progenitor cell population called the neural crest, which is derived from the neuroepithelium. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate over incredible distances to colonize the entire length of the gut and during their migration they must survive, proliferate and ultimately differentiate. The absence of an ENS from variable lengths of the colon results in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) or colonic aganglionosis. Mutations in about 12 different genes have been identified in HSCR patients but the complex pattern of inheritance and variable penetrance suggests that additional genes or modifiers must be involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease. We discovered that Tcof1 haploinsufficiency in mice models many of the early features of HSCR. Neuroepithelial apoptosis diminished the size of the neural stem cell pool resulting in reduced NCC numbers and their delayed migration along the gut from E10.5 to E14.5. Surprisingly however, we observe continued and complete colonization of the entire colon throughout E14.5-E18.5, a period in which the gut is considered to be non- or less-permissive to NCC. Thus, we reveal for the first time that reduced NCC progenitor numbers and delayed migration do not unequivocally equate with a predisposition for the pathogenesis of HSCR. In fact, these deficiencies can be overcome by balancing NCC intrinsic processes of proliferation and differentiation with extrinsic influences of the gut microenvironment.

  7. Distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish Hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

    PubMed

    Ignatius, Myron S; Unal Eroglu, Arife; Malireddy, Smitha; Gallagher, Glen; Nambiar, Roopa M; Henion, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is accomplished by both genetic and epigenetic means and is required for the precise control of the development of the neural crest. In hdac1(b382) mutants, craniofacial cartilage development is defective in two distinct ways. First, fewer hoxb3a, dlx2 and dlx3-expressing posterior branchial arch precursors are specified and many of those that are consequently undergo apoptosis. Second, in contrast, normal numbers of progenitors are present in the anterior mandibular and hyoid arches, but chondrocyte precursors fail to terminally differentiate. In the peripheral nervous system, there is a disruption of enteric, DRG and sympathetic neuron differentiation in hdac1(b382) mutants compared to wildtype embryos. Specifically, enteric and DRG-precursors differentiate into neurons in the anterior gut and trunk respectively, while enteric and DRG neurons are rarely present in the posterior gut and tail. Sympathetic neuron precursors are specified in hdac1(b382) mutants and they undergo generic neuronal differentiation but fail to undergo noradrenergic differentiation. Using the HDAC inhibitor TSA, we isolated enzyme activity and temporal requirements for HDAC function that reproduce hdac1(b382) defects in craniofacial and sympathetic neuron development. Our study reveals distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

  8. Cadherin Switch during EMT in Neural Crest Cells Leads to Contact Inhibition of Locomotion via Repolarization of Forces.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Elena; Szabó, András; Bibonne, Anne; Theveneau, Eric; Parsons, Maddy; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-08-24

    Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process through which cells move away from each other after cell-cell contact, and it contributes to malignant invasion and developmental migration. Various cell types exhibit CIL, whereas others remain in contact after collision and may form stable junctions. To investigate what determines this differential behavior, we study neural crest cells, a migratory stem cell population whose invasiveness has been likened to cancer metastasis. By comparing pre-migratory and migratory neural crest cells, we show that the switch from E- to N-cadherin during EMT is essential for acquisition of CIL behavior. Loss of E-cadherin leads to repolarization of protrusions, via p120 and Rac1, resulting in a redistribution of forces from intercellular tension to cell-matrix adhesions, which break down the cadherin junction. These data provide insight into the balance of physical forces that contributes to CIL in cells in vivo. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Nonsynonymous Mutation in the Transcriptional Regulator lbh Is Associated with Cichlid Craniofacial Adaptation and Neural Crest Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Powder, Kara E.; Cousin, Hélène; McLinden, Gretchen P.; Craig Albertson, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since the time of Darwin, biologists have sought to understand the origins and maintenance of life’s diversity of form. However, the nature of the exact DNA mutations and molecular mechanisms that result in morphological differences between species remains unclear. Here, we characterize a nonsynonymous mutation in a transcriptional coactivator, limb bud and heart homolog (lbh), which is associated with adaptive variation in the lower jaw of cichlid fishes. Using both zebrafish and Xenopus, we demonstrate that lbh mediates migration of cranial neural crest cells, the cellular source of the craniofacial skeleton. A single amino acid change that is alternatively fixed in cichlids with differing facial morphologies results in discrete shifts in migration patterns of this multipotent cell type that are consistent with both embryological and adult craniofacial phenotypes. Among animals, this polymorphism in lbh represents a rare example of a coding change that is associated with continuous morphological variation. This work offers novel insights into the development and evolution of the craniofacial skeleton, underscores the evolutionary potential of neural crest cells, and extends our understanding of the genetic nature of mutations that underlie divergence in complex phenotypes. PMID:25234704

  10. The taming of the neural crest: a developmental perspective on the origins of morphological covariation in domesticated mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Geiger, Madeleine; Schneider, Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Studies on domestication are blooming, but the developmental bases for the generation of domestication traits and breed diversity remain largely unexplored. Some phenotypic patterns of human neurocristopathies are suggestive of those reported for domesticated mammals and disrupting neural crest developmental programmes have been argued to be the source of traits deemed the `domestication syndrome'. These character changes span multiple organ systems and morphological structures. But an in-depth examination within the phylogenetic framework of mammals including domesticated forms reveals that the distribution of such traits is not universal, with canids being the only group showing a large set of predicted features. Modularity of traits tied to phylogeny characterizes domesticated mammals: through selective breeding, individual behavioural and morphological traits can be reordered, truncated, augmented or deleted. Similarly, mammalian evolution on islands has resulted in suites of phenotypic changes like those of some domesticated forms. Many domesticated mammals can serve as valuable models for conducting comparative studies on the evolutionary developmental biology of the neural crest, given that series of their embryos are readily available and that their phylogenetic histories and genomes are well characterized.

  11. Dual Labeling of Neural Crest Cells and Blood Vessels Within Chicken Embryos Using ChickGFP Neural Tube Grafting and Carbocyanine Dye DiI Injection

    PubMed Central

    Delalande, Jean-Marie; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    All developing organs need to be connected to both the nervous system (for sensory and motor control) as well as the vascular system (for gas exchange, fluid and nutrient supply). Consequently both the nervous and vascular systems develop alongside each other and share striking similarities in their branching architecture. Here we report embryonic manipulations that allow us to study the simultaneous development of neural crest-derived nervous tissue (in this case the enteric nervous system), and the vascular system. This is achieved by generating chicken chimeras via transplantation of discrete segments of the neural tube, and associated neural crest, combined with vascular DiI injection in the same embryo. Our method uses transgenic chickGFP embryos for intraspecies grafting, making the transplant technique more powerful than the classical quail-chick interspecies grafting protocol used with great effect since the 1970s. ChickGFP-chick intraspecies grafting facilitates imaging of transplanted cells and their projections in intact tissues, and eliminates any potential bias in cell development linked to species differences. This method takes full advantage of the ease of access of the avian embryo (compared with other vertebrate embryos) to study the co-development of the enteric nervous system and the vascular system. PMID:26065540

  12. Dual labeling of neural crest cells and blood vessels within chicken embryos using Chick(GFP) neural tube grafting and carbocyanine dye DiI injection.

    PubMed

    Delalande, Jean-Marie; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J

    2015-05-28

    All developing organs need to be connected to both the nervous system (for sensory and motor control) as well as the vascular system (for gas exchange, fluid and nutrient supply). Consequently both the nervous and vascular systems develop alongside each other and share striking similarities in their branching architecture. Here we report embryonic manipulations that allow us to study the simultaneous development of neural crest-derived nervous tissue (in this case the enteric nervous system), and the vascular system. This is achieved by generating chicken chimeras via transplantation of discrete segments of the neural tube, and associated neural crest, combined with vascular DiI injection in the same embryo. Our method uses transgenic chick(GFP) embryos for intraspecies grafting, making the transplant technique more powerful than the classical quail-chick interspecies grafting protocol used with great effect since the 1970s. Chick(GFP)-chick intraspecies grafting facilitates imaging of transplanted cells and their projections in intact tissues, and eliminates any potential bias in cell development linked to species differences. This method takes full advantage of the ease of access of the avian embryo (compared with other vertebrate embryos) to study the co-development of the enteric nervous system and the vascular system.

  13. Chlorpyrifos exposure affects fgf8, sox9, and bmp4 expression required for cranial neural crest morphogenesis and chondrogenesis in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele; Carotenuto, Rosa; Pallotta, Maria M; Furia, Maria; Capriglione, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide used primarily to control foliage and soil-borne insect pests on a variety of food and feed crops. In mammals, maternal exposure to CPF has been reported to induce dose-related abnormalities such as slower brain growth and cerebral cortex thinning. In lower vertebrates, for example, fish and amphibians, teratogenic activity of this compound is correlated with several anatomical alterations. Little is known about the effects of CPF on mRNA expression of genes involved in early development of the anatomical structures appearing abnormal in embryos. This study investigated the effects of exposure to different CPF concentrations (10, 15 and 20 mg/L) on Xenopus laevis embryos from stage 4/8 to stage 46. Some of the morphological changes we detected in CPF-exposed embryos included cranial neural crest cell (NCC)-derived structures. For this reason, we analyzed the expression of select genes involved in hindbrain patterning (egr2), cranial neural crest chondrogenesis, and craniofacial development (fgf8, bmp4, sox9, hoxa2 and hoxb2). We found that CPF exposure induced a reduction in transcription of all the genes involved in NCC-dependent chondrogenesis, with largest reductions in fgf8 and sox9; whereas, in hindbrain, we did not find any alterations in egr2 expression. Changes in the expression of fgf8, bmp4, and sox9, which are master regulators of several developmental pathways, have important implications. If these changes are confirmed to belong to a general pattern of alterations in vertebrates prenatally exposed to OP, they might be useful to assess damage during vertebrate embryo development. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:589-604, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nuclear translocation of PKCα isoenzyme is involved in neurogenic commitment of human neural crest-derived periodontal ligament stem cells.

    PubMed

    Trubiani, Oriana; Guarnieri, Simone; Diomede, Francesca; Mariggiò, Maria A; Merciaro, Ilaria; Morabito, Caterina; Cavalcanti, Marcos F X B; Cocco, Lucio; Ramazzotti, Giulia

    2016-11-01

    Stem cells isolated from human adult tissue niche represent a promising source for neural differentiation. Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) originating from the neural crest are particularly suitable for induction of neural commitment. In this study, under xeno-free culture conditions, in undifferentiated hPDLSCs and in hPDLSCs induced to neuronal differentiation by basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, the level of some neural markers have been analyzed. The hPDLSCs spontaneously express Nestin, a neural progenitor marker. In these cells, the neurogenic process induced to rearrange the cytoskeleton, form neurospheres and express higher levels of Nestin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase, indicating neural induction. Protein Kinase C (PKC) is highly expressed in neural tissue and has a key role in neuronal functions. In particular the Ca(2+) and diacylglycerol-dependent activation of PKCα isozyme is involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation. Another main component of the pathways controlling neuronal differentiation is the Growth Associated Protein-43 (GAP-43), whose activity is strictly regulated by PKC. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PKCα/GAP-43 nuclear signal transduction pathway during neuronal commitment of hPDLSCs. During hPDLSCs neurogenic commitment the levels of p-PKC and p-GAP-43 increased both in cytoplasmic and nuclear compartment. PKCα nuclear translocation induced GAP-43 movement to the cytoplasm, where it is known to regulate growth cone dynamics and neuronal differentiation. Moreover, the degree of cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization appeared to be more pronounced in differentiated hPDLSCs than in undifferentiated cells. This study provides evidences of a new PKCα/GAP-43 nuclear signalling pathway that controls neuronal differentiation in hPDLSCs, leading the way to a potential use of these cells in cell-based therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Crested caracara

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; Whaley, W.H.; Ellis, Catherine H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    The crested caracara's range extends from the southern United States south to Tierra del Fuego. Although the caracara has been recorded in all of the southwestern states, it occurs regularly only in southern Arizona and central, southern and coastal Texas. Its distribution is closely linked to the availability of carrion. Throughout its range, thecaracara is associated with open habitats such as desertscrub, grassland and savanna. Nesting pairs usually produce one brood each breeding season, which extends from December through August. Eggs are laid from March into early June and clutch size averages two to three eggs. Young fledge in June and July and may remain with the adults for several weeks. Management recommendations for the crested caracara include clarifying its status in the Southwest. using supplemental feeding and modifying habitats to encourage recolonization of previously occupied areas and movement into new areas.

  16. Search for the Missing lncs: Gene Regulatory Networks in Neural Crest Development and Long Non-coding RNA Biomarkers of Hirschsprung's Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR), a birth defect characterized by variable aganglionosis of the gut, affects about 1 in 5000 births, and is a consequence of abnormal development of neural crest cells, from which enteric ganglia derive. In the companion article in this issue (Shen et...

  17. Face off against ROS: Tcof1/Treacle safeguards neuroepithelial cells and progenitor neural crest cells from oxidative stress during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Daisuke; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    One-third of all congenital birth defects affect the head and face, and most craniofacial anomalies are considered to arise through defects in the development of cranial neural crest cells. Cranial neural crest cells give rise to the majority of craniofacial bones, cartilages and connective tissues. Therefore, understanding the events that control normal cranial neural crest and subsequent craniofacial development is important for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanisms of craniofacial anomalies and for the exploring potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a congenital disorder characterized by severe craniofacial anomalies. An animal model of TCS, generated through mutation of Tcof1, the mouse (Mus musculus) homologue of the gene primarily mutated in association with TCS in humans, has recently revealed significant insights into the pathogenesis of TCS. Apoptotic elimination of neuroepithelial cells including neural crest cells is the primary cause of craniofacial defects in Tcof1 mutant embryos. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that induce tissue-specific apoptosis remains incomplete. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis TCS. Furthermore, we discuss the role of Tcof1 in normal embryonic development, the correlation between genetic and environmental factors on the severity of craniofacial abnormalities, and the prospect for prenatal prevention of craniofacial anomalies. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. Face off against ROS: Tcof1/Treacle safeguards neuroepithelial cells and progenitor neural crest cells from oxidative stress during craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Daisuke; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    One-third of all congenital birth defects affect the head and face, and most craniofacial anomalies are considered to arise through defects in the development of cranial neural crest cells. Cranial neural crest cells give rise to the majority of craniofacial bones, cartilages and connective tissues. Therefore understanding the events that control normal cranial neural crest and subsequent craniofacial development is important for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanisms of craniofacial anomalies and for the exploring potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a congenital disorder characterized by severe craniofacial anomalies. An animal model of TCS, generated through mutation of Tcof1, the mouse (Mus musculus) homologue of the gene primarily mutated in association with TCS in humans, has recently revealed significant insights into the pathogenesis of TCS. Apoptotic elimination of neuroepithelial cells including neural crest cells is the primary cause of craniofacial defects in Tcof1 mutant embryos. However our understanding of the mechanisms that induce tissue-specific apoptosis remains incomplete. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis TCS. Furthermore, we discuss the role of Tcof1 in normal embryonic development, the correlation between genetic and environmental factors on the severity of craniofacial abnormalities, and the prospect for prenatal prevention of craniofacial anomalies. PMID:27481486

  19. Pdgfrα functions in endothelial-derived cells to regulate neural crest cells and the development of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Aghajanian, Haig; Cho, Young Kuk; Rizer, Nicholas W; Wang, Qiaohong; Li, Li; Degenhardt, Karl; Jain, Rajan

    2017-09-01

    Originating as a single vessel emerging from the embryonic heart, the truncus arteriosus must septate and remodel into the aorta and pulmonary artery to support postnatal life. Defective remodeling or septation leads to abnormalities collectively known as conotruncal defects, which are associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Multiple populations of cells must interact to coordinate outflow tract remodeling, and the cardiac neural crest has emerged as particularly important during this process. Abnormalities in the cardiac neural crest have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple conotruncal defects, including persistent truncus arteriosus, double outlet right ventricle and tetralogy of Fallot. However, the role of the neural crest in the pathogenesis of another conotruncal abnormality, transposition of the great arteries, is less well understood. In this report, we demonstrate an unexpected role of Pdgfra in endothelial cells and their derivatives during outflow tract development. Loss of Pdgfra in endothelium and endothelial-derived cells results in double outlet right ventricle and transposition of the great arteries. Our data suggest that loss of Pdgfra in endothelial-derived mesenchyme in the outflow tract endocardial cushions leads to a secondary defect in neural crest migration during development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Genetic disruption of CYP26B1 severely affects development of neural crest derived head structures, but does not compromise hindbrain patterning.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Glenn; Dollé, Pascal; Petkovich, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Cyp26b1 encodes a cytochrome-P450 enzyme that catabolizes retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A derived signaling molecule. We have examined Cyp26b1(-/-) mice and report that mutants exhibit numerous abnormalities in cranial neural crest cell derived tissues. At embryonic day (E) 18.5 Cyp26b1(-/-) animals exhibit a truncated mandible, abnormal tooth buds, reduced ossification of calvaria, and are missing structures of the maxilla and nasal process. Some of these abnormalities may be due to defects in formation of Meckel's cartilage, which is truncated with an unfused distal region at E14.5 in mutant animals. Despite the severe malformations, we did not detect any abnormalities in rhombomere segmentation, or in patterning and migration of anterior hindbrain derived neural crest cells. Abnormal migration of neural crest cells toward the posterior branchial arches was observed, which may underlie defects in larynx and hyoid development. These data suggest different periods of sensitivity of anterior and posterior hindbrain neural crest derivatives to elevated levels of RA in the absence of CYP26B1. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. E-cigarette aerosol exposure can cause craniofacial defects in Xenopus laevis embryos and mammalian neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Allyson E.; Kandalam, Suraj; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Since electronic cigarette (ECIG) introduction to American markets in 2007, vaping has surged in popularity. Many, including women of reproductive age, also believe that ECIG use is safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes and is not hazardous when pregnant. However, there are few studies investigating the effects of ECIG exposure on the developing embryo and nothing is known about potential effects on craniofacial development. Therefore, we have tested the effects of several aerosolized e-cigarette liquids (e-cigAM) in an in vivo craniofacial model, Xenopus laevis, as well as a mammalian neural crest cell line. Results demonstrate that e-cigAM exposure during embryonic development induces a variety of defects, including median facial clefts and midface hypoplasia in two of e-cigAMs tested e-cigAMs. Detailed quantitative analyses of the facial morphology revealed that nicotine is not the main factor in inducing craniofacial defects, but can exacerbate the effects of the other e-liquid components. Additionally, while two different e-cigAMs can have very similar consequences on facial appearances, there are subtle differences that could be due to the differences in e-cigAM components. Further assessment of embryos exposed to these particular e-cigAMs revealed cranial cartilage and muscle defects and a reduction in the blood supply to the face. Finally, the expression of markers for vascular and cartilage differentiation was reduced in a mammalian neural crest cell line corroborating the in vivo effects. Our work is the first to show that ECIG use could pose a potential hazard to the developing embryo and cause craniofacial birth defects. This emphasizes the need for more testing and regulation of this new popular product. PMID:28957438

  2. E-cigarette aerosol exposure can cause craniofacial defects in Xenopus laevis embryos and mammalian neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Allyson E; Kandalam, Suraj; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Dickinson, Amanda J G

    2017-01-01

    Since electronic cigarette (ECIG) introduction to American markets in 2007, vaping has surged in popularity. Many, including women of reproductive age, also believe that ECIG use is safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes and is not hazardous when pregnant. However, there are few studies investigating the effects of ECIG exposure on the developing embryo and nothing is known about potential effects on craniofacial development. Therefore, we have tested the effects of several aerosolized e-cigarette liquids (e-cigAM) in an in vivo craniofacial model, Xenopus laevis, as well as a mammalian neural crest cell line. Results demonstrate that e-cigAM exposure during embryonic development induces a variety of defects, including median facial clefts and midface hypoplasia in two of e-cigAMs tested e-cigAMs. Detailed quantitative analyses of the facial morphology revealed that nicotine is not the main factor in inducing craniofacial defects, but can exacerbate the effects of the other e-liquid components. Additionally, while two different e-cigAMs can have very similar consequences on facial appearances, there are subtle differences that could be due to the differences in e-cigAM components. Further assessment of embryos exposed to these particular e-cigAMs revealed cranial cartilage and muscle defects and a reduction in the blood supply to the face. Finally, the expression of markers for vascular and cartilage differentiation was reduced in a mammalian neural crest cell line corroborating the in vivo effects. Our work is the first to show that ECIG use could pose a potential hazard to the developing embryo and cause craniofacial birth defects. This emphasizes the need for more testing and regulation of this new popular product.

  3. Mice with Tak1 deficiency in neural crest lineage exhibit cleft palate associated with abnormal tongue development.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhongchen; Liu, Chao; Iwata, Junichi; Gu, Shuping; Suzuki, Akiko; Sun, Cheng; He, Wei; Shu, Rong; Li, Lu; Chai, Yang; Chen, YiPing

    2013-04-12

    Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in humans. TGFβ signaling, which is mediated by Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways, plays a crucial role in regulating craniofacial development and patterning, particularly in palate development. However, it remains largely unknown whether the Smad-independent pathway contributes to TGFβ signaling function during palatogenesis. In this study, we investigated the function of TGFβ activated kinase 1 (Tak1), a key regulator of Smad-independent TGFβ signaling in palate development. We show that Tak1 protein is expressed in both the epithelium and mesenchyme of the developing palatal shelves. Whereas deletion of Tak1 in the palatal epithelium or mesenchyme did not give rise to a cleft palate defect, inactivation of Tak1 in the neural crest lineage using the Wnt1-Cre transgenic allele resulted in failed palate elevation and subsequently the cleft palate formation. The failure in palate elevation in Wnt1-Cre;Tak1(F/F) mice results from a malformed tongue and micrognathia, resembling human Pierre Robin sequence cleft of the secondary palate. We found that the abnormal tongue development is associated with Fgf10 overexpression in the neural crest-derived tongue tissue. The failed palate elevation and cleft palate were recapitulated in an Fgf10-overexpressing mouse model. The repressive effect of the Tak1-mediated noncanonical TGFβ signaling on Fgf10 expression was further confirmed by inhibition of p38, a downstream kinase of Tak1, in the primary cell culture of developing tongue. Tak1 thus functions to regulate tongue development by controlling Fgf10 expression and could represent a candidate gene for mutation in human PRS clefting.

  4. FGF and retinoic acid activity gradients control the timing of neural crest cell emigration in the trunk

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Morales, Patricia L.; Diez del Corral, Ruth; Olivera-Martínez, Isabel; Quiroga, Alejandra C.; Das, Raman M.; Barbas, Julio A.; Storey, Kate G.

    2011-01-01

    Coordination between functionally related adjacent tissues is essential during development. For example, formation of trunk neural crest cells (NCCs) is highly influenced by the adjacent mesoderm, but the molecular mechanism involved is not well understood. As part of this mechanism, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and retinoic acid (RA) mesodermal gradients control the onset of neurogenesis in the extending neural tube. In this paper, using gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we show that caudal FGF signaling prevents premature specification of NCCs and, consequently, premature epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) to allow cell emigration. In contrast, rostrally generated RA promotes EMT of NCCs at somitic levels. Furthermore, we show that FGF and RA signaling control EMT in part through the modulation of elements of the bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt signaling pathways. These data establish a clear role for opposition of FGF and RA signaling in control of the timing of NCC EMT and emigration and, consequently, coordination of the development of the central and peripheral nervous system during vertebrate trunk elongation. PMID:21807879

  5. Genetic lineage labeling in zebrafish uncovers novel neural crest contributions to the head, including gill pillar cells.

    PubMed

    Mongera, Alessandro; Singh, Ajeet P; Levesque, Mitchell P; Chen, Yi-Yen; Konstantinidis, Peter; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2013-02-01

    At the protochordate-vertebrate transition, a new predatory lifestyle and increased body size coincided with the appearance of a true head. Characteristic innovations of this head are a skull protecting and accommodating a centralized nervous system, a jaw for prey capture and gills as respiratory organs. The neural crest (NC) is a major ontogenetic source for the 'new head' of vertebrates and its contribution to the cranial skeleton has been intensively studied in different model organisms. However, the role of NC in the expansion of the respiratory surface of the gills has been neglected. Here, we use genetic lineage labeling to address the contribution of NC to specific head structures, in particular to the gills of adult zebrafish. We generated a sox10:ER(T2)-Cre line and labeled NC cells by inducing Cre/loxP recombination with tamoxifen at embryonic stages. In juvenile and adult fish, we identified numerous established NC derivatives and, in the cranium, we precisely defined the crest/mesoderm interface of the skull roof. We show the NC origin of the opercular bones and of multiple cell types contributing to the barbels, chemosensory organs located in the mouth region. In the gills, we observed labeled primary and secondary lamellae. Clonal analysis reveals that pillar cells, a craniate innovation that mechanically supports the filaments and forms gill-specific capillaries, have a NC origin. Our data point to a crucial role for the NC in enabling more efficient gas exchange, thus uncovering a novel, direct involvement of this embryonic tissue in the evolution of respiratory systems at the protochordate-vertebrate transition.

  6. Sonic Hedgehog promotes the survival of neural crest cells by limiting apoptosis induced by the dependence receptor CDON during branchial arch development.

    PubMed

    Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Rama, Nicolas; Brito, José; Le Douarin, Nicole; Mehlen, Patrick

    2014-09-26

    Cell-adhesion molecule-related/Downregulated by Oncogenes (CDO or CDON) was identified as a receptor for the classic morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH). It has been shown that, in cell culture, CDO also behaves as a SHH dependence receptor: CDO actively triggers apoptosis in absence of SHH via a proteolytic cleavage in CDO intracellular domain. We present evidence that CDO is also pro-apoptotic in the developing neural tube where SHH is known to act as a survival factor. SHH, produced by the ventral foregut endoderm, was shown to promote survival of facial neural crest cells (NCCs) that colonize the first branchial arch (BA1). We show here that the survival activity of SHH on neural crest cells is due to SHH-mediated inhibition of CDO pro-apoptotic activity. Silencing of CDO rescued NCCs from apoptosis observed upon SHH inhibition in the ventral foregut endoderm. Thus, the pair SHH/dependence receptor CDO may play an important role in neural crest cell survival during the formation of the first branchial arch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disruption of Smad4 in neural crest cells leads to mid-gestation death with pharyngeal arch, craniofacial and cardiac defects

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xuguang; Deng, Chu-xia; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai

    2008-01-01

    TGFβ/BMP signaling pathways are essential for normal development of neural crest cells (NCCs). Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a critical nuclear mediator of TGFβ/BMP signaling. In this work, we sought to investigate the roles of Smad4 for development of NCCs. To overcome the early embryonic lethality of Smad4 null mice, we specifically disrupted Smad4 in NCCs using a Cre/loxP system. The mutant mice died at mid-gestation with defects in facial primordia, pharyngeal arches, outflow tract and cardiac ventricles. Further examination revealed that mutant embryos displayed severe molecular defects starting from E9.5. Expression of multiple genes, including Msx1, 2, Ap-2α, Pax3, and Sox9, which play critical roles for NCC development, was downregulated by NCC disruption of Smad4. Moreover, increased cell death was observed in pharyngeal arches from E10.5. However, the cell proliferation rate in these areas was not substantially altered. Taken together, these findings provide compelling genetic evidence that Smad4-mediated activities of TGFβ/BMP signals are essential for appropriate NCC development. PMID:18334251

  8. Restricted growth and insulin-like growth factor-1 deficiency in mice lacking presenilin-1 in the neural crest cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Mitsunari; Watanabe, Sono; Okuyama, Satoshi; Shen, Jie; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2012-01-01

    Presenilin-1 (PS1) is a transmembrane protein that is in many cases responsible for the development of early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease. PS1 is essential for neurogenesis, somitogenesis, angiogenesis, and cardiac morphogenesis. We report here that PS1 is also required for maturation and/or maintenance of the pituitary gland. We generated PS1-conditional knockout (PS1-cKO) mice by crossing floxed PS1 and Wnt1-cre mice, in which PS1 was lacking in the neural crest-derived cell lineage. Although the PS1-cKO mice exhibited no obvious phenotypic abnormalities for several days after birth, reduced body weight in the mutant was evident by the age of 3 to 5 weeks. Pituitary weight and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 level were also reduced in the mutant. Histologic analysis revealed severe atrophy of the cytosol in the anterior and intermediate pituitary lobes of the mutant. Immunohistochemistry did not reveal clear differences in the expression levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, or prolactin in the mutant pituitary. In contrast, growth hormone expression levels were reduced in the anterior lobe of the mutant. PS1 was defective in the posterior lobe, but not the anterior or intermediate lobes, in the mutant pituitary. These findings suggest that PS1 indirectly mediates the development and/or maintenance of the anterior and intermediate lobes in the pituitary gland via actions in other regions, such as the posterior lobe. PMID:19665542

  9. Differences in neural crest sensitivity to ethanol account for the infrequency of anterior segment defects in the eye compared with craniofacial anomalies in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eason, Jessica; Williams, Antionette L; Chawla, Bahaar; Apsey, Christian; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2017-09-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with craniofacial and neurologic abnormalities, but infrequently disrupts the anterior segment of the eye. In these studies, we used zebrafish to investigate differences in the teratogenic effect of ETOH on craniofacial, periocular, and ocular neural crest. Zebrafish eye and neural crest development was analyzed by means of live imaging, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, immunostaining, detection of reactive oxygen species, and in situ hybridization. Our studies demonstrated that foxd3-positive neural crest cells in the periocular mesenchyme and developing eye were less sensitive to ETOH than sox10-positive craniofacial neural crest cells that form the pharyngeal arches and jaw. ETOH increased apoptosis in the retina, but did not affect survival of periocular and ocular neural crest cells. ETOH also did not increase reactive oxygen species within the eye. In contrast, ETOH increased ventral neural crest apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in the facial mesenchyme. In the eye and craniofacial region, sod2 showed high levels of expression in the anterior segment and in the setting of Sod2 knockdown, low levels of ETOH decreased migration of foxd3-positive neural crest cells into the developing eye. However, ETOH had minimal effect on the periocular and ocular expression of transcription factors (pitx2 and foxc1) that regulate anterior segment development. Neural crest cells contributing to the anterior segment of the eye exhibit increased ability to withstand ETOH-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. These studies explain the rarity of anterior segment dysgenesis despite the frequent craniofacial abnormalities in fetal alcohol syndrome. Birth Defects Research 109:1212-1227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Design of a high-throughput human neural crest cell migration assay to indicate potential developmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Nyffeler, Johanna; Karreman, Christiaan; Leisner, Heidrun; Kim, Yong Jun; Lee, Gabsang; Waldmann, Tanja; Leist, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Migration of neural crest cells (NCCs) is one of the pivotal processes of human fetal development. Malformations arise if NCC migration and differentiation are impaired genetically or by toxicants. In the currently available test systems for migration inhibition of NCC (MINC), the manual generation of a cell-free space results in extreme operator dependencies, and limits throughput. Here a new test format was established. The assay avoids scratching by plating cells around a commercially available circular stopper. Removal of the stopper barrier after cell attachment initiates migration. This microwell-based circular migration zone NCC function assay (cMINC) was further optimized for toxicological testing of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived NCCs. The challenge of obtaining data on viability and migration by automated image processing was addressed by developing a freeware. Data on cell proliferation were obtained by labelling replicating cells, and by careful assessment of cell viability for each experimental sample. The role of cell proliferation as an experimental confounder was tested experimentally by performing the cMINC in the presence of the proliferation-inhibiting drug cytosine arabinoside (AraC), and by a careful evaluation of mitotic events over time. Data from these studies led to an adaptation of the test protocol, so that toxicant exposure was limited to 24 h. Under these conditions, a prediction model was developed that allows classification of toxicants as either inactive, leading to unspecific cytotoxicity, or specifically inhibiting NC migration at non-cytotoxic concentrations.

  11. Adult epidermal Notch activity induces dermal accumulation of T cells and neural crest derivatives through upregulation of jagged 1

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, Carrie A.; Watt, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    Notch signalling regulates epidermal differentiation and tumour formation via non-cell autonomous mechanisms that are incompletely understood. This study shows that epidermal Notch activation via a 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen-inducible transgene caused epidermal thickening, focal detachment from the underlying dermis and hair clumping. In addition, there was dermal accumulation of T lymphocytes and stromal cells, some of which localised to the blisters at the epidermal-dermal boundary. The T cell infiltrate was responsible for hair clumping but not for other Notch phenotypes. Notch-induced stromal cells were heterogeneous, expressing markers of neural crest, melanocytes, smooth muscle and peripheral nerve. Although Slug1 expression was expanded in the epidermis, the stromal cells did not arise through epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Epidermal Notch activation resulted in upregulation of jagged 1 in both epidermis and dermis. When Notch was activated in the absence of epidermal jagged 1, jagged 1 was not upregulated in the dermis, and epidermal thickening, blister formation, accumulation of T cells and stromal cells were inhibited. Gene expression profiling revealed that epidermal Notch activation resulted in upregulation of several growth factors and cytokines, including TNFα, the expression of which was dependent on epidermal jagged 1. We conclude that jagged 1 is a key mediator of non-cell autonomous Notch signalling in skin. PMID:20940224

  12. Adult epidermal Notch activity induces dermal accumulation of T cells and neural crest derivatives through upregulation of jagged 1.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Carrie A; Watt, Fiona M

    2010-11-01

    Notch signalling regulates epidermal differentiation and tumour formation via non-cell autonomous mechanisms that are incompletely understood. This study shows that epidermal Notch activation via a 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen-inducible transgene caused epidermal thickening, focal detachment from the underlying dermis and hair clumping. In addition, there was dermal accumulation of T lymphocytes and stromal cells, some of which localised to the blisters at the epidermal-dermal boundary. The T cell infiltrate was responsible for hair clumping but not for other Notch phenotypes. Notch-induced stromal cells were heterogeneous, expressing markers of neural crest, melanocytes, smooth muscle and peripheral nerve. Although Slug1 expression was expanded in the epidermis, the stromal cells did not arise through epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Epidermal Notch activation resulted in upregulation of jagged 1 in both epidermis and dermis. When Notch was activated in the absence of epidermal jagged 1, jagged 1 was not upregulated in the dermis, and epidermal thickening, blister formation, accumulation of T cells and stromal cells were inhibited. Gene expression profiling revealed that epidermal Notch activation resulted in upregulation of several growth factors and cytokines, including TNFα, the expression of which was dependent on epidermal jagged 1. We conclude that jagged 1 is a key mediator of non-cell autonomous Notch signalling in skin.

  13. The neural crest is a source of mesenchymal stem cells with specialized hematopoietic stem cell niche function

    PubMed Central

    Isern, Joan; García-García, Andrés; Martín, Ana M; Arranz, Lorena; Martín-Pérez, Daniel; Torroja, Carlos; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteolineage cells contribute to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow of long bones. However, their developmental relationships remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that different MSC populations in the developing marrow of long bones have distinct functions. Proliferative mesoderm-derived nestin− MSCs participate in fetal skeletogenesis and lose MSC activity soon after birth. In contrast, quiescent neural crest-derived nestin+ cells preserve MSC activity, but do not generate fetal chondrocytes. Instead, they differentiate into HSC niche-forming MSCs, helping to establish the HSC niche by secreting Cxcl12. Perineural migration of these cells to the bone marrow requires the ErbB3 receptor. The neonatal Nestin-GFP+ Pdgfrα− cell population also contains Schwann cell precursors, but does not comprise mature Schwann cells. Thus, in the developing bone marrow HSC niche-forming MSCs share a common origin with sympathetic peripheral neurons and glial cells, and ontogenically distinct MSCs have non-overlapping functions in endochondrogenesis and HSC niche formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03696.001 PMID:25255216

  14. Augmented Indian hedgehog signaling in cranial neural crest cells leads to craniofacial abnormalities and dysplastic temporomandibular joint in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Gu, Shuping; Ye, Wenduo; Song, Yingnan; Chen, YiPing

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies have pinpointed the crucial role of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling in the development of the appendicular skeleton and the essential function of Ihh in the formation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this study, we have investigated the effect of augmented Ihh signaling in TMJ development. We took a transgenic gain-of-function approach by overexpressing Ihh in the cranial neural crest (CNC) cells using a conditional Ihh transgenic allele and the Wnt1-Cre allele. We found that Wnt1-Cre-mediated tissue-specific overexpression of Ihh in the CNC lineage caused severe craniofacial abnormalities, including cleft lip/palate, encephalocele, anophthalmos, micrognathia, and defective TMJ development. In the mutant TMJ, the glenoid fossa was completely absent, whereas the condyle and the articular disc appeared relatively normal with slightly delayed chondrocyte differentiation. Our findings thus demonstrate that augmented Ihh signaling is detrimental to craniofacial development, and that finely tuned Ihh signaling is critical for TMJ formation. Our results also provide additional evidence that the development of the condyle and articular disc is independent of the glenoid fossa. PMID:26553654

  15. Delamination of neural crest cells requires transient and reversible Wnt inhibition mediated by Dact1/2.

    PubMed

    Rabadán, M Angeles; Herrera, Antonio; Fanlo, Lucia; Usieto, Susana; Carmona-Fontaine, Carlos; Barriga, Elias H; Mayor, Roberto; Pons, Sebastián; Martí, Elisa

    2016-06-15

    Delamination of neural crest (NC) cells is a bona fide physiological model of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that is influenced by Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Using two in vivo models, we show that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is transiently inhibited at the time of NC delamination. In attempting to define the mechanism underlying this inhibition, we found that the scaffold proteins Dact1 and Dact2, which are expressed in pre-migratory NC cells, are required for NC delamination in Xenopus and chick embryos, whereas they do not affect the motile properties of migratory NC cells. Dact1/2 inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signalling upstream of the transcriptional activity of T cell factor (TCF), which is required for EMT to proceed. Dact1/2 regulate the subcellular distribution of β-catenin, preventing β-catenin from acting as a transcriptional co-activator to TCF, yet without affecting its stability. Together, these data identify a novel yet important regulatory element that inhibits β-catenin signalling, which then affects NC delamination. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. GSK3 and Polo-like kinase regulate ADAM13 function during cranial neural crest cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Cousin, Hélène; Salicioni, Ana Maria; Alfandari, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    ADAMs are cell surface metalloproteases that control multiple biological processes by cleaving signaling and adhesion molecules. ADAM13 controls cranial neural crest (CNC) cell migration both by cleaving cadherin-11 to release a promigratory extracellular fragment and by controlling expression of multiple genes via its cytoplasmic domain. The latter activity is regulated by γ-secretase cleavage and the translocation of the cytoplasmic domain into the nucleus. One of the genes regulated by ADAM13, the protease calpain8, is essential for CNC migration. Although the nuclear function of ADAM13 is evolutionarily conserved, it is unclear whether the transcriptional regulation is also performed by other ADAMs and how this process may be regulated. We show that ADAM13 function to promote CNC migration is regulated by two phosphorylation events involving GSK3 and Polo-like kinase (Plk). We further show that inhibition of either kinase blocks CNC migration and that the respective phosphomimetic forms of ADAM13 can rescue these inhibitions. However, these phosphorylations are not required for ADAM13 proteolysis of its substrates, γ-secretase cleavage, or nuclear translocation of its cytoplasmic domain. Of significance, migration of the CNC can be restored in the absence of Plk phosphorylation by expression of calpain-8a, pointing to impaired nuclear activity of ADAM13. PMID:25298404

  17. Isolation of a transcription factor expressed in neural crest from the region of 22q11 deleted in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciT

    Wadey, R.; Roberts, C.; Daw, S.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions within chromosome 22q11 cause a wide variety of birth defects including DiGeorge syndrome and Shprintzen syndrome. We have defined a commonly deleted region of over 2 Mb, and a critical region of 300 kb. A gene, TUPLE1, has been isolated from this critical region encoding a transcriptional regulator similar to the yeast HIR1 histone regulator gene. Since it has been suggested that DGS results from a defective neural crest, the expression of Tuple1 was examined in whole mouse and chick embryos, tissue sections and neural tube explants: Tuple1 is expressed in a dynamic pattern with high levels in regionsmore » containing migrating crest. Prior to crest migration Tuple1 is expressed in a rhombomere-specific expression pattern. Later Tuple1 is expressed in discrete domains within the developing neural tube. A remarkable feature of the experiments was the detection of a similar dynamic pattern with sense probe; i.e., there is an antisense Tuple1 transcript. This was confirmed using RPA. Tuple1 is being screened for mutations in non-deletion patients and constructs assembled for homologous recombination in ES cells. Tuple1 maps to MMU16 extending the homology of linkage with human chromosome 22. From these data we predict that the human homologue of the murine scid mutation maps to 22q11.« less

  18. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest cells capable of expressing markers of osteochondral or meningeal-choroid plexus differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Hal; Jiang, Jianjie; Sim, Pamela; Kidd, Jennifer; Janus, Jeffrey; Rinon, Ariel; Edgar, Ron; Shitrit, Alina; Larocca, David; Chapman, Karen B; Binette, Francois; West, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptome and fate potential of three diverse human embryonic stem cell-derived clonal embryonic progenitor cell lines with markers of cephalic neural crest are compared when differentiated in the presence of combinations of TGFβ3, BMP4, SCF and HyStem-C matrices. The cell lines E69 and T42 were compared with MEL2, using gene expression microarrays, immunocytochemistry and ELISA. In the undifferentiated progenitor state, each line displayed unique markers of cranial neural crest including TFAP2A and CD24; however, none expressed distal HOX genes including HOXA2 or HOXB2, or the mesenchymal stem cell marker CD74. The lines also showed diverse responses when differentiated in the presence of exogenous BMP4, BMP4 and TGFβ3, SCF, and SCF and TGFβ3. The clones E69 and T42 showed a profound capacity for expression of endochondral ossification markers when differentiated in the presence of BMP4 and TGFβ3, choroid plexus markers in the presence of BMP4 alone, and leptomeningeal markers when differentiated in SCF without TGFβ3. The clones E69 and T42 may represent a scalable source of primitive cranial neural crest cells useful in the study of cranial embryology, and potentially cell-based therapy.

  19. Inactivation of Msx1 and Msx2 in neural crest reveals an unexpected role in suppressing heterotopic bone formation in the head

    PubMed Central

    Roybal, Paul G.; Wu, Nancy L.; Sun, Jingjing; Ting, Man-chun; Schaefer, Christopher; Maxson, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to understand the morphogenetic forces that shape the bones of the skull, we inactivated Msx1 and Msx2 conditionally in neural crest. We show that Wnt1-Cre inactivation of up to three Msx1/2 alleles results in a progressively larger defect in the neural crest-derived frontal bone. Unexpectedly, in embryos lacking all four Msx1/2 alleles, the large defect is filled in with mispatterned bone consisting of ectopic islands of bone between the reduced frontal bones, just anterior to the parietal bones. The bone is derived from neural crest, not mesoderm, and, from DiI cell marking experiments, originates in a normally non-osteogenic layer of cells through which the rudiment elongates apically. Associated with the heterotopic osteogeneis is an upregulation of Bmp signaling in this cell layer. Prevention of this upregulation by implantation of noggin-soaked beads in head explants also prevented heterotopic bone formation. These results suggest that Msx genes have a dual role in calvarial development: They are required for the differentiation and proliferation of osteogenic cells within rudiments, and they are also required to suppress an osteogenic program in a cell layer within which the rudiments grow. We suggest that the inactivation of this repressive activity may be one cause of Wormian bones, ectopic bones that are a feature of a variety of pathological conditions in which calvarial bone development is compromised. PMID:20398647

  20. The ‘Unicorn’ Dinosaur That Wasn’t: A New Reconstruction of the Crest of Tsintaosaurus and the Early Evolution of the Lambeosaurine Crest and Rostrum

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Wagner, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The lambeosaurine Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus has traditionally been reconstructed with an elevated, hollow, spike-like crest composed entirely of the nasal bones, although this has been disputed. Here, we provide a new reconstruction of the skull of this species based on reexamination and reinterpretation of the morphology and articular relationships of the type and Paratype skulls and a fragmentary crest. We confirm the presence of a supracranial crest composed of the elevated nasal bones, but also including the premaxillae. We hypothesize that the crest is a tall, lobate, hollow structure that projects dorsally and slightly caudally a distance greater than the height of the skull along the quadrate. In our reconstruction, the nasal passage passes through the crest, but enters the skull rostral to the tubular process of the nasals, not through it. Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus is rediagnosed on the basis of a suite of cranial autapomorphies including a circumnarial fossa subdivided into three accessory fossae, prefrontal with ascending rostral process and lateral flange, nasals fused sagittally to form elongate tubular process that rises dorsally from skull roof, each nasal being expanded rostrocaudally into a rhomboid distal process, and medial processes of premaxillae at the summit of the cranial crest inserted between rhomboid processes of nasals. Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus lacks characters that are present in more derived lambeosaurines (parasaurolophins and lambeosaurins), such as rotation of the caudal margin of the crest to an acute angle with the skull roof, lateral processes of the nasals that enclose part of the intracranial cavity and participate in the formation of the walls of the common median chamber, and a smooth narial fossa lacking ridges and accessory fossae. We hypothesize that ancestrally the rostrum of lambeosaurines may have been more similar to that in Saurolophinae, and became subsequently reduced in complexity during evolution of the group

  1. The 'Unicorn' dinosaur that wasn't: a new reconstruction of the crest of Tsintaosaurus and the early evolution of the lambeosaurine crest and rostrum.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Wagner, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    The lambeosaurine Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus has traditionally been reconstructed with an elevated, hollow, spike-like crest composed entirely of the nasal bones, although this has been disputed. Here, we provide a new reconstruction of the skull of this species based on reexamination and reinterpretation of the morphology and articular relationships of the type and Paratype skulls and a fragmentary crest. We confirm the presence of a supracranial crest composed of the elevated nasal bones, but also including the premaxillae. We hypothesize that the crest is a tall, lobate, hollow structure that projects dorsally and slightly caudally a distance greater than the height of the skull along the quadrate. In our reconstruction, the nasal passage passes through the crest, but enters the skull rostral to the tubular process of the nasals, not through it. Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus is rediagnosed on the basis of a suite of cranial autapomorphies including a circumnarial fossa subdivided into three accessory fossae, prefrontal with ascending rostral process and lateral flange, nasals fused sagittally to form elongate tubular process that rises dorsally from skull roof, each nasal being expanded rostrocaudally into a rhomboid distal process, and medial processes of premaxillae at the summit of the cranial crest inserted between rhomboid processes of nasals. Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus lacks characters that are present in more derived lambeosaurines (parasaurolophins and lambeosaurins), such as rotation of the caudal margin of the crest to an acute angle with the skull roof, lateral processes of the nasals that enclose part of the intracranial cavity and participate in the formation of the walls of the common median chamber, and a smooth narial fossa lacking ridges and accessory fossae. We hypothesize that ancestrally the rostrum of lambeosaurines may have been more similar to that in Saurolophinae, and became subsequently reduced in complexity during evolution of the group.

  2. Conservation and diversity in the cis-regulatory networks that integrate information controlling expression of Hoxa2 in hindbrain and cranial neural crest cells in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tümpel, Stefan; Maconochie, Mark; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Krumlauf, Robb

    2002-06-01

    The Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 genes are members of paralogy group II and display segmental patterns of expression in the developing vertebrate hindbrain and cranial neural crest cells. Functional analyses have demonstrated that these genes play critical roles in regulating morphogenetic pathways that direct the regional identity and anteroposterior character of hindbrain rhombomeres and neural crest-derived structures. Transgenic regulatory studies have also begun to characterize enhancers and cis-elements for those mouse and chicken genes that direct restricted patterns of expression in the hindbrain and neural crest. In light of the conserved role of Hoxa2 in neural crest patterning in vertebrates and the similarities between paralogs, it is important to understand the extent to which common regulatory networks and elements have been preserved between species and between paralogs. To investigate this problem, we have cloned and sequenced the intergenic region between Hoxa2 and Hoxa3 in the chick HoxA complex and used it for making comparative analyses with the respective human, mouse, and horn shark regions. We have also used transgenic assays in mouse and chick embryos to test the functional activity of Hoxa2 enhancers in heterologous species. Our analysis reveals that three of the critical individual components of the Hoxa2 enhancer region from mouse necessary for hindbrain expression (Krox20, BoxA, and TCT motifs) have been partially conserved. However, their number and organization are highly varied for the same gene in different species and between paralogs within a species. Other essential mouse elements appear to have diverged or are absent in chick and shark. We find the mouse r3/r5 enhancer fails to work in chick embryos and the chick enhancer works poorly in mice. This implies that new motifs have been recruited or utilized to mediate restricted activity of the enhancer in other species. With respect to neural crest regulation, cis-components are embedded among

  3. Musculocontractural Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and neurocristopathies: dermatan sulfate is required for Xenopus neural crest cells to migrate and adhere to fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Gouignard, Nadège; Maccarana, Marco; Strate, Ina; von Stedingk, Kristoffer; Malmström, Anders

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Of all live births with congenital anomalies, approximately one-third exhibit deformities of the head and face. Most craniofacial disorders are associated with defects in a migratory stem and progenitor cell population, which is designated the neural crest (NC). Musculocontractural Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (MCEDS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder with distinct craniofacial features; this syndrome comprises multiple congenital malformations that are caused by dysfunction of dermatan sulfate (DS) biosynthetic enzymes, including DS epimerase-1 (DS-epi1; also known as DSE). Studies in mice have extended our understanding of DS-epi1 in connective tissue maintenance; however, its role in fetal development is not understood. We demonstrate that DS-epi1 is important for the generation of isolated iduronic acid residues in chondroitin sulfate (CS)/DS proteoglycans in early Xenopus embryos. The knockdown of DS-epi1 does not affect the formation of early NC progenitors; however, it impairs the correct activation of transcription factors involved in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduces the extent of NC cell migration, which leads to a decrease in NC-derived craniofacial skeleton, melanocytes and dorsal fin structures. Transplantation experiments demonstrate a tissue-autonomous role for DS-epi1 in cranial NC cell migration in vivo. Cranial NC explant and single-cell cultures indicate a requirement of DS-epi1 in cell adhesion, spreading and extension of polarized cell processes on fibronectin. Thus, our work indicates a functional link between DS and NC cell migration. We conclude that NC defects in the EMT and cell migration might account for the craniofacial anomalies and other congenital malformations in MCEDS, which might facilitate the diagnosis and development of therapies for this distressing condition. Moreover, the presented correlations between human DS-epi1 expression and gene sets of mesenchymal character, invasion and

  4. Prep1.1 has essential genetic functions in hindbrain development and cranial neural crest cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Deflorian, Gianluca; Tiso, Natascia; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Meyer, Dirk; Blasi, Francesco; Bortolussi, Marino; Argenton, Francesco

    2004-02-01

    In this study we analysed the function of the Meinox gene prep1.1 during zebrafish development. Meinox proteins form heterotrimeric complexes with Hox and Pbx members, increasing the DNA binding specificity of Hox proteins in vitro and in vivo. However, a role for a specific Meinox protein in the regulation of Hox activity in vivo has not been demonstrated. In situ hybridization showed that prep1.1 is expressed maternally and ubiquitously up to 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf), and restricted to the head from 48 hpf onwards. Morpholino-induced prep1.1 loss-of-function caused significant apoptosis in the CNS. Hindbrain segmentation and patterning was affected severely, as revealed by either loss or defective expression of several hindbrain markers (foxb1.2/mariposa, krox20, pax2.1 and pax6.1), including anteriorly expressed Hox genes (hoxb1a, hoxa2 and hoxb2), the impaired migration of facial nerve motor neurons, and the lack of reticulospinal neurons (RSNs) except Mauthner cells. Furthermore, the heads of prep1.1 morphants lacked all pharyngeal cartilages. This was not caused by the absence of neural crest cells or their impaired migration into the pharyngeal arches, as shown by expression of dlx2 and snail1, but by the inability of these cells to differentiate into chondroblasts. Our results indicate that prep1.1 has a unique genetic function in craniofacial chondrogenesis and, acting as a member of Meinox-Pbc-Hox trimers, it plays an essential role in hindbrain development.

  5. Augmented BMP signaling in the neural crest inhibits nasal cartilage morphogenesis by inducing p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Satoru; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Pan, Haichun; Mishina, Yuji

    2015-04-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays many roles in skull morphogenesis. We have previously reported that enhanced BMP signaling through the BMP type IA receptor (BMPR1A) in cranial neural crest cells causes craniosynostosis during postnatal development. Additionally, we observed that 55% of Bmpr1a mutant mice show neonatal lethality characterized by a distended gastrointestinal tract. Here, we show that severely affected mutants exhibit defective nasal cartilage, failure of fusion between the nasal septum and the secondary palate, and higher levels of phosphorylated SMAD1 and SMAD5 in the nasal tissue. TUNEL demonstrated an increase in apoptosis in both condensing mesenchymal tissues and cartilage of the nasal region in mutants. The levels of p53 (TRP53) tumor suppressor protein were also increased in the same tissue. Injection of pifithrin-α, a chemical inhibitor of p53, into pregnant mice prevented neonatal lethality while concomitantly reducing apoptosis in nasal cartilage primordia, suggesting that enhanced BMP signaling induces p53-mediated apoptosis in the nasal cartilage. The expression of Bax and caspase 3, downstream targets of p53, was increased in the mutants; however, the p53 expression level was unchanged. It has been reported that MDM2 interacts with p53 to promote degradation. We found that the amount of MDM2-p53 complex was decreased in all mutants, and the most severely affected mutants had the largest decrease. Our previous finding that the BMP signaling component SMAD1 prevents MDM2-mediated p53 degradation coupled with our new data indicate that augmented BMP signaling induces p53-mediated apoptosis by prevention of p53 degradation in developing nasal cartilage. Thus, an appropriate level of BMP signaling is required for proper craniofacial morphogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Why are enteric ganglia so small? Role of differential adhesion of enteric neurons and enteric neural crest cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Benjamin N.; Zhang, Dongcheng; Simkin, Johanna E.; Menheniott, Trevelyan R.; Newgreen, Donald F.

    2015-01-01

    The avian enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of a vast number of unusually small ganglia compared to other peripheral ganglia. Each ENS ganglion at mid-gestation has a core of neurons and a shell of mesenchymal precursor/glia-like enteric neural crest (ENC) cells. To study ENS cell ganglionation we isolated midgut ENS cells by HNK-1 fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from E5 and E8 quail embryos, and from E9 chick embryos. We performed cell-cell aggregation assays which revealed a developmentally regulated functional increase in ENS cell adhesive function, requiring both Ca 2+ -dependent and independent adhesion. This was consistent with N-cadherin and NCAM labelling. Neurons sorted to the core of aggregates, surrounded by outer ENC cells, showing that neurons had higher adhesion than ENC cells. The outer surface of aggregates became relatively non-adhesive, correlating with low levels of NCAM and N-cadherin on this surface of the outer non-neuronal ENC cells. Aggregation assays showed that ENS cells FACS selected for NCAM-high and enriched for enteric neurons formed larger and more coherent aggregates than unsorted ENS cells. In contrast, ENS cells of the NCAM-low FACS fraction formed small, disorganised aggregates.  This suggests a novel mechanism for control of ENS ganglion morphogenesis where i) differential adhesion of ENS neurons and ENC cells controls the core/shell ganglionic structure and ii) the ratio of neurons to ENC cells dictates the equilibrium ganglion size by generation of an outer non-adhesive surface. PMID:26064478

  7. 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET vs. 123I-MIBG in identifying malignant neural crest tumours.

    PubMed

    Naji, Meeran; Zhao, Chunlei; Welsh, Sarah J; Meades, Richard; Win, Zarni; Ferrarese, Annalisa; Tan, Tricia; Rubello, Domenico; Al-Nahhas, Adil

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to compare imaging with (123)I-MIBG and (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE in neural crest tumours (NCT) to see if the latter could offer more advantage in detecting extra lesions and have higher sensitivity for malignant lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients (M = 10, F = 2; age range 20-71 years) with NCT (phaeochromocytomas = 7, paragangliomas = 4, medullary thyroid cancer = 1) who underwent both (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (CT) and (123)I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography within 6 months. Visual assessment of all lesions and measurement of target/non-target (T/N) ratio in selected lesions were performed. Five patients (aged 50 or less) had SDHB screening results correlated with imaging results of both radiopharmaceuticals. All patients had contrast-enhanced CT and/or other cross-sectional imaging. (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE PET showed tumour lesions in ten out of 12 patients with confirmed disease, while (123)I-MIBG showed lesions in five out of 12 patients. In one patient, both (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE PET and (123)I-MIBG were negative, but CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose PET scans identified a lesion in the thorax. (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE and (123)I-MIBG detected a total of 30 lesions, of which 29/30 were positive with (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE and 7/30 with (123)I-MIBG. We also found higher incidence of SDHB positive results in patients with positive (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE. Our limited data suggest that (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE is a better imaging agent for NCT and detects significantly more lesions with higher T/N ratio compared to (123)I-MIBG. (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE was more likely to detect malignant lesions as indicated by correlating imaging results with SDHB screening.

  8. Collagen 18 and agrin are secreted by neural crest cells to remodel their microenvironment and regulate their migration during enteric nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nandor; Barad, Csilla; Hotta, Ryo; Bhave, Sukhada; Arciero, Emily; Dora, David; Goldstein, Allan M

    2018-05-08

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from neural crest cells that migrate, proliferate, and differentiate into enteric neurons and glia within the intestinal wall. Many extracellular matrix (ECM) components are present in the embryonic gut, but their role in regulating ENS development is largely unknown. Here, we identify heparan sulfate proteoglycan proteins, including collagen XVIII (Col18) and agrin, as important regulators of enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCDC) development. In developing avian hindgut, Col18 is expressed at the ENCDC wavefront, while agrin expression occurs later. Both proteins are normally present around enteric ganglia, but are absent in aganglionic gut. Using chick-mouse intestinal chimeras and enteric neurospheres, we show that vagal- and sacral-derived ENCDCs from both species secrete Col18 and agrin. Whereas glia express Col18 and agrin, enteric neurons only express the latter. Functional studies demonstrate that Col18 is permissive whereas agrin is strongly inhibitory to ENCDC migration, consistent with the timing of their expression during ENS development. We conclude that ENCDCs govern their own migration by actively remodeling their microenvironment through secretion of ECM proteins. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and neurocristopathies: dermatan sulfate is required for Xenopus neural crest cells to migrate and adhere to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Gouignard, Nadège; Maccarana, Marco; Strate, Ina; von Stedingk, Kristoffer; Malmström, Anders; Pera, Edgar M

    2016-06-01

    Of all live births with congenital anomalies, approximately one-third exhibit deformities of the head and face. Most craniofacial disorders are associated with defects in a migratory stem and progenitor cell population, which is designated the neural crest (NC). Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (MCEDS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder with distinct craniofacial features; this syndrome comprises multiple congenital malformations that are caused by dysfunction of dermatan sulfate (DS) biosynthetic enzymes, including DS epimerase-1 (DS-epi1; also known as DSE). Studies in mice have extended our understanding of DS-epi1 in connective tissue maintenance; however, its role in fetal development is not understood. We demonstrate that DS-epi1 is important for the generation of isolated iduronic acid residues in chondroitin sulfate (CS)/DS proteoglycans in early Xenopus embryos. The knockdown of DS-epi1 does not affect the formation of early NC progenitors; however, it impairs the correct activation of transcription factors involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduces the extent of NC cell migration, which leads to a decrease in NC-derived craniofacial skeleton, melanocytes and dorsal fin structures. Transplantation experiments demonstrate a tissue-autonomous role for DS-epi1 in cranial NC cell migration in vivo Cranial NC explant and single-cell cultures indicate a requirement of DS-epi1 in cell adhesion, spreading and extension of polarized cell processes on fibronectin. Thus, our work indicates a functional link between DS and NC cell migration. We conclude that NC defects in the EMT and cell migration might account for the craniofacial anomalies and other congenital malformations in MCEDS, which might facilitate the diagnosis and development of therapies for this distressing condition. Moreover, the presented correlations between human DS-epi1 expression and gene sets of mesenchymal character, invasion and metastasis in

  10. Progenitors of Secondary Crest Myofibroblasts are Developmentally Committed in Early Lung Mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changgong; Li, Min; Li, Sha; Xing, Yiming; Yang, Chang-Yo; Li, Aimin; Borok, Zea; De Langhe, Stijn; Minoo, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    Development of the mammalian lung is predicated on cross-communications between two highly interactive tissues, the endodermally-derived epithelium and the mesodermally-derived pulmonary mesenchyme. While much attention has been paid the lung epithelium, the pulmonary mesenchyme, partly due to lack of specific tractable markers remains under-investigated. The lung mesenchyme is derived from the lateral plate mesoderm and is the principal recipient of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, a morphogenetic network that regulates multiple aspects of embryonic development. Using the Hh-responsive Gli1-creERT2 mouse line, we identified the mesodermal targets of Hh signaling at various time points during embryonic and postnatal lung development. Cell lineage analysis showed these cells serve as progenitors to contribute to multiple lineages of mesodermally-derived differentiated cell types that include parenchymal or interstitial myofibroblasts, parabronchial and perivascular smooth muscle as well as rare populations of cells within the mesothelium. Most importantly, Gli1-creERT2 identified the progenitors of secondary crest myofibroblasts, a hitherto intractable cell type that plays a key role in alveolar formation, a vital process about which little is currently known. Transcriptome analysis of Hh-targeted progenitor cells transitioning from the pseudoglandular to the saccular phase of lung development revealed important modulations of key signaling pathways. Amongst these, there was significant down-regulation of canonical WNT signaling. Ectopic stabilization of β-Catenin via inactivation of Apc by Gli1-creERT2 expanded the Hh-targeted progenitor pools, which caused the formation of fibroblastic masses within the lung parenchyma. The Gli1-creERT2 mouse line represents a novel tool in the analysis of mesenchymal cell biology and alveolar formation during lung development. PMID:25448080

  11. Comparative evaluation of iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in assessing neural crest tumors: Will they play a complementary role?

    PubMed

    Kundu, Soumyakanti; Kand, Purushottam; Basu, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has established a role in the evaluation of several malignancies. However, its precise clinical role in the neural crest cell tumors continues to evolve. The purpose of this study was to compare iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-MIBG) and FDG-PET of head to head in patients with neural crest tumors both qualitatively and semiquantitatively and to determine their clinical utility in disease status evaluation and further management. A total of 32 patients who had undergone 131 I-MIBG and FDG-PET prospectively were evaluated and clinicopathologically grouped into three categories: neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, and medullary carcinoma thyroid. In 18 patients of neuroblastoma, FDG PET and 131 I-MIBG showed patient-specific sensitivity of 84% and 72%, respectively. The mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of primary lesions in patients with unfavorable histology was found to be relatively higher than those with favorable histology (5.18 ± 2.38 vs. 3.21 ± 1.69). The mean SUV max of two common sites (posterior superior iliac spine [PSIS] and greater trochanter) was higher in patients with involved marrow than those with uninvolved one (2.36 and 2.75 vs. 1.26 and 1.34, respectively). The ratio of SUV max of the involved/contralateral normal sites was 2.16 ± 1.9. In equivocal bone marrow results, the uptake pattern with SUV estimation can depict metastatic involvement and help in redirecting the biopsy site. Among seven patients of pheochromocytoma, FDG-PET revealed 100% patient-specific sensitivity. FDG-PET detected more metastatic foci than 131 I-MIBG (18 vs. 13 sites). In seven patients of medullary carcinoma thyroid, FDG-PET localized residual, recurrent, or metastatic disease with much higher sensitivity (32 metastatic foci with 72% patient specific sensitivity) than 131 I-MIBG, trending along the higher serum calcitonin levels. FDG-PET is not only a good complementary modality in

  12. Translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM13 to the nucleus is essential for Calpain-8 expression and cranial neural crest cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Hélène; Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Kerdavid, Erin; Gaultier, Alban; Alfandari, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Summary ADAMs are transmembrane metalloproteases that control cell behavior by cleaving both cell adhesion and signaling molecules. The cytoplasmic domain of ADAMs can regulate the proteolytic activity by controlling the subcellular localization and/or the activation of the protease domain. Here we show that the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM13 is cleaved and translocates into the nucleus. Preventing this translocation renders the protein incapable of promoting cranial neural crest (CNC) cell migration in vivo, without affecting its proteolytic activity. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM13 regulates the expression of multiple genes in CNC, including the protease Calpain8-a. Restoring the expression of Calpain8-a is sufficient to rescue CNC migration in the absence of the ADAM13 cytoplasmic domain. This study shows that the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM metalloproteases can perform essential functions in the nucleus of cells and may contribute substantially to the overall function of the protein. PMID:21316592

  13. In vitro cementoblast-like differentiation of postmigratory neural crest-derived p75{sup +} stem cells with dental follicle cell conditioned medium

    SciT

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing

    Cranial neural crest-derived cells (CNCCs) play important role in epithelial–mesenchymal interactions during tooth morphogenesis. However, the heterogeneity of CNCCs and their tendency to spontaneously differentiate along smooth muscle or osteoblast lineages in vitro limit further understanding of their biological properties. We studied the differentiation properties of isolated rat embryonic postmigratory CNCCs, expressing p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). These p75NTR positive (p75{sup +}) CNCCs, isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorter, exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Incubation of p75{sup +} CNCCs in dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) combined with dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs), altered their morphological features tomore » cementoblast-like appearance. These cells also showed low proliferative activity, high ALP activity and significantly increased calcified nodule formation. Markers related to mineralization or specific to cementoblast lineage were highly expressed in dNCPs/DFCCM-treated p75{sup +} cells, suggesting their differentiation along cementoblast-like lineage. p75{sup +} stem cells selected from postmigratory CNCCs represent a pure stem cell population and could be used as a stem cell model for in vitro studies due to their intrinsic ability to differentiate to neuronal cells and transform from neuroectoderm to ectomesenchyme. They can provide a potential stem cell resource for tooth engineering studies and help to further investigate mechanisms of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in tooth morphogenesis. - Highlights: • Cranial neural crest-derived cells (CNCCs) take part in tooth morphogenesis. • positive (p75{sup +}) CNCCs are fibroblast-like and resemble mesenchymal stem cells. • p75{sup +} CNCCs in dental follicle cell medium (DFCCM/dNCP) appear like cementoblasts. • DFCCM/dNCP-treated p75{sup +} cells express cementoblast specific

  14. Evolution of vertebrates: a view from the crest

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Marianne E.

    2016-01-01

    The origin of vertebrates was accompanied by the advent of a novel cell type: the neural crest. Emerging from the central nervous system, these cells migrate to diverse locations and differentiate into numerous derivatives. By coupling morphological and gene regulatory information from vertebrates and other chordates, we describe how addition of the neural crest specification program may have enabled cells at the neural plate border to acquire multipotency and migratory ability. Analyzing the topology of the neural crest gene regulatory network can serve as a useful template for understanding vertebrate evolution, including elaboration of neural crest derivatives. PMID:25903629

  15. EGF–FGF{sub 2} stimulates the proliferation and improves the neuronal commitment of mouse epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs)

    SciT

    Bressan, Raul Bardini; Melo, Fernanda Rosene; Almeida, Patricia Alves

    Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs), which reside in the bulge of hair follicles, are attractive candidates for several applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. As suggested remnants of the embryonic neural crest (NC) in an adult location, EPI-NCSCs are able to generate a wide variety of cell types and are readily accessible by a minimally invasive procedure. Since the combination of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor type 2 (FGF{sub 2}) is mitogenic and promotes the neuronal commitment of various stem cell populations, we examined its effects in the proliferation and neuronal potential ofmore » mouse EPI-NCSCs. By using a recognized culture protocol of bulge whiskers follicles, we were able to isolate a population of EPI-NCSCs, characterized by the migratory potential, cell morphology and expression of phenotypic markers of NC cells. EPI-NCSCs expressed neuronal, glial and smooth muscle markers and exhibited the NC-like fibroblastic morphology. The treatment with the combination EGF and FGF{sub 2}, however, increased their proliferation rate and promoted the acquisition of a neuronal-like morphology accompanied by reorganization of neural cytoskeletal proteins βIII-tubulin and nestin, as well as upregulation of the pan neuronal marker βIII-tubulin and down regulation of the undifferentiated NC, glial and smooth muscle cell markers. Moreover, the treatment enhanced the response of EPI-NCSCs to neurogenic stimulation, as evidenced by induction of GAP43, and increased expression of Mash-1 in neuron-like cell, both neuronal-specific proteins. Together, the results suggest that the combination of EGF–FGF2 stimulates the proliferation and improves the neuronal potential of EPI-NCSCs similarly to embryonic NC cells, ES cells and neural progenitor/stem cells of the central nervous system and highlights the advantage of using EGF–FGF{sub 2} in neuronal differentiation protocols. - Highlights: • EPI

  16. Murine neural crest stem cells and embryonic stem cell-derived neuron precursors survive and differentiate after transplantation in a model of dorsal root avulsion.

    PubMed

    Konig, Niclas; Trolle, Carl; Kapuralin, Katarina; Adameyko, Igor; Mitrecic, Dinko; Aldskogius, Hakan; Shortland, Peter J; Kozlova, Elena N

    2017-01-01

    Spinal root avulsion results in paralysis and sensory loss, and is commonly associated with chronic pain. In addition to the failure of avulsed dorsal root axons to regenerate into the spinal cord, avulsion injury leads to extensive neuroinflammation and degeneration of second-order neurons in the dorsal horn. The ultimate objective in the treatment of this condition is to counteract degeneration of spinal cord neurons and to achieve functionally useful regeneration/reconnection of sensory neurons with spinal cord neurons. Here we compare survival and migration of murine boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived, predifferentiated neuron precursors after their implantation acutely at the junction between avulsed dorsal roots L3-L6 and the spinal cord. Both types of cells survived transplantation, but showed distinctly different modes of migration. Thus, bNCSCs migrated into the spinal cord, expressed glial markers and formed elongated tubes in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) compartment of the avulsed dorsal root transitional zone (DRTZ) area. In contrast, the ESC transplants remained at the site of implantation and differentiated to motor neurons and interneurons. These data show that both stem cell types successfully survived implantation to the acutely injured spinal cord and maintained their differentiation and migration potential. These data suggest that, depending on the source of neural stem cells, they can play different beneficial roles for recovery after dorsal root avulsion. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Gene expression profiling analysis of the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bin; Zou, Yang; Xu, Zhiling; Lv, Yonggang

    2017-11-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a noninvasive technique that has been shown to affect cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation and promote the regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve. Our previous studies had proved that LIPUS can significantly promote the neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells (iPSCs-NCSCs) and enhance the repair of rat-transected sciatic nerve. To further explore the underlying mechanisms of LIPUS treatment of iPSCs-NCSCs, this study reported the gene expression profiling analysis of iPSCs-NCSCs before and after LIPUS treatment using the RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) method. It was found that expression of 76 genes of iPSCs-NCSCs cultured in a serum-free neural induction medium and expression of 21 genes of iPSCs-NCSCs cultured in a neuronal differentiation medium were significantly changed by LIPUS treatment. The differentially expressed genes are related to angiogenesis, nervous system activity and functions, cell activities, and so on. The RNA-seq results were further verified by a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). High correlation was observed between the results obtained from qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq. This study presented new information on the global gene expression patterns of iPSCs-NCSCs after LIPUS treatment and may expand the understanding of the complex molecular mechanism of LIPUS treatment of iPSCs-NCSCs. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. The retinoic acid signaling pathway regulates anterior/posterior patterning in the nerve cord and pharynx of amphioxus, a chordate lacking neural crest.

    PubMed

    Escriva, Hector; Holland, Nicholas D; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z

    2002-06-01

    Amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, has a notochord, segmental axial musculature, pharyngeal gill slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord, but lacks neural crest. In amphioxus, as in vertebrates, exogenous retinoic acid (RA) posteriorizes the embryo. The mouth and gill slits never form, AmphiPax1, which is normally downregulated where gill slits form, remains upregulated and AmphiHox1 expression shifts anteriorly in the nerve cord. To dissect the role of RA signaling in patterning chordate embryos, we have cloned the single retinoic acid receptor (AmphiRAR), retinoid X receptor (AmphiRXR) and an orphan receptor (AmphiTR2/4) from amphioxus. AmphiTR2/4 inhibits AmphiRAR-AmphiRXR-mediated transactivation in the presence of RA by competing for DR5 or IR7 retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). The 5' untranslated region of AmphiTR2/4 contains an IR7 element, suggesting possible auto- and RA-regulation. The patterns of AmphiTR2/4 and AmphiRAR expression during embryogenesis are largely complementary: AmphiTR2/4 is strongly expressed in the cerebral vesicle (homologous to the diencephalon plus anterior midbrain), while AmphiRAR expression is high in the equivalent of the hindbrain and spinal cord. Similarly, while AmphiTR2/4 is expressed most strongly in the anterior and posterior thirds of the endoderm, the highest AmphiRAR expression is in the middle third. Expression of AmphiRAR is upregulated by exogenous RA and completely downregulated by the RA antagonist BMS009. Moreover, BMS009 expands the pharynx posteriorly; the first three gill slit primordia are elongated and shifted posteriorly, but do not penetrate, and additional, non-penetrating gill slit primordia are induced. Thus, in an organism without neural crest, initiation and penetration of gill slits appear to be separate events mediated by distinct levels of RA signaling in the pharyngeal endoderm. Although these compounds have little effect on levels of AmphiTR2/4 expression, RA

  19. The retinoic acid signaling pathway regulates anterior/posterior patterning in the nerve cord and pharynx of amphioxus, a chordate lacking neural crest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escriva, Hector; Holland, Nicholas D.; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z.

    2002-01-01

    Amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, has a notochord, segmental axial musculature, pharyngeal gill slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord, but lacks neural crest. In amphioxus, as in vertebrates, exogenous retinoic acid (RA) posteriorizes the embryo. The mouth and gill slits never form, AmphiPax1, which is normally downregulated where gill slits form, remains upregulated and AmphiHox1 expression shifts anteriorly in the nerve cord. To dissect the role of RA signaling in patterning chordate embryos, we have cloned the single retinoic acid receptor (AmphiRAR), retinoid X receptor (AmphiRXR) and an orphan receptor (AmphiTR2/4) from amphioxus. AmphiTR2/4 inhibits AmphiRAR-AmphiRXR-mediated transactivation in the presence of RA by competing for DR5 or IR7 retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). The 5' untranslated region of AmphiTR2/4 contains an IR7 element, suggesting possible auto- and RA-regulation. The patterns of AmphiTR2/4 and AmphiRAR expression during embryogenesis are largely complementary: AmphiTR2/4 is strongly expressed in the cerebral vesicle (homologous to the diencephalon plus anterior midbrain), while AmphiRAR expression is high in the equivalent of the hindbrain and spinal cord. Similarly, while AmphiTR2/4 is expressed most strongly in the anterior and posterior thirds of the endoderm, the highest AmphiRAR expression is in the middle third. Expression of AmphiRAR is upregulated by exogenous RA and completely downregulated by the RA antagonist BMS009. Moreover, BMS009 expands the pharynx posteriorly; the first three gill slit primordia are elongated and shifted posteriorly, but do not penetrate, and additional, non-penetrating gill slit primordia are induced. Thus, in an organism without neural crest, initiation and penetration of gill slits appear to be separate events mediated by distinct levels of RA signaling in the pharyngeal endoderm. Although these compounds have little effect on levels of AmphiTR2/4 expression, RA

  20. Impaired Cellular Immunity in the Murine Neural Crest Conditional Deletion of Endothelin Receptor-B Model of Hirschsprung’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gosain, Ankush; Barlow-Anacker, Amanda J.; Erickson, Chris S.; Pierre, Joseph F.; Heneghan, Aaron F.; Epstein, Miles L.; Kudsk, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is characterized by aganglionosis from failure of neural crest cell (NCC) migration to the distal hindgut. Up to 40% of HSCR patients suffer Hirschsprung’s-associated enterocolitis (HAEC), with an incidence that is unchanged from the pre-operative to the post-operative state. Recent reports indicate that signaling pathways involved in NCC migration may also be involved in the development of secondary lymphoid organs. We hypothesize that gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal immune defects occur in HSCR that may contribute to enterocolitis. EdnrB was deleted from the neural crest (EdnrB NCC-/-) resulting in mutants with defective NCC migration, distal colonic aganglionosis and the development of enterocolitis. The mucosal immune apparatus of these mice was interrogated at post-natal day (P) 21–24, prior to histological signs of enterocolitis. We found that EdnrB NCC-/- display lymphopenia of their Peyer’s Patches, the major inductive site of GI mucosal immunity. EdnrB NCC-/- Peyer’s Patches demonstrate decreased B-lymphocytes, specifically IgM+IgDhi (Mature) B-lymphocytes, which are normally activated and produce IgA following antigen presentation. EdnrB NCC-/- animals demonstrate decreased small intestinal secretory IgA, but unchanged nasal and bronchial airway secretory IgA, indicating a gut-specific defect in IgA production or secretion. In the spleen, which is the primary source of IgA-producing Mature B-lymphocytes, EdnrB NCC-/- animals display decreased B-lymphocytes, but an increase in Mature B-lymphocytes. EdnrB NCC-/- spleens are also small and show altered architecture, with decreased red pulp and a paucity of B-lymphocytes in the germinal centers and marginal zone. Taken together, these findings suggest impaired GI mucosal immunity in EdnrB NCC-/- animals, with the spleen as a potential site of the defect. These findings build upon the growing body of literature that suggests that intestinal defects in HSCR are not

  1. Prediction and characterisation of a highly conserved, remote and cAMP responsive enhancer that regulates Msx1 gene expression in cardiac neural crest and outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kerry Ann; Davidson, Scott; Liaros, Angela; Barrow, John; Lear, Marissa; Heine, Danielle; Hoppler, Stefan; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2008-05-15

    Double knockouts of the Msx1 and Msx2 genes in the mouse result in severe cardiac outflow tract malformations similar to those frequently found in newborn infants. Despite the known role of the Msx genes in cardiac formation little is known of the regulatory systems (ligand receptor, signal transduction and protein-DNA interactions) that regulate the tissue-specific expression of the Msx genes in mammals during the formation of the outflow tract. In the present study we have used a combination of multi-species comparative genomics, mouse transgenic analysis and in-situ hybridisation to predict and validate the existence of a remote ultra-conserved enhancer that supports the expression of the Msx1 gene in migrating mouse cardiac neural crest and the outflow tract primordia. Furthermore, culturing of embryonic explants derived from transgenic lines with agonists of the PKC and PKA signal transduction systems demonstrates that this remote enhancer is influenced by PKA but not PKC dependent gene regulatory systems. These studies demonstrate the efficacy of combining comparative genomics and transgenic analyses and provide a platform for the study of the possible roles of Msx gene mis-regulation in the aetiology of congenital heart malformation.

  2. FGF8 signaling sustains progenitor status and multipotency of cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Meiying; Liu, Chao; Song, Yingnan; Ye, Wenduo; He, Wei; Yuan, Guohua; Gu, Shuping; Lin, Congxin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yanding; Tian, Weidong; Hu, Tao; Chen, YiPing

    2015-01-01

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) cells play a vital role in craniofacial development and regeneration. They are multi-potent progenitors, being able to differentiate into various types of tissues. Both pre-migratory and post-migratory CNC cells are plastic, taking on diverse fates by responding to different inductive signals. However, what sustains the multipotency of CNC cells and derivatives remains largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence that FGF8 signaling is able to sustain progenitor status and multipotency of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells both in vivo and in vitro. We show that augmented FGF8 signaling in pre-migratory CNC cells prevents cell differentiation and organogenesis in the craniofacial region by maintaining their progenitor status. CNC-derived mesenchymal cells with Fgf8 overexpression or control cells in the presence of exogenous FGF8 exhibit prolonged survival, proliferation, and multi-potent differentiation capability in cell cultures. Remarkably, exogenous FGF8 also sustains the capability of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells to participate in organogenesis such as odontogenesis. Furthermore, FGF8-mediated signaling strongly promotes adipogenesis but inhibits osteogenesis of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Our results reveal a specific role for FGF8 in the maintenance of progenitor status and in fate determination of CNC cells, implicating a potential application in expansion and fate manipulation of CNC-derived cells in stem cell-based craniofacial regeneration. PMID:26243590

  3. A New Wnt1-CRE TomatoRosa Embryonic Stem Cell Line: A Tool for Studying Neural Crest Cell Integration Capacity.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Mendoza, Soledad; Martin, Sabrina; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine; Ribes, Sandy; Thalgott, Jérémy; Chaussain, Catherine; Creuzet, Sophie; Lesot, Hervé; Lebrin, Franck; Poliard, Anne

    2017-12-01

    Neural crest (NC) cells are a migratory, multipotent population giving rise to numerous lineages in the embryo. Their plasticity renders attractive their use in tissue engineering-based therapies, but further knowledge on their in vivo behavior is required before clinical transfer may be envisioned. We here describe the isolation and characterization of a new mouse embryonic stem (ES) line derived from Wnt1-CRE-R26 Rosa TomatoTdv blastocyst and show that it displays the characteristics of typical ES cells. Further, these cells can be efficiently directed toward an NC stem cell-like phenotype as attested by concomitant expression of NC marker genes and Tomato fluorescence. As native NC progenitors, they are capable of differentiating toward typical derivative phenotypes and interacting with embryonic tissues to participate in the formation of neo-structures. Their specific fluorescence allows purification and tracking in vivo. This cellular tool should facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms driving NC fate specification and help identify the key interactions developed within a tissue after in vivo implantation. Altogether, this novel model may provide important knowledge to optimize NC stem cell graft conditions, which are required for efficient tissue repair.

  4. ChIP-Chip Identifies SEC23A, CFDP1, and NSD1 as TFII-I Target Genes in Human Neural Crest Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Makeyev, Aleksandr V; Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2013-05-01

    Objectives :  GTF2I and GTF2IRD1 genes located in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) critical region encode TFII-I family transcription factors. The aim of this study was to map genomic sites bound by these proteins across promoter regions of developmental regulators associated with craniofacial development. Design :  Chromatin was isolated from human neural crest progenitor cells and the DNA-binding profile was generated using the human RefSeq tiling promoter ChIP-chip arrays. Results :  TFII-I transcription factors are recruited to the promoters of SEC23A, CFDP1, and NSD1 previously defined as TFII-I target genes. Moreover, our analysis revealed additional binding elements that contain E-boxes and initiator-like motifs. Conclusions :  Genome-wide promoter binding studies revealed SEC23A, CFDP1, and NSD1 linked to craniofacial or dental development as direct TFII-I targets. Developmental regulation of these genes by TFII-I factors could contribute to the WBS-specific facial dysmorphism.

  5. ADAM13 function is required in the 3 dimensional context of the embryo during cranial neural crest cell migration in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Hélène; Abbruzzese, Genevieve; McCusker, Catherine; Alfandari, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a population of cells that arises from the lateral part of the developing brain, migrates ventrally and coordinates the entire craniofacial development of vertebrates. Many molecules are involved in CNC migration including the transmembrane metalloproteases ADAM13 and 19. We have previously shown that these ADAMs cleave a number of extracellular proteins and modify the transcription of a number of genes, and that both of these activities are important for cell migration. Here we show that the knock down of ADAM13 inhibits CNC migration in vivo but not in vitro, indicating that ADAM13 function is required in the 3-dimentional context of the embryo. We further show that the migration of CNC that do not express ADAM13 and ADAM19 can be rescued in vivo by co-grafting wild type CNC. Furthermore, the migration of CNC lacking ADAM13 can be rescued by mechanically separating the CNC from the surrounding ectoderm and mesoderm. Finally, we show that ADAM13 function is autonomous to CNC tissue, as the migration of morphant CNC can only be rescued by ADAM13 expression in the CNC and not the surrounding tissues. Together our results suggest that ADAM13 changes CNC interaction with the extracellular environment and that this change is necessary for their migration in vivo. PMID:22683825

  6. Decreased proliferative, migrative and neuro-differentiative potential of postnatal rat enteric neural crest-derived cells during culture in vitro

    SciT

    Yu, Hui; Institute of Neurobiology, Environment and Genes Related to Diseases Key Laboratory of Chinese Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 96, Yan Ta Xi Road, Xi’an 710061, Shaanxi; Pan, Wei-Kang

    A growing body of evidence supports the potential use of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) as a cell replacement therapy for Hirschsprung's disease. Based on previous observations of robust propagation of primary ENCCs, as opposed to their progeny, it is suggested that their therapeutic potential after in vitro expansion may be restricted. We therefore examined the growth and differentiation activities and phenotypic characteristics of continuous ENCC cultures. ENCCs were isolated from the intestines of postnatal rats and were identified using an immunocytochemical approach. During continuous ENCC culture expansion, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation potentials were monitored. The Cell Counting Kit-8more » was used for assessment of ENCC vitality, Transwell inserts for cell migration, immunocytochemistry for cell counts and identification, and flow cytometry for apoptosis. Over six continuous generations, ENCC proliferation potency was reduced and with prolonged culture, the ratio of migratory ENCCs was decreased. The percentage of apoptosis showed an upward trend with prolonged intragenerational culture, but showed a downward trend with prolonged culture of combined generations. Furthermore, the percentage of peripherin{sup +} cells decreased whilst the percentage of GFAP{sup +} cells increased with age. The results demonstrated that alterations in ENCC growth characteristics occur with increased culture time, which may partially account for the poor results of proposed cell therapies. - Highlights: • Differences were identified between primary and daughter ENCCs. • Daughter ENCCs had reduced proliferation, migration and differentiation. • Daughter ENCCs also had increased apoptosis. • These altered characteristics warrant further investigation.« less

  7. Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Like Cells Derived From Human iPSCs via Neural Crest Development and Their Application for Osteochondral Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ikeya, Makoto; Yasui, Yukihiko; Ikeda, Yasutoshi; Ebina, Kosuke; Moriguchi, Yu; Shimomura, Kazunori; Hideki, Yoshikawa

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising cell source for the repair of skeletal disorders. Recently, neural crest cells (NCCs) were reported to be effective for inducing mesenchymal progenitors, which have potential to differentiate into osteochondral lineages. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of MSC-like cells originated from iPSCs via NCCs for osteochondral repair. Initially, MSC-like cells derived from iPSC-NCCs (iNCCs) were generated and characterized in vitro. These iNCC-derived MSC-like cells (iNCMSCs) exhibited a homogenous population and potential for osteochondral differentiation. No upregulation of pluripotent markers was detected during culture. Second, we implanted iNCMSC-derived tissue-engineered constructs into rat osteochondral defects without any preinduction for specific differentiation lineages. The implanted cells remained alive at the implanted site, whereas they failed to repair the defects, with only scarce development of osteochondral tissue in vivo. With regard to tumorigenesis, the implanted cells gradually disappeared and no malignant cells were detected throughout the 2-month follow-up. While this study did not show that iNCMSCs have efficacy for repair of osteochondral defects when implanted under undifferentiated conditions, iNCMSCs exhibited good chondrogenic potential in vitro under appropriate conditions. With further optimization, iNCMSCs may be a new source for tissue engineering of cartilage. PMID:28607560

  8. An orthologue of the kit-related gene fms is required for development of neural crest-derived xanthophores and a subpopulation of adult melanocytes in the zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Parichy, D M; Ransom, D G; Paw, B; Zon, L I; Johnson, S L

    2000-07-01

    Developmental mechanisms underlying traits expressed in larval and adult vertebrates remain largely unknown. Pigment patterns of fishes provide an opportunity to identify genes and cell behaviors required for postembryonic morphogenesis and differentiation. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment patterns reflect the spatial arrangements of three classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells: black melanocytes, yellow xanthophores and silver iridophores. We show that the D. rerio pigment pattern mutant panther ablates xanthophores in embryos and adults and has defects in the development of the adult pattern of melanocyte stripes. We find that panther corresponds to an orthologue of the c-fms gene, which encodes a type III receptor tyrosine kinase and is the closest known homologue of the previously identified pigment pattern gene, kit. In mouse, fms is essential for the development of macrophage and osteoclast lineages and has not been implicated in neural crest or pigment cell development. In contrast, our analyses demonstrate that fms is expressed and required by D. rerio xanthophore precursors and that fms promotes the normal patterning of melanocyte death and migration during adult stripe formation. Finally, we show that fms is required for the appearance of a late developing, kit-independent subpopulation of adult melanocytes. These findings reveal an unexpected role for fms in pigment pattern development and demonstrate that parallel neural crest-derived pigment cell populations depend on the activities of two essentially paralogous genes, kit and fms.

  9. Characterization of Early Cortical Neural Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We examined the development of neural network activity using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings made in multi-well MEA plates (mwMEAs) over the first 12 days in vitro (DIV). In primary cortical cultures made from postnatal rats, action potential spiking activity was essentially absent on DIV 2 and developed rapidly between DIV 5 and 12. Spiking activity was primarily sporadic and unorganized at early DIV, and became progressively more organized with time in culture, with bursting parameters, synchrony and network bursting increasing between DIV 5 and 12. We selected 12 features to describe network activity and principal components analysis using these features demonstrated a general segregation of data by age at both the well and plate levels. Using a combination of random forest classifiers and Support Vector Machines, we demonstrated that 4 features (CV of within burst ISI, CV of IBI, network spike rate and burst rate) were sufficient to predict the age (either DIV 5, 7, 9 or 12) of each well recording with >65% accuracy. When restricting the classification problem to a binary decision, we found that classification improved dramatically, e.g. 95% accuracy for discriminating DIV 5 vs DIV 12 wells. Further, we present a novel resampling approach to determine the number of wells that might be needed for conducting comparisons of different treatments using mwMEA plates. Overall, these results demonstrate that network development on mwMEA plates is similar to

  10. Early perception and structural identity: neural implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligomenides, Panos A.

    1992-03-01

    It is suggested that there exists a minimal set of rules for the perceptual composition of the unending variety of spatio-temporal patterns in our perceptual world. Driven by perceptual discernment of "sudden change" and "unexpectedness", these rules specify conditions (such as co-linearity and virtual continuation) for perceptual grouping and for recursive compositions of perceptual "modalities" and "signatures". Beginning with a smallset of primitive perceptual elements, selected contextually at some relevant level of abstraction, perceptual compositions can graduate to an unlimited variety of spatiotemporal signatures, scenes and activities. Local discernible elements, often perceptually ambiguous by themselves, may be integrated into spatiotemporal compositions, which generate unambiguous perceptual separations between "figure" and "ground". The definition of computational algorithms for the effective instantiation of the rules of perceptual grouping remains a principal problem. In this paper we present our approach for solving the problem of perceptual recognition within the confines of one-D variational profiles. More specifically, concerning "early" (pre-attentive) recognition, we define the "structural identity of a k-norm, k ∈ K,"--SkID--as a tool for discerning and locating the instantiation of spatiotemporal objects or events. The SkID profile also serves a s a reference coordinate framework for the "perceptual focusing of attention" and the eventual assessment of resemblance. Neural network implementations of pre-attentive and attentive recognition are also discussed briefly. Our principles are exemplified by application to one-D perceptual profiles, which allows simplicity of definitions and of the rules of perceptual composition.

  11. Lack of the central nervous system- and neural crest-expressed forkhead gene Foxs1 affects motor function and body weight.

    PubMed

    Heglind, Mikael; Cederberg, Anna; Aquino, Jorge; Lucas, Guilherme; Ernfors, Patrik; Enerbäck, Sven

    2005-07-01

    To gain insight into the expression pattern and functional importance of the forkhead transcription factor Foxs1, we constructed a Foxs1-beta-galactosidase reporter gene "knock-in" (Foxs1beta-gal/beta-gal) mouse, in which the wild-type (wt) Foxs1 allele has been inactivated and replaced by a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Staining for beta-galactosidase activity reveals an expression pattern encompassing neural crest-derived cells, e.g., cranial and dorsal root ganglia as well as several other cell populations in the central nervous system (CNS), most prominently the internal granule layer of cerebellum. Other sites of expression include the lachrymal gland, outer nuclear layer of retina, enteric ganglion neurons, and a subset of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. In the CNS, blood vessel-associated smooth muscle cells and pericytes stain positive for Foxs1. Foxs1beta-gal/beta-gal mice perform significantly better (P < 0.01) on a rotating rod than do wt littermates. We have also noted a lower body weight gain (P < 0.05) in Foxs1beta-gal/lbeta-gal males on a high-fat diet, and we speculate that dorsomedial hypothalamic neurons, expressing Foxs1, could play a role in regulating body weight via regulation of sympathetic outflow. In support of this, we observed increased levels of uncoupling protein 1 mRNA in Foxs1beta-gal/beta-gal mice. This points toward a role for Foxs1 in the integration and processing of neuronal signals of importance for energy turnover and motor function.

  12. Control of the collective migration of enteric neural crest cells by the Complement anaphylatoxin C3a and N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Broders-Bondon, Florence; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Gazquez, Elodie; Heysch, Julie; Piel, Matthieu; Mayor, Roberto; Lambris, John D.; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the adhesive and migratory behavior of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) during their collective migration within the developing mouse gut. We aimed to decipher the role of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a during this process, because this well-known immune system attractant has been implicated in cephalic NCC co-attraction, a process controlling directional migration. We used the conditional Ht-PA-cre transgenic mouse model allowing a specific ablation of the N-cadherin gene and the expression of a fluorescent reporter in migratory ENCCs without affecting the central nervous system. We performed time-lapse videomicroscopy of ENCCs from control and N-cad-herin mutant gut explants cultured on fibronectin (FN) and micropatterned FN-stripes with C3a or C3aR antagonist, and studied cell migration behavior with the use of triangulation analysis to quantify cell dispersion. We performed ex vivo gut cultures with or without C3aR antagonist to determine the effect on ENCC behavior. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze the cell-matrix adhesion properties. We provide the first demonstration of the localization of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a and its receptor on ENCCs during their migration in the embryonic gut. C3aR receptor inhibition alters ENCC adhesion and migration, perturbing directionality and increasing cell dispersion both in vitro and ex vivo. N-cad-herin-null ENCCs do not respond to C3a co-attraction. These findings indicate that C3a regulates cell migration in a N-cadherin-dependent process. Our results shed light on the role of C3a in regulating collective and directional cell migration, and in ganglia network organization during enteric nervous system ontogenesis. The detection of an immune system chemokine in ENCCs during ENS development may also shed light on new mechanisms for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27041467

  13. The ectodomain of cadherin-11 binds to erbB2 and stimulates Akt phosphorylation to promote cranial neural crest cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Mathavan, Ketan; Khedgikar, Vikram; Bartolo, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    During development, a multi-potent group of cells known as the cranial neural crest (CNC) migrate to form craniofacial structures. Proper migration of these cells requires proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules, such as cadherins. In Xenopus laevis, preventing extracellular cleavage of cadherin-11 impairs CNC migration. However, overexpression of the soluble cleavage product (EC1-3) is capable of rescuing this phenotype. The mechanism by which EC1-3 promotes CNC migration has not been investigated until now. Here we show that EC1-3 stimulates phosphorylation of Akt, a target of PI3K, in X.laevis CNC. Through immunoprecipitation experiments, we determined that EC1-3 interacts with all ErbB receptors, PDGFRα, and FGFR1. Of these receptors, only ErbB2 was able to produce an increase in Akt phosphorylation upon treatment with a recombinant EC1-3. This increase was abrogated by mubritinib, an inhibitor of ErbB2. We were able to recapitulate this decrease in Akt phosphorylation in vivo by knocking down ErbB2 in CNC cells. Knockdown of the receptor also significantly reduced CNC migration in vivo. We confirmed the importance of ErbB2 and ErbB receptor signaling in CNC migration using mubritinib and canertinib, respectively. Mubritinib and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 significantly decreased cell migration while canertinib nearly prevented it altogether. These data show that ErbB2 and Akt are important for CNC migration and implicate other ErbB receptors and Akt-independent signaling pathways. Our findings provide the first example of a functional interaction between the extracellular domain of a type II classical cadherin and growth factor receptors. PMID:29190819

  14. Combination of exogenous cell transplantation and 5-HT{sub 4} receptor agonism induce endogenous enteric neural crest-derived cells in a rat hypoganglionosis model

    SciT

    Yu, Hui; Institute of Neurobiology, Environment and Genes Related to Diseases Key Laboratory of Chinese Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 96, Yan Ta Xi Road, Xi’an 710061, Shaanxi; Zheng, Bai-Jun

    Enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) can migrate into endogenous ganglia and differentiate into progeny cells, and have even partially rescued bowel function; however, poor reliability and limited functional recovery after ENCC transplantation have yet to be addressed. Here, we investigated the induction of endogenous ENCCs by combining exogenous ENCC transplantation with a 5-HT{sub 4} receptor agonist mosapride in a rat model of hypoganglionosis, established by benzalkonium chloride treatment. ENCCs, isolated from the gut of newborn rats, were labeled with a lentiviral eGFP reporter. ENCCs and rats were treated with the 5-HT{sub 4} receptor agonist/antagonist. The labeled ENCCs were then transplantedmore » into the muscular layer of benzalkonium chloride-treated colons. At given days post-intervention, colonic tissue samples were removed for histological analysis. ENCCs and neurons were detected by eGFP expression and immunoreactivity to p75{sup NTR} and peripherin, respectively. eGFP-positive ENCCs and neurons could survive and maintain levels of fluorescence after transplantation. With longer times post-intervention, the number of peripherin-positive cells gradually increased in all groups. Significantly more peripherin-positive cells were found following ENCCs plus mosapride treatment, compared with the other groups. These results show that exogenous ENCCs combined with the 5-HT{sub 4} receptor agonist effectively induced endogenous ENCCs proliferation and differentiation in a rat hypoganglionosis model. - Highlights: • Survival and differentiation of exogenous ENCCs in treated colons. • With longer times post-intervention, the number of ENCCs and their progeny cells gradually increased. • Exogenous ENCCs combined with the 5-HT4 receptor agonist ffectively induced ENCCs proliferation and differentiation.« less

  15. Intergenerational neural mediators of early-life anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Fox, Andrew S; Oler, Jonathan A; Shackman, Alexander J; Shelton, Steven E; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; McKay, D Reese; Converse, Alexander K; Alexander, Andrew; Davidson, Richard J; Blangero, John; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kalin, Ned H

    2015-07-21

    Understanding the heritability of neural systems linked to psychopathology is not sufficient to implicate them as intergenerational neural mediators. By closely examining how individual differences in neural phenotypes and psychopathology cosegregate as they fall through the family tree, we can identify the brain systems that underlie the parent-to-child transmission of psychopathology. Although research has identified genes and neural circuits that contribute to the risk of developing anxiety and depression, the specific neural systems that mediate the inborn risk for these debilitating disorders remain unknown. In a sample of 592 young rhesus monkeys that are part of an extended multigenerational pedigree, we demonstrate that metabolism within a tripartite prefrontal-limbic-midbrain circuit mediates some of the inborn risk for developing anxiety and depression. Importantly, although brain volume is highly heritable early in life, it is brain metabolism-not brain structure-that is the critical intermediary between genetics and the childhood risk to develop stress-related psychopathology.

  16. [Early warning on measles through the neural networks].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Ding, Chun; Wei, Shan-bo; Chen, Bang-hua; Liu, Pu-lin; Luo, Tong-yong; Wang, Jia-gang; Pan, Zhi-wei; Lu, Jun-an

    2011-01-01

    To discuss the effects on early warning of measles, using the neural networks. Based on the available data through monthly and weekly reports on measles from January 1986 to August 2006 in Wuhan city. The modal was developed using the neural networks to predict and analyze the prevalence and incidence of measles. When the dynamic time series modal was established with back propagation (BP) networks consisting of two layers, if p was assigned as 9, the convergence speed was acceptable and the correlation coefficient was equal to 0.85. It was more acceptable for monthly forecasting the specific value, but better for weekly forecasting the classification under probabilistic neural networks (PNN). When data was big enough to serve the purpose, it seemed more feasible for early warning using the two-layer BP networks. However, when data was not enough, then PNN could be used for the purpose of prediction. This method seemed feasible to be used in the system for early warning.

  17. Early effects of zoledronic acid and teriparatide on bone microarchitecture, remodeling and collagen crosslinks: comparison between iliac crest and lumbar vertebra in ewes.

    PubMed

    Portero-Muzy, N R; Chavassieux, P M; Bouxsein, M L; Gineyts, E; Garnero, P; Chapurlat, R D

    2012-10-01

    structure and microarchitecture in IC and LV1, except a trend of higher Conn.D in IC, compared to IC-CTRL. TPTD treatment induced a significant increase in cortical porosity in LV1 (p<0.05) when compared to LV1-CTRL. Static parameters of bone formation and resorption were augmented in both sites, significantly only in LV1 (p<0.05) with a trend of increases in MS/BS and BFR/BS, compared to LV1-CTRL. In conclusion, in adult ewes, the bone mass, microarchitecture, remodeling and collagen crosslink content differ according to the bone site (iliac crest and vertebra). Furthermore, after 3 months, the responses to ZOL and TPTD were of different magnitude and delay between the two bone sites. The distinction of bone sites to study the early effects of anti-osteoporotic therapies appears meaningful in order to approach their site-specific anti-fracture efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metacognition in Early Phase Psychosis: Toward Understanding Neural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Jenifer L.; Hummer, Tom A.; Yung, Matthew G.; Francis, Michael M.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis. PMID:26132568

  19. Upregulation of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair in murine neural crest cells results in a complex phenotype reminiscent of Waardenburg syndrome type 4

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Karl-F.; Nguyen, Chloé M. A.; Cardinal, Tatiana; Charrier, Baptiste; Silversides, David W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Waardenburg syndrome is a neurocristopathy characterized by a combination of skin and hair depigmentation, and inner ear defects. In the type 4 form, these defects show comorbidity with Hirschsprung disease, a disorder marked by an absence of neural ganglia in the distal colon, triggering functional intestinal obstruction. Here, we report that the Spot mouse line – obtained through an insertional mutagenesis screen for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development – is a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. We found that the Spot insertional mutation causes overexpression of an overlapping gene pair composed of the transcription-factor-encoding Nr2f1 and the antisense long non-coding RNA A830082K12Rik in NCCs through a mechanism involving relief of repression of these genes. Consistent with the previously described role of Nr2f1 in promoting gliogenesis in the central nervous system, we further found that NCC-derived progenitors of the enteric nervous system fail to fully colonize Spot embryonic guts owing to their premature differentiation in glial cells. Taken together, our data thus identify silencer elements of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair as new candidate loci for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. PMID:27585883

  20. Upregulation of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair in murine neural crest cells results in a complex phenotype reminiscent of Waardenburg syndrome type 4.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Karl-F; Nguyen, Chloé M A; Cardinal, Tatiana; Charrier, Baptiste; Silversides, David W; Pilon, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a neurocristopathy characterized by a combination of skin and hair depigmentation, and inner ear defects. In the type 4 form, these defects show comorbidity with Hirschsprung disease, a disorder marked by an absence of neural ganglia in the distal colon, triggering functional intestinal obstruction. Here, we report that the Spot mouse line - obtained through an insertional mutagenesis screen for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development - is a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. We found that the Spot insertional mutation causes overexpression of an overlapping gene pair composed of the transcription-factor-encoding Nr2f1 and the antisense long non-coding RNA A830082K12Rik in NCCs through a mechanism involving relief of repression of these genes. Consistent with the previously described role of Nr2f1 in promoting gliogenesis in the central nervous system, we further found that NCC-derived progenitors of the enteric nervous system fail to fully colonize Spot embryonic guts owing to their premature differentiation in glial cells. Taken together, our data thus identify silencer elements of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair as new candidate loci for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Sagittal crest formation in great apes and gibbons.

    PubMed

    Balolia, Katharine L; Soligo, Christophe; Wood, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The frequency of sagittal crest expression and patterns of sagittal crest growth and development have been documented in hominoids, including some extinct hominin taxa, and the more frequent expression of the sagittal crest in males has been traditionally linked with the need for larger-bodied individuals to have enough attachment area for the temporalis muscle. In the present study, we investigate sagittal cresting in a dentally mature sample of four hominoid taxa (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and Hylobates lar). We investigate whether sagittal crest size increases with age beyond dental maturity in males and females of G. g. gorilla and Po. pyg. pygmaeus, and whether these taxa show sex differences in the timing of sagittal crest development. We evaluate the hypothesis that the larger sagittal crest of males may not be solely due to the requirement for a larger surface area than the un-crested cranial vault can provide for the attachment of the temporalis muscle, and present data on sex differences in temporalis muscle attachment area and sagittal crest size relative to cranial size. Gorilla g. gorilla and Po. pyg. pygmaeus males show significant relationships between tooth wear rank and sagittal crest size, and they show sagittal crest size differences between age groups that are not found in females. The sagittal crest emerges in early adulthood in the majority of G. g. gorilla males, whereas the percentage of G. g. gorilla females possessing a sagittal crest increases more gradually. Pongo pyg. pygmaeus males experience a three-fold increase in the number of specimens exhibiting a sagittal crest in mid-adulthood, consistent with a secondary growth spurt. Gorilla g. gorilla and Po. pyg. pygmaeus show significant sex differences in the size of the temporalis muscle attachment area, relative to cranial size, with males of both taxa showing positive allometry not shown in females. Gorilla g

  2. Fairness influences early signatures of reward-related neural processing.

    PubMed

    Massi, Bart; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-12-01

    Many humans exhibit a strong preference for fairness during decision-making. Although there is evidence that social factors influence reward-related and affective neural processing, it is unclear if this effect is mediated by compulsory outcome evaluation processes or results from slower deliberate cognition. Here we show that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and late positive potential (LPP), two signatures of early hedonic processing, are modulated by the fairness of rewards during a passive rating task. We find that unfair payouts elicit larger FRNs than fair payouts, whereas fair payouts elicit larger LPPs than unfair payouts. This is true both in the time-domain, where the FRN and LPP are related, and in the time-frequency domain, where the two signals are largely independent. Ultimately, this work demonstrates that fairness affects the early stages of reward and affective processing, suggesting a common biological mechanism for social and personal reward evaluation.

  3. Socioeconomic disadvantage and neural development from infancy through early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Lun Hung, Galen; Hahn, Jill; Alamiri, Bibi; Buka, Stephen L; Goldstein, Jill M; Laird, Nan; Nelson, Charles A; Smoller, Jordan W; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early social experiences are believed to shape neurodevelopment, with potentially lifelong consequences. Yet minimal evidence exists regarding the role of the social environment on children’s neural functioning, a core domain of neurodevelopment. Methods: We analysed data from 36 443 participants in the United States Collaborative Perinatal Project, a socioeconomically diverse pregnancy cohort conducted between 1959 and 1974. Study outcomes included: physician (neurologist or paediatrician)-rated neurological abnormality neonatally and thereafter at 4 months and 1 and 7 years; indicators of neurological hard signs and soft signs; and indicators of autonomic nervous system function. Results: Children born to socioeconomically disadvantaged parents were more likely to exhibit neurological abnormalities at 4 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 1.37], 1 year (OR = 1.35; CI = 1.17, 1.56), and 7 years (OR = 1.67; CI = 1.48, 1.89), and more likely to exhibit neurological hard signs (OR = 1.39; CI = 1.10, 1.76), soft signs (OR = 1.26; CI = 1.09, 1.45) and autonomic nervous system dysfunctions at 7 years. Pregnancy and delivery complications, themselves associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, did not account for the higher risks of neurological abnormalities among disadvantaged children. Conclusions: Parental socioeconomic disadvantage was, independently from pregnancy and delivery complications, associated with abnormal child neural development during the first 7 years of life. These findings reinforce the importance of the early environment for neurodevelopment generally, and expand knowledge regarding the domains of neurodevelopment affected by environmental conditions. Further work is needed to determine the mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage with children’s neural functioning, the timing of such mechanisms and their potential reversibility. PMID:26675752

  4. Creative Copper Crests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knab, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to create an art activity that would link the computer-created business cards of fourth-grade students with an upcoming school-wide medieval event. Creating family crests from copper foil would be a great connection, since they, like business cards, are an individual's way to identify themselves to others.…

  5. Function of FEZF1 during early neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Su, Pei; Lu, Lisha; Feng, Zicen; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiaxi

    2018-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanism underlying human neural development has been hampered due to lack of a cellular system and complicated ethical issues. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an invaluable model for dissecting human development because of unlimited self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into nearly all cell types in the human body. In this study, using a chemical defined neural induction protocol and molecular profiling, we identified Fez family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) as a potential regulator of early human neural development. FEZF1 is rapidly up-regulated during neural differentiation in hESCs and expressed before PAX6, a well-established marker of early human neural induction. We generated FEZF1-knockout H1 hESC lines using CRISPR-CAS9 technology and found that depletion of FEZF1 abrogates neural differentiation of hESCs. Moreover, loss of FEZF1 impairs the pluripotency exit of hESCs during neural specification, which partially explains the neural induction defect caused by FEZF1 deletion. However, enforced expression of FEZF1 itself fails to drive neural differentiation in hESCs, suggesting that FEZF1 is necessary but not sufficient for neural differentiation from hESCs. Taken together, our findings identify one of the earliest regulators expressed upon neural induction and provide insight into early neural development in human.

  6. Dual control of pcdh8l/PCNS expression and function in Xenopus laevis neural crest cells by adam13/33 via the transcription factors tfap2α and arid3a.

    PubMed

    Khedgikar, Vikram; Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Mathavan, Ketan; Szydlo, Hannah; Cousin, Helene; Alfandari, Dominique

    2017-08-22

    Adam13/33 is a cell surface metalloprotease critical for cranial neural crest (CNC) cell migration. It can cleave multiple substrates including itself, fibronectin, ephrinB, cadherin-11, pcdh8 and pcdh8l (this work). Cleavage of cadherin-11 produces an extracellular fragment that promotes CNC migration. In addition, the adam13 cytoplasmic domain is cleaved by gamma secretase, translocates into the nucleus and regulates multiple genes. Here, we show that adam13 interacts with the arid3a/dril1/Bright transcription factor. This interaction promotes a proteolytic cleavage of arid3a and its translocation to the nucleus where it regulates another transcription factor: tfap2α. Tfap2α in turn activates multiple genes including the protocadherin pcdh8l (PCNS). The proteolytic activity of adam13 is critical for the release of arid3a from the plasma membrane while the cytoplasmic domain appears critical for the cleavage of arid3a. In addition to this transcriptional control of pcdh8l, adam13 cleaves pcdh8l generating an extracellular fragment that also regulates cell migration.

  7. Dual control of pcdh8l/PCNS expression and function in Xenopus laevis neural crest cells by adam13/33 via the transcription factors tfap2α and arid3a

    PubMed Central

    Khedgikar, Vikram; Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Mathavan, Ketan; Szydlo, Hannah; Cousin, Helene

    2017-01-01

    Adam13/33 is a cell surface metalloprotease critical for cranial neural crest (CNC) cell migration. It can cleave multiple substrates including itself, fibronectin, ephrinB, cadherin-11, pcdh8 and pcdh8l (this work). Cleavage of cadherin-11 produces an extracellular fragment that promotes CNC migration. In addition, the adam13 cytoplasmic domain is cleaved by gamma secretase, translocates into the nucleus and regulates multiple genes. Here, we show that adam13 interacts with the arid3a/dril1/Bright transcription factor. This interaction promotes a proteolytic cleavage of arid3a and its translocation to the nucleus where it regulates another transcription factor: tfap2α. Tfap2α in turn activates multiple genes including the protocadherin pcdh8l (PCNS). The proteolytic activity of adam13 is critical for the release of arid3a from the plasma membrane while the cytoplasmic domain appears critical for the cleavage of arid3a. In addition to this transcriptional control of pcdh8l, adam13 cleaves pcdh8l generating an extracellular fragment that also regulates cell migration. PMID:28829038

  8. Socioeconomic disadvantage and neural development from infancy through early childhood.

    PubMed

    Chin-Lun Hung, Galen; Hahn, Jill; Alamiri, Bibi; Buka, Stephen L; Goldstein, Jill M; Laird, Nan; Nelson, Charles A; Smoller, Jordan W; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-12-01

    Early social experiences are believed to shape neurodevelopment, with potentially lifelong consequences. Yet minimal evidence exists regarding the role of the social environment on children's neural functioning, a core domain of neurodevelopment. We analysed data from 36 443 participants in the United States Collaborative Perinatal Project, a socioeconomically diverse pregnancy cohort conducted between 1959 and 1974. Study outcomes included: physician (neurologist or paediatrician)-rated neurological abnormality neonatally and thereafter at 4 months and 1 and 7 years; indicators of neurological hard signs and soft signs; and indicators of autonomic nervous system function. Children born to socioeconomically disadvantaged parents were more likely to exhibit neurological abnormalities at 4 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 1.37], 1 year (OR = 1.35; CI = 1.17, 1.56), and 7 years (OR = 1.67; CI = 1.48, 1.89), and more likely to exhibit neurological hard signs (OR = 1.39; CI = 1.10, 1.76), soft signs (OR = 1.26; CI = 1.09, 1.45) and autonomic nervous system dysfunctions at 7 years. Pregnancy and delivery complications, themselves associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, did not account for the higher risks of neurological abnormalities among disadvantaged children. Parental socioeconomic disadvantage was, independently from pregnancy and delivery complications, associated with abnormal child neural development during the first 7 years of life. These findings reinforce the importance of the early environment for neurodevelopment generally, and expand knowledge regarding the domains of neurodevelopment affected by environmental conditions. Further work is needed to determine the mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage with children's neural functioning, the timing of such mechanisms and their potential reversibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International

  9. Neural Basis of Brain Dysfunction Produced by Early Sleep Problems.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-29

    There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s. This test assessed the ability of four-year-olds to delay gratification and showed how this ability correlated with success later in life. The role of the serotonergic system in sleep and how this role changes with age are also discussed. The serotonergic system is involved in reward processing and interactions with the dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and the prefrontal cortex are thought to comprise the neural basis for behavioral patterns that are affected by the quantity, quality, and timing of sleep early in life.

  10. Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M.; Alpers, Georg W.

    2013-01-01

    In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception. PMID:24151476

  11. Mitochondrial metabolism in early neural fate and its relevance for neuronal disease modeling.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Carmen; Prigione, Alessandro

    2017-12-01

    Modulation of energy metabolism is emerging as a key aspect associated with cell fate transition. The establishment of a correct metabolic program is particularly relevant for neural cells given their high bioenergetic requirements. Accordingly, diseases of the nervous system commonly involve mitochondrial impairment. Recent studies in animals and in neural derivatives of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) highlighted the importance of mitochondrial metabolism for neural fate decisions in health and disease. The mitochondria-based metabolic program of early neurogenesis suggests that PSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) may be used for modeling neurological disorders. Understanding how metabolic programming is orchestrated during neural commitment may provide important information for the development of therapies against conditions affecting neural functions, including aging and mitochondrial disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Correction of Hirschsprung-Associated Mutations in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9, Restores Neural Crest Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank Pui-Ling; Lau, Sin-Ting; Wong, John Kwong-Leong; Gui, Hongsheng; Wang, Reeson Xu; Zhou, Tingwen; Lai, Wing Hon; Tse, Hung-Fat; Tam, Paul Kwong-Hang; Garcia-Barcelo, Maria-Mercedes; Ngan, Elly Sau-Wai

    2017-07-01

    Hirschsprung disease is caused by failure of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to fully colonize the bowel, leading to bowel obstruction and megacolon. Heterozygous mutations in the coding region of the RET gene cause a severe form of Hirschsprung disease (total colonic aganglionosis). However, 80% of HSCR patients have short-segment Hirschsprung disease (S-HSCR), which has not been associated with genetic factors. We sought to identify mutations associated with S-HSCR, and used the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 gene editing system to determine how mutations affect ENCC function. We created induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from 1 patient with total colonic aganglionosis (with the G731del mutation in RET) and from 2 patients with S-HSCR (without a RET mutation), as well as RET +/- and RET -/- iPSCs. IMR90-iPSC cells were used as the control cell line. Migration and differentiation capacities of iPSC-derived ENCCs were analyzed in differentiation and migration assays. We searched for mutation(s) associated with S-HSCR by combining genetic and transcriptome data from patient blood- and iPSC-derived ENCCs, respectively. Mutations in the iPSCs were corrected using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. ENCCs derived from all iPSC lines, but not control iPSCs, had defects in migration and neuronal lineage differentiation. RET mutations were associated with differentiation and migration defects of ENCCs in vitro. Genetic and transcriptome analyses associated a mutation in the vinculin gene (VCL M209L) with S-HSCR. CRISPR/Cas9 correction of the RET G731del and VCL M209L mutations in iPSCs restored the differentiation and migration capacities of ENCCs. We identified mutations in VCL associated with S-HSCR. Correction of this mutation in iPSC using CRISPR/Cas9 editing, as well as the RET G731del mutation that causes Hirschsprung disease with total colonic aganglionosis, restored ENCC function. Our study demonstrates how human iPSCs can

  13. Commentary: Elucidating the Neural Correlates of Early Childhood Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullally, Sinead L.

    2015-01-01

    Both episodic memory and the key neural structure believed to support it, namely the hippocampus, are believed to undergo protracted periods of postnatal developmental. Critically however, the hippocampus is comprised of distinct subfields and circuits, and these circuits appear to mature at different rates (Lavenex and Banta Lavenex, 2013).…

  14. Cats, frogs, and snakes: early concepts of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Disturbed neurulation fascinated scientists of all times. In Egypt, anencephalic infants were venerated as animal-headed gods. Roman law required them to be killed. The medieval world held the mother responsible, either because of assumed imagination or "miswatching," or because of suspected intercourse with animals or devils. Modern embryology and teratology began with the use of the microscope by Malpighi in 1672. Details of neural tube closure were described by Koelliker in 1861 and by His in 1874. From 1822, genetic disease and familial recurrence due to insufficient nutrition were discerned and lower social class identified as a risk factor. It took a century to define the malnutrition as insufficient folate intake. The mandatory supplementation of folate in staple foods successfully reduced the incidence of neural tube defects in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Chile, but it was not adopted by most European countries.

  15. Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-11

    Alzheimer Disease, Early Onset; Alzheimer Disease; Alzheimer Disease, Late Onset; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Logopenic Progressive Aphasia; Primary Progressive Aphasia; Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; Executive Dysfunction; Corticobasal Degeneration; Ideomotor Apraxia

  16. WDR62 Regulates Early Neural and Glial Progenitor Specification of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alshawaf, Abdullah J.; Antonic, Ana; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in WD40-repeat protein 62 (WDR62) are commonly associated with primary microcephaly and other developmental cortical malformations. We used human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) to examine WDR62 function during human neural differentiation and model early stages of human corticogenesis. Neurospheres lacking WDR62 expression showed decreased expression of intermediate progenitor marker, TBR2, and also glial marker, S100β. In contrast, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling during hPSC neural differentiation induced upregulation of WDR62 with a corresponding increase in neural and glial progenitor markers, PAX6 and EAAT1, respectively. These findings may signify a role of WDR62 in specifying intermediate neural and glial progenitors during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation. PMID:28690640

  17. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural Bases of Language Switching in High and Early Proficient Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbin, G.; Costa, A.; Sanjuan, A.; Forn, C.; Rodriguez-Pujadas, A.; Ventura, N.; Belloch, V.; Hernandez, M.; Avila, C.

    2011-01-01

    The left inferior frontal cortex, the caudate and the anterior cingulate have been proposed as the neural origin of language switching, but most of the studies were conducted in low proficient bilinguals. In the present study, we investigated brain areas involved in language switching in a sample of 19 early, high-proficient Spanish-Catalan…

  19. The Nedd4 binding protein 3 is required for anterior neural development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Lena-Maria; Dietmann, Petra; Linnemann, Alexander; Schmeisser, Michael J; Kühl, Susanne J

    2017-03-01

    The Fezzin family member Nedd4-binding protein 3 (N4BP3) is known to regulate axonal and dendritic branching. Here, we show that n4bp3 is expressed in the neural tissue of the early Xenopus laevis embryo including the eye, the brain and neural crest cells. Knockdown of N4bp3 in the Xenopus anterior neural tissue results in severe developmental impairment of the eye, the brain and neural crest derived cranial cartilage structures. Moreover, we demonstrate that N4bp3 depletion leads to a significant reduction of both eye and brain specific marker genes and reduced neural crest cell migration. Finally, we demonstrate an impact of N4bp3 deficiency on cell apoptosis and proliferation. Our studies indicate that N4bp3 is required for early anterior neural development of vertebrates. This is in line with a study implicating that genetic disruption of N4BP3 in humans might be related to neurodevelopmental disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early experience shapes vocal neural coding and perception in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds, like humans, are highly accomplished vocal learners. The many parallels between speech and birdsong and conserved features of mammalian and avian auditory systems have led to the emergence of the songbird as a model system for studying the perceptual mechanisms of vocal communication. Laboratory research on songbirds allows the careful control of early life experience and high-resolution analysis of brain function during vocal learning, production and perception. Here, I review what songbird studies have revealed about the role of early experience in the development of vocal behavior, auditory perception and the processing of learned vocalizations by auditory neurons. The findings of these studies suggest general principles for how exposure to vocalizations during development and into adulthood influences the perception of learned vocal signals. PMID:22711657

  1. Crested Wheatgrass Impedes the Spread of Medusahead

    Establishing crested wheatgrass around the edge of medusahead infestations slowed the spread of the infestations into surrounding noninfested native plant communities. Crested wheatgrass decreased the availability of soil resources to medusahead and probably physically intercepted some of the dispe...

  2. Environmental estrogens alter early development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Cassandra L; Porter, Donna M; Prasad, Anita; Howard, Marthe J; Henderson, Leslie P

    2003-04-01

    A growing number of environmental toxicants found in pesticides, herbicides, and industrial solvents are believed to have deleterious effects on development by disrupting hormone-sensitive processes. We exposed Xenopus laevis embryos at early gastrula to the commonly encountered environmental estrogens nonylphenol, octylphenol, and methoxychlor, the antiandrogen, p,p-DDE, or the synthetic androgen, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone at concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 microM and examined them at tailbud stages (approximately 48 hr of treatment). Exposure to the three environmental estrogens, as well as to the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol, increased mortality, induced morphologic deformations, increased apoptosis, and altered the deposition and differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes in tailbud stage embryos. Although neural crest-derived melanocytes were markedly altered in embryos treated with estrogenic toxicants, expression of the early neural crest maker Xslug, a factor that regulates both the induction and subsequent migration of neural crest cells, was not affected, suggesting that the disruption induced by these compounds with respect to melanocyte development may occur at later stages of their differentiation. Co-incubation of embryos with the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 blocked the ability of nonylphenol to induce abnormalities in body shape and in melanocyte differentiation but did not block the effects of methoxychlor. Our data indicate not only that acute exposure to these environmental estrogens induces deleterious effects on early vertebrate development but also that different environmental estrogens may alter the fate of a specific cell type via different mechanisms. Finally, our data suggest that the differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes may be particularly sensitive to the disruptive actions of these ubiquitous chemical contaminants.

  3. Development of a neural network for early detection of renal osteodystrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shirley N.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Adler, Ronald; Niklason, Loren T.; Chang, Chair-Li

    1991-07-01

    Bone erosion presenting as subperiosteal resorption on the phalanges of the hand is an early manifestation of hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure. At present, the diagnosis is made by trained radiologists through visual inspection of hand radiographs. In this study, a neural network is being developed to assess the feasibility of computer-aided detection of these changes. A two-pass approach is adopted. The digitized image is first compressed by a Laplacian pyramid compact code. The first neural network locates the region of interest using vertical projections along the phalanges and then the horizontal projections across the phalanges. A second neural network is used to classify texture variations of trabecular patterns in the region using a concurrence matrix as the input to a two-dimensional sensor layer to detect the degree of associated osteopenia. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Ramírez, Gabriela P.; Balbuena, María Sol; Farina, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions, and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe (AL). Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees' physiology, behavior, and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits. PMID:23986708

  5. Ablation of proliferating neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mary; Krish, Varsha S; Kirshenbaum, Greer S; Atsak, Piray; Lass, Tamara J; Lieberman, Sophie R; Leonardo, E David; Dranovsky, Alex

    2018-05-09

    Environmental exposures during early life, but not during adolescence or adulthood, lead to persistent reductions in neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The mechanisms by which early life exposures lead to long-term deficits in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether targeted ablation of dividing neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to produce long-term decreases in DG neurogenesis. Having previously found that the stem cell lineage is resistant to long-term effects of transient ablation of dividing stem cells during adolescence or adulthood (Kirshenbaum et al., 2014), we used a similar pharmacogenetic approach to target dividing neural stem cells for elimination during early life periods sensitive to environmental insults. We then assessed the Nestin stem cell lineage in adulthood. We found that the adult neural stem cell reservoir was depleted following ablation during the first postnatal week, when stem cells were highly proliferative, but not during the third postnatal week, when stem cells were more quiescent. Remarkably, ablating proliferating stem cells during either the first or third postnatal week led to reduced adult neurogenesis out of proportion to the changes in the stem cell pool, indicating a disruption of the stem cell function or niche following stem cell ablation in early life. These results highlight the first three postnatal weeks as a series of sensitive periods during which elimination of dividing stem cells leads to lasting alterations in adult DG neurogenesis and stem cell function. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relationship between DG development and adult neurogenesis, as well as suggest a possible mechanism by which early life experiences may lead to lasting deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Girls' challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Guyer, Amanda E; Hipwell, Alison E; McAloon, Rose L; Hoffmann, Amy M; Keenan, Kathryn E; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-04-01

    Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. E-nose based rapid prediction of early mouldy grain using probabilistic neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua; Fu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, early mouldy grain rapid prediction method using probabilistic neural network (PNN) and electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. E-nose responses to rice, red bean, and oat samples with different qualities were measured and recorded. E-nose data was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), back propagation (BP) network, and PNN, respectively. Results indicated that PCA and BP network could not clearly discriminate grain samples with different mouldy status and showed poor predicting accuracy. PNN showed satisfying discriminating abilities to grain samples with an accuracy of 93.75%. E-nose combined with PNN is effective for early mouldy grain prediction. PMID:25714125

  8. Selective and Efficient Neural Coding of Communication Signals Depends on Early Acoustic and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noopur; Gastpar, Michael; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural processing of communication sounds such as species-specific song, in the primary auditory cortex analog of adult zebra finches. Our electrophysiological recordings reveal that neural tuning to simple frequency-based synthetic sounds is initially established in all the laminae independent of patterned acoustic experience; however, we provide the first evidence that early exposure to patterned sound statistics, such as those found in native sounds, is required for the subsequent emergence of neural selectivity for complex vocalizations and for shaping neural spiking precision in superficial and deep cortical laminae, and for creating efficient neural representations of song and a less redundant ensemble code in all the laminae. Our study also provides the first causal evidence for ‘sparse coding’, such that when the statistics of the stimuli were changed during rearing, as in noise-rearing, that the sparse or optimal representation for species-specific vocalizations disappeared. Taken together, these results imply that a layer-specific differential development of the auditory cortex requires patterned acoustic input, and a specialized and robust sensory representation of complex communication sounds in the auditory cortex requires a rich acoustic and social environment. PMID:23630587

  9. Dynamic methylation and expression of Oct4 in early neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shih-Han; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Appleby, Vanessa; Mohamed Noor, Dzul Azri; Sottile, Virginie; Scotting, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Neural stem cells are a multipotent population of tissue-specific stem cells with a broad but limited differentiation potential. However, recent studies have shown that over-expression of the pluripotency gene, Oct4, alone is sufficient to initiate a process by which these can form ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPS cells) with the same broad potential as embryonic stem cells. This led us to examine the expression of Oct4 in endogenous neural stem cells, as data regarding its expression in neural stem cells in vivo are contradictory and incomplete. In this study we have therefore analysed the expression of Oct4 and other genes associated with pluripotency throughout development of the mouse CNS and in neural stem cells grown in vitro. We find that Oct4 is still expressed in the CNS by E8.5, but that this expression declines rapidly until it is undetectable by E15.5. This decline is coincident with the gradual methylation of the Oct4 promoter and proximal enhancer. Immunostaining suggests that the Oct4 protein is predominantly cytoplasmic in location. We also found that neural stem cells from all ages expressed the pluripotency associated genes, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4 and Nanog. These data provide an explanation for the varying behaviour of cells from the early neuroepithelium at different stages of development. The expression of these genes also provides an indication of why Oct4 alone is sufficient to induce iPS formation in neural stem cells at later stages. PMID:20646110

  10. Dynamic methylation and expression of Oct4 in early neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Han; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Appleby, Vanessa; Mohamed Noor, Dzul Azri; Sottile, Virginie; Scotting, Paul J

    2010-09-01

    Neural stem cells are a multipotent population of tissue-specific stem cells with a broad but limited differentiation potential. However, recent studies have shown that over-expression of the pluripotency gene, Oct4, alone is sufficient to initiate a process by which these can form 'induced pluripotent stem cells' (iPS cells) with the same broad potential as embryonic stem cells. This led us to examine the expression of Oct4 in endogenous neural stem cells, as data regarding its expression in neural stem cells in vivo are contradictory and incomplete. In this study we have therefore analysed the expression of Oct4 and other genes associated with pluripotency throughout development of the mouse CNS and in neural stem cells grown in vitro. We find that Oct4 is still expressed in the CNS by E8.5, but that this expression declines rapidly until it is undetectable by E15.5. This decline is coincident with the gradual methylation of the Oct4 promoter and proximal enhancer. Immunostaining suggests that the Oct4 protein is predominantly cytoplasmic in location. We also found that neural stem cells from all ages expressed the pluripotency associated genes, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4 and Nanog. These data provide an explanation for the varying behaviour of cells from the early neuroepithelium at different stages of development. The expression of these genes also provides an indication of why Oct4 alone is sufficient to induce iPS formation in neural stem cells at later stages.

  11. Learning representations for the early detection of sepsis with deep neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ha Young

    2017-10-01

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in intensive care unit patients. Early detection of sepsis is vital because mortality increases as the sepsis stage worsens. This study aimed to develop detection models for the early stage of sepsis using deep learning methodologies, and to compare the feasibility and performance of the new deep learning methodology with those of the regression method with conventional temporal feature extraction. Study group selection adhered to the InSight model. The results of the deep learning-based models and the InSight model were compared. With deep feedforward networks, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the models were 0.887 and 0.915 for the InSight and the new feature sets, respectively. For the model with the combined feature set, the AUC was the same as that of the basic feature set (0.915). For the long short-term memory model, only the basic feature set was applied and the AUC improved to 0.929 compared with the existing 0.887 of the InSight model. The contributions of this paper can be summarized in three ways: (i) improved performance without feature extraction using domain knowledge, (ii) verification of feature extraction capability of deep neural networks through comparison with reference features, and (iii) improved performance with feedforward neural networks using long short-term memory, a neural network architecture that can learn sequential patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calibrating reaction rates for the CREST model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Caroline A.; Christie, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The CREST reactive-burn model uses entropy-dependent reaction rates that, until now, have been manually tuned to fit shock-initiation and detonation data in hydrocode simulations. This paper describes the initial development of an automatic method for calibrating CREST reaction-rate coefficients, using particle swarm optimisation. The automatic method is applied to EDC32, to help develop the first CREST model for this conventional high explosive.

  13. Deep Convolutional Neural Network-Based Early Automated Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Fundus Image.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kele; Feng, Dawei; Mi, Haibo

    2017-11-23

    The automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy is of vital importance, as it is the main cause of irreversible vision loss in the working-age population in the developed world. The early detection of diabetic retinopathy occurrence can be very helpful for clinical treatment; although several different feature extraction approaches have been proposed, the classification task for retinal images is still tedious even for those trained clinicians. Recently, deep convolutional neural networks have manifested superior performance in image classification compared to previous handcrafted feature-based image classification methods. Thus, in this paper, we explored the use of deep convolutional neural network methodology for the automatic classification of diabetic retinopathy using color fundus image, and obtained an accuracy of 94.5% on our dataset, outperforming the results obtained by using classical approaches.

  14. A new fossil dolphin Dilophodelphis fordycei provides insight into the evolution of supraorbital crests in Platanistoidea (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    PubMed Central

    McCurry, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    Many odontocete groups have developed enlarged facial crests, although these crests differ in topography, composition and function. The most elaborate crests occur in the South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica), in which they rise dorsally as delicate, pneumatized wings anterior of the facial bones. Their position wrapping around the melon suggests their involvement in sound propagation for echolocation. To better understand the origin of crests in this lineage, we examined facial crests among fossil and living Platanistoidea, including a new taxon, Dilophodelphis fordycei, nov. gen. and sp., described herein, from the Early Miocene Astoria Formation of Oregon, USA. We measured the physical extent and thickness of platanistoid crests, categorized their relative position and used computed tomography scans to examine their internal morphology and relative bone density. Integrating these traits in a phylogenetic context, we determined that the onset of crest elaboration or enlargement and the evolution of crest pneumatization among the platanistoids were separate events, with crest enlargement beginning in the Oligocene. However, we find no evidence for pneumatization until possibly the Early Miocene, although certainly by the Middle Miocene. Such an evolutionary context, including data from the fossil record, should inform modelling efforts that seek to understand the diversity of sound generation morphology in Odontoceti. PMID:28573006

  15. A new fossil dolphin Dilophodelphis fordycei provides insight into the evolution of supraorbital crests in Platanistoidea (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Alexandra T.; McCurry, Matthew R.; Pyenson, Nicholas D.

    2017-05-01

    Many odontocete groups have developed enlarged facial crests, although these crests differ in topography, composition and function. The most elaborate crests occur in the South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica), in which they rise dorsally as delicate, pneumatized wings anterior of the facial bones. Their position wrapping around the melon suggests their involvement in sound propagation for echolocation. To better understand the origin of crests in this lineage, we examined facial crests among fossil and living Platanistoidea, including a new taxon, Dilophodelphis fordycei, nov. gen. and sp., described herein, from the Early Miocene Astoria Formation of Oregon, USA. We measured the physical extent and thickness of platanistoid crests, categorized their relative position and used computed tomography scans to examine their internal morphology and relative bone density. Integrating these traits in a phylogenetic context, we determined that the onset of crest elaboration or enlargement and the evolution of crest pneumatization among the platanistoids were separate events, with crest enlargement beginning in the Oligocene. However, we find no evidence for pneumatization until possibly the Early Miocene, although certainly by the Middle Miocene. Such an evolutionary context, including data from the fossil record, should inform modelling efforts that seek to understand the diversity of sound generation morphology in Odontoceti.

  16. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early?

    PubMed

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential.

  17. Early adversity and neural correlates of executive function: implications for academic adjustment.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Jennifer M; Westerlund, Alissa; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A

    2012-02-15

    Early adversity can negatively impact the development of cognitive functions, although little is known about whether such effects can be remediated later in life. The current study examined one facet of executive functioning - inhibitory control - among children who experienced institutional care and explored the impact of a foster care intervention within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Specifically, a go/nogo task was administered when children were eight years old and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures were collected. Results revealed that children assigned to care as usual (i.e. institutional care) were less accurate and exhibited slower neural responses compared to children assigned to the foster care intervention and children who had never been institutionalized. However, children in both the care as usual and foster care groups exhibited diminished attention processing of nogo cues as assessed via P300 amplitude. Foster care children also showed differential reactivity between correct and error responses via the error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to children in the care as usual group. Combined, the results highlight perturbations in neural sources of behavioral and attention problems among children experiencing early adversity. Potential implications for academic adjustment in at risk children are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-06-07

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process.

  19. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process. PMID:28590456

  20. Early life stress accelerates behavioral and neural maturation of the hippocampus in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bath, K; Manzano-Nieves, G; Goodwill, H

    2016-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for later cognitive and emotional dysfunction. ELS is known to truncate neural development through effects on suppressing cell birth, increasing cell death, and altering neuronal morphology, effects that have been associated with behavioral profiles indicative of precocious maturation. However, how earlier silencing of growth drives accelerated behavioral maturation has remained puzzling. Here, we test the novel hypothesis that, ELS drives a switch from growth to maturation to accelerate neural and behavioral development. To test this, we used a mouse model of ELS, fragmented maternal care, and a cross-sectional dense sampling approach focusing on hippocampus and measured effects of ELS on the ontogeny of behavioral development and biomarkers of neural maturation. Consistent with previous work, ELS was associated with an earlier developmental decline in expression of markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67) and differentiation (doublecortin). However, ELS also led to a precocious arrival of Parvalbumin-positive cells, led to an earlier switch in NMDA receptor subunit expression (marker of synaptic maturity), and was associated with an earlier rise in myelin basic protein expression (key component of the myelin sheath). In addition, in a contextual fear-conditioning task, ELS accelerated the timed developmental suppression of contextual fear. Together, these data provide support for the hypothesis that ELS serves to switch neurodevelopment from processes of growth to maturation and promotes accelerated development of some forms of emotional learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Restoring native plants to crested wheatgrass stands

    Valerie A. Fansler; Jane M. Mangold

    2010-01-01

    Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.) is a nonindigenous grass introduced to North America for improving degraded rangelands. It is often criticized for forming nearly monotypic stands. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of restoring native plant species to crested wheatgrass-dominated rangeland. We investigated methods for suppressing...

  2. Neural Crossroads in the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, Sobhika; Tamplin, Owen J

    2018-05-29

    The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche supports steady-state hematopoiesis and responds to changing needs during stress and disease. The nervous system is an important regulator of the niche, and its influence is established early in development when stem cells are specified. Most research has focused on direct innervation of the niche, however recent findings show there are different modes of neural control, including globally by the central nervous system (CNS) and hormone release, locally by neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and intrinsically by hematopoietic cells that express neural receptors and neurotransmitters. Dysregulation between neural and hematopoietic systems can contribute to disease, however new therapeutic opportunities may be found among neuroregulator drugs repurposed to support hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural correlates of audiotactile phonetic processing in early-blind readers: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pishnamazi, Morteza; Nojaba, Yasaman; Ganjgahi, Habib; Amousoltani, Asie; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Reading is a multisensory function that relies on arbitrary associations between auditory speech sounds and symbols from a second modality. Studies of bimodal phonetic perception have mostly investigated the integration of visual letters and speech sounds. Blind readers perform an analogous task by using tactile Braille letters instead of visual letters. The neural underpinnings of audiotactile phonetic processing have not been studied before. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to reveal the neural correlates of audiotactile phonetic processing in 16 early-blind Braille readers. Braille letters and corresponding speech sounds were presented in unimodal, and congruent/incongruent bimodal configurations. We also used a behavioral task to measure the speed of blind readers in identifying letters presented via tactile and/or auditory modalities. Reaction times for tactile stimuli were faster. The reaction times for bimodal stimuli were equal to those for the slower auditory-only stimuli. fMRI analyses revealed the convergence of unimodal auditory and unimodal tactile responses in areas of the right precentral gyrus and bilateral crus I of the cerebellum. The left and right planum temporale fulfilled the 'max criterion' for bimodal integration, but activities of these areas were not sensitive to the phonetical congruency between sounds and Braille letters. Nevertheless, congruency effects were found in regions of frontal lobe and cerebellum. Our findings suggest that, unlike sighted readers who are assumed to have amodal phonetic representations, blind readers probably process letters and sounds separately. We discuss that this distinction might be due to mal-development of multisensory neural circuits in early blinds or it might be due to inherent differences between Braille and print reading mechanisms.

  4. Abnormal neural precursor cell regulation in the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C

    2017-07-01

    The regulation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is indispensable for a properly functioning brain. Abnormalities in NPC proliferation, differentiation, survival, or integration have been linked to various neurological diseases including Fragile X syndrome. Yet, no studies have examined NPCs from the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus despite the importance of this developmental time point, which marks the highest expression level of FMRP, the protein missing in Fragile X, in the rodent hippocampus and is when hippocampal NPCs have migrated to the dentate gyrus (DG) to give rise to lifelong neurogenesis. In this study, we examined NPCs from the early postnatal hippocampus and DG of Fragile X mice (Fmr1-KO). Immunocytochemistry on neurospheres showed increased Nestin expression and decreased Ki67 expression, which collectively indicated aberrant NPC biology. Intriguingly, flow cytometric analysis of the expression of the antigens CD15, CD24, CD133, GLAST, and PSA-NCAM showed a decreased proportion of neural stem cells (GLAST + CD15 + CD133 + ) and an increased proportion of neuroblasts (PSA-NCAM + CD15 + ) in the DG of P7 Fmr1-KO mice. This was mirrored by lower expression levels of Nestin and the mitotic marker phospho-histone H3 in vivo in the P9 hippocampus, as well as a decreased proportion of cells in the G 2 /M phases of the P7 DG. Thus, the absence of FMRP leads to fewer actively cycling NPCs, coinciding with a decrease in neural stem cells and an increase in neuroblasts. Together, these results show the importance of FMRP in the developing hippocampal formation and suggest abnormalities in cell cycle regulation in Fragile X. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Amanda E; Jarcho, Johanna M; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children's caregiving context. The convergence of a child's temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M(age) = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development.

  6. Witnessing peer rejection during early adolescence: Neural correlates of empathy for experiences of social exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies with adults have begun to reveal the neural bases of empathy; however, this research has focused on empathy for physical pain, rather than empathy for negative social experiences. Moreover, this work has not examined adolescents who may frequently witness and empathize with others who experience negative social experiences like peer rejection. Here, we examined neural activity among early adolescents observing social exclusion compared to observing inclusion, and how this activity related to both trait empathy and subsequent prosocial behavior. Participants were scanned while they observed an individual whom they believed was being socially excluded. At least one day prior to the scan they reported their trait empathy, and following the scan they wrote emails to the excluded victim that were rated for prosocial behavior (e.g., helping, comforting). Observing exclusion compared to inclusion activated regions involved in mentalizing (i.e., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; DMPFC), particularly among highly empathic individuals. Additionally, individuals who displayed more activity in affective, pain-related regions during observed exclusion compared to inclusion subsequently wrote more prosocial emails to excluded victims. Overall findings suggest that when early adolescents witness social exclusion in their daily lives, some may actually ‘feel the pain’ of the victims and act more prosocially toward them as a result. PMID:20602283

  7. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (Mage = 17.89 years, N= 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development. PMID:25588884

  8. Neural competition as a developmental process: early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children's reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplitude differences between the left and right N170 on the bilateral posterior scalp sites and the hemispheric spectrum power differences in the γ band on the same scalp sites. The results showed that the left-lateralization of both the word N170 and the spectrum power in the γ band were significantly positively related to vocabulary. In contrast, vocabulary and the word left-lateralization both had a strong negative direct effect on the face right-lateralization. Also, vocabulary negatively correlated with the right-lateralized face spectrum power in the γ band even after the effects of age and the word spectrum power were partialled out. The present study provides direct evidence regarding the role of reading experience in the neural specialization of word and face processing above and beyond the effect of maturation. The present findings taken together suggest that the neural development of visual word processing competes with that of face processing before the process of neural specialization has been consolidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural competition as a developmental process: Early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children’s reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplitude differences between the left and right N170 on the bilateral posterior scalp sites and the hemispheric spectrum power differences in the γ band on the same scalp sites. The results showed that the left-lateralization of both the word N170 and the spectrum power in the γ band were significantly positively related to vocabulary. In contrast, vocabulary and the word left-lateralization both had a strong negative direct effect on the face right-lateralization. Also, vocabulary negatively correlated with the right-lateralized face spectrum power in the γ band even after the effects of age and the word spectrum power were partialled out. The present study provides direct evidence regarding the role of reading experience in the neural specialization of word and face processing above and beyond the effect of maturation. The present findings taken together suggest that the neural development of visual word processing competes with that of face processing before the process of neural specialization has been consolidated. PMID:23462239

  10. Early warning of illegal development for protected areas by integrating cellular automata with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Lao, Chunhua; Liu, Yilun; Liu, Xiaoping; Chen, Yimin; Li, Shaoying; Ai, Bing; He, Zijian

    2013-11-30

    Ecological security has become a major issue under fast urbanization in China. As the first two cities in this country, Shenzhen and Dongguan issued the ordinance of Eco-designated Line of Control (ELC) to "wire" ecologically important areas for strict protection in 2005 and 2009 respectively. Early warning systems (EWS) are a useful tool for assisting the implementation ELC. In this study, a multi-model approach is proposed for the early warning of illegal development by integrating cellular automata (CA) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The objective is to prevent the ecological risks or catastrophe caused by such development at an early stage. The integrated model is calibrated by using the empirical information from both remote sensing and handheld GPS (global positioning systems). The MAR indicator which is the ratio of missing alarms to all the warnings is proposed for better assessment of the model performance. It is found that the fast urban development has caused significant threats to natural-area protection in the study area. The integration of CA, ANN and GPS provides a powerful tool for describing and predicting illegal development which is in highly non-linear and fragmented forms. The comparison shows that this multi-model approach has much better performances than the single-model approach for the early warning. Compared with the single models of CA and ANN, this integrated multi-model can improve the value of MAR by 65.48% and 5.17% respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective Roles of Normal and Mutant Huntingtin in Neural Induction and Early Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Gokhan, Solen; Molero, Aldrin E.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by abnormal polyglutamine expansion in the amino-terminal end of the huntingtin protein (Htt) and characterized by progressive striatal and cortical pathology. Previous reports have shown that Htt is essential for embryogenesis, and a recent study by our group revealed that the pathogenic form of Htt (mHtt) causes impairments in multiple stages of striatal development. In this study, we have examined whether HD-associated striatal developmental deficits are reflective of earlier maturational alterations occurring at the time of neurulation by assessing differential roles of Htt and mHtt during neural induction and early neurogenesis using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) clonal assay system. We demonstrated that the loss of Htt in ESCs (KO ESCs) severely disrupts the specification of primitive and definitive neural stem cells (pNSCs, dNSCs, respectively) during the process of neural induction. In addition, clonally derived KO pNSCs and dNSCs displayed impaired proliferative potential, enhanced cell death and altered multi-lineage potential. Conversely, as observed in HD knock-in ESCs (Q111 ESCs), mHtt enhanced the number and size of pNSC clones, which exhibited enhanced proliferative potential and precocious neuronal differentiation. The transition from Q111 pNSCs to fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-responsive dNSCs was marked by potentiation in the number of dNSCs and altered proliferative potential. The multi-lineage potential of Q111 dNSCs was also enhanced with precocious neurogenesis and oligodendrocyte progenitor elaboration. The generation of Q111 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-responsive dNSCs was also compromised, whereas their multi-lineage potential was unaltered. These abnormalities in neural induction were associated with differential alterations in the expression profiles of Notch, Hes1 and Hes5. These cumulative observations indicate that Htt is required for multiple stages

  12. Early neural disruption and auditory processing outcomes in rodent models: implications for developmental language disability

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, R. Holly; Alexander, Michelle L.; Threlkeld, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the “Kennard Principle,” which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood). As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions of left temporal and/or frontal cortex can suffer dramatic and permanent language loss. Here we present data regarding the impact of early brain injury in rat models as a function of type and timing, measuring long-term behavioral outcomes via auditory discrimination tasks varying in temporal demand. These tasks were created to model (in rodents) aspects of human sensory processing that may correlate—both developmentally and functionally—with typical and atypical language. We found that bilateral focal lesions to the cortical plate in rats during active neuronal migration led to worse auditory outcomes than comparable lesions induced after cortical migration was complete. Conversely, unilateral hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injuries (similar to those seen in premature infants and term infants with birth complications) led to permanent auditory processing deficits when induced at a neurodevelopmental point comparable to human “term,” but only transient deficits (undetectable in adulthood) when induced in a “preterm” window. Convergent evidence suggests that regardless of when or how disruption of early neural development occurs, the consequences may be particularly deleterious to rapid auditory processing (RAP) outcomes when they trigger developmental alterations that extend into subcortical structures (i.e., lower sensory processing stations). Collective findings hold implications for the study of behavioral outcomes following early brain injury as well as genetic/environmental disruption, and are relevant to our understanding of the neurologic risk factors underlying developmental language disability in

  13. Environmental correlates of breeding in the Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway)

    Morrison, J.L.; Pias, Kyle E.; Cohen, J.B.; Catlin, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of weather on reproduction of the Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway) in an agricultural landscape in south-central Florida. We used a mixed logistic-regression modeling approach within an information-theoretic framework to examine the influence of total rainfall, rainfall frequency, and temperature on the number of breeding pairs, timing of breeding, nest success, and productivity of Crested Caracaras during 1994–2000. The best models indicated an influence of rainfall frequency and laying period on reproduction. More individuals nested and more pairs nested earlier during years with more frequent rainfall in late summer and early fall. Pairs that nested later in each breeding season had smaller clutches, lower nest success and productivity, and higher probability of nest failure. More frequent rainfall during early spring months that are usually characterized by water deficit (March–May), more frequent rainfall during the fall drawdown period (September–November), and a shorter winter dry period showed some association with higher probability of brood reduction and lower nest success. The proportion of nests that failed was higher in “wet” years, when total rainfall during the breeding season (September–April) was >10% above the 20-year average. Rainfall may influence reproduction in Crested Caracaras indirectly through food resources. As total rainfall increased during February–April, when most pairs are feeding nestlings or dependent fledglings, the proportion of drawdown-dependent species (those that become available as rainfall decreases and wetlands become isolated and shallow) in the diet of Crested Caracaras declined, which may indicate reduced availability of foraging habitat for this primarily terrestrial raptor.

  14. Effects of task demands on the early neural processing of fearful and happy facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Itier, Roxane J.; Neath-Tavares, Karly N.

    2017-01-01

    Task demands shape how we process environmental stimuli but their impact on the early neural processing of facial expressions remains unclear. In a within-subject design, ERPs were recorded to the same fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions presented during a gender discrimination, an explicit emotion discrimination and an oddball detection tasks, the most studied tasks in the field. Using an eye tracker, fixation on the face nose was enforced using a gaze-contingent presentation. Task demands modulated amplitudes from 200–350ms at occipito-temporal sites spanning the EPN component. Amplitudes were more negative for fearful than neutral expressions starting on N170 from 150–350ms, with a temporo-occipital distribution, whereas no clear effect of happy expressions was seen. Task and emotion effects never interacted in any time window or for the ERP components analyzed (P1, N170, EPN). Thus, whether emotion is explicitly discriminated or irrelevant for the task at hand, neural correlates of fearful and happy facial expressions seem immune to these task demands during the first 350ms of visual processing. PMID:28315309

  15. Effects of task demands on the early neural processing of fearful and happy facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Itier, Roxane J; Neath-Tavares, Karly N

    2017-05-15

    Task demands shape how we process environmental stimuli but their impact on the early neural processing of facial expressions remains unclear. In a within-subject design, ERPs were recorded to the same fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions presented during a gender discrimination, an explicit emotion discrimination and an oddball detection tasks, the most studied tasks in the field. Using an eye tracker, fixation on the face nose was enforced using a gaze-contingent presentation. Task demands modulated amplitudes from 200 to 350ms at occipito-temporal sites spanning the EPN component. Amplitudes were more negative for fearful than neutral expressions starting on N170 from 150 to 350ms, with a temporo-occipital distribution, whereas no clear effect of happy expressions was seen. Task and emotion effects never interacted in any time window or for the ERP components analyzed (P1, N170, EPN). Thus, whether emotion is explicitly discriminated or irrelevant for the task at hand, neural correlates of fearful and happy facial expressions seem immune to these task demands during the first 350ms of visual processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Enhances Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Neural Stem Cell Pool, and Early Neurogenesis in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rita; Ribeiro, Filipa F; Xapelli, Sara; Genebra, Tânia; Ribeiro, Maria F; Sebastião, Ana M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Solá, Susana

    2018-05-01

    Although neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) produce very few neurons during ageing or after injury. We have recently discovered that the endogenous bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a strong inhibitor of mitochondrial apoptosis and a neuroprotective in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, also enhances NSC proliferation, self-renewal, and neuronal conversion by improving mitochondrial integrity and function of NSCs. In the present study, we explore the effect of TUDCA on regulation of NSC fate in neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), using rat postnatal neurospheres and adult rats exposed to the bile acid. TUDCA significantly induced NSC proliferation, self-renewal, and neural differentiation in the SVZ, without affecting DG-derived NSCs. More importantly, expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins and mitochondrial antioxidant responses were significantly increased by TUDCA in SVZ-derived NSCs. Finally, intracerebroventricular administration of TUDCA in adult rats markedly enhanced both NSC proliferation and early differentiation in SVZ regions, corroborating in vitro data. Collectively, our results highlight a potential novel role for TUDCA in neurologic disorders associated with SVZ niche deterioration and impaired neurogenesis.

  17. Shaping Early Reorganization of Neural Networks Promotes Motor Function after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Volz, L. J.; Rehme, A. K.; Michely, J.; Nettekoven, C.; Eickhoff, S. B.; Fink, G. R.; Grefkes, C.

    2016-01-01

    Neural plasticity is a major factor driving cortical reorganization after stroke. We here tested whether repetitively enhancing motor cortex plasticity by means of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) prior to physiotherapy might promote recovery of function early after stroke. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to elucidate underlying neural mechanisms. Twenty-six hospitalized, first-ever stroke patients (time since stroke: 1–16 days) with hand motor deficits were enrolled in a sham-controlled design and pseudo-randomized into 2 groups. iTBS was administered prior to physiotherapy on 5 consecutive days either over ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1-stimulation group) or parieto-occipital vertex (control-stimulation group). Hand motor function, cortical excitability, and resting-state fMRI were assessed 1 day prior to the first stimulation and 1 day after the last stimulation. Recovery of grip strength was significantly stronger in the M1-stimulation compared to the control-stimulation group. Higher levels of motor network connectivity were associated with better motor outcome. Consistently, control-stimulated patients featured a decrease in intra- and interhemispheric connectivity of the motor network, which was absent in the M1-stimulation group. Hence, adding iTBS to prime physiotherapy in recovering stroke patients seems to interfere with motor network degradation, possibly reflecting alleviation of post-stroke diaschisis. PMID:26980614

  18. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    SciT

    Talathi, S. S.

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizuremore » detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.« less

  19. Neural Correlates of Natural Human Echolocation in Early and Late Blind Echolocation Experts

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Lore; Arnott, Stephen R.; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background A small number of blind people are adept at echolocating silent objects simply by producing mouth clicks and listening to the returning echoes. Yet the neural architecture underlying this type of aid-free human echolocation has not been investigated. To tackle this question, we recruited echolocation experts, one early- and one late-blind, and measured functional brain activity in each of them while they listened to their own echolocation sounds. Results When we compared brain activity for sounds that contained both clicks and the returning echoes with brain activity for control sounds that did not contain the echoes, but were otherwise acoustically matched, we found activity in calcarine cortex in both individuals. Importantly, for the same comparison, we did not observe a difference in activity in auditory cortex. In the early-blind, but not the late-blind participant, we also found that the calcarine activity was greater for echoes reflected from surfaces located in contralateral space. Finally, in both individuals, we found activation in middle temporal and nearby cortical regions when they listened to echoes reflected from moving targets. Conclusions These findings suggest that processing of click-echoes recruits brain regions typically devoted to vision rather than audition in both early and late blind echolocation experts. PMID:21633496

  20. The long reach of early adversity: Parenting, stress, and neural pathways to antisocial behavior in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gard, Arianna M; Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hariri, Ahmad R; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-10-01

    Early life adversities including harsh parenting, maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and low family economic resources are more prevalent in low-income urban environments and are potent predictors of psychopathology, including, for boys, antisocial behavior (AB). However, little research has examined how these stressful experiences alter later neural function. Moreover, identifying genetic markers of greater susceptibility to adversity is critical to understanding biopsychosocial pathways from early adversity to later psychopathology. Within a sample of 310 low-income boys followed from age 1.5 to 20, multimethod assessments of adversities were examined at age 2 and age 12. At age 20, amygdala reactivity to emotional facial expressions was assessed using fMRI, and symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder were assessed via structured clinical interview. Genetic variability in cortisol signaling ( CRHR1 ) was examined as a moderator of pathways to amygdala reactivity. Observed parenting and neighborhood deprivation at age 2 each uniquely predicted amygdala reactivity to emotional faces at age 20 over and above other adversities measured at multiple developmental periods. Harsher parenting and greater neighborhood deprivation in toddlerhood predicted clinically-significant symptoms of AB via less amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions and this pathway was moderated by genetic variation in CRHR1 . These results elucidate a pathway linking early adversity to less amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal distress 18 years later, which in turn increased risk for serious AB. Moreover, these findings suggest a genetic marker of youth more susceptible to adversity.

  1. Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Hurtado, Esteban; González, Ramiro; Haye, Andrés; Manes, Facundo F

    2010-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs) in response to face- and word processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members) and words (positive and negative valence) as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly associated in the task) had an influence on the N170 amplitude modulation. On the one hand, in face categorization, right N170 showed differences according to the association between social categories of faces and affective valence of words. On the other, in word categorization, left N170 presented a similar modulation when the task implied a negative-valence associated with ingroup faces. Only indigenous participants showed a significant IAT effect and N170 differences. Our results demonstrate an early ERP blending of stimuli processing with both intergroup and evaluative contexts, suggesting an integration of contextual information related to intergroup attitudes during the early stages of word and face processing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early ERPs during an ethnicity IAT, opening a new branch of exchange between social neuroscience and social psychology of attitudes.

  2. Sox5 is a DNA binding co-factor for BMP R-Smads that directs target specificity during patterning of the early ectoderm

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Kara; LaBonne, Carole

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The SoxD factor, Sox5, is expressed in ectodermal cells at times and places where BMP signaling is active, including the cells of the animal hemisphere at blastula stages, and the neural plate border (NPB) and neural crest (NC) at neurula stages. Sox5 is required for proper ectoderm development, and deficient embryos display patterning defects characteristic of perturbations of BMP signaling, including loss of neural crest and epidermis and expansion of the neural plate. We show that Sox5 is essential for activation of BMP target genes in embryos and explants, that it physically interacts with BMP R-Smads, and that it is essential for recruitment of Smad1/4 to BMP regulatory elements. Our findings identify Sox5 as the long sought DNA binding partner for BMP R-Smads essential to plasticity and pattern in the early ectoderm. PMID:25453832

  3. Early Parenting Moderates the Association between Parental Depression and Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-07-01

    Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential assessment and the feedback negativity (FN) was measured following rewards and losses ( N =344). Maternal authoritative parenting moderated the effect of maternal depression; among offspring of mothers with histories of depression, low authoritative parenting predicted a blunted FN. Observed maternal positive parenting interacted with paternal depression in a comparable manner, indicating that maternal parenting may buffer the effects of paternal depression. Early parenting may be important in shaping the neural systems involved in reward processing among children at high risk for depression.

  4. Early Parenting Moderates the Association between Parental Depression and Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H.; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential assessment and the feedback negativity (FN) was measured following rewards and losses (N=344). Maternal authoritative parenting moderated the effect of maternal depression; among offspring of mothers with histories of depression, low authoritative parenting predicted a blunted FN. Observed maternal positive parenting interacted with paternal depression in a comparable manner, indicating that maternal parenting may buffer the effects of paternal depression. Early parenting may be important in shaping the neural systems involved in reward processing among children at high risk for depression. PMID:26167423

  5. Recognition of early stage thigmotaxis in Morris water maze test with convolutional neural network.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Akinori; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kan-No, Harumi; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Higaki, Jitsuo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2018-01-01

    The Morris water maze test (MWM) is a useful tool to evaluate rodents' spatial learning and memory, but the outcome is susceptible to various experimental conditions. Thigmotaxis is a commonly observed behavioral pattern which is thought to be related to anxiety or fear. This behavior is associated with prolonged escape latency, but the impact of its frequency in the early stage on the final outcome is not clearly understood. We analyzed swim path trajectories in male C57BL/6 mice with or without bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) treatment. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of particular types of trajectories according to ischemic brain surgery. The mouse groups with thigmotaxis showed significantly prolonged escape latency and lower cognitive score on day 5 compared to those without thigmotaxis. As the next step, we made a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to recognize the swim path trajectories. Our model could distinguish thigmotaxis from other trajectories with 96% accuracy and specificity as high as 0.98. These results suggest that thigmotaxis in the early training stage is a predictive factor for impaired performance in MWM, and machine learning can detect such behavior easily and automatically.

  6. Early detection of epilepsy seizures based on a weightless neural network.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Kleber; Franca, Felipe M G; Barbosa, Valmir C; Teixeira, Cesar A D

    2015-08-01

    This work introduces a new methodology for the early detection of epileptic seizure based on the WiSARD weightless neural network model and a new approach in terms of preprocessing the electroencephalogram (EEG) data. WiSARD has, among other advantages, the capacity of perform the training phase in a very fast way. This speed in training is due to the fact that WiSARD's neurons work like Random Access Memories (RAM) addressed by input patterns. Promising results were obtained in the anticipation of seizure onsets in four representative patients from the European Database on Epilepsy (EPILEPSIAE). The proposed seizure early detection WNN architecture was explored by varying the detection anticipation (δ) in the 2 to 30 seconds interval, and by adopting 2 and 3 seconds as the width of the Sliding Observation Window (SOW) input. While in the most challenging patient (A) one obtained accuracies from 99.57% (δ=2s; SOW=3s) to 72.56% (δ=30s; SOW=2s), patient D seizures could be detected in the 99.77% (δ=2s; SOW=2s) to 99.93% (δ=30s; SOW=3s) accuracy interval.

  7. Pricing and hedging derivative securities with neural networks: Bayesian regularization, early stopping, and bagging.

    PubMed

    Gençay, R; Qi, M

    2001-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of cross validation, Bayesian regularization, early stopping, and bagging to mitigate overfitting and improving generalization for pricing and hedging derivative securities with daily S&P 500 index daily call options from January 1988 to December 1993. Our results indicate that Bayesian regularization can generate significantly smaller pricing and delta-hedging errors than the baseline neural-network (NN) model and the Black-Scholes model for some years. While early stopping does not affect the pricing errors, it significantly reduces the hedging error (HE) in four of the six years we investigated. Although computationally most demanding, bagging seems to provide the most accurate pricing and delta hedging. Furthermore, the standard deviation of the MSPE of bagging is far less than that of the baseline model in all six years, and the standard deviation of the average HE of bagging is far less than that of the baseline model in five out of six years. We conclude that they be used at least in cases when no appropriate hints are available.

  8. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Neural Bases of Auditory Processing.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Putzar, Lisa; Röder, Brigitte

    2016-02-03

    Transient congenital visual deprivation affects visual and multisensory processing. In contrast, the extent to which it affects auditory processing has not been investigated systematically. Research in permanently blind individuals has revealed brain reorganization during auditory processing, involving both intramodal and crossmodal plasticity. The present study investigated the effect of transient congenital visual deprivation on the neural bases of auditory processing in humans. Cataract-reversal individuals and normally sighted controls performed a speech-in-noise task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although there were no behavioral group differences, groups differed in auditory cortical responses: in the normally sighted group, auditory cortex activation increased with increasing noise level, whereas in the cataract-reversal group, no activation difference was observed across noise levels. An auditory activation of visual cortex was not observed at the group level in cataract-reversal individuals. The present data suggest prevailing auditory processing advantages after transient congenital visual deprivation, even many years after sight restoration. The present study demonstrates that people whose sight was restored after a transient period of congenital blindness show more efficient cortical processing of auditory stimuli (here speech), similarly to what has been observed in congenitally permanently blind individuals. These results underscore the importance of early sensory experience in permanently shaping brain function. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361620-11$15.00/0.

  9. Neural correlates of early-closure garden-path processing: Effects of prosody and plausibility.

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Anderson, Catherine; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of early-closure garden-path sentence processing and use of extrasyntactic information to resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities. Sixteen participants performed an auditory picture verification task on sentences presented with natural versus flat intonation. Stimuli included sentences in which the garden-path interpretation was plausible, implausible because of a late pragmatic cue, or implausible because of a semantic mismatch between an optionally transitive verb and the following noun. Natural sentence intonation was correlated with left-hemisphere temporal activation, but also with activation that suggests the allocation of more resources to interpretation when natural prosody is provided. Garden-path processing was associated with upregulation in bilateral inferior parietal and right-hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex, while differences between the strength and type of plausibility cues were also reflected in activation patterns. Region of interest (ROI) analyses in regions associated with complex syntactic processing are consistent with a role for posterior temporal cortex supporting access to verb argument structure. Furthermore, ROI analyses within left-hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus suggest a division of labour, with the anterior-ventral part primarily involved in syntactic-semantic mismatch detection, the central part supporting structural reanalysis, and the posterior-dorsal part showing a general structural complexity effect.

  10. Neural representation of form-contingent color filling-in in the early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Wook; Tong, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Perceptual filling-in exemplifies the constructive nature of visual processing. Color, a prominent surface property of visual objects, can appear to spread to neighboring areas that lack any color. We investigated cortical responses to a color filling-in illusion that effectively dissociates perceived color from the retinal input (van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009). Observers adapted to a star-shaped stimulus with alternating red- and cyan-colored points to elicit a complementary afterimage. By presenting an achromatic outline that enclosed one of the two afterimage colors, perceptual filling-in of that color was induced in the unadapted central region. Visual cortical activity was monitored with fMRI, and analyzed using multivariate pattern analysis. Activity patterns in early visual areas (V1-V4) reliably distinguished between the two color-induced filled-in conditions, but only higher extrastriate visual areas showed the predicted correspondence with color perception. Activity patterns allowed for reliable generalization between filled-in colors and physical presentations of perceptually matched colors in areas V3 and V4, but not in earlier visual areas. These findings suggest that the perception of filled-in surface color likely requires more extensive processing by extrastriate visual areas, in order for the neural representation of surface color to become aligned with perceptually matched real colors.

  11. Blastomere biopsy influences epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development, which impacts neural development and function in resulting mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yibo; Lv, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Dong, Guoying; Yu, Yang; Cui, Yiqiang; Tong, Man; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Zuomin; Zhu, Hui; Zhou, Qi; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-05-01

    Blastomere biopsy is used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis; however, the long-term implications on the offspring are poorly characterized. We previously reported a high risk of memory defects in adult biopsied mice. Here, we assessed nervous function of aged biopsied mice and further investigated the mechanism of neural impairment after biopsy. We found that aged biopsied mice had poorer spatial learning ability, increased neuron degeneration, and altered expression of proteins involved in neural degeneration or dysfunction in the brain compared to aged control mice. Furthermore, the MeDIP assay indicated a genome-wide low methylation in the brains of adult biopsied mice when compared to the controls, and most of the genes containing differentially methylated loci in promoter regions were associated with neural disorders. When we further compared the genomic DNA methylation profiles of 7.5-days postconception (dpc) embryos between the biopsy and control group, we found the whole genome low methylation in the biopsied group, suggesting that blastomere biopsy was an obstacle to de novo methylation during early embryo development. Further analysis on mRNA profiles of 4.5-dpc embryos indicated that reduced expression of de novo methylation genes in biopsied embryos may impact de novo methylation. In conclusion, we demonstrate an abnormal neural development and function in mice generated after blastomere biopsy. The impaired epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development may be the latent mechanism contributing to the impairment of the nervous system in the biopsied mice, which results in a hypomethylation status in their brains.

  12. Neural activity during natural viewing of Sesame Street statistically predicts test scores in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Li, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    It is not currently possible to measure the real-world thought process that a child has while observing an actual school lesson. However, if it could be done, children's neural processes would presumably be predictive of what they know. Such neural measures would shed new light on children's real-world thought. Toward that goal, this study examines neural processes that are evoked naturalistically, during educational television viewing. Children and adults all watched the same Sesame Street video during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Whole-brain intersubject correlations between the neural timeseries from each child and a group of adults were used to derive maps of "neural maturity" for children. Neural maturity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region with a known role in basic numerical cognition, predicted children's formal mathematics abilities. In contrast, neural maturity in Broca's area correlated with children's verbal abilities, consistent with prior language research. Our data show that children's neural responses while watching complex real-world stimuli predict their cognitive abilities in a content-specific manner. This more ecologically natural paradigm, combined with the novel measure of "neural maturity," provides a new method for studying real-world mathematics development in the brain.

  13. Neural tube and other developmental anomalies in the guinea pig following maternal hyperthermia during early neural tube development.

    PubMed

    Cawdell-Smith, J; Upfold, J; Edwards, M; Smith, M

    1992-01-01

    Guinea pigs were exposed to hyperthermia for 1 hr once or twice on day 11, 12, 13, or 14 (E11-E14) of pregnancy. The mean rectal temperatures were elevated by 3.4 degrees C-4.0 degrees C. This treatment resulted in a marked elevation of rates of resorption and developmental defects in embryos examined at day E23. The defects observed were those affecting the neural tube (NTD) (exencephaly, encephaloceles, and microphthalmia), kyphosis/scoliosis, branchial arch defects, and pericardial edema. Embryos with NTD and kyphosis/scoliosis have not been found among newborn guinea pigs to date following maternal heat exposure on days E12-E14. It appears that embryos with these defects are filtered out by resorption or abortion by days E30-E35.

  14. The CREST-E study of creatine for Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Schifitto, Giovanni; Oakes, David; Bredlau, Amy-Lee; Meyers, Catherine M.; Nahin, Richard; Rosas, Herminia Diana

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether creatine administration could slow progressive functional decline in adults with early symptoms of Huntington disease. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of up to 40 g daily of creatine monohydrate in participants with stage I and II HD treated for up to 48 months. The primary outcome measure was the rate of change in total functional capacity (TFC) between baseline and end of follow-up. Secondary outcome measures included changes in additional clinical scores, tolerability, and quality of life. Safety was assessed by adverse events and laboratory studies. Results: At 46 sites in North America, Australia, and New Zealand, 553 participants were randomized to creatine (275) or placebo (278). The trial was designed to enroll 650 patients, but was halted for futility after the first interim analysis. The estimated rates of decline in the primary outcome measure (TFC) were 0.82 points per year for participants on creatine, 0.70 points per year for participants on placebo, favoring placebo (nominal 95% confidence limits −0.11 to 0.35). Adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, were significantly more common in participants on creatine. Serious adverse events, including deaths, were more frequent in the placebo group. Subgroup analysis suggested that men and women may respond differently to creatine treatment. Conclusions: Our data do not support the use of creatine treatment for delaying functional decline in early manifest HD. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00712426. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with early symptomatic HD, creatine monohydrate is not beneficial for slowing functional decline. PMID:28701493

  15. The Health Connection at Cedar Crest College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kerrie; Boland, Kathleen; Laffey, Joan M.

    2006-01-01

    The mission of Cedar Crest College, an independent women's college, is to provide students with excellent education that is grounded in the liberal arts and informed by humanistic values. In 2003, Student Affairs staff of the school looked closely at those students who were graduating and began to realize that though the college was providing…

  16. Diversification of crested wheatgrass stands in Utah

    April Hulet

    2009-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertner (crested wheatgrass) continues to be seeded on burned wildlands. Effective control methods need to be developed to convert these seedings to more diverse native plant communities. This research was designed to determine effective ways to control A. cristatum and establish native species while...

  17. Monoamine Oxidases Regulate Telencephalic Neural Progenitors in Late Embryonic and Early Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aiwu; Scott, Anna L.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Chen, Kevin; Ouyang, Xin; Lathia, Justin D.; Mughal, Mohamed; Cadet, Jean Lud; Mattson, Mark P.; Shih, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters play major roles in regulating a range of brain functions in adults and increasing evidence suggests roles for monoamines in brain development. Here we show that mice lacking the monoamine metabolic enzymes MAO A and MAO B (MAO AB-deficient mice) exhibit diminished proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the developing telencephalon beginning in late gestation [embryonic day (E) 17.5], a deficit that persists in neonatal and adult mice. These mice showed significantly increased monoamine levels and anxiety-like behaviors as adults. Assessments of markers of intermediate progenitor cells (IPC) and mitosis showed that NSC in the subventricular zone (SVZ), but not in the ventricular zone, are reduced in MAO AB-deficient mice. A developmental time course of monoamines in frontal cortical tissues revealed increased serotonin levels as early as E14.5, and a further large increase was found between E17.5 and postnatal day 2. Administration of an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis (parachlorophenylalanine) between E14.5 and E19.5 restored the IPC numbers and SVZ thickness, suggesting the role of serotonin in the suppression of IPC proliferation. Studies of neurosphere cultures prepared from the telencephalon at different embryonic and postnatal ages showed that serotonin stimulates proliferation in wild-type, but not in MAO AB-deficient, NSC. Together, these results suggest that a MAO-dependent long-lasting alteration in the proliferation capacity of NSC occurs late in embryonic development and is mediated by serotonin. Our findings reveal novel roles for MAOs and serotonin in the regulation of IPC proliferation in the developing brain. PMID:20702706

  18. Orbitofrontal Gray Matter Relates to Early Morning Awakening: A Neural Correlate of Insomnia Complaints?

    PubMed Central

    Stoffers, Diederick; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen; van Tol, Marie-José; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep complaints increase profoundly with age; prevalence estimates of insomnia in the elderly reach up to 37%. The three major types of nocturnal complaints are difficulties initiating (DIS) and maintaining (DMS) sleep and early morning awakening (EMA), of which the latter appears most characteristic for aging. The neural correlates associated with these complaints have hardly been investigated, hampering the development of rational treatment and prevention. A recent study on structural brain correlates of insomnia showed that overall severity, but not duration, of insomnia complaints is associated with lower gray matter (GM) density in part of the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Following up on this, we investigated, in an independent sample of people not diagnosed with insomnia, whether individual differences in GM density are associated with differences in DIS, DMS, and EMA. Sixty five healthy participants (mean age = 41 years, range 18–56) filled out questionnaires and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Three compound Z-scores were computed for questionnaire items relating to DIS, DMS, and EMA. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate their association with GM density. Results show that participants with lower GM density in a region where the left inferior OFC borders the insula report more EMA, but not DIS or DMS. This is the first study to investigate structural brain correlates of specific sleep characteristics that can translate into complaints in insomniacs. The selective association of EMA with orbitofrontal GM density makes our findings particularly relevant to elderly people, where EMA represents the most characteristic complaint. It is hypothesized that low GM density in aforementioned orbitofrontal area affects its role in sensing comfort. An intact ability to evaluate comfort may be crucial to maintain sleep, especially at the end of the night when sleep is vulnerable because homeostatic sleep propensity has

  19. Activation of GPR55 increases neural stem cell proliferation and promotes early adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jeremy D; Zuluaga-Ramirez, Viviana; Gajghate, Sachin; Winfield, Malika; Persidsky, Yuri

    2018-06-11

    The cannabinoid system exerts functional regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and adult neurogenesis, yet not all effects of cannabinoid-like compounds seen can be attributed to the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB 1 R) or cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB 2 R). The recently de-orphaned GPR55 has been shown to be activated by numerous cannabinoid ligands suggesting that GPR55 is a third cannabinoid receptor. Here we examined the role of GPR55 activation in NSC proliferation and early adult neurogenesis. The effects of GPR55 agonists (LPI, O-1602, ML184) on human NSC proliferation in vitro were assessed by flow cytometry. hNSC differentiation was determined by flow cytometry, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Immature neuron formation in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and GPR55 -/- mice was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Activation of GPR55 significantly increased proliferation rates of hNSCs in vitro. These effects were attenuated by ML193, a selective GPR55 antagonist. ML184 significantly promoted neuronal differentiation in vitro while ML193 reduced differentiation rates as compared to vehicle treatment. Continuous administration into the hippocampus of O-1602 via cannula connected to osmotic pump resulted in increased Ki67+ cells within the dentate gyrus. O-1602 increased immature neuron generation as assessed by DCX+ and BrdU+ cells as compared to vehicle treated animals. GPR55 -/- animals displayed reduced rates of proliferation and neurogenesis within the hippocampus while O-1602 had no effect as compared to vehicle controls. Together, these findings suggest GPR55 activation as a novel target and strategy to regulate NSC proliferation and adult neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Luca; Fairchild, Graeme; Goodyer, Ian M; Hurford, Georgina; Hagan, Cindy C; Rowe, James B; Calder, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by severe antisocial behavior that emerges in childhood (early-onset CD [EO-CD]) or adolescence (adolescence-onset CD [AO-CD]). Early-onset CD is proposed to have a neurodevelopmental basis, whereas AO-CD is thought to emerge owing to social mimicry of deviant peers. However, this developmental taxonomic theory is debated after reports of neuropsychological impairments in both CD subtypes. A critical, although unaddressed, issue is whether these subtypes present similar or distinct neurophysiological profiles. Hence, we investigated neurophysiological responses to emotional and neutral faces in regions associated with antisocial behavior (ie, the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex) in individuals with EO-CD and AO-CD and in healthy control subjects. To investigate whether EO-CD and AO-CD subjects show neurophysiological abnormalities. Case-control study. Government research institute, university department. Seventy-five male adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 21 years, including 27 with EO-CD, 25 with AO-CD, and 23 healthy controls. Main Outcome Measure Neural activations measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants viewed angry, sad, and neutral faces. Comparing angry vs neutral faces, participants with both CD subtypes displayed reduced responses in regions associated with antisocial behavior compared with controls; differences between the CD subtypes were not significant. Comparing each expression with fixation baseline revealed an abnormal (increased) amygdala response to neutral but not angry faces in both groups of CD relative to controls. For sad vs neutral faces, reduced amygdala activation was observed in EO-CD relative to AO-CD and control participants. Comparing each expression with fixation revealed hypoactive amygdala responses to sadness in individuals with EO-CD relative to AO-CD participants and controls. These findings were not accounted for

  1. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Its Role in Early Neural Development and in Adult and Aged Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Lombó, Carla; Gonsebatt, María E.

    2016-01-01

    The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals triggered by energy, stress, oxygen levels, and growth factors. It regulates ribosome biogenesis, mRNA translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. mTOR participates in various functions of the brain, such as synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, memory, and learning. mTOR is present during early neural development and participates in axon and dendrite development, neuron differentiation, and gliogenesis, among other processes. Furthermore, mTOR has been shown to modulate lifespan in multiple organisms. This protein is an important energy sensor that is present throughout our lifetime its role must be precisely described in order to develop therapeutic strategies and prevent diseases of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to present our current understanding of the functions of mTOR in neural development, the adult brain and aging. PMID:27378854

  2. Early neural activation during facial affect processing in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rachel C; Pang, Elizabeth W; Cassel, Daniel; Brian, Jessica A; Smith, Mary Lou; Taylor, Margot J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is one of the hallmarks of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Emotional faces are arguably the most critical visual social stimuli and the ability to perceive, recognize, and interpret emotions is central to social interaction and communication, and subsequently healthy social development. However, our understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD is limited. We recruited 48 adolescents, 24 with high functioning ASD and 24 typically developing controls. Participants completed an implicit emotional face processing task in the MEG. We examined spatiotemporal differences in neural activation between the groups during implicit angry and happy face processing. While there were no differences in response latencies between groups across emotions, adolescents with ASD had lower accuracy on the implicit emotional face processing task when the trials included angry faces. MEG data showed atypical neural activity in adolescents with ASD during angry and happy face processing, which included atypical activity in the insula, anterior and posterior cingulate and temporal and orbitofrontal regions. Our findings demonstrate differences in neural activity during happy and angry face processing between adolescents with and without ASD. These differences in activation in social cognitive regions may index the difficulties in face processing and in comprehension of social reward and punishment in the ASD group. Thus, our results suggest that atypical neural activation contributes to impaired affect processing, and thus social cognition, in adolescents with ASD.

  3. Early driver fatigue detection from electroencephalography signals using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    King, L M; Nguyen, H T; Lal, S K L

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a driver fatigue detection system using an artificial neural network (ANN). Using electroencephalogram (EEG) data sampled from 20 professional truck drivers and 35 non professional drivers, the time domain data are processed into alpha, beta, delta and theta bands and then presented to the neural network to detect the onset of driver fatigue. The neural network uses a training optimization technique called the magnified gradient function (MGF). This technique reduces the time required for training by modifying the standard back propagation (SBP) algorithm. The MGF is shown to classify professional driver fatigue with 81.49% accuracy (80.53% sensitivity, 82.44% specificity) and non-professional driver fatigue with 83.06% accuracy (84.04% sensitivity and 82.08% specificity).

  4. Neural Dynamics of Multiple Object Processing in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: Future Early Diagnostic Biomarkers?

    PubMed

    Bagattini, Chiara; Mazza, Veronica; Panizza, Laura; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bonomini, Cristina; Brignani, Debora

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and electrophysiological dynamics of multiple object processing (MOP) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to test whether its neural signatures may represent reliable diagnostic biomarkers. Behavioral performance and event-related potentials [N2pc and contralateral delay activity (CDA)] were measured in AD, MCI, and healthy controls during a MOP task, which consisted in enumerating a variable number of targets presented among distractors. AD patients showed an overall decline in accuracy for both small and large target quantities, whereas in MCI patients, only enumeration of large quantities was impaired. N2pc, a neural marker of attentive individuation, was spared in both AD and MCI patients. In contrast, CDA, which indexes visual short term memory abilities, was altered in both groups of patients, with a non-linear pattern of amplitude modulation along the continuum of the disease: a reduction in AD and an increase in MCI. These results indicate that AD pathology shows a progressive decline in MOP, which is associated to the decay of visual short-term memory mechanisms. Crucially, CDA may be considered as a useful neural signature both to distinguish between healthy and pathological aging and to characterize the different stages along the AD continuum, possibly becoming a reliable candidate for an early diagnostic biomarker of AD pathology.

  5. Adverse early life environment increases hippocampal microglia abundance in conjunction with decreased neural stem cells in juvenile mice.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Susan; Ke, Xingrao; Liu, Qiuli; Fu, Qi; Majnik, Amber; Lane, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Adverse maternal lifestyle resulting in adverse early life environment (AELE) increases risks for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus (HP). Microglia are neuro-inflammatory cells in the brain that regulate neurogenesis via toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR-9 is implicated in neurogenesis inhibition and is responsible for stress-related inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that AELE would increase microglia cell count and increase TLR-9 expression in juvenile mouse HP. These increases in microglia cell count and TLR-9 expression would be associated with decrease neural stem cell count and neuronal cell count. We developed a mouse model of AELE combining Western diet and a stress environment. Stress environment consisted of random change from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 as well as static change in maternal environment from E13 to postnatal day 21(P21). At P21, we measured hippocampal cell numbers of microglia, neural stem cell and neuron, as well as hippocampal TLR-9 expression. AELE significantly increased total microglia number and TLR-9 expression in the hippocampus. Concurrently, AELE significantly decreased neural stem cell and neuronal numbers. AELE increased the neuro-inflammatory cellular response in the juvenile HP. We speculate that increased neuro-inflammatory responses may contribute to impaired neurogenesis seen in this model. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Musical Training during Early Childhood Enhances the Neural Encoding of Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child's access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians' perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and…

  7. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering…

  8. Characterization of Early Cortical Neural Network Development in Multiwell Microelectrode Array Plates

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the development of neural network activity using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings made in multi-well MEA plates (mwMEAs) over the first 12 days in vitro (DIV). In primary cortical cultures made from postnatal rats, action potential spiking activity was essentiall...

  9. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Jack, Bradley N; Roeber, Urte; O'Shea, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect.

  10. PSD-95 is post-transcriptionally repressed during early neural development by PTBP1 and PTBP2.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sika; Gray, Erin E; Chawla, Geetanjali; Porse, Bo Torben; O'Dell, Thomas J; Black, Douglas L

    2012-01-15

    Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) is essential for synaptic maturation and plasticity. Although its synaptic regulation has been widely studied, the control of PSD-95 cellular expression is not understood. We found that Psd-95 was controlled post-transcriptionally during neural development. Psd-95 was transcribed early in mouse embryonic brain, but most of its product transcripts were degraded. The polypyrimidine tract binding proteins PTBP1 and PTBP2 repressed Psd-95 (also known as Dlg4) exon 18 splicing, leading to premature translation termination and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The loss of first PTBP1 and then of PTBP2 during embryonic development allowed splicing of exon 18 and expression of PSD-95 late in neuronal maturation. Re-expression of PTBP1 or PTBP2 in differentiated neurons inhibited PSD-95 expression and impaired the development of glutamatergic synapses. Thus, expression of PSD-95 during early neural development is controlled at the RNA level by two PTB proteins whose sequential downregulation is necessary for synapse maturation.

  11. Musical training during early childhood enhances the neural encoding of speech in noise

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child’s access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians’ perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and subcortical processing of speech in noise and related cognitive abilities in musician and nonmusician children that were matched for a variety of overarching factors. Outcomes reveal that musicians’ advantages for processing speech in noise are present during pivotal developmental years. Supported by correlations between auditory working memory and attention and auditory brainstem response properties, we propose that musicians’ perceptual and neural enhancements are driven in a top-down manner by strengthened cognitive abilities with training. Our results may be considered by professionals involved in the remediation of language-based learning deficits, which are often characterized by poor speech perception in noise. PMID:23102977

  12. Early distinction system of mine fire in underground by using a neural-network system

    SciT

    Ohga, Kotaro; Higuchi, Kiyoshi

    1996-12-31

    In our laboratory, a new detection system using smell detectors was developed to detect the spontaneous combustion of coal and the combustion of other materials used underground. The results of experiments clearly the combustion of materials can be detected earlier by this detection system than by conventional detectors for gas and smoke, and there were significant differences between output data from each smell detector for coal, rubber, oil and wood. In order to discern the source of combustion gases, we have been developing a distinction system using a neural-network system. It has shown successful results in laboratory tests. This papermore » describes our detection system using smell detectors and our distinction system which uses a neural-network system, and presents results of experiments using both systems.« less

  13. The effects of levetiracetam on neural tube development in the early stage of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Guvenc, Yahya; Dalgic, Ali; Billur, Deniz; Karaoglu, Derya; Aydin, Sevim; Daglioglu, Ergun; Ozdol, Cagatay; Nacar, Osman Arikan; Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Belen, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a new generation antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, on the neural tube development in a chick embryo model that corresponds to the first month of vertebral development in mammals. Forty-five Atabey® breed fertilized chicken eggs with no specific pathogens were randomly divided into 5 groups. All of the eggs were incubated at 37.8±2°C and 60±5 % relative humidity in an incubator. Group A was control group. The other eggs were applied physiological saline and drugs at a volume of 10 μL by the in ovo method at the 28th hour of the incubation period. Group B was given distilled water; Group C, physiological saline; Group D, Levetiracetam (L8668) at a dose equivalent to the treatment dose for humans (10 mg/ kg), and Group E, Levetiracetam (L8668) at a dose of 10 times the treatment dose. The embryos in all of the groups were removed from the shells at the 48th hour and morphologically and histologically evaluated. Of the 45 embryos incubated, neural tubes of 41 were closed and the embryos displayed normal development. Levetiracetam, at a dose equivalent to human treatment dose and 10 times the treatment dose, was shown not to cause neural tube defects in chick embryos.

  14. Short-crested waves in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhangping; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Xu, Munan; Garnier, Roland; Derakhti, Morteza

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates short-crested waves in the surf zone by using the mesh-free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics model, GPUSPH. The short-crested waves are created by generating intersecting wave trains in a numerical wave basin with a beach. We first validate the numerical model for short-crested waves by comparison with large-scale laboratory measurements. Then short-crested wave breaking over a planar beach is studied comprehensively. We observe rip currents as discussed in Dalrymple (1975) and undertow created by synchronous intersecting waves. The wave breaking of the short-crested wavefield created by the nonlinear superposition of intersecting waves and wave-current interaction result in the formation of isolated breakers at the ends of breaking wave crests. Wave amplitude diffraction at these isolated breakers gives rise to an increase in the alongshore wave number in the inner surf zone. Moreover, 3-D vortices and multiple circulation cells with a rotation frequency much lower than the incident wave frequency are observed across the outer surf zone to the beach. Finally, we investigate vertical vorticity generation under short-crested wave breaking and find that breaking of short-crested waves generates vorticity as pointed out by Peregrine (1998). Vorticity generation is not only observed under short-crested waves with a limited number of wave components but also under directional wave spectra.

  15. Early life social stress induced changes in depression and anxiety associated neural pathways which are correlated with impaired maternal care.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Peña, Catherine J; Podda, Giovanni; Nestler, Eric J; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2015-08-01

    Exposures to various types of early life stress can be robust predictors of the development of psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to investigate the roles of the translationally relevant targets of central vasopressin, oxytocin, ghrelin, orexin, glucocorticoid, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway in an early chronic social stress (ECSS) based rodent model of postpartum depression and anxiety. The present study reports novel changes in gene expression and extracellular signal related kinase (ERK) protein levels in the brains of ECSS exposed rat dams that display previously reported depressed maternal care and increased maternal anxiety. Decreases in oxytocin, orexin, and ERK proteins, increases in ghrelin receptor, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA levels, and bidirectional changes in vasopressin underscore related work on the adverse long-term effects of early life stress on neural activity and plasticity, maternal behavior, responses to stress, and depression and anxiety-related behavior. The differences in gene and protein expression and robust correlations between expression and maternal care and anxiety support increased focus on these targets in animal and clinical studies of the adverse effects of early life stress, especially those focusing on depression and anxiety in mothers and the transgenerational effects of these disorders on offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Large-scale generation of human iPSC-derived neural stem cells/early neural progenitor cells and their neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    D'Aiuto, Leonardo; Zhi, Yun; Kumar Das, Dhanjit; Wilcox, Madeleine R; Johnson, Jon W; McClain, Lora; MacDonald, Matthew L; Di Maio, Roberto; Schurdak, Mark E; Piazza, Paolo; Viggiano, Luigi; Sweet, Robert; Kinchington, Paul R; Bhattacharjee, Ayantika G; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonka, Vishwajit L; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to perform high-throughput screening of novel drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Such screenings require a robust and scalable method for generating large numbers of mature, differentiated neuronal cells. Currently available methods based on differentiation of embryoid bodies (EBs) or directed differentiation of adherent culture systems are either expensive or are not scalable. We developed a protocol for large-scale generation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs)/early neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) and their differentiation into neurons. Our scalable protocol allows robust and cost-effective generation of NSCs/eNPCs from iPSCs. Following culture in neurobasal medium supplemented with B27 and BDNF, NSCs/eNPCs differentiate predominantly into vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) positive neurons. Targeted mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that iPSC-derived neurons express ligand-gated channels and other synaptic proteins and whole-cell patch-clamp experiments indicate that these channels are functional. The robust and cost-effective differentiation protocol described here for large-scale generation of NSCs/eNPCs and their differentiation into neurons paves the way for automated high-throughput screening of drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Baylisascaris procyonis encephalitis in Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus), crested screamers (Chauna torquata), and a western Canadian porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum epixanthus) in a Manitoba zoo

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amy B.; Glover, Gordon J.; Postey, Rosemary C.; Sexsmith, Jennifer L.; Hutchison, Thomas W.S.; Kazacos, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    Neurological disease occurred in 4 Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus), 2 crested screamer chicks (Chauna torquata), and 1 western Canadian porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum epixanthus) at a Manitoba zoo. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, not previously identified in Manitoba, is considered the likely cause of neural larval migrans in these cases. PMID:19043485

  18. Cell delamination in the mesencephalic neural fold and its implication for the origin of ectomesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Raymond Teck Ho; Nagai, Hiroki; Nakaya, Yukiko; Sheng, Guojun; Trainor, Paul A.; Weston, James A.; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest is a transient structure unique to vertebrate embryos that gives rise to multiple lineages along the rostrocaudal axis. In cranial regions, neural crest cells are thought to differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes, pericytes and stromal cells, which are collectively termed ectomesenchyme derivatives, as well as pigment and neuronal derivatives. There is still no consensus as to whether the neural crest can be classified as a homogenous multipotent population of cells. This unresolved controversy has important implications for the formation of ectomesenchyme and for confirmation of whether the neural fold is compartmentalized into distinct domains, each with a different repertoire of derivatives. Here we report in mouse and chicken that cells in the neural fold delaminate over an extended period from different regions of the cranial neural fold to give rise to cells with distinct fates. Importantly, cells that give rise to ectomesenchyme undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition from a lateral neural fold domain that does not express definitive neural markers, such as Sox1 and N-cadherin. Additionally, the inference that cells originating from the cranial neural ectoderm have a common origin and cell fate with trunk neural crest cells prompted us to revisit the issue of what defines the neural crest and the origin of the ectomesenchyme. PMID:24198279

  19. A taxonomic study of crested caracaras (Falconidae)

    Dove, C.J.; Banks, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the crested caracaras (Caracara spp., Falconidae) has been unsettled for many years. Current sources such as the AOU Check-list recognize a single species that includes three taxa formerly considered distinct, citing observations by Hellmayr and Conover (1949) on two specimens considered to be intermediate. We studied plumage characters and measurements of over 392 museum specimens and found no evidence of clinal change between the northern and southern continental populations. Sixteen specimens from localities near the Amazon River where these two populations sporadically meet exhibit a mosaic of plumage elements from both forms. Measurements of wing chord, bill length, and bill depth indicate that size is positively correlated with latitude north and south of the equator and that females are larger than males in the northern population. These populations do not meet in western South America. We conclude that three biological species can be identified in the crested caracaras: the insular Guadalupe Caracara (Caracara lutosus); and two continental species, Northern (C. cheriway) and Southern caracara (C. plancus), neither of which shows subspecific variation.

  20. Segmentation of retinal blood vessels using artificial neural networks for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Kulwinder S.; Kaur, Sukhpreet

    2017-06-01

    There are various eye diseases in the patients suffering from the diabetes which includes Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Hypertension etc. These all are the most common sight threatening eye diseases due to the changes in the blood vessel structure. The proposed method using supervised methods concluded that the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels can be performed accurately using neural networks training. It uses features which include Gray level features; Moment Invariant based features, Gabor filtering, Intensity feature, Vesselness feature for feature vector computation. Then the feature vector is calculated using only the prominent features.

  1. Ontogeny in the tube-crested dinosaur Parasaurolophus (Hadrosauridae) and heterochrony in hadrosaurids

    PubMed Central

    Chok, Derek J.; Herrero, Annisa; Scolieri, Brandon; Werning, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The tube-crested hadrosaurid dinosaur Parasaurolophus is remarkable for its unusual cranial ornamentation, but little is known about its growth and development, particularly relative to well-documented ontogenetic series for lambeosaurin hadrosaurids (such as Corythosaurus, Lambeosaurus, and Hypacrosaurus). The skull and skeleton of a juvenile Parasaurolophus from the late Campanian-aged (∼75.5 Ma) Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah, USA, represents the smallest and most complete specimen yet described for this taxon. The individual was approximately 2.5 m in body length (∼25% maximum adult body length) at death, with a skull measuring 246 mm long and a femur 329 mm long. A histological section of the tibia shows well-vascularized, woven and parallel-fibered primary cortical bone typical of juvenile ornithopods. The histological section revealed no lines of arrested growth or annuli, suggesting the animal may have still been in its first year at the time of death. Impressions of the upper rhamphotheca are preserved in association with the skull, showing that the soft tissue component for the beak extended for some distance beyond the limits of the oral margin of the premaxilla. In marked contrast with the lengthy tube-like crest in adult Parasaurolophus, the crest of the juvenile specimen is low and hemicircular in profile, with an open premaxilla-nasal fontanelle. Unlike juvenile lambeosaurins, the nasal passages occupy nearly the entirety of the crest in juvenile Parasaurolophus. Furthermore, Parasaurolophus initiated development of the crest at less than 25% maximum skull size, contrasting with 50% of maximum skull size in hadrosaurs such as Corythosaurus. This early development may correspond with the larger and more derived form of the crest in Parasaurolophus, as well as the close relationship between the crest and the respiratory system. In general, ornithischian dinosaurs formed bony cranial ornamentation at a relatively younger age and smaller size

  2. The neural coding of creative idea generation across adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Jolles, Dietsje D.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is considered key to human prosperity, yet the neurocognitive principles underlying creative performance, and their development, are still poorly understood. To fill this void, we examined the neural correlates of divergent thinking in adults (25–30 years) and adolescents (15–17 years). Participants generated alternative uses (AU) or ordinary characteristics (OC) for common objects while brain activity was assessed using fMRI. Adults outperformed adolescents on the number of solutions for AU and OC trials. Contrasting neural activity for AU with OC trials revealed increased recruitment of left angular gyrus, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral middle temporal gyrus in both adults and adolescents. When only trials with multiple AU were included in the analysis, participants showed additional left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/middle frontal gyrus (MFG) activation for AU compared to OC trials. Correspondingly, individual difference analyses showed a positive correlation between activations for AU relative to OC trials in left IFG/MFG and divergent thinking performance and activations were more pronounced in adults than in adolescents. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that creative idea generation involves recruitment of mainly left lateralized parietal and temporal brain regions. Generating multiple creative ideas, a hallmark of divergent thinking, shows additional lateral PFC activation that is not yet optimized in adolescence. PMID:24416008

  3. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-11-09

    Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering (CWS-ePersisted) from those who will recover from stuttering (CWS-eRecovered). Fifty-six 5-year-old children with normal receptive language listened to naturally spoken sentences in a story context. ERP components elicited for semantic processing (N400, late positive component [LPC]) were compared for CWS-ePersisted, CWS-eRecovered, and children who do not stutter (CWNS). The N400 elicited by semantic violations had a more focal scalp distribution (left lateralized and less anterior) in the CWS-eRecovered compared with CWS-ePersisted. Although the LPC elicited in CWS-eRecovered and CWNS did not differ, the LPC elicited in the CWS-ePersisted was smaller in amplitude compared with that in CWNS. ERPs elicited in 5-year-old CWS-eRecovered compared with CWS-ePersisted suggest that future recovery from stuttering may be associated with earlier maturation of semantic processes in the preschool years. Subtle differences in ERP indices offer a window into neural maturation processes for language and may help distinguish the course of stuttering development.

  4. The scaffold protein Nde1 safeguards the brain genome during S phase of early neural progenitor differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Feng, Yuanyi

    2014-01-01

    Successfully completing the S phase of each cell cycle ensures genome integrity. Impediment of DNA replication can lead to DNA damage and genomic disorders. In this study, we show a novel function for NDE1, whose mutations cause brain developmental disorders, in safeguarding the genome through S phase during early steps of neural progenitor fate restrictive differentiation. Nde1 mutant neural progenitors showed catastrophic DNA double strand breaks concurrent with the DNA replication. This evoked DNA damage responses, led to the activation of p53-dependent apoptosis, and resulted in the reduction of neurons in cortical layer II/III. We discovered a nuclear pool of Nde1, identified the interaction of Nde1 with cohesin and its associated chromatin remodeler, and showed that stalled DNA replication in Nde1 mutants specifically occurred in mid-late S phase at heterochromatin domains. These findings suggest that NDE1-mediated heterochromatin replication is indispensible for neuronal differentiation, and that the loss of NDE1 function may lead to genomic neurological disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03297.001 PMID:25245017

  5. The terminal crest: morphological features relevant to electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Anderson, R H; Cabrera, J A; Climent, V; Martin, R; Farré, J; Ho, S Y

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the detailed anatomy of the terminal crest (crista terminalis) and its junctional regions with the pectinate muscles and intercaval area to provide the yardstick for structural normality. Design: 97 human necropsy hearts were studied from patients who were not known to have medical histories of atrial arrhythmias. The dimensions of the terminal crest were measured in width and thickness from epicardium to endocardium, at the four points known to be chosen as sites of ablation. Results: The pectinate muscles originating from the crest and extending along the wall of the appendage towards the vestibule of the tricuspid valve had a non-uniform trabecular pattern in 80% of hearts. Fine structure of the terminal crest studied using light and scanning electron microscopy consisted of much thicker and more numerous fibrous sheaths of endomysium with increasing age of the patient. 36 specimens of 45 (80%) specimens studied by electron microscopy had a predominantly uniform longitudinal arrangement of myocardial fibres within the terminal crest. In contrast, in all specimens, the junctional areas of the terminal crest with the pectinate muscles and with the intercaval area had crossing and non-uniform architecture of myofibres. Conclusions: The normal anatomy of the muscle fibres and connective tissue in the junctional area of the terminal crest/pectinate muscles and terminal crest/intercaval bundle favours non-uniform anisotropic properties. PMID:12231604

  6. 36 CFR 261.20 - Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Trail. 261.20 Section 261.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.20 Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. It is prohibited to use a motorized vehicle on the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail without a special-use...

  7. 14. VIEW OF DISCHARGE OVER SPILLWAY CREST FROM WEST RETAINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF DISCHARGE OVER SPILLWAY CREST FROM WEST RETAINING WALL, FACING EAST. WATER ELEVATION MEASURED 4.8 FEET ABOVE CREST. December 1933 - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA

  8. Establishing native plants in crested wheatgrass stands using successional management

    Valerie A. Fansler

    2007-01-01

    Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.) is a nonindigenous perennial grass that was introduced to North America to improve the condition of degraded rangelands. It has proven to be a successful revegetation species due to its superior ease of establishment, strong competitive ability, and ability to tolerate grazing. However, crested...

  9. Crested wheatgrass control and native plant establishment in Utah

    April Hulet; Bruce A. Roundy; Brad Jessop

    2010-01-01

    Effective control methods need to be developed to reduce crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertner) monocultures and promote the establishment of native species. This research was designed to determine effective ways to reduce crested wheatgrass and establish native species while minimizing weed invasion. We mechanically (single- or double-pass disking) and...

  10. Detection of anti-streptococcal, antienolase, and anti-neural antibodies in subjects with early-onset psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Humberto; López, Yaumara; Genis-Mendoza, Alma D; Manrique, Viana; Lopez-Canovas, Lilia; Niubo, Esperanza; Hernández, Lázaro; Bobes, María A; Riverón, Ana M; López-Casamichana, Mavil; Flores, Julio; Lanzagorta, Nuria; De la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Santana, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Infection with group A Streptococcus (StrepA) can cause post-infectious sequelae, including a spectrum of childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and tic disorders with autoimmune origin (PANDAS, Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections). Until now, no single immunological test has been designed that unequivocally diagnoses these disorders. In this study, we assessed the detection of serum antibodies against human brain enolase (AE), neural tissue (AN) and Streptococcus (AS) as a laboratory tool for the diagnosis of early-onset psychiatric disorders. Serum antibodies against human brain enolase, total brain proteins, and total proteins from StrepA were detected by ELISA in 37 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of PANDAS and in 12 healthy subjects from Mexico and Cuba. The antibody titers against human brain enolase (AE) and Streptococcal proteins (AS) were higher in patients than in control subjects (t-student, tAE=-2.17, P=0.035; tAS=-2.68, P=0.01, n=12 and 37/group, df=47, significance level 0.05), while the neural antibody titers did not differ between the two groups (P(t)=0.05). The number of subjects (titers> meancontrol + CI95) with simultaneous seropositivity to all three antibodies was higher in the patient group (51.4%) than in the control group (8.3%) group (X2=5.27, P=0.022, df=1, n=49). The simultaneous detection of all three of these antibodies could provide valuable information for the etiologic diagnosis of individuals with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorders associated with streptococcal infection and, consequently, for prescribing suitable therapy.

  11. GenSo-EWS: a novel neural-fuzzy based early warning system for predicting bank failures.

    PubMed

    Tung, W L; Quek, C; Cheng, P

    2004-05-01

    Bank failure prediction is an important issue for the regulators of the banking industries. The collapse and failure of a bank could trigger an adverse financial repercussion and generate negative impacts such as a massive bail out cost for the failing bank and loss of confidence from the investors and depositors. Very often, bank failures are due to financial distress. Hence, it is desirable to have an early warning system (EWS) that identifies potential bank failure or high-risk banks through the traits of financial distress. Various traditional statistical models have been employed to study bank failures [J Finance 1 (1975) 21; J Banking Finance 1 (1977) 249; J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073]. However, these models do not have the capability to identify the characteristics of financial distress and thus function as black boxes. This paper proposes the use of a new neural fuzzy system [Foundations of neuro-fuzzy systems, 1997], namely the Generic Self-organising Fuzzy Neural Network (GenSoFNN) [IEEE Trans Neural Networks 13 (2002c) 1075] based on the compositional rule of inference (CRI) [Commun ACM 37 (1975) 77], as an alternative to predict banking failure. The CRI based GenSoFNN neural fuzzy network, henceforth denoted as GenSoFNN-CRI(S), functions as an EWS and is able to identify the inherent traits of financial distress based on financial covariates (features) derived from publicly available financial statements. The interaction between the selected features is captured in the form of highly intuitive IF-THEN fuzzy rules. Such easily comprehensible rules provide insights into the possible characteristics of financial distress and form the knowledge base for a highly desired EWS that aids bank regulation. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network is subsequently benchmarked against that of the Cox's proportional hazards model [J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073], the multi

  12. Neural differentiation promoted by truncated trkC receptors in collaboration with p75(NTR).

    PubMed

    Hapner, S J; Boeshore, K L; Large, T H; Lefcort, F

    1998-09-01

    trkC receptors, which serve critical functions during the development of the nervous system, are alternatively spliced to yield isoforms containing the catalytic tyrosine kinase domain (TK+) and truncated isoforms which lack this domain (TK-). To test for potential differences in their roles during early stages of neural development, TK+ and TK- isoforms were ectopically expressed in cultures of neural crest, the stem cell population that gives rise to the vast majority of the peripheral nervous system. NT-3 activation of ectopically expressed trkC TK+ receptors promoted both proliferation of neural crest cells and neuronal differentiation. Strikingly, the trkC TK- isoform was significantly more effective at promoting neuronal differentiation, but had no effect on proliferation. Furthermore, the trkC TK- response was dependent on a conserved receptor cytoplasmic domain and required the participation of the p75(NTR) neurotrophin receptor. Antibody-mediated receptor dimerization of TK+ receptors, but not TK- receptors, was sufficient to stimulate differentiation. These data identify a phenotypic response to activation of the trkC TK- receptor and demonstrate a functional interaction with p75(NTR), indicating there may be multiple trkC receptor-mediated systems guiding neuronal differentiation. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. The Relationship between Early Neural Responses to Emotional Faces at Age 3 and Later Autism and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Emily; Jones, Emily J. H.; Barnes, Karen; Sterling, Lindsey; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    Both autism spectrum (ASD) and anxiety disorders are associated with atypical neural and attentional responses to emotional faces, differing in affective face processing from typically developing peers. Within a longitudinal study of children with ASD (23 male, 3 female), we hypothesized that early ERPs to emotional faces would predict concurrent…

  14. Anterior iliac crest, posterior iliac crest, and proximal tibia donor sites: a comparison of cancellous bone volumes in fresh cadavers.

    PubMed

    Engelstad, Mark E; Morse, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    The anterior iliac crest, posterior iliac crest, and proximal tibia are common cancellous donor sites used for autogenous bone grafting. Donor site selection is partly dependent on the expected volume of available bone, but reports of cancellous bone volumes at each of these sites are variable. The goal of this study was to compare the volumes of cancellous bone harvested from donor sites within the same cadaver. Within each of 10 fresh frozen cadavers, cancellous bone was harvested from 3 donor sites-anterior iliac crest, posterior iliac crest, and proximal tibia-using established surgical techniques. Bone volumes were measured by fluid displacement. Mean compressed cancellous bone volumes from the 3 donor sites were compared among cadavers. Within each cadaver, the 3 donor sites were given a volume rank score from 1 (least volume) to 3 (most volume). Among cadavers, mean compressed cancellous bone volumes from the proximal tibia (11.3 mL) and posterior iliac crest (10.1 mL) were significantly greater than the anterior iliac crest (7.0 mL). Within cadavers, the mean volume rank score of the proximal tibia (mean rank, 2.7) was statistically greater than that for the posterior iliac crest (mean rank, 2.0), which was statistically greater than that for the anterior iliac crest (mean rank, 1.2). Strong correlations in bone volume existed between the proximal tibia and iliac crests (r = 0.67) and between the anterior iliac crest and posterior iliac crest (r = 0.93). The proximal tibia and posterior iliac crest yielded a significantly greater mean volume of compressed cancellous bone than the anterior iliac crest. Within individual cadaver skeletons, the proximal tibia was most likely to yield the largest cancellous volume, whereas the anterior iliac crest was most likely to yield the smallest cancellous volume. Although the proximal tibia contains relatively large volumes of cancellous bone, further investigation is required to determine how much cancellous bone can

  15. Genomic diversity and evolution of the head crest in the rock pigeon.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael D; Kronenberg, Zev; Li, Cai; Domyan, Eric T; Pan, Hailin; Campbell, Michael; Tan, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Hu, Haofu; Vickrey, Anna I; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Stringham, Sydney A; Hu, Hao; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Yandell, Mark; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun

    2013-03-01

    The geographic origins of breeds and the genetic basis of variation within the widely distributed and phenotypically diverse domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) remain largely unknown. We generated a rock pigeon reference genome and additional genome sequences representing domestic and feral populations. We found evidence for the origins of major breed groups in the Middle East and contributions from a racing breed to North American feral populations. We identified the gene EphB2 as a strong candidate for the derived head crest phenotype shared by numerous breeds, an important trait in mate selection in many avian species. We also found evidence that this trait evolved just once and spread throughout the species, and that the crest originates early in development by the localized molecular reversal of feather bud polarity.

  16. The effect of early visual deprivation on the neural bases of multisensory processing.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Putzar, Lisa; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-06-01

    Developmental vision is deemed to be necessary for the maturation of multisensory cortical circuits. Thus far, this has only been investigated in animal studies, which have shown that congenital visual deprivation markedly reduces the capability of neurons to integrate cross-modal inputs. The present study investigated the effect of transient congenital visual deprivation on the neural mechanisms of multisensory processing in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare responses of visual and auditory cortical areas to visual, auditory and audio-visual stimulation in cataract-reversal patients and normally sighted controls. The results showed that cataract-reversal patients, unlike normally sighted controls, did not exhibit multisensory integration in auditory areas. Furthermore, cataract-reversal patients, but not normally sighted controls, exhibited lower visual cortical processing within visual cortex during audio-visual stimulation than during visual stimulation. These results indicate that congenital visual deprivation affects the capability of cortical areas to integrate cross-modal inputs in humans, possibly because visual processing is suppressed during cross-modal stimulation. Arguably, the lack of vision in the first months after birth may result in a reorganization of visual cortex, including the suppression of noisy visual input from the deprived retina in order to reduce interference during auditory processing. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Clapping in time parallels literacy and calls upon overlapping neural mechanisms in early readers.

    PubMed

    Bonacina, Silvia; Krizman, Jennifer; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2018-05-12

    The auditory system is extremely precise in processing the temporal information of perceptual events and using these cues to coordinate action. Synchronizing movement to a steady beat relies on this bidirectional connection between sensory and motor systems, and activates many of the auditory and cognitive processes used when reading. Here, we use Interactive Metronome, a clinical intervention technology requiring an individual to clap her hands in time with a steady beat, to investigate whether the links between literacy and synchronization skills, previously established in older children, are also evident in children who are learning to read. We tested 64 typically developing children (ages 5-7 years) on their synchronization abilities, neurophysiological responses to speech in noise, and literacy skills. We found that children who have lower variability in synchronizing have higher phase consistency, higher stability, and more accurate envelope encoding-all neurophysiological response components linked to language skills. Moreover, performing the same task with visual feedback reveals links with literacy skills, notably processing speed, phonological processing, word reading, spelling, morphology, and syntax. These results suggest that rhythm skills and literacy call on overlapping neural mechanisms, supporting the idea that rhythm training may boost literacy in part by engaging sensory-motor systems. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Types of neural cells in the spinal ganglia of human embryos and early fetuses.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, B; Woźniak, W; Gardner, E; O'Rahilly, R

    1979-01-01

    Spinal ganglial of human embryos and fetuses ranging in C.-R. length from 15 to 74 mm and in age from 6 1/2 to 11 postovulatory weeks were studied by light and electron microscopy. A sequence of events in differentiation and maturation enabled five types of cells to be distinguished: 1. apolar, undifferentiated neuroblasts are the main cells at 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 weeks; 2. early bipolar neuroblasts (strictly speaking, types 2 to 5 are immature neurons) predominate at the end of the embryonic period proper (8 postovulatory weeks); 3. intermediate bipolar neuroblasts are characteristic of the early fetal period; 4. late bipolar neuroblasts, in which two proceses arise separately from one pole of the cell, appear at about 10 postovulatory weeks; 5. unipolar neuroblasts are found within another week and, by that time, cells of types 1 and 2 are no longer present.

  19. Neural responses to reward in childhood: relations to early behavioral inhibition and social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Benson, Brenda E; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Ernst, Monique

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early temperamental profile characterized by negative reactivity to novelty, withdrawal from social situations, and increased risk for social anxiety. Previous research associated BI assessed in early childhood to striatal hypersensitivity in mid-to-late adolescence. The present study examined this association among 10 year-olds, characterized with BI at ages 24 and 36 months on measures of temperamental reactivity. Participants (n = 40) were studied at age 10 using a reward processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Child- and maternal-report of social anxiety symptoms was collected at ages 10 and 13. Findings indicate greater caudate activation and stronger striatal connectivity in high, compared to low, behaviorally inhibited children. Caudate activation related to social anxiety symptoms at both ages. These findings suggest that enhanced striatal responsivity reliably manifests among high behaviorally inhibited children as early as age 10. This may reflect hyper-sensitivity to reward or excessive motivation to avoid errors. PMID:27531387

  20. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7+ somite development and directly increased HNK-1+ neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1+ neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development. PMID:25568339

  1. Illness, at-risk and resilience neural markers of early-stage bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kangguang; Shao, Robin; Geng, Xiujuan; Chen, Kun; Lu, Rui; Gao, Yanling; Bi, Yanan; Lu, Weicong; Guan, Lijie; Kong, Jiehua; Xu, Guiyun; So, Kwok-Fai

    2018-05-21

    Current knowledge on objective and specific neural markers for bipolar risk and resilience-related processes is lacking, partly due to not subdividing high-risk individuals manifesting different levels of subclinical symptoms who possibly possess different levels of resilience. We delineated grey matter markers for bipolar illness, genetic high risk (endophenotype) and resilience, through comparing across 42 young non-comorbid bipolar patients, 42 healthy controls, and 72 diagnosis-free, medication-naive high-genetic-risk individuals subdivided into a combined-high-risk group who additionally manifested bipolar risk-relevant subsyndromes (N = 38), and an asymptomatic high-risk group (N = 34). Complementary analyses assessed the additional predictive and classification values of grey matter markers beyond those of clinical scores, through using logistic regression and support vector machine analyses. Illness-related effects manifested as reduced grey matter volumes of bilateral temporal limbic-striatal and cerebellar regions, which significantly differentiated bipolar patients from healthy controls and improved clinical classification specificity by 20%. Reduced bilateral cerebellar grey matter volume emerged as a potential endophenotype and (along with parieto-occipital grey matter changes) separated combined-high-risk individuals from healthy and high-risk individuals, and increased clinical classification specificity by approximately 10% and 27%, respectively, while the relatively normalized cerebellar grey matter volumes in the high-risk sample may confer resilience. The cross-validation procedure was not performed on an independent sample using independently-derived features. The BD group had different age and sex distributions than some other groups which may not be fully addressable statistically. Our framework can be applied in other measurement domains to derive complete profiles for bipolar patients and at-risk individuals, towards forming

  2. Association between pubertal stage at first drink and neural reward processing in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Baumeister, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin H; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    Puberty is a critical time period during human development. It is characterized by high levels of risk-taking behavior, such as increased alcohol consumption, and is accompanied by various neurobiological changes. Recent studies in animals and humans have revealed that the pubertal stage at first drink (PSFD) significantly impacts drinking behavior in adulthood. Moreover, neuronal alterations of the dopaminergic reward system have been associated with alcohol abuse or addiction. This study aimed to clarify the impact of PSFD on neuronal characteristics of reward processing linked to alcohol-related problems. One hundred sixty-eight healthy young adults from a prospective study covering 25 years participated in a monetary incentive delay task measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. PSFD was determined according to the age at menarche or Tanner stage of pubertal development, respectively. Alcohol-related problems in early adulthood were assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). During reward anticipation, decreased fMRI activation of the frontal cortex and increased preparatory EEG activity (contingent negative variation) occurred with pubertal compared to postpubertal first alcohol intake. Moreover, alcohol-related problems during early adulthood were increased in pubertal compared to postpubertal beginners, which was mediated by neuronal activation of the right medial frontal gyrus. At reward delivery, increased fMRI activation of the left caudate and higher feedback-related EEG negativity were detected in pubertal compared to postpubertal beginners. Together with animal findings, these results implicate PSFD as a potential modulator of psychopathology, involving altered reward anticipation. Both PSFD timing and reward processing might thus be potential targets for early prevention and intervention. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Immunohistochemical Markers of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Early Embryonic Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, L.; Ravarino, A.; Fanos, V.; Naccarato, A.G.; Senes, G.; Gerosa, C.; Bevilacqua, G.; Faa, G.; Ambu, R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the human central nervous system represents a delicate moment of embryogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of multiple immunohistochemical markers in the stem/progenitor cells in the human cerebral cortex during the early phases of development. To this end, samples from cerebral cortex were obtained from 4 human embryos of 11 weeks of gestation. Each sample was formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded and immunostained with several markers including GFAP, WT1, Nestin, Vimentin, CD117, S100B, Sox2, PAX2, PAX5, Tβ4, Neurofilament, CD44, CD133, Synaptophysin and Cyclin D1. Our study shows the ability of the different immunohistochemical markers to evidence different zones of the developing human cerebral cortex, allowing the identification of the multiple stages of differentiation of neuronal and glial precursors. Three important markers of radial glial cells are evidenced in this early gestational age: Vimentin, Nestin and WT1. Sox2 was expressed by the stem/progenitor cells of the ventricular zone, whereas the postmitotic neurons of the cortical plate were immunostained by PAX2 and NSE. Future studies are needed to test other important stem/progenitor cells markers and to better analyze differences in the immunohistochemical expression of these markers during gestation. PMID:26972711

  4. 17. DETAIL OF DAM CREST FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING SERVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF DAM CREST FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING SERVICE ROAD AND PARAPET WALL, WITH DEDICATION PLAQUE MOUNTED ON WALL IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  5. "No. 169. Congressional party visiting the roller crest dam in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 169. Congressional party visiting the roller crest dam in 1915. Dedication." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  6. Early and late selection processes have separable influences on the neural substrates of attention.

    PubMed

    Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of target selection, we examined how the spatial separation of salient items and their similarity to a pre-defined target interact using lateralised electrophysiological correlates of visual spatial attention (N2pc component) and visual short-term memory (VSTM; SPCN component). Using these features of target selection, we sought to expand on previous work proposing a model of early and late selection, where the N2pc is suggested to reflect the selection probability of visual stimuli (Aubin and Jolicoeur, 2016). The authors suggested that early-selection processes could be enhanced when items are adjacent. In the present work, the stimuli were short oriented lines, all of which were grey except for two that were blue and hence salient. A decrease in N2pc amplitude with decreasing spatial separation between salient items was observed. The N2pc increased in amplitude with increasing similarity of salient distractors to the target template, but only in target-absent trials. There was no interaction between these two factors, suggesting that separable attentional mechanisms influenced the N2pc. The findings suggest that selection is initially based on easily-distinguished attributes (i.e., both blue items) followed by a later identification-based process (if necessary), which depends on feature similarity to a target template. For the SPCN component, the results were in line with previous work: for target-present trials, an increase in similarity of salient distractors was associated with an increase in SPCN amplitude, suggesting more information was maintained in VSTM. In sum, results suggest there is a need for further inspection of salient distractors when they are similar to the target, increasing the need for focal attention, demonstrated by an increase in N2pc amplitude, followed by a higher probability of transfer to VSTM, demonstrated by an increase in SPCN amplitude. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Mapping of Courtship Behavior-Induced Neural Activity in the Thoracic Ganglia of Silkmoth Bombyx mori by an Immediate Early Gene, Hr38.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Koudai; Iwami, Masafumi; Kiya, Taketoshi

    2018-06-01

    In the central nervous system of insects, motor patterns are generated in the thoracic ganglia under the control of brain, where sensory information is integrated and behavioral decisions are made. Previously, we established neural activity-mapping methods using an immediate early gene, BmHr38, as a neural activity marker in the brain of male silkmoth Bombyx mori. In the present study, to gain insights into neural mechanisms of motor-pattern generation in the thoracic ganglia, we investigated expression of BmHr38 in response to sex pheromone-induced courtship behavior. Levels of BmHr38 expression were strongly correlated between the brain and thoracic ganglia, suggesting that neural activity in the thoracic ganglia is tightly controlled by the brain. In situ hybridization of BmHr38 revealed that 20-30% of thoracic neurons are activated by courtship behavior. Using serial sections, we constructed a comprehensive map of courtship behaviorinduced activity in the thoracic ganglia. These results provide important clues into how complex courtship behavior is generated in the neural circuits of thoracic ganglia.

  8. Marijuana, Spice ‘herbal high’, and early neural development: implications for rescheduling and legalization

    PubMed Central

    Psychoyos, Delphine; Vinod, K. Yaragudri

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug by pregnant women in the world. In utero exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for anencephaly and neurobehavioural deficiencies in the offspring, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, and memory impairment. Recent studies demonstrate that the developing central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to the effects of Δ9-THC and other cannabimimetics, including the psychoactive ingredients of the branded product ‘Spice’ branded products. These exocannabinoids interfere with the function of an endocannabinoid (eCB) system, present in the developing CNS from E12.5 (week 5 of gestation in humans), and required for proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. Until recently, it was not known whether the eCB system is also present in the developing CNS during the initial stages of its ontogeny, i.e. from E7.0 onwards (week 2 of gestation in humans), and if so, whether this system is also susceptible to the action of exocannabinoids. Here, we review current data, in which the presence of an eCB system during the initial stage of development of the CNS is demonstrated. Furthermore, we focus on recent advances on the effect of canabimimetics on early gestation. The relevance of these findings and potential adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to ‘high potency’ marijuana, Spice branded products and/or cannabinoid research chemicals during this period is discussed. Finally, we address the implication of these findings in terms of the potential dangers of synthetic cannabinoid use during pregnancy, and the ongoing debate over legalization of marijuana. PMID:22887867

  9. Neural Correlates of Self-Reference Effect in Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Malo; Villain, Nicolas; Landeau, Brigitte; Mézenge, Florence; Egret, Stéphanie; Perrotin, Audrey; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Rauchs, Géraldine

    2017-01-01

    Information that is processed with reference to the self (i.e., self-referential processing, SRP) is generally associated with better remembering than information processed in a semantic condition. This benefit of self on memory performance is called self-reference effect (SRE). In the present study, we assessed changes in the SRE and SRP-related brain activity in patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimer's disease (MCI/AD). Fifteen patients with confirmed amyloid-β deposits (positive florbetapir-PET scan) and 28 healthy controls (negative florbetapir-PET scan) were included. Participants either had to judge personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves (self condition) or to a celebrity (other condition), or determine whether these adjectives were positive or not (semantic condition). These adjectives were then presented with distractors in a surprise recognition task. Functional MRI data were acquired during both the judgment and recognition tasks. The SRE was observed in controls, but reduced in patients. Both controls and patients activated cortical midline structures when judging items with reference to themselves, but patients exhibited reduced activity in the angular gyrus. In patients, activity at encoding in the angular gyrus positively correlated with subsequent recognition accuracy in the self condition (self accuracy). This region also exhibited significant hypometabolism and Aβ burden, both related to self accuracy. By contrast, there were no differences in brain activity during recognition, either between the self and semantic conditions, or between groups. These results highlight SRE impairment in patients with MCI/AD, despite intact activity in cortical midline structures, and suggest that dysfunction of the angular gyrus is related to this impairment.

  10. Prenuptial perfume: Alloanointing in the social rituals of the crested auklet ( Aethia cristatella) and the transfer of arthropod deterrents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Hector D.

    2008-01-01

    Alloanointing, the transfer of chemicals between conspecifics, is known among mammals, but hitherto, the behavior has not been documented for birds. The crested auklet ( Aethia cristatella), a colonial seabird of Alaskan and Siberian waters, alloanoints during courtship with fragrant aldehydes that are released from specialized wick-like feathers located in the interscapular region. Crested auklets solicit anointment at the colony, and prospective mates rub bill, breast, head, and neck over wick feathers of their partners. This distributes aldehydes over the head, neck, and face where the birds cannot self-preen. The resulting chemical concentrations are sufficient to deter ectoparasites. Auklets that emit more odorant can transfer more defensive chemicals to mates and are thus more sexually attractive. Behavioral studies showed that crested auklets are attracted to their scent. Wild birds searched for dispensers that emitted their scent and rubbed their bills on the dispensers and engaged in vigorous anointment behaviors. In captive experiments, naïve crested auklets responded more strongly to synthetic auklet scent than controls, and the greatest behavioral response occurred during early courtship. This study extends scientific knowledge regarding functions of alloanointing. Alloanointing had previously been attributed to scent marking and individual recognition in vertebrates. Alloanointing is described here in the context of an adaptive social cue — the transfer of arthropod deterrents between prospective mates.

  11. Attentional states influence early neural responses associated with motivational processes: local vs. global attentional scope and N1 amplitude to appetitive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2011-05-01

    Positive affects vary in the degree with which they are associated with approach motivation, the drive to approach an object or a goal. High approach-motivated positive affects cause a narrowing of attention, whereas low approach-motivated positive affects causes a broadening of attention. The current study was designed to extend this work by examining whether the relationship between motivation and attentional bias was bi-directional. Specifically, the experiment investigated whether a manipulated local attentional scope would cause greater approach motivational processing than a global attentional scope as measured by neural processes as early as 100 ms. As compared to a global attentional scope, a local attentional scope caused greater neural processing associated with approach motivation as measured by the N1 to appetitive pictures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in neural circuitry associated with depression at pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Borgonovo, Janina; Allende-Castro, Camilo; Laliena, Almudena; Guerrero, Néstor; Silva, Hernán; Concha, Miguel L

    2017-02-01

    Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed. Some of these changes are linked to motor compensation mechanisms while others correspond to pathological processes common to PD and depression and thus could underlie the appearance of depressive symptoms during the pre-motor phase. Studies of the early motor phase (less than five years post diagnosis) reveal an association between the extent of damage in different monoaminergic systems and the appearance of emotional disorders. We propose that the limbic loop of the basal ganglia and the lateral habenula play key roles in the early genesis of depression in PD. Alterations in the neural circuitry linked with emotional control might be sensitive markers of the ongoing neurodegenerative process and thus may serve to facilitate an early diagnosis of this disease. To take advantage of this, we need to improve the clinical criteria and develop biomarkers to identify depression, which could be used to determine individuals at risk to develop PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DEGRADATION OF EMISSIONS CONTROL PERFORMANCE OF WOODSTOVES IN CRESTED BUTTE, CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the degradation of emissions control performance of woodstoves in Crested Butte, Colorado. Four seasons of field monitoring of EPA-certified woodstoves in and around Crested Butte has demonstrated some significant failures in emissions control performance. In...

  14. 36 CFR 212.21 - Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Trail. 212.21 Section 212.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... National Scenic Trail. The Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail as defined by the National Trails Systems Act, 82 Stat. 919, shall be administered primarily as a footpath and horseback riding trail by the...

  15. 6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Milk Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 9.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  16. Knob detail, southfacing exterior door, west wing. The crest depicted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Knob detail, south-facing exterior door, west wing. The crest depicted on the knob is that of the U. S. Department of Treasury. It was presumably salvaged from a former U. S. customs facility once located on an adjacent plot to the south of the Lazaretto. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  17. FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING STOVES IN CRESTED BUTTE, COLORADO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses field emissions from woodstoves measured in Crested Butte, Colorado, during the winters of 1988-89 and 1989-90. Both particulate matter and carbon monoxide emissions were measured. The database from this work is large, including conventional stoves and EPA-cer...

  18. 5. Rear view of lower dam showing crest, masonry pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Rear view of lower dam showing crest, masonry pier and sluice gate. Photograph taken from east bank of the sandy beach. VIEW SOUTH - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  19. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS JONES VALLEY FROM THE CREST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS JONES VALLEY FROM THE CREST OF RED (CALLED RUFFNER) MOUNTAIN AND THE CITY OF BIRMINGHAM (TOP), WITH ABANDONED SLOSS CO. LIMESTONE QUARRIES (CENTER) AND RIGHT-OF-WAY OF THE L. & N. BIRMINGHAM MINERAL RAILROAD (LEFT CENTER TO BOTTOM RIGHT). - Ruffner Red Ore Mine, North of I-20 at Madrid Exit, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Dlx proteins position the neural plate border and determine adjacent cell fates.

    PubMed

    Woda, Juliana M; Pastagia, Julie; Mercola, Mark; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2003-01-01

    The lateral border of the neural plate is a major source of signals that induce primary neurons, neural crest cells and cranial placodes as well as provide patterning cues to mesodermal structures such as somites and heart. Whereas secreted BMP, FGF and Wnt proteins influence the differentiation of neural and non-neural ectoderm, we show here that members of the Dlx family of transcription factors position the border between neural and non-neural ectoderm and are required for the specification of adjacent cell fates. Inhibition of endogenous Dlx activity in Xenopus embryos with an EnR-Dlx homeodomain fusion protein expands the neural plate into non-neural ectoderm tissue whereas ectopic activation of Dlx target genes inhibits neural plate differentiation. Importantly, the stereotypic pattern of border cell fates in the adjacent ectoderm is re-established only under conditions where the expanded neural plate abuts Dlx-positive non-neural ectoderm. Experiments in which presumptive neural plate was grafted to ventral ectoderm reiterate induction of neural crest and placodal lineages and also demonstrate that Dlx activity is required in non-neural ectoderm for the production of signals needed for induction of these cells. We propose that Dlx proteins regulate intercellular signaling across the interface between neural and non-neural ectoderm that is critical for inducing and patterning adjacent cell fates.

  1. Dlx proteins position the neural plate border and determine adjacent cell fates

    PubMed Central

    Woda, Juliana M.; Pastagia, Julie; Mercola, Mark; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2014-01-01

    Summary The lateral border of the neural plate is a major source of signals that induce primary neurons, neural crest cells and cranial placodes as well as provide patterning cues to mesodermal structures such as somites and heart. Whereas secreted BMP, FGF and Wnt proteins influence the differentiation of neural and non-neural ectoderm, we show here that members of the Dlx family of transcription factors position the border between neural and non-neural ectoderm and are required for the specification of adjacent cell fates. Inhibition of endogenous Dlx activity in Xenopus embryos with an EnR-Dlx homeodomain fusion protein expands the neural plate into non-neural ectoderm tissue whereas ectopic activation of Dlx target genes inhibits neural plate differentiation. Importantly, the stereotypic pattern of border cell fates in the adjacent ectoderm is re-established only under conditions where the expanded neural plate abuts Dlx-positive non-neural ectoderm. Experiments in which presumptive neural plate was grafted to ventral ectoderm reiterate induction of neural crest and placodal lineages and also demonstrate that Dlx activity is required in non-neural ectoderm for the production of signals needed for induction of these cells. We propose that Dlx proteins regulate intercellular signaling across the interface between neural and non-neural ectoderm that is critical for inducing and patterning adjacent cell fates. PMID:12466200

  2. Investigating the Use of Coherence Analysis on Mandibular Electromyograms to Investigate Neural Control of Early Oromandibular Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeve, Roger W.; Price, Christiana M.

    2010-01-01

    An empirical method for investigating differences in neural control of jaw movement across oromandibular behaviours is to compute the coherence function for electromyographic signals obtained from mandibular muscle groups. This procedure has been used with adults but not extended to children. This pilot study investigated if coherence analysis…

  3. Restenosis after carotid artery stenting and endarterectomy: a secondary analysis of CREST, a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lal, Brajesh K; Beach, Kirk W; Roubin, Gary S; Lutsep, Helmi L; Moore, Wesley S; Malas, Mahmoud B; Chiu, David; Gonzales, Nicole R; Burke, J Lee; Rinaldi, Michael; Elmore, James R; Weaver, Fred A; Narins, Craig R; Foster, Malcolm; Hodgson, Kim J; Shepard, Alexander D; Meschia, James F; Bergelin, Robert O; Voeks, Jenifer H; Howard, George; Brott, Thomas G

    2012-09-01

    In the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST), the composite primary endpoint of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during the periprocedural period or ipsilateral stroke thereafter did not differ between carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis. A secondary aim of this randomised trial was to compare the composite endpoint of restenosis or occlusion. Patients with stenosis of the carotid artery who were asymptomatic or had had a transient ischaemic attack, amaurosis fugax, or a minor stroke were eligible for CREST and were enrolled at 117 clinical centres in the USA and Canada between Dec 21, 2000, and July 18, 2008. In this secondary analysis, the main endpoint was a composite of restenosis or occlusion at 2 years. Restenosis and occlusion were assessed by duplex ultrasonography at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months and were defined as a reduction in diameter of the target artery of at least 70%, diagnosed by a peak systolic velocity of at least 3·0 m/s. Studies were done in CREST-certified laboratories and interpreted at the Ultrasound Core Laboratory (University of Washington). The frequency of restenosis was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and was compared during a 2-year follow-up period. We used proportional hazards models to assess the association between baseline characteristics and risk of restenosis. Analyses were per protocol. CREST is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00004732. 2191 patients received their assigned treatment within 30 days of randomisation and had eligible ultrasonography (1086 who had carotid artery stenting, 1105 who had carotid endarterectomy). In 2 years, 58 patients who underwent carotid artery stenting (Kaplan-Meier rate 6·0%) and 62 who had carotid endarterectomy (6·3%) had restenosis or occlusion (hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·63-1·29; p=0·58). Female sex (1·79, 1·25-2·56), diabetes (2·31, 1·61-3·31

  4. Restenosis after carotid artery stenting and endarterectomy: a secondary analysis of CREST, a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Brajesh K.; Beach, Kirk W.; Roubin, Gary S.; Lutsep, Helmi L.; Moore, Wesley S.; Malas, Mahmoud B.; Chiu, David; Gonzales, Nicole R.; Burke, J. Lee; Rinaldi, Michael; Elmore, James R.; Weaver, Fred A.; Narins, Craig R.; Foster, Malcolm; Hodgson, Kim J.; Shepard, Alexander D.; Meschia, James F.; Bergelin, Robert O.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Howard, George; Brott, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST), the composite primary endpoint of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during the periprocedural period or ipsilateral stroke thereafter did not differ between carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis. A secondary aim of this randomised trial was to compare the composite endpoint of restenosis or occlusion. Methods Patients with stenosis of the carotid artery who were asymptomatic or had had a transient ischaemic attack, amaurosis fugax, or a minor stroke were eligible for CREST and were enrolled at 117 clinical centres in the USA and Canada between Dec 21, 2000, and July 18, 2008. In this secondary analysis, the main endpoint was a composite of restenosis or occlusion at 2 years. Restenosis and occlusion were assessed by duplex ultrasonography at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months and were defined as a reduction in diameter of the target artery of at least 70%, diagnosed by a peak systolic velocity of at least 3·0 m/s. Studies were done in CREST-certified laboratories and interpreted at the Ultrasound Core Laboratory (University of Washington). The frequency of restenosis was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and was compared during a 2-year follow-up period. We used proportional hazards models to assess the association between baseline characteristics and risk of restenosis. Analyses were per protocol. CREST is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00004732. Findings 2191 patients received their assigned treatment within 30 days of randomisation and had eligible ultrasonography (1086 who had carotid artery stenting, 1105 who had carotid endarterectomy). In 2 years, 58 patients who underwent carotid artery stenting (Kaplan-Meier rate 6·0%) and 62 who had carotid endarterectomy (6·3%) had restenosis or occlusion (hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·63–1·29; p=0·58). Female sex (1·79, 1·25–2

  5. Early life conditions that impact song learning in male zebra finches also impact neural and behavioral responses to song in females.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Kendra B; Anderson, Rindy C; Soha, Jill A; Peters, Susan; Nowicki, Stephen

    2018-04-20

    Early life stressors can impair song in songbirds by negatively impacting brain development and subsequent learning. Even in species in which only males sing, early life stressors might also impact female behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms, but fewer studies have examined this possibility. We manipulated brood size in zebra finches to simultaneously examine the effects of developmental stress on male song learning and female behavioral and neural response to song. Although adult male HVC volume was unaffected, we found that males from larger broods imitated tutor song less accurately. In females, early condition did not affect the direction of song preference: all females preferred tutor song over unfamiliar song in an operant test. However, treatment did affect the magnitude of behavioral response to song: females from larger broods responded less during song preference trials. This difference in activity level did not reflect boldness per se, as a separate measure of this trait did not differ with brood size. Additionally, in females we found a treatment effect on expression of the immediate early gene ZENK in response to tutor song in brain regions involved in song perception (dNCM) and social motivation (LSc.vl, BSTm, TnA), but not in a region implicated in song memory (CMM). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that developmental stressors that impair song learning in male zebra finches also influence perceptual and/or motivational processes in females. However, our results suggest that the learning of tutor song by females is robust to disturbance by developmental stress. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Organochlorine contaminants and reproductive success of double-crested cormorants from Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, R.K.; Gutreuter, S.; Stromborg, K.L.; Allen, P. David; Melancon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, nesting success of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) was measured at Cat Island, in southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at pipping and unhatched eggs were collected and analyzed for organochlorines (including total polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in embryos, and eggshell thickness. Of 1,570 eggs laid, 32% did not hatch and 0.4% had deformed embryos. Of 632 chicks monitored from hatching to 12 d of age, 9% were missing or found dead; no deformities were observed. The PCB concentrations in sample eggs from clutches with deformed embryos (mean = 10.2 μg/g wet weight) and dead embryos (11.4 μg/g) were not significantly higher than concentrations in sample eggs from nests where all eggs hatched (12.1 μg/g). A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE, dieldrin, and PCB concentrations in sibling eggs identified DDE and not dieldrin or PCBs as a significant risk factor. A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE and eggshell thickness implicated DDE and not eggshell thickness as a significant risk factor. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in double-crested cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an effect on reproduction in this species.

  7. Using CREST to Model Floods for the Upper Missouri Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Spelman, D.; Skym, P.; Oguamanam, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Upper Missouri River basin in Montana is prone to frequent floods during the months of May through June. During the summer of 2011, the duration of heavy rain and high snow melt caused floods in the Missouri Watershed to last for several weeks. Although organizations and citizens are aware of the flooding, the severity of any given flood is difficult to predict. Thus, a flood forecasting system would benefit the community by providing advance notice of areas prone to floods. The team addressed these issues by calibrating a fully distributed hydrological model on this region using the University of Oklahoma's Coupled Routing Excess STorage (CREST) 2.0 model. The CREST model contains ten internal parameters that must be optimized through calibration to in-situ data which was done using only remotely sensed data as inputs; these include: rainfall from TRMM, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from SRTM, and potential evapotranspiration (PET). At a one kilometer spatial and three hour temporal resolutions, CREST was calibrated over a three year period. This calibration was unsuccessful, resulting in a maximum NSCE of just 0.24, due to the heavy impact of snow-pack melt on the hydrology of the Upper Missouri River watershed and the lack of snow melt inputs to the model. Because of this, a modeled snow melt product, which was selected to be the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS), was implemented into the model for the first time. This implementation required substantial data processing prior to input as well as substantial troubleshooting within the CREST model. Additionally, the San Bernard watershed, which is in the absence of snow, was used and calibrated in the model for comparison. The arrangement of these calibrations was performed, and the necessary steps required were documented. However, the actual calibrations were not carried out due to lack of access needed in computational power and time. Significant progress was made in understanding the fundamental steps

  8. Dynamic transcriptional signature and cell fate analysis reveals plasticity of individual neural plate border cells

    PubMed Central

    Roellig, Daniela; Tan-Cabugao, Johanna; Esaian, Sevan; Bronner, Marianne E

    2017-01-01

    The ‘neural plate border’ of vertebrate embryos contains precursors of neural crest and placode cells, both defining vertebrate characteristics. How these lineages segregate from neural and epidermal fates has been a matter of debate. We address this by performing a fine-scale quantitative temporal analysis of transcription factor expression in the neural plate border of chick embryos. The results reveal significant overlap of transcription factors characteristic of multiple lineages in individual border cells from gastrula through neurula stages. Cell fate analysis using a Sox2 (neural) enhancer reveals that cells that are initially Sox2+ cells can contribute not only to neural tube but also to neural crest and epidermis. Moreover, modulating levels of Sox2 or Pax7 alters the apportionment of neural tube versus neural crest fates. Our results resolve a long-standing question and suggest that many individual border cells maintain ability to contribute to multiple ectodermal lineages until or beyond neural tube closure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21620.001 PMID:28355135

  9. Multipotent Caudal Neural Progenitors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells That Give Rise to Lineages of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Kouichi; Menheniott, Trevelyan; Rollo, Ben; Zhang, Dongcheng; Hough, Shelley; Alshawaf, Abdullah; Febbraro, Fabia; Ighaniyan, Samiramis; Leung, Jessie; Elliott, David A.; Newgreen, Donald F.; Pera, Martin F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The caudal neural plate is a distinct region of the embryo that gives rise to major progenitor lineages of the developing central and peripheral nervous system, including neural crest and floor plate cells. We show that dual inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activin/nodal pathways by small molecules differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) directly into a preneuroepithelial progenitor population we named “caudal neural progenitors” (CNPs). CNPs coexpress caudal neural plate and mesoderm markers, and, share high similarities to embryonic caudal neural plate cells in their lineage differentiation potential. Exposure of CNPs to BMP2/4, sonic hedgehog, or FGF2 signaling efficiently directs their fate to neural crest/roof plate cells, floor plate cells, and caudally specified neuroepithelial cells, respectively. Neural crest derived from CNPs differentiated to neural crest derivatives and demonstrated extensive migratory properties in vivo. Importantly, we also determined the key extrinsic factors specifying CNPs from human embryonic stem cell include FGF8, canonical WNT, and IGF1. Our studies are the first to identify a multipotent neural progenitor derived from hPSCs, that is the precursor for major neural lineages of the embryonic caudal neural tube. Stem Cells 2015;33:1759–1770 PMID:25753817

  10. Establishment of turbidity forecasting model and early-warning system for source water turbidity management using back-propagation artificial neural network algorithm and probability analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Fan, Shu-Kai; Fan, Chihhao; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a turbidity forecasting model as well as an early-warning system for turbidity management using rainfall records as the input variables. The Taipei Water Source Domain was employed as the study area, and ANOVA analysis showed that the accumulative rainfall records of 1-day Ping-lin, 2-day Ping-lin, 2-day Fei-tsui, 2-day Shi-san-gu, 2-day Tai-pin and 2-day Tong-hou were the six most significant parameters for downstream turbidity development. The artificial neural network model was developed and proven capable of predicting the turbidity concentration in the investigated catchment downstream area. The observed and model-calculated turbidity data were applied to developing the turbidity early-warning system. Using a previously determined turbidity as the threshold, the rainfall criterion, above which the downstream turbidity would possibly exceed this respective threshold turbidity, for the investigated rain gauge stations was determined. An exemplary illustration demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed turbidity early-warning system as a precautionary alarm of possible significant increase of downstream turbidity. This study is the first report of the establishment of the turbidity early-warning system. Hopefully, this system can be applied to source water turbidity forecasting during storm events and provide a useful reference for subsequent adjustment of drinking water treatment operation.

  11. TeV electron measurement with CREST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nahee; Anderson, T.; Bower, C.; Coutu, S.; Gennaro, J.; Geske, M.; Muller, D.; Musser, J.; Nutter, S.

    CREST, the Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope is a balloon-borne experiment de-signed to measure the spectrum of multi-TeV electrons by the detection of the x-ray synchrotron photons generated in the magnetic field of the Earth. Electrons in the TeV range are expected to reflect the properties of local sources because fluxes from remote locations are suppressed by radiative losses during propagation. Since CREST needs to intersect only a portion of the kilometers-long trail of photons generated by the high-energy electron, the method yields a larger effective area than the physical size of the detector, boosting detection areas. The in-strument is composed of an array of 1024 BaF2 crystals and a set of scintillating veto counters. A long duration balloon flight in Antarctica is currently planned for the 2010-11 season.

  12. The CREST Simulation Development Process: Training the Next Generation.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    The challenges of training and assessing endourologic skill have driven the development of new training systems. The Center for Research in Education and Simulation Technologies (CREST) has developed a team and a methodology to facilitate this development process. Backwards design principles were applied. A panel of experts first defined desired clinical and educational outcomes. Outcomes were subsequently linked to learning objectives. Gross task deconstruction was performed, and the primary domain was classified as primarily involving decision-making, psychomotor skill, or communication. A more detailed cognitive task analysis was performed to elicit and prioritize relevant anatomy/tissues, metrics, and errors. Reference anatomy was created using a digital anatomist and clinician working off of a clinical data set. Three dimensional printing can facilitate this process. When possible, synthetic or virtual tissue behavior and textures were recreated using data derived from human tissue. Embedded sensors/markers and/or computer-based systems were used to facilitate the collection of objective metrics. A learning Verification and validation occurred throughout the engineering development process. Nine endourology-relevant training systems were created by CREST with this approach. Systems include basic laparoscopic skills (BLUS), vesicourethral anastomosis, pyeloplasty, cystoscopic procedures, stent placement, rigid and flexible ureteroscopy, GreenLight PVP (GL Sim), Percutaneous access with C-arm (CAT), Nephrolithotomy (NLM), and a vascular injury model. Mixed modalities have been used, including "smart" physical models, virtual reality, augmented reality, and video. Substantial validity evidence for training and assessment has been collected on systems. An open source manikin-based modular platform is under development by CREST with the Department of Defense that will unify these and other commercial task trainers through the common physiology engine, learning

  13. [Molecular cloning, expression of rat Msx-1 and Msx-2 during early embryo genesis and roles for mandibular chondrogenesis].

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, S

    1999-03-01

    Quail-chick chimera experiments have shown a contribution of carnial neural crest cells to the craniofacial skeletal elements. Moreover, tissue interactions between epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during early facial process development are required for both skeletal differentiation and morphogenesis. In this study, it was observed that Msx homeobox containing genes expressed in the facial process were important molecules of cartilage morphogenesis. Rat cDNAs were isolated and encoded by Msx-1 and -2, and then the expression patterns using in situ hybridization were investigated during early rat face development. These genes were correlatively expressed in the cranial neural crest forming area (E 9.5 dpc) and the facial process (E 12.5 dpc). Antisence inhibition of Msx genes in the E 12.5 mandibular process exhibited the alteration of their gene expression and cartilage patterns. Antisence inhibition of Msx-1 induced lack of the medial portion of cartilage, and antisence inhibition of Msx-2 enhanced chondrogenesis of mandibular process under the organ culture condition. Thus it was concluded that expression of Msx genes during mandibular process development comprises important signals of chondrogenesis.

  14. Effects of contaminants on Double-crested Cormorant reproduction in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, Double-crested Cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus were monitored from egg-laying through 12 days of age at Cat Island, Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at hatching were analysed for organochlorines (including total PCBs, PCB congeners, and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in livers of embryos, and eggshell thickness. The number of eggs per nest that hatched and survived to i 2 days of age was estimated to be 2.2 in 1994 and 2.0 in 1995. Hatching success of eggs was not correlated with PCBs, the toxicity of PCBs based on congeners, or EROD activity. Hatching success was correlated with eggshell thickness and negatively correlated with DDE concentrations. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an affect on reproduction in this species.

  15. Effects of contaminants on Double-crested Cormorant reproduction in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, Double-crested Cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus were monitored from egg-laying through 12 days of age at Cat Island, Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at hatching were analysed for organochlorines (including total PCBs, PCB congeners, and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in livers of embryos, and eggshell thickness. The number of eggs per nest that hatched and survived to i 2 days of age was estimated to be 2.2 in 1994 and 2.0 in 1995. Hatching success of eggs was not correlated with PCBs, the toxicity of PCBs based on congeners, or EROD activity. Hatching success was correlated with eggshell thickness and negatively correlated with DDE concentrations. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an affect on reproduction in this species.

  16. First Time Rapid and Accurate Detection of Massive Number of Metal Absorption Lines in the Early Universe Using Deep Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinan; Ge, Jian; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhao, Tiffany; Wang, Cindy

    2018-01-01

    Metal absorption line systems in the distant quasar spectra have been used as one of the most powerful tools to probe gas content in the early Universe. The MgII λλ 2796, 2803 doublet is one of the most popular metal absorption lines and has been used to trace gas and global star formation at redshifts between ~0.5 to 2.5. In the past, machine learning algorithms have been used to detect absorption lines systems in the large sky survey, such as Principle Component Analysis, Gaussian Process and decision tree, but the overall detection process is not only complicated, but also time consuming. It usually takes a few months to go through the entire quasar spectral dataset from each of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release. In this work, we applied the deep neural network, or “ deep learning” algorithms, in the most recently SDSS DR14 quasar spectra and were able to randomly search 20000 quasar spectra and detect 2887 strong Mg II absorption features in just 9 seconds. Our detection algorithms were verified with previously released DR12 and DR7 data and published Mg II catalog and the detection accuracy is 90%. This is the first time that deep neural network has demonstrated its promising power in both speed and accuracy in replacing tedious, repetitive human work in searching for narrow absorption patterns in a big dataset. We will present our detection algorithms and also statistical results of the newly detected Mg II absorption lines.

  17. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms.

  18. Tinea Incognita in a Patient with Crest Syndrome: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gorgievska-Sukarovska, Biljana; Skerlev, Mihael; Žele-Starčević, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophytic infection that is difficult to diagnose, usually modified by inappropriate topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. We report an extensive case of tinea incognita caused by the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes (var. granulosa) in a 49-year-old female patient with CREST (Calcinosis; Raynaud phenomenon; Esophageal involvement; Sclerodactyly; Teleangiectasia) syndrome. Immunocompromised patients, as well as patients with keratinization disorders, seem to be especially susceptible to dermatophytic infections with atypical clinical presentation that is sometimes bizarre and difficult to recognize. Therefore, close monitoring and mycological skin examination is recommended in order to avoid misdiagnosis and to give the patient the best chance of recovery.

  19. The Cognitive and Neural Expression of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M.; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Celine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to…

  20. Comparative anatomy and osteohistology of hyperelongate neural spines in the sphenacodontids Sphenacodon and Dimetrodon (Amniota: Synapsida).

    PubMed

    Huttenlocker, Adam K; Rega, Elizabeth; Sumida, Stuart S

    2010-12-01

    Osteohistological investigations of hyperelongate vertebral spinous processes (neural spines) are presented to elucidate previously unknown aspects of dorsal sail form and function in two, closely related genera of "sail-backed" synapsids: Sphenacodon and Dimetrodon. Although recent and classic surveys of bone histology in extinct vertebrates have sampled the genus Dimetrodon, new sectioning of Sphenacodon material allows a comparative analysis of these structures among Sphenacodontidae for the first time. Variability within the histological organization of the neural spine is assessed by examining multiple regions along its length, and implications for soft tissue correlates, growth and mechanics are considered here. Both genera exhibit extensive parallel-fibered and fibrolamellar bone, in addition to lamellar bone. Several features vary along the length of the spine in each species. Muscle scars and extensive Sharpey's fibers are present at the base of the spine; no scars and fewer fibers are manifested ∼55-60 mm above the zygapophyses in mature individuals. The distal cortex of the spine does not exhibit greater vascularity than the proximal region in either genus. However, both genera manifest distinct vascular grooves of variable size along the distal periosteal surface, some of which become incorporated into the distal cortex. The observed histovariability appears to record the transition from the proximal (epaxial muscle embedded) to the distally protruding portion of the spine. These observations and independent pathological evidence support the existence of a short dorsal crest in Sphenacodon and possibly other basal sphenacodontids. Although the thermoregulatory capacity of such a crest remains uncertain, developmental and mechanical features are readily interpretable and are discussed with respect to the origins and early evolution of the dorsal sail in sphenacodontid synapsids. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Early Detection of Peak Demand Days of Chronic Respiratory Diseases Emergency Department Visits Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Krishan L; Tamil, Lakshman S

    2018-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), affect the lives of people by limiting their activities in various aspects. Overcrowding of hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to respiratory diseases in certain weather and environmental pollution conditions results in the degradation of quality of medical care, and even limits its availability. A useful tool for ED managers would be to forecast peak demand days so that they can take steps to improve the availability of medical care. In this paper, we developed an artificial neural network based classifier using multilayer perceptron with back propagation algorithm that predicts peak event (peak demand days) of patients with respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and COPD visiting EDs in Dallas County of Texas in the United States. The precision and recall for peak event class were 77.1% and 78.0%, respectively, and those for nonpeak events were 83.9% and 83.2%, respectively. The overall accuracy of the system is 81.0%.

  2. Personality of Wild Male Crested Macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Christof; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Animal personalities, i.e. consistent differences in behavior across time and/or context, have received increased attention of behavioral biologists over the last years. Recent research shows that personalities represent traits on which natural and sexual selection work and which can have substantial fitness consequences. The aim of this study is to establish the personality structure of crested macaque (Macaca nigra) males as foundation for future studies on its adaptive value. We collected behavioral data through focal animal sampling and additionally conducted two sets of playback experiments. Results of a factor analysis on the behavioral data revealed a four factor structure with components we labeled Anxiety, Sociability, Connectedness and Aggressiveness. Results from the experiments revealed an additional and independent Boldness factor but the absence of Neophilia. Overall, this structure resembles other macaque and animal species with the exception of Connectedness, which might be a consequence of the species' tolerant social style. Our results thus not only form the basis for future studies on the adaptive value of personality in crested macaques but also contribute an important data point for investigating the evolution of personality structure from a comparative perspective by refining, for example, which personality factors characterized the last common ancestor of hominids and macaques. PMID:23940517

  3. Double-crested cormorants along the upper Mississippi River

    Kirsch, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River is an important habitat corridor for migratory birds and other wildlife, and it supports an important commercial and sport fishery. A study was initiated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1991 to describe Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) distribution and abundance on the Upper Mississippi River throughout the year to better understand the possible impacts of cormorants on fish resources and populations of other piscivorous birds. Double-crested Cormorants were common breeders and abundant during migration on the Upper Mississippi River during the 1940s. Numbers of cormorants declined in the 1960s and 1970s along the Upper Mississippi River as they did in other parts of the United States. In 1992, 418 cormorant pairs were estimated to have nested in four colonies on the Upper Mississippi River, and less than 7,000 cormorants were estimated to have migrated along the river during the fall and spring of 1991 and 1992. Recent public concern for fish resources has grown with a perceived growth of the local cormorant population. Migrating cormorants collected on the Upper Mississippi River took Gizzard Shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) primarily, but chicks were fed a wide variety of fish species.

  4. Determinants of immigration strategies in male crested macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Pascal R.; Hodges, Keith; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Immigration into a new group can produce substantial costs due to resistance from residents, but also reproductive benefits. Whether or not individuals base their immigration strategy on prospective cost-benefit ratios remains unknown. We investigated individual immigration decisions in crested macaques, a primate species with a high reproductive skew in favour of high-ranking males. We found two different strategies. Males who achieved low rank in the new group usually immigrated after another male had immigrated within the previous 25 days and achieved high rank. They never got injured but also had low prospective reproductive success. We assume that these males benefitted from immigrating into a destabilized male hierarchy. Males who achieved high rank in the new group usually immigrated independent of previous immigrations. They recieved injuries more frequently and therefore bore immigration costs. They, however, also had higher reproductive success prospects. We conclude that male crested macaques base their immigration strategy on relative fighting ability and thus potential rank in the new group i.e. potential reproductive benefits, as well as potential costs of injury. PMID:27535622

  5. Higher serum cholesterol is associated with intensified age-related neural network decoupling and cognitive decline in early- to mid-life.

    PubMed

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Sadeh, Naomi; Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Salat, David H

    2017-06-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that serum cholesterol and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease intensify normative trajectories of age-related cognitive decline. However, the neural mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. To understand the impact of cholesterol on brain networks, we applied graph theory to resting-state fMRI in a large sample of early- to mid-life Veterans (N = 206, Mean age  = 32). A network emerged (centered on the banks of the superior temporal sulcus) that evidenced age-related decoupling (i.e., decreased network connectivity with age), but only in participants with clinically-elevated total cholesterol (≥180 mg/dL). Crucially, decoupling in this network corresponded to greater day-to-day disability and mediated age-related declines in psychomotor speed. Finally, examination of network organization revealed a pattern of age-related dedifferentiation for the banks of the superior temporal sulcus, again present only with higher cholesterol. More specifically, age was related to decreasing within-module communication (indexed by Within-Module Degree Z-Score) and increasing between-module communication (indexed by Participation Coefficient), but only in participants with clinically-elevated cholesterol. Follow-up analyses indicated that all findings were driven by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, rather than high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or triglycerides, which is interesting as LDL levels have been linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas HDL levels appear inversely related to such disease. These findings provide novel insight into the deleterious effects of cholesterol on brain health and suggest that cholesterol accelerates the impact of age on neural trajectories by disrupting connectivity in circuits implicated in integrative processes and behavioral control. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3249-3261, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Patterns of Neural Connectivity during an Attention Bias Task Moderate Associations between Early Childhood Temperament and Internalizing Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hardee, Jillian E.; Benson, Brenda E.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Chen, Gang; Britton, Jennifer C.; Ernst, Monique; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2013-01-01

    Background Biased attention to threat is found in both individuals with anxiety symptoms and children with the childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI). Although perturbed fronto-amygdala function is implicated in biased attention among anxious individuals, no work has examined the neural correlates of attention biases in BI. Work in this area may clarify underlying mechanisms for anxiety in a sample at risk for internalizing disorders. We examined the relations among early childhood BI, fronto-amygdala connectivity during an attention bias task in young adulthood, and internalizing symptoms, assessed in young adulthood. Methods Children were assessed for BI at multiple age points from infancy through age seven. Based on a composite of observational and maternal report data, we selected 21 young adults classified as having a history of BI and 23 classified as non-BI for this study (N=44). Participants completed an event-related fMRI attention-bias task involving threat (angry faces) and neutral trials. Internalizing symptoms were assessed by self-report and diagnostic interviews. Results The young adults characterized in childhood with BI exhibited greater strength in threat-related connectivity than non-behaviorally inhibited young adults. Between-group differences manifested in connections between the amygdala and two frontal regions: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Amygdala-insula connectivity also interacted with childhood BI to predict young adult internalizing symptoms. Conclusions BI during early childhood predicts differences as young adults in threat and attention-related fronto-amygdala connectivity. Connectivity strength, in turn, moderated the relations between early BI and later psychopathology. PMID:23489415

  7. Patterns of neural connectivity during an attention bias task moderate associations between early childhood temperament and internalizing symptoms in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hardee, Jillian E; Benson, Brenda E; Bar-Haim, Yair; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Chen, Gang; Britton, Jennifer C; Ernst, Monique; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2013-08-15

    Biased attention to threat is found in both individuals with anxiety symptoms and children with the childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI). Although perturbed fronto-amygdala function is implicated in biased attention among anxious individuals, no work has examined the neural correlates of attention biases in BI. Work in this area might clarify underlying mechanisms for anxiety in a sample at risk for internalizing disorders. We examined the relations among early childhood BI, fronto-amygdala connectivity during an attention bias task in young adulthood, and internalizing symptoms, assessed in young adulthood. Children were assessed for BI at multiple age points from infancy through age seven. On the basis of a composite of observational and maternal report data, we selected 21 young adults classified as having a history of BI and 23 classified as non-BI for this study (n = 44). Participants completed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging attention-bias task involving threat (angry faces) and neutral trials. Internalizing symptoms were assessed by self-report and diagnostic interviews. The young adults characterized in childhood with BI exhibited greater strength in threat-related connectivity than non-behaviorally inhibited young adults. Between-group differences manifested in connections between the amygdala and two frontal regions: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Amygdala-insula connectivity also interacted with childhood BI to predict young adult internalizing symptoms. Behavioral inhibition during early childhood predicts differences as young adults in threat and attention-related fronto-amygdala connectivity. Connectivity strength, in turn, moderated the relations between early BI and later psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Life Stress and the Anxious Brain: Evidence for A Neural Mechanism Linking Childhood Emotional Maltreatment to Anxiety in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Fonzo, Gregory A.; Ramsawh, Holly J.; Flagan, Taru M.; Simmons, Alan N.; Sullivan, Sarah G.; Allard, Carolyn B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) increases likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder in adulthood, but the neural processes underlying conferment of this risk have not been established. Here, we test the potential for neuroimaging the adult brain to inform understanding of the mechanism linking CEM to adult anxiety symptoms. Methods One hundred eighty-two adults (148 females, 34 males) with a normal-to-clinical range of anxiety symptoms underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an emotion-processing paradigm with facial expressions of fear, anger, and happiness. Participants completed self-report measures of CEM and current anxiety symptoms. Voxelwise mediation analyses on gray matter volumes and activation to each emotion condition were used to identify candidate brain mechanisms relating CEM to anxiety in adulthood. Results During processing of fear and anger faces, greater amygdala and less right dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) activation partially mediated the positive relationship between CEM and anxiety symptoms. Greater right posterior insula activation to fear also partially mediated this relationship, as did greater ventral anterior cingulate (ACC) and less dorsal ACC activation to anger. Responses to happy faces in these regions did not mediate the CEM-anxiety relationship. Smaller right dlPFC gray matter volumes also partially mediated the CEM-anxiety relationship. Conclusions Activation patterns of the adult brain demonstrate the potential to inform mechanistic accounts of the CEM conferment of anxiety symptoms. Results support the hypothesis that exaggerated limbic activation to negative valence facial emotions links CEM to anxiety symptoms, which may be consequent to a breakdown of cortical regulatory processes. PMID:26670947

  9. The CREST-E study of creatine for Huntington disease: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Steven M; Schifitto, Giovanni; Oakes, David; Bredlau, Amy-Lee; Meyers, Catherine M; Nahin, Richard; Rosas, Herminia Diana

    2017-08-08

    To investigate whether creatine administration could slow progressive functional decline in adults with early symptoms of Huntington disease. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of up to 40 g daily of creatine monohydrate in participants with stage I and II HD treated for up to 48 months. The primary outcome measure was the rate of change in total functional capacity (TFC) between baseline and end of follow-up. Secondary outcome measures included changes in additional clinical scores, tolerability, and quality of life. Safety was assessed by adverse events and laboratory studies. At 46 sites in North America, Australia, and New Zealand, 553 participants were randomized to creatine (275) or placebo (278). The trial was designed to enroll 650 patients, but was halted for futility after the first interim analysis. The estimated rates of decline in the primary outcome measure (TFC) were 0.82 points per year for participants on creatine, 0.70 points per year for participants on placebo, favoring placebo (nominal 95% confidence limits -0.11 to 0.35). Adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, were significantly more common in participants on creatine. Serious adverse events, including deaths, were more frequent in the placebo group. Subgroup analysis suggested that men and women may respond differently to creatine treatment. Our data do not support the use of creatine treatment for delaying functional decline in early manifest HD. NCT00712426. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with early symptomatic HD, creatine monohydrate is not beneficial for slowing functional decline. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  10. The cognitive and neural expression of semantic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Céline; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy older subjects; (ii) investigate the association between naming and semantic knowledge in aMCI and AD; (iii) examine if the semantic impairment was present in different modalities; and (iv) study the relationship between semantic performance and grey matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Results indicate that both naming and semantic knowledge of objects and famous people were impaired in aMCI and early AD groups, when compared to healthy age- and education-matched controls. Item-by-item analyses showed that anomia in aMCI and early AD was significantly associated with underlying semantic knowledge of famous people but not with semantic knowledge of objects. Moreover, semantic knowledge of the same concepts was impaired in both the visual and the verbal modalities. Finally, voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that semantic impairment in aMCI and AD was associated with cortical atrophy in the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region as well as in the inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC), some of the key regions of the semantic cognition network. These findings suggest that the semantic impairment in aMCI may result from a breakdown of semantic knowledge of famous people and objects, combined with difficulties in the selection, manipulation and retrieval of this knowledge. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting... staff of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7...

  12. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002--CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting... staff of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7...

  13. Strategies to enhance plant structure and diversity in crested wheatgrass seedings

    Mike Pellant; Cindy R. Lysne

    2005-01-01

    Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum sensu amplo [L.] Gaertn.) is an introduced, caespitose grass that has been seeded on millions of acres of Western rangelands. In some areas, crested wheatgrass seedings overlap with critical sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; C. minimus) habitat,...

  14. Multiscale deep neural network based analysis of FDG-PET images for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Donghuan; Popuri, Karteek; Ding, Gavin Weiguang; Balachandar, Rakesh; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2018-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases with a commonly seen prodromal mild cognitive impairment (MCI) phase where memory loss is the main complaint progressively worsening with behavior issues and poor self-care. However, not all individuals clinically diagnosed with MCI progress to AD. A fraction of subjects with MCI either progress to non-AD dementia or remain stable at the MCI stage without progressing to dementia. Although a curative treatment of AD is currently unavailable, it is extremely important to correctly identify the individuals in the MCI phase that will go on to develop AD so that they may benefit from a curative treatment when one becomes available in the near future. At the same time, it would be highly desirable to also correctly identify those in the MCI phase that do not have AD pathology so they may be spared from unnecessary pharmocologic interventions that, at best, may provide them no benefit, and at worse, could further harm them with adverse side-effects. Additionally, it may be easier and simpler to identify the cause of the cognitive impairment in these non-AD cases, and hence proper identification of prodromal AD will be of benefit to these individuals as well. Fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) captures the metabolic activity of the brain, and this imaging modality has been reported to identify changes related to AD prior to the onset of structural changes. Prior work on designing classifier using FDG-PET imaging has been promising. Since deep-learning has recently emerged as a powerful tool to mine features and use them for accurate labeling of the group membership of given images, we propose a novel deep-learning framework using FDG-PET metabolism imaging to identify subjects at the MCI stage with presymptomatic AD and discriminate them from other subjects with MCI (non-AD / non-progressive). Our multiscale deep neural network obtained 82.51% accuracy of classification

  15. Screen for Slit/Robo signaling in trunk neural cells reveals new players.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Darwin; Zuhdi, Nora; Reyes, Michelle; Ortega, Blanca; Giovannone, Dion; Lee, Vivian M; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2018-06-01

    Slits ligands and their Robo receptors are involved in quite disparate cell signaling pathways that include axon guidance, cell proliferation, cell motility and angiogenesis. Neural crest cells emerge by delamination from neural cells in the dorsal neural tube, and give rise to various components of the peripheral nervous system in vertebrates. It is well established that these cells change from a non-migratory to a highly migratory state allowing them to reach distant regions before they differentiate. However, but the mechanism controlling this delamination and subsequent migration are still not fully understood. The repulsive Slit ligand family members, have been classified also as true tumor suppressor molecules. The present study explored in further detail what possible Slit/Robo signals are at play in the trunk neural cells and neural crest cells by carrying out a microarray after Slit2 gain of function in trunk neural tubes. We found that in addition to molecules known to be downstream of Slit/Robo signaling, there were a large set of molecules known to be important in maintaining cells in non-motile, epithelia phenotype. Furthermore, we found new molecules previously not associated with Slit/Robo signaling: cell proliferation markers, Ankyrins and RAB intracellular transporters. Our findings suggest that neural crest cells use and array of different Slit/Robo pathways during their transformation from non-motile to highly motile cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Diet of double-crested cormorants wintering in Texas

    Campo, J.J.; Thompson, B.C.; Barron, J.C.; Telfair II, R. C.; Durocher, P.; Gutreuter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The diets of 420 Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were studied during November 1986-March 1987 on eight public reservoirs in Texas. Prey included 29 fish species and the mean live weight of fish per bird was 122 g. Fishes a??415 mm long were ingested, but those a??125 mm accounted for 90% of cormorant food contents by number. Shad (Dorosoma spp.) and sunfishes (Lepomis spp.) accounted for 90% of the total food items by number. Consumption of fishes (percent by weight) was different for male vs. female and adult vs. juvenile cormorants. Total consumption of fish by weight was consistent throughout the period; however, fewer but much larger fish were consumed after 15 February. Cormorants ate fishes that were most abundant in reservoirs. Sport fishes made up a substantial portion of cormorant food by weight, but not by number on some reservoirs. Cormorants ate very few large sport fish, however.

  17. The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in Craniofacial Patterning, Morphogenesis and Cranial Neural Crest Survival

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Boglev, Yeliz; Owens, Harley; Goldie, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial defects (CFD) are a significant healthcare problem worldwide. Understanding both the morphogenetic movements which underpin normal facial development, as well as the molecular factors which regulate these processes, forms the cornerstone of future diagnostic, and ultimately, preventative therapies. The soluble morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a vertebrate orthologue of Drosophila hedgehog, is a key signalling factor in the regulation of craniofacial skeleton development in vertebrates, operating within numerous tissue types in the craniofacial primordia to spatiotemporally regulate the formation of the face and jaws. This review will provide an overview of normal craniofacial skeleton development, and focus specifically on the known roles of Shh in regulating the development and progression of the first pharyngeal arch, which in turn gives rise to both the upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible). PMID:29615588

  18. The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in Craniofacial Patterning, Morphogenesis and Cranial Neural Crest Survival.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Boglev, Yeliz; Owens, Harley; Goldie, Stephen J

    2016-08-03

    Craniofacial defects (CFD) are a significant healthcare problem worldwide. Understanding both the morphogenetic movements which underpin normal facial development, as well as the molecular factors which regulate these processes, forms the cornerstone of future diagnostic, and ultimately, preventative therapies. The soluble morphogen Sonic hedgehog ( Shh ), a vertebrate orthologue of Drosophila hedgehog , is a key signalling factor in the regulation of craniofacial skeleton development in vertebrates, operating within numerous tissue types in the craniofacial primordia to spatiotemporally regulate the formation of the face and jaws. This review will provide an overview of normal craniofacial skeleton development, and focus specifically on the known roles of Shh in regulating the development and progression of the first pharyngeal arch, which in turn gives rise to both the upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible).

  19. The Development of a Primary Neural Crest Assay for Neuroblastoma Oncogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NBL )  forms  from  immature  cells  of  the   sympathetic  nervous...system  (SNS).    A  prominent  category  of  high-­‐risk   NBL  is  MYCN   amplification  with  loss  of  heterozygosity...of   NBL  and  can   include  ARID1A,  a  component  of  the  SWI/SNF  chromatin-­‐remodeling  complex.    In  

  20. [¹³¹I]Metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy in neural crest tumors: varying outcome in different histopathologies.

    PubMed

    Rachh, Swati Hiren; Abhyankar, Suman; Basu, Sandip

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the response of [¹³¹I] metaiodobenzylguanidine ([¹³¹I]MIBG) therapy in patients with neuroectodermal tumors and to assess their quality of life using the functional assessment of cancer therapy - general quality-of-life questionnaire for patients who are on follow-up after MIBG therapy. Thirty-two patients diagnosed with various subtypes of neuroectodermal tumors and treated with [¹³¹I]MIBG were included in this retrospective analysis. Response to therapy was evaluated objectively by comparing pretherapy and posttherapy biochemical markers, radiological investigations, and follow-up MIBG scans. Symptomatic response and quality of life were also evaluated in the follow-up visits. In seven patients with stage III neuroblastoma, an objective response rate was seen in 57% and a symptomatic response rate was seen in 29% of the patients. Among 11 patients with stage IV neuroblastoma, an objective response was observed in 36% and a symptomatic response in 36% of the patients. Among 12 patients with pheochomocytoma and paraganglioma, an objective response was noticed in 8%, but symptomatic improvement and stabilization of disease were seen in 75% of the patients belonging to this category. One patient with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and one patient with mediastinal carcinoid did not show an objective response but had a stable disease; both patients showed symptomatic improvement. Quality of life has improved in all 11 patients who are still on follow-up. [¹³¹I]MIBG therapy can be of significant value in the treatment of patients with chemotherapy-resistant stage III and IV neuroblastomas who demonstrate good tracer uptake in diagnostic scans. MIBG therapy has the potential to stabilize the disease and provide symptomatic improvement in patients with metastatic/recurrent pheochomocytoma/paraganglioma and medullary carcinoma thyroid and carcinoid in which there is evidence of tracer accumulation in the tumor. Both single high dose or multiple fractionated doses are equally effective in improving the quality of life in metastatic/recurrent pheochomocytoma/paraganglioma.

  1. Multimodal and Multiscale Deep Neural Networks for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease using structural MR and FDG-PET images.

    PubMed

    Lu, Donghuan; Popuri, Karteek; Ding, Gavin Weiguang; Balachandar, Rakesh; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2018-04-09

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease where biomarkers for disease based on pathophysiology may be able to provide objective measures for disease diagnosis and staging. Neuroimaging scans acquired from MRI and metabolism images obtained by FDG-PET provide in-vivo measurements of structure and function (glucose metabolism) in a living brain. It is hypothesized that combining multiple different image modalities providing complementary information could help improve early diagnosis of AD. In this paper, we propose a novel deep-learning-based framework to discriminate individuals with AD utilizing a multimodal and multiscale deep neural network. Our method delivers 82.4% accuracy in identifying the individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who will convert to AD at 3 years prior to conversion (86.4% combined accuracy for conversion within 1-3 years), a 94.23% sensitivity in classifying individuals with clinical diagnosis of probable AD, and a 86.3% specificity in classifying non-demented controls improving upon results in published literature.

  2. Hycrest crested wheatgrass accelerates the degradation of pentachlorophenol in soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferro, A. M.; Sims, R. C.; Bugbee, B.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the effects of vegetation on the fate of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in soil using a novel high-flow sealed test system. Pentachlorophenol has been widely used as a wood preservative, and this highly toxic biocide contaminates soil and ground water at many sites. Although plants are known to accelerate the rates of degradation of certain soil contaminants, this approach has not been thoroughly investigated for PCP. The fate of [14C]PCP, added to soil at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, was compared in three unplanted and three planted systems. The plant used was Hycrest, a perennial, drought-tolerant cultivar of crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fischer ex Link) Schultes]. The flow-through test system allowed us to maintain a budget for 14C-label as well as monitor mineralization (breakdown to 14CO2) and volatilization of the test compound in a 155-d trial. In the unplanted systems, an average of 88% of the total radiolabel remained in the soil and leachate and only 6% was mineralized. In the planted system, 33% of the radiolabel remained in the soil plus leachate, 22% was mineralized, and 36% was associated with plant tissue (21% with the root fraction and 15% with shoots). Mineralization rates were 23.1 mg PCP mineralized kg-1 soil in 20 wk in the planted system, and for the unplanted system 6.6 mg PCP kg-1 soil for the same time period. Similar amounts of volatile organic material were generated in the two systems (1.5%). Results indicated that establishing crested wheatgrass on PCP-contaminated surface soils may accelerate the removal of the contaminant.

  3. HNK-1 immunoreactivity during early morphogenesis of the head region in a nonmodel vertebrate, crocodile embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The present study examines HNK-1 immunoidentification of a population of the neural crest (NC) during early head morphogenesis in the nonmodel vertebrate, the crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus) embryos. Although HNK-1 is not an exclusive NC marker among vertebrates, temporospatial immunoreactive patterns found in the crocodile are almost consistent with NC patterns derived from gene expression studies known in birds (the closest living relatives of crocodiles) and mammals. In contrast to birds, the HNK-1 epitope is immunoreactive in NC cells at the neural fold level in crocodile embryos and therefore provides sufficient base to assess early migratory events of the cephalic NC. I found that crocodile NC forms three classic migratory pathways in the head: mandibular, hyoid, and branchial. Further, I demonstrate that, besides this classic phenotype, there is also a forebrain-derived migratory population, which consolidates into a premandibular stream in the crocodile. In contrast to the closely related chick model, crocodilian premandibular and mandibular NC cells arise from the open neural tube suggesting that species-specific heterochronic behavior of NC may be involved in the formation of different vertebrate facial phenotypes.

  4. Family history and APOE4 risk for Alzheimer's disease impact the neural correlates of episodic memory by early midlife.

    PubMed

    Rajah, M N; Wallace, L M K; Ankudowich, E; Yu, E H; Swierkot, A; Patel, R; Chakravarty, M M; Naumova, D; Pruessner, J; Joober, R; Gauthier, S; Pasvanis, S

    2017-01-01

    Episodic memory impairment is a consistent, pronounced deficit in pre-clinical stages of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with risk factors for AD exhibit altered brain function several decades prior to the onset of AD-related symptoms. In the current event-related fMRI study of spatial context memory we tested the hypothesis that middle-aged adults (MA; 40-58 yrs) with a family history of late onset AD (MA + FH ), or a combined + FH and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele risk factors for AD (MA + FH + APOE4 ), will exhibit differences in encoding and retrieval-related brain activity, compared to - FH - APOE4 MA controls. We also hypothesized that the two at-risk MA groups will exhibit distinct patterns of correlation between brain activity and memory performance, compared to controls. To test these hypotheses we conducted multivariate task, and behavior, partial least squares analysis of fMRI data obtained during successful context encoding and retrieval. Our results indicate that even though there were no significant group differences in context memory performance, there were significant differences in brain activity and brain-behavior correlations involving the hippocampus, inferior parietal cortex, cingulate, and precuneus cortex in MA with AD risk factors, compared to controls. In addition, we observed that brain activity and brain-behavior correlations in anterior-medial PFC and in ventral visual cortex differentiated the two MA risk groups from each other, and from MA controls . Our results indicate that functional differences in episodic memory-related regions are present by early midlife in adults with + FH and + APOE-4 risk factors for late onset AD, compared to middle-aged controls.

  5. FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after stroke: neural correlates and prognostic indicators.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Valerie M; Ward, Nick S; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; van Vliet, Paulette; Burridge, Jane; Hunter, Susan M; Lemon, Roger N; Rothwell, John; Weir, Christopher J; Wing, Alan; Walker, Andrew A; Kennedy, Niamh; Barton, Garry; Greenwood, Richard J; McConnachie, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Functional strength training in addition to conventional physical therapy could enhance upper limb recovery early after stro